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  1. Prognostic Significance of Preterm Isolated Decreased Fetal Movement

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    Ertuğrul Karahanoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Our aim is to evaluate the prognostic significance of isolated, preterm decreased fetal movement following normal initial full diagnostic workup. Study design: A retrospective observational study was conducted at a tertiary centre. The applied protocol was approved by the Medical Research Ethics Department of the hospital where the research was conducted. Obstetrics outcomes of preterm- and term-decreased fetal movement were compared following an initial, normal diagnostic work up. Evaluated outcomes were birth weight, mode of delivery, stillbirth rate, induction of labour, development of gestational hypertension, small for gestational age and oligohydramnios, polyhydramnios during the follow up period. Result: Obstetric complications related to placental insufficiency develops more frequently for decreased fetal movement in preterm cases with respect to that of in term cases. Following the diagnosis of decreased fetal movement, pregnancy hypertension occurred in 17% of preterm decreased fetal movement cases and in 4.7% of term decreased fetal movement cases. Fetal growth restriction developed in 6.6% of preterm decreased fetal movement and in 2.3% of term decreased fetal movement. Amniotic fluid abnormalities more frequently developed in preterm decreased fetal movement. Conclusion: Following an initial normal diagnostic workup, preterm decreased fetal movement convey a higher risk for the development of pregnancy complications associated with placental insufficiency. The patient should be monitored closely and management protocols must be developed for initial normal diagnostic workups in cases of preterm decreased fetal movement.

  2. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

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    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  3. Significant Decrease in Pertactin-Deficient Bordetella pertussis Isolates, Japan

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    Miyaji, Yusuke; Otsuka, Nao; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Shibayama, Keigo; Kamachi, Kazunari

    2017-01-01

    Prevalence of pertactin-lacking Bordetella pertussis isolates has been observed worldwide. In Japan, however, we found that the frequency of pertactin-deficient isolates in 2014–2016 (8%) was significantly lower than the frequency in 2005–2007 (41%), 2008–2010 (35%), and 2011–2013 (25%). This reduction was closely associated with changes in genotypes. PMID:28322702

  4. Ocimum basilicum ethanolic extract decreases cholesterol synthesis and lipid accumulation in human macrophages.

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    Bravo, Elena; Amrani, Souliman; Aziz, Mohammed; Harnafi, Hicham; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2008-12-01

    Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. basilicum on lipid accumulation in human macrophages. As modification of LDL increase atherogenicity of the particles we evaluated the effects of the extract on LDL oxidation. The extract caused a dose-related increase of LDL-resistance to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation. Furthermore, at the dose of 60 microg/ml, significantly decreases the accumulation of macrophage lipid droplets induced by modified LDL evaluated as by red-oil staining. Cholesterol esterification and triacylglycerol synthesis in the cells were not affected. Macrophage treatment with 60 microg/ml, but not 20 microg/ml, of the extract reduced newly synthesized unesterified cholesterol by about 60% and decreased scavenger receptors activity by about 20-30%, evaluated by the internalization of cholesterol carried by [(3)H]CE-aggregated-LDL. The results suggest that O. basilicum ethanolic extract has the capability to reduce foam cell formation through the reduction of cholesterol synthesis and the modulation of the activity of surface scavenger receptors.

  5. Pouteria ramiflora extract inhibits salivary amylolytic activity and decreases glycemic level in mice

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    NEIRE M. DE GOUVEIA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracts of plant species from the Cerrado biome were assessed in order to find potential inhibitors of human salivary alpha-amylase. The plants were collected and extracts were obtained from leaves, bark, and roots. We performed a preliminary phytochemical analysis and a screening for salivar alpha-amylase inhibitory activity. Only three botanical families (Sapotaceae, Sapindaceae and Flacourtiaceae and 16 extracts showed a substantial inhibition (>75% of alpha-amylase. The ethanolic extracts of Pouteria ramiflora obtained from stem barks and root barks decreased amylolytic activity above 95% at a final concentration of 20 µg/mL. Thus, adult male Swiss mice were treated orally with P. ramiflora in acute toxicity and glycemic control studies. Daily administration with 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of aqueous extract of P. ramiflora for eight days can reduce significantly body weight and blood glucose level in mice. These data suggest that the crude polar extract of P. ramiflora decreases salivary amylolytic activity while lowering the blood levels of glucose.

  6. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

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    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive, an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin, and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract. The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P<0.05. The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics.

  7. Decrease in spermatic parameters of mice treated with hydroalcoholic extract Tropaeolum tuberosum “mashua”

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    Jonathan H. Vásquez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we provided a Tropaeolum tuberosum hydroalcoholic extract to male mice (780 mg kg-1 for 7, 14 and 21 days treatment, there was no significant difference in body weight gain, testes, epididymides and prostate weight (p> 0.05, nevertheless progressive motility decreased and immobile sperm count increased significantly after 21 days treatment (p <0.05. The sperm count in the epididymis cauda decreased in the 3 three assessments, concentration on 21 days treatment was significantly lower than those of 7 and 14 days treatments (p <0.05. Our results suggest, that T. tuberosum has a direct action on the male reproductive system decreasing spermatic parameters without exerting toxic effects on mice.

  8. Significant decreases in frontal and temporal [11C]-raclopride binding after THC challenge.

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    Stokes, Paul R A; Egerton, Alice; Watson, Ben; Reid, Alistair; Breen, Gerome; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Nutt, David J; Mehta, Mitul A

    2010-10-01

    Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) increases prefrontal cortical dopamine release in animals, but this is yet to be examined in humans. In man, striatal dopamine release can be indexed using [11C]-raclopride positron emission tomography (PET), and recent reports suggest that cortical [11C]-raclopride binding may also be sensitive to dopaminergic challenges. Using an existing dataset we examined whether THC alters [11C]-raclopride binding potential (BP(ND)) in cortical regions. Thirteen healthy volunteers underwent two [11C]-raclopride PET scans following either oral 10 mg THC or placebo. Significant areas of decreased cortical [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) were identified using whole brain voxel-wise analysis and quantified using a region of interest (ROI) ratio analysis. Effect of blood flow on binding was estimated using a simplified reference tissue model analysis. Results were compared to [11C]-raclopride test-retest reliability in the ROIs identified using a separate cohort of volunteers. Voxel-wise analysis identified three significant clusters of decreased [11C]-raclopride BP(ND) after THC in the right middle frontal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus. Decreases in [11C]-raclopride BPND following THC were greater than test-retest variability in these ROIs. R1, an estimate of blood flow, significantly decreased in the left superior frontal gyrus in the THC condition but was unchanged in the other ROIs. Decreased frontal binding significantly correlated to catechol-o-methyl transferase (COMT) val108 status. We have demonstrated for the first time significant decreases in bilateral frontopolar cortical and left superior temporal gyrus [11C]-raclopride binding after THC. The interpretation of these findings in relation to prefrontal dopamine release is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

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    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  10. Level of headaches after surgical aneurysm clipping decreases significantly faster compared to endovascular coiled patients

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    Athanasios K. Petridis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In incidental aneurysms, endovascular treatment can lead to post-procedural headaches. We studied the difference of surgical clipping vs. endovascular coiling in concern to post-procedural headaches in patients with ruptured aneurysms. Sixtyseven patients with aneurysmal subarachnoidal haemorrhage were treated in our department from September 1st 2015 - September 1st 2016. 43 Patients were included in the study and the rest was excluded because of late recovery or highgrade subarachnoid bleedings. Twenty-two were surgical treated and twenty-one were interventionally treated. We compared the post-procedural headaches at the time points of 24 h, 21 days, and 3 months after treatment using the visual analog scale (VAS for pain. After surgical clipping the headache score decreased for 8.8 points in the VAS, whereas the endovascular treated population showed a decrease of headaches of 3.3 points. This difference was highly statistical significant and remained significant even after 3 weeks where the pain score for the surgically treated patients was 0.68 and for the endovascular treated 1.8. After 3 months the pain was less than 1 for both groups with surgically treated patients scoring 0.1 and endovascular treated patients 0.9 (not significant. Clipping is relieving the headaches of patients with aneurysm rupture faster and more effective than endovascular coiling. This effect stays significant for at least 3 weeks and plays a crucial role in stress relieve during the acute and subacute ICU care of such patients.

  11. Significant decrease in congenital malformations in newborn infants of an unselected population of diabetic women

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    Damm, P; Mølsted-Pedersen, L

    1989-01-01

    In an unselected and consecutive series of 1858 newborn infants of diabetic mothers, born in the Rigshospital, Copenhagen, in the period 1967 to 1986, congenital malformations were studied. The malformation rate in White Classes B to F was remarkably constant from 1967 to 1981, but a significant...... decrease in major congenital malformations was found in the period 1982 to 1986 versus 1977 to 1981 (2.7% vs. 7.4%, p less than 0.05). This decrease was mainly due to a fourfold decline in major congenital malformations in White Classes D and F (p less than 0.01), and consequently a correlation between...... the severity of maternal diabetes and the frequency of congenital malformations was no longer present. In the offspring of a control group of 1715 nondiabetic women, major congenital malformations were found in 1.7% (p greater than 0.05). Seventy-five percent of the diabetic pregnancies were planned...

  12. An Acute Lateral Ankle Sprain Significantly Decreases Physical Activity across the Lifespan

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    Tricia Hubbard-Turner, Erik A. Wikstrom, Sophie Guderian, Michael J. Turner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We do not know the impact an ankle sprain has on physical activity levels across the lifespan. With the negative consequences of physical inactivity well established, understanding the effect of an ankle sprain on this outcome is critical. The objective of this study was to measure physical activity across the lifespan after a single ankle sprain in an animal model. Thirty male mice (CBA/J were randomly placed into one of three groups: the transected calcaneofibular ligament (CFL group, the transected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL/CFL group, and a SHAM group. Three days after surgery, all of the mice were individually housed in a cage containing a solid surface running wheel. Physical activity levels were recorded and averaged every week across the mouse’s lifespan. The SHAM mice ran significantly more distance each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p = 0.011. Daily duration was different between the three running groups (p = 0.048. The SHAM mice ran significantly more minutes each day compared to the remaining two running groups (post hoc p=0.046 while the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly less minutes each day (post hoc p = 0.028 compared to both the SHAM and CFL only group. The SHAM mice ran at a faster daily speed versus the remaining two groups of mice (post hoc p = 0.019 and the ATFL/CFL mice ran significantly slower each day compared to the SHAM and CFL group (post hoc p = 0.005. The results of this study indicate that a single ankle sprain significantly decreases physical activity across the lifespan in mice. This decrease in physical activity can potentially lead to the development of numerous chronic diseases. An ankle sprain thus has the potential to lead to significant long term health risks if not treated appropriately.

  13. Development of the National Transplant Program Has Significantly Decreased but Not Ended Transplant Tourism in Montenegro.

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    Ratkovic, M; Basic Jukic, N; Kastelan, Z; Radunovic, D; Kavaric, P; Brezak, J; Topalovic Grkovic, M; Hudolin, T; Prelevic, V

    2018-06-01

    Organ transplantation has prolonged and improved the lives of many patients around the world. However, a widespread shortage of donors remains the main factor that has led to organ trafficking and transplant tourism. To stop transplant tourism and to provide optimal treatment for its citizens with end-stage renal disease, Montenegro started performing renal transplantations in September 2012. Thirty-five transplantations have been performed since that time, 34 from living donors and only 1 from a deceased donor. This practice has significantly decreased but not ended transplant tourism in Montenegro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of decreasing acidity on the extractability of inorganic soil phosphorus

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    Helinä Hartikainen

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available The extractability of P by the water and anion exchange resin methods and reactions of soil inorganic P were investigated with seven acid mineral soil samples incubated with KOH solutions of various concentrations. The results were compared with the analytical data obtained from three soil samples incubated in a prolonged liming experiment. The resin extraction method proved more effective than the water extraction method. The amounts of P desorbed by both methods seemed to increase exponentially as the pH in the soil suspensions rose. The factors involved were discussed. On the basis of fractionation analyses P reacting to changes in the pH and participating in desorption processes was supposed to originate from secondary NH4F and NaOH soluble reserves. In general, as the acidity decreased NH4F-P increased at the expense of NaOH-P. In heavily limed gyttja soil also H2SO4-P increased. This was possibly induced by the precipitation of mobilized P as a Ca compound. The significance of pH in the extractability of soil P seemed somewhat to lessen as the amount of secondary P increased. The results were in accordance with the conception that liming improves the availability of inorganic P to plants and reduces the need for P fertilization. However, increasing of the soil pH involves the risk that P is more easily desorbed to the recipient water by the eroded soil material carried into the watercourse. Therefore, intensive liming is not recommendable close to the shoreline. Further, it should be taken into account that liming of lakes may also result in eutrophication as desorption of sedimentary inorganic P is enhanced.

  15. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

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    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  16. Intake of Moringa oleifera Leaf Extract Decreases IL-1 and TNF-α Levels in Dyslipidemic Wistar Rat Model

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    Sri Wahyuni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in consumption behavior to instant food cause various health problems, such as obesity, dislipidemia, and atherosclerosis. A study was conducted to investigate Moringa oleifera extract as an anti-inflammation product that decreases the levels of biochemical markers IL-1 and TNF-a. This experiment was done with randomized pre- and posttest control-group design, employing 40 Wistar rats separated into five groups: control group 0% M. oleifera leaf extract (P0, treatment group 1 with 10% M. oleifera leaf extract (P1, treatment group 2 with 15% M. oleifera leaf extract (P2, treatment group 3 with 20% M. oleifera leaf extract (P3, and treatment group 4 with 25% M. oleifera leaf extract (P4. This research observed that intake of 20% M. oleifera leaf extract results in the highest significant decrease of 15.42% of IL-1 level (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 pg/mL and decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α level (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 pg/mL. Therefore, it can be concluded that intake of M. oleifera leaf extract by Wistar rat has anti-inflammatory effects on chronic dyslipidemia through decrease of IL-1 and TNF-α levels and histopathology profile. Further research is required to determine whether the application of M. oleifera leaf extract (daun kelor in humans will have similar anti-inflammation effects.

  17. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

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    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  18. L-carnitine significantly decreased aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Mobarak, Halimeh; Fathi, Ezzatollah; Farahzadi, Raheleh; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Javanmardi, Sara

    2017-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to divide continuously and tissue regeneration potential during the transplantation. Aging and loss of cell survival, is one of the main problems in cell therapy. Since the production of free radicals in the aging process is effective, the use of antioxidant compounds can help in scavenging free radicals and prevent the aging of cells. The aim of this study is evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on proliferation and aging of rat adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rADSC). rADSCs were isolated from inguinal region of 5 male Rattus rats. Oil red-O, alizarin red-S and toluidine blue staining were performed to evaluate the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of rADSCs, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis was done for investigating the cell surface markers. The methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) method was used to determine the cell proliferation of rADSCs following exposure to different concentrations of LC. rADSCs aging was evaluated by beta-galactosidase staining. The results showed significant proliferation of rADSCs 48 h after treatment with concentrations of 0.2 mM LC. In addition, in the presence of 0.2 mM LC, rADSCs appeared to be growing faster than control group and 0.2 mM LC supplementation could significantly decrease the population doubling time and aging of rADSCs. It seems that LC would be a good antioxidant to improve lifespan of rADSCs due to the decrease in aging.

  19. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

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    Loso Winarto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L.This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The research used non factorial Block Randomized Design (BRD and four replications.The treatment consisted of six levels of Azadirachta indica which is dissolved in one litre of water each treatment. The number of replication are four each treatment. Treatment applied were 0 g plot-1 (control; 100 g plot-1; ; 150 g plot-1 ; 200 g plot-1 ; 250 g plot-1 ; 300 g plot-1 . The results showed that mimba leaf extract significantly affect the intensity of the purple spot disease and onion production.

  20. Perioperative use of tamsulosin significantly decreases rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery.

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    Poylin, Vitaliy; Curran, Thomas; Cataldo, Thomas; Nagle, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    Urinary retention is a common complication of pelvic surgery, leading to urinary tract infection and prolonged hospital stays. Tamsulosin is an alpha blocker that works by relaxing bladder neck muscles. It is used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy and retention. We aim to investigate the potential benefits of preemptive tamsulosin use on rates of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This is a retrospective review of an institutional colorectal database. All men undergoing pelvic surgery between 2004 and 2013 were included. Patients given 0.4 mg of tamsulosin 3 days prior and after surgery at discretion of surgeon starting in 2007 were compared with patients receiving expectant postoperative management. One hundred eighty-five patients were included in the study (study group: N = 30; control group: N = 155). Study group patients were older (56.8 vs. 50.1 years). Overall urinary retention rate was 22% with significantly lower rates in the study group compared with control (6.7 vs. 25%; p = 0.029). Study group had higher rates of minimally invasive surgery (61 vs. 29.7%); however, this did not impact urinary retention rate (20.6 vs. 22.7% for minimally invasive surgery vs. open surgery; p = 0.85). Independent predictors of urinary retention included lack of preemptive tamsulosin (odds ratio (OR), 7.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4-41.7) and cancer location in the distal third of the rectum (OR, 18.8; 95% CI, 2.1-172.8). Preemptive perioperative use of tamsulosin may significantly decrease the incidence of urinary retention in men undergoing pelvic surgery. This may play a role in avoidance of urinary retention, particularly in patients with distal rectal cancer.

  1. Chronic methamphetamine exposure significantly decreases microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus.

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    Lloyd, Steven A; Corkill, Beau; Bruster, Matthew C; Roberts, Rick L; Shanks, Ryan A

    2017-07-01

    Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis. Increased microglia activity in the striatum confirmed toxic effects of methamphetamine in this brain region using this dosing paradigm. A significant decrease in microglia activity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus was observed with no effect noted on dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Given the importance of this area in homeostatic and neuroendocrine regulation, the current study highlights the need to more fully understand the systemic effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine use. The novel finding of microglia downregulation after chronic methamphetamine could lead to advances in understanding neuroinflammatory responses towards addiction treatment and protection from psychostimulant-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rice Hull Extract Suppresses Benign Prostate Hyperplasia by Decreasing Inflammation and Regulating Cell Proliferation in Rats.

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    Kim, Chae-Yun; Chung, Kyung-Sook; Cheon, Se-Yun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Park, Youn-Bum; An, Hyo-Jin

    2016-08-01

    Even though rice hull has various physiological functions with high antioxidant potential, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the effects of rice hull on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the protective effect of rice hull water extract (RHE) against BPH, which is a common disorder in elderly men and involves inflammation that induces an imbalance between cell proliferation and cell death. In this study, RHE-treated mice exhibited lower prostate weights and ratios of prostate weight to body weight compared to those for the BPH-induced group. In addition, RHE-treated mice had lower serum levels of dihydrotestosterone, mRNA expression of 5α-reductase2, and protein expressions of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Furthermore, RHE treatment significantly decreased cell proliferation by regulating the expression levels of inflammatory-related proteins (iNOS and COX-2) and apoptosis-associated proteins (Fas, FADD, procaspase-8, -3, and Bcl-2 family proteins). These results suggest that RHE could protect against the development of BPH through its anti-inflammatory and apoptotic properties and has good potential as a treatment for BPH.

  3. An anthocyanin rich strawberry extract induces apoptosis and ROS while decreases glycolysis and fibrosis in human uterine leiomyoma cells.

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    Islam, Md Soriful; Giampieri, Francesca; Janjusevic, Milijana; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Mazzoni, Luca; Greco, Stefania; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Ciavattini, Andrea; Mezzetti, Bruno; Capocasa, Franco; Castellucci, Mario; Battino, Maurizio; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-04-04

    Uterine leiomyomas are highly prevalent benign tumors in reproductive aged women. Unfortunately, medical treatments are still limited and no preventive therapies have been developed. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of strawberry extract on uterine leiomyoma cells. Leiomyoma and myometrial cells were treated with strawberry (cultivar Alba) extract (250 μg/ml) for 48 h to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative phosphorylation (OCR, oxygen consumption rate) and glycolysis (ECAR, extracellular acidification rate) as well as fibrosis associated gene and/or protein expression. In leiomyoma cells, strawberry increased the percentage of apoptotic and dead cells. Strawberry significantly increased ROS concentration in leiomyoma cells, while decreased it in myometrial cells. After strawberry treatment, leiomyoma cells showed a significant decreased rate of ECAR, while OCR was unchanged in both myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Strawberry significantly decreased collagen1A1, fibronectin and versican mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. The reduced protein expression of fibronectin was observed by strawberry extract in leiomyoma cells as well. Furthermore, strawberry was able to reduce activin A induced fibronectin, collagen1A1, and versican as well as activin A and PAI-1 mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. This study suggests that strawberry can be developed as therapeutic and/or preventive agent for uterine leiomyomas.

  4. THE USE OF AZADIRACHTA INDICA EXTRACT TO DECREASE OF ALTERNARIA PORRI DISEASE ON ONION

    OpenAIRE

    Loso Winarto; Novia Chairuman

    2013-01-01

    Purple spot caused by Alternaria porri a major disease in the onion crop in the world. The disease is also widespread in the onion crop in Indonesia. This research aim was to know the effect of mimba leaf (Azadirachta indica) extract concentration to decrease of Alternaria porri on onion (Allium ascalonicum L).This research conducted at Research Garden of the Center of Agricultural Technology Assessment of North Sumatra Province, from October 2010 until January 2011.The researc...

  5. Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Barbosa, Júnia Oliveira; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Valera, Marcia Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Dried, fresh and glycolic extracts of Zingiber officinale were obtained to evaluate the action against G. mellonella survival assay against Enterococcus faecalis infection. Eighty larvae were divided into: 1) E. faecalis suspension (control); 2) E. faecalis + fresh extract of Z. officinale (FEO); 3) E. faecalis + dried extract of Z. officinale (DEO); 4) E. faecalis + glycolic extract of Z. officinale (GEO); 5) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS). For control group, a 5 μL inoculum of standardized suspension (107 cells/mL) of E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) was injected into the last left proleg of each larva. For the treatment groups, after E. faecalis inoculation, the extracts were also injected, but into the last right proleg. The larvae were stored at 37 °C and the number of dead larvae was recorded daily for 168 h (7 days) to analyze the survival curve. The larvae were considered dead when they did not show any movement after touching. E. faecalis infection led to the death of 85% of the larvae after 168 h. Notwithstanding, in treatment groups with association of extracts, there was an increase in the survival rates of 50% (GEO), 61% (FEO) and 66% (DEO) of the larvae. In all treatment groups, the larvae exhibited a survival increase with statistically significant difference in relation to control group (p=0.0029). There were no statistically significant differences among treatment groups with different extracts (p=0.3859). It may be concluded that the tested extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis infection by increasing the survival of Galleria mellonella larvae.

  6. Angiogenic activity in patients with psoriasis is significantly decreased by Goeckerman's therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrys, C.; Borska, L.; Pohl, D.; Fiala, Z.; Hamakova, K.; Krejsek, J. [Faculty Hospital, Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Dept. of Clinical Immunology & Allergy

    2007-03-15

    Goeckerman's therapy (GT) of psoriasis is based on daily application of pharmacy grade coal tar on affected skin with subsequent exposure to UV light. Goeckerman's therapy is still the first line therapy of psoriasis in the Czech Republic because of its low cost and long-term efficacy. Disturbances in angiogenic activity are characteristic for the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis. An abnormal spectrum of cytokines, growth factors and proangiogenic mediators is produced by keratinocytes and inflammatory cells in patients suffering from the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of GT of psoriasis on angiogenic activities by comparing serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in 44 patients with psoriasis in peripheral blood samples collected before and after therapy. It was found that the angiogenic potential which is abnormally increased in patients with psoriasis is significantly alleviated by GT.

  7. Gemfibrozil Concentrations are Significantly Decreased in the Presence of Lopinavir/ritonavir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H.; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M.; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A.; Penzak, Scott R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To determine the influence of a two-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. Methods: The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a students t test after a single 600 mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before, and after two weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Results: Fifteen healthy volunteers (8 males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well-tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (GMR, 90% CI) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared to baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil AUC0-∞ after lopinavir-ritonavir (range: −6% to −74%). The GMRs for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance (Cl/F) and maximum concentration (Cmax) were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Conclusion: Lopinavir/ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction. PMID:19648824

  8. Gemfibrozil concentrations are significantly decreased in the presence of lopinavir-ritonavir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Kristin H; Hadigan, Colleen; Chairez, Cheryl; Alfaro, Raul M; Formentini, Elizabeth; Kovacs, Joseph A; Penzak, Scott R

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of a 2-week course of lopinavir-ritonavir on the pharmacokinetics of the triglyceride-lowering agent, gemfibrozil. The study was conducted as an open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers. Gemfibrozil pharmacokinetic parameter values were compared using a Student t test after a single 600-mg dose was administered to healthy volunteers before and after 2 weeks of lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily. Fifteen healthy volunteers (eight males) completed the study. All study drugs were generally well tolerated and no subjects withdrew participation. The geometric mean ratio (90% confidence interval) for gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir compared with baseline was 0.59 (0.52, 0.67) (P gemfibrozil area under the plasma concentration-time curve after lopinavir-ritonavir (range, -6% to -74%). The geometric mean ratios for gemfibrozil apparent oral clearance and maximum concentration were 1.69 (1.41, 1.97) and 0.67 (0.49, 0.86) after 14 days of lopinavir-ritonavir versus baseline, respectively (P Gemfibrozil elimination half-life did not change after lopinavir-ritonavir administration (P = 0.60). Lopinavir-ritonavir significantly reduced the systemic exposure of gemfibrozil by reducing gemfibrozil absorption. Clinicians treating HIV-infected patients with hypertriglyceridemia should be aware of this drug interaction.

  9. Significant decrease of saturation index in erythrocytes membrane from subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Maria; Caruso, Maria Gabriella; Tutino, Valeria; Bonfiglio, Caterina; Cozzolongo, Raffaele; Giannuzzi, Vito; De Nunzio, Valentina; De Leonardis, Giampiero; Abbrescia, Daniela I; Franco, Isabella; Intini, Vincenza; Mirizzi, Antonella; Osella, Alberto R

    2017-08-23

    The lipidomic profiling of erythrocyte membranes is expected to provide a peculiar scenario at molecular level of metabolic and nutritional pathways which may influence the lipid balance and the adaptation and homeostasis of the organism. Considering that lipid accumulation in the cell is important in promoting tissue inflammation, the purpose of this study is to analyze the fatty acid profile in red blood cell membranes of patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD), in order to identify and validate membrane profiles possibly associated with the degree of hepatic damage. This work presents data obtained at baseline from 101 subjects that participated to a nutritional trial (registration number: NCT02347696) enrolling consecutive subjects with NAFLD. Diagnosis of liver steatosis was performed by using vibration-controlled elastography implemented on FibroScan. Fatty acids, extracted from phospholipids of erythrocyte membranes, were quantified by gas chromatography method. The subjects with severe NAFLD showed a significant decrease of the ratio of stearic acid to oleic acid (saturation index, SI) compared to controls, 1.281 ± 0.31 vs 1.5 ± 0.29, respectively. Low levels of SI in red blood cell membranes, inversely associated with degree of liver damage, suggest that an impairment of circulating cell membrane structure can reflect modifications that take place in the liver. Subjects with severe NAFLDalso showed higher levels of elongase 5 enzymatic activity, evaluated as vaccenic acid to palmitoleic acid ratio. Starting from these evidences, our findings show the importance of lipidomic approach in the diagnosis and the staging of NAFLD.

  10. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    helps the subsequent release of intracellular lipids in the second extraction step, thus improving the global lipids extraction yield. In addition, the water treatment positively modifies the intracellular lipid class ratios of the final extract, in which TAG ratio is significantly increased without changes in the fatty acids composition. The novel method thus provides an efficient way to improve lipid extraction yield of existing methods, as well as selectively favoring TAG, a lipid of the upmost interest for biodiesel production.

  11. Aqueous Extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyces Decrease Hepatitis A Virus and Human Norovirus Surrogate Titers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Snehal S; Dice, Lezlee; D'Souza, Doris H

    2015-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extract is known to have antioxidant, anti-diabetic, and antimicrobial properties. However, their effects against foodborne viruses are currently unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of H. sabdariffa against human norovirus surrogates (feline calicivirus (FCV-F9) and murine norovirus (MNV-1)) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) at 37 °C over 24 h. Individual viruses (~5 log PFU/ml) were incubated with 40 or 100 mg/ml of aqueous hibiscus extract (HE; pH 3.6), protocatechuic acid (PCA; 3 or 6 mg/ml, pH 3.6), ferulic acid (FA; 0.5 or 1 mg/ml; pH 4.0), malic acid (10 mM; pH 3.0), or phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.2 as control) at 37 °C over 24 h. Each treatment was replicated thrice and plaque assayed in duplicate. FCV-F9 titers were reduced to undetectable levels after 15 min with both 40 and 100 mg/ml HE. MNV-1 was reduced by 1.77 ± 0.10 and 1.88 ± 0.12 log PFU/ml after 6 h with 40 and 100 mg/ml HE, respectively, and to undetectable levels after 24 h by both concentrations. HAV was reduced to undetectable levels by both HE concentrations after 24 h. PCA at 3 mg/ml reduced FCV-F9 titers to undetectable levels after 6 h, MNV-1 by 0.53 ± 0.01 log PFU/ml after 6 h, and caused no significant change in HAV titers. FA reduced FCV-F9 to undetectable levels after 3 h and MNV-1 and HAV after 24 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed no conclusive results. The findings suggest that H. sabdariffa extracts have potential to prevent foodborne viral transmission.

  12. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  13. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Statewide ban on recreational fires resulted in a significant decrease in campfire-related summer burn center admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, David Manh; Reid, Dixie; Lentz, Christopher William

    2013-01-01

    Every summer, there is an increase in the number of burn injuries caused by accidents around campfires. Because of the prevalence of drought, high winds, and uncontrolled wild fires, a statewide ban on recreational fires was instituted in New Mexico from June to July 2011. We hypothesized that this legislation would have a significant impact on burn admissions caused by campfire-related injuries. A retrospective review of summer admissions to a state burn center was conducted to assess the effect of this ban on recreational fire injuries, and these data were compared with that of the previous summer when no ban was in effect. All burn admissions to a state burn center were reviewed from Memorial Day to Labor Day in 2010 and 2011. Data collected included cause, % TBSA, age, days of hospitalization, intensive care unit days, and total surface area grafted. Nonparametric statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test for dichotomous data and Mann-Whitney test for continuous data with significance at P fires during the study period (n = 14 [17%] in 2010 and 4 [5%] in 2011; P = .02). This resulted in a decrease in the number of patient-days from 91 in 2010 to 25 in 2011. Half of the camp fire admissions required skin grafts to definitively close the wounds (6/14 in 2010 and 2/4 in 2011). Recreational fire bans targeted at controlling wildfires during conditions favoring rapid spread were associated with a 3- to 4-fold decrease in campfire-related burn admissions. Compared with a summer when no fire ban was in effect, the number of patient-days decreased from 91 to 25.

  15. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  16. Decrease of CD4+ T lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 in early stage and its clinical significances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Lingyun; Zhao Wei; Zhao Hong; Yu Haiying; Sun Weiwei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe the change of CD4 + T Lymphocytes in patients with H1N1 at early stage and figure out its clinical significances on the progress and therapeutic selection of H1N1. Methods: The absolute counts of T lymphocyte subset from the peripheral blood samples of 48 H1N1 patients in first ten days' duration were detected by flow cytometry, and the serial chest CT examinations were performed. Results: In all 48 clinical cases, 28 cases were in normal range of CD4 + lymphocyte absolute count, whose pulmonary lesions were limited and illness condition stayed in the stability, they didn't need steroid. In the other 20 cases with low level of CD4 + , 4 cases' illness presented the progressive development and needed to be treated with steroid and 16 cases with lightly decreased CD4 + level which had a stable condition without treatment with steroid. The result of Pearson correlation analysis showed that there were negative correlations between absolute count of CD4 + cells and pulmonary lesions (r=-0.299, P + cell absolute count of H1N1 patients at early stage indicates the worse condition of pulmonary lesions. The patients with remarkable decrease of CD4 + lymphocytes are in need of treatment with steroid. (authors)

  17. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Results in Significant Decrease in Clinical Toxicities Compared With Conventional Wedge-Based Breast Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsolia, Asif; Kestin, Larry; Grills, Inga; Wallace, Michelle; Jolly, Shruti; Jones, Cortney; Lala, Moinaktar; Martinez, Alvaro; Schell, Scott; Vicini, Frank A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We have previously demonstrated that intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with a static multileaf collimator process results in a more homogenous dose distribution compared with conventional wedge-based whole breast irradiation (WBI). In the present analysis, we reviewed the acute and chronic toxicity of this IMRT approach compared with conventional wedge-based treatment. Methods and Materials: A total of 172 patients with Stage 0-IIB breast cancer were treated with lumpectomy followed by WBI. All patients underwent treatment planning computed tomography and received WBI (median dose, 45 Gy) followed by a boost to 61 Gy. Of the 172 patients, 93 (54%) were treated with IMRT, and the 79 patients (46%) treated with wedge-based RT in a consecutive fashion immediately before this cohort served as the control group. The median follow-up was 4.7 years. Results: A significant reduction in acute Grade 2 or worse dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation was seen with IMRT compared with wedges. A trend was found toward reduced acute Grade 3 or greater dermatitis (6% vs. 1%, p = 0.09) in favor of IMRT. Chronic Grade 2 or worse breast edema was significantly reduced with IMRT compared with conventional wedges. No difference was found in cosmesis scores between the two groups. In patients with larger breasts (≥1,600 cm 3 , n = 64), IMRT resulted in reduced acute (Grade 2 or greater) breast edema (0% vs. 36%, p <0.001) and hyperpigmentation (3% vs. 41%, p 0.001) and chronic (Grade 2 or greater) long-term edema (3% vs. 30%, p 0.007). Conclusion: The use of IMRT in the treatment of the whole breast results in a significant decrease in acute dermatitis, edema, and hyperpigmentation and a reduction in the development of chronic breast edema compared with conventional wedge-based RT

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Red Piper Crocatum Leaves Extract Decrease TNF-α and IL-6 Levels in Wistar Rat with Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Wahjuni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research aims to find a cure for anti-inflammation, based on the utilization of red piper crocatum. The research was started with descriptive study to explore active components of red piper crocatum leaf and followed by experimental study to investigate red piper crocatum activity of the leaf extract in anti-inflammation induced Wistar rat. In this research observed three dominant components: caryophyllene bicyclo [5.2.0] none,2 methylene-4,8,8-trimethyl-4-vinyl; phytol; 5,9-propano-5H-benzocycloheptene,6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-7,11-bis(methylene; 4,4-ethynedioxy-2-hexadecen-15-15 olide 1,4,9-trioxaspiro [4,15] eic os-6-en-8-one, 10 methyl; 1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(H-thione,4-allyl-3-(3-furyl; Benzofuran,2,3-dihydro-2-methyl-7-phenyl which are possibly active to inhibit anti-inflammation to atherosclerosis. Bad eating habits also can cause various health problems, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, inflammation to atherosclerosis. This study was conducted to investigate of red piper crocatum leaves extract as an anti-inflammation through decrease of biochemistry markers TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Method: This is a true experimental with randomized pre-test and post-test control group design, using 50 Wistar rats that are divided into 5 groups: control group using 0 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 1 using 50 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 2 using 100 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, treatment group 3 using 150 mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract, and treatment group 4 200mg/kg BW red piper crocatum leaves extract. Results: It was observed that intake of 150 mg/BW red piper crocatum leaves extract results in the highest significance decrease of 45.63% of TNF-α levels from (28.62 ± 1.25 to 15.56 ± 7.20 рg/mL and a significance decrease of 15.42% of IL-6 level from (134.64 ± 1.98 to 113.87 ± 4.30 рg/mL. Conclusion: It can be concluded that intake of red piper crocatum

  19. Oral Polypodium leucotomos extract decreases ultraviolet-induced damage of human skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp-Hup, Maritza A.; Pathak, Madhu A.; Parrado, Concepcion; Goukassian, David; Rius-Díaz, Francisca; Mihm, Martín C.; Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; González, Salvador

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: UV radiation induces damage to human skin. Protection of skin by an oral photoprotective agent would have substantial benefits. Objective We investigated the photoprotective effect of oral administration of an extract of the natural antioxidant Polypodium leucotomos (PL). METHODS: A

  20. Computation of spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamoorthy, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of spatial significance is an important aspect of geospatial analysis and hence, various methods have been proposed to compute the spatial significance of entities based on spatial distances with other entities within the cluster. This paper is aimed at studying the spatial significance of mountain objects extracted from multiscale digital elevation models (DEMs). At each scale, the value of spatial significance index SSI of a mountain object is the minimum number of morphological dilation iterations required to occupy all the other mountain objects in the terrain. The mountain object with the lowest value of SSI is the spatially most significant mountain object, indicating that it has the shortest distance to the other mountain objects. It is observed that as the area of the mountain objects reduce with increasing scale, the distances between the mountain objects increase, resulting in increasing values of SSI. The results obtained indicate that the strategic location of a mountain object at the centre of the terrain is more important than its size in determining its reach to other mountain objects and thus, its spatial significance

  1. Method of extracting significant trouble information of nuclear power plants using probabilistic analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio; Miyazaki, Takamasa

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze and evaluate large amounts of trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants, it is necessary to select information that is significant in terms of both safety and reliability. In this research, a method of efficiently and simply classifying degrees of importance of components in terms of safety and reliability while paying attention to root-cause components appearing in the information was developed. Regarding safety, the reactor core damage frequency (CDF), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of a reactor, was used. Regarding reliability, the automatic plant trip probability (APTP), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of automatic reactor trips, was used. These two aspects were reflected in the development of criteria for classifying degrees of importance of components. By applying these criteria, a simple method of extracting significant trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants was developed. (author)

  2. Influence of tannin content in Terminalia catappa leaves extracts resulted from maceration extraction on decreasing corrosion rate for mild steel in 1M H2SO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudita, M.; Sukirno; Nasikin, M.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of natural compounds as corrosion inhibitors is necessary to obtain safe corrosion inhibitors for the environment. The tannin compounds derived from plant extract has the ability to decrease the corrosion rate. The purpose of this research is to find the ability of tannin compounds in Terminalia catappa leaves extracts to decrease corrosion rate on mild steel. Terminalia catappa leaves that have been mashed in ethanol solvent extraction using maceration with the variable time 2.4 and 6 days. Mild steel that has been on the sandpaper and cleaned then soak into the 1 M H2SO4. Terminalia catappa leaves extract concentration used is 0, 250, 500, 500, 750, 1000 ppm, the immersion time is 3.6 and 9 hours. Calculating of corrosion rate is used the weight loss method, the analysis of the tannin concentration using GC-MS. The results indicate that highest tannin content equal to 7.23% in 6 days maceration time. The result showed that the corrosion rate was reduced in the presence of tannin content in Terminalia catappa leaves extract.

  3. The water extract of Coleus barbatus Benth decreases gastric secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia A. Fischman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Coleus barbatus (Labiatae Benth is popularly used in Brazil "for the healing of liver and stomach diseases". The water extract (WE 1 to 10 g/Kg, p.o. of stem and leaves given to rats and mice did not induce signs of intoxication. Preveious treatment of mice with WE (1 g/kg, p.o. shortened the sleeping time induced by pentobarbital (50 mg/Kg, i.p. by 37 por cento, althoyugh the extract alone did not increase the spontaneous activity nor did it induce hyperexcitability. In mice WE (2 g/Kg, p.o. increased the intestinal transit of charcoal by 30 por cento, while reduced gastric secretions ion rats treated with WE (2g/Kg intraduodenal 3,9 ± 1.0 to 0.5 ± 0.2 ml/4h, respectively. The treatment also reduced the total acid secretion from 34.4 ± 11.0 to 2.7 ± 0.5 mEq/l and raisedgastric pH from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 6.5 ± 0.8. Treatment with WE (2g/Kg, p.o. protected against gastric ulcers induced by stress (5.3 ± 1.6 and 1.5 ± 0.5 ulcers/cm², but did nor protect against indonethacin induced ulcers. The results show that the water extract of C barbatus Benth produces mild stimulation of thecentral nervous system and increases intestinal movements. The extract also reduces gastric secretion indicating an antidyspeptic activity, and protects against gastric ulcers induced by stress.

  4. Effect of arcuate keratomy on decreasing astigmatism in IOL implantation after intracapsular cataract extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yu Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study an approach to visual acuity correction after intracapsular cataract extraction by phase-II intraocular lens implantation through the individualized arcuate keratotomy. METHODS: For demonstration, 48 postoperative patients(50 eyesreceiving the intracapsular cataract extraction were gathered up. Each patient received a scleral tunnel major incision along the radial line of the maximum corneal refractive power determined by a cornea curvimeter, and a arcuate keratotomy was made opposite to the major one; through the major incision an iris-claw intraocular lens is implanted. Each patient was measured for their corneal astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity before and after the surgery.RESULTS: The results suggested the average corneal astigmatism before the surgery and that 3d, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo after the surgery as +3.18±0.68, -1.56±0.73, +0.87±0.51, +1.21±0.70, +1.33±0.68 and +1.48±0.48 respectively. The uncorrected visual acuities 3d, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo after the surgery are 0.5±0.38, 0.56±0.23, 0.55±0.24, 0.52±0.28 and 0.51±0.25 respectively. CONCLUSION: Phase-II intraocular lens implantation witharcuate keratotomy is helpful to improve the postoperative visual acuity and reduce preoperative corneal astigmatism after the intracapsular cataract extraction aphakic eyes, It is also a low-cost surgery, and easy to perform, with minor surgical injuries, particularly available for surgical visual acuity correction of the aphakic eye receiving intracapsular cataract extraction.

  5. Acetonic and Methanolic Extracts of Heterotheca inuloides, and Quercetin, Decrease CCl4-Oxidative Stress in Several Rat Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Noemí; Huerta-Gertrudis, Bernardino; García-Cruz, Mercedes Edna; Montesinos-Correa, Hortencia; Sánchez-González, Dolores Javier; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that the acetonic and methanolic extracts of H. inuloides prevent carbon tetrachloride-(CCl4) induced oxidative stress in vital tissues. Pretreatment with both H. inuloides extracts or quercetin attenuated the increase in serum activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (BB), creatinine (CRE), and creatine kinase (CK), and impeded the decrease of γ-globulin (γ-GLOB) and albumin (ALB) observed in CCl4-induced tissue injury. The protective effect was confirmed by histological analysis with hematoxylin-eosin and periodic acid/Schiff's reagent. Level of lipid peroxidation was higher in the organs of rats exposed to CCl4 than in those of the animals treated with Heterohteca extracts or quercetin, and these showed levels similar to the untreated group. Pretreatment of animals with either of the extracts or quercetin also prevented the increase of 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine. Pretreatment with the plant extracts or quercetin attenuated CCl4 toxic effects on the activity of several antioxidant enzymes. The present results strongly suggest that the chemopreventive effect of the extracts used and quercetin, against CCl4 toxicity, is associated with their antioxidant properties and corroborated previous results obtained in liver tissue. PMID:23365610

  6. Polyyne-Enriched Extract from Oplopanax elatus Significantly Ameliorates the Progression of Colon Carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ Mice

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    Xin Qiao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world. Oplopanax elatus is widely used in traditional medicine. However, little is known about its pharmacological effects and bioactive compounds. We evaluated the effects of the polyyne-enriched extract from O. elatus (PEO on the progression of colon carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice. In addition, these effects were also investigated in HCT116 and SW480 cells. After PEO oral administration (0.2% diet for 12 weeks, PEO significantly improved body weight changes and reduced the tumor burden and tumor multiplicity compared with the untreated mice. Meanwhile, western blot and immunohistochemistry results showed PEO significantly reduced the expression of β-catenin and cyclinD1 in both small intestine and the colon tissues compared with the untreated mice. In addition, PEO treatment significant decreased the cell viability in both HCT116 and SW480 cell lines. It also decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclinD1, c-myc and p-GSK-3β in HCT116 and SW480 cells at 25 μM. These results indicate that PEO may have potential value in prevention of colon cancer by down-regulating Wnt-related protein.

  7. Rheinanthrone, a metabolite of sennoside A, triggers macrophage activation to decrease aquaporin-3 expression in the colon, causing the laxative effect of rhubarb extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Risako; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Nagoya, Chika; Takayama, Tomoko; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Ishii, Makoto; Ueda, Harumi; Ochiai, Wataru; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-02-27

    Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) is expressed in mucosal epithelial cells in the colon and is important for regulating fecal water content. We examined the role of AQP3 in the laxative effect of rhubarb extract. After orally administering rhubarb extract or its major component (sennoside A) to rats, the fecal water content, AQP3 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) concentrations in the colon were examined. The mechanism by which sennoside A decreases the expression of AQP3 was examined using the human colon cancer HT-29 cells and macrophage-derived Raw264.7 cells. During diarrhea by rhubarb extract administration, the PGE2 levels in the colon increased while the AQP3 expression significantly decreased. Similar changes were also observed when sennoside A was administered. When sennoside A or its metabolites, rheinanthrone and rhein were added to Raw264.7 cells, a significant increase in the PGE2 concentration was observed only in cells treated with rheinanthrone. Fifteen minutes after adding PGE2 to the HT-29 cells, the AQP3 expression decreased to approximately 40% of the control. When pretreated with indomethacin, sennoside A neither decreased the AQP3 expression nor induced diarrhea. Sennoside A may decrease AQP3 expression in the colon to inhibit water transport from the luminal to the vascular side, leading to a laxative effect. The decreases in the levels of AQP3 are caused by rheinanthrone, which is a metabolite of sennoside A, this metabolite activates the macrophages in the colon and increases the secretion of PGE2; PGE2 acts as a paracrine factor and decreases AQP3 expression in colon mucosal epithelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Different extraction pretreatments significantly change the flavonoid contents of Scutellaria baicalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Qu, Fengyun; Mao, Yanyong; Li, Dong; Zhen, Zhong; Nass, Rachael; Calway, Tyler; Wang, Yunwei; Yuan, Chun-Su; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Context Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. However, compared to many pharmacological studies of this botanical, much less attention has been paid to the quality control of the herb’s pretreatment prior to extract preparation, an issue that may affect therapeutic outcomes. Objective The current study was designed to evaluate whether different pretreatment conditions change the contents of its four major flavonoids in the herb, i.e., two glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) and two aglycons (baicalein and wogonin). Materials and methods An HPLC assay was used to quantify the contents of these four flavonoids. The composition changes of four flavonoids by different pretreatment conditions including solvent, treatment time, temperature, pH value, and herb/solvent ratio were evaluated. Results After selection of the first order time-curve kinetics, our data showed that at 50°C, 1:5 herb/water (in w/v) ratio and pH 6.67 yielded an optimal conversion rate from flavonoid glycosides to their aglycons. In this optimized condition, the contents of baicalin and wogonoside were decreased to 1/70 and 1/13, while baicalein and wogonin were increased 3.5 and 3.1 folds, respectively, compared to untreated herb. Discussion and conclusion The markedly variable conversion rates by different pretreatment conditions complicated the quality control of this herb, mainly due to the high amount of endogenous enzymes of S. baicalensis. Optimal pretreatment conditions obtained from this study could be used obtain the highest level of desired constituents to achieve better pharmacological effects. PMID:23738852

  9. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  10. Pomegranate peel extract attenuates oxidative stress by decreasing coronary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hypertensive female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Roger L; Dellacqua, Lais O; Delgado, Nathalie T B; Rouver, Wender N; Podratz, Priscila L; Lima, Leandro C F; Piccin, Mariela P C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Mauad, Helder; Graceli, Jones B; Moyses, Margareth R

    2016-01-01

    Based on the antioxidant properties of pomegranate, this study was designed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract on damage associated with hypertension and aging in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. The influence of pomegranate consumption was examined on systolic blood pressure (SBP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) coronary activity, oxidative stress, and vascular morphology. Four- or 28-wk-old SHR model rats were treated for 30 d, with terminal experimental animal age being 8 and 32 wk, respectively, with either pomegranate extract (SHR-PG) or filtered water (SHR). Data showed significant reduction in SBP and coronary ACE activity in both age groups. The levels of superoxide anion, a measure of oxidative stress, were significantly lower in animals in the SHR-PG group compared to SHR alone. Coronary morphology demonstrated total increases in vascular wall areas were in the SHR group, and pomegranate peel extract diminished this effect. Pomegranate peel extract consumption conferred protection against hypertension in the SHR model. This finding was demonstrated by marked reduction in coronary ACE activity, oxidative stress, and vascular remodelling. In addition, treatment was able to reduce SBP in both groups. Evidence indicates that the use of pomegranate peel extract may prove beneficial in alleviating coronary heart disease.

  11. Fasting Ghrelin Levels Are Decreased in Obese Subjects and Are Significantly Related With Insulin Resistance and Body Mass Index

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    Dimitrios Papandreou

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSION: Obese subjects have low fasting ghrelin levels that they are significantly related to insulin resistance and body mass index. More prospective studies are needed to establish the role of ghrelin in the pathogenesis of human obesity.

  12. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Dusseldorf (Germany); Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P. [University Dusseldorf, Medical Faculty, Department of Urology, Dusseldorf (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  13. Hyoscine butylbromide significantly decreases motion artefacts and allows better delineation of anatomic structures in mp-MRI of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullrich, T.; Quentin, M.; Schmaltz, A.K.; Rubbert, C.; Blondin, D.; Antoch, G.; Schimmoeller, L.; Arsov, C.; Rabenalt, R.; Albers, P.

    2018-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the effect of hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) on visualisation of anatomical details and motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate at 3.0 Tesla. One hundred and three consecutive patients (65 ± 10 years) were included in this trial, powered to demonstrate an improvement of image quality after HBB administration, assessed on a 5-point scale by two blinded readers. All patients received high-spatial resolution axial T2-weighted TSE sequences at 3.0 T without spasmolytic agent, repeated after application of 40 mg HBB and followed by routine mp-MRI. Secondary endpoints were (1) susceptibility to side effects, (2) dependence of spasmolytic effect on patients and acute; weight, and (3) prostate volume. In 68% of patients, HBB significantly improved the anatomic score (mean 3.4 ± 0.9 before and 4.4 ± 0.7 after HBB for both readers, p = <0.001). In 67%, HBB significantly enhanced the artefact score (mean 3.2 ± 1 before and 4.2 ± 0.8 after HBB for reader 1, p = <0.001; 3.2 ± 1 and 4.1 ± 0.8 for reader 2, p = <0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between patients with different bodyweight or prostate volume. Inter-reader agreement was excellent (k = 0.95-0.98). Hyoscine butylbromide significantly improves image quality and reduces motion-related artefacts in mp-MRI of the prostate independent of bodyweight or prostate volume. No side effects were reported. (orig.)

  14. Therapeutic Significance of Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) ink Extract: A Biomedical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarajah, Sri Kumaran; Vijayaraj, Radha; Mani, Jayaprakashvel

    2017-01-01

    Background: The squid ink extract is well known for its biomedical properties. Objective: In this study, squid Loligo vulgaris was collected from Tuticorin costal water, Bay of Bengal, India. Materials and Methods: Proximate composition of the crude squid ink was studied and found to have protein as the major component over lipid and carbohydrates. Further, bioactive fractions of squid ink were extracted with ethanol, and therapeutic applications such as hemolytic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and in vitro anti-inflammatory properties were analyzed using standard methods. Results: In hemolytic assay, the squid ink extract exhibited a maximum hemolytic activity of 128 hemolytic unit against tested erythrocytes. In DPPH assay, the ethanolic extract of squid ink has exhibited an antioxidant activity of 83.5%. The squid ink was found to be potent antibacterial agent against the pathogens tested. 200 μL of L. vulgaris ink extract showed remarkable antibacterial activity as zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (28 mm), Klebsiella pneumoniae (22 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (21 mm), and Staphylococcus aureus (24 mm). The 68.9% inhibition of protein denaturation by the squid ink extract indicated that it has very good in vitro anti-inflammatory properties. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of the ethanolic extracts of the squid ink indicated the presence of functional groups such as 1° and 2° amines, amides, alkynes (terminal), alkenes, aldehydes, nitriles, alkanes, aliphatic amines, carboxylic acids, and alkyl halides, which complements the biochemical background of therapeutic applications. Conclusion: Hence, results of this study concluded that the ethanolic extract of L. vulgaris has many therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. SUMMARY Squid ink is very high in a number of important nutrients. It’s particularly high in antioxidants for instance, which as well all know help to protect

  15. Sweet waste extract uptake by a mosquito vector: Survival, biting, fecundity responses, and potential epidemiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieng, Hamady; Satho, Tomomitsu; Abang, Fatimah; Meli, Nur Khairatun Khadijah Binti; Ghani, Idris A; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Hakim, Hafijah; Miake, Fumio; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Noor, Sabina; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahmad, Hamdan; Majid, Abdul Hafiz A; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Morales, Noppawan P; Attrapadung, Siriluck; Noweg, Gabriel Tonga

    2017-05-01

    In nature, adult mosquitoes typically utilize nectar as their main energy source, but they can switch to other as yet unidentified sugary fluids. Contemporary lifestyles, with their associated unwillingness to consume leftovers and improper disposal of waste, have resulted in the disposal of huge amounts of waste into the environment. Such refuse often contains unfinished food items, many of which contain sugar and some of which can collect water from rain and generate juices. Despite evidence that mosquitoes can feed on sugar-rich suspensions, semi-liquids, and decaying fruits, which can be abundant in garbage sites, the impacts of sweet waste fluids on dengue vectors are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of extracts from some familiar sweet home waste items on key components of vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Adult mosquitoes were fed one of five diets in this study: water (WAT); sucrose (SUG); bakery product (remnant of chocolate cake, BAK); dairy product (yogurt, YOG); and fruit (banana (BAN). Differences in survival, response time to host, and egg production were examined between groups. For both males and females, maintenance on BAK extract resulted in marked survival levels that were similar to those seen with SUG. Sweet waste extracts provided better substrates for survival compared to water, but this superiority was mostly seen with BAK. Females maintained on BAK, YOG, and BAN exhibited shorter response times to a host compared to their counterparts maintained on SUG. The levels of egg production were equivalent in waste extract- and SUG-fed females. The findings presented here illustrate the potential of sweet waste-derived fluids to contribute to the vectorial capacity of dengue vectors and suggest the necessity of readdressing the issue of waste disposal, especially that of unfinished sweet foods. Such approaches can be particularly relevant in dengue endemic areas where rainfall is frequent and waste collection infrequent. Copyright

  16. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

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    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  17. Phyllanthus Niruri Standardized Extract Alleviates the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Decreases Atherosclerotic Risk in Sprague–Dawley Rats

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    Raghdaa Hamdan Al Zarzour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is one of the major global health issues, strongly correlated with insulin resistance, obesity and oxidative stress. The current study aimed to evaluate anti-NAFLD effects of three different extracts of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri. NAFLD was induced in male Sprague–Dawley rats using a special high-fat diet (HFD. A 50% methanolic extract (50% ME exhibited the highest inhibitory effect against NAFLD progression. It significantly reduced hepatomegaly (16% and visceral fat weight (22%, decreased NAFLD score, prevented fibrosis, and reduced serum total cholesterol (TC (48%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL (65%, free fatty acids (FFAs (25%, alanine aminotransferase (ALT (45%, alkaline phosphatase (ALP (38%, insulin concentration (67%, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR (73%, serum atherogenic ratios TC/high-density lipoprotein (HDL (29%, LDL/HDL (66% and (TC–HDL/HDL (64%, hepatic content of cholesterol (43%, triglyceride (29% and malondialdehyde (MDA (40% compared to a non-treated HFD group. In vitro, 50% ME of P. niruri inhibited α-glucosidase, pancreatic lipase enzymes and cholesterol micellization. It also had higher total phenolic and total flavonoid contents compared to other extracts. Ellagic acid and phyllanthin were identified as major compounds. These results suggest that P. niruri could be further developed as a novel natural hepatoprotective agent against NAFLD and atherosclerosis.

  18. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Reduction of oxidative stress by an ethanolic extract of leaves of Piper betle (Paan) Linn. decreased methotrexate-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soumita; Sen, Tuhinadri; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2015-11-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist, is currently used as first line therapy for autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis, but its use is limited by the associated hepatotoxicity. As leaves of Piper betle, belonging to family Piperaceae, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, the present study was undertaken to investigate the potential of Piper betle leaf extract (PB) in attenuating MTX-induced hepatotoxicity. Rats pre-treated with PB (50 or 100 mg kg(-1) b.w., p.o.) were administered with a single dose of MTX (20 mg kg(-1), b.w., i.p.) and its hepatoprotective efficacy was compared with folic acid (1 mg kg(-1) b.w., i.p.), conventionally used to minimize MTX-induced toxicity. MTX-induced hepatotoxicity was confirmed by increased activities of marker enzymes, alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase which were remitted by pre-treatment with PB and corroborated with histopathology. Additionally, MTX-induced hepatic oxidative stress which included increased generation of reactive oxygen species, enhanced lipid peroxidation, depleted levels of glutathione and decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes was effectively mitigated by PB, indicative that its promising antioxidant-mediated hepatoprotective activity was worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  20. Fukushima- the aftermath. The japanese power consumption has significantly decreased to adapt to a fading nuclear activity. Enerdata- Energy Efficiency and Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a series of analyses supported by graphs assess the power supply evolution in Japan since Fukushima, which has decreased by 11% of reactors in operation since December 2011. Measures implemented in summer 2011 to adapt demand to a lower supply and their significant impact on the power consumption are also analyzed. (authors)

  1. Ibuprofen therapy resulted in significantly decreased tissue bacillary loads and increased survival in a new murine experimental model of active tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaplana, Cristina; Marzo, Elena; Tapia, Gustavo; Diaz, Jorge; Garcia, Vanesa; Cardona, Pere-Joan

    2013-07-15

    C3HeB/FeJ mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used in an experimental animal model mimicking active tuberculosis in humans to evaluate the effect of antiinflammatory agents. No other treatment but ibuprofen was given, and it was administered when the animals' health started to deteriorate. Animals treated with ibuprofen had statistically significant decreases in the size and number of lung lesions, decreases in the bacillary load, and improvements in survival, compared with findings for untreated animals. Because antiinflammatory agents are already on the market, further clinical trials should be done to evaluate this effect in humans as soon as possible, to determine their suitability as coadjuvant tuberculosis treatment.

  2. Combination of Aloe vera and xenograft induction on decreasing of NF-kb of tooth extraction socket preservation in Cavia cobaya

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    Utari Kresnoadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction can naturally cause inflammation triggering osteoclast proliferation and alveolar bone resorption. Preservation of the tooth extraction sockets is needed for patients in order to reduce alveolar bone resorption risks. Aloe vera is known to have anthraquinones components, namely Aloin, Aloe emedin, and barbaloin, considered as anti-inflammation. Therefore, to overcome the inflammation, the role of NF-kb is very significant to decrease nuclear factor kappa b (NF-kb. As a result, inflammation risks will be decreased. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the induction effect of combination of Aloe vera and XCB into tooth extraction sockets to reduce inflammation by reducing NF-kb expression, osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Methods: Forty-eight Cavia cobaya were divided into eight groups, each group consisted of six animals. The mandibular incisors of those Cavia cobaya were extracted and induced with either PEG, XCB, Aloe vera, or the combination of Aloe vera + XCB. Those animals were sacrificed on day 7 and day 30 after the extraction. Then immunohistochemical and histopathology examinations were conducted to observe NF-kb expression, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Results: It was known that in group induced with the combination of Aloe vera and xenograft concelous bovine, the growth of osteoblasts was high, while NF-kb expression and osteoclasts reduced. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the induction of the combination of Aloe vera and XCB into the tooth extraction sockets can reduce NF-kb expression and osteoclast, as a result, alveolar bone resorption risks decrease, and osteoblast increase.Latar belakang: Trauma mekanis akibat pencabutan gigi asli menyebabkan keradangan. Keradangan memicu proliferasi osteoklas sehingga menyebabkan resorpsi tulang alveolararis. Pada pembuatan gigi tiruan, resorpsi tulang alveolar yang terjadi, sangat tidak diinginkan, sebab resorpsi tulang alveolar mengurangi keberhasilan

  3. Activity test of various mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract fractions to decrease fasting blood cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation activity in diabetic mice

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    Saikhu Akhmad Husen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of various fractions of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana pericarp extract to the changes of the fasting blood cholesterol and serum malondialdehyde (MDA levels on diabetic mice (Mus musculus. Thirty 3-4 months old male mice strain BALB/c, weight 20-30 g were divided into six groups. The first group was KN as a non diabetic control group, KD as a diabetic control, KM as a group of diabetic mice treated with metformin, and NP, SP, and P as the treatment groups that were treated by using three different fractions from mangosteen pericarp extract, non polar, semi polar, and polar respectively. The induction of Diabetes mellitus was done by the injection of STZ, and the mice were given a high fat diet treatment to induce the hiperlipidemia condition using lard for three weeks. The blood cholesterol levels were measured in all groups before and after the injection of lard, and day 1, 7, and 14 of treatment as well. The serum MDA level as the indicator of lipid peroxidation were measured by using QuantiChrom TBARS Assay Kit (DTBA-100. The data of cholesterol levels were statistically analyzed by t-test, while the data of serum MDA levels were analyzed by variance analysis followed by Duncan test. The results showed that the polar fraction of mangosteen pericarp had effect to decrease the fasting blood cholesterol level in mice, however the non polar and semi polar fraction had no simmilar effect. All of the fractions has shown significant effect to decrease the serum MDA level in mice. Key words: cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, Garcinia mangostana, malondialdehyde (mda, obesity.

  4. [Study on process and principle of lactose grinding modification to decrease hygroscopic of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ding-Kun; Zhang, Fang; Lin, Jun-Zhi; Han, Li; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ying-Guang; Yang, Ming

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract,with high hygroscopic,was selected as research model, while lactose was selected as modifiers to study the effect of the grinding modification method on the hygroscopic. Subsequently, particle size distribution, scannin electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were adopted for a phase analysis. The results showed that the modified extract, prepared by Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract grinding 5 min with the same amount of lactose UP2, which hygroscopic initial velocity, acceleration, and critical relative humidity moisture were less than that of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract and the mixture dramatically. In addition, compared with the mixture, the size distribution of modified extract was much less, the microstructure was also difference, while the infrared spectroscopy and surface properties were similar with that of lactose. It is the main principle that lactose particle adhered to the surface of Rhodiolae Crenulatae Radix et Rhizoma extract after grinding mofication to decress the moisture obviously.

  5. EDDY - a FORTRAN program to extract significant features from eddy-current test data - the basis of the CANSCAN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, R.G.; Cranston, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    The FORTRAN program EDDY is designed to analyse data: from eddy-current scans of steam generator tubes. It is written in modular form, for future development, and it uses signal-recognition techniques that the authors developed in the profilometry of irradiated fuel elements. During a scan, significant signals are detected and extracted for immediate attention or more detailed analysis later. A version of the program was used in the CANSCAN system 'for automated eddy-current in-service inspection of nuclear steam generator tubing'

  6. Deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence of recombinant vaccinia virus TianTan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    Full Text Available The vaccinia virus TianTan (VTT has been modified as an HIV vaccine vector in China and has shown excellent performance in immunogenicity and safety. However, its adverse effects in immunosuppressed individuals warrant the search for a safer vector in the following clinic trails. In this study, we deleted the C7L and K1L genes of VTT and constructed six recombinant vaccinia strains VTT△C7L, VTT△K1L, VTT△C7LK1L, VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag. The pathogenicity and immunogenicity of these recombinants were evaluated in mouse and rabbit models. Comparing to parental VTT, VTT△C7L and VTT△K1L showed significantly decreased replication capability in CEF, Vero, BHK-21 and HeLa cell lines. In particular, replication of VTT△C7LK1L decreased more than 10-fold in all four cell lines. The virulence of all these mutants were decreased in BALB/c mouse and rabbit models; VTT△C7LK1L once again showed the greatest attenuation, having resulted in no evident damage in mice and erythema of only 0.4 cm diameter in rabbits, compared to 1.48 cm for VTT. VTKgpe△C7L, VTKgpe△K1L and VTT△C7LK1L-gag elicited as strong cellular and humoral responses against HIV genes as did VTKgpe, while humoral immune response against the vaccinia itself was reduced by 4-8-fold. These data show that deletion of C7L and K1L genes leads to significantly decreased virulence without compromising animal host immunogenicity, and may thus be key to creating a more safe and effective HIV vaccine vector.

  7. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-01-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser (λ=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  8. Early HIV Diagnosis Leads to Significantly Decreased Costs in the First 2 Years of HIV Care in an Urban Charity Hospital in New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Jason; Katz, Morgan; Pathmanathan, Ishani; Myers, Leann; Van Sickels, Nicholas; Seal, Paula Sereebutra; Richey, Lauren E

    We undertook a retrospective cohort study of patients with a positive HIV test in the emergency department who were then linked to care. Inpatient, outpatient, and emergency costs were collected for the first 2 years after HIV diagnosis. Fifty-six patients met the inclusion criteria; they were predominantly uninsured (73%) and African American (89%). The median total cost for a newly diagnosed patient over the first 2 years was US$36 808, driven predominantly by outpatient costs of US$17 512. Median inpatient and total costs were significantly different between the lowest (499 cells/mm 3 ) CD4 count categories (US$21 878 vs US$6607, P <.05; US$61 378 vs US$18 837, P <.05, respectively). Total costs were significantly different between viral load categories <100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL and ≥100 000 HIV-RNA copies/mL (US$28 219 vs US$49 482, P <.05). Costs were significantly lower among patients diagnosed earlier in their disease. Decreased cost is another factor supporting early diagnosis and linkage to care for patients with HIV.

  9. Phosphocreatine recovery overshoot after high intensity exercise in human skeletal muscle is associated with extensive muscle acidification and a significant decrease in phosphorylation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Korzeniewski, Bernard; Kulinowski, Piotr; Zapart-Bukowska, Justyna; Majerczak, Joanna; Jasiński, Andrzej

    2010-09-01

    The phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot in skeletal muscle is a transient increase of PCr concentration above the resting level after termination of exercise. In the present study [PCr], [ATP], [P(i)] and pH were measured in calf muscle during rest, during plantar flexion exercise until exhaustion and recovery, using the (31)P NMR spectroscopy. A significantly greater acidification of muscle cells and significantly lower phosphorylation potential (DeltaG (ATP)) at the end of exercise was encountered in the group of subjects that evidenced the [PCr] overshoot as well as [ADP] and [P(i)] undershoots than in the group that did not. We postulate that the role of the PCr overshoot-related transiently elevated [ATP]/[ADP(free)] ratio is to activate different processes (including protein synthesis) that participate in repairing numerous damages of the muscle cells caused by intensive exercise-induced stressing factors, such as extensive muscle acidification, a significant decrease in DeltaG (ATP), an elevated level of reactive oxygen species or mechanical disturbances.

  10. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  11. MaquiBright™ standardized maqui berry extract significantly increases tear fluid production and ameliorates dry eye-related symptoms in a clinical pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitoe, S; Tanaka, J; Shimoda, H

    2014-09-01

    Dry eye symptoms, resulting from insufficient tear fluid generation, represent a considerable burden for a largely underestimated number of people. We concluded from earlier pre-clinical investigations that the etiology of dry eyes encompasses oxidative stress burden to lachrymal glands and that antioxidant MaquiBright™ Aristotelia chilensis berry extract helps restore glandular activity. In this pilot trial we investigated 13 healthy volunteers with moderately dry eyes using Schirmer test, as well as a questionnaire which allows for estimating the impact of dry eyes on daily routines. Study participants were assigned to one of two groups, receiving MaquiBright™ at daily dosage of either 30 mg (N.=7) or 60 mg (N.=6) over a period of 60 days. Both groups presented with significantly (Peye dryness on daily routines was evaluated employing the "Dry Eye-related Quality of life Score" (DEQS), with values spanning from zero (impact) to a maximum score of 60. Participants had comparable baseline values of 41.0±7.7 (30 mg) and 40.2±6.3 (60 mg). With 30 mg treatment the score significantly decreased to 21.8±3.9 and 18.9±3.9, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. With 60 mg treatment the DEQS significantly decreased to 26.9±5.3 and 11.1±2.7, after 30 and 60 days, respectively. Blood was drawn for safety analyses (complete blood rheology and -chemistry) at all three investigative time points without negative findings. In conclusion, while daily supplementation with 30 mg MaquiBright™ is effective, the dosage of 60 significantly increased tear fluid volume at all investigative time points and decreased dry eye symptoms to almost a quarter from initial values after two months treatment.

  12. Inhibition of the Decrease of Volatile Esters and Terpenes During Storage of Wines and a Model Wine Medium by Wine Phenolic Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Lambropoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of red wine phenolic extracts on the stability of wine volatile esters and terpenes was examined. Muscat (white and Xinomavro (red wines were enriched with each extract at 120 or 200 mg/L, and stored in open bottles at 20 °C for 3 and 2.5 days, respectively. Moreover, a model wine medium containing isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate and linalool was enriched with each extract at 100 mg/L, and stored in sealed bottles at 20 °C for 45–90 days. All samples were analysed for volatiles using SPME along with GC-MS analysis. Phenolic composition of wine extracts was determined using HPLC-DAD. No effect on the concentration of any volatiles was observed as a result of the addition of each extract in each wine or the model medium. A wine extract rich in phenolic acids and another one rich in anthocyanins and flavanols inhibited the decrease of volatile esters and terpenes in one or both wines and the model medium. Among them were several important for the aroma of wine such as ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and linalool. The results presented here indicate that wine phenolic acids, and anthocyanins or flavanols may be taken into account as potent inhibitors of the disappearance of volatile esters and terpenes in wines.

  13. Genetic myostatin decrease in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy model does not significantly affect the ubiquitin proteasome system despite enhancing the severity of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Steven W; Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Wadosky, Kristine M; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that inhibiting the protein myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass, may improve outcomes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy by enhancing muscle mass. When the dystrophin-deficient golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dog was bred with whippets having a heterozygous mutation for the myostatin gene, affected GRMD dogs with decreased myostatin (GRippets) demonstrated an accelerated physical decline compared to related affected GRMD dogs with full myostatin. To examine the role of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems in this accelerated decline, we determined the expression of the muscle ubiquitin ligases MuRF1, Atrogin-1, RNF25, RNF11, and CHIP: the proteasome subunits PSMA6, PSMB4, and PSME1: and calpain 1/2 by real time PCR in the cranial sartorius and vastus lateralis muscles in control, affected GRMD, and GRippet dogs. While individual affected GRMD and GRippet dogs contributed to an increased variability seen in ubiquitin ligase expression, neither group was significantly different from the control group. The affected GRMD dogs demonstrated significant increases in caspase-like and trypsin-like activity in the cranial sartorius; however, all three proteasome activities in the GRippet muscles did not differ from controls. Increased variability in calpain 1 and calpain 2 expression and activity in the affected GRMD and GRippet groups were identified, but no statistical differences from the control group were seen. These studies suggest a role of myostatin in the disease progression of GRMD, which does not significantly involve key components of the ubiquitin proteasome and calpain systems involved in the protein quality control of sarcomere and other structural skeletal muscle proteins.

  14. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Malachia; Adamian, Yvess; Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-24

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies.

  15. Ekstrak Sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata Menurunkan Jumlah Skizon, Mikrogamet, Makrogamet, dan Oosista Eimeria tenella (EXTRACT OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA DECREASED SCHIZONTS, MICROGAMETES, MACROGAMETES AND OOCYSTS NUMBER OF EIMERIA TENELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UMI CAHYANINGSIH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to observe the effect of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata givenin grading doses to the schizonts, microgamete, macrogamete, and oocytes counts of Eimeria tenella inchicken caecum. A total of ninety day old broiler chicks were used in the study. At two weeks old the broilerswere divided into six groups. Each group consisted of 15 broilers, the 6 groups were: (i negative control(broilers did not receive any treatment; (ii positive control (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenellaoocytes; (iii medicine control (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and coccidiostat; (ivA1 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 90 mg/kg body weight; (vA2 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 180 mg/kg body weight;and (vi A3 (each animal were infected with 104 E. tenella oocytes and paniculata extract 360 mg/kg bodyweight. At day 6, 9, 13, 16, and 22 post infection three broilers from each group were sacrificed and theirceca were collected for histopathological examination. The results showed that paniculata extract at dose90 mg/kg body weight and 180 mg/kg body weight was able to decrease the numbers of shizont, microgamete,macrogamete, and oocytes of E. tenella in the chicken caecum.

  16. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  17. Site-Specific Fat-1 Knock-In Enables Significant Decrease of n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs Ratio in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjing Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The fat-1 gene from Caenorhabditis elegans encodes a fatty acid desaturase which was widely studied due to its beneficial function of converting n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6PUFAs to n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFAs. To date, many fat-1 transgenic animals have been generated to study disease pathogenesis or improve meat quality. However, all of them were generated using a random integration method with variable transgene expression levels and the introduction of selectable marker genes often raise biosafety concern. To this end, we aimed to generate marker-free fat-1 transgenic pigs in a site-specific manner. The Rosa26 locus, first found in mouse embryonic stem cells, has become one of the most common sites for inserting transgenes due to its safe and ubiquitous expression. In our study, the fat-1 gene was inserted into porcine Rosa 26 (pRosa26 locus via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9 system. The Southern blot analysis of our knock-in pigs indicated a single copy of the fat-1 gene at the pRosa26 locus. Furthermore, this single-copy fat-1 gene supported satisfactory expression in a variety of tissues in F1 generation pigs. Importantly, the gas chromatography analysis indicated that these fat-1 knock-in pigs exhibited a significant increase in the level of n-3PUFAs, leading to an obvious decrease in the n-6PUFAs/n-3PUFAs ratio from 9.36 to 2.12 (***P < 0.0001. Altogether, our fat-1 knock-in pigs hold great promise for improving the nutritional value of pork and serving as an animal model to investigate therapeutic effects of n-3PUFAs on various diseases.

  18. Cranberry juice concentrate does not significantly decrease the incidence of acquired bacteriuria in female hip fracture patients receiving urine catheter: a double-blind randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnarsson AK

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Karin Gunnarsson,1 Lena Gunningberg,2 Sune Larsson,1 Kenneth B Jonsson1 1Institution of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Institution of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden Background: Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common complication among patients with hip fractures. Receiving an indwelling urinary catheter is a risk factor for developing UTIs. Treatment of symptomatic UTIs with antibiotics is expensive and can result in the development of antimicrobial resistance. Cranberries are thought to prevent UTI. There is no previous research on this potential effect in patients with hip fracture who receive urinary catheters. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether intake of cranberry juice concentrate preoperatively decreases the incidence of postoperative UTIs in hip fracture patients that received a urinary catheter. Design: This study employed a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Method: Female patients, aged 60 years and older, with hip fracture (n=227 were randomized to receive cranberry or placebo capsules daily, from admission, until 5 days postoperatively. Urine cultures were obtained at admission, 5 and 14 days postoperatively. In addition, Euro Qual five Dimensions assessments were performed and patients were screened for UTI symptoms. Result: In the intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the groups in the proportion of patients with hospital-acquired postoperative positive urine cultures at any time point. When limiting the analysis to patients that ingested at least 80% of the prescribed capsules, 13 of 33 (39% in the placebo group and 13 of 47 (28% in the cranberry group (P=0.270 had a positive urine culture at 5 days postoperatively. However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.270. Conclusion: Cranberry concentrate does not seem to effectively prevent UTIs in female patients with hip fracture and

  19. Standardized extract of Dicksonia sellowiana Presl. Hook (Dicksoniaceae) decreases oxidative damage in cultured endothelial cells and in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattmann, Yanna D; Mendéz-Sánchez, Stelia C; Furian, Ana F; Paludo, Katia S; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Dartora, Nessana; Oliveira, Mauro S; Costa, Elisangela Martins da S; Miguel, Obdúlio G; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Iacomini, Marcello; Mello, Carlos F; Franco, Célia R C; da Silva-Santos, José Eduardo; Cadena, Silvia M S C; Marques, Maria C A; Santos, Adair R S

    2011-02-16

    Aging and a variety of pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases have been associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide anion (O₂·⁻), hydroxyl radical (·OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) generation. Plant polyphenols bear radical scavenging/antioxidant activity. A phytomedicinal preparation obtained from aerial parts of Dicksonia sellowiana (Dicksoniaceae), a native plant from Central and South America, has been widely used in Brazil against asthma and presents beneficial effects in several other diseases, including cardiovascular disturbance. In this work, we investigated whether Dicksonia sellowiana, which is also known to contain high levels of polyphenols, presents antioxidant activity. The antioxidant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Dicksonia sellowiana leaves (HEDS) was investigated by in vitro and in vivo tests. HEDS (0.1-100 μg/mL) exhibited a strong scavenging activity against all reactive species tested (DPPH, O₂·⁻,·OH and H₂O₂; IC₅₀=6.83±2.05, 11.6±5.4, 2.03±0.4, and 4.8±0.4 μg/mL, respectively). HEDS strongly protected endothelial cells against H₂O₂-induced oxidative stress by mechanisms other than increasing catalase activity. In addition, HEDS protected cell membrane from oxidative damage. HEDS, (20 and 40 mg/kg) inhibited lipid peroxidation in vivo (29.8% and 24.5%, respectively). According to our results, we can speculate that the traditional uses of Dicksonia sellowiana for cardiovascular diseases, asthma and skin diseases could be, at least in part, related to the potent antioxidant and endothelial protective activities of the plant. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Significant Enrichment of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) in the Lipids Extracted by Supercritical CO2 from the Livers of Australian Rock Lobsters (Jasus edwardsii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung T; Zhang, Wei; Barber, Andrew R; Su, Peng; He, Shan

    2015-05-13

    Australian rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) liver contains approximately 24.3% (w/w) lipids, which can contain a high amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, this material has been found to be contaminated with arsenic (240 mg/kg) and cadmium (8 mg/kg). The high level of contaminants in the raw material and the large amount of PUFAs in the lipids prove a significant challenge in the extraction of high-quality lipids from this byproduct by conventional methods. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction is a highly promising technology for lipid extraction with advantages including low contamination and low oxidation. The technique was optimized to achieve nearly 94% extraction of lipids relative to conventional Soxhlet extraction in Australian rock lobster liver at conditions of 35 MPa and 50 °C for 4 h. The extracted lipids are significantly enriched in PUFAs at 31.3% of total lipids, 4 times higher than those in the lipids recovered by Soxhlet extraction (7.8%). Specifically, the concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in SC-CO2 extraction are 7 times higher than those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Moreover, very small amounts of toxic heavy metals such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), and cadmium (Cd) were detected in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids, 0.5-27 times lower than those in the Soxhlet-extracted lipids, which are 40-200 times lower than the regulatory limit maximum values. The low levels of contaminants and the high proportion of PUFAs (dominated by DHA and EPA) found in the SC-CO2-extracted lipids from Australian rock lobster liver suggest that the material could potentially be used as a valuable source of essential fatty acids for human consumption.

  1. Chronic administration of ethanol leaf extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) may compromise glycaemic efficacy of Sitagliptin with no significant effect in retinopathy in a diabetic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olurishe, Comfort; Kwanashie, Helen; Zezi, Abdulkadiri; Danjuma, Nuhu; Mohammed, Bisalla

    2016-12-24

    Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) has gained awareness for its antidiabetic effect, and is used as alternative therapy or concurrently with orthodox medicines such as sitagliptin in diabetes mellitus. This is without ascertaining the possibility of drug-herb interactions, which could either lead to enhanced antidiabetic efficacy, increased toxicity, or compromised glycaemic control with negative consequence in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the effect, of sitagliptin (50mg/kg), Moringa oleifera (300mg/kg) leaf extract, and a combination of both on glycaemic control parameters, lenticular opacity and changes in retinal microvasculature in alloxan (150mg/kg i.p) induced diabetic rat model. Seven groups of eight rats per group were used, with groups I, II and VII as normal (NC), diabetic (DC) and post-prandial controls (PPC). Groups III to VI were diabetic rats on sitagliptin (III), M. oleifera (IV), sitagliptin and M. oleifera (SM) (V), for 42 days with 2 weeks delayed treatment in a post-prandial hyperglycaemic group (PPSM) (VI). Glycaemic control parameters, insulin levels, body weights, and effects of retinal microvasculature on lenticular opacity/morphology were investigated. A significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels was displayed in SM group from day 14(60%) (p<0.01) to day 28 (38%) (p<0.01) of treatment, compared to day 1. Thereafter, a steady increase of up to 57% on day 42 compared to day 28 was observed. A significant decrease in random blood glucose (RBG) levels, were demonstrated on day 42 (24%) (p<0.001), compared to day 1. No significant difference was seen in mean serum levels of insulin across groups. No significant changes in body weights. Evidence of mild lenticular opacity was observed, with no significant effect in pathologic lesions in the retina. The chronic co-administration of sitagliptin and M. oleifera showed a progressive decrease in anti-hyperglycaemic effect of sitagliptin, and although it delayed the onset of

  2. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... > .1). Our data suggest that HEXi and MCRi are decreased in proportion to the degree of insulin resistance in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy....... insulin clearance rate was estimated as the ratio of posthepatic insulin appearance rate to steady-state plasma insulin concentration during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU.m-2 .min-1). Posthepatic insulin appearance rate during the clamp was calculated, taking into account the remnant...

  3. Survival Rate of Delayed Implants Placed in Healed Extraction Sockets is Significantly Higher Than That of Immediate Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antetomaso, Jordan; Kumar, Satish

    2018-03-01

    Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets versus delayed implants into healed sockets: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mello CC, Lemos CAA, Verri FR, Dos Santos DM, Goiato MC, Pellizzer EP. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 46(9):1162-77. None TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract and linoleic acid from Passiflora edulis synergistically decrease melanin synthesis in B16 cells and reconstituted epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, A T S; Arroteia, K F; Santos, I A; Andres, E; Medina, S P H; Ferrari, C R; Lourenço, C B; Biaggio, R M T T; Moreira, P L

    2012-10-01

    Several treatments for skin whitening are available today, but few of them are completely adequate, especially owing to the carcinogenic potential attributed to classical drugs like hydroquinone, arbutin and kojic acid. To provide an alternative and safer technology for whitening, we developed two botanical compounds originated from Brazilian biodiversity, an extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi and a linoleic acid fraction isolated from Passiflora edulis oil. The whitening effect of these compounds was assessed using biochemical assays and in vitro models including cellular assays and equivalent skin. The results showed that S. terebinthifolius Raddi extract is able to reduce the tyrosinase activity in vitro, and the combination of this extract with linoleic acid is able to decrease the level of melanin produced by B16 cells cultured with melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Furthermore, melanin was also reduced in human reconstituted epidermis (containing melanocytes) treated with the compounds. The combination of the compounds may provide a synergistic positive whitening effect rather than their isolated use. Finally, we demonstrated that the performance of these mixed compounds is comparable to classical molecules used for skin whitening, as kojic acid. This new natural mixture could be considered an alternative therapeutic agent for treating hyperpigmentation and an effective component in whitening cosmetics. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Herbal tea extract combined with light-induced significant in vitro cytotoxicity of human bladder cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nseyo, Unyime; Kim, Albert; Stavropoulos, Nicholas E.; Skalkos, Dimitris; Nseyo, U. U.; Chung, Theodore D.

    2005-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antiviral, and antidepressant activities of the Greek herb, Hypericum Perforatum L, HP L, have been attributed to the total extract or single constituents. We investigated the use of the extract,specifically of the polar methanolic fraction (PMF) of Epirus"HPL in photodynamic therapy (PDT) alone and in combination with recombinant Interferon-a2b (IFN) and gemcitabine (GCB) in the treatment of human bladder cancer cells. The PMF was extracted from the dry herb with methanol, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with petroleum ether. T-24 bladder cancer cells were plated (105 cells/well) and placed in the incubator (370 C, 5%CO) for 24 hours prior to addition of drugs. PMF 60ug/ml was added and incubation continued. After 24 hours, the cells were subjected to laser light (630nm) treatment with 0, 1, 4 and 8 Joules. After reincubation for 24 hours, IFN, (50,000 IU) or GCB, (2ug/ml) was added to the PDT-treated cells. After this incubation cell survival was assessed by the MTT assay. PMF-PDT alone-induced percent cell kill of 0%, 8%, 44% and 80% versus 31%, 64 and 86 % for PMF-PDT and IFN, versus 63%, 80% and 88% for MPF-PDT plus GCB at 1, 2, 4 and 8 Joules respectively. IFN and GCB induced 20% and 53% cell kill respectively. Our data suggest that MPF may be an effective agent for in vitro photodynamic therapy. PMF-PDT combined with Intron A, or gemcitabine achieved improved kill of cultured bladder cancer cells. Confirmation of these results in preclinical studies may lead to clinical trials.

  6. Nicotine Component of Cigarette Smoke Extract (CSE) Decreases the Cytotoxicity of CSE in BEAS-2B Cells Stably Expressing Human Cytochrome P450 2A13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Minghui; Zhang, Yudong; Li, Na; Wang, Chao; Xia, Rong; Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Shou-Lin

    2017-10-13

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13), an extrahepatic enzyme mainly expressed in the human respiratory system, has been reported to mediate the metabolism and toxicity of cigarette smoke. We previously found that nicotine inhibited 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) metabolism by CYP2A13, but its influence on other components of cigarette smoke remains unclear. The nicotine component of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) was separated, purified, and identified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), splitting CSE into a nicotine section (CSE-N) and nicotine-free section (CSE-O). Cell viability and apoptosis by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) and flow cytometry assays were conducted on immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells stably expressing CYP2A13 (B-2A13) or vector (B-V), respectively. Interestingly, CSE and CSE-O were toxic to BEAS-2B cells whereas CSE-N showed less cytotoxicity. CSE-O was more toxic to B-2A13 cells than to B-V cells (IC 50 of 2.49% vs. 7.06%), which was flatted by 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), a CYP inhibitor. CSE-O rather than CSE or CSE-N increased apoptosis of B-2A13 cells rather than B-V cells. Accordingly, compared to CSE-N and CSE, CSE-O significantly changed the expression of three pairs of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-2 Associated X Protein/B cell lymphoma-2 (Bax/Bcl-2), Cleaved Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase/Poly (Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribose) Polymerase (C-PARP/PARP), and C-caspase-3/caspase-3, in B-2A13 cells. In addition, recombination of CSE-N and CSE-O (CSE-O/N) showed similar cytotoxicity and apoptosis to the original CSE. These results demonstrate that the nicotine component decreases the metabolic activation of CYP2A13 to CSE and aids in understanding the critical role of CYP2A13 in human respiratory diseases caused by cigarette smoking.

  7. Mulberry-extract improves glucose tolerance and decreases insulin concentrations in normoglycaemic adults: Results of a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lown

    Full Text Available High sugar and refined carbohydrate intake is associated with weight gain, increased incidence of diabetes and is linked with increased cardiovascular mortality. Reducing the health impact of poor quality carbohydrate intake is a public health priority. Reducose, a proprietary mulberry leaf extract (ME, may reduce blood glucose responses following dietary carbohydrate intake by reducing absorption of glucose from the gut.A double-blind, randomised, repeat measure, phase 2 crossover design was used to study the glycaemic and insulinaemic response to one reference product and three test products at the Functional Food Centre, Oxford Brooks University, UK. Participants; 37 adults aged 19-59 years with a BMI ≥ 20kg/m2 and ≤ 30kg/m2. The objective was to determine the effect of three doses of mulberry-extract (Reducose versus placebo on blood glucose and insulin responses when co-administered with 50g maltodextrin in normoglycaemic healthy adults. We also report the gastrointestinal tolerability of the mulberry extract.Thirty-seven participants completed the study: The difference in the positive Incremental Area Under the Curve (pIAUC (glucose (mmol / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -6.1% (-18.2%, 5.9%; p = 0.316, -14.0% (-26.0%, -2.0%; p = 0.022 and -22.0% (-33.9%, -10.0%; p<0.001 respectively. The difference in the pIAUC (insulin (mIU / L x h for half, normal and double dose ME compared with placebo was -9.7% (-25.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.234, -23.8% (-39.9%, -7.8%; p = 0.004 and -24.7% (-40.8%, -8.6%; p = 0.003 respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between any of the 4 groups in the odds of experiencing one or more gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, abdominal cramping, distension or flatulence.Mulberry leaf extract significantly reduces total blood glucose rise after ingestion of maltodextrin over 120 minutes. The pattern of effect demonstrates a classical dose response curve with

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  9. Chronic ethanol increases calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinaseIIδ gene expression and decreases monoamine oxidase amount in rat heart muscles: Rescue effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshmati, Elaheh; Shirpoor, Alireza; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Alizadeh, Mohammad; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini

    2018-01-01

    Association between chronic alcohol intake and cardiac abnormality is well known; however, the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced heart abnormalities remain elusive. This study investigated the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) gene expression and monoamine oxidase (MAO) levels and histological changes in rat heart. It was also planned to find out whether Zingiber officinale (ginger) extract mitigated the abnormalities induced by ethanol in rat heart. Male wistar rats were divided into three groups of eight animals each: control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated-ethanol (GETE) groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the results revealed a significant increase in CaMKIIδtotal and isoforms δ2 and δ3 of CaMKIIδ gene expression as well as a significant decrease in the MAO levels in the ethanol group compared to that in the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed histological changes, such as fibrosis, heart muscle cells proliferation, myocyte hypertrophy, vacuolization, and focal lymphocytic infiltration. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol ameliorated CaMKIIδtotal. In addition, compared to the ethanol group, isoforms gene expression changed and increased the reduced MAO levels and mitigated heart structural changes. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced heart abnormalities may, in part, be associated with Ca 2+ homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of CaMKIIδ gene and the decrease of MAO levels and that these effects can be alleviated by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent.

  10. Parvovirus B19 Is Associated with a Significant Decrease in Hemoglobin Level among Children <5 Years of Age with Anemia in Northwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizeba, Yustina A; Mirambo, Mariam M; Kayange, Neema; Mhada, Tumaini; Ambrose, Emmanuela E; Smart, Luke R; Mshana, Stephen E

    2017-12-13

    Parvovirus B19 (B19) can cause transient aplastic crisis and lead to acute severe anemia. This study investigated the relationship between B19 and anemia among children B19 IgM- and IgG-specific antibodies among children with various categories of anemia according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. A total of 265 children with median age of 28.5 months (interquartile range 18-39.5) were investigated. Eighty-six children (32.5%) had severe anemia. B19-specific IgM and IgG antibodies were detected in 24 (9%) and 46 (17.4%) children, respectively. Low hemoglobin (Hb) level (p = 0.031), Plasmodium falciparum infection (p = 0.001) and residing in rural areas (p = 0.025) independently predicted B19 IgM seropositivity. Acute B19 infection decreased Hb level by 1.1 g/dl (p = 0.003). In malaria endemic areas, acute B19 infections should be considered among children with severe anemia from rural areas. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  12. Changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network during early period of ibrutinib therapy in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients: the significant decrease in T regulatory cells number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhorecka, Monika; Goracy, Aneta; Szymczyk, Agnieszka; Kowal, Malgorzata; Ibanez, Blanca; Jankowska-Lecka, Olga; Macheta, Arkadiusz; Nowaczynska, Aleksandra; Drab-Urbanek, Elzbieta; Chocholska, Sylwia; Jawniak, Dariusz; Hus, Marek

    2017-05-23

    B cell receptor (BCR) stimulation signal plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and kinase inhibitors directed toward the BCR pathway are now the promising anti-leukemic drugs. Ibrutinib, a Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor, demonstrates promising clinical activity in CLL. It is reported that ibrutinib, additionally to directly targeting leukemic cells, also inhibits the interactions of these cells with T cells, macrophages and accessory cells. Assessment of these mechanisms is important because of their non -direct anti-leukemic effects and to identify possible side effects connected with long-term drug administration.The aim of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of ibrutinib on T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL. The analysis was performed on a group of 19 patients during first month of ibrutinib therapy. The standard multicolor flow cytometry and cytometric bead array methods were used for assessment of T-cell subsets and cytokines/chemokines, respectively.The data obtained indicates that Ibrutinib treatment results in changes in T-cell subpopulations and cytokine network in CLL patients. Particularly, a significant reduction of T regulatory cells in peripheral blood was observed. By targeting these populations of T cells Ibrutinib can stimulate rejection of tumor cells by the immune system.

  13. Increased hepatic FAT/CD36, PTP1B and decreased HNF4A expression contributes to dyslipidemia associated with ethanol-induced liver dysfunction: Rescue effect of ginger extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirpoor, Alireza; Heshmati, Elaheh; Kheradmand, Fatemeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Chodari, Leila; Naderi, Roya; Majd, Farideh Nezami; Samadi, Mahrokh

    2018-05-28

    The association between chronic alcohol consumption and the development of alcpholic liver disease is a very well known phenomenon, but the precise underlying molecular mediators involved in ethanol-induced liver disease remain elusive. This study aimed to characterize the lipid metabolism alterations and the molecular mediators which are related to lipid metabolism in liver under the heavy ethanol exposure alone or combined with ginger extract. Twenty-four male wistar rats were assigned into three groups, namely control, ethanol, and ginger extract treated ethanol (GETE) groups. Six weeks after the treatment, the ethanol group showed a significant increase in fatty acid translocase (FAT)/CD36, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and decrease hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 Alpha (HNF4A) genes expressions compared to the control group. The ethanol administration also significantly increased plasma LDL, cholesterol, triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared to the control group. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed liver histhological changes, such as fibrosis, focal microvesicular steatosis, some apoptotic hepatocytes, spotty necrosis, portal lymphocytic inflammation, mallory-denk bodies, giant mitochondria, piecemeal necrosis. Consumption of ginger extract along with ethanol, partially ameliorated gene expression alteration and histological changes, improved undesirable lipid profile and liver enzymes changes compare to those in the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol-induced liver abnormalities may in part be associated with lipid homeostasis changes mediated by overexpression of FAT/CD36, PTP1B and downexpressionof HNF4A genes. It also show that these effects can be reduced by using ginger extract as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract reduces age-related symptoms of androgen decrease, increases testosterone levels and improves sexual function in healthy aging males in a double-blind randomised clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amanda; Steels, Elizabeth; Inder, Warrick J; Abraham, Suzanne; Vitetta, Luis

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the effect of Testofen, a specialised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract on the symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, sexual function and serum androgen concentrations in healthy aging males. This was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial involving 120 healthy men aged between 43 and 70 years of age. The active treatment was standardised Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract at a dose of 600 mg/day for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Aging Male Symptom questionnaire (AMS), a measure of possible androgen deficiency symptoms; secondary outcome measures were sexual function and serum testosterone. There was a significant decrease in AMS score over time and between the active and placebo groups. Sexual function improved, including number of morning erections and frequency of sexual activity. Both total serum testosterone and free testosterone increased compared to placebo after 12 weeks of active treatment. Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract is a safe and effective treatment for reducing symptoms of possible androgen deficiency, improves sexual function and increases serum testosterone in healthy middle-aged and older men.

  15. Curcumin and Viscum album Extract Decrease Proliferation and Cell Viability of Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Cells: An In Vitro Analysis of Eight Cell Lines Using Real-Time Monitoring and Colorimetric Assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harati, K; Behr, B; Daigeler, A; Hirsch, T; Jacobsen, F; Renner, M; Harati, A; Wallner, C; Lehnhardt, M; Becerikli, M

    2017-01-01

    The cytostatic effects of the polyphenol curcumin and Viscum album extract (VAE) were assessed in soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Eight human STS cell lines were used: fibrosarcoma (HT1080), liposarcoma (SW872, T778, MLS-402), synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1, 1273), and malignant fibrous histiocytoma (U2197). Primary human fibroblasts served as control cells. Cell proliferation, viability, and cell index (CI) were analyzed by BrdU assay, MTT assay, and real-time cell analysis (RTCA). As indicated by BrdU and MTT, curcumin significantly decreased the cell proliferation of five cell lines (HT1080, SW872, SYO1, 1273, and U2197) and the viability of two cell lines (SW872 and SW982). VAE led to significant decreases of proliferation in eight cell lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, 1293, and U2197) and reduced viability in seven STS lines (HT1080, SW872, T778, MLS-402, SW982, SYO1, and 1273). As indicated by RTCA for 160 h, curcumin decreased the CI of all synovial sarcoma cell lines as well as T778 and HT1080. VAE diminished the CI in most of the synovial sarcoma (SW982, SYO1) and liposarcoma (SW872, T778) cell lines as well as HT1080. Primary fibroblasts were not affected adversely by the two compounds in RTCA. Curcumin and VAE can inhibit the proliferation and viability of STS cells.

  16. Effect of Petiveria alliacea Leaves Extract in Decreasing Serum Level of Blood Glucose Level Through Activation of AMPK-α1 in Diabetes Mellitus Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Mustika

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Singawalang (Petiveria alliaceae is a medicinal herb that is used traditionally as folk medicine for various diseases. The plant has been used as an antidiabetic agent in Indonesian society. Until now, the effect and mechanism of action of Petiveria alliaceae as antidiabetic agent is not clear. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Petiveria alliaceae to blood glucose level and to identify expression of AMPK-α1 in rat liver. The research was experimental study with randomized and was conducted at Laboratory Pharmacology and Therapy, and Laboratory Patology Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, on April until August 2015. Twenty five male rats were injected by Streptozotocin to create diabetic rat models and randomly divided into 5 groups. The group 1, 2 and 3 are treatment groups that were given the ethanol extract of Petiveria alliaceae at dose 90 mg/kgbw, 180 mg/kgbw, and 360 mg/kgbw, orally, once daily for fourteen days. The fourth group is a negative control who were given distilled water and the fifth group is a positive control who were given metformin at dose 150 mg/kgbw. On the 15th day, blood glucose level were measured by glucometer and the rats were sacrificed to collect the liver. Expression of AMPK-α1 were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Data were analyzed by ANAVA and Wilcoxon (α=0,05. The results have been showed that there were significant differences in glucose blood level between negative control with the group were given the extract at dose 90 mg/kgbw, 360 mg/kgbw and positive control, between dose 180 mg/kgbw with dose 360 mg/kgbw and positive control. A significant differences of expression of AMPK-α1 showed between dose 180 mg/kgbw with dose 360 mg/kgbw and positive control. The conclusion of this study was the extract ethanol of Singawalang leaves reduce blood glucose level in diabetes mellitus rat models through increase in the expression of AMPK-α1.

  17. Potential of Anti Breast Cancer Black Ethanol Rice Extract (Oryza sativa L. indica In Decreasing Levels of CA 15-3 Serum in the White Mice Sprague dawley in Induction 7.12-Dimethylbenz (α Antracene (DMBA and Estrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanuar Abidin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is cancer that has the high incidence in Indonesia. Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica is a plant that has an anticancer potency. This research aim is to prove black rice as a potential anticancer by using experimental animals, 20 Sprague Dawley female rats aged 7-8 weeks induced breast cancer by using the combination of 7,12-dimethylbenz (α anthracene (DMBA and estrogen. Rats were divided into two groups, namely the K-induced breast cancer and a group of P-induced cancer and treated with black rice. Black rice is given in the form of ethanol extract at a dose of 75 mg / kg / day for six weeks. Levels of CA 15-3 serum are used as a parameter. The result showed that the differences in levels of serum CA 15-3 are significant (p <0.05. Serum CA 15-3 level in P group is lower than in K group. This study proved that the ethanol extract of black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica has potential as an anticancer breast as indicated by decreased level of serum CA 15-3

  18. In nondiabetic, human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with lipodystrophy, hepatic insulin extraction and posthepatic insulin clearance rate are decreased in proportion to insulin resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2005-01-01

    In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... endogenous insulin secretion, which was estimated by deconvolution of C-peptide concentrations. Hepatic extraction of insulin was calculated as 1 minus the ratio of fasting posthepatic insulin delivery rate to fasting endogenous insulin secretion rate. Compared with controls, LIPO displayed increased fasting...... insulin (130%, P Hepatic extraction of insulin was similar between groups (LIPO, 55%; controls, 57%; P > .8). In LIPO, HEXi and MCRi correlated inversely with fasting insulin (r = -0.56, P

  19. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L.) Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    I Made Sumarya; Nyoman Adiputra; Putra Manuaba; Dewa Sukrama

    2016-01-01

    Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L.) antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc). Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the S...

  20. Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha and Rosmarinus officinalis Attenuate Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Regulating the Production of Cardiac Vasoactive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Enrique Cuevas-Durán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha (Co and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a sham; (b vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI (MI-V; (c Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro; (d Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Co; or (e Ro+Co-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro+Co. Ro and Co treatments increased total antioxidant capacity, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD-Cu2+/Zn2+, SOD-Mn2+, and catalase, with the subsequent decline of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. The extracts diminished vasoconstrictor peptide levels (angiotensin II and endothelin-1, increased vasodilators agents (angiotensin 1–7 and bradikinin and improved nitric oxide metabolism. Polyphenol treatment restored the left intraventricular pressure and cardiac mechanical work. We conclude that Ro and Co treatment attenuate morphological and functional ischemic-related changes by both an oxidant load reduction and improvement of the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.

  1. The Oral Bioavailability of Trans-Resveratrol from a Grapevine-Shoot Extract in Healthy Humans is Significantly Increased by Micellar Solubilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Castro, Laura A; Schiborr, Christina; David, Franziska; Ehrt, Heidi; Voggel, Jenny; Sus, Nadine; Behnam, Dariush; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Frank, Jan

    2018-05-01

    Grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 contains abundant resveratrol monomers and oligomers with health-promoting potential. However, the oral bioavailability of these compounds in humans is low (˂1-2%). The aim of this study was to improve the oral bioavailability of resveratrol from vineatrol by micellar solubilization. Twelve healthy volunteers (six women, six men) randomly ingested a single dose of 500 mg vineatrol (30 mg trans-resveratrol, 75 mg trans-ε-viniferin) as native powder or liquid micelles. Plasma and urine were collected at baseline and over 24 h after intake. Resveratrol and viniferin were analyzed by HPLC. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and mean maximum plasma trans-resveratrol concentrations were 5.0-fold and 10.6-fold higher, respectively, after micellar supplementation relative to the native powder. However, no detectable amounts of trans-ε-viniferin were found in either plasma or urine. The transepithelial permeability of trans-resveratrol and trans-ε-viniferin across differentiated Caco-2 monolayers was consistent to the absorbed fractions in vivo. The oral bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from the grapevine-shoot extract Vineatrol30 was significantly increased using a liquid micellar formulation, without any treatment-related adverse effects, making it a suitable system for improved supplementation of trans-resveratrol. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  3. Antioxidant-rich leaf extract of Barringtonia racemosa significantly alters the in vitro expression of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in methylglyoxal degradation III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Weng Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. Methods In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant. Results Microarray analysis showed that a total of 138 genes were significantly altered in response to BLE treatment (p < 0.05 with a fold change difference of at least 1.5. SERPINE1 was the most significantly up-regulated gene at 2.8-fold while HAMP was the most significantly down-regulated gene at 6.5-fold. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA revealed that “Cancer, cell death and survival, cellular movement” was the top network affected by the BLE with a score of 44. The top five canonical pathways associated with BLE were Methylglyoxal Degradation III followed by VDR/RXR activation, TR/RXR activation, PXR/RXR activation and gluconeogenesis. The expression of genes that encode for enzymes involved in methylglyoxal degradation (ADH4, AKR1B10 and AKR1C2 and glycolytic process (ENO3, ALDOC and SLC2A1 was significantly regulated. Owing to the Warburg effect, aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells may increase the level of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound. Conclusions BLE has the potential to be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent provided that the cytotoxic effects related to methylglyoxal accumulation are minimized in normal cells that rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy supply.

  4. Oxidized LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet

    OpenAIRE

    Ibero-Baraibar, I. (Idoia); Abete, I. (Itziar); Navas-Carretero, S. (Santiago); Massis-Zaid, A. (A.); Martinez, J.A. (José Alfredo); Zulet, M.A. (María Ángeles)

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Methods and results Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m2] were recruited to participate in a 4 week rando...

  5. Oxidised LDL levels decreases after the consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibero-Baraibar, I; Abete, I; Navas-Carretero, S; Massis-Zaid, A; Martinez, J A; Zulet, M A

    2014-04-01

    Cocoa flavanols are recognised by their favourable antioxidant and vascular effects. This study investigates the influence on health of the daily consumption of ready-to-eat meals supplemented with cocoa extract within a hypocaloric diet, on middle-aged overweight/obese subjects. Fifty healthy male and female middle-aged volunteers [57.26 ± 5.24 years and body mass index (BMI) 30.59 ± 2.33 kg/m(2)] were recruited to participate in a 4 week randomised, parallel and double-blind study. After following 3 days on a low-polyphenol diet, 25 volunteers received meals supplemented with 1.4 g of cocoa extract (645.3 mg of polyphenols) and the other 25 participants received control meals, within a 15% energy restriction diet. On the 4th week of intervention individuals in both dietary groups improved (p hypocaloric diet improved oxidative status (oxLDL) in middle-aged subjects, being most remarkable in males. Registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01596309). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Appetite - decreased

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of appetite; Decreased appetite; Anorexia ... Any illness can reduce appetite. If the illness is treatable, the appetite should return when the condition is cured. Loss of appetite can cause weight ...

  7. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  8. Extract of Irish potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) decreases body weight gain and adiposity and improves glucose control in the mouse model of diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stan; Hobson, Luc; Iskandar, Michèle M; Sabally, Kebba; Donnelly, Danielle J; Agellon, Luis B

    2014-11-01

    Both sexes of mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks without and with polyphenolic-rich potato extracts (PRPE) of cultivars Onaway and Russet Burbank. PRPE attenuated weight gain in male and female mice by as much as 63.2%, which was associated mostly with a reduction in adiposity. Mice receiving PRPE showed enhanced capacity for blood glucose clearance. Sex differences regarding the impact of HFD and PRPE on plasma levels of insulin, ghrelin, leptin, gastric inhibitory peptide, and resistin were noted. PRPE may serve as part of a preventative dietary strategy against the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Adding a purple corn extract in rats supplemented with chia oil decreases gene expression of SREBP-1c and retains Δ5 and Δ6 hepatic desaturase activity, unmodified the hepatic lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna Gallegos, Sixto; Torres Arrunátegui, Génesis; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Villanueva Espinoza, María Elena

    2018-05-01

    Flavonoids upregulate gene expression of PPAR-α and underregulate the gene expression of SREBP-1c, and their intake increases the plasmatic concentration of n-3 LC-PUFAs. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. In this work, the effect of oral supplementation of ALA from chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed oil and anthocyanins from a purple corn extract (PCE) on gene expression of SREBP-1c, PPAR-α and Δ5 and Δ6 desaturases (Δ5D and Δ6D), the activity of these enzymes in the liver as well as the hepatic lipid profile were evaluated in thirty-six female Sprague Dawley rats whose diet was supplemented with olive oil (OL), chia oil (CH), olive oil and PCE (OL + PCE) or chia oil and PCE (CH + PCE). Gene expression of PPAR-α was significantly higher when supplemented with CH and CH + PCE, SREBP-1c gene expression was higher when supplemented with chia oil. CH supplementation enhanced Δ5D expression whereas no significant differences between treatments were observed concerning Δ6D gene expression. Activities of both desaturases were increased by including olive oil (OL + PCE and OL), and they were found to be higher in CH + PCE respect to CH for both enzymes. The ALA and n-3 LCPUFAs hepatic content was higher with CH, decreasing the levels of AA and n-6 LCPUFAs. It is concluded that the joint action of flavonoids such as anthocyanins and ALA show an anti-adipogenic effect. Desaturase activity was inhibited by ALA and kept by the anthocyanins from PCE, thus anthocyanins would exert a protective effect on the desaturase activity but they would not affect on its gene expression, however, high doses of ALA increased the production of its metabolites, masking the effect of PCE. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds extract and its bioactive component penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose decreased production of reactive oxygen species and inhibited release of leukotriene B4, interleukin-8, elastase, and myeloperoxidase in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Anna K; Filipek, Agnieszka; Czerwińska, Monika; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2010-09-22

    In this study, we analyzed ex vivo the effect of an aqueous extract of Oenothera paradoxa defatted seeds on the formation of neutrophil-derived oxidants. For defining active compounds, we also tested lypophilic extract constituents such as gallic acid, (+)-catechin, ellagic acid, and penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose and a hydrophilic fraction containing polymeric procyanidins. The anti-inflammatory potential of the extract and compounds was tested by determining the release from activated neutrophils of elastase, myeloperoxidase, interleukin-8 (IL-8), and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), which are considered relevant for the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The extract of O. paradoxa defatted seeds displays potent antioxidant effects against both 4β-phorbol-12β-myristate-α13-acetate- and formyl-met-leu-phenylalanine-induced reactive oxygen species production in neutrophils with IC50 values around 0.2 μg/mL. All types of polyphenolics present in the extract contributed to the extract antioxidant activity. According to their IC50 values, penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose was the more potent constituent of the extract. In cell-free assays, we demonstrated that this effect is partially due to the scavenging of O2- and H2O2 oxygen species. The extract and especially penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose significantly inhibit elastase, myeloperoxidase IL-8, and LTB4 release with an IC50 for penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose of 17±1, 15±1, 6.5±2.5, and around 20 μM, respectively. The inhibition of penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose on reactive oxygen species and especially on O2- production, myeloperoxidase, and chemoattractant release may reduce the interaction of polymorphonuclear leukocyte with the vascular endothelium and by that potentially diminish the risk of progression of atherosclerosis development.

  11. A cytotoxic Petiveria alliacea dry extract induces ATP depletion and decreases β-F1-ATPase expression in breast cancer cells and promotes survival in tumor-bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Hernández

    Full Text Available Abstract Metabolic plasticity in cancer cells assures cell survival and cell proliferation under variable levels of oxygen and nutrients. Therefore, new anticancer treatments endeavor to target such plasticity by modifying main metabolic pathways as glycolysis or oxidative phosphorylation. In American traditional medicine Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccacea, leaf extracts have been used for leukemia and breast cancer treatments. Herein, we study cytotoxicity and antitumoral effects of P. alliacea extract in tumor/non-tumorigenic cell lines and murine breast cancer model. Breast cancer cells treated with P. alliacea dry extract showed reduction in β-F1-ATPase expression, glycolytic flux triggering diminished intracellular ATP levels, mitochondrial basal respiration and oxygen consumption. Consequently, a decline in cell proliferation was observed in conventional and three-dimension spheres breast cancer cells culture. Additionally, in vivo treatment of BALB/c mice transplanted with the murine breast cancer TS/A tumor showed that P. alliacea extract via i.p. decreases the primary tumor growth and increases survival in the TS/A model.

  12. Arsenic Speciation and Extraction and the Significance of Biodegradable Acid on Arsenic Removal—An Approach for Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Osanai, Yasuhito; Do Nguyen, Hai; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A series of arsenic remediation tests were conducted using a washing method with biodegradable organic acids, including oxalic, citric and ascorbic acids. Approximately 80% of the arsenic in one sample was removed under the effect of the ascorbic and oxalic acid combination, which was roughly twice higher than the effectiveness of the ascorbic and citric acid combination under the same conditions. The soils treated using biodegradable acids had low remaining concentrations of arsenic that are primarily contained in the crystalline iron oxides and organic matter fractions. The close correlation between extracted arsenic and extracted iron/aluminum suggested that arsenic was removed via the dissolution of Fe/Al oxides in soils. The fractionation of arsenic in four contaminated soils was investigated using a modified sequential extraction method. Regarding fractionation, we found that most of the soil contained high proportions of arsenic (As) in exchangeable fractions with phosphorus, amorphous oxides, and crystalline iron oxides, while a small amount of the arsenic fraction was organic matter-bound. This study indicated that biodegradable organic acids can be considered as a means for arsenic-contaminated soil remediation.

  13. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzeneva, Inna B.; Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Elizaveta S.; Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V.; Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  15. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: inna.korzeneva@molgen.vniief.ru [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Ershova, Elizaveta S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation); Skorodumova, Elena N.; Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V.; Volkova, Irina V.; Stepanova, Elena V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190 Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); V. A. Negovsky Research Institute of General Reanimatology, Moscow, 107031 (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • A transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat is resistant to double-strand breaks in the environment of a raised endonuclease activity. • Hybridization-based techniques are preferable for the analysis of damaged and/or oxidized genomic fragments, rather than the qRT-PCR method. • A chronic exposure to the low-dose IR induces an elevation of the rDNA content in the human circulating cfDNA as compared to cellular DNA. • An exposure to IR entails a decrease of the level of the human circulating satellite III (1q12) as compared to cellular DNA (RsatIII index). • The RrDNA/RsatIII ratio is a potential marker of a chronic IR individual exposure. - Abstract: A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N = 88) and tritium β-radiation (N = 88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the

  16. Multi-Locus Next-Generation Sequence Typing of DNA Extracted From Pooled Colonies Detects Multiple Unrelated Candida albicans Strains in a Significant Proportion of Patient Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningxin Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The yeast Candida albicans is an important opportunistic human pathogen. For C. albicans strain typing or drug susceptibility testing, a single colony recovered from a patient sample is normally used. This is insufficient when multiple strains are present at the site sampled. How often this is the case is unclear. Previous studies, confined to oral, vaginal and vulvar samples, have yielded conflicting results and have assessed too small a number of colonies per sample to reliably detect the presence of multiple strains. We developed a next-generation sequencing (NGS modification of the highly discriminatory C. albicans MLST (multilocus sequence typing method, 100+1 NGS-MLST, for detection and typing of multiple strains in clinical samples. In 100+1 NGS-MLST, DNA is extracted from a pool of colonies from a patient sample and also from one of the colonies. MLST amplicons from both DNA preparations are analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Using base call frequencies, our bespoke DALMATIONS software determines the MLST type of the single colony. If base call frequency differences between pool and single colony indicate the presence of an additional strain, the differences are used to computationally infer the second MLST type without the need for MLST of additional individual colonies. In mixes of previously typed pairs of strains, 100+1 NGS-MLST reliably detected a second strain. Inferred MLST types of second strains were always more similar to their real MLST types than to those of any of 59 other isolates (22 of 31 inferred types were identical to the real type. Using 100+1 NGS-MLST we found that 7/60 human samples, including three superficial candidiasis samples, contained two unrelated strains. In addition, at least one sample contained two highly similar variants of the same strain. The probability of samples containing unrelated strains appears to differ considerably between body sites. Our findings indicate the need for wider surveys to

  17. Dietary gamma oryzanol plays a significant role in the anti-inflammatory activity of rice bran oil by decreasing pro-inflammatory mediators secreted by peritoneal macrophages of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Y Poorna Chandra; Sugasini, D; Lokesh, B R

    2016-10-28

    Ricebran oil (RBO) is promoted as heart friendly oil because of its ability to maintain serum lipids at desirable levels. Inflammation also plays an important role on cardiovascular health. The role of minor constituents present in unsaponifiable fraction (UF) of RBO on inflammatory markers is not well understood. To evaluate this, we have taken RBO with UF (RBO-N), RBO stripped of UF (RBO-MCR) and RBO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO (UFRBO) or Gamma-Oryzanol (γ-ORY) were added in AIN-93 diets which was then fed to Wistar rats for a period of 60 days. Groundnut oil with UF (GNO-N), UF removed GNO (GNO-MCR) and GNO-MCR supplemented with UF from RBO or γ-ORY was also used for comparison. The peritoneal macrophages from the rats were activated and pro-inflammatory mediators such as Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), eicosanoids, cytokines, hydrolytic enzymes of lysosomal origin were monitored. The results indicated that UF of RBO and γ-ORY supplemented in the dietary oils play a significant role in reducing the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by macrophages. Hence γ-ORY in RBO significantly contributed to the anti-inflammatory properties of RBO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Policaptil Gel Retard significantly reduces body mass index and hyperinsulinism and may decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagi, Stefano; Lapi, Elisabetta; Seminara, Salvatore; Pelosi, Paola; Del Greco, Paolo; Capirchio, Laura; Strano, Massimo; Giglio, Sabrina; Chiarelli, Francesco; de Martino, Maurizio

    2015-02-15

    Treatments for childhood obesity are critically needed because of the risk of developing co-morbidities, although the interventions are frequently time-consuming, frustrating, difficult, and expensive. We conducted a longitudinal, randomised, clinical study, based on a per protocol analysis, on 133 obese children and adolescents (n = 69 males and 64 females; median age, 11.3 years) with family history of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The patients were divided into three arms: Arm A (n = 53 patients), Arm B (n = 45 patients), and Arm C (n = 35 patients) patients were treated with a low-glycaemic-index (LGI) diet and Policaptil Gel Retard, only a LGI diet, or only an energy-restricted diet (ERD), respectively. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the Matsuda, insulinogenic and disposition indexes were calculated at T0 and after 1 year (T1). At T1, the BMI-SD scores were significantly reduced from 2.32 to 1.80 (p 1) in Arm A and from 2.23 to 1.99 (p 13.2% to 5.6%; p 1) and B (p 1) and B (p obese children and adolescents with family history of obesity and T2DM.

  19. Significant inhibitory impact of dibenzyl trisulfide and extracts of Petiveria alliacea on the activities of major drug-metabolizing enzymes in vitro: An assessment of the potential for medicinal plant-drug interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, J; Picking, D; Lamm, A; McKenzie, J; Hartley, S; Watson, C; Williams, L; Lowe, H; Delgoda, R

    2016-06-01

    Dibenzyl trisulfide (DTS) is the major active ingredient expressed in Petiveria alliacea L., a shrub widely used for a range of conditions, such as, arthritis, asthma and cancer. Given its use alone and concomitantly with prescription medicines, we undertook to investigate its impact on the activities of important drug metabolizing enzymes, the cytochromes P450 (CYP), a key family of enzymes involved in many adverse drug reactions. DTS and seven standardized extracts from the plant were assessed for their impact on the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 on a fluorometric assay. DTS revealed significant impact against the activities of CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4 with IC50 values of 1.9, 4.0 and 3.2μM, respectively, which are equivalent to known standard inhibitors of these enzymes (furafylline, and tranylcypromine), and the most potent interaction with CYP1A2 displayed irreversible enzyme kinetics. The root extract, drawn with 96% ethanol (containing 2.4% DTS), displayed IC50 values of 5.6, 3.9 and 4.2μg/mL respectively, against the same isoforms, CYPs 1A2, 2C19 and 3A4. These investigations identify DTS as a valuable CYP inhibitor and P. alliacea as a candidate plant worthy of clinical trials to confirm the conclusions that extracts yielding high DTS may lead to clinically relevant drug interactions, whilst extracts yielding low levels of DTS, such as aqueous extracts, are unlikely to cause adverse herb-drug interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  1. Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason B. White

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd. In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS. Foot contact time (FCT, stride frequency (SF, stride length (SL, and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s for AMS (p = 0.03. Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.

  2. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung Carl MF

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent in vitro study indicates that IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the traditional West African food plant Irvingia gabonensis, favorably impacts adipogenesis through a variety of critical metabolic pathways including PPAR gamma, leptin, adiponectin, and glycerol-3 phosphate dehydrogenase. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the effects of IGOB131, an extract of Irvingia gabonensis, on body weight and associated metabolic parameters in overweight human volunteers. Methods The study participants comprised of 102 healthy, overweight and/or obese volunteers (defined as BMI > 25 kg/m2 randomly divided into two groups. The groups received on a daily basis, either 150 mg of IGOB131 or matching placebo in a double blinded fashion, 30–60 minutes before lunch and dinner. At baseline, 4, 8 and 10 weeks of the study, subjects were evaluated for changes in anthropometrics and metabolic parameters to include fasting lipids, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin. Results Significant improvements in body weight, body fat, and waist circumference as well as plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, blood glucose, C-reactive protein, adiponectin and leptin levels were observed in the IGOB131 group compared with the placebo group. Conclusion Irvingia gabonensis administered 150 mg twice daily before meals to overweight and/or obese human volunteers favorably impacts body weight and a variety of parameters characteristic of the metabolic syndrome. This is the first double blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial regarding the anti-obesity and lipid profile modulating effects of an Irvingia gabonensis extract. The positive clinical results, together with our previously published mechanisms of gene expression modulation related to key metabolic pathways in lipid metabolism, provide impetus for much larger clinical studies. Irvingia gabonensis extract may prove to be a useful tool in dealing with the

  3. Haematological effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa petals on some haematological parameters. The extract was administered orally in doses of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5mg/kg body weight to normal Wistar rats for 21 days. The results showed that the extract decreased significantly (p ...

  4. Vinegar decreases allergenic response in lentil and egg food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia, A; Dueñas-Laita, A; Pineda, F; Herrero, M; Martín, B

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy results from an atypical response of the mucosal immune system to orally consumed allergens. Antacid medication inhibits the digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy. A decrease of the gastric pH might enhance the function of digestion and reduce the risk of food allergy. To test a possible decrease in the allergenicity of powerful food allergens (egg, chicken, lentils) with the addition of vinegar during the cooking process. We included seven patients who suffered from anaphylaxis due to egg, chicken and lentils. We added vinegar to egg, chicken and lentil processed extracts used for skin prick tests (SPT) and compared the wheal areas obtained with the same extracts sources and the same way but without vinegar addition. Immunodetection was performed with the different processed extracts and patients' sera. Only one patient consented food challenge with vinegar-marinated-chicken. Wheal areas were significantly minor with the food extract with vinegar. Immunodetection showed a decrease of the response with vinegar processed extracts. Vinegar addition during the cooking process may decrease lentil and chicken allergenicity. Copyright 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar; Reducao de processo inflamatorio com aplicacao de laser de arseneto de galio aluminio ({lambda}=830 nm) em pos-operatorio de exodontia de terceiros molares inferiores inclusos ou semi-inclusos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  6. Inflammatory process decrease by gallium-aluminium-arsenide (GaAlAs) low intensity laser irradiation on postoperative extraction of impacted lower third molar; Reducao de processo inflamatorio com aplicacao de laser de arseneto de galio aluminio ({lambda}=830 nm) em pos-operatorio de exodontia de terceiros molares inferiores inclusos ou semi-inclusos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atihe, Mauricio Martins

    2002-07-01

    This study aimed the observation of inflammatory process decrease by the use of GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm; 40 mW) irradiation. Five patients were selected and submitted to surgery of impacted lower third molars, both right and left sides at different occasions. On a first stage, a tooth of a random chosen side - right or left - was extracted by conventional surgery, without LILT. The inflammatory process was measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was then called 'control side'. After 21 days, period in which the inflammatory process of the first surgery was terminated, the other side surgery took place, this time using LILT (4 J at four spots) at postoperative, first and third days. As the previous surgery, the inflammatory process was also measured at postoperative on the first, third and seventh days. This side was called 'experimental or lased side'. The inflammatory process was evaluated by measuring its four characteristic signs: swelling, pain, color and temperature. It was clearly observed a decrease for swelling, pain and color on the lased side which presented significant inference and descriptive statistics. It can be concluded that GaAlAs Low Intensity Laser ({lambda}=830 nm) can surely be used as an additional and important anti-inflammatory source on impacted lower third molar surgeries. (author)

  7. Plant extracts in the control of Phytophthora cryptogea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlikowski, L B

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit extract at dose 40 micrograms/cm3 inhibited Phytophtora cryptogea linear growth about 50% and almost completely suppressed zoosporangia formation. Drenching of gerbera plants with the extract at dose 165 micrograms/cm3 reduced population density of the pathogen about 70% and this high efficacy was noted at least one month after application. Treatment of gerberas with grapefruit extract resulted in protection of about 50% of plants against the pathogen. Biological activity of purple coneflower extract was lower than extract from grapefruit. Significant decrease of population density of the pathogen during the first 5 days and increase of gerbera healthy stand was observed, however, in peat treated with that extract.

  8. Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, Annex 5: Preliminary study of some organic nitrogen extracts significant in fuel reprocessing; Prerada isluzenog nuklearnog goriva, Prilog 5: Preliminarna ispitivanja nekih organo-azotnih ekstragenasa od znacaja u preradi goriva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal, I [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za hemiju visoke aktivnosti, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1964-12-15

    Investigations covered two classes of organic compounds: nitro paraffines and trialkilamines. Their extraction properties were investigated separately in the organic solution of inert solvent or in the mixture with other known extracting agents. In the latter (mixture) the objective was to determine the synergy effect in extraction. Extraction experiments were performed on the metal cation traces of U, Pu, and fission products, and {sup 59}Fe from aqueous solutions of HNO{sub 3} and HCL. Summary of the results is presented in this report.

  9. Behavioural studies on the ethanol leaf extract of Grewia carpinifolia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: At the tested doses, the extract significantly increased the time spent on the hanging wire and decreased locomotor ac- tivity at 800 mg/kg. ..... Myelin Deficit in Neonatal Rats. ... manganese on short- term spatial memory and anxiety-.

  10. Toxicological evaluation of methanol leaves extract of Vernonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment with 800mg/kg body weight of methanol leaf extract significantly decreased body .... active ingredient (Dichloromethane/DCM) in metha- nol leaf .... formalin over night at room temperature after blood ..... Ehrlich`s tumor cells in mice.

  11. Ultrasound assisted extraction of polyphenols from Punica granatum (Grenada) fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Chanfrau, Jorge Enrique; Lopez Armas, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of bioactive compounds from vegetable materials is a classical operation applied in many industrial processes. Few studies have made reference to processes to obtain extracts from Punica granatum. This fruit is generally consumed as such or as fermented juices. In Cuba, it is known as grenade and numerous studies have shown antiviral, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Maceration process is the main used technology in the preparation of extracts from Punica granatum fruit, being this a long and expensive process. Ultrasound-assisted extractions have been proven to significantly decreased extraction time and increased extraction yields in many vegetable materials. However, few papers report the use of this methodology in the extraction processes of Punica granatum. To evaluate an ultrasound-assisted extraction process to extract polyphenols from Punica granatum fruit

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim...... related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and “helps to decrease swollen legs”. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. Upon EFSA’s request for clarification, the applicant stated that the claimed effect was “helps to decrease...

  13. Extração de matéria orgânica aquática por abaixamento de temperatura: uma metodologia alternativa para manter a identidade da amostra Extraction of aquatic organic matter by temperature decreasing: an alternative methodology to keep the original sample characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana N. H. Martins de Almeida

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work was developed an alternative methodology to separation of aquatic organic matter (AOM present in natural river waters. The process is based in temperature decreasing of the aqueous sample under controlled conditions that provoke the freezing of the sample and separation of the dark extract, not frozen and rich in organic matter. The results showed that speed of temperature decreasing exerts strongly influence in relative recovery of organic carbon, enrichment and time separation of the organic matter present in water samples. Elemental composition, infrared spectra and thermal analysis results showed that the alternative methodology is less aggressive possible in the attempt of maintaining the integrity of the sample.

  14. Technologies for Decreasing Mining Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgma, Ingo; Väizene, Vivika; Kolats, Margit; Saarnak, Martin

    2013-12-01

    In case of stratified deposits like oil shale deposit in Estonia, mining losses depend on mining technologies. Current research focuses on extraction and separation possibilities of mineral resources. Selective mining, selective crushing and separation tests have been performed, showing possibilities of decreasing mining losses. Rock crushing and screening process simulations were used for optimizing rock fractions. In addition mine backfilling, fine separation, and optimized drilling and blasting have been analyzed. All tested methods show potential and depend on mineral usage. Usage in addition depends on the utilization technology. The questions like stability of the material flow and influences of the quality fluctuations to the final yield are raised.

  15. Short communication Increase in metal extractability after liming of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... decreased in extractability (Statistically significant differences could not be determined for the trial due to the trial not having been designed for the results that were obtained). Similar results were reported in the literature for EDTA metal extraction but the phenomenon was not elaborated upon, except for Cr. The increased ...

  16. Decreasing Relative Risk Premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    relative risk premium in the small implies decreasing relative risk premium in the large, and decreasing relative risk premium everywhere implies risk aversion. We finally show that preferences with decreasing relative risk premium may be equivalently expressed in terms of certain preferences on risky......We consider the risk premium demanded by a decision maker with wealth x in order to be indifferent between obtaining a new level of wealth y1 with certainty, or to participate in a lottery which either results in unchanged present wealth or a level of wealth y2 > y1. We define the relative risk...... premium as the quotient between the risk premium and the increase in wealth y1–x which the decision maker puts on the line by choosing the lottery in place of receiving y1 with certainty. We study preferences such that the relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine...

  17. Pain and chewing sensitivity during fixed orthodontic treatment in extraction and non-extraction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Gulsilay

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in pain perception and chewing sensitivity between extraction and non-extraction patients. Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males, 19 females) were included in this study who were classified as extraction (n=15; 6 males, 9 females) and non-extraction patients (n=15; 7 males, 8 females). The mean age of patients were 15.10±1.83 years in non-extraction group and 15.44±0.75 years in extraction group. The patients were asked to complete the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) questionnaire and they were asked to mark the presence or absence of sensitivity during 7 days after the first arch wire placement. Pain intensity comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Friedman test was used to analyze within-group differences over time. There were no significant differences in pain scores between the groups. Pain levels significantly decreased between day 1 and day 3 in both the groups. No differences were found in the chewing sensitivity between the non-extraction and extraction groups. No difference in the pain perception was observed between the extraction and non-extraction patients during the 7 days after arch wire placement.

  18. PAIN AND CHEWING SENSITIVITY DURING FIXED ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT IN EXTRACTION AND NON-EXTRACTION PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşilay SAYAR

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in pain perception and chewing sensitivity between extraction and non-extraction patients. Subjects and Methods: Thirty orthodontic patients (11 males, 19 females were included in this study who were classified as extraction (n=15; 6 males, 9 females and non-extraction patients (n=15; 7 males, 8 females. The mean age of patients were 15.10±1.83 years in non-extraction group and 15.44±0.75 years in extraction group. The patients were asked to complete the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS questionnaire and they were asked to mark the presence or absence of sensitivity during 7 days after the first arch wire placement. Pain intensity comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test. The Friedman test was used to analyze within-group differences over time. Results: There were no significant differences in pain scores between the groups. Pain levels significantly decreased between day 1 and day 3 in both the groups. No differences were found in the chewing sensitivity between the non-extraction and extraction groups. Conclusion: No difference in the pain perception was observed between the extraction and non-extraction patients during the 7 days after arch wire placement.

  19. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  20. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  2. Decreasing relative risk premium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    such that the corresponding relative risk premium is a decreasing function of present wealth, and we determine the set of associated utility functions. We find a new characterization of risk vulnerability and determine a large set of utility functions, closed under summation and composition, which are both risk vulnerable...

  3. Decreasing asthma morbidity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1994-12-12

    Dec 12, 1994 ... Apart from the optimal use of drugs, various supplementary methods have been tested to decrease asthma morbidity, usually in patients from reiatively affluent socio-economic backgrounds. A study of additional measures taken in a group of moderate to severe adult asthmatics from very poor socio- ...

  4. Nephroprotective effects of Feijoa Sellowiana leaves extract on renal injury induced by acute dose of ecstasy (MDMA in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-01-01

    : Both extracts at 40 mg/kg resulted in a significant reversal in the raised serum creatinine levels (P 0.05. A decrease in urea/ creatinine ratio was observed following aqueous extract treatment. Methanolic extract showed higher activity in increasing kidney glutathione (P

  5. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  6. The influence of achyrocline satureioides ("Marcela" extract on the lipid oxidation of salami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two levels (0.5 and 1% of hydroalcoholic extract of Achyrocline satureioides on the safety (TBARS values and quality (pH, water activity, colour, weight loss, and sensorial attributes of salami was evaluated. The addition of Achyrocline satureioides extract decreased TBARS values significantly during the storage of salami when compared to the control, which was elaborated without Achyrocline satureioides extract. The treatment with 1% of "Marcela" extract showed larger lipid stability than that of the lot with 0.5%, However, it presented a decrease (p < 0.05 in the sensorial acceptance. The two levels of "Marcela" extract did not influence pH, water activity, colour, and weight loss significantly. This study indicates that the hydroalcoholic extract of "Marcela" was effective in decreasing the lipid oxidation and at 0.5% it did not alter the sensorial features; therefore, it may be used in salami to provide safer products for the consumers.

  7. KEAMANAN CITRA DENGAN WATERMARKING MENGGUNAKAN PENGEMBANGAN ALGORITMA LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image security is a process to save digital. One method of securing image digital is watermarking using Least Significant Bit algorithm. Main concept of image security using LSB algorithm is to replace bit value of image at specific location so that created pattern. The pattern result of replacing the bit value of image is called by watermark. Giving watermark at image digital using LSB algorithm has simple concept so that the information which is embedded will lost easily when attacked such as noise attack or compression. So need modification like development of LSB algorithm. This is done to decrease distortion of watermark information against those attacks. In this research is divided by 6 process which are color extraction of cover image, busy area search, watermark embed, count the accuracy of watermark embed, watermark extraction, and count the accuracy of watermark extraction. Color extraction of cover image is process to get blue color component from cover image. Watermark information will embed at busy area by search the area which has the greatest number of unsure from cover image. Then watermark image is embedded into cover image so that produce watermarked image using some development of LSB algorithm and search the accuracy by count the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio value. Before the watermarked image is extracted, need to test by giving noise and doing compression into jpg format. The accuracy of extraction result is searched by count the Bit Error Rate value.

  8. Effect of soil contaminant extraction method in determining toxicity using the Microtox(reg.) assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkey, G.A.; Young, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    This project examined the influence of different extraction methods on the measured toxicity of contaminated soils collected from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites differing in soil composition and contaminant concentration. Aged soils from a number of MGP sites were extracted using a saline solution, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was assessed using two forms of Microtox tests: acute aqueous tests on saline and SFE soil extracts and solid-phase tests (SPTs) on soil particles. Microtox SPTs were performed on soils before and after SFE to determine resulting toxicity reduction. Three hypotheses were tested: (1) Toxicity of soil extracts is related to contaminant concentrations of the extracts, (2) measured toxicity significantly decreases with less vigorous methods of extraction, and (3) supercritical fluid extractability correlates with measured toxicity. The EC50s for SPTs performed before and after SFE were not different for some soils but were significantly greater after extraction for other soils tested. The most significant toxicity reductions were observed for soils exhibiting the highest toxicity in both preextraction SPTs and acute aqueous tests. Acute Microtox tests performed on SFE extracts showed significantly lower EC50s than those reported from saline-based extraction procedures. Toxicity of the soils measured by Microtox SPTs was strongly correlated with both SFE efficiency and measures of contaminant aging. Data from this project provide evidence of sequestration and reduced availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils extracted via physiologically based procedures compared to vigorous physical extraction protocols

  9. Producing ashless coal extracts by microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgur Sonmez; Elife Sultan Giray [Mersin University, Mersin (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

    2011-06-15

    To produce ashless coal extracts, three Turkish coals were extracted with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP), NMP/ethylenediamine (EDA) (17/1, vol/vol) mixture and NMP/tetralin (9/1, vol/vol) mixture through thermal extraction and microwave extraction. Solvent extraction by microwave irradiation (MI) was found to be more effective than that by thermal extraction. Extraction yield of coals in NMP enhanced by addition of a little EDA, but tetralin addition showed variances according to extraction method used. While tetralin addition caused a decrease in the thermal extraction yield, it increased the yield of the extraction by MI. Following the extraction, the solid extracts were produced with ash content ranging from 0.11% to 1.1%. Ash content of solid extract obtained from microwave extraction are less than ash contents of solid extracts obtained from thermal extraction. 34 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  11. Effect of Alcohol Extract of Zataria multiflora (Boiss), Satureja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    percent and decrease in heterophils percent that indicates positive effect the on enhancement of body immune system by Satureja bachtiarica. In present study Satureja bachtiarica extract did not show a significant increase in IgM compared to control group. Satureja bachtiarica showed a significant increase in neutrophils ...

  12. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  13. Stability of extraction space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Bressane, Larissa Borges; Janson, Guilherme; Gribel, Bruno Frazão

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and long-term behavior of extraction space reopening in patients with Class I malocclusion and to identify some associated factors. A sample of 43 patients met the inclusion criteria. Dental casts at the onset of treatment, after treatment, and 1 and 5 years after debonding were used. Initial and final cephalometric radiographs were used to measure the amount of incisor retraction. Cochran tests were used to compare the numbers of open and closed extraction spaces after treatment and at 1 and 5 years after debonding (P space reopening with t tests. Of the sample, 30.23% had extraction space reopening. The frequency of open spaces significantly increased between the final and the 1-year posttreatment dental casts and decreased between the casts at 1 and 5 years posttreatment. Patients with space reopening had less initial anterior crowding and greater amounts of mandibular incisor retraction during treatment. There was a high prevalence of space reopening 1 year after treatment. However, these spaces tended to decrease by 5 years after treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Some plant extracts retarde nitrification in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul–Mehdi S. AL-ANSARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extracts of 17 plant materials on nitrification inhibition of urea- N in soil as compared with chemical inhibitor Dicyandiamide (DCD. Plant materials used in study were collected from different areas of Basrah province, south of Iraq. Aqueous extracts were prepared at ratio of 1:10 (plant material: water and added at conc. of 0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 ml g– 1 soil to loamy sand soil. DCD was added to soil at rate of 50 µg g-1 soil . Soil received urea at rate of 1000 µg N g-1 soil. Treated soils were incubated at 30 OC for 40 days. Results showed that application of all plant extracts, except those of casuarina, date palm and eucalyptus to soil retarded nitrification in soil. Caper, Sowthistle ,bladygrass and pomegranate extracts showed highest inhibition percentage (51, 42, 40 and 40 %, respectively and were found to be more effective than DCD (33 %. Highest inhibition was achieved by using those extracts at conc. of 0.1 ml g-1 soil after 10 days of incubation . Data also revealed that treated soil with these plant extracts significantly increased amount of NH4+–N and decreased amount of NO3-–N accumulation in soil compared with DCD and control treatments. Results of the study suggested a possibility of using aqueous extracts of some studied plants as potent nitrification inhibitor in soil.

  15. PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN POSTHARVEST CONSERVATION BANANA ' PRATA'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLÁVIA REGINA PASSOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present work were evaluated the effects of propolis coatings of various botanical sources on quality traits of bananas cv. Prata (Musa sapientum L. stored at room temperature. ´Prata´ bananas were selected and submitted to five postharvest treatments: four coatings applied by immersion in propolis extracts at a concentration of 2.5% (w/v and a control (without coating. Propolis extracts were applied as 1 a wild type aqueous propolis extract, 2 a wild type hydroalcoholic propolis extract, 3 a rosemary green type hydroalcoholic propolis extract and 4 a red type hydroalcoholic propolis extract. The bananas were evaluated at three-day intervals along 12 days for fresh weight losses, flesh firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, the ratio SS/TA and pH. Sensory analyses were performed after three and six days of storage by 55 not trained panelists designed for acceptability. At the end of the twelve-day storage period, bananas coated either with the rosemary green hydroalcoholic extract or with the aqueous extract presented lower fresh weight losses in comparison to the bananas of the control treatment. No differences were determined in relation to flesh firmness and along the storage period TA values decreased and pH values increased in bananas of all treatments. SS contents increased towards the end of the storage period that, consequently, contributed to increases in the SS/TA ratio. The most significant increase in SS/TA ratio was determined in bananas coated with the red type hydroalcoholic extract. Taste panelists did not detect significant differences amongst coated and not coated cv. Prata bananas up to six days of storage.

  16. Accelerating sample preparation through enzyme-assisted microfiltration of Salmonella in chicken extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microfiltration of chicken extracts has the potential to significantly decrease the time required to detect Salmonella, as long as the extract can be efficiently filtered and the pathogenic microorganisms kept in a viable state during this process. We present conditions that enable microfiltration ...

  17. Safety evaluation of the extract from the shoots of Arctotis arctotoides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-17

    Sep 17, 2008 ... Oral treatments with this extract at 500, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg did ... The extract caused a significant decrease in the levels of some liver enzymes, blood urea nitrogen ... into the chemical composition of the volatile oil from A.

  18. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  19. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Chemical extraction to assess the bioavailability of chlorobenzenes in soil with different aging periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yang; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Liu, Cuiying; Jin, Xin; Jiang, Xin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing (China). State Key Lab. of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture; Kengara, Fredrick Orori [Maseno Univ. (Kenya). Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-12-15

    Bioavailability is mainly influenced by aging and desorption of contaminants in soil. The purpose of this study was to investigate the desorption kinetics of chlorobenzenes (CBs) in soil and to investigate whether chemical extractions are suitable for the bioavailability assessment of CBs in soil. A soil spiked with CBs and aged for different periods was extracted with Tenax, hydroxypropyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (HPCD), and butanol to assess the bioavailability of CBs in soil, respectively. Earthworm (Eisenia foetida) accumulation was used as bioassay in parallel experiments to evaluate the chemical extractions. The results showed that desorption of CBs from soil with consecutive Tenax extraction fitted into triphasic kinetics model. Different chemical methods extracted different amounts of CBs over different aging periods. For hexachlorobenzene (HCB), the extraction efficiency was in the order of butanol > Tenax-6h > HPCD extraction, while the order of butanol > HPCD > Tenax-6h extraction for pentachlorobenzene (PeCB). The bioaccumulation by earthworm decreased with increasing aging period and was significantly higher for HCB than for PeCB (p < 0.05). Earthworm accumulated CBs correlated well with all the three chemical extracted CBs. However, HPCD extraction showed the converse extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs. Chemical extraction could be used to assess the bioavailability of contaminants in soil; however, they were method and compound specific. Tenax and butanol extractions were more reliable than HPCD extraction for bioavailability assessment of the tested CBs and the soil used since they showed the consistent extraction tendency with earthworm uptake of CBs.

  1. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  2. Effects of Puerariae Radix extract on the activity of antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Eun

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidative effects of Puerariae Radix extract. Method : Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, Total antioxidant response (TAR, Total phenolic content, Reactive oxygen species (ROS, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activities, lipid peroxidation were examined. Result : Total antioxidant status was examined by total antioxidant capacity(TAC and total antioxidant response(TAR against potent free radical reactions. TAC and TAR of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5 mg/㎖ were 2.02 and 1.50 mM Trolox equivalents, respectively. Total phenolic content of Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 5mg/㎖ was 2.29 mM gallic acid equivalent. Concentration of Puerariae Radix extract at which DPPH radical scavenging activity was inhibited by 50% was 5.91 mg/㎖ as compared to 100% by pyrogallol solution as a reference. The inhibitory effect of the extract on lipid peroxidation was examined using rat liver mitochondria induced by FeSO4/ascorbic acid. Puerariae Radix extract at the concentration of 1 mg/㎖ slightly but significantly decreased TBARS concentration. The extract further prevented lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of Puerariae Radix extract on reactive oxygen species (ROS generation was examined using cell-free system induced by hydrogen peroxide/FeSO4. Addition of 1 mg/㎖ of Puerariae Radix extract significantly reduced dichloroflurescein (DCF fluorescence. The extract caused concentration-dependent attenuation of the increase in DCF fluorescence, indicating that the extract significantly prevented ROS generation in vitro. Thus antioxidant effects of Puerariae Radix extract seem to be due to, at least in part, the prevention from free radicals-induced oxidation, followed by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Conclusion : As a result, Puerariae Radix seems to have antioxitative effect and antioxidant compount.

  3. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract and non polysaccharide fraction of Cynodon dactylon Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarald, E E; Joshi, S B; Jain, D C

    2008-09-01

    Petroleum ether (60 degrees-80 degrees C), chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous and crude hot water extracts of the whole plant of C. dactylon and the two fractions of aqueous extract were tested for antihyperglycaemic activity in glucose overloaded hyperglycemic rats and in alloxan induced diabetic model at two-dose levels, 200 and 400 mg/kg (po) respectively. The aqueous extract of C. dactylon and the non polysaccharide fraction of aqueous extract were found to exhibit significant antihyperglycaemic activity and only the non polysaccharide fraction was found to produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with aqueous extract and non polysaccharide fraction of the plant decreased the elevated biochemical parameters, glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, haemoglobin and glycosylated haemoglobin significantly. Comparatively, the non polysaccharide fraction of aqueous extract was found to be more effective than the aqueous extract.

  4. administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Azadirachta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-05

    Sep 5, 2011 ... This study evaluated the effect of co-administration of extracts of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) and. Azadirachta indica Linn.(AI) on haemapoietic and immunological indices of normal and diabetic rats. White blood cells which were non-significantly decreased (p>0.05) in diabetic control rats relative to the.

  5. Some behavioural studies on methanol root bark extract of Burkea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research was conducted to evaluate some central nervous system properties of the root bark methanol extractof B. africana in mice. It involved the following animal models: diazepam-induced sleep, hole-board and walking beam assay. Results: The methanol extract showed a significant decrease in the onset of sleep ...

  6. Effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper ( Aframomum malegueta )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... concentration 7days post intervention; and a significant decrease in Cl− concentration 14 days post-intervention. Our findings suggest that intraperitoneally injected aqueous extract of alligator pepper induces reversible changes in serum electrolytes. Key words: Alligator pepper, Electrolytes, Homeostasis, Renal function ...

  7. Impact of 50% ethanolic extract of Calendula officinalis (flower) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral administration to male rats of 200mg kg-1 body weight of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers every day for 60 days did not cause loss of body weight, but decreased significantly the weight of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced ...

  8. Evaluation of the chelating effect of methanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The group administered with the methanol extract showed significant difference in the levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to the negative control group. Lead concentration in treatment groups showed a decrease compared to the positive control. Histological evaluation of tissue showed less damage in groups ...

  9. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  10. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  12. Price of forest chips decreasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, P.

    2001-01-01

    Use of forest chips was studied in 1999 in the national Puuenergia (Wood Energy) research program. Wood combusting heating plants were questioned about are the main reasons restricting the increment of the use of forest chips. Heating plants, which did not use forest chips at all or which used less than 250 m 3 (625 bulk- m 3 ) in 1999 were excluded. The main restrictions for additional use of forest chips were: too high price of forest chips; lack of suppliers and/or uncertainty of deliveries; technical problems of reception and processing of forest chips; insufficiency of boiler output especially in winter; and unsatisfactory quality of chips. The price of forest chips becomes relatively high because wood biomass used for production of forest chips has to be collected from wide area. Heavy equipment has to be used even though small fragments of wood are processed, which increases the price of chips. It is essential for forest chips that the costs can be pressed down because competition with fossil fuels, peat and industrial wood residues is hard. Low market price leads to the situation in which forest owner gets no price of the raw material, the entrepreneurs operate at the limit of profitability and renovation of machinery is difficult, and forest chips suppliers have to sell the chips at prime costs. Price of forest chips has decreased significantly during the past decade. Nominal price of forest chips is now lower than two decades ago. The real price of chips has decreased even more than the nominal price, 35% during the past decade and 20% during the last five years. Chips, made of small diameter wood, are expensive because the price includes the felling costs and harvesting is carried out at thinning lots. Price is especially high if chips are made of delimbed small diameter wood due to increased the work and reduced amount of chips. The price of logging residue chips is most profitable because cutting does not cause additional costs. Recovery of chips is

  13. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangarpour, Akram; Mohammadian, Maryam; Dianat, Mahin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI), serum triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), alanin trasaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined. Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP. Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome. PMID:23115450

  14. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  15. Antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekesi, Gabriella; Dobos, Ildiko; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2003-11-01

    The extract of Sempervivum tectorum L. (Crassulaceae) containing several flavonoids is widely used as an antiinflammatory agent in folk medicine. Previous studies have demonstrated that various flavonoids or flavonoid-containing plant extracts produce significant antinociception, but no data are available concerning their antinociceptive effect especially at the spinal level. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. extract on acute and inflammatory pain sensitivity in awake rats. The pain sensitivity was assessed by the acute tail- flick test in intact rats and by the paw withdrawal test after carrageenan-induced inflammation using heat stimulus. The plant extract was administered intraperitoneally and intrathecally in rats. The intraperitoneal injection of a high dose of the extract (1000 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the paw withdrawal latency of the inflamed paw. The intrathecal administration (30-300 micro g) caused a small, but significant increase (10%-15%) in tail- flick latency. In the carrageenan-induced inflammatory model, the intrathecally applied extract (30-1000 micro g) significantly decreased, but did not relieve the thermal hyperalgesia. The results suggest that the spinal cord does not seem to play an important role in the antinociceptive effects of this plant extract. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. IMMUNO-MODULATORY PROPERTIES OF PREBIOTICS EXTRACTED FROM vernonia amygdalina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ezeonu; Ae, Asuquo; Bn, Ukwah; Po, Ukoha

    2016-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina , commonly called bitter-leaf, is widely consumed in many parts of Africa, and Nigeria, in particular. The leaf extract has been reported to have antimicrobial, anti-plasmodial, anti-helminthic, as well as prebiotic properties, but its immuno-modulatory effects have not been well-studied, neither have the prebiotics been identified. This study evaluated the immuno-modulatory properties of the aqueous leaf extract and identified the prebiotic components. The immuno-modulatory potential was evaluated by monitoring the effects of oral administration of the extract on immunological, haematological and lipid profiles of Rattus norvegicus , while the prebiotic components were identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC), following liquid-liquid fractionation of the extract. Consumption of the extract caused significant increases in CD4+-, white blood cell-, total lymphocyte- and high density lipid (HDL) counts; decreases in low density lipid (LDL) and triglycerides and no significant effect on haemoglobin (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) in the blood of test animals. The water-soluble fraction of the extract contained most of the phyto-constituents of the extract and Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of the fraction revealed the presence of fructo-oligosaccharide and galacto-oligosaccharide prebiotics. The results from this study have shown that the aqueous leaf extract of V. amygdalina has positive immune-modulatory and haematologic effects and contains some important prebiotic compounds.

  17. Study on the Effect of Asparagus Extracts on Promoting Metabolism of the Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xiaohong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the effective ingredients of asparagus extracts and the changes of vitamins content in mice body after the intake of asparagus extracts, thus to conclude the effect of asparagus extracts on body metabolism during exercises. Extracts were made into different concentrations of solution and given to the mice by intragastric administration. The content of micro-elements and vitamin groups in the mice body before and after the drug administration were detected respectively and biochemical index parameter values before and after swimming were measured respectively. Results showed that, 20 min after the drug administration, the content of blood lactic acid of the mice in the swimming experiment group decreased significantly. Besides, the content of muscle glycogen decreased and correspondingly the content of hepatic glycogen increased significantly (experiment group one and two: p < 0.01; experiment group 3: p < 0.05. Thus the ethanol extract solution of asparagus can effectively improve body metabolism.

  18. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  19. [Evaluation of the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-yang; DU, Sheng-nan; Lv, Zong-kai

    2015-08-01

    To compare the results of high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction in impacted mandibular third molar extraction. From May 2011 to May 2014, 83 patients undergoing impacted mandibular third molar extraction were enrolled into the study and randomly divided into 2 groups: 42 patients in group A (experimental group) and 41 patients in group B (control group). Group B underwent extraction with traditional method and group A underwent high-speed handpiece and minimally invasive extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar. The occurrences of the root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation and lower lip numbness, dry socket, facial swelling and limitation of mouth opening after operation were observed and compared between 2 groups. The operation time, integrity of extraction sockets, VAS pain score and satisfaction from patients were collected and compared. SPSS 19.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. The occurrences of root fracture, gingival laceration, tooth mobility, lingual bone plate fracture, jaw fracture, and dislocation of temporomandibular joint during operation in group A significantly decreased compared with group B (Pextraction sockets, VAS pain scores and satisfaction scores in group A improved significantly compared with group B (Phandpiece and minimally invasive extraction should be widely used in impacted mandibular third molar extraction, due to the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency, minimal trauma, and few perioperative complications.

  20. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  1. Can we replace curation with information extraction software?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    Can we use programs for automated or semi-automated information extraction from scientific texts as practical alternatives to professional curation? I show that error rates of current information extraction programs are too high to replace professional curation today. Furthermore, current IEP programs extract single narrow slivers of information, such as individual protein interactions; they cannot extract the large breadth of information extracted by professional curators for databases such as EcoCyc. They also cannot arbitrate among conflicting statements in the literature as curators can. Therefore, funding agencies should not hobble the curation efforts of existing databases on the assumption that a problem that has stymied Artificial Intelligence researchers for more than 60 years will be solved tomorrow. Semi-automated extraction techniques appear to have significantly more potential based on a review of recent tools that enhance curator productivity. But a full cost-benefit analysis for these tools is lacking. Without such analysis it is possible to expend significant effort developing information-extraction tools that automate small parts of the overall curation workflow without achieving a significant decrease in curation costs.Database URL. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Freeze drying reduces the extractability of organochlorine pesticides in fish muscle tissue by microwave-assisted method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Lin, Nan; Su, Shu; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yuanchen; Yang, Chunli; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Samples of animal origin are usually dried before solvent extraction for analysis of organic contaminants. The freeze drying technique is preferred for hydrophobic organic compounds in practice. In this study, it was shown that the concentration of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) extracted from fish muscle tissue significantly decreased after the samples were freeze dried. And the reason for this reduced extractability seemed to be the resistance of OCPs associated with freeze-dried muscle protein to solvent extraction. The extractability can be recovered by adding water prior to extraction. It suggests that the dietary exposure risk of OCPs from fish might be underestimated if freeze-dried samples are used. - Highlights: • Freeze drying significantly reduces extractability of OCPs in fish muscle sample. • It is the protein that causes the reduction in extractability of OCPs. • The extractability can be recovered by adding water before extraction. - Freeze drying significantly decreases the concentrations of OCPs extracted from fish muscle samples by microwave-assisted method

  3. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  4. Effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft on osteoblast and osteoclast formation in post tooth extraction socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utari Kresnoadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth extraction, a common procedure in dentistry, can cause bone resorption during socket healing. Therefore, it is important to perform socket preservation procedure to maintain alveolar bone. Providing a combination of mangosteen peel extract with demineralized freezed-dried bovine bone xenograft (DFDBBX in tooth extraction socket was expected to accelerate alveol bone formation. Purpose: This study aims to determine the effect of mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX introduced into the socket of post tooth extraction on the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Method: Twenty-eight (28 Cavia cobayas were divided into four groups. Extraction to the lower left incisor of Cavia cobaya was performed. The extraction socket was filled with 25 gram of PEG (group I as a control, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 0.5% (group II, active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 1% (group III, and active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% (group IV. After thirty days, those Cavia cobayas were sacrificed. By using HE on Histopatological examination, the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were measured by light microscope with 400 times of magnification. The statistical analysis was then performed using oneway Anova & TukeyHSD test. Result: The component active materials consisted of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% had the most significant results related to the formation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Conclusion: Mangosteen peel extract combined with DFDBBX can increase osteoblasts and decrease osteoclasts in the socket of tooth extraction in Cavia cobaya. The combination of mangosteen peel extract and DFDBBX 2% is the most effective material in increasing osteoblast and decreasing osteoclast.

  5. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  6. Extraction of gold(I) cyanide by the methyl tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tianxi; Yan Wenfei; Wu Jinguang

    2000-01-01

    The solvent extraction of KAu(CN) 2 from alkaline solution by the tri-n-alkyl ammonium chloride (N263) using 198 Au tracer has been investigated. The effects of various parameters, such as gold (I) concentration in aqueous phase, cosolvent, phase ratio on the extraction of gold (I) are studied. The results demonstrate that almost all of gold (I) in aqueous phase can be extracted into the organic phase. Water concentration decreases significantly with the increase of gold (I) concentration in the organic phase. No water molecule could be involved in the extraction of gold (I)

  7. Optimisation of beryllium-7 gamma analysis following BCR sequential extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Blake, W.H.; Keith-Roach, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Showing decrease in analytical uncertainty using the optimal (combined preconcentrated sample extract) method. nv (no value) where extract activities were 7 Be geochemical behaviour is required to support tracer studies. ► Sequential extraction with natural 7 Be returns high analytical uncertainties. ► Preconcentrating extracts from a large sample mass improved analytical uncertainty. ► This optimised method can be readily employed in studies using low activity samples. - Abstract: The application of cosmogenic 7 Be as a sediment tracer at the catchment-scale requires an understanding of its geochemical associations in soil to underpin the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Sequential extractions offer a readily accessible means of determining the associations of 7 Be with operationally defined soil phases. However, the subdivision of the low activity concentrations of fallout 7 Be in soils into geochemical fractions can introduce high gamma counting uncertainties. Extending analysis time significantly is not always an option for batches of samples, owing to the on-going decay of 7 Be (t 1/2 = 53.3 days). Here, three different methods of preparing and quantifying 7 Be extracted using the optimised BCR three-step scheme have been evaluated and compared with a focus on reducing analytical uncertainties. The optimal method involved carrying out the BCR extraction in triplicate, sub-sampling each set of triplicates for stable Be analysis before combining each set and coprecipitating the 7 Be with metal oxyhydroxides to produce a thin source for gamma analysis. This method was applied to BCR extractions of natural 7 Be in four agricultural soils. The approach gave good counting statistics from a 24 h analysis period (∼10% (2σ) where extract activity >40% of total activity) and generated statistically useful sequential extraction profiles. Total recoveries of 7 Be fell between 84 and 112%. The stable Be data demonstrated that the

  8. Preventive effects of bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Taeko

    2007-01-01

    The effect of bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus extract on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in vivo was investigated. The water-solubilized extracts were obtained from the bee pollen of Cistus ladaniferus. Cistus extract (5.0 or 10.0 mg/100 g body weight) was orally administered once daily for 30 days to OVX rats. The analysis using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) showed that OVX-induced a significant decrease in mineral content, mineral density, and polar strength strain index in the femoral-metaphyseal tissues. These decreases were significantly prevented after the administration of Cistus extract (10.0 mg/100 g). Moreover, OVX-induced a significant decrease in calcium content in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues. This decrease was significantly prevented after the administration of cistus extract (5.0 or 10.0 mg/100 g). This study demonstrates that cistus extract has a preventive effect on OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. (author)

  9. The Effect of Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Min, Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Bangpungtongsung-san extracts on the preadipocytes proliferation, of 3T3-L1 cell line. lipolysis of adipocytes in rat's epididymis and localized fat accumulation of porcine by extraction methods(alcohol and water. Methods : Diminish 3T3-L1 proliferation and lipogenesis do primary role to reduce obesity. So, 3T3-L1 preadipocyte and adipocytes were performed on cell cultures, and using Sprague-Dawley rats for the lipogenesis, and treated with 0.01-1 ㎎/㎖ Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts depend on concentrations. Porcine skin including fat tissue after treated Bangpungtongsung-san Extracts by means of the dosage dependent variation are investigated the histologic changes after injection of these extracts. Results : Following results were obtained from the 3T3-L1 preadipocyte proliferation and lipolysis of adipocyte in rats and histologic investigation of fat tissue. 1. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed the effect of decreased preadipocyte proliferation on the high dosage(1.0㎎/㎖. 2. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed the effect of decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH on the high dosage(1.0㎎/㎖ and Specially, alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung -san was clear as time goes by high concentration. 3. Bangpungtongsung-san extracts were showed tries to compare the effect of lipolysis, alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung-san on the high dosage(1.0㎎/㎖ was observed the effect is higher than water extract. 4. Investigated the histological changes in porcine fat tissue after treated Bangpungtongsung-san extracts, we knew that water extract of Bangpungtongsung-san was showed the effect of lipolysis on the high dosage(10.0㎎/㎖ and alcohol extract of Bangpungtongsung-san was showed significant activity to the lysis of cell membranes in all concentration. Conclusion : These results suggest that Bangpungtongsung-san extracts efficiently

  10. Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia in the Czech Republic – cause of the significant population decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havelka, Jan; Žurovcová, Martina; Rychlý, S.; Starý, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 4 (2014), s. 273-280 ISSN 0931-2048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/1940 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alien aphid species * anholocyclic populations * aphids overwintering mortality Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jen.12068/pdf

  11. Growth phase significantly decreases the DHA-to-EPA ratio in marine microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; Van Mastrigt, Audrey; Van De Bovenkamp, Henk H.; Heeres, Hero J.; Buma, Anita G. J.

    Microalgae are the principal producers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in marine ecosystems. Algae are used in aquaculture systems as direct or indirect feed for zooplankton, filter-feeding mollusks and larval

  12. Tacrolimus interaction with nafcillin resulting in significant decreases in tacrolimus concentrations: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wungwattana, Minkey; Savic, Marizela

    2017-04-01

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is subject to many drug interactions as a result of its metabolism primarily via CYP450 isoenzyme 3A4. Numerous case reports of TAC and CYP3A4 inducers and inhibitors have been described including antimicrobials, calcium channel antagonists, and antiepileptic drugs. We present the case of a 13-year-old patient with cystic fibrosis and a history of liver transplantation, where subtherapeutic TAC concentrations were suspected to be a result of concomitant TAC and nafcillin (NAF) therapy. The observed drug interaction occurred on two separate hospital admissions, during both of which the patient exhibited therapeutic TAC concentrations prior to exposure to NAF, a CYP3A4 inducer. Upon discontinuation of NAF, TAC concentrations recovered in both instances. This case represents a drug-drug interaction between TAC and NAF that has not previously been reported to our knowledge. Despite the lack of existing reports of interaction between these two agents, this case highlights the importance of therapeutic drug monitoring and assessing for any potential drug-drug or drug-food interactions in patients receiving TAC therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Structural characteristics of pumpkin pectin extracted by microwave heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Byeong-Hoo; Lee, Heungsook; Lee, Suyong; Bae, In Young; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Fishman, Marshall L; Chau, Hoa K; Savary, Brett J; Hotchkiss, Arland T

    2012-11-01

    To improve extraction yield of pumpkin pectin, microwave heating was adopted in this study. Using hot acid extraction, pumpkin pectin yield decreased from 5.7% to 1.0% as pH increased from pH 1.0 to 2.0. At pH 2.5, no pectin was recovered from pumpkin flesh powder. After a pretreatment at pH 1.0 and 25 °C for 1 h, pumpkin powder was microwave-extracted at 120 °C for 3 min resulting in 10.5% of pectin yield. However, premicrowave treatment at 60 °C for 20 min did not improve extraction yield. When microwave heating at 80 °C for 10 min was applied after premicrowave treatment, final pectin yield increased to 11.3%. When pH was adjusted to 2.0, the yield dropped to 7.7% under the same extraction conditions. Molecular shape and properties as well as chemical composition of pumpkin pectin were significantly affected depending on extraction methods. Galacturonic acid content (51% to 58%) of pumpkin pectin was lower than that detected in commercial acid-extracted citrus pectin, while higher content of neutral sugars and acetyl esters existed in pumpkin pectin structure. Molecular weight (M(w) ) and intrinsic viscosity (η(w) ) determined for microwave-extracted pumpkin pectins were substantially lower than acid-extracted pectin, whereas polydispersity was greater. However, microwave-extracted pectin at pH 2.0 had more than 5 times greater M(w) than did the pectin extracted at pH 1.0. The η(w) of microwave-extracted pectin produced at pH 2.0 was almost twice that of other microwave-extracted pectins, which were comparable to that of acid-extracted pectin. These results indicate that extraction yield of pumpkin pectin would be improved by microwave extraction and different pectin structure and properties can be obtained compared to acid extraction. Pumpkin is a promising alternative source for pectin material. Pumpkin pectin has a unique chemical structure and physical properties, presumably providing different functional properties compared to conventional commercial

  14. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  15. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  16. Study on microwave assisted process in chemical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer Ali; Rosli Mohd Yunus; Ramlan Abd Aziz

    2001-01-01

    The microwave assisted process is a revolutionary method of extraction that reduces the extraction time to as little as a few seconds, with up to a ten-fold decrease in the use of solvents. The target material is immersed in solvent that is transparent to microwaves, so only the target material is heated, and because of the microwaves tend to heat the inside of the material quickly, the target chemical are expelled in a few seconds. benefits from this process include significant reductions in the amount of energy required and substantial reductions in the cost and dispose of hazardous solvents. A thorough review has been displayed on: using the microwave in extraction, applications of microwave in industry, process flow diagram, mechanism of the process and comparison between microwave process and other extraction techniques (soxhlet, steam distillation and supercritical fluid). This review attempts to summarize the studies about microwave assisted process as a very promising technique. (Author)

  17. Airplane radiation dose decrease during a strong Forbush decrease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Kudela, K.; Dachev, T.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 2, S05001 (2004), s. 1-4 ISSN 1542-7390 Grant - others:EC project(XE) FIGM-CT2000-00068 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1048901 Keywords : airplane dose * Forbush decrease * cosmic rays Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders

  18. Effect of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Uddin Umar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Extensive search is going on for a cheap, easily available and effective remedy of chronic arsenic poisoning. The present study was designed to find the effects of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from arsenic treated rat. Rats were fed arsenic trioxide through Ryle’s tube for one month then they were fed on hexane extract (1-4% of spinach for another one month. Hexane extract of spinach decreased accumulated arsenic from rat liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin significantly. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehye (MDA in the above tissues. Hexane extract decreases both arsenic level and MDA level in rat tissues in dose dependent manner, which is more effective at lower doses.

  19. Effect of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Uddin Umar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Extensive search is going on for a cheap, easily available and effective remedy of chronic arsenic poisoning. The present study was designed to find the effects of hexane extract of spinach in the removal of arsenic from arsenic treated rat. Rats were fed arsenic trioxide through Ryle’s tube for one month then they were fed on hexane extract (1-4% of spinach for another one month. Hexane extract of spinach decreased accumulated arsenic from rat liver, spleen, kidney, intestine, lungs and skin significantly. Besides, it reduced the oxidative stress caused by arsenic which was evident by decreased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA in the above tissues. Hexane extract decreases both arsenic level and MDA level in rat tissues in dose dependent manner, which is more effective at lower doses.

  20. Cerebral hematocrit decreases with hemodynamic compromise in carotid artery occlusion: a PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, H; Fukuyama, H; Nagahama, Y; Katsumi, Y; Okazawa, H

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated whether in patients with internal carotid artery occlusion the regional cerebral hematocrit correlates with cerebral hemodynamics or metabolic state and, if so, how the regional cerebral hematocrit changes in the hemodynamically compromised region. We used positron emission tomography to study seven patients with unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and no cortical infarction in the chronic stage. The distributions of red blood cell and plasma volumes were assessed using oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide and copper-62-labeled human serum albumin-dithiosemicarbazone tracers, respectively. The calculated hematocrit value was compared with the hemodynamic and metabolic parameters measured with the oxygen-15 steady-state technique. In the cerebral cortex, the value of the cerebral hematocrit varied but was correlated with the hemodynamic and metabolic status. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the large vessel hematocrit, the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and the cerebral blood flow or the oxygen extraction fraction accounted for a significant proportion of variance of the cerebral hematocrit. The oxygen extraction fraction and the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen negatively correlated with the cerebral hematocrit, whereas the cerebral blood flow correlated positively: patients with reduced blood supply relative to metabolic demand (decreased blood flow with increased oxygen extraction fraction) showed low hematocrit values. In carotid artery occlusion in the chronic stage, regional cerebral hematocrit may vary according to cerebral hemodynamics and metabolic status. Regional cerebral hematocrit may decrease with hemodynamic compromise unless oxygen metabolism concomitantly decreases.

  1. HYPOTENSIVE AND CARDIOINHIBOTORY EFFECTS OF THE AQUEOUS AND ETHANOL EXTRACTS OF CELERY (APIUM GRAVEOLENS, APIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pavlović

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae investigated on the mean blood pressure of anaesthetized rabbits and contractility of isolated atria of the rats. In our experiments were used rabbits and Wistar albino rats. The effects of extracts (0.5-15 mg/kg on blood pressure were recorded directly from the carotid artery. Rat isolated atria was mounted in 10 ml tissue bath. An equilibrium period of 30 min was given before the application of the extracts (0.02-0.75 mg/ml. In anesthetized rabbit, intravenous administration of aqueous extracts induced least hypotensive effects (14.35±2.94%, while the ethanol extract caused the greatest fall in the blood pressure (45.79±10.86%. Hypotensive effects of the extracts were partially blocked by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, an unselective muscarinic receptor antagonist. In isolated rat atria both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of celery, exhibit a negative chronotropic and an inotropic action. Aqueous extract decreased rate of contractions for 12.88±2.74% and amplitude for 8.73±0.89%. Ethanol extract inhibited rate of the atria contractions for 34.26±5.69%, and amplitude for 25.40±3.61%. Pretreatment of the atria with atropine (1μM partially blocked inhibitory response of aqueous and ethanol extracts. Ethanol extract of celery exhibited significantly greater hypotensive and cardio-depressant activities then aqueous extract (p<0.05. These data suggest that the aqueous and ethanol extracts of celery caused the hypotensive, negative inotropic and chronotropic effects, which could partially be mediated possibly via stimulation of muscarinic receptors. Inhibitory effect of ethanol extract was significant comparing to aqueous extract of celery.

  2. Retention of Polyphenolic Species in Spray-Dried Blackberry Extract Using Mannitol as a Thermoprotectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Joshua A.; Repko, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of these studies was to determine if a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 (Büchi Corporation, New Castle, DE, USA) could be used to prepare blackberry extract powders containing mannitol as a thermoprotectant without extensively degrading anthocyanins and polyphenols in the resulting powders. Three blackberry puree extract samples were each prepared by sonication of puree in 30/70% ethanol/water containing 0.003% HCl. Blackberry puree extract sample 1 (S1) contained no mannitol, while blackberry puree extract sample 2 (S2) contained 3.0:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract, and blackberry puree extract sample 3 (S3) contained 6.3:1 (w/w) mannitol:berry extract. The levels of anthocyanins and polyphenols in reconstituted spray-dried powders produced from S1–S3 were compared to solutions of S1–S3 that were held at 4°C as controls. All extract samples could be spray-dried using the Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290. S1, with no mannitol, showed a 30.8% decrease in anthocyanins and a 24.1% decrease in polyphenols following spray-drying. However, S2 had a reduction in anthocyanins of only 13.8%, while polyphenols were reduced by only 6.1%. S3, with a ratio of mannitol to berry extract of 6.3:1, exhibited a 12.5% decrease in anthocyanins while the decrease in polyphenols after spray-drying was not statistically significant (P=.16). Collectively, these data indicate that a Büchi Mini Spray Dryer B-290 is a suitable platform for producing stable berry extract powders, and that mannitol is a suitable thermoprotectant that facilitates retention of thermosensitive polyphenolic species in berry extracts during spray-drying. PMID:24892214

  3. Antithrombotic Potential of Tormentil Extract in Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Marcinczyk

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Potentilla species that have been investigated so far display pharmacological activity mainly due to the presence of polyphenols. Recently, it was shown that polyphenol-rich extract from rhizome of Potentilla erecta (tormentil extract affects the metabolism of arachidonic acid and exerts both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, suggesting a possible effect on thrombosis. Accordingly, the aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of tormentil extract on haemostasis in a rat model of thrombosis. Lyophilized water-methanol extract from P. erecta rhizome was administrated per os for 14 days in doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg in a volume of 2 mL/kg in a 5% water solution of gummi arabici (VEH. In the in vivo experiment an electrically induced carotid artery thrombosis model with blood flow monitoring was used in Wistar rats. Collected blood samples were analyzed ex vivo functionally and biochemically for changes in haemostasis. Tormentil extract (400 mg/kg significantly decreased thrombus weight and prolonged the time to carotid artery occlusion and bleeding time without changes in the blood pressure. In the ex vivo experiment tormentil extract (400 mg/kg reduced thromboxane production and decreased t-PA activity, while total t-PA concentration, as well as total PAI-1 concentration and PAI-1 activity remained unchanged. Furthermore, tormentil extract (400 mg/kg decreased bradykinin concentration and shortened the time to reach maximal optical density during fibrin generation. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, QUICK index, fibrinogen level, and collagen-induced aggregation remained unchanged. To investigate the involvement of platelets in the antithrombotic effect of tormentil, the extract was administrated per os for 2 days to mice and irreversible platelets activation after ferric chloride induced thrombosis was evaluated under intravital conditions using confocal microscopy system. In this model tormentil

  4. Decrease in TSH Receptor Autoantibodies during Antithyroid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Habekost, Gurli; Bratholm, Palle

    2011-01-01

    that TRAb decrease significantly during treatment with antithyroid drugs. This decrease during treatment cannot be explained by Heg RNA, which remains unchanged. Cdk1 mRNA decreased significantly during treatment to values below values obtained in normal subjects. Thus both Heg RNA and Cdk1 mRNA may...

  5. Distraction decreases prefrontal oxygenation: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiyo; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    When near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is used to measure emotion-related cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the prefrontal cortex regions, the functional distinction of CBF changes is often difficult because NIRS is unable to measure neural activity in deeper brain regions that play major roles in emotional processing. The CBF changes could represent cognitive control of emotion and emotional responses to emotional materials. Supposing that emotion-related CBF changes in the prefrontal cortex regions during distraction are emotional responses, we examined whether oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) decreases. Attention-demanding tasks cause blood flow decreases, and we thus compared the effects of visually paced tapping with different tempos, on distraction. The results showed that the oxyHb level induced by emotional stimulation decreased with fast-tempo tapping significantly more than slow-tempo tapping in ventral medial prefrontal cortex regions. Moreover, a Global-Local task following tapping showed significantly greater local-minus-global response time (RT) difference scores in the fast- and mid-tempo condition compared with those in the slow-tempo, suggesting an increased attentional focus, and decreased negative emotion. The overall findings indicate that oxyHb changes in a relatively long distraction task, as measured by NIRS, are associated with emotional responses, and oxyHb can be decreased by successfully performing attention-demanding distraction tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., in Stored Wheat Grains with Mesquite Plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW, D.C. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. AI-Moajel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mesquite plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. (Family: Mimosaceae, seed extracts against rice weevil. Sitophilus oryzae (L, reared on wheat grains was investigated in the laboratory. The tested plant extracts of P. juliflora in petroleum ether, chloroform, and acetone, effectively controlled adults and their toxicity based on LC95 and LC5O values respectively was in order: acetone (12.0, 5.8ml/kg < pet ether (8.0, 4.1ml/kg chloroform (6.3, 2.2ml/kg. A highly significant oviposition deterency effect (P< 0.05 was found for all extracts at LC50 levels, while at LC95 levels, oviposition was nearly completely inhibited. Thus, progeny emergence was completely suppressed at Legs levels, also at LCSC, of acetone extract. Chlorofonn extract indicated a slow rate of degradation alter one month of storage (90% mortality. All tested plant extracts reduced weight loss in wheat grains after 45 days of storage, but chloroform extract was the most effective. Most treatments did not significantly affect water absorption but viability was significantly reduced. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts caused a significant inhibition effect on acetyl choline esterase (AchE in adults while acetone extract caused a significant activation effect. All three different extracts, caused a significant activation effect on phosphases (AcP and AlkP, except for chloroform and acetone extract treatments which caused significant inhibition of AcP in adults. All extracts caused a significant decrease in protein and carbohydrate contents of adults, except the carbohydrate content of adults treated with acetone extract. There was a significant increase in lipid content in adults treated with all three extracts and significant increase of carbohydrate content only in adults treated with acetone extract.

  7. [Why is bread consumption decreasing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, M F; Chabert, C; Serville, Y

    1977-01-01

    In France bread plays a very special and ambivalent role among our foodstuffs because of the considerable drop in its consumption, its alleged harmful effects on our health and the respect in which it is traditionally held. More than half the 1 089 adults interviewed in this study say they have decreased their consumption of bread in the last 10 years. The reasons given vary according to age, body weight and urbanization level. The main reasons given for this restriction are the desire to prevent or reduce obesity, the decrease in physical activity, the general reduction in food consumption and the possibility of diversifying foods even further. Moreover, the decreasing appeal of bread in relation to other foods, as well as a modification in the structure of meals, in which bread becomes less useful to accompany other food, accentuate this loss of attraction. However, the respect for bread as part of the staple diet remains very acute as 95 p. 100 of those interviewed express a reluctance to throw bread away, more for cultural than economic reasons. Mechanization and urbanization having brought about a decrease in energy needs, the most common alimentary adaptation is general caloric restriction by which glucids, and especially bread, are curtailed.

  8. Citrullus lanatus `Sentinel' (Watermelon) Extract Reduces Atherosclerosis in LDL Receptor Deficient Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L.; Saha, Shubin K.; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar `sentinel', on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male LDL receptor deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus `sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water, while fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake, and urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus `sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate/low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of MCP-1 and IFN-γ were decreased and IL-10 increased in mice consuming C. lanatus `sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus `sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. PMID:22902326

  9. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values (psausages (pSausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values (psausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d. PMID:28316478

  10. Anti-Fatigue Effects of Fermented Rhodiola rosea Extract in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Zhou; Hong, Hee-Do; Kim, Kyung-Im; Choi, Sang Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Rhodiola rosea is a perennial plant which grows in the alpine regions of Europe and Asia. Although the protective effects of R. rosea extract from fatigue due to exercise stress have been reported, studies on fermented R. rosea extract remain insufficient to date. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the protective effects of fermented R. rosea extract against fatigue and exercise stress. As a result, fermented R. rosea extract was found to significantly increase swimming time, hepatic superoxide dismutase content, and serum lactate dehydrogenase in mice, while decreasing serum blood urea nitrogen content compared to R. rosea extract. Given the above results, it is considered that fermented R. rosea extract effectively protects against fatigue caused by strenuous exercise. PMID:25866748

  11. Beneficial effects of Psidium guajava leaf extract on diabetic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soman, Sowmya; Rajamanickam, Chellam; Rauf, Arun A; Indira, Madambath

    2013-01-01

    Non enzymatic glycosylation (glycation) between reducing sugar and protein results in the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which is believed to play an important role in diabetes associated cardiovascular complications. Thus agents that inhibit the formation of AGEs are believed to have therapeutic potential against diabetic complications. In the present study we evaluated the antiglycative potential of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaves (PGEt) by administering the extract into streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Daily administration of the extract for a period of one month significantly decreased the blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine levels in a dose dependent manner. Evaluation of the toxicity markers like SGOT and SGPT revealed the non toxic nature of the extract. Apart from this we evaluated the presence of cardiac isoform of liver alpha 2 macroglobulin, which is a major protein associated with earlier stages of cardiac hypertrophy. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the level of this protein decreased significantly in extract treated groups compared to diabetic control. These findings support that the administration of PGEt extract may be beneficial for preventing cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ette Okon Ettebong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the anticonvulsant potentials of ethanolic extract of Eleusine indica. Methods: Albino Wistar mice were separated into five groups with six animals in each group and thereafter pretreated with distilled water, various doses of the extract (200–600 mg/kg and standard drug diazepam (0.5 mg/kg. Thirty minutes later, pentylenetetrazole (70 mg/kg, aminophylline (280 mg/kg and isoniazid (250 mg/kg were used to induce convulsions by intraperitoneal administration. These mice were then placed in plexiglas cages and monitored for the occurrence of seizures over a thirty-minute time period. The latency of convulsions, duration of tonic convulsions and mortality protection were recorded. Data obtained were analyzed using GraphPad InStat 3.10. Results: The results showed that the extract exhibited a dose-dependent increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions as compared to the control and these effects were statistically significant (P < 0.001. The extract also provided protection against the mortality which was similar to that produced by the standard drug diazepam. Conclusions: The significant increase in the latency of clonic convulsions and decrease in duration of tonic convulsions caused by the extract show anticonvulsant activity and corroborate with the claims of the traditional use of the plant as an anticonvulsant remedy.

  13. Accelerated Solvent Extraction: An Innovative Sample Extraction Technique for Natural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Azfar Hanif Abd Aziz; Rosniza Razali

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is one of the novel techniques that have been developed for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield and enhance the quality of extracts. This technique combines elevated temperatures and pressure with liquid solvents. This paper gives a brief overview of accelerated solvent extraction technique for sample preparation and its application to the extraction of natural products. Through practical examples, the effects of operational parameters such as temperature, volume of solvent used, extraction time and extraction yields on the performance of ASE are discussed. It is demonstrated that ASE technique allows reduced solvent consumption and shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields are even higher than those obtained with conventional methods. (author)

  14. Chemical composition of mate tea leaves (Ilex paraguariensis): a study of extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis Jacques, Rosângela; dos Santos Freitas, Lisiane; Flores Peres, Valéria; Dariva, Cláudio; de Oliveira, José Vladimir; Bastos Caramão, Elina

    2006-12-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the extraction of Ilex paraguariensis leaves by means of three extraction techniques: pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, also called accelerated solvent extraction--ASE), maceration, and sonication. Samples of mate tea leaves were collected from an experiment conducted under agronomic control at Indfistria e Comércio de Erva-Mate Barão LTDA, Brazil. Six solvents with increasing polarities (n-hexane, toluene, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol) were used in this investigation. Chemical analysis of the extracts was performed by GC coupled with a mass spectrometer detector. The identification and quantification were accomplished by coinjections of certified standards. The results showed that no significant differences in the qualities of the extracts were noticed regarding the extraction methods. On the other hand, the PLE technique was found to be more effective for the extractions of caffeine, phytol, palmitic, and stearic acid. The use of PLE led to a significant decrease in the total extraction time, amount of solvent consumption, and manipulation of samples compared to maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction methods.

  15. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  16. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  17. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  18. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  19. Selectivity in extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zivkovic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Simultaneous extraction of copper and indium with chelate extractants (LIX84 and D2E11PA) was described. Stechiometry of metal-organic complexes examined using the method of equimolar ratios resulted in CuR 2 and InR 3 forms of hydrophobic extracting species. A linear correlation was obtained between logarithm of distribution coefficients and chelate agents and pH, respectively. Selectivity is generally higher with higher concentrations of chelate agents in the organic phase, and is decreased with increase of concentration of hydrogen ions in feeding phase. (Original)

  20. Grape (Vitis vinifera) extracts protects against radiation-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocyte (RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Subhashis

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) causes oxidative stress through the overwhelming generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the living cells leading further to the oxidative damage to biomolecules. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) contain several bioactive phytochemicals and are the richest source of antioxidant. In this study, we investigated the radioprotective actions of the grape extracts of two different cultivars, including the Thompson seedless (green) and Kishmish chorni (black) in human erythrocytes. Pretreatment with grape extracts attenuates oxidative stress induced by 4 Gy-radiation in human erythrocytes in vitro. These results suggest that grape extract serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants against the IR-induced oxidative stress and also inhibit apoptosis. Furthermore, the protective action of grape depends on the source of extract (seed, skin or pulp) and type of the cultivars. Effects of grape extracts of different cultivars on protein content, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activities of Catalase, Nitrite, GST, GR in human erythrocytes against -radiation exposure at a dose of 4 Gy are investigated. The grape extracts did not appear to alter the viability of human erythrocytes. Exposure of erythrocytes to the -irradiation at a dose of 4 Gy significantly increased the extent of formation of TBARS, while decreased the level of GSH and activities of CAT, GSSG , GST, GR in the erythrocytes as compared to the non-irradiated control counterparts. This was significantly attenuated by the pretreatment with the grape seed extracts (p<0.001) and significantly with the skin extracts (p<0.05) compared to the ionizing radiation exposed group. Moreover, protection offered by the seed extracts was found significantly better than that was offered by the pulp extract of the same cultivar. In conclusion, our results suggested that the grape extracts significantly attenuated IR induced oxidative stress and

  1. Effects of garlic extract on color, lipid oxidation and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XINZHUANG ZHANG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate the effects of garlic extracts on color, lipid oxidation, and oxidative breakdown products in raw ground beef during refrigerated storage. The two treatments were:control group (C, with no addition and experiment group (D, 50 mg garlic extracts added to 100 g beef. Adding garlic extracts significant increased a* value (PA ≤ 0.05, and significant decreased TBARS and PV values (PA ≤ 0.05. The pH and –SH value of D group had a decreasing tendency (PA=0.0522 and an increasing tendency (PA=0.0636 respectively compared to C group. Garlic extracts protected phospholipids, fatty acids and polypeptides from oxidation. The results indicatethat garlic extracts have the antioxidant activity, helping maintain the meat color, inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein degradation of raw ground beef during refrigerated storage.

  2. Antidepressant-Like Effects of Lindera obtusiloba Extracts on the Immobility Behavior of Rats in the Forced Swim Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wook Lim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lindera obtusiloba extracts are commonly used as an alternative medicine due to its numerous health benefits in Korea. However, the antidepressant-like effects of L. obtusiloba extracts have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether L. obtusiloba extracts exhibited antidepressant-like activity in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST-induced depression. Acute treatment of rats with L. obtusiloba extracts (200 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reduced immobility time and increased swimming time without any significant change in climbing. Rats treated with L. obtusiloba extracts also exhibited a decrease in the limbic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis response to the FST, as indicated by attenuation of the corticosterone response and decreased c-Fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampus CA3 region. In addition, L. obtusiloba extracts, at concentrations that were not affected by cell viability, significantly decreased luciferase activity in response to cortisol in a concentration-dependent manner by the glucocorticoid binding assay in HeLa cells. Our findings suggested that the antidepressant-like effects of L. obtusiloba extracts were likely mediated via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of L. obtusiloba extracts as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  3. Antigenotoxic Activity of Polyphenolic Rich Extracts from Aegle marmelos (L. Correa in Human Blood Lymphocytes and E.coli PQ 37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjit Kaur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the antigenotoxic activity of Aegle marmelos fruit extracts employing short term assays i.e. the SOS chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Comet assay in peripheral human blood lymphocytes. Methanol extract and Acetone extract were quite effective in decreasing the SOS response induced by hydrogen peroxide and aflatoxin B1 in the SOS chromotest. Methanol extract inhibited the genotoxicity of H 2O 2 by 70.48% and that of AFB1 by 84.65%. The extracts showed significant decrease in the tail moment induced by hydrogen peroxide (9 m M in the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE assay. The antigenotoxic activity exhibited by the extracts may be attributed the various polyphenolic constituents present in these extracts.

  4. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  5. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  6. Magical thinking decreases across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brashier, Nadia M; Multhaup, Kristi S

    2017-12-01

    Magical thinking, or illogical causal reasoning such as superstitions, decreases across childhood, but almost no data speak to whether this developmental trajectory continues across the life span. In four experiments, magical thinking decreased across adulthood. This pattern replicated across two judgment domains and could not be explained by age-related differences in tolerance of ambiguity, domain-specific knowledge, or search for meaning. These data complement and extend findings that experience, accumulated over decades, guides older adults' judgments so that they match, or even exceed, young adults' performance. They also counter participants' expectations, and cultural sayings (e.g., "old wives' tales"), that suggest that older adults are especially superstitious. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  8. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  9. Anticonvulsant activity of Aloe vera leaf extract in acute and chronic models of epilepsy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, Naveen; Arora, Tarun; Manocha, Sachin; Patil, Amol N; Mediratta, Pramod K; Sharma, Krishna K

    2014-03-01

    The effect of Aloe vera in epilepsy has not yet been explored. This study was done to explore the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf powder on three acute and one chronic model of epilepsy. In acute study, aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder was administered in doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. Dose of 400 mg/kg of Aloe vera leaf extract was chosen for chronic administration. Oxidative stress parameters viz. malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were also estimated in brain of kindled animals. In acute study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder in a dose-dependent manner significantly decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension in maximal electroshock seizure model, increased seizure threshold current in increasing current electroshock seizure model, and increased latency to onset and decreased duration of clonic convulsion in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) model as compared with control group. In chronic study, Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder prevented progression of kindling in PTZ-kindled mice. Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder 400 mg/kg p.o. also reduced brain levels of MDA and increased GSH levels as compared to the PTZ-kindled non-treated group. The results of study showed that Aloe vera leaf (extract) powder possessed significant anticonvulsant and anti-oxidant activity. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  10. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  11. Turbo-extraction of glycosides from Stevia rebaudiana using a fractional factorial design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula M. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, leaf extract has recently called the attention of food industry as a proposal for natural sweetener. The sweet flavor is attributed to the glycosides, in especial stevioside and rebaudioside A, which are the plant main chemical markers. The aim of the work reported here was to optimize the turbo-extraction of stevia leaves using water, ethanol 70% and 90% (w/w as green solvents. A 25-2 factorial design was applied to study the linear effects of the drug size, solvent to drug ratio, temperature, time and also the turbolysis speed on the extraction of glycosides. The glycosides exhaustive extraction showed that ethanol 70% gave better results and was used for turbo-extraction. The stevioside and rebaudioside A contents were quantified by a validated method by high performance liquid chromatographic with photodiode array detector. The contents of stevioside and rebaudioside A in fluid extract increased with the drug size, but decreased at high shearing speeds and solvent to drug ratio, while their yields decreased at higher temperature and were not affected by turbo speed. An increase in solvent to drug ratio reduced significantly the glycosides percent in dried extract. Optimal solution for S. rebaudiana leaves turbo-extraction was determined by desirability functions. The optimal extraction condition corresponded to drug size of 780 µm, solvent to drug ratio of 10, extraction time of 18 min; temperature of 23 ºC and turbo speed of 20,000 rpm, resulting in yields of 4.98% and 2.70%, for stevioside and rebaudioside A, respectively. These yields are comparable to the ones recently published for dynamic maceration, but with the advantage of shorter extraction times. This work demonstrates that turbolysis is promising for S. rebaudiana glycosides extraction and stimulate new research on the purification of these extracts, which may become an interesting source of income for developing

  12. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  13. Effects of dietary administration of yarrow extract on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects and possible side effects of yarrow extract (Achillea millefolium L. as feed additive on biochemical blood parameters and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes were treated with 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% of yarrow extract for 30 days. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, peroxidase activity, total complement and lysozyme activity, glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured after 15 and 30 days of yarrow treatment. There were no significant changes in the lysozyme activity and glucose levels. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the fish fed with diets enriched with 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels was significantly decreased in the fish fed with diets containing 0.5% and 1% yarrow extract on day 30 (P<0.05. LDH, CK and peroxidase activities in the fish fed with diets having 1% yarrow extract were significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (P<0.05. In contrast, a significant increase in AST, ALP and total complement activity was observed in the fish fed with 1% yarrow extract diet, on day 15 (P<0.05. The weight gain and specific growth rate increased and food conversion ratio decreased in in the fish fed 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Condition factor in the fish fed with yarrow extract was significantly higher than control group on 30 day. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of yarrow extract up to 0.5% have not side effect on blood biochemical and clinical parameters of fishes. However, oral administration of 1% of yarrow extract caused cytotoxicity and modifications in blood biochemical parameters of fish.

  14. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-11-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50 ) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC 50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle.

  15. Antitumor effects and mechanisms of Ganoderma extracts and spores oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun; Li, Peng; Li, Ye; Yao, Guan; Xu, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a popular herbal medicine used in China to promote health. Modern studies have disclosed that the active ingredients of Ganoderma can exhibit several effects, including antitumor effects and immunomodulation. The present study evaluated the antitumor effects of self-prepared Ganoderma extracts and spores oil, and investigated the possible underlying mechanisms by observing the effects of the extracts and oil on topoisomerases and the cell cycle. The results showed that Ganoderma extracts and spores oil presented dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tumor cells. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of Ganoderma extracts on HL60, K562 and SGC-7901 cells for 24 h were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.90 mg/ml, respectively; for Ganoderma spores oil, the IC50 values were 1.13, 2.27 and 6.29 mg/ml, respectively. In the in vivo study, the inhibitory rates of Ganoderma extracts (4 g/kg/d, intragastrically) on S180 and H22 cells were 39.1 and 44.6%, respectively, and for Ganoderma spores oil (1.2 g/kg/d, intragastrically) the inhibitory rates were 30.9 and 44.9%, respectively. Ganoderma extracts and spores oil inhibited the activities of topoisomerase I and II. Ganoderma spores oil was shown block the cell cycle at the transition between the G1 and S phases and induce a marked decrease in cyclin D1 levels in K562 cells, with no significant change in cyclin E level. These results suggest that the Ganoderma extracts and spores oil possessed antitumor effects in the in vitro and in vivo studies. The antitumor mechanisms of the extracts and spores oil were associated with inhibitory effects on topoisomerase I and II activities, and for Ganoderma spores oil, the antitumor effects may also be associated with decreased cyclin D1 levels, thus inducing G1 arrest in the cell cycle. PMID:27900038

  16. Supercritical fluid extraction of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-01-01

    Uranium being strategic material, its separation and purification is of utmost importance in nuclear industry, for which solvent extraction is being employed. During solvent extraction significant quantity of radioactive liquid waste gets generated which is of environmental concern. In recent decades supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has emerged as promising alternative to solvent extraction owing to its inherent advantage of reduction in liquid waste generation and simplification of process. In this paper a brief overview of research work carried out so far on SFE of uranium by BARC has been given

  17. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  18. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  19. How does the preparation of rye porridge affect molecular weight distribution of extractable dietary fibers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakha, Allah; Aman, Per; Andersson, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  20. How Does the Preparation of Rye Porridge Affect Molecular Weight Distribution of Extractable Dietary Fibers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Andersson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Extractable dietary fiber (DF plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3(1→4-β-D-glucan (β-glucan and arabinoxylan (AX in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016 and AX (P = 0.002 due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular weight. The molecular weight of extractable β-glucan decreased greatly during a rest time before cooking, most likely by the action of endogenous enzymes. The amount of salt and flour used in the recipe had small but significant effects on the molecular weight of β-glucan. These results show that whole grain rye porridge made without a rest time before cooking contains extractable DF components maintaining high molecular weights. High molecular weight is most likely of nutritional importance.

  1. Ovariectomy delays alveolar wound healing after molar extractions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Michele Conceição; Zecchin, Karina Gottardello; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Jorge, Jacks

    2007-11-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the morphological effects of the absence of estrogen on alveolar wound healing of young female rats after tooth extraction. A total of 60 4- to 6-week-old female rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX) or sham operations. Three weeks later, the first mandibular molars were extracted. Subsequently, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, or 28 days after tooth extraction. The mandibles were removed, and serial transversal sections of mesial alveolus of the first mandibular molars were obtained for histometric analysis. OVX sockets showed significant increases in fibroblasts and collagen content 3 and 5 days after the extractions, followed by significant decreases in these parameters in the subsequent periods. In accordance with the decreased collagen content in the latest period of healing, new bone formation was significantly reduced in the OVX animals. These findings suggest that the initial molecular changes observed in the absence of estrogen lead to delayed alveolar wound healing.

  2. Decreasing incidence rates of bacteremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stig Lønberg; Pedersen, C; Jensen, T G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the incidence rate of bacteremia has been increasing over time. However, few studies have distinguished between community-acquired, healthcare-associated and nosocomial bacteremia. METHODS: We conducted a population-based study among adults with first......-time bacteremia in Funen County, Denmark, during 2000-2008 (N = 7786). We reported mean and annual incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years), overall and by place of acquisition. Trends were estimated using a Poisson regression model. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate was 215.7, including 99.0 for community......-acquired, 50.0 for healthcare-associated and 66.7 for nosocomial bacteremia. During 2000-2008, the overall incidence rate decreased by 23.3% from 254.1 to 198.8 (3.3% annually, p incidence rate of community-acquired bacteremia decreased by 25.6% from 119.0 to 93.8 (3.7% annually, p

  3. Gastrointestinal Activity of the Aqueous Extract of a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained showed that the extract (10-50mg/kg) produced a dose dependent and significant (p<0.05) decrease in propulsion, in both normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit, in mice. This effect was neither antagonized by yohimbine (1mg/kg s.c) nor isosorbide dinitrate (IDN, 150mg/kg, oral). It produced a ...

  4. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  5. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  6. Optimisation of beryllium-7 gamma analysis following BCR sequential extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, A. [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Blake, W.H., E-mail: wblake@plymouth.ac.uk [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Keith-Roach, M.J. [Plymouth University, School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, 8 Kirkby Place, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Kemakta Konsult, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-03-30

    Graphical abstract: Showing decrease in analytical uncertainty using the optimal (combined preconcentrated sample extract) method. nv (no value) where extract activities were extraction with natural {sup 7}Be returns high analytical uncertainties. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Preconcentrating extracts from a large sample mass improved analytical uncertainty. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This optimised method can be readily employed in studies using low activity samples. - Abstract: The application of cosmogenic {sup 7}Be as a sediment tracer at the catchment-scale requires an understanding of its geochemical associations in soil to underpin the assumption of irreversible adsorption. Sequential extractions offer a readily accessible means of determining the associations of {sup 7}Be with operationally defined soil phases. However, the subdivision of the low activity concentrations of fallout {sup 7}Be in soils into geochemical fractions can introduce high gamma counting uncertainties. Extending analysis time significantly is not always an option for batches of samples, owing to the on-going decay of {sup 7}Be (t{sub 1/2} = 53.3 days). Here, three different methods of preparing and quantifying {sup 7}Be extracted using the optimised BCR three-step scheme have been evaluated and compared with a focus on reducing analytical uncertainties. The optimal method involved carrying out the BCR extraction in triplicate, sub-sampling each set of triplicates for stable Be analysis before combining each set and coprecipitating the {sup 7}Be with metal oxyhydroxides to produce a thin source for gamma analysis. This method was applied to BCR extractions of natural {sup 7}Be in four agricultural soils. The approach gave good counting statistics from a 24 h analysis period ({approx}10% (2

  7. Rigidity spectrum of Forbush decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S.; Munakata, K.; Nagashima, K.

    1985-01-01

    Using data from neutron monitors and muon telescopes at surface and underground stations, the average rigidity spectrum of Forbush decreases (Fds) during the period of 1978-1982 were obtained. Thirty eight Ed-events are classified into two groups, Hard Fd and Soft FD according to size of Fd at the Sakashita station. It is found that a spectral form of a fractional-power type (P to the-gamma sub 1 (P+P sub c) to the -gamma sub2) is more suitable than that of a power-exponential type or of a power type with an upper limiting rigidity. The best fitted spectrum of the fractional-power type is expressed by gamma sub1 = 0.37, gamma sub2 = 0.89 and P subc = 10 GV for Hard Fd and gamma sub1 = 0.77, gamma sub2 = 1.02 and P sub c - 14GV for Soft Fd

  8. Method of decreasing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Hiromi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To easily attain the power decreasing in a HWLWR type reactor and improve the reactor safety. Method: The method is applied to a nuclear reactor in which the reactor reactivity is controlled by control rods and liquid posions dissolved in moderators. Means for forecasting the control rod operation amount required for the reactor power down and means for removing liquid poisons in the moderators are provided. The control rod operation amount required for the power down is forecast before the power down and the liquid poisons in the moderators are removed. Then, the control rods are inserted into a deep insertion position to reduce the reactor power. This invention can facilitate easy power down, as well as provide effects of improving the controllability in the usual operation and of avoiding abrupt power down which leads to an improved availability. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2013-03-01

    Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extract on rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated after oral administration of the extract for 1 month to evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in the organ bath occurred in vivo. Additionally, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in the CC by immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percentage decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. The ICP was also assessed in rats after oral administration of the extract for 1 month, and changes in concentrations of cGMP and cAMP were monitored. Concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the extract on the CC were detected in the organ bath study. Relaxation of the CC by the T. terrestris extract was inhibited in both an endothelium-removed group and an L-arginen methyl ester pretreatment group. The ICP measured after oral administration of the T. terrestris extract for 1 month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the T. terrestris extract group. The T. terrestris extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the CC in an organ bath. The mechanism included a reaction involving the nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase pathway and endothelium of the CC. Moreover, in an in vivo study, the T. terrestris extract showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in ICP. Accordingly, the T. terrestris extract may improve erectile function.

  10. Extraction of Tetravalent Uranium by Certain Acidic Organophosphorus Extractants from Phosphate Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daoud, J.A.; Zeid, M.M.; Aly, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The extraction of U(IV) by octylphenyl acid phosphate (OPAP) or di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (HDEHP) in kerosene from phosphoric acid was carried out. The effect of extractant, phosphoric acid, uranium, Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentration on the extraction process was separately investigated. The effect of different reagents and temperature on the stripping of U(IV) was also investigated. The results obtained for the extraction of U(IV) by HDEHP showed that the extraction with the increase in HDEHP and Fe(III) concentration while it decreases with the increase in phosphoric acid, uranium and Fe(II) concentration. In case of extraction with OPAP, the extraction of U(IV) was found to decrease with the phosphoric acid, Fe(II) and initial uranium concentration while the increase in OPAP concentration slightly affected the extraction. The use of high phosphoric acid concentration as stripper at low temperature was found to give the best stripping results

  11. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Lei; Morita, Akimichi; Tsuji, Takuo

    2002-01-01

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  12. Molecular alterations of tropoelastin and proteoglycans induced by tobacco smoke extracts and ultraviolet A in cultured skin fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Lei; Morita, Akimichi; Tsuji, Takuo [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Medical School

    2002-02-01

    Functional integrity of normal skin is dependent on the balance between the biosynthesis and degradation of extracellular matrix, primarily composed of collagen, elastin and proteoglycans. In our previous studies, we found that tobacco smoke extracts decreased expressions of type I and III procollagen and induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in the cultured skin fibroblasts. We here further investigated the effects of tobacco smoke extracts or ultraviolet A (UVA) treatments on the expression of tropoelastin (soluble elastin protein), and versican and decorin (proteoglycans) in cultured skin fibroblasts. The mRNA of tropoelastin increased by tobacco smoke extracts or UVA irradiation. Versican was markedly shown to decrease after these treatments by using western blotting and the mRNA of versican V0 also significantly decreased. UVA treatment did not show remarkable change in decorin protein, but resulted in marked decrease of decorin D1 mRNA. In contrast to UVA irradiation, the treatments of tobacco smoke extracts resulted in significant increase in decorin, while mRNA of decorin D1 decreased as compared to the control. MMP-7 increased after the treatment of tobacco smoke extracts or UVA. These results indicated that common molecular features might underlie the skin premature aging induced by tobacco smoke extracts and UVA, including abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix deposition through elevated MMPs, reduced collagen production, abnormal tropoelastin accumulation, and altered proteoglycans. (author)

  13. Mining Significant Semantic Locations from GPS Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  14. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  15. Noninvasive extraction of fetal electrocardiogram based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yumei; Xiang, Shihan; Chen, Tianyi; Zhou, Ping; Huang, Weiyan

    2015-10-01

    The fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signal has important clinical value for diagnosing the fetal heart diseases and choosing suitable therapeutics schemes to doctors. So, the noninvasive extraction of FECG from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals becomes a hot research point. A new method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized for the extraction of FECG with limited size of data. Firstly, the theory of the SVM and the principle of the extraction based on the SVM are studied. Secondly, the transformation of maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) component in abdominal composite signal is verified to be nonlinear and fitted with the SVM. Then, the SVM is trained, and the training results are compared with the real data to ensure the effect of the training. Meanwhile, the parameters of the SVM are optimized to achieve the best performance so that the learning machine can be utilized to fit the unknown samples. Finally, the FECG is extracted by removing the optimal estimation of MECG component from the abdominal composite signal. In order to evaluate the performance of FECG extraction based on the SVM, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the visual test are used. The experimental results show that the FECG with good quality can be extracted, its SNR ratio is significantly increased as high as 9.2349 dB and the time cost is significantly decreased as short as 0.802 seconds. Compared with the traditional method, the noninvasive extraction method based on the SVM has a simple realization, the shorter treatment time and the better extraction quality under the same conditions.

  16. Antipyretic activity of the extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wantana Reanmongkol

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the extracts from Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces L. (H. sabdariffa on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin test in mice and the antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever in rats, were examined. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on carrageenin-induced paw edema in rats. No acute toxicity was observed in mice after oral administration of the ethanol and aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyces at the dose of 15 g/kg. Oral administration of the ethanol extract at the dose of 800 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of contortions and stretchings induced by acetic acid in mice. The aqueous extracts had no effect on this test. Neither the ethanol nor aqueous extract had an effect in the formalin and hot plate tests in mice. The ethanol and the vacuum dried extract of H. sabdariffa calyces (200-800 mg/kg, p.o. decreased the yeast-induced fever in rats. The H. sabdariffa extract had no effect on carrageenininduced paw edema in rats. These results suggest that the ethanol and aqueous extract (vacuum dry of H. sabdariffa calyces possess antipyretic action through mechanisms that are different from that of aspirin.

  17. Peat Biomass Smoke Particle Exposure in Rats Decreases ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildland fires, favored by prolonged drought and rising temperatures, generate significant amounts of ambient particulate matter (PM), which has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The eastern North Carolina peat fires of Pocosin Lake in 2008 and Pains Bay in 2011 were some of the more prominent recent wildland fires and were associated with increased cardiovascular hospitalizations. The biological impacts of peat biomass emissions and the specific mechanisms driving these responses are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cardiopulmonary responses of peat biomass smoke exposure in rats. We hypothesized that PM exposure would dose-dependently alter cardiopulmonary function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 30 µg (Lo PM) or 300 µg (Hi PM) of peat biomass smoke PM extracts suspended in 200 µL of saline, or saline vehicle alone by oropharyngeal aspiration (OA). Immediately following OA rats were placed in a whole-body plethysmograph and ventilatory data were recorded for 12 minutes. One day following OA, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane for ultrasound assessment of cardiovascular function. Hi PM caused decreases in expiratory timing as early as 4-6 minutes after exposure relative to Lo PM (p = 0.02) and Vehicle (p= 0.06), which resolved shortly thereafter. One day after OA, ultrasounds revealed that Hi PM exposure increased end diastolic volume (EDV) by 16% (p = 0.03) over Vehicle and 13% (p = 0.06) over Lo PM. In addition,

  18. Acetone Extract from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa: A Potent Natural Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodla Lavanya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Myrtaceae has been employed in traditional Thai medicine to treat colic diarrhoea, dysentery, abscesses, haemorrhage, and gynaecopathy. In addition, it has been used to formulate skin-whitening, anti-aging and skin beautifying agents. Ethnomedical activities of this plant may be due its antioxidant property. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of R. tomentosa leaf extract. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was assessed by lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and metal chelating activity. R. tomentosa extract demonstrated its free radical scavenging effects in concentration dependent manner. In vivo antioxidant activity of the extract was conducted in Swiss Albino mice. Levels of thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione (GSH, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in blood, liver, and kidney were analyzed using microtitre plate photometer. Administration of CCl4 caused significant increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH, SOD, CAT and GPx levels. In contrast, R. tomentosa extract (0.8 g/kg effectively prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. The results suggest that R. tomentosa extract can serve as a potent antioxidant.

  19. Gastro-protective effect of methanol extract of Ficus asperifolia bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastric juice pH, gastric acid concentration, gastric ulcer score, percentage gastric ulcer inhibition, activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and malondiadehyde (MDA) were determined. Ficus asperifolia extract significantly increased gastric pH (p<0.05) but decreased (p<0.01) gastric acid secretion in dose ...

  20. Protective effect of Radix Bupleuri extract against liver cirrhosis in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some DENinduced rats were also treated with RBE, which was obtained by extracting dried Radix Bupleuri in water, for 8 weeks. Afterwards, biochemical indices and oxidative stress markers were assessed. Results: RBE significantly decreased serum concentrations of both alanine transaminase (137.3 ± 4.4 U/L, p < 0.01) ...

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Acacia nilotica on Microbial and Castor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five (5) Albino rats of both sexes weighing between (85-125g) were used for each experiment and diarrhoea was induced using Castor oil. The extract showed remarkable anti-diarrhoea activity which was dose dependent at 100, 200 and 400mg evidenced by decrease in volume of intestinal content significantly different at ...

  2. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  3. Antinociceptive activity of fruits extracts and "arrope" of Geoffroea decorticans (chañar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynoso, M A; Vera, N; Aristimuño, M E; Daud, A; Sánchez Riera, A

    2013-01-09

    Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) fruits and their derivate product (arrope) have been traditionally used as food and a folk medicine for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases including bronchopulmonary disorders and to relieve dolorous process. In order to evaluate the pharmacology action of this plant, studies were performed of antinociceptive and antioxidant activities. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts and arrope of chañar were evaluated in various established pain models, including chemical nociception induced by subplantar formalin and intraperitoneal acetic acid and thermal nociception method, such as tail immersion test in rats. To examine the possible connection of the opioid receptor to the antinociceptive activity of extracts and arrope it was performed a combination test with naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist. The aqueous extract and arrope (1000 mg/kg) caused an inhibition of the pain in formalin test in the first phase, similar to morphine and decrease in the second phase. In a combination test using naloxone, diminished analgesic activity of aqueous extract and arrope were observed, indicating that antinociceptive activity is connected with the opioid receptor. The aqueous extract and arrope, caused an inhibition of the writhing response induced by acetic acid. Central involvement in analgesic profile was confirmed by the tail immersion test, in which the aqueous extract and arrope showed a significant analgesic activity by increasing latency time. The aqueous extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the arrope, it may be due to the cooking process. This study has shown that the aqueous extract and arrope of Geoffroea decorticans (chañar) fruits, does possess significant antinociceptive effects. It is further concluded that aqueous extract with maximum inhibition of free radical is the most potent extract amount tested extracts. At the oral doses tested the aqueous extract and arrope were non-toxic. The present

  4. Improving IUE High Dispersion Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Patricia J.; VanSteenberg, M. E.; Massa, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present a different method to extract high dispersion International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra from the New Spectral Image Processing System (NEWSIPS) geometrically and photometrically corrected (SI HI) images of the echellogram. The new algorithm corrects many of the deficiencies that exist in the NEWSIPS high dispersion (SIHI) spectra . Specifically, it does a much better job of accounting for the overlap of the higher echelle orders, it eliminates a significant time dependency in the extracted spectra (which can be traced to the background model used in the NEWSIPS extractions), and it can extract spectra from echellogram images that are more highly distorted than the NEWSIPS extraction routines can handle. Together, these improvements yield a set of IUE high dispersion spectra whose scientific integrity is sign ificantly better than the NEWSIPS products. This work has been supported by NASA ADP grants.

  5. The extraction, identification and quantification of hypoglycemic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... indicated that extraction U3 and U4 obviously decreased the blood sugar. Also, U3 was .... resin chromatography due to its main component, saponins identified by ..... The authors thank Changchun University of Technology.

  6. Novel Fluorinated Tensioactive Extractant Combined with Flotation for Decontamination of Extractant Residual during Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Chang, Zhidong; Liu, Yao; Choe, Chol Ryong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent-extraction is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the amphiphilic character, a large amount of extractant remains in water phase, which causes not only loss of reagent, but also secondary contamination in water phase. Novel fluorinated extractants with ultra-low solubility in water were regarded as effective choice to reduce extractant loss in aqueous phase. However, trace amount of extractant still remained in water. Based on the high tensioactive aptitude of fluorinated solvent, flotation was applied to separate fluorinated extractant remaining in raffinate. According to the data of surface tension measurement, the surface tension of solution was obviously decreased with the addition of fluorinated extractant tris(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl) phosphate (FTAP). After flotation, the FTAP dissolved in water can be removed as much as 70%, which proved the feasibility of this key idea. The effects of operation time, gas velocity, pH and salinity of bulk solution on flotation performance were discussed. The optimum operating parameters were determined as gas velocity of 12ml/min, operating time of 15min, pH of 8.7, and NaCl volume concentration of 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, adsorption process of FTAP on bubble surface was simulated by ANSYS VOF model using SIMPLE algorithm. The dynamic mechanism of flotation was also theoretically investigated, which can be considered as supplement to the experimental results.

  7. A comparative study of Averrhoabilimbi extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhaimi, H. I.; Rosli, I. R.; Kasim, K. F.; Akmal, H. Muhammad; Nuradibah, M. A.; Sam, S. T.

    2017-09-01

    In recent year, bioactive compound in plant has become a limelight in the food and pharmaceutical market, leading to research interest to implement effective technologies for extracting bioactive substance. Therefore, this study is focusing on extraction of Averrhoabilimbi by different extraction technique namely, maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction. Fewplant partsof Averrhoabilimbiweretaken as extraction samples which are fruits, leaves and twig. Different solvents such as methanol, ethanol and distilled water were utilized in the process. Fruit extractsresult in highest extraction yield compared to other plant parts. Ethanol and distilled water have significant role compared to methanol in all parts and both extraction technique. The result also shows that ultrasound-assisted extraction gave comparable result with maceration. Besides, the shorter period on extraction process gives useful in term of implementation to industries.

  8. Protective effects of Urtica dioica seed extract in aflatoxicosis: histopathological and biochemical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, A; Yener, Z; Dogan, A

    2016-04-01

    The ameliorative potential and antioxidant capacity of an extract of Urtica dioica seeds (UDS) was investigated using histopathological changes in liver and kidney, measuring serum marker enzymes, antioxidant defence systems and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA)) content in various tissues of broilers exposed to aflatoxin (AF). A total of 32 broilers were divided randomly into 4 groups: control, UDS extract-treated, AF-treated and AF+UDS extract-treated. Broilers in control and UDS extract-treated groups were fed on a diet without AF. The AF-treated group and AF+UDS extract-treated groups were treated with an estimated 1 mg total AF/kg feed. The AF+UDS extract groups received in addition 30 ml UDS extract/kg diet for 21 d. The AF-treated group had significantly decreased body weight gain when compared to the other groups. Biochemical analysis showed a small increase in the concentrations of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase and lactate dehydrogenase in the AF-treated group compared to that of the control group, whereas concentrations of these enzymes were decreased in the AF+UDS group compared to that of the AF-treated group. Administration of supplementary UDS extract helped restore the AF-induced increase in MDA and reduced the antioxidant system towards normality, particularly in the liver, brain, kidney and heart. Hepatorenal protection by UDS extracts was further supported by the almost normal histology in AF+UDS extract-treated group as compared to the degenerative changes in the AF-treated broilers. It was concluded that UDS extract has a protective hepatorenal effect in broilers affected by aflatoxicosis, probably acting by promoting the antioxidative defence systems.

  9. Investigation the antinociceptive, antipyretic and antiinflammatory activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. extracts in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunee Khamjun

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aeruginosa (C. aeruginosa Roxb. (Zingiberaceae is known in Thai as Waan-Ma-Haa-Mek. The rhizomes of this plant have been used as a component of Thai herbal medicinal recipes used for decreasing dysmenorrhea. In the present study, the analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory actions of this plant were investigated in experimental animals. The rhizomes of C. aeruginosa were extracted with chloroform, methanol and water to give chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. The effects of the three extracts on nociceptive response using writhing, hot plate and formalin tests in mice were performed. The antipyretic activity in yeast-induced fever and the anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced edema in rats, were examined. The LD50 value of orally administered the chloroform extract and methanol extract in mice was 3.03 g/kg. No dead mice were observed after oral administration of aqueous extract at the dose of 10 g/kg. Oral administration of the chloroform extract and the methanol extract of C. aeruginosa rhizomes (100-400 mg/kg significantly decreased the number of writhings and stretchings induced by acetic acid. Only the chloroform extract suppressed the licking activity of the late phase in the formalin test in mice. All extracts of C. aeruginosa rhizomes had no effects on heat-induced pain in mice, yeast-induced fever and carrageenin-induced edema in rats. These results suggest that the chloroform extract of C. aeruginosa rhizome possesses analgesic effect via a different mechanism from that of the aspirin.

  10. Hemodynamic changes following injection of local anesthetics with different concentrations of epinephrine during simple tooth extraction: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Mostafa, Nedal; Al-Showaikhat, Fatimah; Al-Shubbar, Fatimah; Al-Zawad, Kawther; Al-Zawad, Fatimah

    2015-10-01

    Presence of epinephrine in local anesthetic cartridge increases the duration of local anesthesia (LA), decreases the risk of toxicity, and provides hemostasis. However, the unfavorable effects are increasing heart rate (HR) and raising blood pressure (BP). The aim was to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the BP, HR, and oxygen saturation (SpO2) of normal patients undergoing tooth extraction using LA with various epinephrine concentrations. A prospective randomized clinical trial was conducted on 120 patients who were divided randomly into 3 parallel groups according to the LA received. Group 1: lidocaine 2% with epinephrine 1:80,000 (L80). Group 2: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:100,000 (A100). Group 3: articaine 4% with epinephrine 1:200,000 (A200). normal patients whose BP extraction. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly increased after injection of L80 and continued after extraction to be significant than pre-injection. SBP significantly increased after injection of A100 then decreased after extraction. In the group of A200, SBP insignificantly decreased after injection then increased after extraction. The increasing of SBP between time point 1and 2 was significantly higher in G1 than G3 (p=0.014). Diastolic blood pressure decreased after LA in the 3 groups; however it was significant only with L80, then increased after extraction for all. The changings of DBP, HR and SpO2 after anesthesia and extraction showed no significant difference among the three groups. However, A200 had significant lesser effect on SBP than L80 and the least effect on other parameters. Therefore, A200 is considered safer than L80 and A100 and is recommended for LA before teeth extraction in normal patient. Local anesthesia, lidocaine, epinephrine 1:80,000, articaine, epinephrine 1:100,000, epinephrine 1:200,000, tooth extraction.

  11. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Pextract. Also, the texture properties and sensory of sausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decreased prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission in alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Douaihy, Antoine B; Frankle, W Gordon

    2014-08-01

    Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such as working memory, attention, inhibitory control, and risk/reward decisions, all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies of alcoholism that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, the authors hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in persons with alcohol dependence. To test this hypothesis, amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography were used to measure cortical dopamine transmission in 21 recently abstinent persons with alcohol dependence and 21 matched healthy comparison subjects. [11C]FLB 457 binding potential, specific compared to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND), was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg-1 of d-amphetamine. Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (ΔBPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in the alcohol-dependent group compared with the healthy comparison group. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in the alcohol-dependent group included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. The results of this study, for the first time, unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism.

  13. Development of pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) for essential compounds from Moringa oleifera leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matshediso, Phatsimo G; Cukrowska, Ewa; Chimuka, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) is a "green" technology which can be used for the extraction of essential components in Moringa oleifera leaf extracts. The behaviour of three flavonols (myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol) and total phenolic content (TPC) in Moringa leaf powder were investigated at various temperatures using PHWE. The TPC of extracts from PHWE were investigated using two indicators. These are reducing activity and the radical scavenging activity of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Flavonols content in the PHWE extracts were analysed on high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet (HPLC-UV) detection. The concentration of kaempferol and myricetin started decreasing at 150 °C while that of quercetin remained steady with extraction temperature. Optimum extraction temperature for flavonols and DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 100 °C. The TPC increased with temperature until 150 °C and then decreased while the reducing activity increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of different strategies for soybean antioxidant extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun; Ji, Xiangming; Canning, Corene; Sun, Shi; Zhou, Kequan

    2010-04-14

    Three extraction strategies including Soxhlet extraction, conventional solid-liquid extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) were compared for their efficiency to extract phenolic antioxidants from Virginia-grown soybean seeds. Five extraction solvents were evaluated in UAE and the conventional extraction. The soybean extracts were compared for their total phenolic contents (TPC), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activities. The results showed that UAE improved the extraction of soybean phenolic compounds by >54% compared to the conventional and Soxhlet extractions. Among the tested solvents, 50% acetone was the most efficient for extracting soybean phenolic compounds. There was no significant correlation between the TPC and antioxidant activities of the soybean extracts. The extracts prepared by 70% ethanol had the highest ORAC values. Overall, UAE with 50% acetone or 70% ethanol is recommended for extracting soybean antioxidants on the basis of the TPC and ORAC results.

  15. Senna singueana: Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective, Antiapoptotic Properties and Phytochemical Profiling of a Methanol Bark Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Sobeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural products are considered as an important source for the discovery of new drugs to treat aging-related degenerative diseases and liver injury. The present study profiled the chemical constituents of a methanol extract from Senna singueana bark using HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS and 36 secondary metabolites were identified. Proanthocyanidins dominated the extract. Monomers, dimers, trimers of (epicatechin, (epigallocatechin, (epiguibourtinidol, (entcassiaflavan, and (epiafzelechin represented the major constituents. The extract demonstrated notable antioxidant activities in vitro: In DPPH (EC50 of 20.8 µg/mL, FRAP (18.16 mM FeSO4/mg extract assays, and total phenolic content amounted 474 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract determined with the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Also, in an in vivo model, the extract increased the survival rate of Caenorhabditis elegans worms pretreated with the pro-oxidant juglone from 43 to 64%, decreased intracellular ROS inside the wild-type nematodes by 47.90%, and induced nuclear translocation of the transcription factor DAF-16 in the transgenic strain TJ356. Additionally, the extract showed a remarkable hepatoprotective activity against d-galactosamine (d-GalN induced hepatic injury in rats. It significantly reduced elevated AST (aspartate aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. Moreover, the extract induced a strong cytoplasmic Bcl-2 expression indicating suppression of apoptosis. In conclusion, the bark extract of S. sengueana represents an interesting candidate for further research in antioxidants and liver protection.

  16. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow ( Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila . The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and plasma creatinine levels in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract per kg feed. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly decreased on day 60. The fish fed 2.50 g marshmallow extract per kg feed indicated increased levels of total protein and globulin. There were no significant changes in albumin levels ( p > 0.05). 2.50 and 5.00 g marshmallow significantly decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased glucose levels ( p Marshmallow extract at 5.00 and 10.00 g can adjust plasma biochemical parameters in fish challenged with A. hydrophila . The results of preclinical studies and pharmaceutical toxicity of marshmallow extract revealed that dietary levels lower than 5.00 g were safe and effective. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that marshmallow extract (5.00 g kg -1 feed) can protect fish against A. hydrophila .

  17. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed) Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Olguín, Sitlali; Santes, Rebeca; Herrera, José A; Pérez, Carlos L; Mangas, Raisa; Hernández, Yasnay; Fernández, Gisselle; Hernández, Ivones; Hernández-Ojeda, Sandra; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; Valencia-Olvera, Ana; Espinosa-Aguirre, Jesús Javier

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract's antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1-500 µg/mL) and benzo[a]pyrene (BP), the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25-50 µg/mL) inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  18. Effect of salvia Egyptiaca extract on cholinergic system in adult male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    The daily oral administrations of Salvia aegyptiaca extract, equivalent to 2 g/kg body weight for 4 weeks, caused significant decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity in whole blood and in all tested brain areas (cerebellum, pons + medulla oblongata, striatum, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and hippocampus) of male albino rat nearly all over the experimental period. Treatment with Salvia aegyptiaca extract also resulted in significant increase in acetylcholine content in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus' nearly throughout the whole experimental period. It could be concluded from the present results that the extract of Salvia aegyptiaca caused an increase in acetylcholine content and this increase may be due to the decrease in the activity of acetylcholine esterase enzyme which play an important role in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease

  19. Phytotoxicity of water-soluble substances from alfalfa and barley soil extracts on four crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, J J; Jensen, E H

    1989-02-01

    Problems associated with continuously planting alfalfa (Medicago saliva L.) or seeding to thicken depleted alfalfa stands may be due to autotoxicity, an intraspecific form of allelopathy. A bioassay approach was utilized to characterize the specificity and chemical nature of phytotoxins in extracts of alfalfa soils as compared to fallow soil or soil where a cereal was the previous crop. In germination chamber experiments, water-soluble substances present in methanol extracts of soil cropped to alfalfa or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) decreased seedling root length of alfalfa L-720, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Nugaines) and radish (Raphanus sativa L. Crimson Giant). Five days after germination, seedling dry weights of alfalfa and radish in alfalfa soil extracts were lower compared to wheat or red clover (Trifolium pralense L. Kenland). Growth of red clover was not significantly reduced by soil extracts from cropped soil. Extracts of crop residue screened from soil cropped to alfalfa or barley significantly reduced seedling root length; extracts of alfalfa residue caused a greater inhibition of seedling dry weight than extracts of barely residue. A phytotoxic, unidentified substance present in extracts of crop residue screened from alfalfa soil, which inhibited seedling root length of alfalfa, was isolated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Residues from a soil cropped continuously to alfalfa for 10 years had the greatest phytotoxic activity.

  20. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Sung Chul; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Jae Hwi; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Roh, Gu Seob; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2012-10-01

    Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function.

  1. Serum Soluble Corin is Decreased in Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Fangfang; Shi, Jijun; Han, Xiujie; Zhou, Dan; Liu, Yan; Zhi, Zhongwen; Zhang, Fuding; Shen, Yun; Ma, Juanjuan; Song, Yulin; Hu, Weidong

    2015-07-01

    Soluble corin was decreased in coronary heart disease. Given the connections between cardiac dysfunction and stroke, circulating corin might be a candidate marker of stroke risk. However, the association between circulating corin and stroke has not yet been studied in humans. Here, we aimed to examine the association in patients wtith stroke and community-based healthy controls. Four hundred eighty-one patients with ischemic stroke, 116 patients with hemorrhagic stroke, and 2498 healthy controls were studied. Serum soluble corin and some conventional risk factors of stroke were examined. Because circulating corin was reported to be varied between men and women, the association between serum soluble corin and stroke was evaluated in men and women, respectively. Patients with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke had a significantly lower level of serum soluble corin than healthy controls in men and women (all P values, stroke than men in the highest quartile. Women in the lowest quartile of serum soluble corin were also more likely to have ischemic (OR, 3.10; 95% confidence interval, 1.76-5.44) and hemorrhagic (OR, 8.54; 95% confidence interval, 2.35-31.02) stroke than women in the highest quartile. ORs of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke were significantly increased with the decreasing levels of serum soluble corin in men and women (all P values for trend, stroke compared with healthy controls. Our findings raise the possibility that serum soluble corin may have a pathogenic role in stroke. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Effects of Drying Methods in Gaining of Extractive, Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity in Gynura Pseudochina (Lour.)

    OpenAIRE

    Rivai, Harrizul; Nurdin, Hazli; Suyani, Hamzar; Bakhtiar, Amri

    2010-01-01

    Effects of drying methods in gaining of extractive, phenolic content and antioxidant activity in Gynura pseudochina (Lour.) DC leaves have been investigated. The drying methods tested were air-drying at ± 25 oC, oven-drying at 40 OC, oven-drying at 60 OC, microwave oven-drying and fresh samples as control. Results revealed that drying of the fresh plant caused the decrease of extractive obtainability, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. There were significant differences among drying ...

  3. Improvement of spatial memory of male parkinsonian rats after treatment with adipose stem cells and rosemary leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Ramezanihossienabadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the neuroprotective effect of rosemary extract, this study aimed at examining the effect of co-treatment of adipose stem cells transplantation and the extract on memory disability of parkinsonian rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male parkinsonian rats were prepared by bilateral injection of 6-OHDA. The sham group was injected normal saline into the substantia nigra. The extract+medium group was gavaged with the extract 14 days before until 8 weeks after the injury, and the medium was intravenously injected. The extract+cell group was orally gavaged with the extract and the cells were injected. Morris water maze training was conducted one week before and after the lesion and also a retrieval test was performed 4 and 8 weeks after the lesion. Results: There was no significant difference in distance moved and escape latency at training days, before the injury, between the groups. However, a week after the injury, learning ability in lesioned animals was significantly decreased as compared to the sham group (P<0.05. Results of retention tests in four and eight weeks were similar. Duration of escape latency and time spent in target quadrant of lesioned rats were significantly increased and decreased respectively as compared to the sham (P<0.05. The extract+medium and extract+cell groups showed significant decrease and increase in escape latency and time spent in target quadrant as compared to the lesioned group (P<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The cell therapy accompanied with orally administration of the rosemary extract can improve memory deficit in Parkinson’s disease.

  4. Solanum paniculatum root extract reduces diarrhea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh A.B. Tenório

    Full Text Available Abstract Solanum paniculatum L., Solanaceae, locally known as "jurubeba", is widely used in Brazil for culinary purposes, and in folk medicine to treat of diverse disorder including gastric dysfunctions. In this study we investigated the antidiarrheal activity of S. paniculatum roots extract in rats at different concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o using different experimental models such as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility, determined by in vivo experimental models. The major compound of root extract was characterized as chlorogenic acid based in the IR, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. All the extract doses achieved antidiarrheal potency, as indicated by reduced weight of feces in castor oil-induced diarrhea, decreased intestinal motility and significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling compared to the vehicle group. The highest dose (500 mg/kg produced greater anti-motility effect and better reduction of enteropooling, similar to the reference drug Loperamide (5 mg/kg. Extract from S. paniculatum L. roots had antidiarrheal activity, as shown by the lower weight of the feces as well as decrease in the accumulation of intestinal fluid and slower transit, justifying the traditional use of plant for diarrhea.

  5. The effects of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) extracts and L-citrulline on rat uterine contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munglue, Phukphon; Eumkep, Graingsak; Wray, Susan; Kupittayanant, Sajeera

    2013-04-01

    In uterine smooth muscle, the effects of watermelon and its citrulline content are unknown. The aims of this study were therefore, to determine the effects of watermelon extract and citrulline on the myometrium and to investigate their mechanisms of action. The effects of extracts of watermelon flesh and rind and L-citrulline (64 μmol/L) were evaluated on 3 types of contractile activity; spontaneous, those elicited by potassium chloride (KCl) depolarization, or oxytocin (10 nmol/L) application in isolated rat uterus. Inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and its mechanisms of action, N ω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 100 μmol/L), LY83583 (1 μmol/L), and tetraethylamonium chloride (5 mmol/L), as well as Ca signaling pathways, were determined. Both flesh and rind extracts significantly decreased the force produced by all 3 mechanisms, in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts could also significantly decrease the force under conditions of sustained high Ca levels (depolarization and agonist) and when the force was produced only by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca release. L-citrulline produced the same effects on force as watermelon extracts. With submaximal doses of extract, the additive effects of L-citrulline were found. The inhibitory effects of extracts and L-citrulline were reversed upon the addition of NO inhibitors, and pretreatment of tissues with these inhibitors prevented the actions of both extracts and L-citrulline. Thus, these data show that watermelon and citrulline are potent tocolytics, decreasing the force produced by calcium entry and SR release and arising by different pathways, including oxytocin stimulation. Their major mechanism is to stimulate the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) relaxant pathway.

  6. Comparative synergistic (technetium-actinide) extraction chemistry by tributylphosphate and some amide extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condamines, N.; Musikas, C.

    1993-01-01

    In nuclear fuel reprocessing, technetium (TcO 4 - ) leads to bad interferences in the extractions, being synergistically co-extracted with different actinide cations as Uranium (VI), Plutonium (IV) and Zirconium (IV). It destroys the hydrazine in the reductive partition of U and Pu, it decreases the decontamination of U and Pu from fission products. Thus, its extraction behaviour with new extractants as N,N-diakylamides is useful to be known. TcO 4 - extraction in nitric acid media is compared for TBP and different amides. The influence of nitric acidity is related to the amides formula

  7. Methanolic effect of Clerodendrum myricoides root extract on blood, liver and kidney tissues of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayelom, K; Mekbeb, A; Eyasu, M; Wondwossen, E; Kelbesa, U

    2012-12-01

    The present study deals with the toxicological investigations of chronic treatment with methanol root extract of Clerodendrum myricoides on body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters, and liver and kidney tissue sections. Mice treated with 100mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract showed no behavioral changes. However, there was a general reduction of activity in mice treated with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract and LD50 treated mice showed hypoactivity, grooming, prostration, piloroerection and irritation during administration towards the last days of the treatment period. The body weight gain difference in the 100mg/kg bw/day methanol extract treated group was not significant, while those of the others were significant as compared with the controls. Hematological results for the RBC count, HCT, MCV, MCH and MCHC in methanol extract treated mice showed no significant changes at both doses of treatments as compared with the controls. However, the value of lymphocytes was found significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Similarly, HGB was significantly increased at 100 and 400mg/kg bw/day of methanol extract treated groups. On the other hand, WBC and platelets count were significantly decreased after treatment with 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. ALT, ALP, AST and urea values were significantly increased respectively at 100mg/kg bw/day and 400mg/kg bw/day methanol extract. Several histopathological changes of liver and kidney were observed in the extract treated mice as compared to the controls. Such histopathological changes observed in both liver and kidneys were inflammations and hydropic degenerations of hepatocytes at both doses of methanol. In addition, in the LD50 treated mice of the extracts there were also hemorrhages and signs in congestion of glomeruli of the kidney. chronic treatment with Clerodendrum myricoides extracts in mice causes reduction in body weight gain, damage to liver & kidney and changes in some

  8. Psidium guajava leaves decrease arthritic symptoms in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanif Nasiatul Baroroh

    2016-04-01

    Psidium guajava leaf extract is effective in decreasing the inflammatory response and arthritic symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Psidium guajava leaves can be developed into an alternative anti-arthritis treatment.

  9. Benazepril hydrochloride improves diabetic nephropathy and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lingyu; Feng, Xiaoqing; Wang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Xuebin; Sun, Wenqiang; Yu, Kebo

    2017-10-04

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of benazepril hydrochloride (BH) on proteinuria and ANGPTL-4 expression in a diabetic nephropathy (DN) rat model. A total of 72 Wistar male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (NC), DN group and BH treatment (BH) groups. The DN model was induced by streptozotocin (STZ). Weight, glucose, proteinuria, biochemical indicators and the kidney weight index were examined at 8, 12 and 16 weeks. In addition, ANGPTL-4 protein and mRNA expressions were assessed by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, respectively. Relationships between ANGPTL-4 and biochemical indicators were investigated using Spearman analysis. Weight was significantly lower but glucose levels were significantly higher in both the DN and BH groups than in the NC group (P Benazepril hydrochloride improves DN and decreases proteinuria by decreasing ANGPTL-4 expression.

  10. Uranium refining by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraikaew, J.; Srinuttrakul, W.

    2014-01-01

    The solvent extraction process to produce higher purity uranium from yellowcake was studied in laboratory scale. Yellowcake, which the uranium purity is around 70% and the main impurity is thorium, was obtained from monazite processing pilot plant of Rare Earth Research and Development Center in Thailand. For uranium re-extraction process, the extractant chosen was Tributylphosphate (TBP) in kerosene. It was found that the optimum concentration of TBP was 10% in kerosene and the optimum nitric acid concentration in uranyl nitrate feed solution was 4 N. An increase in concentrations of uranium and thorium in feed solution resulted in a decrease in the distribution of both components in the extractant. However, the distribution of uranium into the extractant was found to be more than that of thorium. The equilibration study of the extraction system, UO_2(NO_3)/4N HNO_3 – 10%TBP/Kerosene, was also investigated. Two extraction stages were calculated graphically from 100,000 ppm uranium concentration in feed solution input with 90% extraction efficiency and the flow ratio of aqueous phase to organic phase was adjusted to 1.0. For thorium impurity scrubbing process, 10% TBP in kerosene was loaded with uranium and minor thorium from uranyl nitrate solution prepared from yellowcake and was scrubbed with different low concentration nitric acid. The results showed that at nitric acid normality was lower than 1 N, uranium distributed well to aqueous phase. As conclusion, optimum nitric acid concentration for scrubbing process should not less than 1 N and diluted nitric acid or de-ionized water should be applied to strip uranium from organic phase in the final refining process. (author)

  11. Immunomodulatory properties of Alternanthera tenella Colla aqueous extracts in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N.M. Guerra

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Plants from the genus Alternanthera are thought to possess antimicrobial and antiviral properties. In Brazilian folk medicine, the aqueous extract of A. tenella Colla is used for its anti-inflammatory activity. The present study investigated the immunomodulatory property of A. tenella extract by evaluating the antibody production in male albino Swiss mice weighing 20-25 g (10 per group. The animals received standard laboratory diet and water ad libitum. The effect of A. tenella extract (5 and 50 mg/kg, ip was evaluated in mice immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBC 10%, ip as T-dependent antigen, or in mice stimulated with mitogens (10 µg, Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, LPS, ip. The same doses (5 and 50 mg/kg, ip of A. tenella extract were also tested for antitumor activity, using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma as model. The results showed that 50 mg/kg A. tenella extract ip significantly enhanced IgM (64% and IgG2a (50% antibody production in mice treated with LPS mitogen. The same dose had no effect on IgM-specific response, whereas the 5 mg/kg treatment caused a statiscally significant reduction of anti-SRBC IgM-specific antibodies (82%. The aqueous extract of A. tenella (50 mg/kg increased the life span (from 16 ± 1 to 25 ± 1 days and decreased the number of viable tumor cells (59% in mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. The present findings are significant for the development of alternative, inexpensive and perhaps even safer strategies for cancer treatment.

  12. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  13. Effect of concentration of the height of a transfer unit in a liquid/liquid solvent-extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.B.

    1981-05-01

    Pulsed, sieve-plate extraction columns were used to examine the effect of solute concentration on extraction efficiency. Cerium was extracted from an aqueous coprocessing solution, simulating reprocessing wastes produced at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The organic extractant used in this process was dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate. Subsequently, cerium was stripped from the organic phase with 0.05 M nitric acid. The Heights of a Transfer Unit were calculated from the extraction and stripping column operating data. Both interstage and overall transfer units were calculated. Nine extraction and nine stripping tests were performed. Three extraction feed concentrations, each repeated at three different pulse frequencies were used to study the affect of concentration on height of a transfer unit. The stripping column was operated simultaneously with the extraction column. Both columns were operated at pulse amplitudes of 2.5 cm. Data based upon the overall extraction column showed a slight decrease in the height of a transfer unit as the solute concentration decreased. Based upon the overall stripping column data, a decrease in solute concentration resulted in a very slight increase in the height of a transfer unit. However, interstage transfer unit calculations for both columns indicated solute concentration had no significant effect on the height of a transfer unit. Based on the experimental tests, it was concluded that solute concentration caused only slight changes in extraction efficiency for the concentration range studied. Other factors such as pulse frequency, aqueous/organic flow ratio, and possibly the dispersed phase bubble size had a much greater effect on the extraction efficiency for the system studied

  14. Extracts from Hericium erinaceus relieve inflammatory bowel disease by regulating immunity and gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diling, Chen; Xin, Yang; Chaoqun, Zheng; Jian, Yang; Xiaocui, Tang; Jun, Chen; Ou, Shuai; Yizhen, Xie

    2017-10-17

    Hericium erinaceus (HE), a traditional edible mushroom, is known as a medicine food homology to ameliorate gastrointestinal diseases. To investigate whether HE is clinically effective in alleviating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), HE extracts (polysaccharide, alcoholic extracts and whole extracts were prepared using solvent extraction methods) were administrated for 2 weeks in rats with IBD induced by trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) enema (150 mg/kg). Significant clinical and histological changes in IBD rats were identified, including damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The damage activity, common morphous and tissue damage index scores in colonic mucosa ( P <0.05) were improved, MPO activities were decreased. Inflammatory factors were also differentially expressed in colonic mucosa in IBD rats, including serum cytokines, Foxp3 and interleukin (IL)-10 were increased while NF-κB p65 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were decreased ( P <0.05), and T cells were activated ( P <0.05), especially in the alcohol extracts-treated group. We also found that the structure of gut microbiota of the H. erinaceus extracts-treated groups changed significantly by compared with the model group. Further studies revealed that the polysaccharides in HE extracts may play a prebiotic role, whereas the alcoholic extracts show bactericidin-like and immunomodulatory effects. Taken together, we demonstrated that H. erinaceus extracts could promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria and improve the host immunity in vivo IBD model, which shows clinical potential in relieving IBD by regulating gut microbiota and immune system.

  15. Statistical model of planning technological indicators for oil extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galeyev, R G; Lavushchenko, V P; Sheshnev, A S

    1979-01-01

    The efficiency of the process of oil extraction is determined by the effect of a number of interrelated technological indicators. Analytical expression of the interrelationships of the indicators was represented by an econometric model consisting of a system of linear regression equations. The basic advantage of these models is the possibility of calculating in them different, significantly important interrelationships. This makes it possible to correlate all calculations into a single logically noncontradictory balanced system. The developed model of the technological process of oil extraction makes it possible to significantly facilitate calculation and planning of its basic indicators with regard for system and balance requirements, makes it possible to purposefully generate new variants. In this case because of the optimal distribution of the volumes of geological-technical measures, a decrease in the total outlays for their implementation is achieved. Thus for the Berezovskiy field, this saving was R 150,000.

  16. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N. Agbafor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4 treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5 mL/kg body weight of CCl4. Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P>.05 from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P<.05 in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased (P<.05 relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants.

  17. Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant Property of Leaf Extracts of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbafor, K. N.; Nwachukwu, N.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant system have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diverse disease states. The phytochemical screening and antioxidant property of fresh leaves of Vitex doniana and Mucuna pruriens, used in the management and treatment of various diseases, were studied. The extracts (ethanol and distilled water) were screened for the presence of phytochemicals, and their inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was used to evaluate their free radical scavenging activity. Liver levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) in carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4) treated albino rats were also used to assess the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The animals were treated with 250 mg/kg body weight of the extracts for six consecutive days before a single dose (2.5 mL/kg body weight) of CCl4. Vitamin C was used as the standard antioxidant. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, tannins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and flavonoids in all the extracts, while alkaloids were detected in extracts of Vitex doniana only, and cardiac glycosides occurred in extracts of Mucuna pruriens only. All the extracts inhibited DPPH radical in a concentration-dependent manner, water extract of Vitex doniana producing highest inhibition which was not significantly different (P > .05) from vitamin C. The extracts produced a significant decrease (P < .05) in liver MDA, while the levels of SOD and CAT significantly increased (P < .05) relative to the positive control. These results are an indication of antioxidant potential of the extracts and may be responsible for some of the therapeutic uses of these plants. PMID:21547085

  18. Anxiogenic Like activity of Sarcocephalus latifolius Fruit Extract in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Arome

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmacological agents in the treatment of anxiety disorders have fallen out of favour as their unwanted side effects have become evident. The present challenges call for an inward look into harnessing the full potential of medicinal plants that abound around us. The present study evaluates the anxiogenic activity of ethanolic fruit extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius in mice. The prepared extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg as well as 2.5 mg/kg of diazepam, the reference standard was administered orally. The anxiogenic activity of the extract was evaluated using elevated plus maze and open field models. In the elevated plus maze, the extract showed an anxiogenic effect in all the experimental dosage levels by decreasing the time spent and number within the open arms. Animals in the extract and physiological saline groups spent more time in the enclosed arms to avoid the open arms, probably to avoid falling off. The reference standard showed a significant (P

  19. Analysis of Maceaene and Macamide Contents of Petroleum Ether Extract of Black, Yellow, and Purple Lepidium Meyenii (Maca and Their Antioxidant Effect on Diabetes Mellitus Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congyang Qiu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Maceaene and macamide contents as well as antioxidant effect of petroleum ether extract of black maca (BM, yellow maca (YM, and purple maca (PM on diabetes mellitus (DM rats were investigated. The results showed that seven, six, and five analogues of macamides were identified from the petroleum ether extracts of BM, YM, and PM, respectively. BM extract exhibited the highest contents of total macamides. Comparatively, the PM extract has the lowest macamide quantity. The maceaene contents in all the extracts showed no significant difference (p>0.05. Macamide contents in maca with the same color were not statistically different. Pharmacological results showed that 60-day oral administration of the petroleum ether extract of maca (100 mg/kg.d can significantly decrease lipid oxidation as indicated by the decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and carbonylated proteins (CP concentrations on DM rat model (P<0.05. Among them, oral administration of PM extract showed the lowest TBRAS and CP concentrations. All maca extracts can enhance antioxidant enzyme (SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase activity of liver and red blood cells (RBC of DM rat. However, only oral administration of PM extract can increase SOD and CAT activity of both RBC and liver. The glutathion (GSH contents in plasma were significantly increased in DM rats treated with PM extract (p<0.05. But, oral administration of BM and YM extracts did not enhance GSH levels. Take together, the data suggested that PM extract exhibited the most potent antioxidant activity on DM rat model. And, maceaene and macamide in maca extract was not correlated with its antioxidant ability.

  20. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  1. Breastfeeding Is Associated with Decreased Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Kristen P; Kremer, Theodore R

    Child maltreatment has serious implications for youth outcomes, yet its associations with early parenting practices are not fully understood. This study investigated whether breastfeeding practices are correlated with childhood maltreatment. Data were utilized from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, a nationally representative and longitudinal study of adolescents. The analytic sample comprised 4,159 adolescents. The outcome variables included four subtypes of childhood maltreatment (neglect, inadequate supervision, physical abuse, and sexual abuse). The primary independent variable was breastfeeding duration. Covariates of the child, mother, and household were included in analyses. Logistic regression models were employed to predict odds of maltreatment subtypes from breastfeeding duration and covariates. Compared with adolescents never breastfed, adolescents breastfed 9 months or longer had a reduced odds of having experienced neglect (odds ratio [OR] = 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.35-0.83) and sexual abuse (OR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) after controlling for covariates. Breastfeeding duration is significantly associated with decreased childhood neglect and sexual abuse. Breastfeeding practices should be explored as a consideration among clinicians when assessing maltreatment risk. Further research should examine whether a causal relationship exists between breastfeeding and decreased maltreatment.

  2. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Ulva fasciata (Green Seaweed Extract and Evaluation of Its Cytoprotective and Antigenotoxic Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idania Rodeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and biological properties of Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract were examined. Five components were identified in one fraction prepared from the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and palmitic acid and its ethyl ester accounted for 76% of the total identified components. Furthermore, we assessed the extract’s antioxidant properties by using the DPPH, ABTS, and lipid peroxidation assays and found that the extract had a moderate scavenging effect. In an experiment involving preexposition and coexposition of the extract (1–500 µg/mL and benzo[a]pyrene (BP, the extract was found to be nontoxic to C9 cells in culture and to inhibit the cytotoxicity induced by BP. As BP is biotransformed by CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies, we explored the possible interaction of the extract with these enzymes. The extract (25–50 µg/mL inhibited CYP1A1 activity in rat liver microsomes. Analysis of the inhibition kinetics revealed a mixed-type inhibitory effect on CYP1A1 supersome. The effects of the extract on BP-induced DNA damage and hepatic CYP activity in mice were also investigated. Micronuclei induction by BP and liver CYP1A1/2 activities significantly decreased in animals treated with the extract. The results suggest that Ulva fasciata aqueous-ethanolic extract inhibits BP bioactivation and it may be a potential chemopreventive agent.

  3. Effectiveness of the Red Dragon Fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus Peel Extract as the Colorant, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial on Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri M Manihuruk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of red dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extracts addition on beef sausages. Red dragon fruit peel extracts were obtained by maceration using solvent at pH 5. Phytochemical characteristics, total phenols, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activity of the peel extracts were observed. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the extracts were associated with high phytochemical compounds and total phenols contained in the extracts. Red dragon fruit peel extracts with various percentages (0%, 20%, 30%, and 40% were added on beef sausages, and their physicochemical characteristics, nutrients, antioxidant activity, and microbiological profile were analyzed. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test. Results showed that the addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts significantly reduced texture values, but increased intensity of luminosity, intensity of red color, and intensity of yellow color (P<0.05 beef sausages. It could be concluded that red dragon fruit peel extract containing phytochemical compounds was effective as an antibacterial agent and natural antioxidant. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extracts was effective in increasing the antioxidant activity and decreasing TBARS values. The addition of red dragon fruit peel extract did not affect the reddish colorization of beef sausages, but it was capable of increasing the yellowish colorization on beef sausage.

  4. Preliminary studies on the antiplasmodial potential of aqueous and methanol extracts ofeucalyptus camadulensis leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabiru, Y. A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rising problem of resistance to the classical drugs like chloroquine and the problem of recrudescence of malaria after treatment with artemisinin suggest the need for new antimalaria agents. This project was designed to explore the antiplasmodial potential of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf extracts. Methods: The antiplasmodial potential of the methanol and aqueous extracts of Eucalyptus camadulensis (leaf were evaluated in a mouse model of malaria. Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally infected with plasmodium berghei (NK65, a rodent malaria parasite. The level of parasitemia, life span, variation in weight and percentage packed cell volume (% PCV of infected and treated mice were used to assess the efficacy of extracts. Treatment with the extracts at dose levels of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight commenced 72 hours post infection for the test groups, while a standard antimalarial drug, Artesunate, at a dose of 50mg/kg body weight was administered on the positive control group. The negative control group was left untreated. Results: Animals treated with the methanol extract showed a significant decrease in parasitaemia (p < 0.05, and survived for 29 days compared with those treated with the aqueous extract which survived for 19 days with a higher level of parasitemia. However, the control group treated with Artesunate showed a significantly lower parasitaemia (p < 0.05 and survived for 34 days when compared with the groups treated with methanol and aqueous extracts. The level of parasitemia, decrease in weight and %PCV in all the treated groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05 compared with the infected but untreated group (negative control which survived for only 7 days. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the leaves of E. camadulensis has an antimalarial potential that could be exploited for the benefit of mankind.

  5. Clinical Effects of Formulated Food of Peucedanum japonicum Extract and Saw Palmetto Extract in Male Patients with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Shinji; Beppu, Masanori; Ohnogi, Hiromu; Miyazaki, Sayaka; Haruno, Akihiro; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate changes over time in subjective symptom scores and urination parameters before and after oral administration of formulated food containing a combination of Peucedanum japonicum (P. japonicum) extract and saw palmetto extract (SPE) in male patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This study was conducted in an open label manner on male patients with untreated LUTS. The urination state of patients was evaluated before and after administration of food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE for 4 weeks, based on urodynamic parameters and subjective symptom scores (International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS and IPSS-QOL], Overactive Bladder Symptom Score [OABSS], Overactive Bladder Questionnaire [OAB-q], and International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF]). After the administration of food formulated with these extracts, the following results were obtained: (i) Subjective findings: The IPSS-QOL score improved significantly; both parameters related to nocturia, i.e., frequency of nighttime urination and OABSS-2, improved significantly; other ratings for subjective symptoms slightly improved. (ii) Objective findings: Residual urine volume decreased significantly, and blood prostate specific antigen (PSA) and urinary 8-OHdG levels decreased slightly after the treatment. (iii) Other findings: Blood pressure decreased slightly. No adverse drug reactions were reported. (iv) Patient impressions: 75% of patients gave a rating of "Good" or higher, with 15 out of 20 patients wanting to continue treatment after the end of 4-week administration period. Food formulated with P. japonicum extract and SPE may be useful to decrease frequency of nighttime urination and residual urine volume in male patients with LUTS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  7. Toxicity Thresholds Based on EDTA Extractable Nickel and Barley Root Elongation in Chinese Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyun Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty in the risk assessment of trace metal elements in soils when total metal contents are used can be decreased by assessing their availability and/or extractability when the soils have a high background value or different sources of trace metal elements. In this study, the added water-soluble nickel (Ni toxicity to barley root elongation was studied in 17 representative Chinese soil samples with and without artificial rainwater leaching. The extractability of added Ni in soils was estimated by three sequential extractions with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA. The results showed that the effective concentration of EDTA extractable Ni (EC50, which caused 50% inhibition of barley root elongation, ranged from 46 to 1019 mg/kg in unleached soils and 24 to 1563 mg/kg in leached soils. Regression models for EDTA extractable Ni and total Ni added to soils against soil properties indicated that EDTA extractable Ni was significantly correlated with the total Ni added to soils and that pH was the most important control factor. Regression models for toxicity thresholds based on EDTA extractable Ni against soil properties showed that soil citrate dithionate extractable Fe was more important than soil pH in predicting Ni toxicity. These results can be used to accurately assess the risk of contaminated soils with high background values and/or different Ni sources.

  8. Adaptation Method Bligh & Dyer a Lipid Extraction of Colomb ian Microalgas Biodiesel Production for Third Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Delgado Ángel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the biodiesel production process from microalgae, the cell disruption and lipid extraction stages are important for obtaining triglycerides that can be transesterified to biodiesel and glycerol. In this work, the Bligh & Dyer method was adapted for lipid extraction from native microalgae using organosolv pretreatment or acid hydrolysis as cell disruption mechanism for improve the extraction process. Chloroform-methanol-water are the solvents employed in the Bligh & Dyer extraction method. The microalgae species Botryococcus braunii, Nannocloropsis, Closterium, Guinardia y Amphiprora were employed for the experimental part. Adaptation of the method was found the best extraction conditions, these were: 1:20 biomass/solvent ratio, initial ratio solvents CHCl3:CH3OH:H2O (1:2:0, stirring conditions of 5000 rpm for 14 minutes and centrifuge of 3400 rpm for 15 minutes. The cell disruption mechanisms allowed to obtain extracts with high lipid content after performing the extraction with Bligh & Dyer method, but decreases significantly the total extraction yield. Finally, the fatty acids profiles showed that Botryococcus braunii specie contains higher acylglycerol percentage area suitable for the production of biodiesel.

  9. Effect of Partial Pre-Extraction of Hemicelluloses on the Properties of Pinus radiata Chemimechanical Pulps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Reyes

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of hemicelluloses prior to pulping and conversion of the extracted hemicelluloses to other bioproducts could provide additional revenue to traditional pulp and paper industries. The effect of hemicelluloses pre-extraction with a hydrothermal (HT process on Pinus radiata chemimechanical pulp (CMP properties was investigated in this study. The HT extraction resulted in a release of 7% to 58% of the initial amount of hemicelluloses from the wood. The extraction yield increased with temperature and extraction time. This hemicellulosic fraction was in the form of low molar mass oligomers with molecular weights varying from 1.5 to 100 kDa. Compared with the control (unextracted CMP pulp, the HT pre-extraction significantly reduced the refining energy to obtain a given fibrillation degree (freeness. The pulp yield with the HT/CMP process was in the range of 56% to 75%. Fiber properties of the pulps from pre-extracted wood, such as fiber length, were reduced, while increases in fiber width, fines content, fiber coarseness, and kink index were observed in comparison with the control pulps. The strength properties of CMP pulps decreased with increasing amounts of hemicellulose removal during the stage prior to pulping.

  10. The separation of extractants implemented in the DIAMEX-SANEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heres, Xavier; Baron, P.; Hill, C.; Ameil, E.; Martinez, I.; Rivalier, P.

    2008-01-01

    DIAMEX-SANEX is a process developed at the Cea to recover selectively the actinides(III) after a COEX TM or a PUREX process, in order to significantly decrease the radiotoxicity of the ultimate waste produced by the nuclear industry. This liquid-liquid extraction process is based on the DIAMEX process, using a malonamide supplemented by an acidic extractant. Besides an actinide extraction step and a lanthanide stripping step are implemented an actinide(III) stripping step and an extractant splitting step. The latter is carried out to avoid interactions between these two extractants during the first co-extraction step of the actinides and the lanthanides. This paper gives some results obtained with di-n-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDHP), which fulfills the required criteria for process development. Batch experiments or cold counter-current tests showed that it is possible to separate this extractant from DMDOHEMA. HDHP can moreover maintain the lanthanides(III) in the organic phase when the actinides(III) are back extracted from the organic phase. (authors)

  11. Numerical analysis of electronegative plasma in the extraction region of negative hydrogen ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppel, S.; Matsushita, D.; Hatayama, A.; Bacal, M.

    2011-01-01

    This numerical study focuses on the physical mechanisms involved in the extraction of volume-produced H- ions from a steady state laboratory negative hydrogen ion source with one opening in the plasma electrode (PE) on which a dc-bias voltage is applied. A weak magnetic field is applied in the source plasma transversely to the extracted beam. The goal is to highlight the combined effects of the weak magnetic field and the PE bias voltage (upon the extraction process of H- ions and electrons). To do so, we focus on the behavior of electrons and volume-produced negative ions within a two-dimensional model using the particle-in-cell method. No collision processes are taken into account, except for electron diffusion across the magnetic field using a simple random-walk model at each time step of the simulation. The results show first that applying the magnetic field (without PE bias) enhances H- ion extraction, while it drastically decreases the extracted electron current. Secondly, the extracted H- ion current has a maximum when the PE bias is equal to the plasma potential, while the extracted electron current is significantly reduced by applying the PE bias. The underlying mechanism leading to the above results is the gradual opening by the PE bias of the equipotential lines towards the parts of the extraction region facing the PE. The shape of these lines is due originally to the electron trapping by the magnetic field.

  12. The separation of extractants implemented in the DIAMEX-SANEX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, Xavier [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP/SCPS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Baron, P.; Hill, C.; Ameil, E.; Martinez, I. [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP/SCPS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Rivalier, P. [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DTEC/SGCS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    DIAMEX-SANEX is a process developed at the Cea to recover selectively the actinides(III) after a COEX{sup TM} or a PUREX process, in order to significantly decrease the radiotoxicity of the ultimate waste produced by the nuclear industry. This liquid-liquid extraction process is based on the DIAMEX process, using a malonamide supplemented by an acidic extractant. Besides an actinide extraction step and a lanthanide stripping step are implemented an actinide(III) stripping step and an extractant splitting step. The latter is carried out to avoid interactions between these two extractants during the first co-extraction step of the actinides and the lanthanides. This paper gives some results obtained with di-n-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDHP), which fulfills the required criteria for process development. Batch experiments or cold counter-current tests showed that it is possible to separate this extractant from DMDOHEMA. HDHP can moreover maintain the lanthanides(III) in the organic phase when the actinides(III) are back extracted from the organic phase. (authors)

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activity in vivo of lipophilic Isatis tinctoria extracts and tryptanthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recio, María-Carmen; Cerdá-Nicolás, Miguel; Potterat, Olivier; Hamburger, Matthias; Ríos, José-Luis

    2006-05-01

    The effects of a supercritical CO2 (SFE) extract, a dichloromethane (DCM) extract from Isatis tinctoria leaf and the alkaloidal constituent tryptanthrin were studied in acute and subchronic experimental models of inflammation. The SFE and DCM extracts showed anti-inflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced acute mouse paw oedema (ED50 values of 78 mg/kg and 165 mg/kg P. O., respectively) and in the acute tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear oedema in oral (62% and 32% oedema reduction at 100 and 125 mg/kg, respectively) and topical application (37% and 33% reduction of oedema at 0.5 mg/ear). In contrast, tryptanthrin showed no significant anti-inflammatory effect. The DCM extract inhibited oedema formation and neutrophil infiltration in subchronic inflammation in mice induced by repeated application of TPA. The extract showed activity after oral and topical administration by reducing the various parameters of the inflammatory response. The DCM extract (1 mg/ear) inhibited the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by application of dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) after topical application. The response during the induction phase (24 h) was decreased by 48%, and the inflammatory phase (48 to 96 h) was reduced by 53 to 56%. The extract had no effect in this model when administered orally. The DCM extract (200 mg/kg P. O.) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing by 49%.

  14. Numerical analysis of electronegative plasma in the extraction region of negative hydrogen ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppel, S.; Matsushita, D.; Hatayama, A.; Bacal, M.

    2011-01-01

    This numerical study focuses on the physical mechanisms involved in the extraction of volume-produced H - ions from a steady state laboratory negative hydrogen ion source with one opening in the plasma electrode (PE) on which a dc-bias voltage is applied. A weak magnetic field is applied in the source plasma transversely to the extracted beam. The goal is to highlight the combined effects of the weak magnetic field and the PE bias voltage (upon the extraction process of H - ions and electrons). To do so, we focus on the behavior of electrons and volume-produced negative ions within a two-dimensional model using the particle-in-cell method. No collision processes are taken into account, except for electron diffusion across the magnetic field using a simple random-walk model at each time step of the simulation. The results show first that applying the magnetic field (without PE bias) enhances H - ion extraction, while it drastically decreases the extracted electron current. Secondly, the extracted H - ion current has a maximum when the PE bias is equal to the plasma potential, while the extracted electron current is significantly reduced by applying the PE bias. The underlying mechanism leading to the above results is the gradual opening by the PE bias of the equipotential lines towards the parts of the extraction region facing the PE. The shape of these lines is due originally to the electron trapping by the magnetic field.

  15. Effects of Urtica dioica extract on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassiri-Asl, Marjan; Zamansoltani, Farzaneh; Abbasi, Esmail; Daneshi, Mohammad-Mehdi; Zangivand, Amir-Abdollah

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effects of extract of Urtica dioica, a perennial herb in Iran, on lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. The effects of Urtica dioica extract were tested by using it as a supplement in a high-cholesterol diet. Male rats were fed a high cholesterol diet (10 mL/kg) for 4 weeks with Urtica dioica extract (100 or 300 mg/kg) or 10 mg/kg lovastatin supplementation to study the hypocholesterolemic effects of Urtica dioica on plasma lipid levels, hepatic enzymes activities, and liver histopathological changes. Urtica dioica extract at 100 and 300 mg/kg significantly reduced the levels of total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and also markedly decreased liver enzymes and weight in animals with a high cholesterol diet. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that in the 100 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, the appearance of the liver cells was similar to the control group, and steatosis and inflammation were not found. In the 300 mg/kg extract of Urtica dioica group, mild steatosis was observed but mononuclear inflammatory infiltration was not found. The hepatic histopathological results reflect the correlation of Urtica dioica extract with both liver weight and the levels of plasma TC and LDL-C. These results indicate that Urtica dioica extract has hypocholesterolemic effects in the animal model.

  16. Antimicrobial, Physicochemical, Mechanical, and Barrier Properties of Tapioca Starch Films Incorporated with Eucalyptus Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rojhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in abundance in nature and it is one of the raw materials used for food packagingbecause of the low price, biodegradability, good mechanical and barrier properties. The recycling ability ofcoating materials was significantly increased by using edible films and coating in comparison to traditionalpackaging and it could be an alternative for synthetic films. In this research, the effect of eucalyptus extract(Aqueous Extract was investigated on tapioca starch films. Tapioca starch films were prepared by castingmethod with addition of eucalyptus extract and a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1 asplasticizers. Eucalyptus extract incorporated to the tapioca starch films were dried at different concentrations(0, 15, 25, and 35 of total solid under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as waterabsorption capacity (WAC, water vapor permeability (WVP and mechanical properties of the films wereevaluated. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of eucalyptus extract, tensile strength wasincreased from 20.60 to 15.68 (MPa, also elongation was increased from 19.31 to 23.57 (% at break andYoung’s modulus was decreased from 800.31 to 500.32 (MPa. Also incorporation of eucalyptus extract in thestructure of biopolymer increased permeability of water vapor of starch films. Tapioca starch filmsincorporated with eucalyptus extract exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against E. Coli. In summary,eucalyptus extract improves functional properties of tapioca starch films and this types of films can be used infood packaging.

  17. Antiulcerogenic activity of crude extract, fractions and populnoic acid isolated from Austroplenckia populnea (Celastraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sérgio F; Antoniolli, Daiane; Comunello, Eros; Cardoso, Luis G V; Carvalho, José C T; Bastos, Jairo K

    2006-01-01

    Many plant crude extracts and their isolated compounds are the most attractive sources of new drugs and show promising results for the treatment of gastric ulcers. Austroplenckia populnea is commonly known as "marmelinho-do campo, mangabeira-brava, mangabarana and vime" and it has been used in folk medicine as anti-dysenteric and anti-rheumatic. Powdered bark wood (3.25 kg) was macerated with aqueous ethanol (96%) and the extract was concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 406 g of crude hydralcoholic extract. The hydralcoholic extract was suspended in aqueous methanol and partitioned with hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) in sequence, yielding 8.0 g, 9.5 g and 98.17 g of crude extracts, respectively. Chromatography of the hexane extract over a silica gel column led to the isolation of the triterpene populnoic acid. The oral administration of hydralcoholic, hexane, chloroform and EtOAc extracts (200 mg/kg) decreased the ulcer lesion index (ULI) by 83.15%, 46.87%, 32.2%, 68.12%, respectively. Oral administration of populnoic acid (100 mg/kg) diminished the ULI by 55.29%. All the obtained results were significant in comparison with the negative control, with exception of the chloroform extract.

  18. Piezosurgery versus Rotatory Osteotomy in Mandibular Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Bharat; Kukreja, Pankaj; Kumar, Sanjeev; Rathi, Vidhi C.; Singh, Kanika; Bansal, Shipra

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare piezoelectric surgery versus rotatory osteotomy technique in removal of mandibular impacted third molar. Materials and Methods: Sample size of 30 patients 18 males, 12 females with a mean age of 27.43 ± 5.27. Bilateral extractions were required in all patients. All the patients were randomly allocated to two groups in one group, namely control group, surgical extraction of mandibular third molar was done using conventional rotatory osteotomy and in the other group, namely test group, extraction of lower third molar was done using Piezotome. Results: Parameters assessed in this study were – mouth opening (interincisal opening), pain (visual analog scale VAS score), swelling, incidence of dry socket, paresthesia and duration of surgery in both groups at baseline, 1st, 3rd, and 7th postoperative day. Comparing both groups pain scores with (P piezosurgery group (51.40 ± 17.9) minutes compared to the conventional rotatory group with a mean of (37.33 ± 15.5) minutes showing a statistically significant difference (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The main advantages of piezosurgery include soft tissue protection, optimal visibility in the surgical field, decreased blood loss, less vibration and noise, increased comfort for the patient, and protection of tooth structures. Therefore, the piezoelectric device was efficient in decreasing the short-term outcomes of pain and swelling although taking longer duration than conventional rotatory technique it significantly reduces the associated postoperative sequelae of third molar surgery. PMID:28713729

  19. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic flower extract of Newbouldia laevis in mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Y Tanko; B Kamba; MI Saleh; K Y Musa; A Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The ethanolic flower extract of Newbouldia laevis was investigated for possible anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in rodents. Acetic acid induced writhing (in mice) and formalin tests (in rats) were used to study. The extract caused a significant decrease (P< 0.05), which was not dose a dependent inhibition on acetic acid-induced writhing and the neurogenic pain induced by formalin. The extract at the doses (25, 50 and 100mg/kg) tested showed 59, 71 and 47% inhibition...

  20. Periodontal Disease and Decreased Kidney Function in Japanese Elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iwasaki, Masanori; Taylor, George W.; Nesse, Willem; Vissink, Arjan; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Miyazaki, Hideo

    Background: Early detection of decreased kidney function can help prevent the progression of kidney disease to kidney failure and cardiovascular events. Potentially significant associations between kidney function and periodontal disease have been reported in cross-sectional studies. However, no

  1. Osteoprotective effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi aqueous extract in aged ovariectomized rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Kwok

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL is a commonly used herb for treating bone disorders in Chinese medicine. The present study investigates the anti-osteoporotic activity of FLL aqueous extract in the model of postmenopausal bone loss in aged ovariectomized (OVX female rats. Methods After eight weeks of treatment of FLL or water, the lumbar spine was scanned by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT. Effects of FLL water extract on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations in rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were assessed by biochemical methods and staining. Results FLL aqueous extract significantly inhibited bone mineral density (BMD loss in total, trabecular and cortical bones without affecting body weight and uterus wet weight. FLL extract significantly promoted osteogenesis and suppressed adipogenesis in MSCs as indicated by the elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, calcium deposition levels and decreased adipocyte number in a dose-dependent manner without cytotoxic effects. Real-time PCR analysis revealed significant increase of osteoprotegerin (OPG-to-receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL mRNA, indicating a decrease in osteoclastogenesis. Conclusion The present study demonstrates the osteoprotective effects of FLL aqueous extract on aged OVX rats, stimulation of osteogenesis, inhibition of adipogenesis and osteoclastogenesis in MSCs.

  2. Effect of cinnamon extract on blood glucose level and lipid profile in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cinnamon has been shown to potentiate the hypoglycaemic effect of insulin through up regulation of the glucose uptake in cultured adipocytes of rats. This study tried to find out the effect of Cinnamon alone or in combination with Insulin in diabetic albino rats. Methods: Thirty rats were divided into three groups, A and B. Group A were given cinnamon extract 200 mg/Kg body weight daily orally and group B rats were given cinnamon extract 400 mg/Kg body weight daily. After six weeks blood glucose and lipid profile levels were evaluated in all the groups. Results: Group of rats given 200 mg cinnamon extract showed significant decrease of blood glucose concentration but there was slight or no change in the level of lipid parameters including serum cholesterol, triglyceride and lipoproteins (HDL, LDL-chol). On the other hand group of rats given 400 mg extract of cinnamon showed a better but non significant change in level of lipid related parameter while blood glucose level was significantly decreased. Conclusion: The cinnamon at a dose of 400 mg showed same effects on blood glucose level but better effects on lipid profiles especially of serum cholesterol level of group of rats compared to 200 mg of cinnamon extract. Cinnamon may be recommended as hypoglycaemic herb but not as hypolipidaemic herb. (author)

  3. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (P<0.05) in improving the quality of physical and numerically increase the value of crude protein and decrease the value of NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber). Treatments had highly significant influence (P<0.01) on the metabolizable energy value of palm kernel cake residue in broiler chickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  4. Attenuation of UV-B exposure-induced inflammation by abalone hypobranchial gland and gill extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuanpradit, Chitraporn; Jaisin, Yamaratee; Jungudomjaroen, Sumon; Akter Mitu, Shahida; Puttikamonkul, Srisombat; Sobhon, Prasert; Cummins, Scott F

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet B (UV-B) is a known causative factor for many skin complications such as wrinkles, black spots, shedding and inflammation. Within the wavelengths 280‑320 nm, UV-B can penetrate to the epidermal level. This investigation aimed to test whether extracts from the tropical abalone [Haliotis asinina (H. asinina)] mucus-secreting tissues, the hypobranchial gland (HBG) and gills, were able to attenuate the inflammatory process, using the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line. Cytotoxicity of abalone tissue extracts was determined using an AlamarBlue viability assay. Results showed that HaCaT cells could survive when incubated in crude HBG and gill extracts at concentrations between abalone extract from both the HBG and gill (0, 0.1, 2.5, 5 µg/ml). A significant increase in cell viability was observed (P2.5 µg/ml extract showed a significant decrease in intensity for COX‑2, phospho‑p38 and phospho‑SPK/JNK. The present study demonstrated that abalone extracts from the HGB and gill can attenuate inflammatory proteins triggered by UV-B. Hence, the contents of abalone extract, including cellmetabolites and peptides, may provide new agents for skin anti‑inflammation, preventing damage due to UV-B.

  5. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  6. Piper betle extracts exhibit antitumor activity by augmenting antioxidant potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Badrul; Majumder, Rajib; Akter, Shahina; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the methanolic extract of Piper betle leaves (MPBL) and its organic fractions with regard to antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and to confirm their antioxidant activities. At 24 h post-intraperitoneal inoculation of tumor cells into mice, extracts were administered at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight for nine consecutive days. The antitumor effects of the extracts were then assessed according to tumor volume, packed cell count, viable and non-viable tumor cell count, median survival time and increase in life span of EAC-bearing mice. Next, hematological profiles and serum biochemical parameters were calculated, and antioxidant properties were assessed by estimating lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels. MPBL and the ethylacetate fraction (EPBL) at a dose of 100 mg/kg induced a significant decrease in tumor volume, packed cell volume and viable cell count and increased the life span of the EAC-bearing mice (PPiper betle extracts exhibit significant antitumor activity, which may be attributed to the augmentation of endogenous antioxidant potential.

  7. Antiulcerogenic activity of the extracts of Struthanthus marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. de F. Freire

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The gastroprotective action of the aqueous extract (AE and the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Struthanthus marginatus (Desr. Blume, Loranthaceae, were performed with in vivo models in rodents using: ethanol, indomethacin or stress-induced ulcers, determination of gastric secretion and the mucus production. The scavenger activity of AE in vitro was tested by the DPPH method. The treatment with the extracts (125-1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated and demonstrated greater effectiveness of the aqueous extract. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in the gastric pH. The treatment of rats raised the gastric mucus production. Significant DPPH scavenging activity was evident in the AE. No sign of toxicity was observed. These results show that S. marginatus possesses gastroprotective activity. There are indications that the mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in acid secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence for the involvement of antioxidant activity in the gastroprotective mechanism.

  8. Antiulcerogenic activity of the extracts of Struthanthus marginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. de F. Freire

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The gastroprotective action of the aqueous extract (AE and the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Struthanthus marginatus (Desr. Blume, Loranthaceae, were performed with in vivo models in rodents using: ethanol, indomethacin or stress-induced ulcers, determination of gastric secretion and the mucus production. The scavenger activity of AE in vitro was tested by the DPPH method. The treatment with the extracts (125-1000 mg/kg significantly inhibited ulcerative lesions in comparison with the negative control groups in all the models evaluated and demonstrated greater effectiveness of the aqueous extract. Regarding the model of gastric secretion, a reduction in volume of gastric juice and total acidity was observed, as well as an increase in the gastric pH. The treatment of rats raised the gastric mucus production. Significant DPPH scavenging activity was evident in the AE. No sign of toxicity was observed. These results show that S. marginatus possesses gastroprotective activity. There are indications that the mechanisms involved in anti-ulcer activity are related to a decrease in acid secretion and an increase in gastric mucus content. Also, there is evidence for the involvement of antioxidant activity in the gastroprotective mechanism.

  9. Extraction of niobium and tantalum isotopes using organophosphorus compounds. Pt. 1. Extraction of 'carrier-free' metal concentrations from HCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, J.M.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Sudowe, R.; Stavsetra, L.

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) from hydrochloric acid media by bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphite (BEHP) was studied. The goal of the experiments is to find a system that demonstrates selectivity between the members of group five of the Periodic Table and is also suitable for the study of dubnium (Db, Z=105). Experiments were performed at the trace level (10 -16 M Nb or Ta) using hydrochloric acid with concentrations ranging from 1-11 M and short-lived isotopes of Nb and Ta produced in nuclear reactions. When HDEHP was used as the extractant, the Nb extraction yield decreased with increasing acid concentrations above 6 M, while the amount of Ta extracted remained over 75% for all acid concentrations studied. Tantalum was found to be extracted by BEHP at acid concentrations above 6 M, while niobium was not significantly extracted. The data obtained are used as the basis to discuss the speciation of Nb and Ta under the conditions studied and to evaluate possible extraction mechanisms. (orig.)

  10. Influence of Codium tomentosum Extract in the Properties of Alginate and Chitosan Edible Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing search for natural alternatives to synthetic food packaging materials and additives has increased, and seaweed extracts’ bioactivity has made them suitable candidates for incorporation in novel edible films. This study aims to investigate the effect of Codium tomentosum seaweed extract (SE incorporation in alginate and chitosan edible films. Alginate- and chitosan-based films with and without the incorporation of 0.5% SE were characterized according to their physical, optical, mechanical, and thermal properties. Seaweed extract incorporation in chitosan films resulted in an increase of film solubility (50%, elasticity (18%, and decrease of puncture strength (27% and energy at break (39%. In alginate films, the extract incorporation significantly decreased film solubility (6%, water vapour permeability (46%, and elasticity (24%, and had no effect on thermal properties. Depending on the type of application, the addition of SE in edible films can bring advantages for food conservation.

  11. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats

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    Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

  12. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  13. Neuroprotective Effect of Matricaria chamomilla Extract on Motor Dysfunction Induced by Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia and Reperfusion in Rat

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    Azam Moshfegh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Stroke can cause paralysis, muscle weakness, and loss of balance that may affect walking and routine activities. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ethyl alcohol extract of Matricaria chamomilla on cerebral ischemia-induced motor dysfunctions in rats. Methods In this experimental study, forty two male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups consisting of control group, sham group, ischemia/reperfusion group and three treatment groups [treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg doses of M. chamomilla extract and undergoing ischemia/reperfusion(I/R]. Motor coordination and balance were evaluated using Rotarod test. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA, and nitric oxide (NO levels of serum and brain were also determined. Results The extract of M. chamomilla significantly improved I/R-induced motor dysfunction. Induction of I/R led to increase serum MDA, while the extract of M, chamomlla significantly reduced it. Administration all doses of M. chamomilla extract to the ischemic rats did not reduce the hippocampus MDA levels (P > 0.05. The extract of M. chamomilla at dose of 200 mg/kg slightly decreased cortex MDA (P > 0.01. It had no significant effects on the total antioxidant capacity of the brain (hippocampus and cortex and serum. Injection of Matricaria chamomilla extract also did not change serum NO level. Conclusions Our findings suggested that the Matricaria chamomilla extract could improve motor dysfunction.

  14. Biological response of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis, towards combination of seed and leaf extracts from red gum Eucalyptus Camaldulensis and/or gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Shall, S.S.A.; Alm El Din, M.M.S.; Hazaa, M.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The biological response of the F1 progeny of the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera Littoralis (Bosid.), (from males irradiated as parental pupae with 75 and 125 Gy gamma radiation) to seed or leaf extracts of Eucalyptus Camaldulensis plant were studied. The fecundity, fertility, and mating potency of F1 adults were employed as assess for response. Analysis of variance indicated that, different treatments with gamma irradiation and/or plant extracts, at most mating crosses and most interactions between all of them, showed significant role in decreasing the fecundity and fertility of F1 adults. In general, the combined treatments of seed or leaf extracts with gamma irradiation. as dependent factors regardless other factors, decreased the emergence of adults compared to the control or single treatments of either seed extract or gamma irradiation. As well, combination treatments of radiation and seed extract decreased significantly the fecundity of moths compared to control or irradiation treatment alone. On the other hand, the combination treatments of either seed or leaf extracts did not have any significant difference in the number of mating per female, as compared to control, while irradiation treatments decreased the number of mating compared to vontrol. The effects of most possible probabilities of interaction between doses, crosses and treatments on reproduction were estimated and discussed and also the effects on development of F1 progeny were included

  15. Citrullus lanatus 'sentinel' (watermelon) extract reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poduri, Aruna; Rateri, Debra L; Saha, Shubin K; Saha, Sibu; Daugherty, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus or C. lanatus) has many potentially bioactive compounds including citrulline, which may influence atherosclerosis. In this study, we determined the effects of C. lanatus, provided as an extract of the cultivar 'sentinel,' on hypercholesterolemia-induced atherosclerosis in mice. Male low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice at 8 weeks old were given either C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract (2% vol/vol; n=10) or a mixture of matching carbohydrates (2% vol/vol; n=8) as the control in drinking water while being fed a saturated fat-enriched diet for 12 weeks ad libitum. Mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract had significantly increased plasma citrulline concentrations. Systolic blood pressure was comparable between the two groups. Consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to lower body weight and fat mass without influencing lean mass. There were no differences in food and water intake and in urine output between the two groups. C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract administration decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations that were attributed to reductions of intermediate-/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Plasma concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interferon-gamma were decreased and those of interleukin-10 were increased in mice consuming C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract. Intake of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract resulted in reductions of atherosclerosis in both aortic arch and thoracic regions. In conclusion, consumption of C. lanatus 'sentinel' extract led to reduced body weight gain, decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations, improved homeostasis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and attenuated development of atherosclerosis without affecting systolic blood pressure in hypercholesterolemic mice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polistes olivaceous decreases biotic surface colonization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... Polistes olivaceous, extracted from honeycomb of De. Geer, is .... students were randomly recruited in the test between 2007 and. 2009. ..... 4: 114-123. Dennis DA, Gawronski TH, Sudo SZ, Harris RS, Folke LE (1975).

  17. COGNITIVE THERAPY DECREASE THE LEVEL OF DEPRESSION

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    Ah. Yusuf

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging is a natural process in individuals. Most of the elderly have problems in dealing with this natural process. Lost of occupation, friends and loneliness may result in depression in this age group. Cognitive therapy changes pessimistic idea, unrealistic hopes and excessive self evaluation may result and justify depression. Cognitive therapy may help elderly to recognize the problem in life, to develop positive objective of life and to create more positive personality. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy to reduce the level of depression. Method: This study was used a pre experimental pre post test design. Sample were 10 elderly people who met to the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was cognitive therapy and dependent variable was the level of depression in elderly. Data were collected by using Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS 15, then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance levelα≤0.05. Result: The result showed that cognitive therapy has an effect on reducing depression with significance level p=0.005. Discussion: It can be concluded that cognitive therapy was effective in reducing depression level in elderly. Further studies are recommended to analyze the effect of cognitive therapy on decreasing anxiety in elderly by measuring cathecolamin.

  18. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of the organic extract of green algae chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyadari, Mahender; Fatma, Tasneem; Azad, Rajvardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: algae isolates obtained from fresh and marine resources could be one of the richest sources of novel bioactive secondary metabolites expected to have pharmaceutical significance for new drug development. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental models of angiogenesis and by MTT assay. Materials and Methods: lyophilized extract of C. pyrenoidosa was extracted using dichloromethane/methanol (2:1), concentrated and vacuum evaporated to obtain the dried extract. The crude extract was evaluated in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations (n = 8) using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups, respectively. The crude extract was also subjected to the antiangiogenic activity in the silver nitrate/potassium nitrate cautery model of corneal neovascularization (CN) in rats where topical bevacizumab was used as a positive control. The vasculature was photographed and blood vessel density was quantified using Aphelion imaging software. The extract was also evaluated for its anti proliferative activity by microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay using HeLa cancer cell line (ATCC). Results: VEGF increased the blood vessel density by 220% as compared to normal and thalidomide treatment decreased it to 67.2% in in ovo assay. In the in-vivo CN model, the mean neovascular density in the control group, the C. pyrenoidosa extract and bevacizumab group were found to be 100%, 59.02%, and 32.20%, respectively. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract negatively affected the viability of HeLa cells. An IC50 value of the extract was 570 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: a significant antiangiogenic activity was observed against VEGF-induced neovascularization and antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. In this study, it could be attributed that the activity may be

  19. Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects

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    Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon, may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon. Materials and Methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells. Results: It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice. Conclusion: These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages.

  20. Prescription Program Provides Significant Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Most school districts today are looking for ways to save money without decreasing services to its staff. Retired pharmacist Tim Sylvester, a lifelong resident of Alpena Public Schools in Alpena, Michigan, presented the district with a pharmaceuticals plan that would save the district money without raising employee co-pays for prescriptions. The…

  1. The effects of Vitex agnus castus extract and its interaction with dopaminergic system on LH and testosterone in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, Sima; Oryan, Shahrbano; Rohani, Ali Haeri; Amin, Gholam Reza

    2007-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the probable effects of Vitex agnus castus (Vac.) on the male reproductive physiology. It is a well known fact that LH secretion from the anterior pituitary of mammals is controlled by many neurotransmiters such as dopamine. In this experiment, we have studied the effect of Vac. extract on the LH and testosterone hormones and its interaction with the dopaminergic system on male mice. In order to evaluate these effects, we used the hydroalcoholic Vac. extract (for extraction we used percolation technique) injection with the following doses: 65, 165, 265, 365 and 465 mg kg-', bromocriptine as a dopamine receptor agonist (5, 10, 20 mg kg(-1)) and haloperidol as a dopamine receptor antagonist (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 mg kg(-1)). To study the interaction between Vac. extract and dopaminergic system, we injected the optimum doses of Vac. with bromocriptine or haloperidol at the same time. Intraperitoneal injections were applied in all experiments, once a day for 30 days. The control group remained intact and the sham group received vehicle. After the last injection, we collected the animal blood serums for hormonal assays. LH and testosterone were measured by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA). LH and testosterone, showed significant decrease in bromocriptine group and haloperidol increased these hormones. Vac. extract decreased significantly the LH and testosterone levels. The coadministration of Vac. extract and bromocriptine decreased LH and testosterone. Coadministration of Vac. extract and haloperidol decreased LH and testosterone levels. These results suggest: dopamine regulates the gonadotroph-leydig cells axis. It appears that Vac. exertes effects through dopaminergic system and other pathways. The findings of this study show we can use Vac. extract for pathological cases of increasing LH and testosterone.

  2. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF MORINGA PEREGRINA LEAVES EXTRACT ON ACETAMINOPHEN -INDUCED LIVER TOXICITY IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azim, Samy Abdelfatah Abdel; Abdelrahem, Mohamed Taha; Said, Mostafa Mohamed; Khattab, Alshaimaa

    2017-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a common antipyretic drug but at overdose can cause severe hepatotoxicity that may further develop into liver failure and hepatic centrilobular necrosis in experimental animals and humans. This study was undertaken to assess the ameliorative role of Moringa peregrina leaves extract against acetaminophen toxicity in rats. Induction of hepatotoxicity was done by chronic oral administration of acetaminophen (750 mg/kg bwt) for 4 weeks. To study the possible hepatoprotective effect, Moringa peregrina leaves extract (200 mg/kg bwt) or Silymarin (50 mg/kg bwt) was administered orally, for 4 weeks, along with acetaminophen. acetaminophen significantly increased serum liver enzymes and caused oxidative stress, evidenced by significantly increased tissue malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, hepatic DNA fragmentation, and significant decrease of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes in liver, blood and brain. On the other hand, administration of Moringa peregrina leaves extract reversed acetaminophen-related toxic effects through: powerful malondialdehyde suppression, glutathione peroxidase normalization and stimulation of the cellular antioxidants synthesis represented by significant increase of glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase in liver, blood and brain, besides, DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased in the liver tissue. acetaminophen induced oxidative damage can be improved by Moringa peregrina leaves extract-treatment, due to its antioxidant potential.

  3. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  4. [Allelopathy autotoxicity effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on rooting and growth of stem cuttings in Pogostemon cablin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kun; Li, Ming; Dong, Shan; Li, Yun-qi; Huang, Jie-wen; Li, Long-ming

    2014-06-01

    To study the allelopathy effects of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil on the rooting and growth of stem cutting in Pogostemon cablin, and to reveal its mechanism initially. The changes of rhizogenesis characteristics and physic-biochemical during cutting seedlings were observed when using different concentration of aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil had significant inhibitory effects on rooting rate, root number, root length, root activity, growth rate of cutting with increasing concentrations of tissue extracts; The chlorophyll content of cutting seedlings were decreased, but content of MDA were increased, and activities of POD, PPO and IAAO in cutting seedlings were affected. Aquatic extracts from rhizospheric soil of Pogostemon cablin have varying degrees of inhibitory effects on the normal rooting and growth of stem cuttings.

  5. Evaluation of lipid extractability after flash hydrolysis of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teymouri, Ali; Adams, Kameron J.; Dong, Tao; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-07-01

    biocrude yields from the BI and its quality was significantly enhanced post FH than that of raw algae. The FH process was proven to be a viable option for lipid extraction by increasing the extent of recovery and decreasing the extraction time. Its integration with HTL notably impact the biocrude yields and characteristics for fuel production.

  6. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  7. Differential Effects of Tea Extracts on Growth and Cytokine Production by Normal and Leukemic Human Leukocytes

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    Diana Bayer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tea is one of the world’s most highly consumed beverages, second only to water. It is affordable and abundant and thus has great potential for improving health of those in both developed and developing areas. Green, oolong, and black teas differ in the extent of fermentation and types of bioactive polyphenols produced. Green tea and its major polyphenol decrease growth of some cancer cells and effect production of immune system cytokines. This study compares the effects of different types of tea extracts on viability and cytokine production by normal and leukemic human T lymphocytes. Generation of the toxic reactive oxygen species H2O2 by extracts was also examined.Methods: The Jurkat T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and mitogen-stimulated normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were used in this study. Cell viability was determined by (3-4,5-dimethylthiamizol-2-yl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and production of interleukin-2 by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. Levels of H2O2 generated by tea extracts were determined using the xylenol-orange method.Results: We found that green, oolong, and black tea extracts differentially effect the growth and viability of T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, substantially decreasing both growth and viability of leukemic T lymphocytes and having much lesser effects on their normal counterparts. Tea extracts also had differential effects on the production of the T lymphocyte growth factor interleukin-2, significantly decreasing production by leukemic cells while having only minor effects on normal cells. All three extracts induced H2O2 generation, with green and oolong tea extracts having the greatest effect. Leukemic cells were much more susceptible to growth inhibition and killing by H2O2 than normal lymphocytes.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(4:72-85 Conclusions: The three tea extracts studied altered leukemic T lymphocyte

  8. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Mominul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum, lettuce (Lactuca sativa, alfalfa (Medicago sativa, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli, and timothy (Phleum pratense at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP, germination index (GI, germination energy (GE, speed of emergence (SE, seedling vigour index (SVI, and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50 and mean germination time (MGT were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds.

  9. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  10. Sorption of cesium, strontium, and technetium onto organic-extracted shales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, P.C.

    1992-01-01

    The sorption of Cs(I), Sr(II), and Tc(VII) onto organic-extracted shales from synthetic brine groundwaters and from 0.03-M NaHCO 3 solution under oxid conditions at room temperature has been studied. The shale samples used in this study were Pumpkin Valley, Upper Dowelltown, Pierre and Green River Formation Shales. The organic content of these shales ranges from less than 2 wt% to 13 wt%. Soxhlet extraction with chloroform and a mixture of chloroform and methanol removed 0.07 to 5.9 wt% of the total organic matter from these shales. In comparison with the results of sorption of these three metal ions onto the corresponding untreated shales, it was observed that there were moderate to significant sorption decreases of Cs(I) and Sr(II) on all four organic-extracted shale samples and moderate sorption decrease of Tc(VII) on the organic-extracted Pumpkin Valley, Pierre, and Green River Shale samples, but only moderate sorption increases of Tc(VII) on the organic-extracted Upper Dowelltown Shale samples from the brine groundwaters. Nevertheless, sorption of Cs(I), Sr(II), and Tc(VII) on all four organic-extracted shale samples from the bicarbonate solution in most cases did not show a consistent pattern. (orig.)

  11. Copaifera langsdorffii: evaluation of potential gastroprotective of extract and isolated compounds obtained from leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marivane Lemos

    Full Text Available AbstractGastric ulcer is a prevalent gastrointestinal disease, and the drugs currently used in the treatment produce several adverse effects. In this context, the search for new therapeutic antiulcer agents is essential, and medicinal plants have great potential. Here, we investigated the gastroprotective properties of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Fabaceae, hydroalcoholic extract obtained from leaves and its isolated compounds. The phytochemistry studies and the compounds isolations were performed using chromatographic and spectroscopic methodologies. The hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using ethanol/HCl, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, stress-induced-ulcer and chronic ulcer-model. The effects on gastric content volume, pH, total acidity and mucus stomach production were evaluated in the pylorus ligated-model. The C. langsdorffii extract obtained from leaves (50, 250 or 500 mg/kg reduced the injured area compared to control group in all experiments. The extract showed a significant decrease in the total gastric juice acidity and an increase in mucus production (500 mg/kg when compared to vehicle. Among isolated compounds (30 mg/kg α-humulene, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide showed greater gastroprotective activity in the ethanol/HCl induced ulcer model. The data herein obtained shown that C. langsdorffii leaves extract and isolated compounds from it, presented gastroprotective properties in different animal models of gastric ulcer. These effects may be associated with the ability of the extract to decrease gastric secretion and increase the mucus production.

  12. Phytochemistry and hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Aneja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus Amaranthus has potential activity as a hepatoprotective agent. Objective : The present pharmacological investigation focuses on evaluation of the efficacy of aqueous extract of roots of Amaranthus tricolor Linn. for their protection against paracetamol (PCM overdose induced hepatotoxicity . Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of roots of A. tricolor Linn. was prepared and phytochemical screening was done. The biochemical investigation viz. serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total Bilirubin (TB was done against PCM-induced hepatotoxicity in wistar albino rats. The histopathological studies of liver were also done. Results: The phytochemical screening of the aqueous extract showed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, amino acids, proteins, fixed oil, saponins and tannins, and phenolic compounds. Pretreatment with the aqueous extract of root significantly prevented the physical, biochemical, histological, and functional changes induced by paracetamol in the liver. The extract showed significant hepatoprotective effects as evidenced by decreased serum enzyme activities like SGPT, SGOT, ALP, and TB, which was supported by histopathological studies of liver. The aqueous extract showed significant hepatoprotective activity comparable with standard drug silymarin as well as hepatotoxin drug PCM. Conclusion: From these results, it is concluded that the A. tricolor has potential effectiveness in treating liver damage in a dose dependent manner.

  13. Effects of Onion Extracts on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Blood Profiles of White Mini Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. An

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to investigate effects of onion extract on growth performance, meat quality and blood profiles of White mini broilers. Total of 600 one-d-old male White mini broiler chicks were divided into four groups and fed control diets (non-medicated commercial diet or antibiotics medicated or experimental diets (non-medicated diets containing 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract for 5 wks. The final body weight (BW and weight gain of the group fed non-medicated control diet were lower than those of medicated control group (p<0.01. The chicks fed diet with 0.3% or 0.5% onion extract showed a similar BW to that of medicated control group. The relative weight of various organs, such as liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius, abdominal fat, and the activities of serum enzymes were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no significant differences in meat color among groups. Whereas, groups fed diets containing onion extract had slightly lower cooking loss and higher shear force value, but not significantly. The concentrations of serum free cholesterol and triacylglycerol in groups fed diet containing onion extract were significantly decreased compared with those of controls (p<0.01. In conclusion, the onion extracts exerted a growth-promoting effect when added in White mini broiler diets, reflecting potential alternative substances to replace antibiotics.

  14. Study of hypocholesterolemic activity of Algerian Pistacia lentiscus leaves extracts in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Cheurfa

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants are a large source of new bioactive molecules with therapeutic potentials. However, only a small amount of worldwide plants have been phytochemically investigated. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistacia lentiscus L., Anacardiaceae, leaves were evaluated for hypocholesterolemic activity in vivo. In this study, hypercholesterolemia was induced in animals by feeding them high cholesterol (1% food. The extracts of P. lentiscus were orally administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight along with a high cholesterol diet for thirty successive days. Lipid parameters such as total cholesterol, triacylglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein were measured in the plasma. Total phenol and flavonoid contents were also evaluated. Flavonoid content was found to be more present in the ethanolic extract (8.218 ± 0.009 mg of QE/g compared to the aqueous extract (3.107 ± 0.014 mg of QE/g. The administration of P. lentiscus extracts produced a significant decrease in total cholesterol, triacylglyceride and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (154.6 ± 18.10, 71.2 ± 4.38 and 99.36 ± 18.77 mg/dl respectively in the ethanolic extract, while the aqueous extract showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol and triacylglyceride (203.6 ± 9.18 and 97.6 ± 3.57 mg/dl respectively. The results of the investigation demonstrated that P. lentiscus leaf extract has hypocholesterolemic properties and might be used for the prevention of hypercholesterolemia associated disorders.

  15. Cellular toxicity of calf blood extract on human corneal epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Min; Kim, Su Jin; Han, Young Sang; Lee, Jong Soo

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the biologic effects of the calf blood extract on corneal epithelial cells in vitro. The effects on corneal epithelial cells were evaluated after 1, 4, 12, and 24 h of exposure to various concentrations of calf blood extract (3, 5, 8 and 16%). The MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay was performed to measure levels of cellular metabolic activity. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay was performed to determine the extent of cellular damage. Cellular morphology was examined using phase-contrast microscopy. The scratch wound assay was performed to quantify the migration of corneal epithelial cells. At the 3 and 5% concentrations of calf blood extract, MTT values were similar to those observed in the control group. However, at a concentration of 8 and 16%, cellular metabolic activity was significantly decreased after 4 h of exposure to calf blood extract. After 12 h of exposure to 8 and 16% concentrations of calf blood extract, LDH activity and cellular morphological damage to the corneal epithelial cells were significantly increased. There was no evidence of cellular migration after 12 h exposure to 5% or higher concentration of calf blood extract because of cellular toxicity. Compared with normal corneal epithelial cells, the cellular activity was decreased, and toxicity was increased after over 12 h of exposure to more than 5% concentration of calf blood extract. Further clinical studies will be necessary to determine the optimal concentration and exposure time for the topical application of eye drops containing calf blood extract.

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Sambucus ebulus Extracts on Growth of Macrophomina phaseolina and Extraction of their Bioactive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maede Shahiri Tabarestani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Macrophomina phaseolina is the causal agent of soybean charcoal rot. This disease is one of the most prevalent and destructive of soybean in the north of Iran. This pathogen has broad host range and invades more than 500 plant species of 75 families, such as Caprifoliaceae. Symptoms on stems appear as silver-gray lesions near the base, which eventually decay the stem. Plants show poor seed fill, premature ripening, and undersized heads. Seed yield and oil content are decreased. Numerous tiny black bodies called sclerotia are formed on the decayed tissues giving the stalks a charred appearance. This fungus exists in the soil as sclerotia, a compact mass of hardened mycelia structures, which can remain dormant for many years. As the causal agent, is a soil-borne pathogen, chemical fungicides are not effective for its control. This matter has led to use a large amount of fungicides that are harmful to human health and lead to environmental pollution. There is not any registered fungicide against the charcoal rot pathogen. Some medicinal plants have a potential for controlling various phytopathogenic fungi due to the variety of compounds. Scientists are trying to achieve some plant-derived compounds for diseases control. Natural plant products are biodegradable, show structural diversity and rarely consist halogenated atoms. These can act directly as pesticides or may supply structure lead to pesticidal discovery. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition and antifungal activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Sambucus ebulus for control of M. phaseolina and replace the chemical fungicides. Materials and Methods: The plant leaves were collected during July - August 2014 in Babol (Mazandaran province- Iran and washed thoroughly with tap water and then rinsed with distilled water and shade dried at room temperature. The dried plant material was finely powdered using an electric grinder and used for aqueous and

  17. Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Leonard, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Advanced integrated solvent extraction systems are a series of novel solvent extraction (SX) processes that will remove and recover all of the major radioisotopes from acidic-dissolved sludge or other acidic high-level wastes. The major focus of this effort during the last 2 years has been the development of a combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process, the Combined CSEX-SREX Process. The Combined CSEX-SREX Process relies on a mixture of a strontium-selective macrocyclic polyether and a novel cesium-selective extractant based on dibenzo 18-crown-6. The process offers several potential advantages over possible alternatives in a chemical processing scheme for high-level waste treatment. First, if the process is applied as the first step in chemical pretreatment, the radiation level for all subsequent processing steps (e.g., transuranic extraction/recovery, or TRUEX) will be significantly reduced. Thus, less costly shielding would be required. The second advantage of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process is that the recovered Cs-Sr fraction is non-transuranic, and therefore will decay to low-level waste after only a few hundred years. Finally, combining individual processes into a single process will reduce the amount of equipment required to pretreat the waste and therefore reduce the size and cost of the waste processing facility. In an ongoing collaboration with Lockheed Martin Idaho Technology Company (LMITCO), the authors have successfully tested various segments of the Advanced Integrated Solvent Extraction Systems. Eichrom Industries, Inc. (Darien, IL) synthesizes and markets the Sr extractant and can supply the Cs extractant on a limited basis. Plans are under way to perform a test of the Combined CSEX-SREX Process with real waste at LMITCO in the near future.

  18. Quality Parameters of Curcuma Longa L. Extracts by Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction (UAE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaibunnisa Abdul Haiyee; Siti Hafsah Mohd Shah; Khudzir Ismail; Nooraain Hashim; Wan Iryani Wan Ismail

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is one of the prominently use herbal plants due to its diverse beneficial effects especially in Indian medicine. The rhizome part of the turmeric contains valuable compounds which have been said to owe its antimicrobial effects, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and enhance wound healing. Due to its short-life span and perishable properties, the conversion of the rhizome into turmeric extract is desirable. Several methods have been used for extraction such as Soxhlet extraction and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). However, these techniques are tedious, laborious, time consuming and involves the usage of toxic organic solvent, of which safeness of the end product is doubtful. In this study, a rapid, reliable and green extraction method of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) were used. SFE without modifier has resulted in 0.0006 mg/ 100 g of curcuminoids concentration and 5.62 % of yield (dry weight basis). UAE using ethanol was able to produce significantly the highest yield (6.40 %, dry weight basis) and the highest curcuminoids concentration (0.1020 mg/ 100 g). However, SFE was able to produce extract that contain significantly higher major volatile compounds; tumerone, ar-turmerone and curlone. Therefore, this study proves that both extraction methods were able to produce high quality turmeric extract. (author)

  19. Insulin-induced decrease in protein phosphorylation in rat adipocytes not explained by decreased A-kinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.J.; Greenberg, A.S.; Chang, M.K.; Londos, C.

    1987-01-01

    In isolated rat adipocytes, insulin inhibits lipolysis to a greater extent than would be predicted by the decrease in (-/+)cAMP activity ratio of cAMP-dependent protein kinase [A-kinase], from which it was speculated that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase. They have examined the phosphorylation state of cellular proteins under conditions of varying A-kinase activities in the presence and absence of insulin. Protein phosphorylation was determined by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of extracts from 32 P-loaded cells; glycerol and A-kinase activity ratios were measured in the cytosolic extracts from control, non-radioactive cells. Increased protein phosphorylation in general occurred over the same range of A-kinase activity ratios, 0.1-0.3, associated with increased glycerol release. The insulin-induced decrease in lipolysis was associated with a decrease in the 32 P content of several proteins, an effect not explained by the modest reduction in A-kinase activity by insulin. This effect of insulin on protein phosphorylation was lost as the A-kinase activity ratios exceeded 0.5. The results suggest that insulin promotes the dephosphorylation of those adipocyte proteins which are subject to phosphorylation by A-kinase

  20. DecreaseKeys are Expensive for External Memory Priority Queues

    OpenAIRE

    Eenberg, Kasper; Larsen, Kasper Green; Yu, Huacheng

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest open problems in external memory data structures is the priority queue problem with DecreaseKey operations. If only Insert and ExtractMin operations need to be supported, one can design a comparison-based priority queue performing $O((N/B)\\lg_{M/B} N)$ I/Os over a sequence of $N$ operations, where $B$ is the disk block size in number of words and $M$ is the main memory size in number of words. This matches the lower bound for comparison-based sorting and is hence optimal fo...

  1. Studies on extraction of uranium (VI) with petroleum sulfoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yanzhao; Sun Sixiu; Bao Borong

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) with petroleum sulfoxides(PSO) in different diluents is studied. The extraction ability of U(VI) decreases in the following order: benzene, toluene, cyclohexane, heptane, kerosene, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform. The influence of the concentrations of nitric acid, PSO, salting out agent, complexing anion and temperature on the extraction equilibrium is also investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction is obtained. The relationship between the extraction equilibrium constants K ex and the physical parameters of diluents is derived. The extraction mechanism and equilibrium are examined by measurement of IR spectrophotometry

  2. The space charge effects on the slow extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Chihiro.

    1992-06-01

    The calculation of the slow extraction which includes the space charge effects has been performed for the Compressor/Stretcher Ring (CSR) of the proposed Japanese Hadron Project. We have investigated the slow extraction of 1 GeV proton beam with an average current of 100μA. Calculation shows not only the emittance growth of the extracted beam but also decrease of the extraction efficiency and discontinuity of beam spill. (author)

  3. Radioimmunological detection of vasopressin in urine extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buengner, R.

    1983-01-01

    After initial measures had been taken to ensure that ion exchange chromatography would yield a sufficiently high recovery of labelled and non-labelled hormone as well as to eliminate all intervening factors it was possible to use the described extraction procedure in connection with the RIA introduced by Freisenhausen et al. At the clinical level, the technique was employed to assess the post-operative release of AVP (argenine vasopressin) in 24-hour urine samples obtained from patients subjected to hypophysectomy. In a total of 10 patients, where hypophysectomy had been performed for different clinical reasons, the AVP values were seen to be significantly decreased for the first three hours after surgical intervention. They recovered slightly during the following three hours to remain at an average level of 2 pg / 400 μl urine. The extraction procedure described can be used to determine levels of AVP approaching the limit of detection - either due to large volumes of urine or very low concentrations of AVP. (orig./MG) [de

  4. Insecticidal, food utilisation and biochemical effect of essential oils extracted from seeds of Brassica juncea (Czern. against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (Fabricius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shallina Gupta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The glucosinolate rich hot and cold hexane extracts of Brassica juncea had a negative effect on the development of Spodoptera litura larvae when they were fed on different concentrations of the extracts. Both larval growth index and pupal growth index declined with treatment. However the hot extract with 3-butenyl isothiocyanate as the predominant compound had a more deleterious effect as at 3125ppm the larvae were unable to complete their development. The nutritional indices too were more adversely affected with hot extract as compared to cold extract. The RGR, RCR, ECI and ECD declined significantly with increase in concentration of the hot hexane extract. The activity of antioxidant enzymes, SOD and catalase decreased while that of phosphatases, GSTs, phenol oxidases increased during the initial treatment duration but decreased on prolonged treatment of the larvae with LC50 concentration of hot extract. A similar trend was observed for glutathione and lipid peroxides but a decrease in ascorbate content was observed as compared to control. The findings reveal a toxic effect of 3-butenylisothiocyanate rich hot hexane extract of B. juncea on S. litura larvae.

  5. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouayard, N.; Rharrabe, K.; Ghailani, N. N.; Jbilou, R.; Castanera, P.; Ortego, F.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens) on Plodia interpunctella Hubner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea) and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85%) and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva). The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm); and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm). All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and {alpha}-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate) activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate) increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed. (Author) 65 refs.

  6. Insecticidal effects of Moroccan plant extracts on development, energy reserves and enzymatic activities of Plodia interpunctella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bouayad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the effects of methanol extracts of ten plant species used in traditional medicine in Morocco (Peganum harmala, Ajuga iva, Rosmarinus officinalis, Lavandula stoechas, Lavandula dentata, Cistus ladanifer, Cistus salviaefolius, Cistus monspeliensis, Centaurium erythraea and Launaea arborescens on Plodia interpunctella Hübner (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae larvae. Firstly, we studied the effects of the ingestion of these extracts at 500 ppm on post-embryonic development parameters. Most plant extracts provoked a notable decrease of larval weight 8 days after treatment (up to 33% weight loss with C. erythraea and caused significant alterations on pupation (ranging from 5% to 85% and adult emergence (below 2.5% with R. officinalis, C. erythraea and A. iva. The plant extracts that showed strongest effects on post-embryonic development were selected to test their effects on the following physiological parameters: larval reserve substances (at 500 ppm; and midgut activities of hydrolytic and detoxification enzymes (at 500, 750 and 1000 ppm. All treatments provoked a significant reduction of protein and carbon hydrate larval contents, the inhibition of proteases and α-amylase activities in a dose depended manner, and the induction of glutathione S-transferase and esterase (using MtB as substrate activities, whereas the activity of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases (using 1-NA as substrate increase or decrease depending on the extract concentration and the plant analyzed.

  7. Toxicity Profile of the Aqueous Ethanol Root Extract of Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hind Lakmichi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrigiola telephiifolia Pourr. (Caryophyllaceae is a Moroccan medicinal plant. Despite its popular usage, no study has been published concerning its toxicological profile. The acute toxicity of C. telephiifolia root extract was evaluated by giving it orally to mice at single doses of 5000, 10000, and 14000 mg/kg bodyweight. The extract was also administered at doses of 5, 70, and 2000 mg/kg bodyweight per day to rats for a forty-day toxicity study. No mortality or signs of toxicity were observed in the acute study. In the forty-day study in rats, the extract at 5 mg/kg/day showed no toxicological effects in either sex. At 70 mg/kg/day, the treated group differed from the control only by a significant decrease in serum concentrations of sodium and chloride ions (P<.05. At the dose of 2000 mg/kg/day, the extract significantly increased the serum concentrations of creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase and phosphorus (P<.05 all suggestive of functional nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The relative bodyweight of both sexes decreased at the dose of 2000 mg/kg/day, with a fast recovery for males. Histological examination did not reveal any treatment-related effects. In conclusion, Corrigiola extract appears safe at the doses used ethno-medicinally. Much higher doses pose toxicological risks.

  8. Extraction chromatography of lanthanides, ch. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekierski, S.; Fidelis, I.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction of lanthanides by chelate formation with acidic organophosphorous extractants, by solvation of salts, and in the form of ion pairs is reviewed. The double-double effect and its significance for the lanthanide as well as the actinide separation is discussed. A short survey of the existing data on the enthalpies of lanthanide extraction and on the influence of temperature on their separation factor is given. The resolution ability of columns used for the separation of lanthanides is briefly surveyed

  9. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  10. Polymeric supported sorbents for decreasing hazardous metal ions content in wet process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Zahhar, A.A.; El-Naggar, H.A.; Ahmed, M.

    2005-01-01

    Procedure for preparation of polymeric supported silica, and their usage for decreasing hazardous metal ion content in wet process phosphoric acid was developed. The procedure is based firstly on extraction silica from rice straw by alkaline treatment , secondly supporting the produced silica on binding polyacrylonitrile (PAN). The produced polymer based sorbent was used for decreasing hazardous metal ions (especially iron) present as inorganic impurities in crud Egyptian phosphoric acid (green acid). Different factors affecting the sorption equilibrium ( contact time, temperature , sorbent mass and batch factor ) were studied. Studying the sorption isotherm revealed that the adsorption data could favorably fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. In the dynamic study , the sorption capacity at (Cξ/Cο = 50%) was found to be 28.5 mg/g and the loaded column could be regenerated using 50ml of 0.15 M HNO 3 . The regenerated column could undergo sorption regeneration cycles up to four cycles without significant decrease in the sorption capacity , weight loss or change in the physical properties of the sorbent

  11. Hyper-arousal decreases human visual thresholds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Woods

    Full Text Available Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0-2° C water, a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1 and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2 were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.

  12. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of sunflower on wheat (triticum aestivum l.) and maize (zea mays l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, Z.; Mujeed, A.

    2014-01-01

    Sunflower is a potent allelopathic plant which possesses important allelochemicals with known allelopathic activity on other plants. In this study, allelopathic effects of fresh aqueous extracts (FAE) and air dried aqueous extracts (DAE) of root, shoot and leaves of sunflower (Halianthus annuus L.) were investigated on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) in seed bioassay experiments carried out at Botany Department of Peshawar University during 2010. Results showed significantly inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts on seed germination, growth and dry biomass of seedlings of wheat and maize. In wheat seedlings, significant germination inhibition (15.21%), increased mean germination time (MGT) (57.76%), reduced plumule and radical growth (21.66 and 28.44%) and lowered seedlings dry biomass (31.05%) were recorded under dry aqueous extracts of leaf when compared to control. Germination percentage of maize was inhibited by dry aqueous extracts of leaf by 7.81%, germination index by 16.51%, increased MGT by 25.53%, decreased plumule and radical lengths by 29.00 and 36.12% respectively, and lowered maize seedling dry biomass by 34.02 %. In both experiments, dry aqueous extracts (DAE) were more phytotoxic than fresh aqueous extracts (FAE). Similarly, inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts of different parts of sunflower were recorded in the order leaf > shoot > root for both tested plants. (author)

  13. Extraction of radioactive cesium from tea leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukiko; Kubo, M. Kenya; Higaki, Shogo; Hirota, Masahiro; Nomura, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive contamination of foodstuffs attributed to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster has become a social problem. This study investigated the extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves to the tea. The green tea was brewed twice reusing the same leaves to study the difference in extraction of cesium between the first and second brew. Moreover, the extraction of cesium was studied in correlation to brewing time. The concentration of radioactive cesium was determined with gamma spectrometry, and the concentration of caffeine was determined with absorption spectrometry. About 40% of cesium was extracted from leaves in the first brew, and about 80% was extracted in the second brew. The extraction of cesium increased over time, and it reached about 80% after 10 minutes brew. The ratio of radioactive cesium to caffeine decreased linearly over time. This study revealed that the extraction of cesium was higher for the second brew, and a rapid increase in extraction was seen as the tea was brewed for 6 minutes and more. Therefore, the first brew of green tea, which was brewed within 5 minutes, contained the least extraction of radioactive cesium from the contaminated leaves. (author)

  14. Extract of Acanthospermum hispidum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    quantitatively. Acute toxicity study of the extract was conducted, and diabetic rats induced using alloxan (80 mg/kg ... Type 2 diabetes is one of the leading causes of mortality and ..... (2011): Phytochemical screening and extraction - A review.

  15. Extracts against Various Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritika Chauhan

    2013-07-01

    The present study shows that tested lichen Parmotrema sp. extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial effect. That suggests the active components from methanol extracts of the investigated lichen Parmotrema sp. can be used as natural antimicrobial agent against pathogens.

  16. using Supercritical Fluid Extraction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Supercritical CO2 extraction technology was adopted in this experiment to study the process of extraction of volatile oil from Polygonatum odoratum while gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer ..... Saponin rich fractions from.

  17. [Delayed wound healing post molar extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, R H; De Visscher, J G A M

    2009-02-01

    One month post extraction of the second left maxillary molar the alveolar extraction site showed no signs of healing and was painful. The patient had been using an oral bisphosphonate during 3 years. Therefore, the lesion was diagnosed as bisphosphonate-induced maxillary osteonecrosis. Treatment was conservative. Since one month later the pain had increased and the wound healing had decreased, a biopsy was carried out. Histopathologic examination revealed a non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

  18. Simple, specific analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediments using column extraction and gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple, specific procedure was developed for the analysis of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides in sediment. The wet soil was mixed with anhydrous sodium sulfate to bind water and the residues were column extracted in acetone:methylene chloride (1:l,v/v). Coextracted water was removed by additional sodium sulfate packed below the sample mixture. The eluate was concentrated and analyzed directly by capillary gas chromatography using phosphorus and nitrogen specific detectors. Recoveries averaged 93 % for sediments extracted shortly after spiking, but decreased significantly as the samples aged.

  19. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Avena sativa L. Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Amini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nowadays, nanoparticles bio production, considering their performance in medicine and biological science, is increasing. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles The objectives of this study were the production of silver nanoparticles using Avena sativa L. extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of substrate (silver nitrate (AgNo3 and temperature on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. Methods: In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an extract of Avena sativa L. at different temperatures (30° C, 60° C, 90° C  and AgNo3 concentrations( 1 mM, 2mM, 4mM . The morphology and size of the nanoparticles were determined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. Results: SEM images showed that by increasing temperature nanoparticles size were decreased and by increasing concentrations of AgNo3 the number of nanoparticles was increased. Conclusions: The results indicated that by increasing the reaction temperature, the size of the nanoparticles would decrease. Also by increasing the concentrations of AgNo3, the amount of produced nanoparticles would be increased, but won't have a significant effect on its size. The preparation of nano- structured silver particles using Avena sativa L. extract provides an environmentally friendly option as compared to currently available chemical/ physical methods.

  20. Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Isoflavonoids from Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blicharski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe and compare selected traditional and modern extraction methods employed in the isolation of isoflavonoids from plants. Conventional methods such as maceration, percolation, or Soxhlet extraction are still frequently used in phytochemical analysis. Despite their flexibility, traditional extraction techniques have significant drawbacks, including the need for a significant investment of time, energy, and starting material, and a requirement for large amounts of potentially toxic solvents. Moreover, these techniques are difficult to automate, produce considerable amount of waste and pose a risk of degradation of thermolabile compounds. Modern extraction methods, such as: ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and negative pressure cavitation extraction, can be regarded as remedies for the aforementioned problems. This manuscript discusses the use of the most relevant extraction techniques in the process of isolation of isoflavonoids, secondary metabolites that have been found to have a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Two Varieties of Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Extracts on Gastrointestinal Transit in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kais; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether total and methanol juice extracts of two Tunisian Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) varieties (Garsi and Gabsi) protect against diarrhea as well as their effects on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in healthy rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats were used and divided into control- and pomegranate-treated groups. The antidiarrheal activity was evaluated using the castor oil-induced diarrhea method and the GIT was assessed using charcoal meal. Our results showed that total and methanol P. granatum juice extracts produced a significant dose-dependent protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea. Pomegranate extracts and juice also decreased the GIT significantly and dose dependently. Importantly, the Garsi variety appeared to be more effective than the Gabsi variety on these two parameters. These findings suggest that pomegranate extracts have a potent antidiarrheal property in rats confirming their efficiency in the Tunisian traditional medicine.

  2. Comparative study of hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shah Hafez Kabir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine hypoglycemic and antibacterial activity against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of organic extracts of four Bangladeshi plants. Methods: An in vivo hypoglycemic effect on mice model was used to check the hypoglycemic effect of four Bangladeshi herbal organic extracts viz., roots of Curculigo recurvata W. T. Aiton (Satipata (C. recurvata, leaf of Amorphophallus bulbifer Roxb. (Olkachu (A. bulbifer, whole plant of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Nillata (T. grandiflora and leaf of Steudnera colocasiifolia K. Koch (Yunnan (S. colocasiifolia using glibenclamide as a positive control and water as a negative control. They were also tested for antibacterial activity on three Grampositive and four Gram-negative bacteria by disk diffusion method. C. recurvata, A. bulbifer and T. grandiflora were extracted with methanol and S. colocasiifolia was extracted with ethanol. Results: Among all the plant extract, only ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose significantly (P < 0.01 reduced fasting glucose level in normal mice as compared to standard drug glibenclamide (5 mg/kg. Ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia leaves at 800 mg/ kg dose decreased 20.28% of blood glucose level after 2 h of administration in normal mice, where glibenclamide decreased 39.63%. Methanol extract of T. grandiflra didn’t show any zone of inhibition against the tested bacteria, but other three extracts showed a wide range of zone of inhibition. However, none of the extract showed antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria. Methanol extract of C. recurvata showed maximum zone of inhibition against Bacillus cereus [(10.50 ± 0.50 mm], Salmonella typhi [(16.20 ± 1.26 mm], Escherichia coli [(13.00 ± 1.00 mm] and ethanol extract of S. colocasiifolia showed maximum zone of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus [(11.20 ± 1.26 (mm], Bacillus subtilis [(12.00 ± 0.50 (mm], Salmonella paratyphi [(10.80 ± 0.29 (mm

  3. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  4. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  5. Anti-Obesity Effects of Onion Extract in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiharu Igarashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower than the control group without onion extract. Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR levels were also improved, although the serum insulin and leptin levels did not show any remarkable difference. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in both the 3% and 5%-fed group were found to be reduced compared to the control group. Additionally the feeding of the onion extract increased the glucose tolerance. These results suggest that dietary onion extract is beneficial for improving diabetes by decreasing lipid levels. We also examined differentiation ability of rat white preadipocyte cells using the onion extract and its sulfur-containing components. Cycloalliin, S-methyl-l-cysteine, S-propyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide, dimethyl trisulfide, especially S-methyl-l-cysteine sulfoxide were reported to be effective in inhibiting formation of oil drop in the cells, suggesting that these compounds may be involved in the anti-obesity effect of the onion extract.

  6. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  7. Uranium extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In 1983 the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD/NEA) and the IAEA jointly published a book on Uranium Extraction Technology. A primary objective of this report was to document the significant technological developments that took place during the 1970s. The purpose of this present publication is to update and expand the original book. It includes background information about the principle of the unit operations used in uranium ore processing and summarizes the current state of the art. The publication also seeks to preserve the technology and the operating 'know-how' developed over the past ten years. This publication is one of a series of Technical Reports on uranium ore processing that have been prepared by the Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Management at the IAEA. A complete list of these reports is included as an addendum. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  9. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  10. Performance of weed Extracts on Growth Characteristics and Biochemical Activities in Salt Stressed Soybean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The changes induced in the growth parameters and certain metabolic activities in response to both salt (NaCI) shock treatments and foliar spray of weed extracts (jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane) plus salinity were studied, using soybean seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution supplemented with various concentrations of NaCI. When seedlings were subjected to high salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCI), their growth criteria, the photosynthetic capacity, pigment contents and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly decreased. Under salinized conditions and weed extract treatments, the growth pattern,''1''4CO 2 -fixation rate, pigment as well as carbohydrate contents of soybean plants were significantly increased comparable to NaCI-treated samples. It was suggested that weed extract and in particular jungle rice might oppose the harsh effect of salinity in soybean plants

  11. Element fractionation by sequential extraction in a soil with high carbonate content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkowski, Margareta; Hirner, Alfred V.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of carbonate and other buffering substances in soils on the results of a 3-step sequential extraction procedure (BCR) used for metal fractionation was investigated. Deviating from the original extraction scheme, where the extracts are analysed only for a limited number of metals, almost all elements in the soils were quantified by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in the initial samples as well as in the residues of all extraction steps. Additionally, the mineral contents were determined by X-ray diffractometry. Using this methodology, it was possible to correlate changes in soil composition caused by the extraction procedure with the release of elements. Furthermore, the pH values of all extracts were monitored, and certain extraction steps were repeated until no significant pH-rise occurred. A soil with high dolomite content (27%) and a carbonate free soil were extracted. Applying the original BCR-sequence to the calcareous soil, carbonate was found in the residues of the first two steps and extract pH-values rose by around two units in the first and second step, caused mainly by carbonate dissolution. This led to wrong assignment of the carbonate elements Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba, and also to decreased desorption and increased re-adsorption of ions in those steps. After repetition of the acetic acid step until extract pH remained low, the carbonate was completely destroyed and the distributions of the elements Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba as well as those of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb were found to be quite different to those determined in the original extraction. Furthermore, it could be shown that the effectiveness of the reduction process in step two was reduced by increasing pH: Fe oxides were not significantly attacked by the repeated acetic acid treatments, but a 10-fold amount of Fe was mobilized by hydroxylamine hydrochloride after complete carbonate destruction. On the other hand, only small amounts of Fe were released anyway. Even repeated reduction steps did not

  12. In vitro Hypolipidemic and Antioxidant Effects of Leaf and Root Extracts of Taraxacum Officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén García-Carrasco

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue dysfunction constitutes a primary defect in obesity and might link this disease to severe chronic health problems. We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of three extracts from Taraxacum officinale (dandelion as well as their effects on mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes concerning intracellular lipid accumulation and cytotoxicity, this would give indications regarding therapeutic interest of dandelion as potential anti-obesity candidate. Antioxidant activities of extracts from dandelion roots and leaves were evaluated in vitro using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhyorazyl (DPPH and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP methods at the concentration range used in cellular assays (300–600 µg/mL. The influence of the extracts on mature 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Lipid content was determined by Oil-red-O staining. The extracts showed effective antioxidant activity correlating with total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. However, the functionality level was weakly associated with the antioxidant activity. Further, our data demonstrated that mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes reduced in size and number when incubated with the extracts, which suggests a significant increase in lipolysis activity. Particularly, leaf extract and crude powdered root of dandelion reduced triglyceride accumulation in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes to a greater extent that the extract from the root. Our study shows anti-lipogenic effects of dandelion extracts on adipocytes as well as radical scavenging and reducing activity. Importantly, along with previous results indicating that cell populations cultivated in the presence of the dandelion extracts decrease in 3T3-L1 adipogenesis capacity, these results suggests that these extracts might represent a treatment option for obesity-related diseases by affecting different processes during the adipocyte life cycle.

  13. The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranius, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Aino; Egnell, Gustaf; Olsson, Bengt; Eklöf, Karin; Stendahl, Johan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sténs, Anna; Felton, Adam

    2018-03-01

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization

  14. The Sensory Properties, Color, Microbial, Lipid Oxidation, and Residual Nitrite of Se’i Marinated with Lime and Roselle Calyces Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. M. Malelak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat deterioration can occur because of lipid oxidation and bacteria that could affect meat quality. It has been recognized that fruits of lime (Citrus aurantifolia and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces contain bioactive compounds that have a capability to prevent oxidation and bacterial growth. The objective of this research was to  investigate the effect of lime and roselle calyces extracts on se’i (Rotenese smoked beef quality. Completely randomized design (CRD with 2x4 factorial pattern was used in this study. The first factor (E was source of extracts i.e., lime extract (E1 and roselle extract (E2. The second factor (L was level of the extract consisted of 4 levels i.e., control (without extract/ L0; L1= 1%; L2= 2%; and L3= 3% (v/v. Each treatment consisted of 3 replications. Sensory properties measured were aroma, taste, and tenderness. Other variables measured were color, total plate count (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and residual nitrite.  The taste and tenderness of se’i were affected (P<0.05 by combination of the extract and the level of the extract.  Results showed that there were significant interactions (P<0.05 between the kind of extracts and the level of extract on L (lightness, a (redness, and b (yellowness values, TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. The level of 3% of  lime extract as well as 3% of roselle calyces extract improved score of taste and tenderness, reduced a values, decreased TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. Marinating in 3% of roselle calyces extract decreased the b value but marinating in 3% of lime increased the b value of se’i. It is concluded that marinating 3% of roselle or 3% of lime gives the best effect on taste, tenderness, TPC, and TBARS values of se’i.

  15. Effect of scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2004-07-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plants in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Scoparia dulcis plant extract is tried for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by streptozotocin injection. A single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight) produced decrease in insulin, hyperglycemia, increased lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and decreased antioxidant levels (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, ceruloplasmin). Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant (200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks to diabetic rats significantly increased the plasma insulin and plasma antioxidants and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. The effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than that of glibenclamide, a reference drug.

  16. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  17. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Young [Traditional Food Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives, Fisheries Economic Institute, Seoul 138-827 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong-Hyun, E-mail: dhahn@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: > Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. > Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  18. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jin-Gyu; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: → Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. → Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  19. Evaluation of Mango Byproduct Extracts as Antioxidant Against Pb-Acetate-Induced Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makawy Aida I. El

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant and antiproliferative properties of mango by-products were investigated. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of mango peel or kernel defatted extracts against Pb-acetate adverse effects on oxidant/antioxidant status, liver dysfunction biomarkers, histopathological changes and genotoxicity in male mice. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of both extracts were evaluated. Two doses of both extracts (50 and 100 mg/kg were used to evaluate their role against the toxicity of Pb-acetate (500 ppm. Mice given mango extracts with Pb-acetate had significantly lower plasma MDA, AST and ALT and higher glutathione than mice given Pb-acetate alone. Mango extracts prevented the histopathological changes in liver induced by Pb-acetate and decreased the cytotoxicity of lead by increasing the ratio of PCE/NCE. Mango extract treatment reduced the DNA damage induced by Pb-acetate in liver as demonstrated by a reduction in micronuclei and decrease in tail length, tail DNA% and Olive tail moment. It can be concluded that mango by-product extracts have potential to protect from oxidative stress and genotoxicity of lead.

  20. Evaluation of nutritional value and antioxidant activity of tomato peel extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Elbadrawy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the nutritional composition and the antioxidant activity of some tomato peel extracts. Preliminary chemical composition, minerals content, amino acids, fatty acids and phenolic compounds of the peels were determined. The extracts which had been obtained by using different solvents; petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were assayed for their antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by the determination of peroxide, malondialdehyde (MDA, P-anisidine and total carbonyl values during four weeks storage of cottonseed oil at 60 °C. Also, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazine (DPPH radical scavenging was carried out. The results revealed that most of the extracts showed significant increases in DPPH scavenging activity as compared to butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT, an artificial antioxidant. On the other hand, significant decreases in peroxide, P-anisidine, malondialdehyde and carbonyl values were observed in the oil samples treated with the extracts in comparing with the untreated sample (control. Due to tomato peel content of many nutrients and its antioxidant activities, tomato peel or its extracts can be used as a food supplement.

  1. Study of the antioxidant effects of Eremostachys laciniata rhizome extracts in isolated rat hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Vaez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Eremostachys laciniata, having rich flavonoid content, is expected to have a considerable antioxidant effect. In this study We used ACMS (Accelerated cytotoxic or protective mechanism screening technique to evaluate the possible antioxidant effect of E. laciniata rhizome against oxidative cell damages induced by different types of oxidative stress such as iron-8-hydroxyquinolin (IQ complex and copper in freshly isolated liver cells. The extracts were prepared with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol. Hepatocytes were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats by a two-step collagenase perfusion. Cell viability was measured by trypan blue exclusion method. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity. ROS formation was measured by using DCFDA (2, 7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate probe, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP was assessed by rhodamine 123 fluorescence and lipid peroxidation was determined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS assay. The MET extract was demonstrated to possess a significant radical scavenging activity (RC50%=0.212. Unlike MET extract, the n-hexane and dichloromethane extracts showed toxic effects in cell suspensions. The MET extract significantly decreased cell death and ROS formation induced by IQ complex and copper and demonstrated protective effects against copper-induced mitochondrial membrane potential collapse and lipid peroxidation. The protection induced by MET extract can be attributed to antioxidant characteristics of the phenylethanoids content.

  2. ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF OCIMUM SANCTUM LEAF EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Chattopadhyay, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The anxiolytic activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract was studied in mice. O.sanctum leaf extract produced significant anxiolytic activity in plus – maze and open field behaviour test models. The effect was compared with diazepam, a standard antianxiety drug.

  3. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  4. Extraction of ultrashort DNA molecules from herbarium specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutaker, Rafal M; Reiter, Ella; Furtwängler, Anja; Schuenemann, Verena J; Burbano, Hernán A

    2017-02-01

    DNA extracted from herbarium specimens is highly fragmented; therefore, it is crucial to use extraction protocols that retrieve short DNA molecules. Improvements in extraction and DNA library preparation protocols for animal remains have allowed efficient retrieval of molecules shorter than 50 bp. Here, we applied these improvements to DNA extraction protocols for herbarium specimens and evaluated extraction performance by shotgun sequencing, which allows an accurate estimation of the distribution of DNA fragment lengths. Extraction with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide (PTB) buffer decreased median fragment length by 35% when compared with cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB); modifying the binding conditions of DNA to silica allowed for an additional decrease of 10%. We did not observe a further decrease in length for single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) versus double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) library preparation methods. Our protocol enables the retrieval of ultrashort molecules from herbarium specimens, which will help to unlock the genetic information stored in herbaria.

  5. Hemodynamic, ventilator, and ECG changes in pediatric patients undergoing extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y K Sanadhya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental treatment induces pain anxiety and fear. This study was conducted to assess the changes in hemodynamic, ventilator, and electrocardiograph changes during extraction procedure among 12-15-year-old children and compare these changes with anxiety, fear, and pain. Materials and Methods: A purposive sample of 60 patients selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent study procedure in the dental OPD of a medical college and hospital. The anxiety, fear, and pain were recorded by dental anxiety scale, dental fear scale, and visual analogue scale, respectively, before the start of the procedure. The systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and electrocardiogram changes were monitored during the extraction procedure. The recording was taken four times (preinjection phase, injection, extraction, and postextraction and was analyzed. Results: At the preinjection phase the mean vales were systolic blood pressure (128 ± 11.2, diastolic blood pressure (85.7 ± 6.3, heart rate (79.7 ± 9.3, and oxygen saturation (97.9 ± 5.8. These values increased in injection phases and decreased in extraction phase and the least values were found after 10 min of procedure and this relation was significant for all parameters except oxygen saturation (P = 0.48, NS. ECG abnormalities were seen among 22 patients and were significant before and after injection of Local anesthetic (P = 0.0001, S. Conclusions: Anxiety, fear, and pain have an effect on hemodynamic, ventilator, and cardiovascular parameters during the extraction procedure and hence behavioral management has to be emphasized among children in dental clinics.

  6. Plant location and extraction procedure strongly alter the antimicrobial activity of murta extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shene, Carolina; Reyes, Agnes K.; Villarroel, Mario

    2009-01-01

    plants grown nearer to the mountain (58 mg GAE/g murta), subjected to extreme summer/winter-day/night temperature changes and rainy regime. Extracts from leaves collected in the valley and coast contained 46 and 40 mg GAE/g murta, respectively. A mixture of 50% ethanol/water was the most efficient......Leaves and fruits of Murta (Ugni Molinae Turcz.) growing in three locations of Chile with diverse climatic conditions were extracted by using ethanol/water mixtures at different ratios and the antimicrobial activity was assessed. Extracts containing the highest polyphenolic content were from murta...... in extracting polyphenols, showing pure solvents-both water and ethanol-a lower extraction capacity. No correlation between antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content was found. Extracts from Murta leaves provoked a decrease in the growing of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus...

  7. Use of biofuels in road transport decreases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels decreased from 3.5 percent, for all gasoline and diesel used by road transport in 2009, to 2 percent in 2010. Particularly the use of biodiesel decreased, dropping from 3.5 to 1.5 percent. The use of biogasoline remained stable, catering for 3 percent of all gasoline use. [nl

  8. Mastery Learning and the Decreasing Variability Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jennifer A.; Gentile, J. Ronald

    1996-01-01

    This report results from studies that tested two variations of Bloom's decreasing variability hypothesis using performance on successive units of achievement in four graduate classrooms that used mastery learning procedures. Data do not support the decreasing variability hypothesis; rather, they show no change over time. (SM)

  9. Effect of aqueous bark extract of Garuga pinnata Roxb. in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-II diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaikar, Annie; Rajendran, K; Barik, Rakesh

    2006-09-19

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of aqueous extract of bark of Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae). The various parameters studied included fasting blood sugar levels, serum lipid levels, liver glycogen content, serum insulin level and glycated hemoglobin in diabetic and normal rats. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide was used to induce type-II diabetes mellitus. Treatment with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the HDL cholesterol levels were significantly increased upon treatment with the extract thus proving the potent antidiabetic property of the plant.

  10. Hypolipidemic Effect of Psidium guajava Leaf Extract Against Hepatotoxicity in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, K; Rengarajan, R L; Radhakrishnan, R; Anand, A Vijaya

    2018-01-01

    Plant-based natural extracts cure several diseases in human. However, the extract of Psidium guajava leaf is not yet evaluated on changes of lipid profile in hepatic disease affected rats. The present study was aimed to evaluate the mitigation effect of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction on hepatotoxic rats. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) was injected to rats for hepatic disease induction and silymarin drug was used as positive control to compare plant ethanolic extract. The lipid profiles were assessed in both plasma and liver tissue of diseased and control rats. Levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were increased and the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was decreased in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats. The treatment of P. guajava (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg, bw) and isolated quercetin fraction (20 mg/kg, bw) doses decreased the elevated levels of all these parameters in diseased rats and restored the normal concentration of HDL-C. The results of the present study concluded that the P. guajava leaf and its isolated quercetin fraction can significantly regulate lipid metabolism in CCl 4 -induced hepatotoxic rats and decrease the disease rate. Psidium guajava leaf extract reduces the hepatotoxicity and disease rate in ratsQuercetin fraction of leaf extract significantly regulates lipid profile in hepatic diseased rats. Abbreviations used: CCl 4 : Carbon tetrachloride; FFA: Free fatty acids; HDL-C: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LCAT: Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase; LDL-C: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; PL: Phospholipids; TC: Total cholesterol; TG: Triglycerides; VLDL-C: Very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  11. The introduction of sialendoscopy has significantly contributed to a decreased number of excised salivary glands in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rye Rasmussen, Eva; Lykke, Eva; Wagner, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Excision has been the treatment of choice in benign non-tumorous obstructive disorders of the major salivary glands, when symptoms persisted in spite of conservative measures. Unfortunately surgical resection has been associated with a relatively high rate of adverse effects. To meet the need for...

  12. Effect of heat reflux extraction on the structure and composition of a high-volatile bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bin; Qiao, Ying-yun; Tian, Yuan-yu; Xie, Ke-chang; Li, Da-wei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel HRE process with CYC is proposed to dissolve coal. • Most of the aliphatic compounds in coal are extracted during HRE process. • The carbon crystallite structure of coal changes after HRE process with CYC. • The thermal degradation behavior of ER is significantly different from that of the SFHB. - Abstract: Heat reflux extraction (HRE) process with cyclohexanone (CYC) in a high-performance mass transfer extractor was applied to dissolve Shenmu-Fugu high-volatile bituminous (SFHB) coal for the first time to afford extract (E) and extract residue (ER) from the extraction. SFHB, E, and ER were characterized by elemental analysis, solid-state "1"3C NMR spectrometry, FTIR spectrometry, XRD, SEM, and TG-FTIR to elucidate the effect of HRE on the evolution of functional groups and macromolecular structure of coal during extraction. The soluble portion in SFHB was 24.37% in the course of HRE with CYC. The aromaticity of SFHB derived from both curve-fitting of "1"3C NMR and FTIR spectra was obviously increased after extraction suggesting that most of the aliphatic fractions were extracted during HRE process. It was clarified that the substituted degree of aromatic ring in SFHB became low but the substituents on aromatics were larger after extraction. Due to irreversibly swelling crystal structure of SFHB, its interlayer spacing became larger and the stacking height of crystallite decreased after extraction. Moreover, significant amounts of volatile matters were extracted, which caused relatively lower mass loss rate and contents of gaseous products (CO_2, aliphatic moieties, CH_4, and CO) of ER than SFHB during main pyrolysis stage.

  13. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and cultivated ginseng extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Young, Jang

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects among wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts. Methods : In vitro antioxidant activities were examined by total antioxidant capacity (TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, total phenolic content, 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochondria, reactive oxygen species(ROS scavenging effect using 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein(DCF fluorescence. Results : 1. TAC of 1.5 and 3.75 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 2. ORAC of 2, 10, and 20 μg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 3. Total phenolic content of 0.375, 0.938, and 1.875 mg extracts was highest in cultivated wild ginseng, followed by wild ginseng and lowest in ginseng. 4. DPPH(1, 1 -Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity between wild ginseng and cultivated wild ginseng did not differ significantly (p>0.05. 5. Induced lipid peroxidation, measured by TBARS concentration in solution containing rat liver mitochondria incubated in the presence of FeSO4/ascorbic acid was inhibited as amounts of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased. TBARS concentration of ginseng extracts were significantly (p<0.05 higher than wild ginseng or cultivated wild ginseng extracts. 6. DCF fluorescence intensity was decreased as concentrations of wild ginseng, cultivated wild ginseng, and ginseng extracts increased, demonstrating that ROS generation was inhibited in a concentrationdependent manner. Conclusions : In summary, the results of this study demonstrate that cultivated wild ginseng extracts had similar antioxidant activities to wild ginseng extracts and greater that of cultivated ginseng extracts.

  14. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  15. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  16. Bioactivity of Neem (Azadirachta indica) callus extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.M.

    2008-04-01

    concentrations of the callus and leaf extracts gave similar trends of inhibition on the fungi cultured on extract amended agar plates. As for seed-borne fungi obvious inhibitory rates observed upon the treatment of sorghum seeds when compared with control, the high concentration of callus extracts (20 mg/ ml) completely inhibit the fungal growth, while the inhibition rate was reached 75% when the leaf extract was used. The study of the efficiency against fresh water snails Biomphlaria glabrata which is the vector of Schistosoma mansonil showed molluscicidal activity against the snails of B. glabrata. Different concentration (5. 10. 15 nd 20 mg/ ml) of the callus and leaf extract were used and both of them showed excellent mortality responses at high concentrations after 24 h. However there was clear difference in the efficiency between the callus extract and the leaf extract and the callus extracts proved to be more effective than that of the leaves. The highest and more rapidly mortality rate (100%) was obtained by adding 20 ml of the callus extract to the rearing medium. Decreasing the amount of the extract to 15. 10 and 5 ml, reduced the mortality to 97,92 and 85% respectively. Similar concentrations of the leaf extract found to be less effective.(Author)

  17. Direct ultrasound-assisted extraction and characterization of phenolic compounds from fresh houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabegović Ivana T.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of ultrasound power and frequency on the yield of total extractive substances (TES, total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and antioxidant activity (AOA of fresh houseleek leaves extracts obtained by direct ultrasound-assisted extraction (DUAE were studied. Preliminary extraction of plant material was performed using methanol, acetone and 2-propanol by Soxhlet extraction. It was found that maximum TES yield could be obtained by methanol extraction (2.91±0.02, followed by acetone and 2-propanol with a TES yield of 2.32±0.01 and 2.01±0.03 g per 100 g of fresh plant material, respectively. In the fresh houseleek leaves extracts obtained by DUAE and methanol as the chosen solvent, TPC, TFC and AOA were in the ranges of: 40.5–85.9 mg gallic acid/g dry extract, 12.7–19.3 mg rutin/g dry extract and 24.6–108.2μg/ml, respectively. The results showed that the increase in the ultrasound power and extraction time have positive and significant (p < 0.05 effects on the TPC, TFC and AOA, while the increase in the ultrasound frequency leads to a decrease in the TPC, TFC and AOA of the extracts. A chromatographic analysis of crude extract identified the following: kaempferol 3-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside- 7-O-glucosyde, kaempferol 3-O-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, luteolin 5-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-(6’’-O-acetylglucoside-7-O-rhamnoside, genkwanin 5-O-glucoside, luteolin 5-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-(6’’-O-malonylglucoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin, genkwanin 4’-O-glucoside and hyperoside. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 172047

  18. Effects of Salvadora persica Extract on the Hematological and Biochemical Alterations against Immobilization-Induced Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Kholoud S.; Alshamrani, Salha A.

    2015-01-01

    A total of 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: control, stress, extract alone, and stress + extract (n = 6 each), for total 21 days of treatment. The immobilization stress was induced in rats by putting them in 20 cm × 7 cm plastic tubes for 2 h/day for 21 days. Rats were postorally treated with Salvadora persica at a dose of 900 mg/kg body weight via intragastric intubations. At the end of the test period, hematological and biochemical parameters were determined in blood and serum samples with determination of vital organs weights. The vital organ weights were not significantly affected in stressed rats as compared to control rats. Compared to the control group, the stress treated group showed significances in several hematological parameters, including decreases in WBC, RBC, and PLT counts. Furthermore, in comparison to the control group, the stress group showed significantly increased blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triacylglycerols levels and decreased HDL-cholesterol level. The hematological and biochemical parameters in the stress + extract treated group were approximately similar to control group. The SP extract restored the changes observed following stress treatment. PMID:26221565

  19. Caffeine adsorption of montmorillonite in coffee extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiono, Takashi; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Yoshida, Aruto

    2017-08-01

    The growth in health-conscious consumers continues to drive the demand for a wide variety of decaffeinated beverages. We previously developed a new technology using montmorillonite (MMT) in selective decaffeination of tea extract. This study evaluated and compared decaffeination of coffee extract using MMT and activated carbon (AC). MMT adsorbed caffeine without significant adsorption of caffeoylquinic acids (CQAs), feruloylquinic acids (FQAs), dicaffeoylquinic acids (di-CQAs), or caffeoylquinic lactones (CQLs). AC adsorbed caffeine, chlorogenic acids (CGAs) and CQLs simultaneously. The results suggested that the adsorption selectivity for caffeine in coffee extract is higher in MMT than AC. The caffeine adsorption isotherms of MMT in coffee extract fitted well to the Langmuir adsorption model. The adsorption properties in coffee extracts from the same species were comparable, regardless of roasting level and locality of growth. Our findings suggest that MMT is a useful adsorbent in the decaffeination of a wide range of coffee extracts.

  20. Prognostic significance of miR-205 in endometrial cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihriban Karaayvaz

    Full Text Available microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression, and their altered expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Thus, microRNAs have potential as both cancer biomarkers and/or potential novel therapeutic targets. Although accumulating evidence suggests the role of aberrant microRNA expression in endometrial carcinogenesis, there are still limited data available about the prognostic significance of microRNAs in endometrial cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of selected key microRNAs in endometrial cancer by the analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues.Total RNAs were extracted from 48 paired normal and endometrial tumor specimens using Trizol based approach. The expression of miR-26a, let-7g, miR-21, miR-181b, miR-200c, miR-192, miR-215, miR-200c, and miR-205 were quantified by real time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were quantified using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0.The expression levels of miR-200c (P<0.0001 and miR-205 (P<0.0001 were significantly increased in endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high levels of miR-205 expression were associated with poor patient overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.377; Logrank test, P = 0.028. Furthermore, decreased expression of a miR-205 target PTEN was detected in endometrial cancer tissues compared to normal tissues.miR-205 holds a unique potential as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer.

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii on haematological, hormonal and lipid profie of Albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushmita Choudhury

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii leaves on some haematological, hormonal and serum lipid parameters in rats. Methods: We evaluated whether oral administration of Murraya koenigii affected the haematological, hormonal and lipid parameters. After 7 days of oral administration of 250 mg/ kg and 500 mg/kg body weight, other profiles were investigated. Results: The results showed that the extract administered significantly increased (P < 0.05 packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume and decreased the platelet count (P < 0.05 at the dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight when compared with control. The extract significantly increased (P < 0.05 white blood cell count at all doses administered when compared with control. Results showed that thyronine and thyroxine were increased, while thyroid stimulating hormone was decreased significantly (P < 0.05 at high doses compared. The recorded data in the present study showed that the testosterone value was reduced significantly (P < 0.05 from control value. Also the extract significantly reduced (P < 0.05 the total cholesterol concentration and low density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration in the serum while it had no significant effect on serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration at all doses administered. Conclusions: This study suggests that the extracts may have beneficial effect on serum cholesterol concentration, can act as a stimulant to thyroid functions as well as in anemia and immunity dependent disorders and also as a potent contraceptive.

  2. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  3. Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Commiphora mukul Gum Resin May Improve Cognitive Impairments in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salehi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes causes cognitive impairment. Medicinal plants due to different mechanisms, such as antioxidant activities may improve diabetes and relieve its symptoms. Commiphora mukul (Burseraceae has a significant antioxidant activity. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effect of hydro- alcoholic extract of C. mukul on passive-avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods Thirty-two adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: normal, diabetic, normal + extract of C. mukul and diabetic + extract of C. mukul groups with free access to regular rat diet. Diabetes was induced in male rats by single interaperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After the confirmation of diabetes, 300 mg/kg C. mukul extract was orally administered to the extract-treated groups. Control groups received normal saline at the same time. Passive-avoidance memory was tested eight weeks after the STZ treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Results In the present study, diabetes decreased learning and memory. Although the administration of C. mukul extract did not affect the step-through latency (STLa and the number of trials of the diabetic groups during the first acquisition trial, a significant decrease was observed in STLr and also a significant increase in time spent in the dark compartment (TDC and number of crossing (NOC in the retention test (after 24 and 48 hours. Although no significant difference was observed in body weight of diabetic + extract of C. mukul (DE and diabetic control (DC groups, the plasma glucose of DE group was significantly lower in comparison to DC group. Conclusions Commiphora mukul extract can improve passive-avoidance learning and memory impairments in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to the antioxidant, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, anti

  4. Effects and Mechanism of Action of a Tribulus terrestris Extract on Penile Erection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Jungmo; Choi, Seemin; Choi, Jaehwi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tribulus terrestris has been used as an aphrodisiac. However, little is known about the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on penile erection. Therefore, the effect of a T. terrestris extract and the mechanism of action of the extract on relaxation of the corpus cavernosum (CC) were investigated. The erectogenic effects of an oral preparation of the extract were also assessed. Materials and Methods The relaxation effects and mechanism of action of the T. terrestris extract on rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. The intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated after oral administration of the extract for 1 month to evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in the organ bath occurred in vivo. Additionally, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) were measured in the CC by immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percentage decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. The ICP was also assessed in rats after oral administration of the extract for 1 month, and changes in concentrations of cGMP and cAMP were monitored. Results Concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the extract on the CC were detected in the organ bath study. Relaxation of the CC by the T. terrestris extract was inhibited in both an endothelium-removed group and an L-arginen methyl ester pretreatment group. The ICP measured after oral administration of the T. terrestris extract for 1 month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the T. terrestris extract group. Conclusions The T. terrestris extract induced concentration-dependent relaxation of the CC in an organ bath. The mechanism included a reaction involving the nitric oxide/nitric oxide synthase pathway and endothelium of the CC. Moreover, in an in vivo study, the T. terrestris extract showed a significant concentration-dependent increase in ICP. Accordingly, the T

  5. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous extract of Mangifera indica L. leaves in female albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, M T; Salimon, S S

    2015-04-02

    Mangifera indica L. leaves have a long history of indigenous use, as an antidiarrhoeal agent among others, without any scientific study that has substantiated or refuted this claim. Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the secondary metabolites in the aqueous extract of Mangifera indica leaves and its acclaimed antidiarrhoeal activity in rats. The aqueous leaf extract of Mangifera indica was screened for its constituent secondary plant metabolites. In each of the diarrhoeal models, female albino rats were assigned into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E) containing five animals each such that rats in groups A and B were the positive and negative controls respectively while those in groups C, D and E received 25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively in addition to specific requirements of the model. The extract contained alkaloids (4.20mg/g), flavonoids (13.60mg/g), phenolics (1.50mg/g) and saponins (3.10mg/g) while tannins, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and steroids were not detected. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model, the onset time of diarrhoea was significantly prolonged by the 25 and 50mg/kg body weight whereas there was no episode in the 100mg/kg body weight treated animals. The extract (25 and 50mg/kg body weight) decreased the number, water content, fresh weight and total number of wet feaces and increased the inhibition of defecations. All the doses of the extract significantly increased the Na(+) -K(+) ATPase activity in the small intestine. The extract dose dependently decreased the masses and volume of intestinal fluid with corresponding increase in inhibition of intestinal fluid content in the castor oil-induced enteropooling model. The extract also reduced the distance travelled by charcoal meal in the 30min gastrointestinal transit model. All these changes were similar to the reference drugs with the 100mg/kg body weight of the extract exhibiting the most profound antidiarrhoeal activity. The study concluded

  6. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N; Mysak, Lawrence A; Damon Matthews, H

    2012-01-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada. (letter)

  7. Observed decreases in the Canadian outdoor skating season due to recent winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damyanov, Nikolay N.; Damon Matthews, H.; Mysak, Lawrence A.

    2012-03-01

    Global warming has the potential to negatively affect one of Canada’s primary sources of winter recreation: hockey and ice skating on outdoor rinks. Observed changes in winter temperatures in Canada suggest changes in the meteorological conditions required to support the creation and maintenance of outdoor skating rinks; while there have been observed increases in the ice-free period of several natural water bodies, there has been no study of potential trends in the duration of the season supporting the construction of outdoor skating rinks. Here we show that the outdoor skating season (OSS) in Canada has significantly shortened in many regions of the country as a result of changing climate conditions. We first established a meteorological criterion for the beginning, and a proxy for the length of the OSS. We extracted this information from daily maximum temperature observations from 1951 to 2005, and tested it for significant changes over time due to global warming as well as due to changes in patterns of large-scale natural climate variability. We found that many locations have seen a statistically significant decrease in the OSS length, particularly in Southwest and Central Canada. This suggests that future global warming has the potential to significantly compromise the viability of outdoor skating in Canada.

  8. Ions extraction and collection using the RF resonance method and taking into consideration the sputtering loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Guofeng; Wang Dewu; Ying Chuntong

    2005-01-01

    One-dimensional ions extraction and collection using the RF resonance method is studied by PIC-MCC simulation. The energy and angle distribution of extracted ions is recorded and the sputtering loss is calculated. The results show that compared with parallel electrode method, RF resonance method has advantages such as shorter extraction time, lower collision loss and sputtering loss and higher collection ratio; the extraction time and collision loss are decreased with increasing extraction voltage, but the sputtering loss increases and collection ratio decreases; collision loss is decreased with increasing magnetic field, but the sputtering loss increases and collection ratio decreases. (authors)

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of low potassium? Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, ... your urine. This can lead to low potassium levels in your blood (hypokalemia). Signs and symptoms of ...

  13. Using a Nonaversive Procedure to Decrease Refusals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Fred; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A nonaversive technique was used to teach a severely handicapped woman to decrease her refusals. The technique employed precision teaching via precise daily measurement strategies, environmental analysis, and a focus on building appropriate behavior. (JDD)

  14. Autoimmune Response Confers Decreased Cardiac Function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory response; rather, autoimmune response would keep affecting decreased heart function in. RHD patients who ... untreated children. Nearly 30 - 45 % of the affected children could ..... Technology Department of Anhui Province (PR.

  15. Effects of Chowiseungcheng-tang Extracts on the Preadipocytes Proliferation in 3T3-L1 cell line, Lipolysis of Adipocytes in rat, and Localized Fat Accumulation by extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-eun, Lee

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts on the preadipocytes proliferation in 3T3-L1 cell line, lipolysis of adipocytes in rat’s epididymal adipocytes and localized fat accumulation of porcine by extraction methods(alcohol and water. Methods : Diminish preadipocytes proliferation and promote lipolysis of adipocytes do primary role to reduce obesity. So, we used 3T3-L1 mouse embryo fibroblasts(preadipocytes and rat epididymal adipocytes from Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the effects of Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts on the preadipocytes proliferation, lipolysis of adipocytes. They were treated with 0.01, 0.1, 1.0㎎/㎖ Chowiseungcheng-tang alcohol and water extracts. And for the purpose of investigating the effects of Chowiseungcheng-tang alcohol and water extracts on the localized fat accumulation, we injected 0.1, 1.0, 10.0㎎/㎖ Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts to porcine fat tissues and observed histological changes of them. Results : Following results were obtained from the preadipocytes proliferation and lipolysis of adipocytes and histological investigation of fat tissues. 1. Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts suppressed preadipocytes proliferation on the high dosage(especially 1.0㎎/㎖, and especially alcohol extracts had better effects. 2. The alcohol extracts of Chowiseungcheng-tang decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH on the concentrations of 0.1, 1.0㎎/㎖. Alcohol extracts had better effects than water extracts. 3. Chowiseungcheng-tang extracts increased lipolysis of adipocytes on the concentrations of 0.1, 1.0㎎/㎖, and especially on the concentration of 1.0㎎/㎖ alcohol extract of Chowiseungcheng-tang had better effect. 4. The water extract of Chowiseungcheng-tang had significant activity to the destruction of porcine fat cell membranes only on the concentration of 10.0㎎/㎖, but alcohol extracts of Chowiseungcheng-tang had it on all

  16. Effect of Polycosanol, a grape seed extract and its combined therapy on oxidation markers in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyarzabal Yera, Ambar; Molina Cuevas, Vivian; Jimenez Despaigne, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The Polycosanol, a mixture of superior primary aliphatic alcohols obtained from the sugarcane wax (Sacharum officinarum, L.) and the grape seeds extract (Vitis vinifera, L.) produces antioxidant effects experimentally and clinically demonstrated. The aim of present paper was to compare the effects of Polycosanol, the grape seed extract, and its combined therapy on oxidative markers in plasma and liver of rats. The rats were distributed into 4 groups: a control one and three treated with Polycosanol, grape seed extract and its combined therapy, respectively, using a 25 mg/kg dose over 4 weeks. The single-therapies significantly reduced the plasmatic concentrations of malonyldialdehyde and of protein-associated carbonyl groups regarding the control, showing a similar efficacy. Combined therapy reduced in a more effective way (p < 0,001) the malonyldialdehyde concentrations of carbonyl groups, and also decreased (p < 0,01) the concentrations of carbonyl groups, but no more than the single-therapies. Each single-therapy reduced the malonyldialdehyde concentrations generated by spontaneous oxidant system in liver homogenate. The effect of combined therapy was higher (p < 0,05) than the grape seed extract, but no more than that of polycosanol. We concluded that oral single-therapies using polycosanol and grape seed extract, administered during 4 weeks, decreased in a similar way, the lipid peroxidation in plasma and liver of rats. Combined therapy was more effective to inhibits the lipid peroxidation in plasma than each single-therapy, separately

  17. A Simple and Efficient RNA Extraction Method from Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Chimney Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Hisashi; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Hirai, Miho; Mino, Sayaka; Sawayama, Shigeki; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2017-12-27

    RNA-based microbiological analyses, e.g., transcriptome and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR, require a relatively large amount of high quality RNA. RNA-based analyses on microbial communities in deep-sea hydrothermal environments often encounter methodological difficulties with RNA extraction due to the presence of unique minerals in and the low biomass of samples. In the present study, we assessed RNA extraction methods for deep-sea vent chimneys that had complex mineral compositions. Mineral-RNA adsorption experiments were conducted using mock chimney minerals and Escherichia coli total RNA solution, and showed that detectable RNA significantly decreased possibly due to adsorption onto minerals. This decrease in RNA was prevented by the addition of sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs), salmon sperm DNA, and NaOH. The addition of STPP was also effective for RNA extraction from the mixture of E. coli cells and mock chimney minerals when TRIzol reagent and the RNeasy column were used, but not when the RNeasy PowerSoil total RNA kit was used. A combination of STPP, TRIzol reagent, the RNeasy column, and sonication resulted in the highest RNA yield from a natural chimney. This indirect extraction procedure is simple, rapid, inexpensive, and may be used for large-scale RNA extraction.

  18. Antioxidant and antihepatotoxic efficacy of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber Linn in Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannakuzhiyil Oommen Sheeba

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root against CCl4 induced liver damage in rats. Methods: In vitro antioxidant activity was studied by determining superoxide scavenging, hydroxyl scavenging and Fe 2+ ascorbate induced lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity of methanolic extract. The in vivo hepatoprotective activity was studied by estimating AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, total protein, albumin levels and by histopathological examination in CCl4 toxicity induced experimental rats. The peroxidative hepatic damage was studied by assessing TBARS, CD, SOD, CAT and GSH in liver. Results: Methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root at doses of 75mg and 150mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the levels of AST, ALT, ALP & GGT and increased the level of TP and Albumin. The levels of TBARS and CD were decreased and the level of GSH increased. The levels of SOD and CAT were decreased. Histopathological changes induced by CCl4 were reduced by the treatment of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root. The effect was compared with reference drug curcumin. Conclusions: The antioxidant and antihepatotoxic activities of methanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber root was probably due to free radical scavenging activity

  19. Pulmonary extraction of serotonin and propranolol in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, D.R.; Dargent, F.; Bachmann, M.; Suter, P.M.; Junod, A.F.

    1985-01-01

    Because injury to the pulmonary vascular endothelium is associated with the development of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), the authors assessed the metabolic function of pulmonary endothelial cells by the measurements of the first-pass pulmonary extraction of [ 14 C]serotonin and [ 3 H]propranolol in 15 patients with ARDS and 15 patients at risk for developing ARDS. Serotonin extraction ratio was lower in patients with ARDS (0.85 +/- 0.10, mean +/- SD) than in patients at risk (0.91 +/- 0.04) (p less than 0.025), and both values were significantly reduced (p less than 0.005) when compared with a control group value (0.97 +/- 0.01). The decrease in serotonin extraction was correlated with the severity of ARDS (r = -0.67) (p less than 0.001) and with pulmonary function changes over time. Propranolol extraction ratio was decreased in patients at risk (0.66 +/- 0.11) (p less than 0.005) but not in patients with ARDS (0.75 +/- 0.11), when compared with those in the control group (0.81 +/- 0.03). Low values in patients at risk were restored to normal by continuous positive airway pressure breathing. The authors conclude that pulmonary extraction of serotonin, an index of pulmonary endothelial cell function, correlates with the severity of ARDS

  20. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  1. A study on the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon leaves extract in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, D; Ravikumar, S

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic efficacy of Cynodon dactylon in diabetic rats. The experimental rats were randomly divided into three groups: Group I: control; Group II: Alloxan diabetic, untreated; and Group III: Alloxan diabetic treated with ethanolic extract of C. dactylon leaves (450 mg/kg·bw). Experimental diabetes was induced by alloxan in a single dose of 150 mg/kg·bw. A Significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level was observed and also significant increase in HDL and decrease (P<0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL were observed after 15 days of treatment. The investigation also revealed, the activities of AST, ALT, ALP, AP, LDH, and CPK (P<0.05) were decreased in the extract-supplemented group. The significant decrease in protein content and SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH (P<0.05) activity and increase in LPO in plasma were found to be ameliorated after treatment. Our result supports the fact that administration of extract of C. dactylon leave is able to reduce hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduced the oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Guilt decreasing marketing communication: an unexplored appeal

    OpenAIRE

    B. BUSACCA; SOSCIA I; PITRELLI E

    2007-01-01

    The phenomenon of guilt is relevant to a variety of consumption situations and practitioners around the world have continued to use it as a communication appeal. Marketing literature demonstrated that guilt as a distinct emotion can be aroused by advertising. Nevertheless, the capacity of advertising to decrease guilt was neglected by marketing scholars and the aim of this research is to assess the role of the guilt decreasing appeal in reducing anticipated guilt. Findings demonstrate the eff...

  3. Anticonvulsant effect of the ethanol extract of Caesalpiniapulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw., Fabaceae, leaves (CPEE was investigated for anticonvulsant effect against maximal electroshock (MES and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ induced seizures in rats and mice at dose levels 200 and 400 mg/kg, i.p. respectively. Diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p. was used as a standard anticonvulsant drug for comparison. CPEE was found to be safe up to the dose of 4000 mg/kg in mice, when administered intraperitoneally. The extract at 400 mg/kg dose produced significant (p<0.01 anticonvulsant effect w.r.t. control against PTZ-induced clonic seizures. In MES-induced seizure model, there were no significant alterations in the onset as well as duration of hind limb extension seizures as compared to control at a dose of 200 mg/kg when administered intraperitoneally. However, the extract (CPEE, 400 mg/kg i.p. significantly (p<0.01 delayed the onset as well as decreased the duration of hind limb extension seizures (HLES as compared to control. However, the extract, CPEE, percentage protection of the animals was increased at higher dose (200 mg/kg in both the models. The results of the study suggest that ethanol extract of Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. leaves possess anticonvulsant effect.

  4. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of pirdot (saurauia vulcani korth.) leaves extract in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutahaean, Salomo; Tanjung, Masitta; Puspita Sari, Diah; Elfia Ningsih, Vevy

    2018-03-01

    Approximately eighty percent of deaths in diabetic patients result from atherosclerosis, which is related to hyperlipidemia tendencies in diabetes. In North Sumatra, the use of plant-based ingredients as diabetes therapy has long been recognized. One of the local species which traditionally used was the pirdot plant (Saurauia vulcani Korth.). In this paper, we report the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of the extract of pirdot leaves in model mice. In experiment I, twenty - five alloxan-induced diabetic mice was divided randomly into five groups of 5 mice, namely: control diabetic mice; diabetic mice + metformin; and three groups diabetic mice + pirdot leaves extract of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg BW respectively. All the treatments were given daily for 21 days by oral gavage. In experiment II, another twenty-five mice were divided randomly into five groups of 5 mice. The treatments were as follows: a control group that did not receive any treatment; hyperlipidemic control (received quail yolk diet) for 30 days; and three groups of hyperlipidemic mice + orally treated pirdot leaves extract at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg BW respectively. The result showed the pirdot leaves extract has the potential as antihyperglycemic. The effects obtained are equivalent to the effects of antidiabetic drug metformin. On the other hand, the antihyperlipidemic effect was not conclusive, because the extract lowered total cholesterol significantly, but no significant effect on triglyceride, marked reduced LDL, but significantly decreased the HDL level.

  5. Phenolic extract of Dialium guineense pulp enhances reactive oxygen species detoxification in aflatoxin B₁ hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Abdussalam, Folakemi A; Balogun, Abdulazeez; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of Dialium guineense pulp phenolic extract on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging potentials of free and bound phenolic extract of D. guineense (0.2-1.0 mg/mL) were investigated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical, and ferric ion reducing system. In the in vivo study, 35 animals were randomized into seven groups of five rats each. Free and bound phenolic extract (1 mg/mL) produced 66.42% and 93.08%, 57.1% and 86.0%, 62.0% and 90.05%, and 60.11% and 72.37% scavenging effect on DPPH radical, O2(-) radical, H2O2, and hydroxyl radical, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. An AFB1-mediated decrease in the activities of ROS detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase) was significantly attenuated (P<.05). AFB1-mediated elevation in the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers; malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and percentage DNA fragmentation were significantly lowered by D. guineense phenolic extract (P<.05). Overall, the in vitro and in vivo effects suggest that D. guineense phenolic extract elicited ROS scavenging and detoxification potentials, as well as the capability of preventing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA fragmentation.

  6. Evaluation of mechanism for antihypertensive and vasorelaxant effects of hexanic and hydroalcoholic extracts of celery seed in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Tashakori-Sabzevar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Celery (Apium graveolens L., Apiaceae is one of the popular aromatic vegetables and part of the daily diet around the world. In this study, aqueous-ethanolic and hexane extracts of celery seed were prepared and the amount of n-butylphthalide, as an active component, was determined in each extract. Then the effects of hexanic extract on systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were evaluated in an invasive rat model. The vasodilatory effect and possible mechanisms of above mentioned extracts on aorta ring were also measured. High performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that hexanic extract contains significantly higher amounts of n-butylphthalide, compared to aqueous-ethanolic extract. The results indicated that hexanic extract significantly decreased the systolic, diastolic, mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Our data revealed that celery seed extract exerts its hypotensive effects through its bradycardic and vasodilatory properties. Moreover, the active components in celery seed extracts could induce their vasodilatory properties through Ca2+ channel blocking activity in endothelial and non-endothelial pathways and particularly by interference with the extra or intracellular calcium.

  7. Hybrid Model of Content Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool; Memon, Nasrullah

    2012-01-01

    We present a hybrid model for content extraction from HTML documents. The model operates on Document Object Model (DOM) tree of the corresponding HTML document. It evaluates each tree node and associated statistical features like link density and text distribution across the node to predict...... significance of the node towards overall content provided by the document. Once significance of the nodes is determined, the formatting characteristics like fonts, styles and the position of the nodes are evaluated to identify the nodes with similar formatting as compared to the significant nodes. The proposed...

  8. Solid Phase Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-04-15

    Apr 15, 2005 ... to the economy and has significant industrial applications. The development of a ... Waters Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) device (the device can carry out twenty ... HPLC grade dimethyl formamide (DMF) (Fisher. Corporation ...

  9. Therapeutic role of glucogalactan polysaccharide extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RACHEL

    2015-06-17

    Jun 17, 2015 ... The comet assay for DNA revealed that, TMT induced statistically significant .... seed medium containing (g/L) sucrose, 20; yeast extract, 2; ... UV–vis spectroscopy analyses were conducted on ultraviolet– ..... mutations.

  10. Long-term nitrogen addition decreases carbon leaching in a nitrogen-rich forest ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Lu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC plays a critical role in the carbon (C cycle of forest soils, and has been recently connected with global increases in nitrogen (N deposition. Most studies on effects of elevated N deposition on DOC have been carried out in N-limited temperate regions, with far fewer data available from N-rich ecosystems, especially in the context of chronically elevated N deposition. Furthermore, mechanisms for excess N-induced changes of DOC dynamics have been suggested to be different between the two kinds of ecosystems, because of the different ecosystem N status. The purpose of this study was to experimentally examine how long-term N addition affects DOC dynamics below the primary rooting zones (the upper 20 cm soils in typically N-rich lowland tropical forests. We have a primary assumption that long-term continuous N addition minimally affects DOC concentrations and effluxes in N-rich tropical forests. Experimental N addition was administered at the following levels: 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha−1 yr−1, respectively. Results showed that seven years of N addition significantly decreased DOC concentrations in soil solution, and chemo-physical controls (solution acidity change and soil sorption rather than biological controls may mainly account for the decreases, in contrast to other forests. We further found that N addition greatly decreased annual DOC effluxes from the primary rooting zone and increased water-extractable DOC in soils. Our results suggest that long-term N deposition could increase soil C sequestration in the upper soils by decreasing DOC efflux from that layer in N-rich ecosystems, a novel mechanism for continued accumulation of soil C in old-growth forests.

  11. Comparative analysis of essential oil composition of Iranian and Indian Nigella sativa L. extracted using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanloo, Kourosh Hasanzadeh; Kamalidehghan, Behnam; Akbari Javar, Hamid; Teguh Widodo, Riyanto; Majidzadeh, Keivan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the oil extraction yield and essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian Nigella sativa L. extracted by using Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and solvent extraction methods. In this study, a gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrophotometer detector was employed for qualitative analysis of the essential oil composition of Indian and Iranian N. sativa L. The results indicated that the main fatty acid composition identified in the essential oils extracted by using SFE and solvent extraction were linoleic acid (22.4%-61.85%) and oleic acid (1.64%-18.97%). Thymoquinone (0.72%-21.03%) was found to be the major volatile compound in the extracted N. sativa oil. It was observed that the oil extraction efficiency obtained from SFE was significantly ( P essential oil, which is composed of higher linoleic acid and thymoquinone contents compared to the essential oil obtained by the solvent extraction technique.

  12. Effect of Andrographolide‭ Extract on Blood Glucose and Lipid Profile in Rats with Secondary Iron Overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َArash Mehri Pirayvatlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron overload is involved in the pathophysiology of many diseases including diabetes. In fact, the excess iron by creating free radicals makes damage to pancreas and leads to insulin resistance and diabetes. Andrographolide extract has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. This study has surveyed the effects of andrographolide on blood glucose and lipid profile in rats with secondary iron overload. Methods: In this experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: the healthy control group, secondary iron overload group, secondary iron overload groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of andrographolide extract, and andrographolide groups treated with a dose of 3.5 and 7 mg/kg of extract. Iron and extract were injected for 6 and 12 days, respectively. Blood samples were taken for measurement of blood glucose and lipid profiles. Data were analyzed using ANOVA test. Results: The pathological results of samples from liver of animals receiving iron showed that the iron was deposited in the liver tissues. Iron injection significantly increased blood glucose levels compared to healthy control group (p<0.05. In the iron overload group, andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg or 7 mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose levels (p<0.05. Iron injections did not increase the serum triglyceride and cholesterollevels. Injections of andrographolide extract with a dose of 3.5 mg/kg and 7 mg/kg, significantly decreased the cholesterol levels compared to iron receiving group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the andrographolide with different doses may be effective in the treatment of diabetes by reducing serum glucose and cholesterol levels.

  13. Effect of Alcoholic Salvia officinale Extract on Analgesia Induced by Hyoscine in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gomar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Hyoscine (scopolamine as an anticholinergic and antinociceptive drug, has some side effects. Recently, it has been received much attention to the interactions between synthetic drugs and herbal extracts and their pharmacological responses which made the possibility of using the minimum dose and low side effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Salvia officinale extract, hyoscine and their combinationin management of pain in rats. Methods: In this experimental study animals were divided randomly into eight groups (n=6. Hyoscine (0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg administrated by intraperitoneal injection and extract (100 and 200 mg/kg was administered by gavages one hour before administration of hyoscine. Thirty minutes after treatment, rats were subjected to tail-flick test and data were recorded. Statistical significance was considered at p<0.05. Results: Administration of hyoscine at doses of 0.5, 1 and 5 mg/kg created significant analgesic effects compared to control group in the Tail-flick test (p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively. The combination of S.officinale extract (100 and 200 mg/kg and hyoscine (1 mg/kg significantly increased the pain threshold than the groups receiving only extract or hyoscine. Conclusion: Our data showed that hydroethanolic extract of Salvia officinale has an important antinociceptive effect which can lead to decreased pain in rats. Sincehyoscine as an analgesic drug has some side effects, combination of Salvia officinale extractand hyoscine can decrease the needed dose of hyoscine and itsside effects.

  14. Study on sedative effects of different fractions of Hop (Humulus lupulus L. extract compared with diazepam in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shishehgar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Humulus lupulus is a medicinal plant which in Farsi is called "razak". The purpose of this research is, studying the sedative effects of polar, semi polar and non polar fractions extracted from Hop (Humulus lupulus. L in comparison with diazepam in the animal model of Rat. For conducting this research polar, semi polar and non polar fractions extracted from Hop based on the polarity of solvent. Then study continued with the injection of obtained extracts and other medicines to different groups of Wistar breed of rats. First group was injected with 100mg/kg of Polar fraction extract the second group, with 100mg/kg of Semipolar extract, the third group, with 100 mg/kg of non-polar extract of Humulus lupulus the fourth group with 2 mg/kg of Diazepam the fifth group with the same volume of DMSO used as solvent of injectable medicines an the sixth group was the control group and did not receive any drug. The method of injection was Intra peritoneal (IP form. Statistical diagrams and results showed a significant decreasing of anesthetic induction time and increasing of sleeping time of Ketamin induced anesthesia, after IP injection of the Polar fraction extract of Humulus lupulus. The results obtained showed that the polar-fraction extract of Humulus lupulus has more sufficient sedative effects than diazepam and other under studied groups.

  15. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins, but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

  16. Protective effect of hexane and ethanol extract of piper longum L. On gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Choi, June; Song, Jae-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a commonly used aminoglycoside antibiotic that generates free oxygen radicals within the inner ear, which can cause vestibulo-cochlear toxicity and permanent damage to the sensory hair cells and neurons. Piper longum L. (PL) is a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, which has been reported to exhibit a wide spectrum of activity, including antioxidant activity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of hexane:ethanol (2:8) PL extract (subfraction of PL [SPL] extract) on GM-induced hair cell loss in basal, middle and apical regions in a neonatal cochlea cultures. The protective effects of SPL extract were measured by phalloidin staining of cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice with GM-induced hair cell loss. The anti-apoptosis activity of SPL extract was measured using double labeling by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and myosin-7a staining. The radical-scavenging activity of SPL extract was assessed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. SPL extract at a concentration of 1 µg/mL significantly inhibited GM-induced hair cell loss at basal and middle region of cochlea, while 5 µg/mL was effective against apical region hair cell loss. The protective effect of SPL extract was concentration dependent and hair cells retained their stereocilia in explants treated with SPL extract prior to treatment with 0.3 mM GM. SPL extract decreased GM-induced apoptosis of hair cells as assessed by TUNEL staining. The outer hair and inner hair counts were not decreased in SPL extract treated groups in compare to GM treated explants. Additionally, SPL extract showed concentration dependent radical scavenging activity in a DPPH assay. An anti-apoptosis effect and potent radical scavenger activity of SPL extract protects from GM-induced hair cell loss at basal, middle and apical regions in neonatal cochlea cultures.

  17. Antidepressant activity of standardised extract of Marsilea minuta Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattamisra, Subrat Kumar; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Agrawal, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Paras Nath; Singh, Sushil Kumar

    2008-04-17

    Marsilea minuta Linn. (Marsileaceae) has been referred in Indian traditional medicine system (Ayurveda) for the treatment of insomnia and other mental disorders. Marsiline isolated from Marsilea minuta was reported to have sedative and anticonvulsant property. The ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta was standardised for marsiline (1.15%, w/w) and studied for its antidepressant activity. Antidepressant activity was studied using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), learned helplessness test (LHT) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) induced head twitches response in rodents. Standardised extract of Marsilea minuta in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day were administered orally for three consecutive days and evaluated on day 3, 1h after the last dose treatment. Imipramine (15 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was used as the standard drug. Neurochemical mechanism of antidepressant activity was elucidated by using radioligand receptor binding assays for 5-HT2A and benzodiazepine receptors in rat frontal cortex. Immobility time in FST and TST was significantly (P<0.05) reduced by ethanol extract of Marsilea minuta treated animals. A decrease in number of escape failures in LHT was also observed in Marsilea minuta treated rats. Head twitch response induced by 5-HTP was significantly attenuated by Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) and imipramine showing the involvement of serotonergic system. This effect was corroborated with radioligand receptor binding study where Marsilea minuta (400 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly (P<0.05) down regulated 5-HT2A receptor in frontal cortex, whereas, no marked effect was observed for benzodiazepine receptor. The antidepressant effect exhibited by Marsilea minuta extract may be due to its effect on 5-HT2A density in rat frontal cortex.

  18. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Harald A B; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that green tea and Oolong tea extracts have antibacterial and anticariogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized black tea extract (BTE) on caries formation in inbred hamsters on a regular and a cariogenic diet. Eighty hamsters were divided into four groups of 20 animals each. Two groups received a pelleted regular diet (LabChow) with water or BTE ad libitum. The other two groups received a powdered cariogenic diet (Diet 2000, containing 56% sucrose) with water or BTE ad libitum. The animals were kept for 3 months on their respective diets and then were sacrificed. The heads were retained, the jaws were prepared and stained using alizarin mordant red II, and were then scored for dental caries according to the Keyes method. This is the first study indicating that BTE, as compared with water, significantly decreased caries formation by 56.6% in hamsters on a regular diet and by 63.7% in hamsters on a cariogenic diet (P cariogenic diet group BTE, reduced the mandibular caries score of the hamsters slightly more than the maxillary caries score. The fluoride content of the standardized BTE solution was frequently monitored during the experiment; the mean fluoride concentration was found to be 4.22 ppm. A frequent intake of black tea can significantly decrease caries formation, even in the presence of sugars in the diet.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Decreased Identification of Vesicoureteral Reflux: A Cautionary Tale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Hyder Qureshi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AimTo find the trend in patient’s visits to our centers for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. We hypothesize that VUR diagnosis and hence possible nephropathy recognition may be diminishing because of changing practice patterns.MethodsData were extracted from electronic medical records for new and follow-up patients aged 0–18 years with ICD-9/10 codes to correspond with VUR, VUR unilateral, VUR bilateral, and VUR with reflux nephropathy, as well as new patients with diagnoses of urinary tract infections (UTI and pyelonephritis at two major pediatric centers from 2012 to 2015. Figures and statistics to reflect absolute clinic visits and annual trends were created with SPSS 2010. Linear regression was applied.ResultsAnnually, Le Bonheur Children’s Hospital and Nationwide Children’s Hospital experienced an average decrease of 13 and 17% in total VUR visits, and an average decrease of 22 and 27% in VUR nephropathy visits, respectively, for each institution. Patient visits for UTIs were reduced an average of 16% annually in both centers. Linear regression demonstrated that number of patients (patients/year ± SE decreased annually 69 ± 19 (P = 0.02, 7 ± 2 (P = 0.02, and 67 ± 25 (P = 0.04 for VUR, VUR nephropathy, and UTI, respectively.ConclusionWe conclude that the decreased number of VUR and VUR nephropathy cases identified in subspecialty clinics (Nephrology/Urology at two major children’s hospitals reflect a possible decreased identification of VUR. This trend may also be due to decreased referral of low grade cases of VUR. We cannot conclude that “undifferentiated UTI” referrals increased concomitantly to account for the decreased VUR as our data reflects a decreased trend in those visits as well. We suggest that clinicians following the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines ensure that all UTI are accounted for and surveillance is appropriately escalated for recurrent UTI or abnormal imaging results.

  18. Swelling kinetics of several residues from Shenhua coal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Mei-xia; Shui, Heng-fu; Wang, Zhi-cai [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    In order to understand the mechanism of swelling and the relation between swelling behavior and solvent extraction, the swelling kinetics of residues from Shenhua coal extracted by CS{sub 2}/NMP with different mixing ratios were studied in different solvents. The result shows that the swelling rates of extraction residues increase along with swelling temperature. The swelling rate in polar solvent NMP is much higher than that in non-polar solvent THN. Solvent extraction has a great effect on the swelling of extraction residues. The swelling activation energy of extraction residues increases and the swelling rate decreases with the increase of extraction yield. The swelling activation energies of extraction residues in NMP and THN are less than 10 kJ/mol, suggesting that the swelling process is controlled by solvent molecular diffusion in coal structure. 22 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake in Parkinson's disease also decreases at thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Hideaki; Udaka, Fukashi; Oda, Masaya; Tamura, Akiko; Kubori, Tamotsu; Nishinaka, Kazuto; Kameyama, Masakuni

    2005-01-01

    Decreased cardiac metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake was repor