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Sample records for extracts selectively inhibited

  1. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND DIABETES RELATED ENZYME INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF LEAVES EXTRACT FROM SELECTED VARIETIES OF PHOENYX DACTYLIFERA L.

    OpenAIRE

    Laouini Salah Eddine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaves extracts of three selected varieties of Phoenyx dactylifera L. namely: “Ghars”, “Deglet Nour” and “Hamraya”. Methods: The assessment of the antioxidant potential of crude leaves extracts, using superoxide anions inhibition, DPPH and total antioxidant activity essays, was carried out. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the inhibi...

  2. Selective COX-2 inhibition by a Pterocarpus marsupium extract characterized by pterostilbene, and its activity in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougee, Sander; Faber, Joyce; Sanders, Annemarie; de Jong, Romy B; van den Berg, Wim B; Garssen, Johan; Hoijer, Maarten A; Smit, H Friso

    2005-05-01

    In this study, an extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. containing pterostilbene has been evaluated for its PGE2-inhibitory activity in LPS-stimulated PBMC. In addition, the COX-1/2 selective inhibitory activity of P. marsupium (PM) extract was investigated. Biological activity, as well as safety of PM extract was evaluated in healthy human volunteers. PM extract, pterostilbene and resveratrol inhibited PGE2 production from LPS-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with IC50 values of 3.2 +/- 1.3 microg/mL, 1.0 +/- 0.6 microM and 3.2 +/- 1.4 microM, respectively. When pterostilbene content of PM extract is calculated, PGE2 production inhibition of PM extract is comparable to PGE2 production inhibition of purified pterostilbene. Furthermore, in a COX-1 whole blood assay (WBA) PM extract was not effective while in a COX-2 WBA, PM extract decreased PGE2 production indicating COX-2 specific inhibition. In healthy human volunteers, the oral use of 450 mg PM extract did not decrease PGE2 production ex vivo in a WBA. Pterostilbene levels in serum were increased, but were 5-fold lower than the observed IC50 for PGE2 inhibition in LPS-stimulated PBMC. No changes from base-line of the safety parameters were observed and no extract-related adverse events occurred during the study. In conclusion, this is the first study to describe the selective COX-2 inhibitory activity of a Pterocarpus marsupium extract. Moreover, the PGE2 inhibitory activity of PM extract was related to its pterostilbene content. In humans, 450 mg PM extract resulted in elevated pterostilbene levels in serum, which were below the active concentration observed in vitro. In addition, short-term supplementation of 450 mg PM extract is considered to be a safe dose based on the long history of use, the absence of abnormal blood cell counts and blood chemistry values and the absence of extract-related adverse events. This strongly argues for a dose-finding study of PM extract in humans to

  3. Inhibition of growth and sporulation of Penicillium expansum by extracts of selected Basidiomycetes

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    Teresa Florianowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A screening of antifungal activity of 33 Basidiomycetes strains was realized with their extracts. The influence of aqueous extracts of fruit-bodies of the testeded fungi after addition of spores or hyphae of Penicillium expansum on growth and sporulation of the fitopathogen in vitro was estimated. The species: Hydnum repandum L.: Fr., Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr. Kummer, Coprinus comatus (Műll Fr. S.F. Gray, Coprinus atramentarius (Bull: Fr. Fr. and Lactarius turpis (Weinm. Fr. reduced the mycelial growth and inhibited sporulation of this pathogen.

  4. Inhibition of chemiluminescence and chemotactic activity of phagocytes in vitro by the extracts of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantan, Ibrahim; Harun, Nurul Hikmah; Septama, Abdi Wira; Murad, Shahnaz; Mesaik, M A

    2011-04-01

    The methanol extracts of 20 selected medicinal plants were investigated for their effects on the respiratory burst of human whole blood, isolated human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and isolated mice macrophages using a luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. We also tested the effect of the extracts on chemotactic migration of PMNs using the Boyden chamber technique. The extracts of Curcuma domestica L., Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn and C. xanthorrhiza Roxb. were the samples producing the strongest oxidative burst of PMNs with luminol-based chemiluminescence, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 μg/ml. For macrophage cells, the extracts which showed strong suppressive activity for luminol-based chemiluminescence were C. xanthorrhiza and Garcinia mangostana L. Among the extracts studied, C. mangga Valton & Vazsjip, Piper nigrum L. and Labisia pumila var. alata showed strong inhibitory activity on lucigenin-amplified oxidative burst of PMNs, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.9 to 1.5 μg/ml. The extracts of Zingiber officinale Rosc., Alpinia galangal (L.) Willd and Averrhoa bilimbi Linn showed strong inhibition on the chemotaxic migration of cells, with IC(50) values comparable to that of ibuprofen (1.5 μg/ml). The results suggest that some of these plants were able to modulate the innate immune response of phagocytes at different steps, emphasizing their potential as a source of new immunomodulatory agents.

  5. Selected Tea and Tea Pomace Extracts Inhibit Intestinal α-Glucosidase Activity in Vitro and Postprandial Hyperglycemia in Vivo

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    Jungbae Oh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE and tea pomace extracts (TPE by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD

  6. Selected tea and tea pomace extracts inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro and postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jungbae; Jo, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Justin S; Ha, Kyoung-Soo; Lee, Jung-Yun; Choi, Hwang-Yong; Yu, Seok-Yeong; Kwon, Young-In; Kim, Young-Cheul

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by postprandial hyperglycemia, which is an early defect of T2DM and thus a primary target for anti-diabetic drugs. A therapeutic approach is to inhibit intestinal α-glucosidase, the key enzyme for dietary carbohydrate digestion, resulting in delayed rate of glucose absorption. Although tea extracts have been reported to have anti-diabetic effects, the potential bioactivity of tea pomace, the main bio waste of tea beverage processing, is largely unknown. We evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of three selected tea water extracts (TWE) and tea pomace extracts (TPE) by determining the relative potency of extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase activity in vitro as well as hypoglycemic effects in vivo. Green, oolong, and black tea bags were extracted in hot water and the remaining tea pomace were dried and further extracted in 70% ethanol. The extracts were determined for intestinal rat α-glucosidases activity, radical scavenging activity, and total phenolic content. The postprandial glucose-lowering effects of TWE and TPE of green and black tea were assessed in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and compared to acarbose, a known pharmacological α-glucosidase inhibitor. The IC50 values of all three tea extracts against mammalian α-glucosidase were lower or similar in TPE groups than those of TWE groups. TWE and TPE of green tea exhibited the highest inhibitory effects against α-glucosidase activity with the IC50 of 2.04 ± 0.31 and 1.95 ± 0.37 mg/mL respectively. Among the specific enzymes tested, the IC50 values for TWE (0.16 ± 0.01 mg/mL) and TPE (0.13 ± 0.01 mg/mL) of green tea against sucrase activity were the lowest compared to those on maltase and glucoamylase activities. In the animal study, the blood glucose level at 30 min after oral intake (0.5 g/kg body wt) of TPE and TWE of both green and black tea was significantly reduced compared to the control in sucrose-loaded SD rats. The TPE

  7. Selective COX-2 inhibition by a Pterocarpus marsupium extract characterized by pterostilbene, and its activity in healthy human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hougee, S.; Faber, J.; Sanders, A.; Jong, R.B. de; Berg, W.B. van den; Garssen, J.; Hoijer, M.A.; Smit, H.F.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, an extract of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. containing pterostilbene has been evaluated for its PGE2-inhibitory activity in LPS-stimulated PBMC. In addition, the COX-1/2 selective inhibitory activity of P. marsupium (PM) extract was investigated. Biological activity, as well as safety

  8. Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Yanina; Benvenuti, Francesca; Battistelli, Serafina; Canestrari, Franco; Benedetti, Serena

    2014-06-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells by graviola fruit extract in vitro and in vivo involving downregulation of EGFR expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yumin; Hogan, Shelly; Schmelz, Eva M; Ju, Young H; Canning, Corene; Zhou, Kequan

    2011-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an oncogene frequently overexpressed in breast cancer (BC), and its overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis and drug resistance. EGFR is therefore a rational target for BC therapy development. This study demonstrated that a graviola fruit extract (GFE) significantly downregulated EGFR gene expression and inhibited the growth of BC cells and xenografts. GFE selectively inhibited the growth of EGFR-overexpressing human BC (MDA-MB-468) cells (IC(50) = 4.8 μg/ml) but had no effect on nontumorigenic human breast epithelial cells (MCF-10A). GFE significantly downregulated EGFR mRNA expression, arrested cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-468 cells. In the mouse xenograft model, a 5-wk dietary treatment of GFE (200 mg/kg diet) significantly reduced the protein expression of EGFR, p-EGFR, and p-ERK in MDA-MB-468 tumors by 56%, 54%, and 32.5%, respectively. Overall, dietary GFE inhibited tumor growth, as measured by wet weight, by 32% (P < 0.01). These data showed that dietary GFE induced significant growth inhibition of MDA-MB-468 cells in vitro and in vivo through a mechanism involving the EGFR/ERK signaling pathway, suggesting that GFE may have a protective effect for women against EGFR-overexpressing BC.

  10. Kinetic study on the inhibition of xanthine oxidase by extracts from two selected Algerian plants traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berboucha, Meriem; Ayouni, Karima; Atmani, Dina; Atmani, Djebbar; Benboubetra, Mustapha

    2010-08-01

    In order to further understand and assess the validity of herbal medicine, we investigated the potential inhibitory effect of various extracts from Fraxinus angustifolia and Pistacia lentiscus, two plants used traditionally in Algeria against several inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism, arthritis, and gout, on purified bovine milk xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. The total phenolic contents of the leaves and bark of F. angustifolia and the leaves and seeds of P. lentiscus were estimated. P. lentiscus aqueous fractions from hexane and chloroform extractions and F. angustifolia aqueous fraction from ethyl acetate extraction inhibited XO activity by 72.74 +/- 2.63% (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 27.52 microg/mL), 68.97 +/- 3.89% (IC(50) = 42.46 microg/mL) and 53.92 +/- 3.17% (IC(50) = 58.84 mmicroug/mL), respectively, at 100 microg/mL, compared to that of reference drug, allopurinol (98.18% [IC(50) = 6.34 microg/mL]). Moreover, at a concentration of 50 microg/mL, both P. lentiscus extracts showed inhibition rates higher than 50%. F. angustifolia leaf extracts showed only mild inhibition. Lineweaver-Burk analysis showed that the inhibitory activity exerted by F. angustifolia bark aqueous extract and P. lentiscus aqueous extracts is of mixed type, whereas the leaf extracts from F. angustifolia inhibited XO noncompetitively. Positive correlations were established between XO inhibition and total phenols (r = 0.89) and flavonoids (r = 0.93) for P. lentiscus and with total phenols (r = 0.72) and tannins (r = 0.54) for F. angustifolia. Our findings suggest that the therapeutic use of these plants may be due to the observed XO inhibition, thereby supporting their use in traditional folk medicine against inflammatory-related diseases, in particular, gout.

  11. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Etre, A.Y

    2003-11-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions.

  12. Inhibition of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase 1 (NDM-1 Producing Escherichia coli IR-6 by Selected Plant Extracts and Their Synergistic Actions with Antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinda Chandar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Improper use of antibiotics has led to a great concern in the development of pathogenic microbial resistance. New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1 (NDM-1 producing bacteria are resistant to most of the β-lactam antibiotics, and so far, no new compounds have been clinically tested against these bacteria. In this study, ethanol extracts from the leaves of 240 medicinal plant species were screened for antibacterial activity against an NDM-1 Escherichia coli strain. The extracts that showed antibacterial activity were then tested for minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and zones of inhibition. The extract from Combretum albidum G. Don, Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex Hiern, Hibiscus cannabinus L., Hibiscus furcatus Willd., Punica granatum L., and Tamarindus indica L. showed bactericidal activity between 5 and 15 mg/ml and the MIC was between 2.56 and 5.12 mg/ml. All six plant extracts inhibited activity of the NDM-1 enzyme in vitro, and the IC50 value ranged between 0.50 and 1.2 ng/μl. Disruption of bacterial cell wall integrity by the plant extracts was clearly visible with scanning electron microscopy. Increases in membrane permeability caused 79.4–89.7% bacterial cell deaths as investigated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. All the plant extracts showed synergistic effects when combined with colistin [fractional inhibitory concentration (ΣFIC = 0.125–0.375], meropenem (ΣFIC = 0.09–0.313, and tetracycline (ΣFIC = 0.125–0.313. Thus, the plant extracts can be fractionated for the identification of active compounds, which could be used as new antibacterial compounds for the development of drugs against NDM-1 E. coli in addition to their use in combination therapy.

  13. Hawthorn extract inhibits human isolated neutrophil functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalli, Ernesto; Milara, Javier; Cortijo, Julio; Morcillo, Esteban J; Cosín-Sales, Juan; Sotillo, José Francisco

    2008-06-01

    Hawthorn extract is a popular herbal medicine given as adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. In contrast to the cardiac properties of hawthorn extract, its anti-inflammatory effect has been scarcely investigated. This study examines the effects of a dry extract of leaves and flowers of Crataegus laevigata on various functional outputs of human neutrophils in vitro. Incubation of human neutrophils obtained from peripheral blood of healthy donors with C. laevigata extract (0.75-250 microg/ml) inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP)-induced superoxide anion generation, elastase release and chemotactic migration with potency values of 43.6, 21.9, and 31.6 microg/ml, respectively. By contrast, serum-opsonized zymosan-induced phagocytosis was unaltered by plant extract. C. laevigata extract (125 microg/ml) reduced FMLP-induced leukotriene B(4) production and lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8. Extract inhibited FMLP-induced intracellular calcium signal with potency of 17.4 microg/ml. Extract also markedly inhibited the extracellular calcium entry into calcium-depleted neutrophils, and the thapsigargin-induced intracellular calcium response. In conclusion, C. laevigata extract inhibited various functional outputs of activated human neutrophils which may be relevant to the pathophysiology of cardiac failure.

  14. Neural inhibition enables selection during language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Hannah R; Hutchison, Natalie; Nyhus, Erika; Curran, Tim; Banich, Marie T; O'Reilly, Randall C; Munakata, Yuko

    2010-09-21

    Whether grocery shopping or choosing words to express a thought, selecting between options can be challenging, especially for people with anxiety. We investigate the neural mechanisms supporting selection during language processing and its breakdown in anxiety. Our neural network simulations demonstrate a critical role for competitive, inhibitory dynamics supported by GABAergic interneurons. As predicted by our model, we find that anxiety (associated with reduced neural inhibition) impairs selection among options and associated prefrontal cortical activity, even in a simple, nonaffective verb-generation task, and the GABA agonist midazolam (which increases neural inhibition) improves selection, whereas retrieval from semantic memory is unaffected when selection demands are low. Neural inhibition is key to choosing our words.

  15. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of selected Thai weed extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narintorn; Rattanata; Sakda; Daduang; Suthep; Phaetchanla; Wandee; Bunyatratchata; Bundit; Promraksa; Ratree; Tavichakorntrakool; phangthip; uthaiwat; Patcharee; Boonsiri; Jureerut; Daduang

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze antioxidant and antibacterial properties of selected weeds commonly found in Northeast Thailand including Ageratum conyzoides L.,Alysicurpus vaginalis L.,Commelina bengalensis L.,Euphorbia hirta L.,Hyptis suaveoleiis L.,Parthenocissus quinquefolia L.,and Trianthema portulacastrum L.Methods:Ferric reducing antioxidant power and radical scavenging activity of the aqueous and ethanol weed extracts were determined.Phytocheniical screening,total phenolic and Havonoid contents were done.Antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila.Aeromonas caviae,Edwardsiella tarda,Plesiomonas shigelloides,Ralstonia spp.,Xanthomonas campestris pv.Vesicatoria,Salmonella spp.and Shigella spp.was performed by disc diffusion assay.Results:The results showed that Euphorbia hirta extract had the highest total phenolic contents and was the most effective against most of the test organisms compared to the other weed extracts.Hyptis suaveoleiis ethanol extract weakly inhibited Ralstonia spp.and Salmonella spp.(10.42%and 9.84%inhibition,respectively).Trianthema portuiacastrum ethanol extract had20.10%inhibition against Shigella spp.Parthenocissus quinquefolia aqueous extract strongly inhibited Aeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila with 55.90%and 59.68%inhibition,respectively.Conclusions:These weeds may be serving as a potential source of antibacterial agents.

  16. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of selected Thai weed extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narintorn Rattanata; Sakda Daduang; Suthep Phaetchanla; Wandee Bunyatratchata; Bundit Promraksa; Ratree Tavichakorntrakool; Phangthip Uthaiwat; Patcharee Boonsiri; Jureerut Daduang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze antioxidant and antibacterial properties of selected weeds commonly found in Northeast Thailand including Ageratum conyzoides L., Alysicarpus vaginalis L., Commelinabengalensis L., Euphorbia hirta L., Hyptis suaveolens L., Parthenocissus quinquefolia L., and Trianthema portulacastrum L. Methods: Ferric reducing antioxidant power and radical scavenging activity of the aqueous and ethanol weed extracts were determined. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic and flavonoid contents were done. Antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas caviae,Edwardsiella tarda, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Ralstonia spp., Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was performed by disc diffusion assay.Results:The results showed that Euphorbia hirta extract had the highest total phenolic contents and was the most effective against most of the test organisms compared to the other weed extracts. Hyptis suaveolens ethanol extract weakly inhibited Ralstonia spp. and Salmonella spp. (10.42% and 9.84% inhibition, respectively). Trianthema portulacastrum ethanol extract had 20.10%inhibition against Shigella spp. Parthenocissus quinquefolia aqueous extract strongly inhibitedAeromonas caviae and Aeromonas hydrophila with 55.90% and 59.68% inhibition, respectively. Conclusions: These weeds may be serving as a potential source of antibacterial agents.

  17. DNA Extraction and Primer Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Per Halkjær; Albertsen, Mads

    Talk regarding pitfalls in DNA extraction and 16S amplicon primer choice when performing community analysis of complex microbial communities. The talk was a part of Workshop 2 "Principles, Potential, and Limitations of Novel Molecular Methods in Water Engineering; from Amplicon Sequencing to -omics...

  18. Selective Extraction of Bioproducts by Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王键吉; 裴渊超; 赵扬; 张锁江

    2005-01-01

    Imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids have been used to extract selectively L-tryptophan from fermentation broth. BF4 anion was found to enhance dramatically the partitioning of L-tryptophan into ionic liquid phase from aqueous solutions.

  19. SELECTIVE EXTRACTION OF ISOLATED MITOTIC APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, Thomas; Baxandall, Jane

    1971-01-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein. PMID:5543404

  20. The Lignan-containing Extract of Schisandra chinensis Berries Inhibits the Growth of Chlamydia pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Elina; Hanski, Leena L; Yrjönen, Teijo; Vuorela, Heikki J; Vuorela, Pia M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and selectivity of an extract of Schisandra chinensis berries against Chlamydia pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. Among the ethnopharmacological uses of the extract from Schisandrae fructus are cough and pneumonia. Therefore we focused on respiratory pathogens. The extract completely inhibited the growth of C. pneumoniae strain CV6 at 250 μg/mL concentration. The inhibition of C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis growth was dose dependent and established with three different strains. The extract inhibited C. pneumoniae production of infectious progeny in a dose dependent manner. Chlamydia selectivity was elucidated with growth inhibition measurements of three other respiratory bacterial species. A pure compound found in Schisandra chinensis berries, schisandrin B at 20.0 μg/mL concentration inhibited the growth of both C. pneumoniae and C. trachomatis. The extract was found to be non-toxic to the human host cells. These findings highlight the potential of the extract from Schisandra chinensis berries as a source for antichlamydial compounds.

  1. Selective electromembrane extraction based on isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, selective isolation of a target peptide based on the isoelectric point (pI) was achieved using a two-step electromembrane extraction (EME) approach with a thin flat membrane-based EME device. In this approach, step #1 was an extraction process, where both the target peptide...... angiotensin II antipeptide (AT2 AP, pI=5.13) and the matrix peptides (pI>5.13) angiotensin II (AT2), neurotensin (NT), angiotensin I (AT1) and leu-enkephalin (L-Enke) were all extracted as net positive species from the sample (pH 3.50), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 1-nonanol diluted with 2......, and the target remained in the acceptor solution. The acceptor solution pH, the SLM composition, the extraction voltage, and the extraction time during the clean-up process (step #2) were important factors influencing the separation performance. An acceptor solution pH of 5.25 for the clean-up process slightly...

  2. Ginger extract inhibits biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Shin; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial biofilm formation can cause serious problems in clinical and industrial settings, which drives the development or screening of biofilm inhibitors. Some biofilm inhibitors have been screened from natural products or modified from natural compounds. Ginger has been used as a medicinal herb to treat infectious diseases for thousands of years, which leads to the hypothesis that it may contain chemicals inhibiting biofilm formation. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated ginger's ability to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 biofilm formation. A static biofilm assay demonstrated that biofilm development was reduced by 39-56% when ginger extract was added to the culture. In addition, various phenotypes were altered after ginger addition of PA14. Ginger extract decreased production of extracellular polymeric substances. This finding was confirmed by chemical analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, ginger extract formed noticeably less rugose colonies on agar plates containing Congo red and facilitated swarming motility on soft agar plates. The inhibition of biofilm formation and the altered phenotypes appear to be linked to a reduced level of a second messenger, bis-(3'-5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate. Importantly, ginger extract inhibited biofilm formation in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also, surface biofilm cells formed with ginger extract detached more easily with surfactant than did those without ginger extract. Taken together, these findings provide a foundation for the possible discovery of a broad spectrum biofilm inhibitor.

  3. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  4. Inhibition of DNA polymerase λ and associated inflammatory activities of extracts from steamed germinated soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Kuriyama, Isoko; Yoshida, Hiromi

    2014-04-01

    During the screening of selective DNA polymerase (pol) inhibitors from more than 50 plant food materials, we found that the extract from steamed germinated soybeans (Glycine max L.) inhibited human pol λ activity. Among the three processed soybean samples tested (boiled soybeans, steamed soybeans, and steamed germinated soybeans), both the hot water extract and organic solvent extract from the steamed germinated soybeans had the strongest pol λ inhibition. We previously isolated two glucosyl compounds, a cerebroside (glucosyl ceramide, AS-1-4, compound ) and a steroidal glycoside (eleutheroside A, compound ), from dried soybean, and these compounds were prevalent in the extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans as pol inhibitors. The hot water and organic solvent extracts of the steamed germinated soybeans and compounds and selectively inhibited the activity of eukaryotic pol λ in vitro but did not influence the activities of other eukaryotic pols, including those from the A-family (pol γ), B-family (pols α, δ, and ε), and Y-family (pols η, ι, and κ), and also showed no effect on the activity of pol β, which is of the same family (X) as pol λ. The tendency for in vitro pol λ inhibition by these extracts and compounds showed a positive correlation with the in vivo suppression of TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate)-induced inflammation in mouse ear. These results suggest that steamed germinated soybeans, especially the glucosyl compound components, may be useful for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. HIV-1 inhibition by extracts of Clusiaceae species from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Reyes, Maira; Basualdo, Maria del Carmen; Lozada, Lucio; Jimenez-Estrada, Manuel; Soler, Carmen; Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo

    2004-06-01

    The organic plant extracts of 21 species of Clusiaceae from Mexico were screened for anti HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity in a non-radioactive immuno colorimetric assay. The extracts of 5 species (23.8%) exhibited significant inhibition (> or =70%) of HIV-1 RT activity; of these, only 4 extracts showed reduced toxicity to human lymphocytic MT2 cells and were further tested as inhibitors of HIV-1 IIIb/LAV replication in a cellular system. The best extracts were Calophyllum brasiliense (hexane) and Clusia quadrangula (CH(2)Cl(2)-MeOH) which inhibited HIV-1 RT (IC(50)=29.6 microg/ml and 42 microg/ml), and showed an EC(50)=92.5 microg/ml and 91 microg/ml, respectively, on MT2 cells. However, only Calophyllum brasiliense hexane extract showed significant inhibition on viral replication (ED(50)=37.1 microg/ml), while Clusia quadrangula was less active (ED(50)=124 microg/ml). These results support the idea that plant extracts represent a valuable source of potential anti HIV compounds.

  6. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

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    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  7. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  8. Inhibition properties of propolis extracts to some clinically important enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Nimet; Yildiz, Oktay; Kolayli, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to envisage inhibition effects of propolis on the crucial enzymes, urease, xanthine oxidase (XO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Some of the antioxidant properties of the propolis samples were determined using the total phenolic content (TPE) and total flavonoids in the eight different ethanolic propolis extracts (EPE) samples. Inhibition values of the enzymes were expressed as inhibition concentration (IC50; mg/mL or μg/mL) causing 50% inhibition of the enzymes with donepezil, acetohydroxamic acid and allopurinol as reference inhibitors. All the propolis extracts exhibited variable inhibition effects on these enzymes, but the higher the phenolic contents the lower the inhibitions values (IC50 = 0.074 to 1.560 mg/mL). IC50 values of the P5 propolis sample having the highest TPE, obtained from Zonguldak, for AChE, urease and XO were 0.081 ± 0.009, 0.080 ± 0.006 and 0.074 ± 0.011 μg/mL, respectively. The EPE proved to be a good source of inhibitor agents that can be used as natural inhibitors to serve human health.

  9. Medical Image Feature, Extraction, Selection And Classification

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    M.VASANTHA,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer found in women. It is the most frequent form of cancer and one in 22 women in India is likely to suffer from breast cancer. This paper proposes a image classifier to classify the mammogram images. Mammogram image is classified into normal image, benign image and malignant image. Totally 26 features including histogram intensity features and GLCM features are extracted from mammogram image. A hybrid approach of feature selection is proposed in this paper which reduces 75% of the features. Decision tree algorithms are applied to mammography lassification by using these reduced features. Experimental results have been obtained for a data set of 113 images taken from MIAS of different types. This technique of classification has not been attempted before and it reveals the potential of Data mining in medical treatment.

  10. Spatially reciprocal inhibition of inhibition within a stimulus selection network in the avian midbrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, C Alex; Mysore, Shreesh P; Bryant, Astra S; Huguenard, John R; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal inhibition between inhibitory projection neurons has been proposed as the most efficient circuit motif to achieve the flexible selection of one stimulus among competing alternatives. However, whether such a motif exists in networks that mediate selection is unclear. Here, we study the connectivity within the nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc), a GABAergic nucleus that mediates competitive selection in the midbrain stimulus selection network. Using laser photostimulation of caged glutamate, we find that feedback inhibitory connectivity is global within the Imc. Unlike typical lateral inhibition in other circuits, intra-Imc inhibition remains functionally powerful over long distances. Anatomically, we observed long-range axonal projections and retrograde somatic labeling from focal injections of bi-directional tracers in the Imc, consistent with spatial reciprocity of intra-Imc inhibition. Together, the data indicate that spatially reciprocal inhibition of inhibition occurs throughout the Imc. Thus, the midbrain selection circuit possesses the most efficient circuit motif possible for fast, reliable, and flexible selection.

  11. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wang; Shengqing Wang; Wenhui Cui; Jiujun He; Zhenfu Wang; Xiaolu Yang

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capil ary injury and reduced damage to organel es and the matrix around the capil aries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly in-creased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phospha-tase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, im-munohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax pro-tein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apop-tosis.

  12. Nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii leaf extract inhibit human lung cancer cells A549

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaefudin; Juniarti, A.; Rosiyana, L.; Setyani, A.; Khodijah, S.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate cytotoxicity effect of nanoparticles of Selaginella doederleinii (S. doederleinii) leaves extract. S. doederleinii was extracted by maceration method using 70%(v/v) ethanol as solvent. Phytochemical content was analyzed qualitatively by using Harborne and Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) methods. Nanoparticle extract was prepared by ionic gelation using chitosan as encapsulant agent. Anticancer activity was performed by using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that S. doederleinii contains of flavonoids. Nanoparticle of S. doederleinii leaves extract greatly inhibited A549 cells growth (cancer cells), with IC50 of 3% or 1020 μg/ml. These nanoparticles extract also inhibited the growth of Chang cells (normal cells), with IC50 of 4% or 1442 μg/ml. The effective concentration of nanoparticles extract which inhibits cancer cells without harming the normal cells is 0.5% or 167 μg/ml. Further studies are needed to obtain the concentration of nanoparticles extract which can selectively suppress cancer cells.

  13. Distractor Inhibition: Principles of Operation during Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Natalie; Machado, Liana

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that although target amplification acts as the main determinant of the efficacy of selective attention, distractor inhibition contributes under some circumstances. Here we aimed to gain insight into the operating principles that regulate the use of distractor inhibition during selective attention. The results suggest that, in…

  14. Inhibition of Aldose Reductase by Gentiana lutea Extracts

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    Chandrasekhar Akileshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of intracellular sorbitol due to increased aldose reductase (ALR2 activity has been implicated in the development of various secondary complications of diabetes. Thus, ALR2 inhibition could be an effective strategy in the prevention or delay of certain diabetic complications. Gentiana lutea grows naturally in the central and southern areas of Europe. Its roots are commonly consumed as a beverage in some European countries and are also known to have medicinal properties. The water, ethanol, methanol, and ether extracts of the roots of G. lutea were subjected to in vitro bioassay to evaluate their inhibitory activity on the ALR2. While the ether and methanol extracts showed greater inhibitory activities against both rat lens and human ALR2, the water and ethanol extracts showed moderate inhibitory activities. Moreover, the ether and methanol extracts of G. lutea roots significantly and dose-dependently inhibited sorbitol accumulation in human erythrocytes under high glucose conditions. Molecular docking studies with the constituents commonly present in the roots of G. lutea indicate that a secoiridoid glycoside, amarogentin, may be a potential inhibitor of ALR2. This is the first paper that shows G. lutea extracts exhibit inhibitory activity towards ALR2 and these results suggest that Gentiana or its constituents might be useful to prevent or treat diabetic complications.

  15. Corrosion inhibition of carbon steel by extract of Buddleia perfoliata

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    ROY LOPES-SESENES

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Buddleia perfoliata leaves extract has been investigated as a carbon steel corrosion inhibitor in 0.5 M sulfuric acid by using polarization curves, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and weight-loss tests at different concentrations (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm and temperatures, namely 25, 40 and 60 °C. Results showthat inhibition efficiency increases as the inhibitor concentration increases, decreases with temperature, and reaches a maximum value after 12 h of exposure, decreasing with a further increase in the exposure time. It was found that the inhibitory effect is due to the presence of tannines on this extract.

  16. Ultraviolet exposure of thymocytes: selective inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojeda, F; Guarda, M I; Lovengreen, C; Hidalgo, M A; Folch, H; Härtel, S; Maldonado, C

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate selective effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on spontaneous and induced apoptosis in freshly extracted mice thymocytes. Cells were exposed to UV radiation with emission peaks of 365 nm (UVA) exposures of 1620-10200 J m(-2), of 312 nm (UVB) exposures of 34-1620 J m(-2) or of 254 nm (UVC) exposures of 1.5-1620 J m(-2), and incubated for 5.5 h with or without hydrocortisone, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate or anti-Fas antibody. Additionally, cells were irradiated with gamma-rays (5 Gy) before UVB exposure (408 J m(-2)) at different times. Apoptosis was quantified by DNA fragmentation. Up to an irradiation of 5000 J m(-2), UVA exposure did not show any effect on thymocyte apoptosis, while at 10200 J m(-2) irradiation, considerable DNA fragmentation was observed. In contrast, UVB and UVC irradiation clearly inhibited natural and cortisone-induced apoptosis. Moreover, UVB inhibited apoptosis triggered by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate and gamma-irradiation, but not by anti-Fas antibody. The response of mouse thymocytes in culture to UV irradiation strongly depends on the wavelength used. It is suggested that either a survival or an apoptotic pathway occurs depending on the physiological state of the cell, spectral composition of the UV light and cell type. The possible involvement of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase in the apoptotic pathway is discussed.

  17. Selective and nonselective inhibition of competitors in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Meyer, Antje S; Roelofs, Ardi

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relation between nonselective inhibition and selective inhibition in picture naming performance. Nonselective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress any unwanted response, whereas selective inhibition refers to the ability to suppress specific competing responses. The degree of competition in picture naming was manipulated by presenting targets along with distractor words that could be semantically related (e.g., a picture of a dog combined with the word cat) or unrelated (tree) to the picture name. The mean naming response time (RT) was longer in the related than in the unrelated condition, reflecting semantic interference. Delta plot analyses showed that participants with small mean semantic interference effects employed selective inhibition more effectively than did participants with larger semantic interference effects. The participants were also tested on the stop-signal task, which taps nonselective inhibition. Their performance on this task was correlated with their mean naming RT but, importantly, not with the selective inhibition indexed by the delta plot analyses and the magnitude of the semantic interference effect. These results indicate that nonselective inhibition ability and selective inhibition of competitors in picture naming are separable to some extent.

  18. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

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    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  19. Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase Activity by Gnaphalium Affine Extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-qing Lin; Jian-xiang Xie; Xiao-mu Wu; Lin Yang; Hai-dong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the inhibitory effect of Gnaphalium affine extracts on xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in vitro and to analyze the mechanism of this effect. Methods In this in vitro study, Kinetic measurements were performed in 4 different inhibitor concentrations and 5 different xanthine concentrations (60, 100, 200, 300, 400 μmol/L). Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis were used to determine Ki values and the inhibition mode for the compounds isolated from Gnaphalium affine extract. Results Four potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors were found in 95% ethanolic (v/v) Gnaphalium affine extract. Among them, the flavone Eupatilin exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on XO with a inhibition constant (Ki) of 0.37μmol/L, lower than the Ki of allopurinol (4.56 mol/L), a known synthetic XO inhibitor. Apigenin (Ki of 0.56μmol/L, a proportion of 0.0053‰in Gnaphalium affine), luteolin (Ki of 2.63 μmol/L, 0.0032‰ in Gnaphalium affine) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3’,4’-tetramethoxyflavone (Ki of 3.15μmol/L, 0.0043‰ in Gnaphalium affine) also contributed to the inhibitory effect of Gnaphalium affine extract on XO activity. Conclusions These results suggest that the use of Gnaphalium affine in the treatment of gout could be attributed to its inhibitory effect on XO. This study provides a rational basis for the traditional use of Gnaphalium affine against gout.

  20. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits attachment of herpes simplex virus in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since the herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis as well as phenolic extract compounds, i.e. caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. When drugs were added to HSV-1-infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed as determined by plaque reduction assay and analysis of expression of viral protein ICP0. However, the Melissa extract demonstrated a high virucidal activity against HSV-1, even at very low concentrations of 1.5 μg/ml, whereas similar results for phenolic compounds were only achieved at 100 times higher concentrations. Besides the virucidal activity, the Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that rosmarinic acid was the main contributor to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. However, the selectivity index of Melissa extract of 875 against HSV is superior to the selectivity indices of single constituents. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity, is virucidal and affects HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and urease inhibiting activities of methanolic extracts from Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Rasool; Saif, Abdullah Qasem; Quradha, Mohammed Mansour; Ali, Jawad; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Cyphostemma digitatum stem and roots extracts were investigated for antioxidant, antimicrobial, urease inhibition potential and phytochemical analysis. Phytochemical screening of the roots and stem extract revealed the presence of secondary metabolites including flavonoids, alkaloids, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, tannins, carbohydrates/reducing sugars and phenolic compounds. The methanolic extracts of the roots displayed highest antioxidant activity (93.518%) against DPPH while the crude methanolic extract of the stem showed highest antioxidant activity (66.163%) at 100 μg/mL concentration. The methanolic extracts of both stem and roots were moderately active or even found to be less active against the selected bacterial and fungal strains (Tables S2 and S3). The roots extract (methanol) showed significant urease enzyme inhibition activity (IC50 = 41.2 ± 0.66; 0.2 mg/mL) while the stem extract was found moderately active (IC50 = 401.1 ± 0.58; 0.2 mg/mL) against thiourea (IC50 = 21.011; 0.2 mg/mL).

  2. Inhibition of adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria to uroepithelial cells by extracts from cranberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermel, Gwennola; Georgeault, Sylvie; Inisan, Claude; Besnard, Matthieu

    2012-02-01

    Cranberry extract has been reported as a therapeutic agent, mainly in urinary tract infections due to its anti-adhesive capacity. In order to compare the effects of proanthocyanidin (procyanidin) (PAC)-standardized cranberry extracts and commercial PAC A2, we first investigated the presence of genes encoding known adhesins on 13 strains of uropathogenic strains coming from patients with cystisis. After this characterization, the anti-adhesive effects of PAC A2 were assayed on selected uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains before testing cranberry extracts. Before checking inhibitory effect on bacterial adhesion to cells, we showed that neither PAC A2 or three cranberry extracts (A, B, and C) specifically inhibited the growth and did not supply any potential nutrient to E. coli strains, including the unrelated control strain. PAC A2 exhibited an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of two selected uropathogenic strains of E. coli. This work also showed that a preliminary exposure of bacteria to PAC A2 significantly reduced the adhesion. This phenomenon has been also observed with a lesser impact when uroepithelial cells were pretreated with PAC A2. Moreover, the assays were more robust when bacteria were in fast growing conditions (exponential phase): the adhesion to uroepithelial cells was greater. Significant reduction of adhesion to urepithelial cells was observed: around 80% of inhibition of adhesion with the cranberry extracts at equivalent PAC concentration of 50 μg/mL. The effects of the different assayed extracts were not obviously different except for extract B, which inhibited approximately 55% of adhesion at an equivalent PAC concentration of 5 μg/mL.

  3. Inhibition of lentivirus replication by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris

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    Hauck Cathy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various members of the mint family have been used historically in Chinese and Native American medicine. Many of these same family members, including Prunella vulgaris, have been reported to have anti-viral activities. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of P. vulgaris, water and ethanol extractions were tested for their ability to inhibit equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV replication. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent anti-lentiviral activity against virus in cell lines as well as in primary cell cultures with little to no cellular cytotoxicity. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that the extracts were effective when added during the first four h of the viral life cycle, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting the virion itself or early entry events. Further analysis revealed that the extracts did not destroy EIAV virion integrity, but prevented viral particles from binding to the surface of permissive cells. Modest levels of anti-EIAV activity were also detected when the cells were treated with the extracts prior to infection, indicating that anti-EIAV botanical constituents could interact with both viral particles and permissive cells to interfere with infectivity. Size fractionation of the extract demonstrated that eight of the nine fractions generated from aqueous extracts displayed anti-viral activity. Separation of ethanol soluble and insoluble compounds in the eight active fractions revealed that ethanol-soluble constituents were responsible for the anti-viral activity in one fraction whereas ethanol-insoluble constituents were important for the anti-viral activity in two of the other fractions. In three of the five fractions that lost activity upon sub-fractionation, anti-viral activity was restored upon reconstitution of the fractions, indicating that synergistic anti-viral activity is present in several

  4. Corrosion inhibition and adsorption characteristics of Tridax Procumbens L leaves extract on mild steel immersed in 1M HCl solution

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    Kenneth Kanayo ALANEME

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion inhibition and adsorption mechanism of Tridax procumbens Linn leaves extract on mild steel immersed in 1M HCl solution was investigated. Mass loss, corrosion rate and inhibition efficiency from gravimetric and potentiodynamic polarization measurements, atomic adsorption spectroscopy (AAS, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy; were used for the analysis. The results show that within the selected range of concentration of the extract and corrosion test temperatures, the inhibition efficiency obtained was within the range of 81 and 96 %. The efficiency values were observed to increase with increase in the extract concentration but decreased slightly with increase in temperature. The inhibitor molecules were noted to be physically adsorbed on the mild steel surface with OH, NH, and CO groups confirmed as the active phytochemical constituents in the extract responsible for the adsorption. The adsorption process fitted perfectly with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicating that the extract was strongly adsorbed on the mild steel surface.

  5. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces sp. SBT343 Extract Inhibits Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Srikkanth; Othman, Eman M.; Kampik, Daniel; Stopper, Helga; Hentschel, Ute; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Oelschlaeger, Tobias A.; Abdelmohsen, Usama R.

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus are opportunistic pathogens that cause nosocomial and chronic biofilm-associated infections. Indwelling medical devices and contact lenses are ideal ecological niches for formation of staphylococcal biofilms. Bacteria within biofilms are known to display reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobials and are protected from the host immune system. High rates of acquired antibiotic resistances in staphylococci and other biofilm-forming bacteria further hamper treatment options and highlight the need for new anti-biofilm strategies. Here, we aimed to evaluate the potential of marine sponge-derived actinomycetes in inhibiting biofilm formation of several strains of S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results from in vitro biofilm-formation assays, as well as scanning electron and confocal microscopy, revealed that an organic extract derived from the marine sponge-associated bacterium Streptomyces sp. SBT343 significantly inhibited staphylococcal biofilm formation on polystyrene, glass and contact lens surfaces, without affecting bacterial growth. The extract also displayed similar antagonistic effects towards the biofilm formation of other S. epidermidis and S. aureus strains tested but had no inhibitory effects towards Pseudomonas biofilms. Interestingly the extract, at lower effective concentrations, did not exhibit cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblast, macrophage and human corneal epithelial cell lines. Chemical analysis by High Resolution Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry (HRMS) of the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract proportion revealed its chemical richness and complexity. Preliminary physico-chemical characterization of the extract highlighted the heat-stable and non-proteinaceous nature of the active component(s). The combined data suggest that the Streptomyces sp. SBT343 extract selectively inhibits staphylococcal biofilm formation without interfering with bacterial cell viability. Due to

  7. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  8. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    Organic extractants play a significant role in the selective removal of radioactive cations from waste streams. Although, literature on the selective removal of man-made radioactive material such as Americium (Am) is widespread, the selective removal of naturally occurring radioactive material such

  9. In vitro anti- bacterial activity of leaves extracts of Albizia lebbeck Benth against some selected pathogens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Nazneen Bobby; Edward Gnanaraj Wesely; MarimuthuAntonisamy Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To screen the anti-bacterial activity of Albizia lebbeck (A. lebbeck) Benth leaves extract against the selected bacterial pathogens viz., Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441), Escherichia coli (MTCC443), Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC 109), Proteus vulgaris (MTCC742), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC741), Salmonella typhii (MTCC733) and Staphylococus aureus (MTCC96).Methods:The leaves extracts of A. lebbeck was tested against bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method. Results: Results of the present study indicated that different extracts of A. lebbeck showed inhibitory effects against the pathogens. The present study results demonstrated that methanolic extracts of A. lebbeck conferred the widest spectrum activities that inhibited the growth of all studied pathogens with the maximum zone of inhibition. The methanolic extracts ofA. lebbeck illustrated the highest zone of inhibition against the pathogens Bacillus subtilis (16 mm), Escherichia coli (22 mm), Klebsiella pneumonia (11 mm), Proteus vulgaris (18 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm), Salmonella typhii (23 mm) and Staphylococus aureus (17 mm). The ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated maximum zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli (26 mm), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22 mm) and Klebsiella pneumonia (16 mm). Conclusions: It is expected that this study would direct to the establishment of some active compounds that could be used to formulate new and more potent anti-bacterial drugs of natural origin.

  10. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Arhewoh; Augustine O. Okhamafe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM) and Andrographis paniculata (AP) as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK) and Hunteria umbellata (HU) were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected t...

  11. Mitotic apparatus: the selective extraction of protein with mild acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1968-07-26

    The treatment of isolated mitotic apparatus with mild (pH 3) hydrochloric acid results in the extraction of less than 10 percent of its protein, accompanied by the selective morphological disappearance of the microtubules. The same extraction can be shown to dissolve outer doublet microtubules from sperm flagella. A protein with points of similarity to the flagellar microtubule protein is the major component of the extract from mitotic apparatus.

  12. Feature Extraction and Selection Strategies for Automated Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, W. Nicholas; Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2010-01-01

    Several feature extraction and selection methods for an existing automatic target recognition (ATR) system using JPLs Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) and Optimal Trade-Off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter were tested using MATLAB. The ATR system is composed of three stages: a cursory region of-interest (ROI) search using the GOC and OT-MACH filter, a feature extraction and selection stage, and a final classification stage. Feature extraction and selection concerns transforming potential target data into more useful forms as well as selecting important subsets of that data which may aide in detection and classification. The strategies tested were built around two popular extraction methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Performance was measured based on the classification accuracy and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) output of a support vector machine(SVM) and a neural net (NN) classifier.

  13. Feature Extraction and Selection Strategies for Automated Target Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, W. Nicholas; Zhang, Yuhan; Lu, Thomas T.; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    2010-01-01

    Several feature extraction and selection methods for an existing automatic target recognition (ATR) system using JPLs Grayscale Optical Correlator (GOC) and Optimal Trade-Off Maximum Average Correlation Height (OT-MACH) filter were tested using MATLAB. The ATR system is composed of three stages: a cursory region of-interest (ROI) search using the GOC and OT-MACH filter, a feature extraction and selection stage, and a final classification stage. Feature extraction and selection concerns transforming potential target data into more useful forms as well as selecting important subsets of that data which may aide in detection and classification. The strategies tested were built around two popular extraction methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Performance was measured based on the classification accuracy and free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) output of a support vector machine(SVM) and a neural net (NN) classifier.

  14. Fermented red ginseng extract inhibits cancer cell proliferation and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jisun; Jeon, Seong Bin; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Hyeji; Kim, Ju; Kwon, Bo Ra; Yu, Kang-Yeol; Cha, Jeong-Dan; Hwang, Seung-Mi; Choi, Kyung-Min; Jeong, Yong-Seob

    2015-04-01

    Red ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is the most widely recognized medicinal herb due to its remedial effects in various disorders, such as cancers, diabetes, and heart problems. In this study, we investigated the anticancer effect of fermented red ginseng extract (f-RGE; provided by Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju, South Korea) in a parallel comparison with the effect of nonfermented red ginseng extract (nf-RGE; control) on several cancer cell lines--MCF-7 breast cancer cells, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells, and reprogrammed MCF-7 cells (mimicking cancer stem cells). Cells were cultured at various concentrations of RGE (from 0.5 up to 5 mg/mL) and their viabilities and proliferative properties were examined. Our data demonstrate the following: (1) nf-RGE inhibited cell viability at ≥1 mg/mL for MCF-7 cells and ≥2 mg/mL for HepG2 cells, (2) in the presence of a carcinogenic agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), nf-RGE treatment in combination with paclitaxel synergistically decreased MCF-7 as well as HepG2 cell viability, (3) f-RGE (which contained a greater level of Rg3 content) more effectively decreased the viability of MCF-7 and HepG2 cells compared to nf-RGE, and (4) f-RGE appeared more potent for inhibiting cancerous differentiation of reprogrammed MCF-7 cells in a synergistic fashion with paclitaxel, especially in the presence of TPA, compared to nf-RGE. These findings suggest that f-RGE treatment may be more effective for decreasing cancer cell survival by inducing apoptotic cell death and also presumably for preventing cancer stem cell differentiation compared to nf-RGE.

  15. Anti-aging and tyrosinase inhibition effects of Cassia fistula flower butanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limtrakul, Pornngarm; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Thippraphan, Pilaiporn; Punfa, Wanisa; Srisomboon, Jatupol

    2016-12-03

    Natural products made from plant sources have been used in a variety of cosmetic applications as a source of nutrition and as a whitening agent. The flowers of Cassia fistula L, family Fabaceae, have been used as a traditional medicine for skin diseases and wound healing and have been reported to possess anti-oxidant properties. The anti-aging effect of C. fistula flower extract on human skin fibroblast was investigated. The butanolic extraction of C. fistula flowers was completed and the active compounds were classified. The cytotoxicity of fibroblasts was evaluated by SRB assay for the purposes of selecting non-toxic doses for further experiments. The collagen and hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis was then measured using the collagen kit and ELISA, respectively. Moreover, the enzyme activity, including collagenase, matrixmelloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tyrosinase, were also evaluated. It was found that the flower extract did not affect skin fibroblast cell growth (IC50 > 200 μg/mL). The results did show that the flower extract significantly increased collagen and HA synthesis in a dose dependent manner. The flower extract (50-200 μg/mL) also significantly inhibited collagenase and MMP-2 activity. Furthermore, this flower extract could inhibit the tyrosinase activity that causes hyperpigmentation, which induces skin aging. The C. fistula flower extract displayed a preventive effect when used for anti-aging purposes in human skin fibroblasts and may be an appropriate choice for cosmetic products that aim to provide whitening effects, and which are designated as anti-aging facial skin care products.

  16. Cross inhibition improves activity selection when switching incurs time costs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James A.R.MARSHALL; Angélique FAVREAU-PEIGN(E); Lutz FROMHAGE; John M.MCNAMARA; Lianne F.S.MEAH; Alasdair I.HOUSTON

    2015-01-01

    We consider a behavioural model of an animal choosing between two activities,based on positive feedback,and examine the effect of introducing cross inhibition between the motivations for the two activities.While cross-inhibition has previously been included in models of decision making,the question of what benefit it may provide to an animal's activity selection behaviour has not previously been studied.In neuroscience and in collective behaviour cross-inhibition,and other equivalent means of coupling evidence-accumulating pathways,have been shown to approximate statistically-optimal decision-making and to adaptively break deadlock,thereby improving decision performance.Switching between activities is an ongoing decision process yet here we also find that cross-inhibition robustly improves its efficiency,by reducing the frequency of costly switches between behaviours [Current Zoology 61 (2):242-250,2015].

  17. Extractant selection strategy for solvent-impregnated resins in fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C. van den; Roelands, C.P.M.; Bussmann, P.J.Th.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Verdoes, D.; Wielen, L. van der

    2008-01-01

    The application of extractants in whole-cell biocatalysis can have a positive impact on industrial fermentations, in terms of productivity, total amount of product produced, and cell growth. When a product is continuously removed from the microorganism surroundings, product inhibition will be dimini

  18. Selective Extraction of Entangled Textures via Adaptive PDE Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Texture and feature extraction is an important research area with a wide range of applications in science and technology. Selective extraction of entangled textures is a challenging task due to spatial entanglement, orientation mixing, and high-frequency overlapping. The partial differential equation (PDE transform is an efficient method for functional mode decomposition. The present work introduces adaptive PDE transform algorithm to appropriately threshold the statistical variance of the local variation of functional modes. The proposed adaptive PDE transform is applied to the selective extraction of entangled textures. Successful separations of human face, clothes, background, natural landscape, text, forest, camouflaged sniper and neuron skeletons have validated the proposed method.

  19. Antioxidant activity of various extracts of selected gourd vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Baljeet S; Yadav, Roshanlal; Yadav, Ritika B; Garg, Munish

    2016-04-01

    Study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative activity of methanolic (ME), ethanolic (EE) and butanolic extracts (BE) of selected gourd vegetables. The antioxidant activity was investigated using different assays namely ferric thiocyanate test (FTC), thiobarbituric acid test (TBA), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and DPPH free radicals scavenging test. A densitometric HPTLC analysis was performed for the analysis of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Different extracts of the selected gourd vegetables revealed different antioxidant activity. Different extracts of Lagenaria siceraria, Momordica charantia and Luffa cylindrica revealed significantly higher (p siceraria and M. charantia.

  20. Alcohol and polyphenolic grape extract inhibit platelet adhesion in flowing blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, DW; Scholman, WLG; Kraaijenhagen, RJ; Akkerman, JWN; van de Wiel, A

    2004-01-01

    Background Moderate and prolonged alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Inhibition of platelet function in suspension attributes to these effects. Whether alcohol, red wine, or polyphenolic grape extracts (PGE) inhibit platelet adhesion is not

  1. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of selected marine macroalgae against some pathogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Omer Abdalla

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of six marine macroalgae belonging to green algae (Chlorophyceae, brown algae (Phaeophyceae and the red algae (Rhodophyceae collected from the intertidal area of the Sudanese Red Sea coast near Port Sudan. Methods: Methanol was used for extracting the active principles of the algae and the disc diffusion method was performed to examine the activity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the samples against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Results: All tested algal extracts exhibited considerable bioactivity and inhibited the growth of all pathogenic microorganisms under investigation. The green alga Caulerpa racemosa produced the maximum inhibition zone (21 mm against Candida albicans while the red alga Laurencia papillosa showed low antimicrobial activity with the minimum inhibition zone of 10 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested algal extracts did not show any special antimicrobial influence on the selected microorganisms when they were considered as Grampositive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi but the most efficient methanolic extracts in inhibiting microbial growth were those of green macroalgae followed by the brown and the red macroalgae respectively. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the tested marine macroalgae from Sudanese Red Sea coast may represent a potential and alternative source for secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  2. Antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of selected marine macroalgae against some pathogenic microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehab Omer Abdalla; Mohammed Taha Abdalla Shigidi; Hassan Elsubki Khalid; Nahid Abdel Rahim Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts of six marine macroalgae belonging to green algae (Chlorophyceae), brown algae (Phaeophyceae) and the red algae (Rhodophyceae) collected from the intertidal area of the Sudanese Red Sea coast near Port Sudan. Methods:Methanol was used for extracting the active principles of the algae and the disc diffusion method was performed to examine the activity and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the samples against four pathogenic bacteria and two fungi. Results: All tested algal extracts exhibited considerable bioactivity and inhibited the growth of all pathogenic microorganisms under investigation. The green alga Caulerpa racemosa produced the maximum inhibition zone (21 mm) againstCandida albicans while the red alga Laurencia papillosa showed low antimicrobial activity with the minimum inhibition zone of 10 mm againstPseudomonas aeruginosa. The tested algal extracts did not show any special antimicrobial influence on the selected microorganisms when they were considered as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi but the most efficient methanolic extracts in inhibiting microbial growth were those of green macroalgae followed by the brown and the red macroalgae respectively. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that the tested marine macroalgae from Sudanese Red Sea coast may represent a potential and alternative source for secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity.

  3. Selective inhibition of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelli, Massimo; El-Bastawissy, Eman; Knaggs, Michael H.; Barrett, Michael P.; Hanau, Stefania; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2001-05-01

    A number of triphenylmethane derivatives have been screened against 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei and sheep liver. Some of these compounds show good inhibition of the enzymes and also selectivity towards the parasite enzyme. Modelling was undertaken to dock the compounds into the active sites of both enzymes. Using a combination of DOCK 3.5 and FLEXIDOCK a correlation was obtained between docking score and both activity for the enzymes and selectivity. Visualisation of the docked structures of the inhibitors in the active sites of the enzymes yielded a possible explanation of the selectivity for the parasite enzyme.

  4. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fawole, Olaniyi A; Makunga, Nokwanda P; Opara, Umezuruike Linus

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars...

  5. Inhibition of viral proteases by Zingiberaceae extracts and flavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookkongwaree, K; Geitmann, M; Roengsumran, S; Petsom, A; Danielson, U H

    2006-08-01

    In order to identify novel lead compounds with antiviral effect, methanol and aqueous extracts of eight medicinal plants in the Zingiberaceae family were screened for inhibition of proteases from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In general, the methanol extracts inhibited the enzymes more effectively than the aqueous extracts. HIV-1 protease was strongly inhibited by the methanol extract of Alpinia galanga. This extract also inhibited HCV and HCMV proteases, but to a lower degree. HCV protease was most efficiently inhibited by the extracts from Zingiber officinale, with little difference between the aqueous and the methanol extracts. Many of the methanol extracts inhibited HCMV protease, but the aqueous extracts showed weak inhibition. In a first endeavor to identify the active constituents, eight flavones were isolated from the black rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora. The most effective inhibitors, 5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone, inhibited HIV-1 protease with IC50 values of 19 microM. Moreover, 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone inhibited HCV protease and HCMV protease with IC50 values of 190 and 250 microM, respectively.

  6. In vitro antioxidant assay of selected aqueous plant extracts and their polyherbal formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganga Raju M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To support the use of selected plant extracts in Ayurveda, naturopathy, the antioxidant potential of the aqueous extract of Vincarosea (VR, Gymnemasylvestre (GS, Tinosporacordifolia (TC and Emblicaofficinalis (EO and their mixture (PHF of Indian origin was investigated for in vitro antioxidant activity by using in vitro models like superoxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxide inhibition assay. The results were compared with standard (ascorbic acid, a known antioxidant. The various phytoconstituents identified in the above selected plants extracts were poly phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, alkaloids. The terpenoids were reported to protect lipids, blood and body fluids against the attack of free radicals, some types of reactive oxygen, hydroxylic groups, peroxides and superoxide radicals. The presence of these phytoconstituents in selected plants might be responsible for antioxidant activity with that of known antioxidant ascorbic acid.

  7. Selection and inhibition mechanisms for human voluntary action decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxiang; Hughes, Laura E; Rowe, James B

    2012-10-15

    One can choose between action alternatives that have no apparent difference in their outcomes. Such voluntary action decisions are associated with widespread frontal-parietal activation, and a tendency to inhibit the repetition of a previous action. However, the mechanism of initiating voluntary actions and the functions of different brain regions during this process remains largely unknown. Here, we combine computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the selection and inhibition mechanisms that mediate trial-to-trial voluntary action decisions. We fitted an optimized accumulator model to behavioral responses in a finger-tapping task in which participants were instructed to make chosen actions or specified actions. Model parameters derived from each individual were then applied to estimate the expected accumulated metabolic activity (EAA) engaged in every single trial. The EAA was associated with blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in a decision work that was maximal in the supplementary motor area and the caudal anterior cingulate cortex, consistent with a competitive accumulation-to-threshold mechanism for action decision by these regions. Furthermore, specific inhibition of the previous action's accumulator was related to the suppression of response repetition. This action-specific inhibition correlated with the activity of the right inferior frontal gyrus, when the option to repeat existed. Our findings suggest that human voluntary action decisions are mediated by complementary processes of intentional selection and inhibition.

  8. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited b...

  9. Inhibition of Fish Nodavirus by Gymnemagenol Extracted from Gymnema sylvestre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Gopiesh Khanna; K. Kannabiran; V. Sarath Babu; A. S. Sahul Hameed

    2011-01-01

    Viral nervous necrosis (VNN) has emerged to become a major problem in the culture of larval and juvenile marine fish worldwide.Bioactive phytochemicals isolated from commonly available medicinal plants are often screened for their efficacy in controlling fish viral diseases.Occurrence of newer viral strains and resistance to existing antiviral drugs are problems currently associated with treatment of VNN,which necessitates looking for alternate sources for effective antiviral drugs.The aim of the present study was to screen antiviral potential of gymnemagenol (C30H50O4) previously extracted from leaves of Gymnema sylvestre.The fish nodavirus,grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) in infected Sahul Indian Grouper Eye (SIGE) cell lines were used to study the antiviral activity of gymnemagenol under in vitro conditions.The susceptibility of the virus to gynmemagenol was confirmed by measuring the viral titre (TCID50 mL-1) in virus-infected SIGE cells every 24 h.Gymnemagenol at 20 μg mL-1 inhibited the proliferation of GNNV to 53% at the end of the 6th d by inhibiting the proliferation of GNNV-infected SIGE cells.The viable SIGE cells were reduced to 47% as determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.The viral titre (TCID50 mL-1) was also reduced to log 2.8 at the end of the 7th d in gymnemagenol-treated SIGE cells after inoculated with GNNV when compared to untreated control SIGE cell viral titre (log4.1).Based on our results it can be concluded that gymnemagenol could be used as an antiviral agent against GNNV infection.

  10. Corrosion Inhibition of Carbon Steel in HCl Solution by Some Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrish Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The strict environmental legislations and increasing ecological awareness among scientists have led to the development of “green” alternatives to mitigate corrosion. In the present work, literature on green corrosion inhibitors has been reviewed, and the salient features of our work on green corrosion inhibitors have been highlighted. Among the studied leaves, extract Andrographis paniculata showed better inhibition performance (98% than the other leaves extract. Strychnos nuxvomica showed better inhibition (98% than the other seed extracts. Moringa oleifera is reflected as a good corrosion inhibitor of mild steel in 1 M HCl with 98% inhibition efficiency among the studied fruits extract. Bacopa monnieri showed its maximum inhibition performance to be 95% at 600 ppm among the investigated stem extracts. All the reported plant extracts were found to inhibit the corrosion of mild steel in acid media.

  11. Inhibition of human platelet aggregation in vitro by standardized extract of Wendtia calycina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Garcia Mesa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Wendtia calycina (Griseb. Griseb., Vivianiaceae, is a Paraguayan herbaceous plant commonly known as burrito. Our previous study indicated that burrito leaves are a very good source of phenylpropanoid glycosides, principally verbascoside. From W. calycina leaves, a standardized, water-soluble extract rich in phenylpropanoid glycosides (WSE has been developed on an industrial scale to be used as a food supplement, cosmetic, phytomedicine, and ingredient of different formulations. In this study, we investigated the effect of the WSE on human platelet aggregation in vitro induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP, epinephrine (EPN, collagen (COL or arachidonic acid (AA. WSE, concentration-dependently, inhibited ADP and EP-induced human platelet aggregation (IC50 were 0.82±0.15 mg/mL and 0.41±0.02 mg/mL, respectively. It did not inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation, thus suggesting a selectivity for the ADP-induced platelet activation pathways.

  12. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica C. Larson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG medicinal plants (succus will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs. The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  13. Anticancer activities of selected species of North American lichen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Gajendra; El-Naggar, Atif M; St Clair, Larry L; O'Neill, Kim L

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of human deaths in the USA. Despite continuous efforts to treat cancer over the past 50 years, human mortality rates have not decreased significantly. Natural products, such as lichens, have been good sources of anticancer drugs. This study reports the cytotoxic activity of crude extracts of 17 lichen species against Burkitt's lymphoma (Raji) cells. Out of the 17 lichen species, extracts from 14 species showed cytotoxicity against Raji cells. On the basis of IC50 values, we selected Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa and Tuckermannopsis ciliaris to study the mechanism of cell death. Viability of normal lymphocytes was not affected by the extracts of X. chlorochroa and T. ciliaris. We found that extracts from both lichens decreased proliferation, accumulated cells at the G0 /G1 stage, and caused apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Both lichen extracts also caused upregulation of p53. The T. ciliaris extract upregulated the expression of TK1 but X. chlorochroa did not. We also found that usnic, salazinic, constictic, and norstictic acids were present in the extract of X. chlorochroa, whereas protolichesterinic acid in T. ciliaris extracts. Our data demonstrate that lichen extracts merit further research as a potential source of anticancer drugs.

  14. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  15. Selective extraction of isolated mitotic apparatus. Evidence that typical microtubule protein is extracted by organic mercurial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibring, T; Baxandall, J

    1971-02-01

    Mitotic apparatus isolated from sea urchin eggs has been treated with meralluride sodium under conditions otherwise resembling those of its isolation. The treatment causes a selective morphological disappearance of microtubules while extracting a major protein fraction, probably consisting of two closely related proteins, which constitutes about 10% of mitotic apparatus protein. Extraction of other cell particulates under similar conditions yields much less of this protein. The extracted protein closely resembles outer doublet microtubule protein from sea urchin sperm tail in properties considered typical of microtubule proteins: precipitation by calcium ion and vinblastine, electrophoretic mobility in both acid and basic polyacrylamide gels, sedimentation coefficient, molecular weight, and, according to a preliminary determination, amino acid composition. An antiserum against a preparation of sperm tail outer doublet microtubules cross-reacts with the extract from mitotic apparatus. On the basis of these findings it appears that microtubule protein is selectively extracted from isolated mitotic apparatus by treatment with meralluride, and is a typical microtubule protein.

  16. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used

  17. Antioxidant rich grape pomace extract suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice by specifically inhibiting alpha-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Shelly

    2010-08-01

    -induced diabetic mice following starch challenge. Conclusion This is the first report that the grape pomace extracts selectively and significantly inhibits intestinal α-glucosidase and suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic mice. The antioxidant and anti-postprandial hyperglycemic activities demonstrated on the tested grape pomace extract therefore suggest a potential for utilizing grape pomace-derived bioactive compounds in management of diabetes.

  18. Detergent selection for enhanced extraction of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arachea, Buenafe T; Sun, Zhen; Potente, Nina; Malik, Radhika; Isailovic, Dragan; Viola, Ronald E

    2012-11-01

    Generating stable conditions for membrane proteins after extraction from their lipid bilayer environment is essential for subsequent characterization. Detergents are the most widely used means to obtain this stable environment; however, different types of membrane proteins have been found to require detergents with varying properties for optimal extraction efficiency and stability after extraction. The extraction profiles of several detergent types have been examined for membranes isolated from bacteria and yeast, and for a set of recombinant target proteins. The extraction efficiencies of these detergents increase at higher concentrations, and were shown to correlate with their respective CMC values. Two alkyl sugar detergents, octyl-β-d-glucoside (OG) and 5-cyclohexyl-1-pentyl-β-d-maltoside (Cymal-5), and a zwitterionic surfactant, N-decylphosphocholine (Fos-choline-10), were generally effective in the extraction of a broad range of membrane proteins. However, certain detergents were more effective than others in the extraction of specific classes of integral membrane proteins, offering guidelines for initial detergent selection. The differences in extraction efficiencies among this small set of detergents supports the value of detergent screening and optimization to increase the yields of targeted membrane proteins.

  19. A rosemary extract rich in carnosic acid selectively modulates caecum microbiota and inhibits β-glucosidase activity, altering fiber and short chain fatty acids fecal excretion in lean and obese female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Romo-Vaquero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carnosic acid (CA and rosemary extracts (RE show body-weight, energy metabolism and inflammation regulatory properties in animal models but the mechanisms are not yet understood. Gut microbiota plays an important role in the host metabolism and inflammatory status and is modulated by the diet. The aim of this research was to investigate whether a RE enriched in CA affected caecum microbiota composition and activity in a rat model of genetic obesity. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A RE (40% CA was administered with the diet (0.5% w/w to lean (fa/+ and obese (fa/fa female Zucker rats for 64 days. Changes in the microbiota composition and β-glucosidase activity in the caecum and in the levels of macronutrients and short chain fatty acids (SCFA in feces were examined. The RE increased the Blautia coccoides and Bacteroides/Prevotella groups and reduced the Lactobacillus/Leuconostoc/Pediococccus group in both types of animals. Clostridium leptum was significantly decreased and Bifidobacterium increased only in the lean rats. β-Glucosidase activity was significantly reduced and fecal fiber excretion increased in the two genotypes. The RE also increased the main SCFA excreted in the feces of the obese rats but decreased them in the lean rats reflecting important differences in the uptake and metabolism of these molecules between the two genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the consumption of a RE enriched in CA modifies microbiota composition and decreases β-glucosidase activity in the caecum of female Zucker rats while it increases fiber fecal elimination. These results may contribute to explain the body weight gain reducing effects of the RE. The mutated leptin receptor of the obese animals significantly affects the microbiota composition, the SCFA fecal excretion and the host response to the RE intake.

  20. Allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala on three selected weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Muhamad Safwan; Sahid, Ismail

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the allelopathic effects of the aqueous extract of the leaf and seed of Leucaena leucocephala. The aqueous extracts were individually tested on three selected weed species, namely goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides), coat buttons (Tridax procumbens) and lilac tasselflower (Emilia sonchifolia). The allelopathic effects of the leaf and seed extracts on germination, shoot length, root length and fresh weight of each of the selected weed species were determined. Germination of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were inhibited by the aqueous extracts of both the leaf and seed of L. leucocephala and was concentration dependent. Different concentrations of the aqueous extracts showed various germination patterns on the selected weeds species. Seedling length and fresh weight of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower were reduced in response to respective increasing concentrations of the seed extracts. Maximum inhibition by the aqueous seed extract was observed more on the root rather than the shoot growth. The aqueous seed extract at T3 concentration reduced root length of goatweed, coat buttons and lilac tasselflower by 95%, 86% and 91% (of the control) respectively. The aqueous seed extract showed greater inhibitory effects than that of the aqueous leaf extract.

  1. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

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    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  2. Preliminary studies of inhibitions in Aspergillus flavus with extracts of ...

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    of lichens on the growth of lower Phycomycetes and. Neurospora ... have indicated the possible use of plant as well as lichen extracts in the control of plant diseases. The extraction, ... under light microscope (*400 objective) for the emergence of germ tube. .... artificial fungicide develop, this study has shown that extracts of ...

  3. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  4. Synthesis of two-dimensional materials by selective extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from

  5. Development of orodispersible films with selected Indonesian medicinal plant extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Johanna; Eugresya, Gabriella; Hinrichs, Wouter; Tjandrawinata, Raymond; Avanti, Christina; Frijlink, H.W.; Woerdenbag, Herman

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the incorporation into orodispersible films (ODFs) of the dried extracts of five selected Indonesian medicinal plants: Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers. (LS), Phyllanthus niruri L. (PN), Cinnamomum burmanii Blume (CB), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ZO) and Phaleria macrocarpa (Sc

  6. Emulsion liquid membrane for selective extraction of Bi(III)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahram Mokhtari; Kobra Pourabdollah

    2015-01-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid was used as extractant of bismuth ions from nitrate medium by emulsion liquid membrane, with Triton X-100 as the biodegradable surfactant in n-pentanol bulk membrane. The novelties and innovative points of this work are the application of emulsion liquid membrane for selective and efficient extraction of bismuth ions as wel as the relevant optimization procedures. The extraction of bismuth ions was evaluated by the yield of extraction. The experimental parameters were evaluated and optimized, including the ratio of di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid mass concentration to Triton X-100 (1.0%:0.5%), nature of diluent (n-pentanol), nature and concentration of stripping solution (sulfuric acid, 0.5 mol·L−1), stirring speed (1800 r·min−1) and equilibrium time of extraction (20 min), initial feed solution of bismuth (350 mg·L−1) and the volume ratio of internal stripping phase to membrane phase (14). The experimental parameters of kinetic extraction reveal that the bismuth ions can be extracted by 100%.

  7. Corrosion Inhibition Studies of Mild Steel in Acid Medium Using Musa Acuminata Fruit Peel Extract

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    N. Gunavathy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition effect of unripe fruit peel extract of Musa acuminata (Cultivar variety – Nendran (MNP on corrosion of mild steel in 1 N HCl has been investigated by weight loss and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS with various concentrations of the extract. The effect of temperature on the corrosion inhibition of mild steel in the temperature range of 30°C – 80°C was carried out. The results indicate that MNP extract act as an effective inhibitor in the acid environment and is of mixed type inhibitor having efficiency as high as 96% at 2% inhibitor concentration. The inhibition efficiency of MNP extract increases with the increase of concentration but decreases with the increase in temperature. The inhibitor achieves its inhibition by physical adsorption of nutrients of the peel extract on the surface of the mild steel. The experimental data revealed that the adsorption occurred according to the Langmuir and Temkin adsorption isotherm.

  8. Selective Extraction of Organic Contaminants from Soil Using Pressurised Liquid Extraction

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    Rozita Osman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the application of sorbents in pressurised liquid extraction (PLE cell to establish a selective extraction of a variety of organic contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, phenol, pentachlorophenol, and sterols from soil. The selectivity and efficiency of each sorbent depend on the properties of the material, extracting solvent, capacity factor, organic compounds of interest, and PLE operating parameters (temperature, pressure, and extraction time. Several sorbents (silica, alumina, and Florisil were evaluated and with the proper choice of solvents, polar and nonpolar compounds were successfully separated in two fractions. Nonpolar compounds (PAHs, chlorpyrifos, and pentachlorophenol were recovered in the first fraction using a polar sorbent such as Florisil or alumina, and n-hexane as eluting solvent, while more polar compounds (phenol and sterols were recovered in the second fraction using methanol. Silica (5 g was found to be effective for selective extraction with the satisfactory recoveries for all compounds (PAHs from 87.1–96.2%, chlorpyrifos 102.9%, sterols from 93.7–100.5%, phenol 91.9%, and pentachlorophenol 106.2%. The efficiency and precision of this extraction approach and the existing EPA Method 3545 were compared.

  9. Evaluation of alpha- amylase inhibition by Urtica dioica and Juglans regia extracts

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    Mahsa Rahimzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:One strategy for the treatment of diabetes is inhibition of pancreatic α- amylase. Plants contains different chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and hence maybe used as therapeutic. Materials and Methods: Urtica dioica and Juglans regia Linn were tested for α-amylase inhibition. Different concentrations of leaf aqueous extracts were incubated with enzyme substrate solution and the activity of enzyme was measured. For determination of the type of inhibition, Dixon plot was depicted. Acarbose was used as the standard inhibitor. Results: Both plant extracts showed time and concentration dependent inhibition of α-amylase. 60% inhibition was seen with 2 mg/ml of U. dioica and0.4 mg/ml of J. regia aqueous extract. Dixon plots revealed the type of α-amylase inhibition by these two extracts as competitive inhibition. Conclusion: Determination of the type of α-amylase inhibition by these plant extracts could provide by successful use of plant chemicals as drug targets.

  10. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losada, S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T

    2009-12-15

    A fast and simple method for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish samples was developed using a one-step extraction and clean-up by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS). The selective PLE method provided to obtain ready-to-analyse extracts without any additional clean-up step, using a sorbent as fat retainer inside the PLE cell. Several PLE operating conditions, such as solvent type, extraction temperature and time, number of cycles and type of fat retainer, were studied. Using Florisil as fat retainer, maximum recoveries of PBDEs (83-108%) with minimum presence of matrix-interfering compounds were obtained using a mixture of n-hexane:dichloromethane 90:10 (v/v) as solvent, an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C and a static extraction time of 5 min in combination with three static cycles. Quality parameters of the method were established using standards and fish samples. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 10 to 34 pg g(-1) wet weight and between 34 and 68 pg g(-1) wet weight, respectively. In addition, good linearity (between 1 and 500 ng ml(-1)) and high precision (RSD %<15%) were achieved. The method was validated using the standard reference material SRM-1945 (whale blubber) and was then applied to the analysis of PBDEs in fish samples.

  11. Spectrophotometric validation of assay method for selected medicinal plant extracts

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    Matthew Arhewoh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To develop UV spectrophotometric assay validation methods for some selected medicinal plant extracts.Methods: Dried, powdered leaves of Annona muricata (AM and Andrographis paniculata (AP as well as seeds of Garcinia kola (GK and Hunteria umbellata (HU were separately subjected to maceration using distilled water. Different concentrations of the extracts were scanned spectrophotometrically to obtain wavelengths of maximum absorbance. The different extracts were then subjected to validation studies following international guidelines at the respective wavelengths obtained.Results: The results showed linearity at peak wavelengths of maximum absorbance of 292, 280, 274 and 230 nm for GK, HU, AM and AP, respectively. The calibration curves for the different concentrations of the extract gave R2 values ranging from 0.9831 for AM to 0.9996 for AP the inter-day and intra-day precision study showed that the relative standard deviation (% was ≤ 10% for all the extracts.Conclusion: The aqueous extracts and isolates of these plants can be assayed and monitored using these wavelengths.

  12. SCAVENGING ACTIVITY, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND DIABETES RELATED ENZYME INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF PHOENYX DACTYLIFERA

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    S. E. Laouini

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of three selected varieties of Phoenyx dactylifera L. namely: “Ghars”, “Deglet Nour” and “Hamraya”. The assessment of the antioxidant potential of crude leaf extracts, using superoxide anions inhibition, radical scavenging activity "DPPH" and total antioxidant activity essays, was carried out. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production. Moreover, the antidiabetic effect was evaluated by inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The total phenolic content measured by Folin-ciocalteu method. The raw leaf extracts of the selected varieties were found to contain a high content of total phenolic content (342.45 mg GAE/ gDW for GE and therefore exhibited a higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of radicals scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion (IC50=7.44 μg/mL and 39.11 μg/mL respectively.

  13. SCAVENGING ACTIVITY, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND DIABETES RELATED ENZYME INHIBITION PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL LEAVES EXTRACT OF PHOENYX DACTYLIFERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Laouini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic activities of ethanolic leaf extracts of three selected varieties of Phoenyx dactylifera L. namely: “Ghars”, “Deglet Nour” and “Hamraya”. The assessment of the antioxidant potential of crude leaf extracts, using superoxide anions inhibition, radical scavenging activity "DPPH" and total antioxidant activity essays, was carried out. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory properties of the extracts were determined by measuring the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production. Moreover, the antidiabetic effect was evaluated by inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzymes. The total phenolic content measured by Folin-ciocalteu method. The raw leaf extracts of the selected varieties were found to contain a high content of total phenolic content (342.45 mg GAE/ gDW for GE and therefore exhibited a higher antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of radicals scavenging activity against DPPH and superoxide anion (IC50=7.44 μg/mL and 39.11 μg/mL respectively.

  14. Cytotoxicity of some Cameroonian spices and selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Youns, Mahmoud; Voukeng, Igor; Fankam, Aimé G; Tankeo, Simplice; Lacmata, Stephen; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-04-12

    Several medicinal plants and spices are used traditionally to treat cancers in Cameroon. Methanol extracts from thirty-four spices and plants, with related ethnobotanical use were investigated for their in vitro cytotoxicity on the human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2, leukemia CCRF-CEM cells and their multidrug resistant (MDR) subline CEM/ADR5000, and the normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition the anti-angiogenic properties of the most active extracts were investigated. The MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay was used for cytotoxic studies and the CAM-assay (chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane-assay) for anti-angiogenesis test. The results of the cytotoxicity tests indicated that, when tested at 20 μg/ml, extracts from Xylopia aethiopica, Echinops giganteus, Imperata cylindrica, Dorstenia psilirus and Piper capense were able to inhibit more that 50% the proliferation of the three tested cancer cells (MiaPaCa-2, CEM/ADR5000 CCRF-CEM). The lowest IC(50) values of 6.86 μg/ml on MiaPaCa-2 and 3.91 μg/ml on CCRF-CEM cells were obtained with X. aethiopica, while the corresponding value of 6.56 μg/ml was obtained with P. capense on CEM/ADR5000 cells. Against leukemia cells, no cross-resistance was observed with I. cylindrica, P. capense and Zinziber officinalis. Extracts from D. psilirus and E. giganteus were able to inhibit angiogenesis by more than 50% in quail embryo. The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some Cameroonian plants for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Intracellular coagulation inhibits the extraction of proteins from Prochloron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, R.; Lewin, R. A.; Fall, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Protein extraction from the prokaryotic alga Prochloron LP (isolated from the ascidian host Lissoclinum patella) was complicated by an irreversible loss of cell fragility in the isolated algae. Accompanying this phenomenon, which is termed intracellular coagulation, was a redistribution of thylakoids around the cell periphery, a loss of photosynthetic O2 production, and a drastic decrease in the extractability of cell proteins. Procedures are described for the successful preparation and transport of cell extracts yielding the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase as well as other soluble proteins.

  16. Intracellular coagulation inhibits the extraction of proteins from Prochloron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, R.; Lewin, R. A.; Fall, L. R.

    1983-01-01

    Protein extraction from the prokaryotic alga Prochloron LP (isolated from the ascidian host Lissoclinum patella) was complicated by an irreversible loss of cell fragility in the isolated algae. Accompanying this phenomenon, which is termed intracellular coagulation, was a redistribution of thylakoids around the cell periphery, a loss of photosynthetic O2 production, and a drastic decrease in the extractability of cell proteins. Procedures are described for the successful preparation and transport of cell extracts yielding the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase as well as other soluble proteins.

  17. Inhibition of 304 stainless steel corrosion in acidic solution by Ferula gumosa (galbanum) extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behpour, M.; Ghoreishi, S.M.; Soltani, N. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan (Iran); Kashani, M.K. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kashan (Iran); Barij Essence pharmaceutical, Kashan (Iran)

    2009-11-15

    The inhibition effect of the extract of galbanum (Ferula gummosa Boiss.) on the corrosion of 304 stainless steel in 2 M HCl solution was studied by weight loss measurements, Tafel polarization, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) methods. It was found that the inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. Tafel polarization method revealed the mixed mode inhibition of galbanum extract (GE) with predominant control of anodic reaction. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of steel indicates that inhibition efficiency of the natural substance increases with the rise in temperature. At all temperatures, the adsorption of the extract components onto the steel surface was found to follow the Temkin adsorption isotherm. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  18. Inhibition of Cyclooxygenase Type 1 and 2 Enzyme by Aqueous Extract of Elaeagnus Angustifolia in Mice

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    Shahedeh Farahbakhsh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: It has been shown that the extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia can inhibit inflammation and pain induced by formalin in mice and rats. The aim of the present study is to reach evaluations of possible cellular and molecular mechanisms of Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in reducing pain and inflammation through examining the extract ability for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (Cox type 1 and 2 enzymes and corticosterone release from adrenal glands in mice. Methods: Male Swiss Webster mice were evaluated through the injection of 2 μliters to the plantar part of right foot. Elaeagnus angustifolia extract was injected to the animals 30 minutes before formalin. In order to evaluate the mechanism of extract, naloxone and memantine were administered intrapretonealy 30 minutes before the extract administration. In separate groups, after injection of extract, blood samples were taken from animals and corticosterone concentrations were measured. In an in vitro study the effect of extract on the activity of cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 was assessed. Results: the research data showed the ineffectiveness of the extract on acute phase of pain induced by formalin but it completely inhibits the chronic phase. Naloxone and Memantine administration had no effect on the efficacy of extract in the chronic phase. Also the extract administration did not increase the plasma concentration of corticosterone in mice, but in vitro inhibited Cox1 and Cox 2 enzymes. Discussion: These results indicate that Elaeagnus angustifolia extract probably reducesww pain and inflammation caused by formalin in mice by inhibiting cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 enzymes.

  19. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

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    McCoy Joe-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mint family (Lamiaceae produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., sage (Salvia spp., peppermint (Mentha × piperita L., hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L., basil (Ocimum spp. and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.. To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1.

  20. Inhibition of bacterial, fungal and plant growth by testa extracts of Citrullus genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) seed exudates inhibit germination and seedling growth of several plant species and growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. This study was conducted to determine if extractable components in testae contribute to the inhibition. T...

  1. Selective Extraction of Rare Earth Elements from Permanent Magnet Scraps with Membrane Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daejin; Powell, Lawrence E; Delmau, Lætitia H; Peterson, Eric S; Herchenroeder, Jim; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2015-08-18

    The rare earth elements (REEs) such as neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium were successfully recovered from commercial NdFeB magnets and industrial scrap magnets via membrane assisted solvent extraction (MSX). A hollow fiber membrane system was evaluated to extract REEs in a single step with the feed and strip solutions circulating continuously through the MSX system. The effects of several experimental variables on REE extraction such as flow rate, concentration of REEs in the feed solution, membrane configuration, and composition of acids were investigated with the MSX system. A multimembrane module configuration with REEs dissolved in aqueous nitric acid solutions showed high selectivity for REE extraction with no coextraction of non-REEs, whereas the use of aqueous hydrochloric acid solution resulted in coextraction of non-REEs due to the formation of chloroanions of non-REEs. The REE oxides were recovered from the strip solution through precipitation, drying, and annealing steps. The resulting REE oxides were characterized with XRD, SEM-EDX, and ICP-OES, demonstrating that the membrane assisted solvent extraction is capable of selectively recovering pure REEs from the industrial scrap magnets.

  2. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

    OpenAIRE

    Ilayaraja, G.; Sasieekhumar, A. R.; Dhanakodi, P.

    2011-01-01

    The inhibition efficiency (IE) of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens ...

  3. Cinnamon extract inhibits tau aggregation associated with Alzheimer’s Disease in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    An aqueous extract of Ceylon cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) was found to inhibit tau aggregation and filament formation, hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in vitro using brain cells taken from patients who died with AD. The extract also promoted complete disassembly of recombinant tau filaments, and ...

  4. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase and amylase by extracts of different spices and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed; Louati, Hanen; Kamoun, Jannet; Kchaou, Ali; Damak, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to search new anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agents from plant and spices crude extracts as alternative to synthetic drugs. The inhibitory effect of 72 extracts was evaluated, in vitro, on lipase and amylase activities. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and black tea exhibited an appreciable inhibitory effect on pancreatic amylase with IC50 values of 18 and 87 μg, respectively. Aqueous extracts of cinnamon and mint showed strong inhibitory effects against pancreatic lipase with IC50 of 45 and 62 μg, respectively. The presence of bile salts and colipase or an excess of interface failed to restore the lipase activity. Therefore, the inhibition of pancreatic lipase, by extracts of spices and plants, belongs to an irreversible inhibition. Crude extract of cinnamon showed the strongest anti-lipase and anti-amylase activities which offer a prospective therapeutic approach for the management of diabetes and obesity.

  5. Cinnamon extract inhibits α-glucosidase activity and dampens postprandial glucose excursion in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumurugan Kavitha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-glucosidase inhibitors regulate postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG by impeding the rate of carbohydrate digestion in the small intestine and thereby hampering the diet associated acute glucose excursion. PPHG is a major risk factor for diabetic vascular complications leading to disabilities and mortality in diabetics. Cinnamomum zeylanicum, a spice, has been used in traditional medicine for treating diabetes. In this study we have evaluated the α-glucosidase inhibitory potential of cinnamon extract to control postprandial blood glucose level in maltose, sucrose loaded STZ induced diabetic rats. Methods The methanol extract of cinnamon bark was prepared by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical analysis was performed to find the major class of compounds present in the extract. The inhibitory effect of cinnamon extract on yeast α-glucosidase and rat-intestinal α-glucosidase was determined in vitro and the kinetics of enzyme inhibition was studied. Dialysis experiment was performed to find the nature of the inhibition. Normal male Albino wistar rats and STZ induced diabetic rats were treated with cinnamon extract to find the effect of cinnamon on postprandial hyperglycemia after carbohydrate loading. Results Phytochemical analysis of the methanol extract displayed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, terpenoids, coumarins and anthraquinones. In vitro studies had indicated dose-dependent inhibitory activity of cinnamon extract against yeast α-glucosidase with the IC 50 value of 5.83 μg/ml and mammalian α-glucosidase with IC 50 value of 670 μg/ml. Enzyme kinetics data fit to LB plot pointed out competitive mode of inhibition and the membrane dialysis experiment revealed reversible nature of inhibition. In vivo animal experiments are indicative of ameliorated postprandial hyperglycemia as the oral intake of the cinnamon extract (300 mg/kg body wt. significantly dampened the postprandial hyperglycemia by 78.2% and 52

  6. Selective extraction of cesium: from compound to process; Extraction selective du cesium: de la molecule au procede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Dozol, J.F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-07-01

    Under the French law of 30 December 1991 on nuclear waste management, research is conducted to recover long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive effluents generated by spent fuel reprocessing, in order to destroy them by transmutation or encapsulate them in specific matrices. Cesium extraction with mono and bis-crown calix(4)arenes (Frame 1) is a candidate for process development. These extractants remove cesium from highly acidic or basic pH media even with high salinity. A real raffinate was treated in 1994 in a hot cell to extract cesium with a calix-crown extractant. The success of this one batch experiment confirmed the feasibility of cesium decontamination from high-level liquid waste. It was then decided to develop a process flowchart to extract cesium selectively from high-level raffinate, to be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was accordingly decided to develop a process based on liquid-liquid extraction and hence optimize a calixarene/diluent solvent according to: - hydraulic properties: density, viscosity, interfacial tension, - chemical criteria: sufficient cesium extraction (depending on the diluent), kinetics, third phase elimination... New mono-crown-calixarenes branched with long aliphatic groups (Frame 2) were designed to be soluble in aliphatic diluents. To prevent third phase formation associated with nitric acid extraction, the addition of modifiers (alcohol, phosphate and amide) in the organic phase was tested (Frame 3). Table 1 shows examples of calixarene/diluent systems suitable for a process flowchart, and Figure 2 provides data on cesium extraction with these new systems. Alongside these improvements, a system based on a modified 1,3-di(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix[4]arene crown and a modified diluent was also developed, considering a mixed TPH/NPHE system as the diluent, where TPH (hydrogenated tetra propylene) is a common aliphatic industrial solvent and NPHE is nitrophenyl

  7. Extracts from Flammulina velutipes Inhibit the Adhesion of Pathogenic Fungi to Epithelial Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, extracts from natural sources have been tested for their antifungal properties. In this aspect, Flammulina velutipes extracts possess a significant amount of branch-chained carbohydrates with mannose moieties that, hypothetically, can reduce the adhesion. Objective: In this study, we assessed the capacity of extracts from F. velutipes (wild-type AQF-1 and ATCC 34574 as the reference strain) to inhibit the adhesion of S. schenkii and C. albicans to epithelial cells. Mater...

  8. Green corrosion inhibition of mild steel to aqueous sulfuric acid by the extract of Corchorus olitorius stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobara, Mohamed; Zaghloul, Basem; Baraka, Ahmad; Elsayed, Mohamed; Zorainy, Mahmoud; Mokhtar Kotb, Mohamed; Elnabarawy, Hany

    2017-04-01

    Extract of Corchorus olitorius stems (ECS) was used as a green inhibitor for the inhibition of mild steel corrosion in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. GC/MS was used for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the extract. The corrosion performance of the extract was evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization and weight loss. The results showed that ECS is a mixed-type inhibitor which reduces both anodic and cathodic reactions and the inhibition efficiency was reached up to 93%. Adsorption isotherm data was recorded at different temperatures and analyzed by selected adsorption isotherm models to reveal characteristics of inhibition. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration, and decreases with increasing temperature. Adsorption of ECS on the mild steel surface was found to be spontaneous and exothermic. Adsorption is suggested to be physisorption according to El-Awady isotherm model. Also, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology to confirm the corrosion results.

  9. Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, M A; Nowak, D M; Leonova, E; Levin, R M; Longhurst, P A

    1999-11-01

    Extractive and chromatographic separations were performed on V-1326, a chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana (also referred to as Pygeum africanum), which is used to treat the symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The relative amounts of eleven identified constituents in crude V-1326 and in separated fractions were determined using gas chromatographic analysis. The ability of V-1326 and its separated fractions to inhibit ferrous ion-induced stimulation of lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations from rabbit livers was evaluated. The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation.

  10. Antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activities of phenolic compounds in the extracts of Indian honey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subashini Devarajan; Subhashree Venugopal

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition potential of phenolic compounds in the extracts of Indian honey.METHODS:Phenolic compounds were extracted from Indian honey through column chromatography.The antioxidant potential of extracted phenolic compounds was measured by two different biochemical assays:ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)assay and scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals.Moreover,α-amylase inhibition assay of phenolic compounds of honey was also evaluated.RESULTS:The scavenging inhibition rate varied from 86.8% to 78.6% from the highest (6mg·mL-1) to the lowest (1.5 mg·mL-1) concentration,whereas,reducing power assay varied from 0.89 Abs to 0.19 Abs from the highest to the lowest concentration.Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) was used as reference compound for antioxidant assays.α-amylase inhibition assay is reported from the phenolic honey extracts for the first time.The inhibition rate for α-amylase varied from 88.8% to 30.5% from the highest (20 μg·mL-1) to the lowest concentration (4.μg·mL-1).CONCLUSION:Honey phenolic extract possessed antioxidant and α-amylase inhibition activity,thus increasing its potential therapeutic property.

  11. Extracts of Edible Plants Inhibit Pancreatic Lipase, Cholesterol Esterase and Cholesterol Micellization, and Bind Bile Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julnaryn Intrawangso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of edible plants with more effective ability to inhibit fat digestion and absorption has recently been explored for possible treatment of hyperlipidaemia. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of nine edible plants on the inhibition of pancreatic lipase and pancreatic cholesterol esterase activities, as well as the inhibition of cholesterol micelle formation, and bile acid binding. Our findings have shown strong pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity and the inhibition of cholesterol micellization by mulberry leaf extract. Safflower extract was the most potent inhibitor of pancreatic cholesterol esterase. In addition, cat’s whiskers and safflower extracts had a potent bile acid binding activity. It is suggested that a daily intake of these edible plants may delay postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia and hypercholesterolaemia, and therefore may be applied for the prevention and treatment of hyperlipidaemia.

  12. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin.

  13. Inhibition of thermal induced protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad Ali; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdul; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the in vitro inhibition of protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides including 20β hydroxy-1-oxo(22R)-witha-2,5,24 trienolide (1), (20R,22R-14α,20α)-dihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,16,24 tetraenolide (2). The results showed that the extract/fractions of the plant evoked profound inhibitory effect on thermal-induced protein denaturation. The chloroform fraction caused the most dominant attenuation of 68% at 500 μg/mL. The bioactivity-guided isolation from chloroform fraction led to the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 that showed profound protein inhibition with 78.05% and 80.43% effect at 500 μg/mL and thus strongly complimented the activity of extract/fractions. In conclusion, extract/fractions of W. somnifera possessed strong inhibition of protein denaturation that can be attributed to these isolated withanolides.

  14. Automatic segmentation of brain images: selection of region extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Leiguang; Kulikowski, Casimir A.; Mezrich, Reuben S.

    1991-07-01

    In automatically analyzing brain structures from a MR image, the choice of low level region extraction methods depends on the characteristics of both the target object and the surrounding anatomical structures in the image. The authors have experimented with local thresholding, global thresholding, and other techniques, using various types of MR images for extracting the major brian landmarks and different types of lesions. This paper describes specifically a local- binary thresholding method and a new global-multiple thresholding technique developed for MR image segmentation and analysis. The initial testing results on their segmentation performance are presented, followed by a comparative analysis of the two methods and their ability to extract different types of normal and abnormal brain structures -- the brain matter itself, tumors, regions of edema surrounding lesions, multiple sclerosis lesions, and the ventricles of the brain. The analysis and experimental results show that the global multiple thresholding techniques are more than adequate for extracting regions that correspond to the major brian structures, while local binary thresholding is helpful for more accurate delineation of small lesions such as those produced by MS, and for the precise refinement of lesion boundaries. The detection of other landmarks, such as the interhemispheric fissure, may require other techniques, such as line-fitting. These experiments have led to the formulation of a set of generic computer-based rules for selecting the appropriate segmentation packages for particular types of problems, based on which further development of an innovative knowledge- based, goal directed biomedical image analysis framework is being made. The system will carry out the selection automatically for a given specific analysis task.

  15. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  16. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguta, Joseph M; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-04-22

    Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Cinnamon extract induces tumor cell death through inhibition of NFκB and AP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cinnamomum cassia bark is the outer skin of an evergreen tall tree belonging to the family Lauraceae containing several active components such as essential oils (cinnamic aldehyde and cinnamyl aldehyde, tannin, mucus and carbohydrate. They have various biological functions including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammation, anti-diabetic and anti-tumor activity. Previously, we have reported that anti-cancer effect of cinnamon extracts is associated with modulation of angiogenesis and effector function of CD8+ T cells. In this study, we further identified that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is also link with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity by inhibiting the activities NFκB and AP1 in mouse melanoma model. Methods Water soluble cinnamon extract was obtained and quality of cinnamon extract was evaluated by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis. In this study, we tested anti-tumor activity and elucidated action mechanism of cinnamon extract using various types of tumor cell lines including lymphoma, melanoma, cervix cancer and colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Results Cinnamon extract strongly inhibited tumor cell proliferation in vitro and induced active cell death of tumor cells by up-regulating pro-apoptotic molecules while inhibiting NFκB and AP1 activity and their target genes such as Bcl-2, BcL-xL and survivin. Oral administration of cinnamon extract in melanoma transplantation model significantly inhibited tumor growth with the same mechanism of action observed in vitro. Conclusion Our study suggests that anti-tumor effect of cinnamon extracts is directly linked with enhanced pro-apoptotic activity and inhibition of NFκB and AP1 activities and their target genes in vitro and in vivo mouse melanoma model. Hence, further elucidation of active components of cinnamon extract could lead to development of potent anti-tumor agent or complementary and alternative

  18. Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibition and Hypoglycemic Activities of Sweitenia mahagoni Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tutik Wresdiyat

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of α-glucosidase and hypoglycemic activity are two effects commonly used to identify bioactive compounds with potential to treat diabetes. The objectives of this study were to analyse and compare the bioactive compounds and α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of four different types of Swietenia mahagoni seed extract, and to analyse the hypoglycemic activity of the greatest inhibition of α-glucosidase-extract in rats. The extracts were obtained using two different solvents (aqueous and ethanol and two different methods: maceration and reflux methods. This resulted in four types of extract varying by solvent and extraction method. Testing of these extracts for α-glucosidase inhibitory effect was carried out in vitro using spectrophotometer. Testing for hypoglycemic activity was carried out in vivo using rats. A total of 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into eight groups: (1 the negative control group, received an oral dose of aquadest only, (2 the positive control group, was given 90% sucrose orally without S. mahagoni seed extract, and five treated groups (3-7, were given 90% sucrose followed by the best extract-ethanolic S. mahagoni seed extract in doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 mg/kgBW, and (8 the acarbose group, was given 90% sucrose orally followed by acarbose. Glucose levels in each animal were measured at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after treatment. The results showed the greatest inhibition of α-glucosidase in ethanolic extract, using maceration methods. This ethanolic-maceration S. mahagoni seed extract also showed hypoglycemic effects in hyperglycemic rats at dose from 100 to 500 mg/kgBW. Ethanolic extract of S. mahagoni seed, using maceration method, can be proposed as potential antidiabetic agent.

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of Ruta graveolens L. extract on inhibition of lipid peroxidation and DPPH radicals and the effects of some external factors on plant extract's potency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammadi- Motamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of Ruta graveolens L. were evaluated by two different methods; free radical scavenging using DPPH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the ferric thiocyanate method. The IC50 value of the methanol extract in DPPH inhibition was 200.5 μg/mL which was acceptable in comparison with BHT (41.8 μg/mL. In thiocyanate method, the plant extract demonstrated activity as much as BHT in prevention of lipid peroxidation. Increasing the temperature during extraction, significantly decreased the extract power in inhibition of DPPH radicals. The storage time and temperature had no effect on lipid peroxidation inhibition.

  20. Selective induction of apoptosis in glioma tumour cells by a Gynostemma pentaphyllum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schild, L; Chen, B H; Makarov, P; Kattengell, K; Heinitz, K; Keilhoff, G

    2010-07-01

    At low concentration H(2)O(2) is an important signal molecule in proliferation of tumour cells. We report about a study investigating the effect of an ethanolic extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum on proliferation of C6 glioma tumour cells and cellular H(2)O(2) concentration. The proliferation of these cells was maximal at about 1 muM extracellular H(2)O(2). HPLC-finger prints of the extract revealed a set of saponines as essential components. In C6 glioma cells the extract caused increase in super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity, in the amount of SOD protein, and in cellular H(2)O(2) concentration. It inhibited cell proliferation and induced activation of caspase 3 as indication of apoptosis. No effect of the extract was observed on the proliferation of astrocytes of a primary cell culture. From these findings we suggest that the ethanolic extract from Gynostemma pentaphyllum may selectively shift the H(2)O(2) concentration to toxic levels exclusively in tumour cells due to increased SOD activity. It may have a high potency in cancer therapy and cancer prophylaxis. (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Extracts from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase, a Known Alzheimer’s Disease Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Kaufmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE is a common treatment for early stages of the most general form of dementia, Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. In this study, methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous crude extracts from 80 Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM plants were tested for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase activity based on Ellman’s colorimetric assay. All three extracts of Berberis bealei (formerly Mahonia bealei, Coptis chinensis and Phellodendron chinense, which contain numerous isoquinoline alkaloids, substantially inhibited AChE. The methanol and aqueous extracts of Coptis chinensis showed IC50 values of 0.031 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, therefore having an up to 100-fold stronger AChE inhibitory activity than the already known AChE inhibitor galantamine (IC50 = 4.33 µg/mL. Combinations of individual alkaloids berberine, coptisine and palmatine resulted in a synergistic enhancement of ACh inhibition. Therefore, the mode of AChE inhibition of crude extracts of Coptis chinensis, Berberis bealei and Phellodendron chinense is probably due to of this synergism of isoquinoline alkaloids. All extracts were also tested for their cytotoxicity in COS7 cells and none of the most active extracts was cytotoxic at the concentrations which inhibit AChE. Based on these results it can be stated that some TCM plants inhibit AChE via synergistic interaction of their secondary metabolites. The possibility to isolate pure lead compounds from the crude extracts or to administer these as nutraceuticals or as cheap alternative to drugs in third world countries make TCM plants a versatile source of natural inhibitors of AChE.

  2. Saw Palmetto Extract Inhibits Metastasis and Antiangiogenesis through STAT3 Signal Pathway in Glioma Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 (STAT3 plays an important role in the proliferation and angiogenesis in human glioma. Previous research indicated that saw palmetto extract markedly inhibited the proliferation of human glioma cells through STAT3 signal pathway. But its effect on tumor metastasis and antiangiogenesis is not clear. This study is to further clear the impact of saw palmetto extract on glioma cell metastasis, antiangiogenesis, and its mechanism. TUNEL assay indicated that the apoptotic cells in the saw palmetto treated group are higher than that in the control group (p<0.05. The apoptosis related protein is detected and the results revealed that saw palmetto extract inhibits the proliferation of human glioma. Meanwhile pSTAT3 is lower in the experimental group and CD34 is also inhibited in the saw palmetto treated group. This means that saw palmetto extract could inhibit the angiogenesis in glioma. We found that saw palmetto extract was an important phytotherapeutic drug against the human glioma through STAT3 signal pathway. Saw palmetto extract may be useful as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for treatment of individuals with glioma and other types of cancer in which STAT3 signaling is activated.

  3. Stage-selective inhibition of rodent malaria by cyclosporine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J R; Baqar, S; Baker, R H; Roberts, E; Nickell, S P; Cole, G A

    1988-01-01

    The relative susceptibility of different developmental stages of Plasmodium berghei to cyclosporine was investigated in vivo. Within 12 h of receiving a single 25-mg/kg (body weight) dose of cyclosporine, mice with patent P. berghei infections uniformly exhibited a rapid fall in asexual parasite stages. Initially, ring forms and mature schizonts disappeared. Subsequently, trophozoites disappeared between 21 and 24 h, whereas gametocytes persisted for 36 h. In contrast, when cyclosporine was administered to mice 1 day before inoculation (100 mg/kg) with P. berghei sporozoites and for 2 consecutive days after inoculation (25 mg/kg), infections developed normally. When mice with patent infections were placed on prolonged cyclosporine therapy (25 mg/kg per day), parasitemia initially disappeared but often recrudesced. Recrudescent parasites were frequently resistant to cyclosporine (Csr). The Csr phenotype remained stable after serial passage of parasites in mice and after transmission through Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes, in which the capacity to produce oocysts was reduced. When infections of untreated mice were initiated with equal numbers of Csr and cyclosporine-susceptible (Css) parasites and then carried through two serial cycles of mosquito-to-mouse transmission without cyclosporine treatment, the Csr phenotype was lost. The results indicate that cyclosporine selectively inhibits asexual blood stages of P. berghei and favors the emergence of Csr parasites with diminished infectivity for mosquitoes. PMID:3288113

  4. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Alberto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL, mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL. The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2●-, OH-, H2O2. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2 was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 µg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 µM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  5. Inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity by standardized hydroalcoholic extracts of four Asteraceae species from the Argentine Puna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberto, M R; Zampini, I C; Isla, M I

    2009-09-01

    We determined the anti-inflammatory activity of standardized extracts of four medicinal plant species (Baccharis incarum, B. boliviensis, Chuquiraga atacamensis, Parastrephia lucida) that grow in the Argentine Puna (3800 m above sea level) and that are used to reduce oxidative stress and alleviate gout and arthritic pain. The extracts of plant aerial parts were standardized in terms of total phenolic compounds and flavone/flavanone content and free radical scavenging activity. All extracts showed high phenolic compound concentration (0.5-1.6 mg/mL), mainly flavones and flavonols (0.1-0.8 mg/mL). The extracts showed hydrogen donating ability (DPPH and ABTS) and reactive oxygen species scavenging activity (O2-, OH-, H2O2). The ability of the extracts to inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and COX-2) was determined by calculating percent inhibition of PGE2 production measured by enzyme immunoassay. All extracts inhibited both enzymes with IC50 values of 2.0 to 16.7 microg/mL. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. incarum and C. atacamensis extracts was higher than that of B. boliviensis and P. lucida. The IC50 values obtained for indomethacin were 0.11 and 0.78 microM for COX-1 and COX-2, respectively. The present results are consistent with the anecdotal use of these species in phytotherapic preparations.

  6. AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF PLANTS IN Colletotrichum gloeosporioides INHIBITION IN VITRO AND IN POSTHARVEST GUAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO HENRIQUE ALVES DA SILVA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant aqueous extracts in the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz. Penz. & Sacc. the causal agent of guava anthracnose in, was evaluated in vitro with 1, 2 and 3% aqueous ex- tracts of Azadirachta indica, Nerium oleander, Ocimum gratissimum, Syzygium aromaticum. The experiment was installed in a complete randomized desing in a 3x4 factorial scheme (doses x extracts. For the evaluation, it was calculated the percentage of fungal inhibition. The experiment in vivo was conducted by applying Syzy- gium aromaticum and Azadirachta indica aqueous extract at 2 and 3%, respectively, in three different storage conditions: refrigerated with and without plastic film (PVC, and at ambient conditions. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design, in a 2x3 factorial scheme (extracts x storage conditions. We evaluated the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. Syzygium aromati- cum extract at 2% provided 100% of fungal mycelial growth inhibition, and Azadirachta indica extract at the highest dosage (3% inhibited 20.22%. In fruits, there was not significant statistical difference between the ef- fect of extracts on the external appearance and severity of disease, loss of weight and Brix degrees. In relation to the storage conditions, the ones with plastic film and refrigerated differed from the other conditions obtain- ing better external appearance and less severity of disease, lower loss of weight and higher Brix degrees.

  7. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.

  8. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract.

  9. Selective inhibition of Ebola entry with selective estrogen receptor modulators by disrupting the endolysosomal calcium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hanlu; Du, Xiaohong; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zheng, Han; Lu, Xiaohui; Wu, Qihui; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Han; Shi, Yi; Gao, George; Zhou, Zhuan; Tan, Dun-Xian; Li, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    The Ebola crisis occurred in West-Africa highlights the urgency for its clinical treatments. Currently, no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics are available. Several FDA-approved drugs, including selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), possess selective anti-Ebola activities. However, the inhibitory mechanisms of these drugs remain elusive. By analyzing the structures of SERMs and their incidental biological activity (cholesterol accumulation), we hypothesized that this incidental biological activity induced by SERMs could be a plausible mechanism as to their inhibitory effects on Ebola infection. Herein, we demonstrated that the same dosages of SERMs which induced cholesterol accumulation also inhibited Ebola infection. SERMs reduced the cellular sphingosine and subsequently caused endolysosomal calcium accumulation, which in turn led to blocking the Ebola entry. Our study clarified the specific anti-Ebola mechanism of SERMs, even the cationic amphiphilic drugs (CADs), this mechanism led to the endolysosomal calcium as a critical target for development of anti-Ebola drugs. PMID:28117364

  10. Gallic acid is the major component of grape seed extract that inhibits amyloid fibril formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqin; Pukala, Tara L; Musgrave, Ian F; Williams, Danielle M; Dehle, Francis C; Carver, John A

    2013-12-01

    Many protein misfolding diseases, for example, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, are characterised by the accumulation of protein aggregates in an amyloid fibrillar form. Natural products which inhibit fibril formation are a promising avenue to explore as therapeutics for the treatment of these diseases. In this study we have shown, using in vitro thioflavin T assays and transmission electron microscopy, that grape seed extract inhibits fibril formation of kappa-casein (κ-CN), a milk protein which forms amyloid fibrils spontaneously under physiological conditions. Among the components of grape seed extract, gallic acid was the most active component at inhibiting κ-CN fibril formation, by stabilizing κ-CN to prevent its aggregation. Concomitantly, gallic acid significantly reduced the toxicity of κ-CN to pheochromocytoma12 cells. Furthermore, gallic acid effectively inhibited fibril formation by the amyloid-beta peptide, the putative causative agent in Alzheimer's disease. It is concluded that the gallate moiety has the fibril-inhibitory activity.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Sayeed Akthar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piper nigrum (P. nigrum and Cassia didymobotyra (C. didymobotyra (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether against the food borne pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa] and fungi [Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans (C. albicans] and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals in the leaf extracts of tested plants. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration were determined by serial dilution method. Results: Methanol leaf extract of test plants exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. The MIC results showed that ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL. While, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of S. aureus at concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. The MIC values for ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of C. albicans at concentration of 25.0 mg/mL. While, it was reported that at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum was against the Aspergillus spp. The MIC values of methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration of ethanol, methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum for E. coli and ethanol, methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra for S. aureus was recorded at concentration 12.5 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration of ethanol and methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra on C. albicans was recorded at concentration of 25.0 mg

  12. Inhibition of Action, Thought, and Emotion: A Selective Neurobiological Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Daniel; Pizzagalli, Diego

    2007-01-01

    The neural bases of inhibitory function are reviewed, covering data from paradigms assessing inhibition of motor responses (antisaccade, go/nogo, stop-signal), cognitive sets (e.g., Wisconsin Card Sort Test), and emotion (fear extinction). The frontal cortex supports performance on these paradigms, but the specific neural circuitry varies: response inhibition depends upon fronto-basal ganglia networks, inhibition of cognitive sets is supported by orbitofrontal cortex, and retention of fear ex...

  13. Ligusticum wallichii Extract Inhibited the Expression of IL-1β after AMI in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of Ligusticum wallichii on IL-1β expression in myocardium and central nervous system after AMI. AMI rat was administrated with Ligusticum wallichii extract. A series of assays were used to detect the effects of Ligusticum wallichii extract on infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction, expression of TLR-4, NF-κB, and IL-1β in myocardium, IL-1β expression in serum and hypothalamus, and NPY expression in hypothalamus. We observed that Ligusticum wallichii extract improved the left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced infarct area enlargement after AMI, by inhibiting the expression of IL-1β in myocardium, serum, and hypothalamus. Ligusticum wallichii extract reduced the expression of IL-1β in myocardium by regulating TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway and inhibited IL-1β in hypothalamus by regulating NPY mRNA expression.

  14. Matricaria chamomilla extract inhibits both development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Adel; Hashem, Tahia; Mohamed, Mahmoud; Ashry, Esraa

    2003-05-01

    The effect of Matricaria chamomilla (M. chamomilla) on the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence was investigated in rats. The frequencies of withdrawal behavioral signs (paw tremor, rearing, teeth chattering, body shakes, ptosis, diarrhea, and urination) and weight loss induced by naloxone challenge were demonstrated in morphine-dependent rats receiving M. chamomilla extract or saline. The withdrawal behavioral manifestations and weight loss were inhibited significantly by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. Administration of a single dose of M. chamomilla before the naloxone challenge in morphine-dependent animals abolished the withdrawal behavioral manifestations. The dramatic increase of plasma cAMP induced by naloxone-precipitated abstinence was prevented by chronic co-administration of M. chamomilla extract with morphine. These results suggest that M. chamomilla extract inhibits the development of morphine dependence and expression of abstinence syndrome.

  15. Inhibition of the Cu65/Zn35 brass corrosion by natural extract of Camellia sinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramde, Tambi, E-mail: t_ramde@univ-ouaga.bf [Equipe Chimie Physique et Electrochimie, Laboratoire de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux, Université de Ouagadougou, 03 BP 7021 Ouagadougou 03 (Burkina Faso); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy); Rossi, Stefano; Zanella, Caterina [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Trento, via Sommarive 9, 38123 Trento (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the corrosion inhibition of brass was studied using natural plant extract, Camellia sinensis, in 0.1 M Na2SO4 solutions with pH 7 and pH 4. Electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were applied to study the brass corrosion behavior in presence and absence of the extract. The results indicated that the extract is a very effective corrosion inhibitor for brass corrosion process in both the acidic and neutral media by virtue of adsorption. The inhibition effect increases by time as demonstrated by the EIS monitoring for 120 h. In the blank solution the corrosion process leads to the formation of a dark oxide patina at pH 7 and induces localized corrosion morphology at pH 4. The extract presence can avoid both the dark patina and the pits formation.

  16. α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase Inhibition by Brown Seaweed (Sargassum sp Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Firdaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of intestinal α-amylase and α-glucosidase is an important strategy to control post-prandial hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus. In vitro inhibitory effects of crude extracts of seaweed against α-amylase and α-glucosidase were studied. Crude ethyl acetate extracts of Sargassum aquifolium were the stronger inhibitor to α-amylase and α-glucosidase than others. Furthermore, Sargassum aquifolium ethyl acetate extract significantly suppressed the rise in postprandial glucose level after oral administration of glucose in normal rats. The results of this study suggest that the crude Sargassum aquifolium extract may suppress the rise in postprandial hyperglycemia in vivo in part, through inhibition of alpha amylase and glucosidase

  17. Postprandial glycaemia and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by aqueous extract from Coriandrum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, F; González-Andrade, M; González-Trujano, M E; Estrada-Soto, S; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic properties of the aqueous extract from the leaves and stems of Coriandrum sativum L. were evaluated in normoglycaemic rats, and on α-glucosidase activity from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in order to validate its use in folk medicine. In in vivo experiments rats were administered with the aqueous extract of the plant at 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg, to observe the effect on oral sucrose tolerance test. The aqueous extract exhibited significant antihyperglycaemic activity at the three tested doses. In vitro experiments with α-glucosidase exhibited a competitive-type inhibition. These results confirm the antidiabetic properties of the extract of C. sativum L., probably by the inhibition of α-glucosidase in the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Mentha pulegium extract as a natural product for the inhibition of corrosion. Part I: electrochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadraoui, Abdelkader; Khelifa, Abdellah; Boutoumi, Hocine; Hammouti, Belkheir

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of Mentha pulegium extract (MPE) on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The inhibition efficiency of MPE was found to increase with the concentration and reached 88% at 33% (v/v). Polarisation measurements show that the natural extract acted as a mixed inhibitor. The remarkable inhibition efficiency of MPE was discussed in terms of blocking of electrode surface by adsorption of inhibitor molecules through active centres. The adsorption of MPE was found to accord with the Temkin isotherm.

  19. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of proliferation in human tumor cells treated with extracts of Uncaria tomentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Y; Pero, R W; Amiri, A; Bryngelsson, C

    1998-01-01

    Growth inhibitory activities of novel water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (C-Med-100) were examined in vitro using two human leukemic cell lines (K562 and HL60) and one human EBV-transformed B lymphoma cell line (Raji). The proliferative capacities of HL60 and Raji cells were strongly suppressed in the presence of the C-Med-100 while K562 was more resistant to the inhibition. Furthermore, the antiproliferative effect was confirmed using the clonogenic assay, which showed a very close correlation between C-Med-100 concentration and the surviving fraction. The suppressive effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts on tumor cell growth appears to be mediated through induction of apoptosis which was demonstrated by characteristic morphological changes, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation after agarose gel electrophoresis and DNA fragmentation quantification. C-Med-100 induced a delayed type of apoptosis becoming most dose-dependently prominent after 48 hours of exposure. Both DNA single and double strand breaks were increased 24 hours after C-Med-100 treatment, which suggested a well-established linkage between the DNA damage and apoptosis. The induction of DNA strand breaks coupled to apoptosis may explain the growth inhibition of the tumor cells by Uncaria tomentosa extracts. These results provide the first direct evidence for the antitumor properties of Uncaria tomentosa extracts to be via a mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis.

  20. Inhibition of Penicillium digitatum by a crude extract from Solanum nigrum leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musto, M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous crude extract from Solanum nigrum lyophilized leaves was evaluated for its phytochemical composition and antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum, the causative agent of green mold of citrus fruit. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of some bioactive substances such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, etc. The extract showed a remarkable inhibition zone against the pathogen in agar well diffusion assays carried out in Petri plates. Storage of the extract at 4 °C for 60 days had no effect on its in vitro antifungal activity. Further, the extract was tested for its in vivo (preventive- and curative treatments antifungal activity on lemons wound-inoculated with P. digitatum. An important preventive antifungal effect was observed after 7 days of storage (100% of inhibition, although this activity decreased after 14 and 21 days (85.71 and 57.14% of inhibition, respectively. A slight curative antifungal activity was observed only after 7 days of storage (14.29% of inhibition. Preliminary findings from this study may contribute to the development of new antifungal agents to protect the lemon fruits from postharvest fungal diseases.

  1. Repellency, toxicity, and oviposition inhibition of vegetable extracts against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Eduardo Mendoza-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a search for sustainable options of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood management, the toxic and/or repellent potential of water, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae, Comocladia engleriana Loes (Anacardiaceae, Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae, Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae, and Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. aggr.* (Asteraceae were evaluated. Repellency was assessed by the cylinder method (olfactometer, while toxicity and oviposition inhibition were assessed by the leaf immersion method. Acetonic extracts did not cause any repellent or insecticidal effect. In contrast, 200 mg mL-1 water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and ethanolic extract of A. artemisiifolia had the highest repellent activity (76%, 72%, and 69%, respectively although their activity decreased gradually over time. Ethanolic extracts of P. auritum (66% and R. raphanistrum (56% at 200 mg mL¹ were highlighted as being toxic, while the most effective in inhibiting oviposition were water extracts of R. raphanistrum (76.1% and P. auritum (72.0% and ethanolic extract of P. auritum (69.5%; however, concentrations lower than 60 mg mL-1 caused oviposition stimulation. Our results suggest that water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and P. auritum represent a useful tool in integrated whitefly management.

  2. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  3. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, @iDerris scandens@@ Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  4. Growth inhibition of fouling bacteria and diatoms by extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens (Dicotyledonae:Leguminocae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Sonak, S.; Garg, A.

    Methanol extract of terrestrial plant, Derris scandens Benth, was found to inhibit growth of four diatoms and 7 bacterial species of fouling community. The concentrations required to bring about 100% inhibition of growth of the diatoms ranged...

  5. Multiclonal plastic antibodies for selective aflatoxin extraction from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Engin; Yılmaz, Erkut; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2017-04-15

    Herein, we focused on developing a new generation of monolithic columns for extracting aflatoxin from real food samples by combining the superior features of molecularly imprinted polymers and cryogels. To accomplish this, we designed multiclonal plastic antibodies through simultaneous imprinting of aflatoxin subtypes B1, B2, G1, and G2. We applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectrofluorimetry to characterize the materials, and conducted selectivity studies using ochratoxin A and aflatoxin M1 (a metabolite of aflatoxin B1), as well as other aflatoxins, under competitive conditions. We determined optimal aflatoxin extraction conditions in terms of concentration, flow rate, temperature, and embedded particle amount as up to 25ng/mL for each species, 0.43mL/min, 7.0, 30°C, and 200mg, respectively. These multiclonal plastic antibodies showed imprinting efficiencies against ochratoxin A and aflatoxin M1 of 1.84 and 26.39, respectively, even under competitive conditions. Finally, we tested reusability, repeatability, reproducibility, and robustness of columns throughout inter- and intra-column variation studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth inhibition to three red tide microalgae by extracts of Ulva pertusa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Growth inhibition effect of different concentration of distilled water extract and four polar organic solvent (methanol, acetone, ether and chloroform) extracts of Ulva pertusa on three typical red tide microalgae (Heterosigma akashiwo, Alexandrium tamarense and Prorocentrum micans) were investigated. Liquid-liquid fractionation and HPLC analysis for methanol extract of U. pertusa were carried out.Growth of the three microalgae was significantly inhibited by the distilled water extract of U. pertusa at relatively higher concentration. However, the cells of the three microalgae did not die completely even at high concentration. Methanol extract of U. pertusa showed the highest growth inhibition on the three microalgae, and all the cells of the three microalgae were killed at relatively high concentration. The other three organic solvent extracts of U. pertusa had no apparent effect on the three microalgae. The results of bioassays and HPLC analysis suggested that the inhibitory substances in U. pertusa to the microalgal growth had relatively high polarities. H. akashiwo was the most sensitive one while A. tamarense was the most tolerant one to the growth inhibitory substances.

  7. Phellinus linteus extract induces autophagy and synergizes with 5-fluorouracil to inhibit breast cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Ying; Hsu, Keng-Fu; Chiang, Tai-An; Chen, Chee-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Phellinus linteus (PL) is a medicinal mushroom due to its several biological properties, including anticancer activity. However, the mechanisms of its anticancer effect remain to be elucidated. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of the ethanolic extract from the PL combined with 5-FU on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line and to determine the mechanism of cell death. Individually, PL extract and 5-FU significantly inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose-dependent manner. PL extract (30 mg/mL) in combination with 5-FU (10 μg/mL) synergistically inhibited MDA-MB-231 cells by 1.8-fold. PL did not induce apoptosis, as demonstrated by the DNA fragmentation assay, the sub-G1 population, and staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. The exposure of MDA-MB-231 cells to PL extracts resulted in several confirmed characteristics of autophagy, including the appearance of autophagic vacuoles revealed by monodansylcadaverine staining, the formation of acidic vesicular organelles, autophagosome membrane association of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) characterized by cleavage of LC3 and its punctuate redistribution, and ultrastructural observation of autophagic vacuoles by transmission electron microscopy. We concluded that PL extracts synergized with low doses of 5-FU to inhibit triple-negative breast cancer cell growth and demonstrated that PL extract can induce autophagy-related cell death.

  8. Inhibitive action of some plant extracts on the corrosion of steel in acidic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)]. E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Sidahmed, I.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); El-Zayady, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt); Saadawy, M. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    The effect of extracts of Chamomile (Chamaemelum mixtum L.), Halfabar (Cymbopogon proximus), Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.), and Kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants on the corrosion of steel in aqueous 1 M sulphuric acid were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization techniques. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process of steel occurs under activation control. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the plant extracts behave as mixed-type inhibitors. The corrosion rates of steel and the inhibition efficiencies of the extracts were calculated. The results obtained show that the extract solution of the plant could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in sulphuric acid media. Inhibition was found to increase with increasing concentration of the plant extract up to a critical concentration. The inhibitive actions of plant extracts are discussed on the basis of adsorption of stable complex at the steel surface. Theoretical fitting of different isotherms, Langmuir, Flory-Huggins, and the kinetic-thermodynamic model, were tested to clarify the nature of adsorption.

  9. Greek plant extracts exhibit selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi, Eva; Papoutsi, Zoi; Fokialakis, Nikolaos; Messari, Ioanna; Mitakou, Sophia; Moutsatsou, Paraskevi

    2004-11-17

    To prevent bone loss that occurs with increasing age, nutritional and pharmacological factors are needed. Traditional therapeutic agents (selective estrogen receptor modulators or SERMs, biphosphonates, calcitonin) may have serious side effects or contraindications. In an attempt to find food components potentially acting as SERMs, we submitted four plant aqueous extracts derived from Greek flora (Sideritis euboea, Sideritis clandestina, Marticaria chamomilla, and Pimpinella anisum) in a series of in vitro biological assays reflective of SERM profile. We examined their ability (a) to stimulate the differentiation and mineralization of osteoblastic cell culture by histochemical staining for alkaline phosphatase and Alizarin Red-S staining, (b) to induce, like antiestrogens, the insulin growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, and (c) to proliferate cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells by use of MTT assay. Our data reveal that all the plant extracts studied at a concentration range 10-100 microg/mL stimulate osteoblastic cell differentiation and exhibit antiestrogenic effect on breast cancer cells without proliferative effects on cervical adenocarcinoma cells. The presence of estradiol inhibited the antiestrogenic effect induced by the extracts on MCF-7 cells, suggesting an estrogen receptor-related mechanism. In conclusion, the aqueous extracts derived from Sideritis euboea, Sideritis clandestina, Marticaria chamomilla, and Pimpinella anisum may form the basis to design "functional foods" for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  10. Inhibition of Mild Steel Corrosion in Acidic Medium by Aqueous Extract of Tridax procumbens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ilayaraja

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Tridax procumbens L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel has been investigated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of corrosion inhibitor at different time interval at room temperature. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with different time interval and different acid concentration. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behavior of Tridax procumbens L. is greater in sulphuric acid than hydrochloric acid medium. So Tridax procumbens L. can be used as a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material.

  11. Inhibition Kinetics of Sida rhombifolia L. Extract Toward Xanthine Oxidase by Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Iswantini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sida rhombifolia L. is a traditional medicinal plant that has been known with potential as antigout. The previous research suggested that flavonoids crude extract of S. rhombifolia had an inhibitory activity toward xanthine oxidase by 71% and a spectrophotometric measurement showed that the type of flavonoids crude extract inhibition was a competitive inhibition. The purpose of the research was to investigate the type of inhibition kinetic of S. Rhombifolia’s ethanol extract by electrochemical method and to compare the measurements of linearity and sensitivity between spectrophotometric and electrochemical methods. The results showed that the yield of S. Rhombifolia’s ethanol extract was 9.82% with the inhibitory activity ranging from 13.64% to 82.69% (5.00-200 mg L-1 and IC50 value was 91.15±5.74 mg L-1. Allopurinol as a control showed the inhibitory activity of 15.26-70.95% (0.10-4.00 mg L-1 and IC50 value was 2.45±2.21 mg L-1. Inhibition kinetics of the ethanol extract caused a KM increase and unchange of VMAX. Based on the data, the type of inhibition kinetics was a competitive inhibition, with an inhibitor affinity (α value of 3.18. Linearity of xanthine oxidase activity assay by electrochemical and spectrophotometric methods showed the range of 0.01-1.00 mM (R2 = 0.978 and 0.05-0.70 mM (R2 = 0.977 respectively. The sensitivity of electrochemical method was reported higher (0.95 μA mM-1 than the spectrophotometric method (0.007 min-1.

  12. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Seetha; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2014-02-24

    Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL), CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL), CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL); competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL) and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL). However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day), B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%). These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  13. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Bacopa monnieri Standardized Extract and Constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seetha Ramasamy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL, CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL, CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL; competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL. However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day, B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%. These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  14. Feature Extraction and Selection From the Perspective of Explosive Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, S K

    2009-09-01

    ) digitized 3-dimensional attenuation images with a voxel resolution of the order of one quarter of a milimeter. In the task of feature extraction and subsequent selection of an appropriate subset thereof, several important factors need to be considered. Foremost among them are: (1) Definition of the sampling unit from which the features will be extracted for the purpose of detection/ identification of the explosives. (2) The choice of features ( given the sampling unit) to be extracted that can be used to signal the existence / identity of the explosive. (3) Robustness of the computed features under different inspection conditions. To attain robustness, invariance under the transformations of translation, scaling, rotation and change of orientation is highly desirable. (4) The computational costs in the process of feature extraction, selection and their use in explosive detection/ identification In the search for extractable features, we have done a thorough literature survey with the above factors in mind and come out with a list of features that could possibly help us in meeting our objective. We are assuming that features will be based on sampling units that are single CT slices of the target. This may however change when appropriate modifications should be made to the feature extraction process. We indicate below some of the major types of features in 2- or 3-dimensional images that have been used in the literature on application of pattern recognition (PR) techniques in image understanding and are possibly pertinent to our study. In the following paragraph, we briefly indicate the motivation that guided us in the choice of these features, and identify the nature of the constraints. The principal feature types derivable from an image will be discussed in section 2. Once the features are extracted, one must select a subset of this feature set that will retain the most useful information and remove any redundant and irrelevant information that may have a detrimental effect

  15. INHIBITION OF CALCIUM OXALATE CRYSTALLIZATION IN-VITRO BY VARIOUS EXTRACTS OF HYPTIS SUAVEOLENS (L. POIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Kumkum

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis suaveolens (L Poit. commonly known as Vilayati tulsi, belongs to the Mint family Lamiaceae. The inhibition of in-vitro calcium-oxalate crystal (a major component of most urinary stones formation by various extracts of Hyptis was investigated by titrimetric method. The inhibitor potency of alcohol extracts of Hyptis suaveolens (L. Poit was found to be comparable to that of cystone (a proprietary drug for dissolving kidney stones. Thus alcohol extract could be further analyzed in vivo and further characterization of its active compound could lead to the discovery of a new candidate drug for the patients with urolithiasis.

  16. Inhibition Shapes Response Selectivity in the Inferior Colliculus by Gain Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua X Gittelman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological block of inhibition is often used to determine if inhibition contributes to spike selectivity, in which a preferred stimulus evokes more spikes than a null stimulus. When inhibitory block reduces spike selectivity, a common interpretation is that differences between the preferred- and null-evoked inhibitions created the selectivity from less-selective excitatory inputs. In models based on empirical properties of cells from the inferior colliculus of awake bats, we show that inhibitory differences are not required. Instead, inhibition can enhance spike selectivity by changing the gain, the ratio of output spikes to input current. Within the model, we made preferred stimuli that evoked more spikes than null stimuli using five distinct synaptic mechanisms. In two cases, synaptic selectivity (the differences between the preferred and null inputs was entirely excitatory, and in two it was entirely inhibitory. In each case, blocking inhibition eliminated spike selectivity. Thus, observing spike rates following inhibitory block did not distinguish among the cases where synaptic selectivity was entirely excitatory or inhibitory. We then did the same modeling experiment using empirical synaptic conductances derived from responses to preferred and null sounds. In most cases, inhibition in the model enhanced spike selectivity mainly by gain modulation and firing rate reduction. Sometimes, inhibition reduced the null gain to zero, eliminating null-evoked spikes. In some cases, inhibition increased the preferred gain more than the null gain, enhancing the difference between the preferred- and null-evoked spikes. Finally, inhibition kept firing rates low. When selectivity is quantified by the selectivity index (SI, the ratio of the difference to the sum of the spikes evoked by the preferred and null stimuli, inhibitory block reduced the SI by increasing overall firing rates. These results are consistent with inhibition shaping spike

  17. Cranberry and grape seed extracts inhibit the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Kourt; Phippen, Spencer; McCabe, Jonathan; Teeters, Christopher A; O'Malley, Susan; Kingsley, Karl

    2011-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  18. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  19. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells. PMID:26345201

  20. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hong-Bin; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell) was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 μg/mL), demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 μg/mL), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 μg/mL). A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 μg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.

  1. Magnetic Field Feature Extraction and Selection for Indoor Location Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Galván-Tejada

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available User indoor positioning has been under constant improvement especially with the availability of new sensors integrated into the modern mobile devices, which allows us to exploit not only infrastructures made for everyday use, such as WiFi, but also natural infrastructure, as is the case of natural magnetic field. In this paper we present an extension and improvement of our current indoor localization model based on the feature extraction of 46 magnetic field signal features. The extension adds a feature selection phase to our methodology, which is performed through Genetic Algorithm (GA with the aim of optimizing the fitness of our current model. In addition, we present an evaluation of the final model in two different scenarios: home and office building. The results indicate that performing a feature selection process allows us to reduce the number of signal features of the model from 46 to 5 regardless the scenario and room location distribution. Further, we verified that reducing the number of features increases the probability of our estimator correctly detecting the user’s location (sensitivity and its capacity to detect false positives (specificity in both scenarios.

  2. Model selection for the extraction of movement primitives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Dominik M; Chiovetto, Enrico; Giese, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of blind source separation methods have been used in motor control research for the extraction of movement primitives from EMG and kinematic data. Popular examples are principal component analysis (PCA), independent component analysis (ICA), anechoic demixing, and the time-varying synergy model (d'Avella and Tresch, 2002). However, choosing the parameters of these models, or indeed choosing the type of model, is often done in a heuristic fashion, driven by result expectations as much as by the data. We propose an objective criterion which allows to select the model type, number of primitives and the temporal smoothness prior. Our approach is based on a Laplace approximation to the posterior distribution of the parameters of a given blind source separation model, re-formulated as a Bayesian generative model. We first validate our criterion on ground truth data, showing that it performs at least as good as traditional model selection criteria [Bayesian information criterion, BIC (Schwarz, 1978) and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) (Akaike, 1974)]. Then, we analyze human gait data, finding that an anechoic mixture model with a temporal smoothness constraint on the sources can best account for the data.

  3. Model selection for the extraction of movement primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M Endres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of blind source separation methods have been used in motor control research for the extraction of movement primitives from EMG and kinematic data. Popular examples are principal component analysis (PCA,independent component analysis (ICA, anechoic demixing, and the time-varying synergy model. However, choosing the parameters of these models, or indeed choosing the type of model, is often done in a heuristic fashion, driven by result expectations as much as by the data. We propose an objective criterion which allows to select the model type, number of primitives and the temporal smoothness prior. Our approach is based on a Laplace approximation to the posterior distribution of the parameters of a given blind source separation model, re-formulated as a Bayesian generative model.We first validate our criterion on ground truth data, showing that it performs at least as good as traditional model selection criteria (Bayesian information criterion, BIC and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. Then, we analyze human gait data, finding that an anechoic mixture model with a temporal smoothness constraint on the sources can best account for the data.

  4. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film....... Technical aspects of electromembrane extraction, important extraction parameters as well as a handful of examples of applications from different biological samples and bioanalytical areas are discussed in the paper....

  5. The anticancer agent PB-100, selectively active on malignant cells, inhibits multiplication of sixteen malignant cell lines, even multidrug resistant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljanski Mirko

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant-derived anticancer agent PB-100 selectively destroys cancer cells, even when multidrug resistant; yet, it does not inhibit normal (non-malignant cell multiplication. Testing of PB-100 on sixteen malignant cell lines, several multidrug resistant, as well as on five normal cell lines, confirmed our previous results. Flavopereirine and dihydroflavopereirine, the active principles of PB-100, were chemically synthesized and displayed the same selectivity for tumor cells as the purified plant extract, being active at even lower concentrations.

  6. Determination of the stability of diluted allergen extracts using a concentration step prior to EAST inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, NR; Kauffman, HF; DeMonchy, JGR; Meijer, G.

    1996-01-01

    Background Generally the stability of diluted allergen extracts, as used for skin testing, provocation testing and immunotherapy can not be measured using a normal enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) inhibition method. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the stability of diluted allergen

  7. Anti-microbial activity and anti-complement activity of extracts obtained from selected Hawaiian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, C P; Burch, M T; Mower, H F; Berestecky, J; Davis, H; Van Poel, B; Lasure, A; Vanden Berghe, D A; Vlietinck, A J

    1995-11-17

    Selected plants having a history of use in Polynesian traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious disease were investigated for anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial activity in vitro. Extracts from Scaevola sericea, Psychotria hawaiiensis, Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis showed selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus. Aleurites moluccana extracts showed anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, while Pipturus albidus and Eugenia malaccensis extracts showed growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. Psychotria hawaiiensis and Solanum niger inhibited growth of the fungi Microsporum canis, Trichophyton rubrum and Epidermophyton floccosum, while Ipomoea sp., Pipturus albidus, Scaevola sericea, Eugenia malaccensis, Piper methysticum, Barringtonia asiatica and Adansonia digitata extracts showed anti-fungal activity to a lesser extent. Eugenia malaccensis was also found to inhibit the classical pathway of complement suggesting that an immunological basis for its in vivo activity was identified. This study has confirmed some of the ethnobotanical reports of Hawaiian medicinal plants having curative properties against infections using biological assays in vitro.

  8. Pumpkin seed extract: Cell growth inhibition of hyperplastic and cancer cells, independent of steroid hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medjakovic, Svjetlana; Hobiger, Stefanie; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bucar, Franz; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-04-01

    Pumpkin seeds have been known in folk medicine as remedy for kidney, bladder and prostate disorders since centuries. Nevertheless, pumpkin research provides insufficient data to back up traditional beliefs of ethnomedical practice. The bioactivity of a hydro-ethanolic extract of pumpkin seeds from the Styrian pumpkin, Cucurbita pepo L. subsp. pepo var. styriaca, was investigated. As pumpkin seed extracts are standardized to cucurbitin, this compound was also tested. Transactivational activity was evaluated for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor with in vitro yeast assays. Cell viability tests with prostate cancer cells, breast cancer cells, colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and a hyperplastic cell line from benign prostate hyperplasia tissue were performed. As model for non-hyperplastic cells, effects on cell viability were tested with a human dermal fibroblast cell line (HDF-5). No transactivational activity was found for human androgen receptor, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, for both, extract and cucurbitin. A cell growth inhibition of ~40-50% was observed for all cell lines, with the exception of HDF-5, which showed with ~20% much lower cell growth inhibition. Given the receptor status of some cell lines, a steroid-hormone receptor independent growth inhibiting effect can be assumed. The cell growth inhibition for fast growing cells together with the cell growth inhibition of prostate-, breast- and colon cancer cells corroborates the ethnomedical use of pumpkin seeds for a treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Moreover, due to the lack of androgenic activity, pumpkin seed applications can be regarded as safe for the prostate.

  9. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. SUMMARY Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages. PMID:27013794

  10. Bioactive Extract from Moringa oleifera Inhibits the Pro-inflammatory Mediators in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Adam, Siti Khadijah; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2015-10-01

    Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages. The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders. Hydroethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera effectively inhibit the NO production in LPS induced inflammatory model.M. oleifera crude extracts successfully modulate the production of pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.M. oleifera extracts suppressed the expression of inflammatory mediators in LPS stimulated macrophages.

  11. The Eschericia coli Growth Inhibition Activity of Some Fermented Medicinal Plant Leaf Extract from the Karo Highland, North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOVIK NURHIDAYAT

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A lot of traditional medicinal plant has antibacterial acitivities. Most of these plants are freshly chewed or grounded and used directly to treat infectious bacterial deseases. However, some practices employ a traditionally spontaneous fermentation on boiled extracted leaf, root or other parts of the plant. This work reports a laboratory stimulated spontaneous fermentation of leaf extracts from selected medicinal plants collected from the Karo Higland. The spontaenous fermentation was stimulated to be carried out by the Acetobacter xylinum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The anti-infectious agent activity was assayed on the Eschericia coli growth inhibition. A complementary non fermented leaf extract was also made and assayed as a comparative measure. Indeed, the fermented leaf extract of bitter bush (Eupatorium pallescens, cacao (Theobroma cacao, avocado (Persia gratissima, passion fruit (Passiflora edulis, cassava (Cassava utillissima, diamond flower (Hedyotis corymbosa, periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus, and gandarusa (Justicia gendarussa have relatively higher anti-E.coli acitivity than those of non fermented ones. However, there were no anti-E.coli activity was detected in both fermented and non fermented leaf extract of the guava (Psidium guajava and common betel (Piper nigrum.

  12. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect.

  13. Corrosion inhibition performance of different bark extracts on aluminium in alkaline solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Chaubey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the effect of stem bark extracts of three trees namely Moringa oleifera (MO, Terminalia arjuna (TA and Mangifera indica (MI on the corrosion behaviour of Aluminium Alloy (AA in 1 M NaOH. The inhibition performance was studied by using gravimetric, potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. Among these extracts, MO exhibited the maximum inhibition efficiency η (% of 85.3% at 0.6 g/L at 303 K. Polarization measurement showed that all the examined extracts are of mixed-type inhibitors. Langmuir’s adsorption isotherm was found to be best fit. Morphology of the surface was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM which confirmed the existence of a protective film of inhibitor molecule on AA surface.

  14. How Do Parameters of Motor Response Influence Selective Inhibition? Evidence from the Stop-Signal Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Hui Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to selectively inhibit the execution of an action while performing other ones is crucial in humans' multitasking daily life. The current study aims to compare selective inhibition for choice reaction involving two effectors or response directions. We adopted a variation of the stop-signal paradigm to examine how selective inhibition is modulated by the way potential motor responses are combined and inhibited. Experiment 1 investigated selective inhibition under different combinations of effectors, namely “index and middle fingers” versus “hand and foot”. The results showed SSRT of the index finger was longer when the other response option was the foot than the middle finger. Experiment 2 examined how selective inhibition differs between selective stopping of effectors and movement directions, and that for most of the situations SSRT is longer for stopping a response based on its direction than effector. After equating complexity of response mapping between direction and effector conditions in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 still showed that SSRT differs between selecting direction or effectors. To summarize, SSRT varies depending on the way response effectors are paired and selectively stopped. Selective inhibition is thus likely not amodal and may involve different inhibitory mechanisms depending on parameters specifying the motor response.

  15. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines by Chlorella Vulgaris extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of solvent fractions from Chlorella vulgaris by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Methods: Methanolic extracts (80% of C. vulgaris were prepared and partitioned with solvents of increasing polarity viz., n-hexane, chloroform, ethanol, and water. Various concentrations of the fractions were tested for cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, and the concentrations inducing cell growth inhibition by about 50% (IC50 were chosen for further studies. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were treated with varying concentrations of C. vulgaris fractions and examined for its effects on nitric oxide (NO production by Griess assay. The release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Celecoxib and polymyxin B as positive controls. Results: MTT assay revealed all the solvent fractions that inhibited cell growth in a dose-dependent manner. Of all the extracts, 80% methanolic extract exhibited the strongest anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production (P < 0.01, PGE2 (P < 0.05, TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.001 release in LPS induced RAW 264.7 cells. Both hexane and chloroform fractions recorded a significant (P < 0.05 and dose-dependent inhibition of LPS induced inflammatory mediators and cytokines in vitro. The anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and aqueous extracts was not significant in the study. Conclusion: The significant inhibition of inflammatory mediators and cytokines by fractions from C. vulgaris suggests that this microalga would be a potential source of developing anti-inflammatory agents and a good alternate for conventional steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  16. Efficacy of antimicrobials extracted from organic pecan shell for inhibiting the growth of Listeria spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Dinesh; Crandall, Philip G; Johnson, Casey L; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Ricke, Steven C

    2013-12-01

    Growers and processors of USDA certified organic foods are in need of suitable organic antimicrobials. The purpose of the research reported here was to develop and test natural antimicrobials derived from an all-natural by-product, organic pecan shells. Unroasted and roasted organic pecan shells were subjected to solvent free extraction to produce antimicrobials that were tested against Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes serotypes to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of antimicrobials. The effectiveness of pecan shell extracts were further tested using a poultry skin model system and the growth inhibition of the Listeria cells adhered onto the skin model were quantified. The solvent free extracts of pecan shells inhibited Listeria strains at MICs as low as 0.38%. The antimicrobial effectiveness tests on a poultry skin model exhibited nearly a 2 log reduction of the inoculated cocktail mix of Listeria strains when extracts of pecan shell powder were used. The extracts also produced greater than a 4 log reduction of the indigenous spoilage bacteria on the chicken skin. Thus, the pecan shell extracts may prove to be very effective alternative antimicrobials against food pathogens and supplement the demand for effective natural antimicrobials for use in organic meat processing.

  17. Well-tolerated Spirulina extract inhibits influenza virus replication and reduces virus-induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsiang; Chang, Gi-Kung; Kuo, Shu-Ming; Huang, Sheng-Yu; Hu, I-Chen; Lo, Yu-Lun; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2016-04-12

    Influenza is one of the most common human respiratory diseases, and represents a serious public health concern. However, the high mutability of influenza viruses has hampered vaccine development, and resistant strains to existing anti-viral drugs have also emerged. Novel anti-influenza therapies are urgently needed, and in this study, we describe the anti-viral properties of a Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) cold water extract. Anti-viral effects have previously been reported for extracts and specific substances derived from Spirulina, and here we show that this Spirulina cold water extract has low cellular toxicity, and is well-tolerated in animal models at one dose as high as 5,000 mg/kg, or 3,000 mg/kg/day for 14 successive days. Anti-flu efficacy studies revealed that the Spirulina extract inhibited viral plaque formation in a broad range of influenza viruses, including oseltamivir-resistant strains. Spirulina extract was found to act at an early stage of infection to reduce virus yields in cells and improve survival in influenza-infected mice, with inhibition of influenza hemagglutination identified as one of the mechanisms involved. Together, these results suggest that the cold water extract of Spirulina might serve as a safe and effective therapeutic agent to manage influenza outbreaks, and further clinical investigation may be warranted.

  18. White Tea extract induces lipolytic activity and inhibits adipogenesis in human subcutaneous (pre-adipocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenck Horst

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. To investigate how natural substances influence lipolysis and adipogenesis, we determined the effects of White Tea extract on cultured human subcutaneous preadipocytes and adipocytes. Methods For our in vitro studies we used a White Tea extract solution that contained polyphenols and methylxanthines. Utilizing cultured human preadipocytes we investigated White Tea extract solution-induced inhibition of triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis and possible effects on cell viability. In vitro studies on human adipocytes were performed aiming to elucidate the efficacy of White Tea extract solution to stimulate lipolytic activity. To characterize White Tea extract solution-mediated effects on a molecular level, we analyzed gene expression of essential adipogenesis-related transcription factors by qRT-PCR and determined the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c on the protein level utilizing immunofluorescence analysis. Results Our data show that incubation of preadipocytes with White Tea extract solution significantly decreased triglyceride incorporation during adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner (n = 10 without affecting cell viability (n = 10. These effects were, at least in part, mediated by EGCG (n = 10, 50 μM. In addition, White Tea extract solution also stimulated lipolytic activity in adipocytes (n = 7. Differentiating preadipocytes cultivated in the presence of 0.5% White Tea extract solution showed a decrease in PPARγ, ADD1/SREBP-1c, C/EBPα and C/EBPδ mRNA levels. Moreover, the expression of the transcription factor ADD1/SREBP-1c was not only decreased on the mRNA but also on the protein level. Conclusion White Tea extract is a natural source that effectively inhibits adipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis-activity. Therefore, it can be utilized to

  19. Inhibition of lipase and inflammatory mediators by Chlorella lipid extracts for antiacne treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Sibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and its treatment is challenging due to the multifactorial etiology and emergence of antibiotic-resistant Propionibacterium acnes strains. This study was focused to reduce antibiotics usage and find an alternate therapeutic source for treating acne. Lipid extracts of six Chlorella species were tested for inhibition of lipase, reactive oxygen species (ROS production, cytokine production using P. acnes (Microbial Type Culture Collection 1951. Lipase inhibitory assay was determined by dimercaprol Tributyrate - 5, 5′- dithiobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid method and ROS production assay was performed using nitro-blue tetrazolium test. The anti-inflammatory activity of algal lipid extracts was determined by in vitro screening method based on inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α produced by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of lipid extracts were determined by microdilution method, and the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Chlorella ellipsoidea has the highest lipase inhibitory activity with 61.73% inhibition, followed by Chlorella vulgaris (60.31% and Chlorella protothecoides (58.9%. Lipid extracts from C. protothecoides and C. ellipsoidea has significantly reduced the ROS production by 61.27% and 58.34% respectively. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α showed the inhibition ranging from 58.39% to 78.67%. C. vulgaris has exhibited the MICvalue of 10 μg/ml followed by C. ellipsoidea, C. protothecoides and Chlorella pyrenoidosa (20 μg/ml. FAME analysis detected 19 fatty acids of which 5 were saturated fatty acids, and 14 were unsaturated fatty acids ranging from C14 to C24. The results suggest that lipid extracts of Chlorella species has significant inhibitory activity on P. acnes by inhibiting lipase activity. Further, anti-inflammatory reaction caused

  20. Selective laser extraction of the Pt group metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeeva, S.; Krynetsky, B.; Prokhorov, A.; Zhidkov, A. [General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1995-11-15

    The interest to the platinum-group metals extraction from solutions, especially industry waste, is stimulated by their extraordinary chemical inert. The traditional chemical methods of the extraction are uneffective. Have been investigated process of the extraction of metal Pt-group from acid solutions. Discussed processes reduction of noble metals by resonance laser action.

  1. Selective Inhibition of Aromatase by a Dihydroisocoumarin from Xyris pterygoblephara

    OpenAIRE

    Endringer,Denise C.; Guimarães, Keller G.; Kondratyuk, Tamara P.; Pezzuto, John M.; Braga, Fernão C.

    2008-01-01

    Aromatase is a well-established target for the chemoprevention of breast cancer. The dihydroisocoumarin (3R,4R)-(-)-6-methoxy-1-oxo-3-pentyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isochromen-4-yl acetate (1) (IC50 = 1.6 ± 0.1 μM), isolated from aerial parts of Xyris pterygoblephara, showed aromatase inhibitory activity. The specificity of 1 was evaluated by inhibition assays with cytochrome P450 enzymes. CYP1A1 was inhibited modestly (IC50 = 38.0 ± 2.0 μM), while CYP2C8 and CYP3A4 enzymes were not affected. Dihydroi...

  2. Determination of trace mercury in compost extract by inhibition based glucose oxidase biosensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-xiao; XU Xiang-min; TANG Lin; ZENG Guang-ming

    2009-01-01

    A novel inhibition based biosensor of glucose oxidase(GOx) for environmental mercury detection was developed. An electropolymerized aniline membrane was prepared on a platinum electrode containing ferrocene as electron transfer mediator, on which GOx was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde. The response of the sensor was based on the current reduction in the electrochemical system by inhibition of mercury against GOx electrode. The detection limit of the inhibition-based sensor for mercury is 0.49 μg/L, and the linear response ranges are 0.49-783.21 μg/L and 783.21 μg/L-25.55 mg/L. The GOx membrane can be completely reactivated after inhibition, and remains 70% of the activity in more than one month. The sensor was used for mercury determination in compost extract with good results.

  3. Parameter selection of pocket extraction algorithm using interaction interface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM Chong-Min; WON Chung-In; RYU Joonghyun; CHO Cheol-Hyung; BHAK Jonghwa; KIM Deok-Soo

    2006-01-01

    Pockets in proteins have been known to be very important for the life process. There have been several studies in the past to automatically extract the pockets from the structure information of known proteins. However, it is difficult to find a study comparing the precision of the extracted pockets from known pockets on the protein. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for extracting pockets from structure data of proteins and analyze the quality of the algorithm by comparing the extracted pockets with some known pockets. These results in this paper can be used to set the parameter values of the pocket extraction algorithm for getting better results.

  4. UNLABELED SELECTED SAMPLES IN FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES WITH LIMITED TRAINING SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kianisarkaleh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction plays a key role in hyperspectral images classification. Using unlabeled samples, often unlimitedly available, unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction methods show better performance when limited number of training samples exists. This paper illustrates the importance of selecting appropriate unlabeled samples that used in feature extraction methods. Also proposes a new method for unlabeled samples selection using spectral and spatial information. The proposed method has four parts including: PCA, prior classification, posterior classification and sample selection. As hyperspectral image passes these parts, selected unlabeled samples can be used in arbitrary feature extraction methods. The effectiveness of the proposed unlabeled selected samples in unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction is demonstrated using two real hyperspectral datasets. Results show that through selecting appropriate unlabeled samples, the proposed method can improve the performance of feature extraction methods and increase classification accuracy.

  5. Inhibition Effect of Mace Extract Microemulsion on Vitamin C Photooxidation in Aqueous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasbullah Hasbullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Photooxidation in food systems cause nutritional losses and produces undesirable flavor, toxic and color compounds, which make foods less acceptable or unacceptable to consumers. The objective of this research was to know the effectiveness of mace extract microemulsion to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems. Aqueous food systems used are both beverage model system and apple juice beverage, where in each system enriched by 100 ppm vitamin C as substrate and 20 ppm erytrosin as photosensitiser. It is about one percent and two percent of microemulsion that contain mace extract of 0, 500 and 750 ppm were added into each of aqueous food system. Inhibition effect of mace extract microemulsion toward vitamin C photooxidation based on the rate of vitamin C degradation in aqueous food systems that illuminated by fluorescent light with 2000 lux intensity within eight hours. The result indicated the mace extract microemulsion has anti-photooxidation activity and ability to inhibit vitamin C photooxidation in aqueous systems.

  6. Corrosion Inhibition by Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract for 304 SS in hydrochloric acid solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdausi, S.; Kurniawan, F.

    2016-04-01

    The inhibition effect of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl) A. Gray leaves extract on the corrosion phenomena of 304 SS in 1 M HCl has been studied by polarization potentiodynamic. The powder of T. diversifolia was extracted by demineralized water which was cultivated in East Java, Indonesia. The extract was characterized by FTIR spectrophotometer. The presence of T. diversifolia can inhibit the corrosion rate of 304 SS. The efficiency inhibition value of 2 g/L T. diversifolia leaves extract reached up to 77.27% at room temperature.

  7. Adsorption and corrosion-inhibiting effect of Dacryodis edulis extract on low-carbon-steel corrosion in acidic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguzie, E E; Enenebeaku, C K; Akalezi, C O; Okoro, S C; Ayuk, A A; Ejike, E N

    2010-09-01

    The inhibition of low-carbon-steel corrosion in 1M HCl and 0.5M H(2)SO(4) by extracts of Dacryodis edulis (DE) was investigated using gravimetric and electrochemical techniques. DE extract was found to inhibit the uniform and localized corrosion of carbon steel in the acidic media, affecting both the cathodic and anodic partial reactions. The corrosion process was inhibited by adsorption of the extracted organic matter onto the steel surface in a concentration-dependent manner and involved both protonated and molecular species. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to illustrate the process of adsorption of some specific components of the extract.

  8. Protection of renal function by four selected plant extracts during Plasmodium berghei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adetutu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Weakening of renal function from reactive oxygen species generated during malaria infection is one of the prominent causes of death in prevalent regions. The potential toxicity of free radical generated by malaria parasites are counteracted by a large number of cytoprotective phytochemicals. Therefore, this study examined the influence of extracts of five selected antimalarial plants (Azadirachta indica, Parquetina nigrescens, Citrus paradisi, and Khaya senigalensis on reduction of inflammation in renal tissue, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels during malaria infection using Plasmodium berghei infected Swiss albino mice. For in vivo assay, mice were inoculated with 1 × 107 parasitized erythrocytes and plant extracts were subsequently administered orally at 100 mg/kg body weight once a day for 17 consecutive days. The chemo-suppressive and prophylaxis effects of the plant extracts against P. berghei were investigated and compared with those of standard antimalarial drug, chloroquine. Tail bleeding was performed to check the percentage parasitaemia by making a thin film smear on a slide, stained in Giemsa. The numbers of parasited cells against the unparasitised cells were counted using a microscope. The effect of malaria infection on renal tissue was assessed by histological analysis and measurement of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in plasma. At 100 mg/kg per body weight, aqueous extract of K. senegalensis, A. indica, C. paradisi and P. nigrescens exhibited significant (p<0.05 percentage inhibition and chemo-suppressive effects in comparison with the chloroquine treated mice. The result of the untreated group showed that there was a significant (p<0.05 increase in the level of plasma urea while the level of the groups treated with plants extract stabilized the level of urea and creatinine in the blood. Also there was a pathological lesion on the kidney tissue of untreated group whereas the group treated with

  9. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuji; Tang, Jingcheng; Zhu, Haimei; Jiang, Xueyun; Liu, Jiawang; Xu, Wenyun; Ma, Haiping; Feng, Qiqi; Wu, Jianhui; Zhao, Ming; Peng, Shiqi

    2015-01-01

    The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL) inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/(-)electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 μM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis.

  10. Innovative Strategies for Selective Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maolanon, Alex Ramalak; Madsen, Andreas Stahl; Olsen, Christian Adam

    2016-01-01

    of these entities, however, exhibit selectivity for a specific human HDAC. Recent structural insights into human HDACs may provide new strategies to achieve selectivity. In this Perspective, we discuss the binding modes of various HDAC inhibitors and highlight topological differences between enzymes as well as key...

  11. Oligomeric procyanidins of French maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) effectively inhibit alpha-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Angelika; Högger, Petra

    2007-07-01

    The standardized maritime pine bark extract (Pycnogenol) was reported to exert clinical anti-diabetic effects after peroral intake. However, an increased insulin secretion was not observed after administration of the extract to patients. Our aim was to elucidate whether the described clinical effects of Pycnogenol are related to inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Therefore, we analyzed the inhibitory activity of Pycnogenol, green tea extract and acarbose towards alpha-glucosidase. Furthermore, we explored different fractions of Pycnogenol containing compounds of diverse molecular masses from polyphenolic monomers, dimers and higher oligomers to uncover which components exhibited the most pronounced inhibitory activity. We found that Pycnogenol exhibited the most potent inhibition (IC(50) about 5 microg/mL) on alpha-glucosidase compared to green tea extract (IC(50) about 20 microg/mL) and acarbose (IC(50) about 1mg/mL). The inhibitory action of Pycnogenol was stronger in extract fractions containing higher procyanidin oligomers. The results obtained assign a novel, local effect to oligomeric procyanidins and contribute to the explanation of glucose-lowering effects of Pycnogenol observed in clinical trials with diabetic patients.

  12. Bioactive extract from moringa oleifera inhibits the pro-inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide stimulated macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Tangestani Fard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inflammation is a well-known physiological response to protect the body against infection and restore tissue injury. Nevertheless, the chronic inflammation can trigger various inflammatory associated diseases/disorder. Moringa oleifera is a widely grown plant in most tropical countries and it has been recognized traditionally for several medicinal benefits. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of M. oleifera extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS - stimulated macrophages. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory effect of M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extracts was evaluated by assessing the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO production during Griess reaction and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators in macrophages. Results: Interestingly, we found that M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract significantly inhibited the secretion of NO production and other inflammatory markers such as prostaglandin E 2 , tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin (IL-6, and IL-1b. Meanwhile, the bioactive extract has induced the production of IL-10 in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, M. oleifera hydroethanolic bioactive leaves extract effectively suppressed the protein expression of inflammatory markers inducible NO synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells p65 in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These findings support the traditional use of M. oleifera plant as an effective treatment for inflammation associated diseases/disorders.

  13. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract induces DNA damage by inhibiting topoisomerase II activity in human hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuhong; Chen, Si; Mei, Hu; Xuan, Jiekun; Guo, Xiaoqing; Couch, Letha; Dobrovolsky, Vasily N; Guo, Lei; Mei, Nan

    2015-09-30

    Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has been shown to increase the incidence in liver tumors in mice in a 2-year bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program. In this study, the DNA damaging effects of Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and many of its constituents were evaluated in human hepatic HepG2 cells and the underlying mechanism was determined. A molecular docking study revealed that quercetin, a flavonoid constituent of Ginkgo biloba, showed a higher potential to interact with topoisomerase II (Topo II) than did the other Ginkgo biloba constituents; this in silico prediction was confirmed by using a biochemical assay to study Topo II enzyme inhibition. Moreover, as measured by the Comet assay and the induction of γ-H2A.X, quercetin, followed by keampferol and isorhamnetin, appeared to be the most potent DNA damage inducer in HepG2 cells. In Topo II knockdown cells, DNA damage triggered by Ginkgo biloba leaf extract or quercetin was dramatically decreased, indicating that DNA damage is directly associated with Topo II. DNA damage was also observed when cells were treated with commercially available Ginkgo biloba extract product. Our findings suggest that Ginkgo biloba leaf extract- and quercetin-induced in vitro genotoxicity may be the result of Topo II inhibition.

  14. Inhibition of calcium carbonate deposition on stainless steel using olive leaf extract as a green inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidoud, Roumaissa; Kahoul, Abdelkrim; Naamoune, Farid

    2017-01-01

    The antiscale properties of the aqueous extract of olive (Olea europaea L.) leaves as a natural scale inhibitor for stainless steel surface in Hammam raw water were investigated using chronoamperometry (CA) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques in conjunction with a microscopic examination. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the scale deposited over the pipe walls consists of pure CaCO3 calcite. The CA, in accordance with electrochemical impedance spectra and scanning electron microscopy, shows that the inhibition efficiency increases with increasing extract concentration. This efficiency is considerably reduced as the temperature is increased.

  15. Human placental extract mediated inhibition of proteinase K: implications of heparin and glycoproteins in wound physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Mukherjee, Chaitali; Roy, Siddhartha; De, Debashree; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2014-09-01

    Efficient debridement of the wound bed following the removal of microbial load prevents its progression into a chronic wound. Bacterial infection and excessive proteolysis characterize impaired healing and therefore, their inhibition might restore the disturbed equilibrium in the healing process. Human placental extract exhibits reversible, non-competitive inhibition towards Proteinase K, a microbial protease, by stabilizing it against auto-digestion. Scattering and fluorescence studies followed by biochemical analysis indicated the involvement of a glycan moiety. Surface plasmon resonance demonstrated specific interaction of heparin with Proteinase K having Kd in μM range. Further, Proteinase K contains sequence motifs similar to other heparin-binding proteins. Molecular docking revealed presence of clefts suitable for binding of heparin-derived oligosaccharides. Comprehensive analysis of this inhibitory property of placental extract partly explains its efficacy in curing wounds with common bacterial infections.

  16. Inhibition of microbial growth by spice extracts and their effect of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Meixu, G. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1994-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of black pepper, rosemary and red pepper has been tested against 12 microorganisms. Alcoholic extracts of these spices were not exhibited strong activity against gram-negative bacteria in laboratory media. The growth of Bacillus subtilis and Clostridium botulinum type A was inhibited by 1% of black pepper, 0.5% rosemary and 0.03% red pepper. A little reduction of antimicrobial activity to B. subtilis was observed on extracts of gamma-irradiated black pepper or rosemary at 10 and 50 kGy. In the case of red pepper, irradiation of 10 or 50 kGy enhanced a little of antimicrobial activity to B. subtilis. Similar effect of irradiation was also observed on the inhibition of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus parasiticus in SL broth. (author).

  17. Aqueous and organic extracts of Trigonellafoenum-graecum L. Inhibit the mycelia growth of fungi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. HAOUALA; S. HAWALA; A. EL-AYEB; R. KHANFIR; N. BOUGHANMI

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extracts from various plant parts of fenugreek (3%) (aerial parts: leaves and stems (LS), roots (R), ground seeds (GS) and not ground seeds (NGS)) and petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions of the aerial parts were assayed to determine their antifungal potential against Botrytis cinema, Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria sp., Pythium aphanidermatum, and Rhizoctinia solani. All fenugreek plant parts showed antifungal potential and the magnitude of their inhibitory effects was species and plant parts dependent. R extract was shown less toxic (30.38%), whereas NGS extract expressed the strongest inhibition, with an average of 71.44%, followed by GS (58.56%) and LS (57.1%). Screening indicated that P. aphanidermatum was the most resistant species, with an average inhibition of 34.5%. E graminearum, Alternaria sp. and R. solani were the most sensitive species, and were similarly inhibited (63.5%). The stability test indicated that the aqueous extracts of all plant parts lost approximately 50% of their relative activity after one month of storage at 4℃, whilst they lost 60%-90% of their activity when stored at ambient temperature for one month. The antifungal activity resided mainly in the methanol fraction and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of methanol fraction witch caused total inhibition of R. solani and Alternaria sp. was 60 μg/ml. Results of current study suggested that the constituents of Trigonella foenum-graecum have potential against harmful pathogenic fungi. Therefore, fenugreek could be an important source of biologically active compounds useful for developing better new antifungal drugs.

  18. Oral infusion of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model

    OpenAIRE

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Syed, Deeba N.; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    We earlier provided evidence that oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth in nude mice. To ascertain convincing evidence of chemopreventive effects of PFE against PCa, its efficacy requires to be evaluated in animal models that closely emulate human disease. Here, we provide evidence of remarkable tumor growth inhibitory effects of PFE using the TRAMP model. Mice received 0.1 and 0.2% PFE, equivalent to 250 and 500 ml of pomegranate juice...

  19. Oral infusion of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model

    OpenAIRE

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Syed, Deeba N.; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    We earlier provided evidence that oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth in nude mice. To ascertain convincing evidence of chemopreventive effects of PFE against PCa, its efficacy requires to be evaluated in animal models that closely emulate human disease. Here, we provide evidence of remarkable tumor growth inhibitory effects of PFE using the TRAMP model. Mice received 0.1 and 0.2% PFE, equivalent to 250 and 500 ml of pomegranate juice...

  20. Effect of black raspberry extract in inhibiting NFkappa B dependent radioprotection in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusoodhanan, Rakhesh; Natarajan, Mohan; Singh, Jamunarani Veeraraghavan Nisha; Jamgade, Ambarish; Awasthi, Vibhudutta; Anant, Shrikant; Herman, Terence S; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2010-01-01

    Black raspberry extracts (RSE) have been shown to inhibit cancer cell growth and stimulate apoptosis. Also, studies have demonstrated that RSE inhibits transcriptional regulators including NFkappa B. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of RSE in inhibiting radiation (IR) induced NFkappa B mediated radioprotection in breast adenocarcinoma cells. MCF-7 cells were exposed to IR (2Gy), treated with RSE (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 micro g/ml) or treated with RSE (1.0 micro g/ml) followed by IR exposure, and harvested after 1, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h. NFkappa B DNA-binding activity was measured by EMSA and phosphorylated Ikappa Balpha by immunoblotting. Expression of IAP1, IAP2, XIAP and survivin were measured by QPCR and immunoblotting. Cell survival was measured using MTT assay and cell death using Caspase-3/7 activity. Effect of RSE on IR induced MnSOD, TNFalpha, IL-1alpha and MnSOD activity was also determined. RSE inhibited NFkappa B activity in a dose-dependent manner. Also, RSE inhibited IR-induced sustained activation of NFkappa B, and NFkappa B regulated IAP1, IAP2, XIAP, and survivin. In addition, RSE inhibited IR-induced TNFalpha, IL-1alpha, and MnSOD levels and MnSOD activity. RSE suppressed cell survival and enhanced cell death. These results suggest that RSE may act as a potent radiosensitizer by overcoming the effects of NFkappa B mediated radioprotection in human breast cancer cells.

  1. Evaluation of a Brain Acetylcholinesterase Extraction Method and Kinetic Constants after Methyl-Paraoxon Inhibition in Three Brazilian Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A. P.; Santos, C. R.; Sarcinelli, P. N.; Hauser-Davis, R. A.; Lopes, R. M.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an important enzyme in the control of the neuronal action potential and sensitive to organophosphate inhibition. Brain fish AChE is less sensitive to organophosphate inhibition than AChE from terrestrial animals, although this sensitivity is variable among species and has not yet been fully evaluated in fish species. In this setting, inhibition kinetic constants for progressive irreversible inhibition of brain acetylcholinesterase due to methyl-paraoxon exposure were determined in three fish species (Mugil liza, Genidens genidens and Lagocephalus laevigatus) and hen (Gallus domesticus). Enzyme extraction using a detergent was shown to be adequate, and samples presented activity inhibition in high substrate concentrations and suppression of inhibition by methyl-paraoxon in the presence of the substrate, similar to kinetic patterns from purified enzyme preparations. Catfish (G. genidens) AChE presented the highest sensitivity among the evaluated fish species (IC50 = 1031.20 nM ± 63.17) in comparison to M. liza and L. laevigatus (IC50: 2878.83 ± 421.94 and 2842.5 ± 144.63 nM respectively). The lower dissociation constant (Kd = 20.3 ± 2.95 μM) of catfish AChE showed greater enzyme affinity for methyl-paraoxon, explaining this species higher sensitivity to organophosphates. Hen AChE presented higher ki (900.57 ± 65.3 mM-1min-1) and, consequently, greater sensitivity to methyl-paraoxon, explained by a lower Kd (0.6 ± 0.13 μM). Furthermore, hen AChE did not differentiate between the propionylthiocholine and acetylthiocholine substrates, indicating easier access of methyl-paraoxon to the hen enzyme activity site. The results obtained herein indicate a suitable extraction of AChE and, despite different inhibition kinetic constants, demonstrate that fish AChE is less sensitive to methyl-paraoxon, probably due to reduced access to the catalytic center which provides greater enzyme substrate selectivity. PMID:27655611

  2. Selective inhibition of deactivated mitochondrial complex I by biguanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoshi; Humphries, Kenneth M

    2015-03-24

    Biguanides are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for diabetes mellitus and prediabetes treatment. Complex I is the rate-limiting step of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), a major source of mitochondrial free radical production, and a known target of biguanides. Complex I has two reversible conformational states, active and de-active. The deactivated state is promoted in the absence of substrates but is rapidly and fully reversed to the active state in the presence of NADH. The objective of this study was to determine the relative sensitivity of active/de-active complex I to biguanide-mediated inhibition and resulting superoxide radical (O₂(•⁻)) production. Using isolated rat heart mitochondria, we show that deactivation of complex I sensitizes it to metformin and phenformin (4- and 3-fold, respectively), but not to other known complex I inhibitors, such as rotenone. Mitochondrial O₂(•⁻) production by deactivated complex I was measured fluorescently by NADH-dependent 2-hydroxyethidium formation at alkaline pH to impede reactivation. Superoxide production was 260.4% higher than in active complex I at pH 9.4. However, phenformin treatment of de-active complex I decreased O₂(•⁻) production by 14.9%, while rotenone increased production by 42.9%. Mitochondria isolated from rat hearts subjected to cardiac ischemia, a condition known to induce complex I deactivation, were sensitized to phenformin-mediated complex I inhibition. This supports the idea that the effects of biguanides are likely to be influenced by the complex I state in vivo. These results demonstrate that the complex I active and de-active states are a determinant in biguanide-mediated inhibition.

  3. Immobilization of Tyrosinase from Avocado Crude Extract in Polypyrrole Films for Inhibitive Detection of Benzoic Acid

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    André Brisolari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition-based biosensors were developed by immobilizing tyrosinase (Tyr, polyphenol oxidase from the crude extract of avocado fruit on electrochemically prepared polypyrrole (PPy films. The biosensors were prepared during the electropolymerization of pyrrole in a solution containing a fixed volume of the crude extract of avocado. The dependence of the biosensor responses on the volume used from the crude extract, values of pH and temperature was studied, and a substrate, catechol, at different concentrations, was amperometrically detected by these biosensors. Benzoic acid, a competitive inhibitor of Try, was added to the catechol solutions at specific concentrations aimed at obtaining the inhibition constant, K’m, which ranged from 1.7 to 4.6 mmol∙L−1 for 0.0 and 60 µmol∙L−1 of benzoic acid, respectively. Studies on the inhibition caused by benzoic acid by using PPy/Try films, and catechol as a substrate, allowed us propose how to develop, under optimized conditions, simple and low-cost biosensors based on the use of avocado fruit.

  4. Extract of feverfew inhibits interactions of human platelets with collagen substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loesche, W.M.; Mazurov, A.V.; Heptinstall, S.; Groenewegen, W.A.; Repin, V.S.; Till, U.

    1987-12-01

    The interaction of platelets with surfaces coated with collagens of type III (C III) or IV (C IV) has been studied by measuring the deposition of /sup 51/Cr-labeled platelets and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Experiments were performed using platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and suspensions of gel-filtered platelets (GFP). Platelets were deposited on C III mainly as surface-bound aggregates. In contrast they were deposited on C IV mainly as spread forms of individual cells. Formation of aggregates on C III was more extensive for PRP than for GFP; in contrast platelet spreading on C IV was more extensive for GFP than for PRP. The effects of an extract of the plant feverfew on platelet-collagen interactions were determined. Feverfew extract inhibited the deposition of /sup 51/Cr-labeled platelets on both C III and C IV in a dose-dependent way. Similar concentrations of extract were needed to inhibit the formation of surface-bound aggregates and to inhibit platelet spreading in both PRP and GFP.

  5. Selective mutism and temperament: the silence and behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gensthaler, Angelika; Khalaf, Sally; Ligges, Marc; Kaess, Michael; Freitag, Christine M; Schwenck, Christina

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a suspected precursor of selective mutism. However, investigations on early behavioral inhibition of children with selective mutism are lacking. Children aged 3-18 with lifetime selective mutism (n = 109), social phobia (n = 61), internalizing behavior (n = 46) and healthy controls (n = 118) were assessed using the parent-rated Retrospective Infant Behavioral Inhibition (RIBI) questionnaire. Analyses showed that children with lifetime selective mutism and social phobia were more inhibited as infants and toddlers than children of the internalizing and healthy control groups, who displayed similar low levels of behavioral inhibition. Moreover, behavioral inhibition was higher in infants with lifetime selective mutism than in participants with social phobia according to the Total BI score (p = 0.012) and the Shyness subscale (p lifetime diagnosis of selective mutism. Results yield first evidence of the recently hypothesized temperamental origin of selective mutism. Children at risk should be screened for this debilitating child psychiatric condition.

  6. Grape extracts inhibit multiple events in the cell biology of cholera intoxication.

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    Srikar Reddy

    Full Text Available Vibrio cholerae produces cholera toxin (CT, an AB5 protein toxin that is primarily responsible for the profuse watery diarrhea of cholera. CT is secreted into the extracellular milieu, but the toxin attacks its Gsα target within the cytosol of a host cell. Thus, CT must cross a cellular membrane barrier in order to function. This event only occurs after the toxin travels by retrograde vesicular transport from the cell surface to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. The catalytic A1 polypeptide then dissociates from the rest of the toxin and assumes an unfolded conformation that facilitates its transfer to the cytosol by a process involving the quality control system of ER-associated degradation. Productive intoxication is blocked by alterations to the vesicular transport of CT and/or the ER-to-cytosol translocation of CTA1. Various plant compounds have been reported to inhibit the cytopathic activity of CT, so in this work we evaluated the potential anti-CT properties of grape extract. Two grape extracts currently sold as nutritional supplements inhibited CT and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin activity against cultured cells and intestinal loops. CT intoxication was blocked even when the extracts were added an hour after the initial toxin exposure. A specific subset of host-toxin interactions involving both the catalytic CTA1 subunit and the cell-binding CTB pentamer were affected. The extracts blocked toxin binding to the cell surface, prevented unfolding of the isolated CTA1 subunit, inhibited CTA1 translocation to the cytosol, and disrupted the catalytic activity of CTA1. Grape extract could thus potentially serve as a novel therapeutic to prevent or possibly treat cholera.

  7. Inhibiting effect of a hepatoma extract on the mitotic rate of regenerating liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echave Llanos, J M; Badrán, A F; Moreno, F R

    1986-01-01

    Aqueous tumor extracts were prepared by the homogenization of a fast-growing, undifferentiated, transplantable malignant murine hepatoma in distilled water. After centrifugation, an aliquot of 0.01 ml of the supernatant g body weight was injected intraperitoneally into partially hepatectomized mice. Control animals were injected with saline. Groups of mice were killed at various times in relation to the hepatectomy. Four h before killing the animals were given Colcemid (1 microgram/g body weight). The number of Colcemid-arrested mitoses in the hepatocytes and in the littoral cells, respectively, were counted in 140 microscopic fields. The extract significantly inhibited the mitotic rate in hepatocytes when the injection was given between 22 h before, and up to 26 h after hepatectomy. In the littoral cells, a slight initial stimulation was followed by a slight but significant inhibition which occurred when the injection was given at hepatectomy or until 18 h after hepatectomy. The effect was not modified by exposing the extracts to temperatures of 47 degrees C for 30 min or 22 degrees C for 24 h, but 10 min of boiling destroyed their inhibitory effect. Lyophilization and storing at -18 degrees C for up to 4 weeks did not modify the effect. The mitosis-inhibiting effect was also measurable when the extract was injected subcutaneously. There was an almost linear dose-response curve. The results are discussed in relation to circadian rhythms, the pattern of liver cell proliferation after hepatectomy, and recent similar reports from the literature. The conclusion is drawn that extracts of a hepatoma contain one or more growth-inhibitory factors significantly active on regenerating liver cells, and less significantly on littoral cells.

  8. Effect of Morinda Tinctoria Leaves Extract on the Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Krishnaveni; J.Ravichandran; A.Selvaraj

    2013-01-01

    The Morinda tinctoria (MT) plant leaves extract was prepared in aqueous and hydrochloric acid media and was used as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium.MT is found to be an efficient inhibitor at room temperature and the efficiency decreases with increase in temperature.Results from colorimetric studies predict the amount of iron present in the test solution and the percentage inhibition efficiency values calculated from this data fit well with the weight loss experiments.The AC impedance studies reveal that the mild steel surface is positively charged and the process of inhibition is through charge transfer.Polarisation studies indicate the mixed nature of the inhibitor.Thermodynamic parameters obtained predict that the process of inhibition is a spontaneous one.

  9. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Citric Acid by Aqueous Extract of Piper Nigrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Matheswaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency (IE of an aqueous extract of Piper Nigrum L. in controlling corrosion of mild steel at pH 12 has been evaluated by weight loss method in the absence and presence of inhibitor in citric acid medium at different concentration. The result showed that the corrosion inhibition efficiency of these compounds was found to vary with the different concentration at two hour time interval at room temperature. Also, it was found that the corrosion inhibition behaviour of Piper Nigrum L. is greater in 2 N Citric acid than 1 N Citric acid medium. So Piper Nigrum L. can be used has a good inhibitor for preventing mild steel material which is used in many construction purpose.

  10. Kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by an aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum seeds

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    Suresh Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD has provided the rationale for the current pharmacotherapy of this disease. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are currently the only approved therapy for the symptomatic treatment of AD. The current drugs available in the market has shown various side effect which prompted scientist to search for new and potent AChE inhibitors which exerts minimal side effect in AD patient. In present study, an aqueous extract of Cumin cyminum was tested for in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity based on Ellman’s method. C. cyminum showed maximum inhibition of 76.90±0.003% in an aqueous extract at 50μg/ml final concentration. Further studies were conducted to elucidate the mode of AChE inhibition by kinetic studies. Competitive inhibition was observed at lower concentrations (12.5μg/ml & 25μg/ml and mixed inhibition was observed at higher concentrations (50μg/ml & 100μg/ml.

  11. Akt- and CREB-Mediated Prostate Cancer Cell Proliferation Inhibition by Nexrutine, a Phellodendron amurense Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen E. Garcia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that plant-based diets can reduce the risk of prostate cancer. However, very little information is available concerning the use of botanicals in preventing prostate cancer. As a first step toward developing botanicals as prostate cancer preventives, we examined the effect of Nexrutine on human prostate cancer cells. Nexrutine is a herbal extract developed from Phellodendron amurense. Phellodendron extracts have been used traditionally in Chinese medicine for hundreds of years as an antidiarrheal, astringent, and anti-inflammatory agent. The present study investigated its potential antitumor effect on human prostate cancer cells. Our results suggest that it inhibits tumor cell proliferation through apoptosis induction and inhibition of cell survival signaling. The results of the present study indicate that Nexrutine treatment 1 inhibits the proliferation of both androgenresponsive and androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells through induction of apoptosis; 2 reduces levels of pAkt, phosphorylated cAMP response-binding protein (pCREB, and CREB DNA-binding activity; and 3 induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells stably overexpressing Bcl-2. Further Akt kinase activity was reduced in cells treated with Nexrutine, and ectopic expression of myristoylated Akt protected from Nexrutine induced inhibition of proliferation, implicating a role for Akt signaling.

  12. Inhibition of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus

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    Chang HB

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Bin Chang,1 Bing-Huei Chen1,21Department of Food Science, 2Graduate Institute of Medicine, Fu Jen Catholic University, Taipei, TaiwanAbstract: The objectives of this study were to explore the inhibition mechanism of lung cancer cells A549 and H460 by curcuminoid extracts and nanoemulsions prepared from Curcuma longa Linnaeus. In addition, human bronchus epithelial cell line BEAS-2B (normal cell was selected for comparison. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed to separate and quantify the various curcuminoids in C. longa extract, including curcumin (1,714.5 µg/mL, demethoxycurcumin (1,147.4 µg/mL, and bisdemethoxycurcumin (190.2 µg/mL. A high-stability nanoemulsion composed of Tween 80, water, and curcuminoid extract was prepared, with mean particle size being 12.6 nm. The cell cycle was retarded at G2/M for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments; however, the inhibition pathway may be different. H460 cells were more susceptible to apoptosis than A549 cells for both curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments. Growth of BEAS-2B remained unaffected for both the curcuminoid extract and nanoemulsion treatments, with a concentration range from 1 to 4 µg/mL. Also, the activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 followed a dose-dependent increase for both A549 and H460 cells for both the treatments, accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome C expression and a dose-dependent decrease in CDK1 expression. Interestingly, a dose-dependent increase in cyclin B expression was shown for A549 cells for both the treatments, while a reversed trend was found for H460 cells. Both mitochondria and death receptor pathways may be responsible for apoptosis of both A549 and H460 cells.Keywords: curcuminoid extract, curcuminoid nanoemulsion, Curcuma longa Linnaeus, lung cancer cell, cell cycle, apoptosis mechanism

  13. Corrosion Inhibition and Adsorption Properties of Ethanolic Extract of Calotropis for Corrosion of Aluminium in Acidic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Sudesh Kumar; Suraj Prakash Mathur

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion inhibition of aluminium in sulfuric acid solution in the presence of different plant parts, namely, leaves, latex, and fruit was studied using weight loss method and thermometric method. The ethanolic extracts of Calotropis procera and Calotropis gigantea act as an inhibitor in the acid environment. The inhibition efficiency increases with increase in inhibitor concentration. The plant parts inhibit aluminium, and inhibition is attributed, due to the adsorption of the plant part...

  14. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) disrupting effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract in mice: a possible role of monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Haidy E; Tadros, Mariane G; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B; Khalifa, Amani E

    2013-06-07

    Liquorice extract was reported to have nootropic and/or antiamnestic effects. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle response is a multimodal, cross-species phenomenon used as a measure of sensorimotor gating. Previous studies indicated that liquorice/its constituents augmented mouse brain monoamine levels. Increased brain monoamines' transmission was suggested to underlie PPI disruption. However, the effect of antiamnestic dose(s) of the extract on PPI has not been investigated despite the coexistence of impaired memory and PPI deficit in some neurological disorders. The effect of administration of the antiamnestic dose of the extract (150 mg/kg for 7 days) was tested on PPI of acoustic startle response in mice. It resulted in PPI disruption and therefore its effect on monoamines' levels was investigated in a number of mouse brain areas involved in PPI response mediation. Results demonstrated that the extract antiamnestic dose augmented cortical, hippocampal and striatal monoamine levels. It was therefore concluded that liquorice extract (150 mg/kg)-induced PPI deficit was mediated through augmenting monoaminergic transmission in the cortex, hippocampus and striatum. These findings can be further investigated in experimental models for autism, psychosis and Huntington's disease to decide the safety of using liquorice extract in ameliorating memory disturbance in disorders manifesting PPI deficit.

  15. Antioxidant Potential, Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition and Antimicrobial Activities of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii Extracts

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    Dragoljub D. Cvetković

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of different Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge reactive hydroxyl radical during the Fenton reaction, using ESR spectroscopy. Also, the influence of these extracts on lipid peroxyl radicals obtained during lipid peroxidation of: (I sunflower oil (37°C, 3h inducedby 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid (ACVA and (II liposomes induced by 2,2'-azobis(2-amidino-propanedihydrochloride (AAPH was studied. n-Butanol extract had the bestantioxidant activity (100% at 0.5 mg/mL in Fenton reaction system; 89.21% at 5 mg/mL in system I; 83.38% at 5 mg/mL in system II. The antioxidant activities of the extracts significantly correlated with total phenolic content. The antimicrobial activity of Satureja montana L. subsp. kitaibelii extracts was investigated. Petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts expressed a wide range of inhibiting activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.

  16. Corrosion inhibition of steel in sulfuric acidic solution by the Chenopodium Ambrosioides Extracts

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    L. Bammou

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of natural occurring extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides (CAE on the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel in sulfuric acid solution is studied by the weight loss method, potentiodynamic polarization and impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements. The experimental results reveal that extract has a good inhibiting effect on the metal tested in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution. The protection efficiency increases with increasing inhibitor concentration to attain 94% at 4 g/l. Potentiodynamic polarization studies clearly reveal that it acts essentially as a cathodic inhibitor. EIS results show that the change in the impedance parameters (Rt and Cdl with concentration of extract of Chenopodium Ambrosioides is indicative of the adsorption of molecules leading to the formation of a protective layer on the surface of carbon steel. The efficiency decreases with temperature. The adsorption of Chenopodium Ambrosioides extract is found to obey the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The activation energies and enthalpies of the corrosion process of carbon steel in acidic medium were determined.

  17. Inhibition of human P450 enzymes by natural extracts used in traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeiro, Idania; Donato, María T; Jimenez, Nuria; Garrido, Gabino; Molina-Torres, Jorge; Menendez, Roberto; Castell, José V; Gómez-Lechón, María J

    2009-02-01

    Different medicinal plants are widely used in Cuba and Mexico to treat several disorders. This paper reports in vitro inhibitory effects on the P450 system of herbal products commonly used by people in Cuba and Mexico in traditional medicine for decades. Experiments were conducted in human liver microsomes. The catalytic activities of CYP1A1/2, 2D6, and 3A4 were measured using specific probe substrates. The Heliopsis longipes extract exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of the three enzymes, and similar effects were produced by affinin (an alkamide isolated from the H. longipes extract) and two catalytically reduced alkamides. Mangifera indica L. and Thalassia testudinum extracts, two natural polyphenol-rich extracts, diminished CYP1A1/2 and 3A4 activities, but not the CYP2D6 activity. These results suggest that these herbs inhibit the major human P450 enzymes involved in drug metabolism and could induce potential herbal-drug interactions.

  18. In vitro antibacterial, alpha-amylase inhibition potential of three nudibranchs extracts from South East coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giji Sadhasivam; Arumugam Muthuvel; Wanjale Mrunal Vitthal; Abirami Pachaiyappan; Mohan Kumar; Balasubramanian Thangavel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the antibacterial and antiamylase properties of methanol and acetone extracts of nudibranchs including Bursatella leachii (B. leachii), Kalinga ornata (K. ornata),Aplysia sp. Methods: Crude methanol and acetone extracts of sea slugs were tested for inhibition of fish bacterial pathogens' growth through disc diffusion method. The activity was measured based on the formation of inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with crude extracts. The α-amylase inhibitory effect was also measured calorimetrically. The chemical fingerprinting of the extract was recorded with HPTLC and GC-MS. Results: The solvent extracts of all the three sea slugs showed antibacterial property. The maximum zone of inhibition (>15-20 mm) was recorded for methanol and acetone extracts of K.ornata. The methanol extract of Aplysia sp. exhibited 93% inhibition against α-amylase, following by B. leachii (methanol) 70.6% and K. ornata (methanol) 49.03% inhibition respectively. The acetone extracts didn' t show any notable inhibition. The presence of free amino acids like lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine etc., terpenoids and pigents were confirmed through HPTLC analysis. The presence of siloxanes and propanoic acid were also revealed through GC-MS. Conclusions: This study suggests that further scrutinisation of the B. leachii, K. ornata and Aplysia sp. will pave the way for development of antibacterial and α-amylase inhibitory agent for therapeutic application.

  19. In vitro antibacterial, alpha-amylase inhibition potential of three nudibranchs extracts from South East coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giji Sadhasivam

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antibacterial and antiamylase properties of methanol and acetone extracts of nudibranchs including Bursatella leachii (B. leachii, Kalinga ornata (K. ornata, Aplysia sp. Methods: Crude methanol and acetone extracts of sea slugs were tested for inhibition of fish bacterial pathogens' growth through disc diffusion method. The activity was measured based on the formation of inhibition zone around the disc impregnated with crude extracts. The α-amylase inhibitory effect was also measured calorimetrically. The chemical fingerprinting of the extract was recorded with HPTLC and GC-MS. Results: The solvent extracts of all the three sea slugs showed antibacterial property. The maximum zone of inhibition (>15-20 mm was recorded for methanol and acetone extracts of K. ornata. The methanol extract of Aplysia sp. exhibited 93% inhibition against α-amylase, following by B. leachii (methanol 70.6% and K. ornata (methanol 49.03% inhibition respectively. The acetone extracts didn' t show any notable inhibition. The presence of free amino acids like lysine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine etc., terpenoids and pigents were confirmed through HPTLC analysis. The presence of siloxanes and propanoic acid were also revealed through GC-MS. Conclusions: This study suggests that further scrutinisation of the B. leachii, K. ornata and Aplysia sp. will pave the way for development of antibacterial and α-amylase inhibitory agent for therapeutic application.

  20. Antibacterial activities of some selected plant extracts of local herbal medicines in Lahore-Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fouzia Noreen; Naqi Hussain; Muhammad Zaheer; Salma Rahman

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of methanol and acetone extracts of five plant extracts being utilized for the cure of different ailments in Pakistan was studied.The extracts of Curcuma zedoaria,lpomea turpethum,Sphaeranthus indicus,Terminalia chebula and Tricholepis glaberrima were tested against seven different bacterial strains by well diffusion method and microdilution methods.The pattern of zone of inhibition varied with the plant extracts,the solvent used for extraction and organisms tested.Plant extracts (20 mg/mL) were used to evaluate antibacterial activities.The zone of inhibition exhibited by methanol extracts varied between 11 mm and 32 mm while those of acetone extracts varicd between 9 mm and 25 mm respectively.The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) exhibited by methanol extracts ranged between (18.4-51.1) mg/mL.Overall methanolic extracts showed more activity than the acetone extracts against tested organisms except for S.indicus.The plants were also analyzed for their elemental composition using atomic absorption spcctrophotometer to explore natural sources of essential elements that can be utilized for medicinal purposes.

  1. INTERFERON SELECTIVELY INHIBITS THE SYNTHESIS OF MAYARO VIRUS GLYCOPROTEINS

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    Davis F. Ferreira

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available We have previously observed that interferon (recIFNa2b blocks the process of morphogenesis of Mayaro virus in TC7 cells (monkey kidney. In this work we show that IFNa inhibits preferentially virus glycoproteins and their precursors, and this effect is probably correlated to the alterations in the morphogenesis process previously observed.Observamos anteriormente que o Interferon (IFN recombinante a2b bloqueia o processo de morfogênese do vírus Mayaro em células TC7 (rim de macaco. Neste trabalho demonstramos que o IFNa inibe preferencialmente as glicoproteínas virais e seus precursores e que este efeito está, provavelmente, correlacionado com as alterações no processo de morfogênese previamente observadas.

  2. Helichrysum and grapefruit extracts inhibit carbohydrate digestion and absorption, improving postprandial glucose levels and hyperinsulinemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Garza, Ana Laura; Etxeberria, Usune; Lostao, María Pilar; San Román, Belén; Barrenetxe, Jaione; Martínez, J Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín I

    2013-12-11

    Several plant extracts rich in flavonoids have been reported to improve hyperglycemia by inhibiting digestive enzyme activities and SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake. In this study, helichrysum ( Helichrysum italicum ) and grapefruit ( Citrus × paradisi ) extracts inhibited in vitro enzyme activities. The helichrysum extract showed higher inhibitory activity of α-glucosidase (IC50 = 0.19 mg/mL) than α-amylase (IC50 = 0.83 mg/mL), whereas the grapefruit extract presented similar α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities (IC50 = 0.42 mg/mL and IC50 = 0.41 mg/mL, respectively). Both extracts reduced maltose digestion in noneverted intestinal sacs (57% with helichrysum and 46% with grapefruit). Likewise, both extracts inhibited SGLT1-mediated methylglucoside uptake in Caco-2 cells in the presence of Na(+) (56% of inhibition with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit). In vivo studies demonstrated that helichrysum decreased blood glucose levels after an oral maltose tolerance test (OMTT), and both extracts reduced postprandial glucose levels after the oral starch tolerance test (OSTT). Finally, both extracts improved hyperinsulinemia (31% with helichrysum and 50% with grapefruit) and HOMA index (47% with helichrysum and 54% with grapefruit) in a dietary model of insulin resistance in rats. In summary, helichrysum and grapefruit extracts improve postprandial glycemic control in rats, possibly by inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme activities and decreasing SGLT1-mediated glucose uptake.

  3. Different methods to select the best extraction system for solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielicka-Daszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2015-02-01

    The optimization methods for planning a solid-phase extraction experiment are presented. These methods are based on a study of interactions between different parts of an extraction system. Determination of the type and strength of interaction depends on the physicochemical properties of the individual components of the system. The main parameters that determine the extraction properties are described in this work. The influence of sorbents' and solvents' polarity on extraction efficiency, Hansen solubility parameters and breakthrough volume determination on sorption and desorption extraction step are discussed.

  4. Selection and evaluation of alternative solvents for caprolactam extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delden, van Mathijs L.; Kuipers, Norbert J.M.; Haan, de André B.

    2006-01-01

    Because of the strict legislation for currently applied solvents in the industrial extraction of caprolactam, being benzene, toluene and chlorinated hydrocarbons, a need exists for alternative, environmentally benign solvents. An experimental screening procedure consisting of several steps was used

  5. Growth inhibiting activity of lipophilic extracts from Dipsacus sylvestris Huds. roots against Borrelia burgdorferi s. s. in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebold, T; Straubinger, R K; Rauwald, H W

    2011-08-01

    Fresh first year roots from Dipsacus sylvestris HUDS. were extracted with 70% ethanol, ethyl acetate as well as dichloromethane. Extracts were solubilized in water (lipophilic extracts with addition of polysorbate 80) and tested for their activity against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vitro during an eight-day period using amoxicillin as standard. The hydroethanolic extract showed no growth inhibition whereas significant growth inhibiting activity could be shown in the two less polar fractions for the first time. Strongest inhibition was found in the ethyl acetate extract. The effect of polysorbate 80 on bacterial growth was examined and found to be negligible. As the nature of bioactive constituents has not been clarified yet, a micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography fingerprint analysis for a methanolic extract was applied including loganin, chlorogenic acid, cantleyoside and caffeic acid as marker substances.

  6. Adult emergence inhibition and adulticidal activities of medicinal plant extracts againstAnopheles stephensiListon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AbdulAbduzZahir; AbdulAbdulRahuman; AsokanBa=gavan; GandhiElango; Chinnaperumal Kamaraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the adult emergence inhibition (EI) and adulticidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and acetone leaves extracts of Anisomeles malabarica (A. malabarica), Euphorbia hirta (E. hirta), Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum), Ricinus communis (R. communis), Solanum trilobatum (S. trilobatum), Tridax procumbens (T. procumbens)and seeds ofGloriosa superba (G. superba) againstAnopheles stephensi (An. stephensi).Methods: The EI and adulticidal trials were carried out according to World Health Organization (WHO) procedures with slight modifications. The extracts were diluted in dimethyl sulphoxide in order to prepare a serial dilution of test dosages (15.625, 31.25, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and1 000μg/mL). Five duplicate trials were carried out for every sample concentration, and for each trial a negative control was included and the mortality was determined after24 h of exposure.Results: The highestEI activity was found in ethyl acetate extracts ofA. malabarica, chloroform extracts ofO. basilicum, S.trilobatum, acetone of extract ofR. communis, T. procumbens, and seed extract ofG. superba withEI50 values143.12, 119.82, 157.87, 139.39, 111.19, and134.85 μg/mL, and the effective adulticidal activity was observed in chloroform, acetone extracts ofG. superba, T. procumbens, R. communis, S.trilobatum and ethyl acetate extract ofO. basilicum with LD50 values120.17, 108.77, 127.22, 163.11, 118.27, and93.02μg/mL, respectively. Chi-square value was significant atP<0.05 level.Conclusions: These results should encourage further efforts to investigate the compounds that might possess good EI and adulticidal properties when isolated in pure form.

  7. Taraxacum officinale dandelion extract efficiently inhibited the breast cancer stem cell proliferation

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    Ngu Van Trinh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs play an important role in breast cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and drug resistance. Therefore, targeting BCSCs is an essential strategy to suppress cancer growth. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dandelion Taraxacum officinale extracts on BCSC proliferation in vitro in 2D and 3D cell culture platforms. Materials and Methods: The BCSCs were maintained under standard conditions, verified for expression of CD44 and CD24 surface markers, and transfected with GFP before use in experiments. In the 2D model, the BCSCs were cultured as adherent cells in standard culture plates; in the 3D model, the BCSCs were cultured on low-adherent plates to form spheroids. The effect of Dandelion extracts on proliferation of BCSC was assessed by evaluating induction of cell death, expression of genes of death receptor signaling pathways, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by BCSCs. Results: BCSCs formed spheroids as microtumors in vitro and exhibited some in vivo characteristics of tumors, such as increased expression of N-cadherin and Slug, decreased expression of E-cadherin, capacity to invade into the extracellular matrix (ECM, and presence of a hypoxic environment at the core of tumor spheroids. The dandelion extracts significantly inhibited BCSC proliferation in both two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D models of BCSCs. However, the IC50 value of dandelion extracts in BCSCs in the 3D model was much higher than that in the 2D model. The results also demonstrated that BCSCs treated with Dandelion extracts showed increased expression of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor 2 (TRAILR2; i.e. death receptor 5; DR5. Moreover, treatment induced expression of DR4. Treatment with methanol dandelion extract enhanced production of ROS in BCSCs. Conclusion: Dandelion extracts are promising extracts for the treatment of breast tumors. The

  8. Appetite suppression based on selective inhibition of NPY receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, S; Della-Zuana, O; Fauchère, J-L; Félétou, M; Galizzi, J-P; Levens, N

    2002-03-01

    The aim of this review is to critically assess available evidence that blockade of the actions of NPY at one of the five NPY receptor subtypes represents an attractive new drug discovery target for the development of an appetite suppressant drug. Blockade of the central actions of NPY using anti-NPY antibodies, antisense oligodeoxynucleotides against NPY and NPY receptor antagonists results in a decrease in food intake in energy-deprived animals. These results appear to show that endogenous NPY plays a role in the control of appetite. The fact that NPY receptors exist as at least five different subtypes raises the possibility that the actions of endogenous NPY on food intake can be adequately dissociated from other effects of the peptide. Current drug discovery has produced a number of highly selective NPY receptor antagonists which have been used to establish the NPY Y(1) receptor subtype as the most critical in regulating short-term food intake. However, additional studies are now needed to more clearly define the relative contribution of NPY acting through the NPY Y2 and NPY Y5 receptors in the complex sequence of physiological and behavioral events that underlie the long-term control of appetite. Blockade of the NPY receptor may produce appetite-suppressing drugs. However, it is too early to state with certainty whether a single subtype selective drug used alone or a combination of NPY receptor selective antagonists used in combination will be necessary to adequately influence appetite regulation.

  9. Inhibition of HIV-1 entry by extracts derived from traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants

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    Song Xinming

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART is the current HIV/AIDS treatment modality. Despite the fact that HAART is very effective in suppressing HIV-1 replication and reducing the mortality of HIV/AIDS patients, it has become increasingly clear that HAART does not offer an ultimate cure to HIV/AIDS. The high cost of the HAART regimen has impeded its delivery to over 90% of the HIV/AIDS population in the world. This reality has urgently called for the need to develop inexpensive alternative anti-HIV/AIDS therapy. This need has further manifested by recent clinical trial failures in anti-HIV-1 vaccines and microbicides. In the current study, we characterized a panel of extracts of traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants for their activities against HIV-1 replication. Methods Crude and fractionated extracts were prepared from various parts of nine traditional Chinese medicinal herbal plants in Hainan Island, China. These extracts were first screened for their anti-HIV activity and cytotoxicity in human CD4+ Jurkat cells. Then, a single-round pseudotyped HIV-luciferase reporter virus system (HIV-Luc was used to identify potential anti-HIV mechanisms of these extracts. Results Two extracts, one from Euphorbiaceae, Trigonostema xyphophylloides (TXE and one from Dipterocarpaceae, Vatica astrotricha (VAD inhibited HIV-1 replication and syncytia formation in CD4+ Jurkat cells, and had little adverse effects on host cell proliferation and survival. TXE and VAD did not show any direct inhibitory effects on the HIV-1 RT enzymatic activity. Treatment of these two extracts during the infection significantly blocked infection of the reporter virus. However, pre-treatment of the reporter virus with the extracts and treatment of the extracts post-infection had little effects on the infectivity or gene expression of the reporter virus. Conclusion These results demonstrate that TXE and VAD inhibit HIV-1 replication likely by blocking

  10. Selective cytotoxic activity of grape peel and seed extracts against oral tumor cell lines.

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    Shirataki, Y; Kawase, M; Saito, S; Kurihara, T; Tanaka, W; Satoh, K; Sakagami, H; Motohashi, N

    2000-01-01

    Grape seed extracts were more cytotoxic than grape peel extracts. Methanol and 70% methanol extracts of grape seed selectively killed two human oral tumor cell lines, more efficiently than human gingival fibroblasts. ESR spectroscopy revealed that these extracts produced radicals under alkaline conditions and enhanced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate at higher concentrations. On the other hand, lower concentration of these extracts slightly reduced the radical intensity of sodium ascorbate, and scavenged superoxide anion, generated by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase reaction. These properties of grape seed extracts suggest their possible application for cancer prevention.

  11. Inhibition of Murine Norovirus and Feline Calicivirus by Edible Herbal Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Joo; Choi, Changsun

    2017-03-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause foodborne and waterborne viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Because HuNoV culture systems have not been developed thus far, no available medicines or vaccines preventing infection with HuNoVs exist. Some herbal extracts were considered as phytomedicines because of their bioactive components. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 29 edible herbal extracts against the norovirus surrogates murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV) were examined. FCV was significantly inhibited to 86.89 ± 2.01 and 48.71 ± 7.38% by 100 μg/mL of Camellia sinensis and Ficus carica, respectively. Similarly, ribavirin at a concentration of 100 μM significantly reduced the titer of FCV by 77.69 ± 10.40%. Pleuropterus multiflorus (20 μg/mL) showed antiviral activity of 53.33 ± 5.77, and 50.00 ± 16.67% inhibition was observed after treatment with 20 μg/mL of Alnus japonica. MNV was inhibited with ribavirin by 59.22 ± 16.28% at a concentration of 100 μM. Interestingly, MNV was significantly inhibited with 150 µg/mL Inonotus obliquus and 50 μg/mL Crataegus pinnatifida by 91.67 ± 5.05 and 57.66 ± 3.36%, respectively. Treatment with 20 µg/mL Coriandrum sativum slightly reduced MNV by 45.24 ± 4.12%. The seven herbal extracts of C. sinensis, F. carica, P. multiflorus, A. japonica, I. obliquus, C. pinnatifida, and C. sativum may have the potential to control noroviruses without cytotoxicity.

  12. Corrosion Inhibition of Aluminum in 0.5 M HCl by Garlic aqueous extract

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    Saedah R. Al-Mhyawi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inhibition efficiency of extract of Garlic on aluminium in hydrochloric acid solutions has been evaluated by weight loss techniques. Values of inhibition efficiency obtained are dependent upon the concentration of inhibitor and temperature. Generally, inhibition was found to increase with inhibitor concentration, half-life, activation energy but decrease with temperature and first-order rate constant at the temperatures studied. Physical adsorption mechanism has been proposed for the inhibition and Langmuir , Temkin adsorption isotherm was obeyed. Garlic is an inhibitor of aluminium corrosion in 0.5 M hydrochloric acid solution.The values of standard free energy of adsorption suggest that the adsorption of inhibitor on aluminium surface occurred by physisorption mechanism. the negative sign of the Free Energy of adsorption indicates that the adsorption of the inhibitors on the aluminum surface was a spontaneous process.the negative values of enthalpy of adsorption (ΔH suggest that the chemical reaction involved in the adsorption of the inhibitors on the metal surface is an exothermic process, hence increase in the reaction temperature of the medium will decrease the inhibition efficiency.

  13. Ethanol Extract of Alismatis rhizome Inhibits Adipocyte Differentiation of OP9 Cells

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    Yeon-Ju Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Alisma orientale (Alismatis rhizome has been used in Asia for promoting diuresis to eliminate dampness from the lower-jiao and to expel heat. In this study, an ethanol extract of the rhizome of Alisma orientale (AOE was prepared and its effects on adipocyte differentiation of OP9 cells were investigated. Treatment with AOE in a differentiation medium for 5 days resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of lipid droplet formation in OP9 cells. Furthermore, AOE significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation by downregulating the expression of the master transcription factor of adipogenesis, peroxisome proliferation-activity receptor γ (PPARγ, and related genes, including CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ, fatty acid-binding protein (aP2, and fatty acid synthase (FAS. AOE exerted its inhibitory effects primarily during the early adipogenesis stage (days 1-2, at which time it also exerted dose-dependent inhibition of the expression of C/EBPβ, a protein related to the inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion. Additionally, AOE decreased the expression of autophagy-related proteins, including beclin 1, and the autophagy-related genes, (Atg 7 and Atg12. Our results indicate that AOE’s inhibitory effects on adipocyte differentiation of OP9 cells are mediated by reduced C/EBPβ expression, causing inhibition of mitotic clonal expansion and autophagy.

  14. Growth Inhibition of Struvite Crystals in the Presence of Herbal Extract Boerhaavia diffusa Linn

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    C. K. Chauhan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The formation of a urinary stone, known as nephrolithiasis, urolithiasis, renal calculi or kidney stone is a serious, debilitating problem in all societies throughout the world. Struvite or Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Hexahydrate (AMPH is one of the components of urinary stone (calculi. Struvite stones are commonly found in women. Struvites form in humans as a result of urinary tract infection with ureolithic urea splitting micro organisms. These stones can grow rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", which is more painful urological disorder. Therefore, it is of prime importance to study the growth and inhibition of Struvite crystals. Approach: This in vitro study had been carried out in the presence of herbal extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, equal amount of supernatant solution of 1.0 M magnesium acetate prepared with 0.5 and 1% concentrations of the herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. were gently poured on the set gels in the respective test tubes in the aseptic medium. Results: The growth of crystals without and with herbal extracts was monitored at regular time intervals. As the concentration of B. diffusa Linn. increased, the inhibition of crystals also increased in the gel media as well as the dissolution of crystals at the gel-liquid interface increases. The de-fragmentation of some grown crystals was also noticed. Conclusion: The herbal extract of B. diffusa Linn. inhibited the growth of struvite crystals in vitro. This study incorporated multidisciplinary interests and may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of urinary stones.

  15. Role of intracortical inhibition in selective hand muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that intracortical inhibition (ICI) plays an important role in shaping the output from primary motor cortex (M1). This study explored the muscle specificity and temporal modulation of ICI during the performance of a phasic index finger flexion task. Fifteen subjects were asked to rest their dominant hand on a computer mouse and depress the mouse button using their index finger in time with a 1-Hz auditory metronome, while keeping the rest of their hand as relaxed as possible. Responses to single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles while subjects were at rest and during "on" and "off" phases of the task. For FDI during the on phase, motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and pretrigger EMG increased and ICI decreased, as expected. This pattern of modulation was also observed for APB in seven subjects. The remaining eight subjects demonstrated a decrease in MEP amplitude and increase in ICI for APB during the on phase. This was associated with significantly less APB activation during the on phase. These findings suggest that an increase in ICI and decrease in corticospinal excitability can prevent unwanted muscle activation in a muscle-specific, temporally modulated manner.

  16. Chemical interactions between plants in Mediterranean vegetation: the influence of selected plant extracts on Aegilops geniculata metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Monica; Fiumano, Vittorio; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Esposito, Assunta; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Robert; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Allelopathy is the chemical mediated communication among plants. While on one hand there is growing interest in the field, on the other hand it is still debated as doubts exist at different levels. A number of compounds have been reported for their ability to influence plant growth, but the existence of this phenomenon in the field has rarely been demonstrated. Furthermore, only few studies have reported the uptake and the effects at molecular level of the allelochemicals. Allelopathy has been reported on some plants of Mediterranean vegetation and could contribute to structuring this ecosystem. Sixteen plants of Mediterranean vegetation have been selected and studied by an NMR-based metabolomics approach. The extracts of these donor plants have been characterized in terms of chemical composition and the effects on a selected receiving plant, Aegilops geniculata, have been studied both at the morphological and at the metabolic level. Most of the plant extracts employed in this study were found to have an activity, which could be correlated with the presence of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamate derivatives. These plant extracts affected the receiving plant in different ways, with different rates of growth inhibition at morphological level. The results of metabolomic analysis of treated plants suggested the induction of oxidative stress in all the receiving plants treated with active donor plant extracts, although differences were observed among the responses. Finally, the uptake and transport into receiving plant leaves of different metabolites present in the extracts added to the culture medium were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls.

  18. Bothrops jararacussu venom-induced neuromuscular blockade inhibited by Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet hydroalcoholic extract

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    TM Camargo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydroalcoholic extract of Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet (Flacourtiaceae was standardized for the first time through quality control procedures including pharmacognostic methods, fingerprint chromatograms, defined amounts of marker substances and physicochemical characteristics. The pharmacological activity of C. gossypiosperma (Cg hydroalcoholic extract was assayed by a traditional in vitro test, which involved irreversible neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu (Bjssu venom (60 µg/mL in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations. Bjssu venom blocked muscle activity for 26 (± 2.0 minutes (n = 6. Cg extract (0.1 mg/mL induced changes on the baseline muscle activity without impairing the muscle function and inhibited 87.6% (± 1.8 (n = 6 of the Bjssu venom-induced blockade. Both flavonoids (0.624 g% and polyphenols (4.63 g% from the extract were spectrophotometrically quantified. Therefore, the present study confirms the antibothropic activity of Cg extract, supporting the ethnomedical use of Casearia sp. in the treatment of snakebite victims.

  19. Use of Copper to Selectively Inhibit Brachionus calyciflorus (Predator) Growth in Chlorella kessleri (Prey) Mass Cultures for Algae Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Vishnupriya; Van Ginkel, Steven W; Park, Sichoon; Igou, Thomas; Yi, Christine; Fu, Hao; Johnston, Rachel; Snell, Terry; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-08-31

    A single Brachionus rotifer can consume thousands of algae cells per hour causing an algae pond to crash within days of infection. Thus, there is a great need to reduce rotifers in order for algal biofuel production to become reality. Copper can selectively inhibit rotifers in algae ponds, thereby protecting the algae crop. Differential toxicity tests were conducted to compare the copper sensitivity of a model rotifer-B. calyciflorus and an alga, C. kessleri. The rotifer LC50 was alga was not affected up to 5 ppm Cu(II). The low pH of the rotifer stomach may make it more sensitive to copper. However, when these cultures were combined, a copper concentration of 1.5 ppm was needed to inhibit the rotifer as the alga bound the copper, decreasing its bioavailability. Copper (X ppm) had no effect on downstream fatty acid methyl ester extraction.

  20. Use of Copper to Selectively Inhibit Brachionus calyciflorus (Predator Growth in Chlorella kessleri (Prey Mass Cultures for Algae Biodiesel Production

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    Vishnupriya Pradeep

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A single Brachionus rotifer can consume thousands of algae cells per hour causing an algae pond to crash within days of infection. Thus, there is a great need to reduce rotifers in order for algal biofuel production to become reality. Copper can selectively inhibit rotifers in algae ponds, thereby protecting the algae crop. Differential toxicity tests were conducted to compare the copper sensitivity of a model rotifer—B. calyciflorus and an alga, C. kessleri. The rotifer LC50 was <0.1 ppm while the alga was not affected up to 5 ppm Cu(II. The low pH of the rotifer stomach may make it more sensitive to copper. However, when these cultures were combined, a copper concentration of 1.5 ppm was needed to inhibit the rotifer as the alga bound the copper, decreasing its bioavailability. Copper (X ppm had no effect on downstream fatty acid methyl ester extraction.

  1. Bioconversion of piceid to resveratrol by selected probiotic cell extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basholli-Salihu, Mimoza; Schuster, Roswitha; Mulla, Dafina; Praznik, Werner; Viernstein, Helmut; Mueller, Monika

    2016-12-01

    Resveratrol exerts several pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, or antioxidant effects. However, due to its occurrence in plants more in glycosidic form as piceid, the bioavailability and bioactivity are limited. The enzymatic potential of probiotics for the transformation of piceid to resveratrol was elucidated. Cell extract from Bifidobacteria (B.) infantis, B. bifidum, Lactobacillus (L.) casei, L. plantarum, and L. acidophilus was evaluated for their effect in this bioconversion using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as analytical tool. Cell extract of B. infantis showed the highest effect on the deglycosylation of piceid to resveratrol, already after 30 min. Cell extracts of all other tested strains showed a significant biotransformation with no further metabolization of resveratrol. The conversion of piceid to resveratrol is of importance to increase bioavailability and bioactivity as shown for anti-inflammation in this study. Cell extracts from probiotics, especially from B. infantis, may be added to piceid containing products, for achieving higher biological effects caused by the bioactivity of resveratrol or by health promoting of the probiotics. These findings open a new perspective of novel combination of cell extracts from probiotics and piceid, in health-promoting pharmaceutical and food products.

  2. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some selected bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffer, Mudasser; Ahmad, Showkat; Sharma, Rajendra; Mahajan, Surabhi; Gupta, Ankur; Agnihotri, Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous bark extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens using erythromycin as positive control. The activity was analyzed using paper disc diffusion method at different concentration of the extract. The study revealed that all the bark extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most sensitive test organism to different extracts of Moringa oleifera. Looking to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the treatment of different infections caused by the resistant microbes.

  3. Inhibition of Serratia marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation by Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutfi, Zainal; Ahmad, Asmat [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Usup, Gires [School of Environmental and Natural Resources Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Serratia marcescens biofilms are formed when they are bound to surfaces in aqueous environments. S. marcescens utilizes N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) as its quorum sensing signal molecule. The accumulation of AHL indicates the bacteria to produce matrices to form biofilms. Prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-6-methoxyprodigiosin), which causes red pigmentation in the colonies, are also produced when the AHL reaches a certain threshold. The Alcaligenes faecalis STN17 crude extract is believed to inhibit quorum sensing in the S. marcescens Smj-11 and, thus, impedes its biofilm formation ability. A. faecalis STN17 was grown in marine broth, and ethyl acetate extraction was carried out. The crude compound of A. faecalis STN17 was diluted at high concentration (0.2-6.4 mg/mL) and was taken to confirm anti-biofilm activity through the crystal violet method in 96-wells plate. Then, the crude extract underwent purification using simple solvents partitioning test to discern the respective compounds that had the anti-biofilm activity under the crystal violet method. The crystal violet test showed that the crude did have anti-biofilm activity on S. marcescens Smj-11, but did not kill the cells. This finding signifies that the suppression of biofilm formation in S. marcescens by A. faecalis STN17 has a strong correlation. The partitioning test showed that A. faecalis STN17 crude extract has several compounds and only the compound(s) in chloroform showed activities. In conclusion, the crude extract of A. faecalis STN17 has the ability to inhibit S. marcescens Smj-11 biofilm formation.

  4. Corrosion inhibition of C38 steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid medium by alkaloids extract from Oxandra asbeckii plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebrini, M. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Molecules en Milieu Amazonien, CNRS 8172-UMR ECOFOG, Campus Trou Biran, Cayenne 97337, French Guiana (France); Robert, F.; Lecante, A. [Laboratoire Materiaux et Molecules en Milieu Amazonien, UAG-UMR ECOFOG, Campus Trou Biran, Cayenne 97337, French Guiana (France); Roos, C., E-mail: christophe.roos@guyane.univ-ag.f [Laboratoire Materiaux et Molecules en Milieu Amazonien, UAG-UMR ECOFOG, Campus Trou Biran, Cayenne 97337, French Guiana (France)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: The inhibition effect of alkaloid extract of Oxandra asbeckii plant on the corrosion of C38 steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Oxandra asbeckii extract examined acted as an efficient corrosion inhibitor in 1 M HCl. Polarization studies showed that Oxandra asbeckii extract was a mixed-type inhibitor and its inhibition efficiency increased with the inhibitor concentration. - Abstract: The inhibition effect of alkaloids extract from Oxandra asbeckii plant (OAPE) on the corrosion of C38 steel in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution has been investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion inhibition efficiency increases on increasing plant extracts concentration. Cathodic and anodic polarization curves show that OAPE is a mixed-type inhibitor. The effect of temperature on the corrosion behavior of C38 steel in 1 M HCl with and without addition of plant extract was studied in the temperature range 25-55 {sup o}C. The thermodynamic functions of dissolution and adsorption processes were calculated from experimental polarization data and the interpretation of the results are given. The adsorption of this plant extract on the C38 steel surface obeys the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Surface analysis (Raman) was also carried out to establish the corrosion inhibitive property of this plant extract in HCl solution.

  5. Growth inhibition of struvite crystals in the presence of herbal extract Commiphora wightii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, C K; Joshi, M J; Vaidya, A D B

    2009-12-01

    Struvite is one of the components of urinary stone. Large number of people is suffering from urinary stones (calculi) problem all over the globe. These stones can grow rapidly forming "staghorn-calculi", which is more painful urological disorder. Therefore, it is of prime importance to study the growth and inhibition of Struvite crystals. This in vitro study has been carried out in the presence of herbal extract of Commiphora wightii by using single diffusion gel growth technique. Sodium metasilicate solution of specific gravity 1.05 and an aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.5 M concentration were mixed so that the pH value 7.0 could be set. After the gelation, equal amount of supernatant solutions comprising of pure 1.0 M magnesium acetate as well as the mixtures of magnesium acetate and the herbal extract solutions of 0.5 and 1% concentrations of C. wightii were gently poured on the set gels. From the study of growth and inhibition behavior of Struvite crystals, it was found that C. wightii inhibits the growth of the Struvite. This study incorporates multidisciplinary interests and may be used for formulating the strategy for prevention or dissolution of urinary stones.

  6. Inhibition of human dendritic cell activation by hydroethanolic but not lipophilic extracts of turmeric (Curcuma longa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasovsky, Joseph; Chang, David H; Deng, Gary; Yeung, Simon; Lee, Mavis; Leung, Ping Chung; Cunningham-Rundles, Susanna; Cassileth, Barrie; Dhodapkar, Madhav V

    2009-03-01

    Turmeric has been extensively utilized in Indian and Chinese medicine for its immune-modulatory properties. Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells specialized to initiate and regulate immunity. The ability of DCs to initiate immunity is linked to their activation status. The effects of turmeric on human DCs have not been studied. Here we show that hydroethanolic (HEE) but not lipophilic "supercritical" extraction (SCE) of turmeric inhibits the activation of human DCs in response to inflammatory cytokines. Treatment of DCs with HEE also inhibits the ability of DCs to stimulate the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). Importantly, the lipophilic fraction does not synergize with the hydroethanolic fraction for the ability of inhibiting DC maturation. Rather, culturing of DCs with the combination of HEE and SCE leads to partial abrogation of the effects of HEE on the MLR initiated by DCs. These data provide a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory properties of turmeric. However, they suggest that these extracts are not synergistic and may contain components with mutually antagonistic effects on human DCs. Harnessing the immune effects of turmeric may benefit from specifically targeting the active fractions.

  7. Interleukin-1beta inhibits paw oedema induced by local administration of latex of Calotropis procera extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Soneera; Kumar, Vijay L

    2004-01-01

    Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema model. In the present study, we have evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of IL-1beta against inflammation induced by local administration of the methanol extract of dried latex of Calotropis procera (MeDL) and compared it with that against carrageenan. The anti-inflammatory activity of standard anti-inflammatory drugs, phenylbutazone (PBZ) and dexamethasone (DEX), was also evaluated against both inflammagens. Injection of an aqueous solution of dried latex and MeDL into the sub-plantar surface of the rat paw produced intense inflammation with a peak response occurring within 2 h, while the peak inflammatory response with carrageenan was obtained at 3 h. Subcutaneous injection of IL-1beta was found to be more effective against the inflammatory response elicited by carrageenan (70% inhibition) as compared to MeDL (50% inhibition) at 20microg/kg dose. On the other hand, PBZ effectively inhibited the inflammatory response elicited by both MeDL and carrageenan, while DEX was more effective against carrageenan. Thus, our study indicates that the difference in the anti-inflammatory effect of IL-1beta against latex of C. procera extract and carrageenan is due to the release of different mediators released by these inflammagens.

  8. Parsley extract inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadi, Dounia; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Legrand, Chantal; Lafeve, Françoise Fauvel; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2009-08-17

    Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increase in blood platelet activity. In Morocco, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension. In this study, crude aqueous extract (CAE) of parsley was evaluated for its anti-platelet activity in experimental animals on platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo; and on bleeding time in vivo. The in vitro aggregation was monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with CAE. The bleeding time and ex vivo aggregation were performed after oral treatment. CAE inhibited dose dependently platelet aggregation in vitro induced by thrombin, ADP, collagen and epinephrine. The oral administration of CAE (3g/kg) inhibited significantly (p<0.001) platelet aggregation ex vivo and prolonged bleeding time (p<0.001) without changes in the platelet amount. The prolongation of bleeding time by CAE may be attributed to the observed inhibition of platelet aggregation. These effects could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. These results support the hypothesis that the dietary intake of parsley may be benefit in the normalization of platelet hyperactivation, in the nutritional prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are potentially interesting in the development of new prevention strategies.

  9. Effects of tanshinone nanoemulsion and extract on inhibition of lung cancer cells A549

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. D.; Liang, Y. J.; Chen, B. H.

    2016-12-01

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), a Chinese medicinal herb, consists of several functional components including tanshinones responsible for prevention of several chronic diseases. This study intends to prepare tanshinone extract and nanoemulsion from danshen and determine their inhibition effect on lung cancer cells A549. A highly stable tanshinone nanoemulsion composed of Capryol 90, Tween 80, ethanol and deionized water with the mean particle size of 14.2 nm was successfully prepared. Tanshinone nanoemulsion was found to be more effective in inhibiting A549 proliferation than tanshinone extract. Both nanoemulsion and extract could penetrate into cytoplasm through endocytosis, with the former being more susceptible than the latter. A dose-dependent response in up-regulation of p-JNK, p53 and p21 and down-regulation of CDK2, cyclin D1 and cyclin E1 expressions was observed with the cell cycle arrested at G0/G1 phase. The cellular microcompartment change of A549 was also investigated. The study demonstrated that tanshinone nanoemulsion may be used as a botanic drug for treatment of lung cancer.

  10. INHIBITION OF HUMAN LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS OXIDATION BY Hibiscus radiatus CUV. CALYCES EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernawan Hernawan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus radiatus Cuv calyces extracts rich in polyphenols was screened for their potential to inhibit oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C in vitro. The inhibition of LDL-C oxidation (antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reagent substances (TBARS. LDL-C oxidation was carried out in the presence of H. radiatus Cuv calyces extract (20 and 50 μM. CuSO4 (10 μM was used as the oxidation initiator and  butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT at 50 μM was used as standard antioxidant. The protective effect of H. radiatus Cuv. calyces extract toward human low-density lipoproteins, complex lipid system was  demonstrated by significant increase lag time (> 103 min, diminished of the propagation rate (44 %, and diminution of conjugated dienes formation 59.42 % (50 μM compared to control.   Keywords: antioxidant, conjugated dienes, Hibiscus radiatus Cuv, low-density lipoproteins-cholesterol

  11. Development of response activation and inhibition in a selective stop-signal task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, M.C.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2014-01-01

    To gain more insight into the development of action control, the current brain potential study examined response selection, activation, and selective inhibition during choice- and stop-signal processing in three age groups (8-, 12-, and 21-year-olds). Results revealed that age groups differed in the

  12. Antibacterial, antioxidant and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of pomegranate fruit peel methanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawole Olaniyi A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated, using in vitro assays, the antibacterial, antioxidant, and tyrosinase-inhibition activities of methanolic extracts from peels of seven commercially grown pomegranate cultivars. Methods Antibacterial activity was tested on Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia using a microdilution method. Several potential antioxidant activities, including radical-scavenging ability (RSA, ferrous ion chelating (FIC and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, were evaluated. Tyrosinase enzyme inhibition was investigated against monophenolase (tyrosine and diphenolase (DOPA, with arbutin and kojic acid as positive controls. Furthermore, phenolic contents including total flavonoid content (TFC, gallotannin content (GTC and total anthocyanin content (TAC were determined using colourimetric methods. HPLC-ESI/MSn analysis of phenolic composition of methanolic extracts was also performed. Results Methanolic peel extracts showed strong broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC ranging from 0.2 to 0.78 mg/ml. At the highest concentration tested (1000 μg/ml, radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in Arakta (83.54%, Ganesh (83.56%, and Ruby (83.34% cultivars (P50% against monophenolase and diphenolase activities at the highest screening concentration. The most active peel extract was the Bhagwa cultivar against monophenolase and the Arakta cultivar against diphenolase with IC50 values of 3.66 μg/ml and 15.88 μg/ml, respectively. High amounts of phenolic compounds were found in peel extracts with the highest and lowest total phenolic contents of 295.5 (Ganesh and 179.3 mg/g dry extract (Molla de Elche, respectively. Catechin, epicatechin, ellagic acid and gallic acid were found in all cultivars, of which ellagic acid was the most abundant

  13. Selective extraction and separation of Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials in river surficial sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Feng-mei; WANG Xiao-li; LI Yu; GUO Shu-hai; ZHONG Ai-ping

    2006-01-01

    In order to investigate the adsorption mechanism of trace metals to surficial sediments (SSs), a selective extraction procedure was improved in the present work. The selective extraction procedure has been proved to selectively remove and separate Fe, Mn oxides and organic materials (OMs) in the non-residual fraction from the SSs collected in Songhua River, China. After screening different kinds of conventional extractants of Fe and Mn oxides and OMs used for separation of heavy metals in the soils respectively applied to selectively extract Mn oxides, Fe/Mn oxides and OMs. After the extraction treatments, the target components were removed with extraction efficiencies between 86.09%-93.36% for the hydroxylamine hydrochloride treatment, 80.63%-101.09% for the oxalate solution extraction, and 94.76%-102.83% for the hydrogen peroxide digestion, respectively. The results indicate that this selective extraction technology was effective for the extraction and separation of Fe, Mn oxides and OMs in the SSs,and important for further mechanism study of trace metal adsorption onto SSs.

  14. Kinetic study on selective extraction of HCl and H3PO4 in a microfluidic device☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Zhao; Yangcheng Lu; Kai Wang; Guangsheng Luo

    2016-01-01

    In the extraction method for preparing KH2PO4, one of the key processes is the selective extraction of HCl over H3PO4. In our work, extraction kinetic studies have been carried out in a microfluidic device with a coaxial microchannel, using the extractant of 33.3%(by volume) trioctylamine (TOA) dissolved in n-octanol, with differ-ent aqueous phases:the HCl solution, the H3PO4 solution, and H3PO4 and KCl solutions of different concentra-tions. The changes of the extraction efficiency of HCl and H3PO4 and the selectivity for HCl along with the residence time were investigated. We found that fast extraction kinetics could be realized in microfluidic devices, and that HCl could be extracted faster than H3PO4 due to smaller mass transfer resistance and much stronger re-action between HCl and TOA. For the extraction of H3PO4 and KCl solutions, the selectivity for HCl first increased and then decreased when TOA was in excess of H3PO4 in the initial feeds, and in contrast, always increased when H3PO4 was in excess of TOA in the initial feeds. The diverse changes of selectivity for HCl along with the residence time indicate that a dynamic control of selectivity in microfluidic devices may be important and accessible for im-proving the KH2PO4 conversion efficiency in extraction method.

  15. Hits identified in library screening demonstrate selective CYP17A1 lyase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Sebastian J; Hu, Qingzhong; Hartmann, Rolf W

    2013-03-01

    A screening of structurally different steroid hormone synthesis inhibitors was performed in order to find a starting point for the development of a new inhibitor of the bifunctional steroidogenic enzyme CYP17A1. Emphasis was placed on determination of selectivity between the two catalytic steps, namely 17α-hydroxylase and C(17,20)-lyase. For that purpose a new inhibition assay has been developed. Hits identified within this novel assay demonstrated selective inhibition of CYP17A1 lyase activity, and thus mark the basis for the development of selective C(17,20)-lyase inhibitors for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  16. INHIBITION OF COXACKIE VIRUS B3 IN MICE USING METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CALLIANDRA HAEMATOCEPHALA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Shaheen; Mamdouh El-Gamal; Adel Mousa; Samy Mostafa; Nagwa El-Esnawy

    2014-01-01

    Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3) represents current major threats to public health and considers as an important viral pathogen related to viral myocarditis. We determined the safety of methanolic extract of Calliandra haematocephala in non-infected mice then two safe doses were selected to be evaluated in infected mice with CVB3 by determining the morbidity, mortality, heart to body weight ratio (HW/BW), virus titers in heart tissue. The effect of the extract on the heart tissues and the activities...

  17. Antioxidant activities in extracts of selected indigenous vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-23

    Apr 23, 2014 ... anion radicals and reducing power) than ethanol extracts. ... species (or their active constituents) identified as having high levels of antioxidant ... carbonate solution was added to the mixture and adjusted to 10 ml with distilled ... aqueous ethanol and to the test tubes 0.1 ml of 10% aluminium nitrate was ...

  18. Rhodiola rosea extracts and salidroside decrease the growth of bladder cancer cell lines via inhibition of the mTOR pathway and induction of autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongbo; Li, Xuesen; Simoneau, Anne R; Jafari, Mahtab; Zi, Xiaolin

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of human urinary bladder cancer increases markedly with age, suggesting a mechanistic connection between aging and bladder carcinogenesis and a potential use of anti-aging agents in bladder cancer chemoprevention. Rhodiola rosea, growing in high altitude or cold regions of the world, has been reported to have anti-aging effects in Drosophila. We demonstrated that a R. rosea extract and one of its bioactive components, salidroside, inhibited the growth of bladder cancer cell lines with a minimal effect on nonmalignant bladder epithelial cells TEU-2. Interestingly, the R. rosea extract and salidroside component exhibited a selective ability to inhibit the growth of p53 knockout primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (p53-/- MEFs) compared to their wild-type counterparts. The growth inhibitory effects of the R. rosea extract and salidroside were, however, attenuated in TSC2 and p53 double knock MEFs (TSC2-/-, p53-/- MEFs), suggesting that TSC2 protein is, at least in part, required for the growth inhibitory effects of the R. rosea extract and salidroside. The R. rosea extract and salidroside treatment of UMUC3 cells resulted in an increase of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-α phosphorylation and a decrease of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, leading to increased binding of 4E-BP1 to m7 GTP. These results indicate that the R. rosea extract and salidroside inhibit translation initiation. Furthermore, both the R. rosea extract and salidroside treatment of UMUC3 cells caused a significant percentage of cells undergoing autophagy. Therefore, the R. rosea extract and salidroside deserve further study as novel agents for chemoprevention of bladder carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Edema induced by Bothrops asper (Squamata: Viperidae) snake venom and its inhibition by Costa Rican plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badilla, Beatriz; Chaves, Fernando; Mora, Gerardo; Poveda, Luis J

    2006-06-01

    We tested the capacity of leaf (Urera baccifera, Loasa speciosa, Urtica leptuphylla, Chaptalia nutans, and Satureja viminea) and root (Uncaria tomentosa) extracts to inhibit edema induced by Bothrops asper snake venom. Edema-forming activity was studied plethysmographically in the rat hind paw model. Groups of rats were injected intraperitoneally with various doses of each extract and, one hour later, venom was injected subcutaneously in the right hind paw. Edema was assessed at various time intervals. The edematogenic activity was inhibited in those animals that received an injection U. tomentosa, C. nutans or L. speciosa extract. The extract of U. baccifera showed a slight inhibition of the venom effect. Extract from S. viminea and, to a lesser extent that of U. leptuphylla, induced a pro-inflammatory effect, increasing the edema at doses of 250 mg/kg at one and two hours.

  20. [Grape seed extract inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Shang, Xue-Jun; Yao, Gen-Hong; Ge, Jing-Ping; Teng, Wen-Hui; Sun, Yi; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells. PC-3 cells were treated with GSE at the concentration of 100, 200 and 300 microg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. The the inhibitory effect of GSE on the growth of the PC-3 cells and the kidney cells of SD rats was determined by MTT reduction assay, with primarily cultured kidney cells of 1-3 days old SD rats as the normal control. GSE significantly inhibited the growth of PC-3 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, but had only a mild inhibitory effect on the kidney cells. GSE inhibits the growth of prostate cancer PC-3 cells and can be used as a new drug for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  1. The extract of Cordyceps sinensis inhibited airway inflammation by blocking NF-κB activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Ya-Ling; Lin, Ching-Yuang

    2012-06-01

    Aiming the extract of Cordyceps sinensis significantly inhibits airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness, and the infiltration of eosinophils in the airway of rats and may be related to the modulation of T helper (Th)1 and Th2 cells functions. The mechanisms of C. sinensis involved in modulation of suppression inflammation are not yet determined. In this study, the mechanism involved in the extract of C. sinensis-C.S.3-modulated suppression of inflammation was investigated in vivo and in vitro systems. The results showed that C.S.3 reduced airway inflammation in ovalbumin-induced allergic mice. Furthermore, we found C.S.3 could decrease extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway to suppress activity of nuclear factor-κB in lung cells and cultured airway smooth muscle cells. Conclusion C.S.3 may provide clinical applications for asthma in the future.

  2. Extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 inhibits cell apoptosis following spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiejun Jiao; Jiannong Jiang; Bin Du; Yuan Mo; Ming Zhou; Hongquan Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of ginkgo biloba extract have been shown in rats following spinal cord injury (SCI). However, the precise protective mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, low-acid water-soluble extract of ginkgo biloba EGb761 was used to treat rats with SCI. Xanthin oxidase, thiobarbituric acid, terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay, and immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect lipid peroxidation, neural cell apoptosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity in rats with SCI. Results revealed significantly increased superoxide dismutase activity, decreased malondialdehyde content, apoptotic index, and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in SCI rats following EGb761 treatment. Therefore, EGb761 suppressed lipid peroxidation following SCI, relieved neural cell apoptosis, inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and ultimately exerted protective effects on SCI.

  3. Fresh garlic extract inhibits Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panan Ratthawongjirakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are the leading aetiological pathogens of nosocomial infections worldwide. These bacteria form biofilms on both biotic and abiotic surfaces causing biofilm-associated infections. Within the biofilm, these bacteria might develop persistent and antimicrobial resistant characteristics resulting in chronic infections and treatment failures. Garlic exhibits broad pharmaceutical properties and inhibitory activities against S. aureus. We investigated the effects of aqueous fresh garlic extract on biofilm formation in S. aureus ATCC25923 and MRSA strains under chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic conditions. The viable bacteria and biofilm levels were quantified through colony count and crystal violet staining, respectively. The use of fresh garlic extract under both conditions significantly inhibited biofilm formation in S. aureus strains ATCC25923 and MRSA. Garlic could be developed as either a prophylactic or therapeutic agent to manage S. aureus biofilm-associated infections.

  4. In vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition activity of aqueous extract of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae) leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kokati Venkata Bhaskara Rao

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential of aqueous extract of Lantana camara leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of L. camara was estimated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay, metal chelating activity and reducing power assay. DNA damage inhibition was performed by photolysing H2O2 by UV radiation in the presence of pBR322 and extract. Estimation of phenolic content was carried out by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. Results: Extract exhibited high antioxidant activity in DPPH radical scavenng assay (IC50= 42.66 μg/ml), metal chelating activity (IC50= 1036.4μg/ml) and reducing power assay. Extract also exhibited the complete protection of pBR322 plasmid DNA during DNA damage inhibition assay. Extract showed high phenolic content which justified the antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition properties of the plant. Conclusions:These observations emphasize that aqueous extract of L. camara possess high antioxidant and DNA damage inhibition potential, thus, the plant can be used to develop natural antioxidant compounds for therapeutic use.

  5. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (Pofficinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, Pofficinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect.

  6. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m Karst (FPK which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process.

  7. Antioxidant activity and growth inhibition of human colon cancer cells by crude and purified fucoidan preparations extracted from Sargassum cristaefolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yuan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucose-containing sulfated polysaccharides, also termed “fucoidans”, which are known to possess antioxidant, anticoagulant, anticancer, antiviral, and immunomodulating properties, are normally isolated from brown algae via various extraction techniques. In the present study, two methods (SC1 and SC2 for isolation of fucoidan from Sargassum cristaefolium were compared, with regard to the extraction yields, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of growth of human colon cancer cells exhibited by the respective extracts. SC1 and SC2 differ in the number of extraction steps and concentration of ethanol used, as well as the obtained sulfated polysaccharide extracts, namely, crude fucoidan preparation (CFP and purified fucoidan preparation (PFP, respectively. Thin layer chromatography, Fourier transform infrared analysis, and measurements of fucose and sulfate contents revealed that the extracts were fucoidan. There was a higher extraction yield for CFP, which contained less fucose and sulfate but more uronic acid, and had weaker antioxidant activity and inhibition of growth in human colon cancer cells. In contrast, there was a lower extraction yield for PFP, which contained more fucose and sulfate but less uronic acid, and had stronger antioxidant activity and inhibition of growth in human colon cancer cells. Thus, since the difference in bioactive activities between CFP and PFP was not remarkable, the high extraction yield of SC1 might be favored as a method in industrial usage for extracting fucoidan.

  8. Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract inhibits DEN induced murine hepatic preneoplasia and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poojari, Radhika; Gupta, Sanjay; Maru, Girish; Khade, Bharat; Bhagwat, Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Sida rhombifolia ssp. retusa is a well established drug in the Ayurvedic system of medicine used for antirheumatism and antiasthmatism. Inhibitory effects of S. rhombifolia ssp. retusa seed extract on DEN induced hepatocellular preneoplastic foci and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in rats. Rats received DEN, 1ppm/g b.w. in drinking water for 6 weeks or CCl(4), 0.7 ml/kg i.p. once a week for 4 weeks and seed extract 50 mg, 100 mg/kg b.w. orally prior, during and after exposure to DEN/CCl4 for 20 or 5 weeks, respectively. Treatment with seed extract significantly inhibited the increase in DEN/CCl(4) induced activities of pre-cancerous marker enzymes; gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, glutathione-S-transferase, hepatotoxicity marker enzymes; glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase as well as lipid peroxidase. Depleted glutathione, protein and albumin levels were restored. Also, histopathological and transmission electron microscopic studies showed prevention of cellular degenerative changes. The chemopreventive and hepatoprotective potentials of seed extract are due to free radical scavenging activity and restoration of cellular structural integrity.

  9. Methanolic Extracts of Bitter Melon Inhibit Colon Cancer Stem Cells by Affecting Energy Homeostasis and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Kwatra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitter melon fruit is recommended in ancient Indian and Chinese medicine for prevention/treatment of diabetes. However its effects on cancer progression are not well understood. Here, we have determined the efficacy of methanolic extracts of bitter melon on colon cancer stem and progenitor cells. Both, whole fruit (BMW and skin (BMSk extracts showed significant inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation, with BMW showing greater efficacy. In addition, the cells were arrested at the S phase of cell cycle. Moreover, BMW induced the cleavage of LC3B but not caspase 3/7, suggesting that the cells were undergoing autophagy and not apoptosis. Further confirmation of autophagy was obtained when western blots showed reduced Bcl-2 and increased Beclin-1, Atg 7 and 12 upon BMW treatment. BMW reduced cellular ATP levels coupled with activation of AMP activated protein kinase; on the other hand, exogenous additions of ATP lead to revival of cell proliferation. Finally, BMW treatment results in a dose-dependent reduction in the number and size of colonospheres. The extracts also decreased the expression of DCLK1 and Lgr5, markers of quiescent, and activated stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the extracts of bitter melon can be an effective preventive/therapeutic agent for colon cancer.

  10. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  11. Inhibition of oxidative DNA damage in vitro by extracts of brussels sprouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Poulsen, H E; Loft, S

    2000-08-01

    Cruciferous vegetables have cancer preventive effects which may be due to reduction of oxidative DNA damage. We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of cooked Brussels sprouts on formation of 7-hydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in calf thymus DNA in vitro. Damage was induced by a Fenton reaction, UVC (254 nm), UVA (365 nm), sunlamp light, and methylene blue with visible light. The extract inhibited 8-oxodG formation in all systems except visible light with methylene blue. The IC50 values were 6-20 microg/ml corresponding to the extract of 5-20 g of Brussels sprouts distributed in a volume of 50 L. The protective effect in the Fenton reaction was unaffected by addition of EDTA. After HPLC separation fractions were identified with similar DNA protective effects. Sinigrin, a glucosinolate abundant in Brussels sprouts, co-eluted with the most effective fraction and had DNA protective effects. In comparison with other antioxidants the patterns of effect of the extract in the five damage systems were more similar to that of sodium azide than to those of dimethylsulfoxide and vitamin C. Constituents of Brussels sprouts can protect DNA by direct scavenging, e.g. hydroxyl radical and other oxidants, without prooxidant effects at concentrations potentially achievable by modest intake of the vegetable.

  12. Inhibition of crystallization of calcium oxalate by the extraction of Tamarix gallica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensatal, Ahmed; Ouahrani, M R

    2008-12-01

    The main objective is to study the inhibitor effect of acid fraction of the extract of Tamarix gallica L on the crystallization of calcium oxalate. The extract of Tamarix gallica L is very rich by acid compounds that are used as an inhibitor of nephrolithiasis (calcium oxalate). Our study of the calcium oxalate crystallization is based on the model of turbidimetry by means of a spectrophotometer. The calcium oxalate formation is induced by the addition of oxalate solutions of sodium and of calcium chloride. The addition of inhibitor with various concentrations enabled us to give information on the percentage of inhibition. The comparison between the turbidimetric slopes with and without inhibitor gives the effectiveness of inhibitor for the acid fraction. By comparing the photographs of with and without inhibitor, we concluded that the extract of Tamarix gallica L acts at the stage of growth. The acid fraction of the extract of Tamarix gallica L gives an activity remarkable in the formation of urinary lithiasis (calcium oxalate); this effectiveness is due to the presence of functions of acid.

  13. Growth inhibition of struvite crystals by the aqueous root extract of Rotula aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, C K; Joshi, M J; Vaidya, A D B

    2011-06-01

    Formation of urinary stone is a serious and debilitating problem throughout the world. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract of root of Rotula aquatica was investigated against struvite crystals (one of the components of urinary stone) grown in vitro using single diffusion gel growth technique. For setting the gel, sodium metasilicate solution (specific gravity 1.05) and 0.5 M aqueous solution of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate were mixed, so that the pH of the mixture could be set at 7.0. Equal amounts of supernatant solution of magnesium acetate (1.0 M) prepared with 0.0%, 0.5% and 1% concentrations of the extract were gently poured on the set gels. It was observed that the number, dimension, total mass, total volume, growth rate and depth of growth of struvite crystals decreased with the increasing extract concentrations in the supernatant solutions. The enhancement of dissolution rate and fragmentation of struvite crystals suggested potential application of the extract for inhibition of struvite type urinary stone.

  14. Boswellia carterii extract inhibits TH1 cytokines and promotes TH2 cytokines in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrier, Marc R; Ryan, Abigail E; Lee, David Y-W; Zhongze, Ma; Wu-Yan, Zhang; Via, Charles S

    2005-05-01

    Traditional herbal formulas used to treat inflammatory arthritis in China and India include Boswellia carterii or Boswellia serrata. They both contain boswellic acids (BAs) which have been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties. This study tests the hypothesis that mixtures of BAs derived from B. carterii have immunomodulatory properties. B. carterii plant resin obtained from China was prepared as an ethanol extract, and the presence of seven BAs was confirmed by column chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and UV laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectroscopy. The extract was then tested for its ability to alter in vitro production of TH1 cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and gamma interferon) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) by murine splenocytes. Delivery of the resin extract using ethanol as a solvent resulted in significant cellular toxicity not seen with the addition of ethanol alone. By contrast, delivery of the resin extract using a sesame oil solvent resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of TH1 cytokines coupled with a dose-dependent potentiation of TH2 cytokines. These results indicate that a purified mixture of BAs from B. carterii plant resin exhibits carrier-dependent immunomodulatory properties in vitro.

  15. Inhibition of Human Cervical Cancer Cell Growth by Ethanolic Extract of Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Punarnava Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Indian traditional medicine, Boerhaavia diffusa (punarnava roots have been widely used for the treatment of dyspepsia, jaundice, enlargement of spleen, abdominal pain and as an anti-stress agent. Pharmacological evaluation of the crude ethanolic extract of B. diffusa roots has been shown to possess antiproliferative and immunomodulatory properties. The extract of B. diffusa was studied for anti-proliferative effects on the growth of HeLa cells and for its effect on cell cycle. Bio-assays of extracts from B. diffusa root showed that a methanol : chloroform fraction (BDF 5 had an antiproliferative effect on HeLa cells. After 48 h of exposure, this fraction at a concentration of 200 μg mL−1 significantly reduced cell proliferation with visible morphological changes in HeLa cells. Cell cycle analysis suggests that antiproliferative effect of BDF 5 could be due to inhibition of DNA synthesis in S-phase of cell cycle in HeLa cells, whereas no significant change in cell cycle was detected in control cells. The fraction BDF 5 caused cell death via apoptosis as evident from DNA fragmentation and caspase-9 activation. Thus the extract has potential to be evaluated in detail to assess the molecular mechanism-mediated anticancer activities of this plant.

  16. A STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF VARIOUS PLANT LEAVES AGAINST SELECTED MICROBIAL SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Valarmathy,

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extract of leaves were examined against four common bacterial isolates. The ethanolic extracts of various leaves such as Moringa oleifera (Murungai , Musa paradisiaca (Banana, Azardiratica indica (Neem, Cynodon dactylon(Grass, Alternanthera sessilis (Ponnangkani, Anisochilus carnosus (Karpooravalli, investigated individually for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method .These were investigated against selected species of Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Vibrio cholerae, Klebsiella pneumoniae to find the inhibitory activities of the microbes. The ethanolic extract of Azardiratica indica showed considerably high activity against Escherichia coli than other extracts. These results were compared with standard antibiotic Penicillin. But the extract showed higher activity than the given standard antibiotic.

  17. Inhibition selectivity of grapefruit juice components on human cytochromes P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassaneeyakul, W; Guo, L Q; Fukuda, K; Ohta, T; Yamazoe, Y

    2000-06-15

    Five compounds including furanocoumarin monomers (bergamottin, 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB)), furanocoumarin dimers (4-¿¿6-hydroxy-71-¿(1-hydroxy-1-methyl)ethyl-4-methyl-6-(7-oxo-7H- furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenyl]oxy]-3,7-dimethyl- 2-octenyl]oxy]-7H-furo[3,2-g]¿1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-1) and 4-¿¿6-hydroxy-7¿¿4-methyl-1-(1-methylethenyl)-6-(7-oxo-7H-furo¿3, 2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenylŏxy-3, 7-dimethyl-2-octenylŏxy-7H-furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-4)), and a sesquiterpene nootkatone have been isolated from grapefruit juice and screened for their inhibitory effects toward human cytochrome P450 (P450) forms using selective substrate probes. Addition of ethyl acetate extract of grapefruit juice into an incubation mixture resulted in decreased activities of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6. All four furanocoumarins clearly inhibited CYP3A4-catalyzed nifedipine oxidation in concentration- and time-dependent manners, suggesting that these compounds are mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A4. Of the furanocoumarins investigated, furanocoumarin dimers, GF-I-1 and GF-I-4, were the most potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal rate of inactivation (K(I)) values for bergamottin, DHB, GF-I-1, and GF-I-4 were calculated, respectively, as 40.00, 5. 56, 0.31, and 0.13 microM, whereas similar values were observed on their inactivation rate constant at infinite concentration of inhibitor (k(inact), 0.05-0.08 min(-1)). Apparent selectivity toward CYP3A4 does occur with the furanocoumarin dimers. In contrast, bergamottin showed rather stronger inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 than on CYP3A4. DHB inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 activities at nearly equivalent potencies. Among P450 forms investigated, CYP2E1 was the least sensitive to the inhibitory effect of furanocoumarin components. A sesquiterpene nootkatone has no significant effect on P450 activities investigated except for CYP2A6 and CYP2C19

  18. Selective solid-phase extraction of a triterpene acid from a plant extract by molecularly imprinted polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claude, Bérengère; Morin, Philippe; Lafosse, Michel; Belmont, Anne-Sophie; Haupt, Karsten

    2008-04-15

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been prepared by a thermal polymerisation method using methacrylic acid as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent, chloroform as porogenic solvent and an oleanane triterpene compound (18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid) as imprinted molecule (template). Equilibrium ligand binding experiments were done to assess the performance of the MIP relative to non-imprinted polymer (NIP). After optimisation of SPE protocol (CHCl3 as washing solvent and MeOH as elution solvent), successful imprinting was confirmed by comparison of the recoveries between NIP (5%) and MIP (97%) cartridges. The binding capacity of the MIP for 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid was determined to be 0.94 mg g(-1). Four structurally related oleanane triterpenes (18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, erythrodiol) were selected to assess the MIP selectivity. Experimental data illustrated the influence of functional groups on the triterpene skeleton. The MIP was applied to the solid-phase extraction of triterpenoids from a plant extract prior HPLC analysis. However, CHCl3 was replaced by ACN during the washing step in order to suppress non-specific interactions due to polar matrix components. A selective extraction of 18-beta-glycyrrhetinic acid from hydrolyzed extract of liquorice roots was achieved with a good extraction yield (98%).

  19. Determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls in soil by miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction and gas chromatography-mass-selective detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Mehmet Emin; Tor, Ali; Ozcan, Senar

    2006-09-08

    Miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction procedure was developed for the determination of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil samples by gas chromatography-mass-selective detection by using 2(3) factorial experimental design. Recoveries of PCBs from fortified soil samples are over 90% for three different fortification levels between 40 and 120 microg kg(-1), and relative standard deviations of the recoveries are below 7%. The limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.006 microg kg(-1). The performance of the proposed method was compared to traditional shake flask extraction method on the spiked real soil sample and extraction methods showed comparable efficiencies. Proposed miniaturised ultrasonic solvent extraction offers several advantages, i.e., reducing sample requirement for measurement of target compound, less solvent consumption and reducing the costs associated with solvent purchase and waste disposal.

  20. The role of acid anion on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion of steel by lupine extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)], E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A.; Saadawy, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2009-05-15

    The inhibitive effect of lupine (Lupinous albus L.) extract on the corrosion of steel in aqueous solution of 1 M sulphuric and 2 M hydrochloric acids was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the lupine extract acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process is under activation control. The inhibition efficiency of the extract obtained from impedance and polarization measurements was in a good agreement and was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The obtained results showed that, the lupine extract could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in acid media and the extract was more effective in case of hydrochloric acid. Theoretical fitting of the corrosion data to the kinetic-thermodynamic model was tested to show the nature of adsorption.

  1. Preparation and application of magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for the selective extraction of osthole in Libanotis Buchtomensis herbal extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Hao, Yi; Shi, Juan; Gao, Ruixia

    2016-06-01

    In this work, novel magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers were prepared for the selective extraction of osthole from Libanotis Buchtomensis herbal extract. During the synthesis process, double bonds grafted on the surface of Fe3 O4 nanoparticles could not only drive the temple molecules to locate onto the surface of vinyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles by π-π conjugation, which makes the distribution of binding sites ordered, but also direct the occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the surface of magnetic nanoparticles by the copolymerization of vinyl terminal groups with functional monomers and cross-linking agent. The characteristics of the resulting polymers were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Adsorption kinetics, isotherms, selectivity, reproducibility, and reusability were discussed, which suggest that the obtained nanomaterials possess rapid binding kinetics, high adsorption capacity of 17.65 mg/g, and favorable selectivity for the target molecule. Satisfactory reproducibility and reusability were verified as well. Meanwhile, the resultant imprinted nanoparticles were successfully applied to selectively separate osthole from the herbal extract, which show great potential in extracting active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicine. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Crude fatty acid extracts of Streptomyces sps inhibits the biofilm forming Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshm Manickam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Crude fatty acid extract of soil Streptomyces sps on the biofilm formation by Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615 was investigated. Totally, 25 Streptomyces sps were isolated identified from the soil samples collected from Nilgiris hill station. All the isolates were subjected to hydrogen peroxide assay, fatty acid extraction and antibiofilm assay. The fatty acid extracts of S8, S9, and S15 inhibited S. pyogenes at MIC 10 µg/ml. The BIC was observed as 84.6% , 96.41%, 80.5% at 50 µg/ml concentration. Streptolysin S assay showed that the crude lipid extracts have the capability of inhibiting the Streptolysin S activity. There were changes in extracellular protein of the pathogen exposed to the S8, S9 and S15 crude fatty acid extracts (50 µg/ml at the range of 100-120 kDa which elucidates that the fatty acid extracts have a significant role in altering the extracellular protein which might be responsible for virulence of the pathogen. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Allele-Selective Inhibition of Mutant Huntingtin Expression with Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting the Expanded CAG Repeat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Keith T.; Pendergraff, Hannah M.; Deleavey, Glen F.; Swayze, Eric E.; Potier, Pierre; Randolph, John; Roesch, Eric B.; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti; Damha, Masad J.; Bennett, C. Frank; Montaillier, Christophe; Lemaitre, Marc; Corey, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat within the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Therapeutic approaches include selectively inhibiting the expression of the mutated HTT allele while conserving function of the normal allele. We have evaluated a series of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeted to the expanded CAG repeat within HTT mRNA for their ability to selectively inhibit expression of mutant HTT protein. Several ASOs incorporating a variety of modifications, including bridged nucleic acids and phosphorothioate internucleotide linkages, exhibited allele-selective silencing in patient-derived fibroblasts. Allele-selective ASOs did not affect the expression of other CAG repeat-containing genes and selectivity was observed in cell lines containing minimal CAG repeat lengths representative of most HD patients. Allele-selective ASOs left HTT mRNA intact and did not support ribonuclease H activity in vitro. We observed cooperative binding of multiple ASO molecules to CAG repeat-containing HTT mRNA transcripts in vitro. These results are consistent with a mechanism involving inhibition at the level of translation. ASOs targeted to the CAG repeat of HTT provide a starting point for the development of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics that can inhibit gene expression with allelic discrimination in patients with HD. PMID:21028906

  4. Selective extraction of zinc from sulfate leach solution of zinc ore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中; 邱冠周

    2003-01-01

    Selective extraction of zinc from sulfate leach solution of zinc ore was studied.D2EHPA dissolved in260# kerosene was used as extractant.The pH-extraction isotherms show the extraction order of D2EHPA for metals is Fe3+>Zn2+>Ca2+>Al3+>Mn2+>Cu2+>Cd2+>Co2+>Ni2+>Mg2+(pH0.5).This confirms that Fe3+ ispreferentially extracted before the extraction of zinc.Extraction experiments were carried out with varying the extractant content,equilibration time,aqueous pH and phase ratio,and the solvent extraction of zinc with sodium saltof D2EHPA were also investigated.Some impurity co-extracted into the zinc loaded organic phase was efficiently removed by scrub,and the Fe3+ was hardly stripped from organic phase by sulfuric acid,hence zinc was separatedfrom Fe3+ by selective stripping.A pregnant zinc sulfate solution with low contaminants was obtained by selectivesolvent extraction.

  5. Selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitors bearing substituted urea linkers inhibit melanoma cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Joel A; Woan, Karrune; Perez-Villarroel, Patricio; Villagra, Alejandro; Sotomayor, Eduardo M; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2012-11-26

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has dramatically increased in recent years thus requiring the need for improved therapeutic strategies. In our efforts to design selective histone deactylase inhibitors (HDACI), we discovered that the aryl urea 1 is a modestly potent yet nonselective inhibitor. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed that adding substituents to the nitrogen atom of the urea so as to generate compounds bearing a branched linker group results in increased potency and selectivity for HDAC6. Compound 5 g shows low nanomolar inhibitory potency against HDAC6 and a selectivity of ∼600-fold relative to the inhibition of HDAC1. These HDACIs were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of B16 melanoma cells with the most potent and selective HDAC6I being found to decrease tumor cell growth. To the best of our knowledge, this work constitutes the first report of HDAC6-selective inhibitors that possess antiproliferative effects against melanoma cells.

  6. Grape seed extract inhibits VEGF expression via reducing HIF-1alpha protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan; Wen, Wei

    2009-04-01

    Grape seed extract (GSE) is a widely consumed dietary supplement that has antitumor activity. Here, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of GSE on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the mechanism underlying this action. We found that GSE inhibited VEGF messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in U251 human glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. GSE inhibited transcriptional activation of the VEGF gene through reducing protein but not mRNA expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1alpha. The inhibitory effect of GSE on HIF-1alpha expression was mainly through inhibiting HIF-1alpha protein synthesis rather than promoting protein degradation. Consistent with this result, GSE-suppressed phosphorylation of several important components involved in HIF-1alpha protein synthesis, such as Akt, S6 kinase and S6 protein. Furthermore, in the MDA-MB-231 tumor, we found that GSE treatment inhibited the expression of VEGF and HIF-1alpha and the phosphorylation of S6 kinase without altering the subcellular localization of HIF-1alpha, correlating with reduced vessel density and tumor size. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the inhibitory activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the inhibitory activity. Taken together, our results indicate that GSE inhibits VEGF expression by reducing HIF-1alpha protein synthesis through blocking Akt activation. This finding provides new insight into the mechanisms of anticancer activity of GSE and reveals a novel molecular mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic action of GSE.

  7. INHIBITION OF COXACKIE VIRUS B3 IN MICE USING METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CALLIANDRA HAEMATOCEPHALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shaheen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coxsackie virus B3 (CVB3 represents current major threats to public health and considers as an important viral pathogen related to viral myocarditis. We determined the safety of methanolic extract of Calliandra haematocephala in non-infected mice then two safe doses were selected to be evaluated in infected mice with CVB3 by determining the morbidity, mortality, heart to body weight ratio (HW/BW, virus titers in heart tissue. The effect of the extract on the heart tissues and the activities LDH, AST, and CK enzymes in the mice infected with CVB3 were also determined. Our results recorded that the methanolic extract at 100 mg/kg body was safe dose in mice and didn’t shown significant changes in funtions or histological structures of liver and kindey in non-infected mice and therefore we used 100 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg to be evaluated in infected mice with CVB3. We observed that the methaolic extract of Calliandra haematocephala leaves at the two doses decreased the morbidity, mortality, HW/BW, virus titers, necrosis and mononuclear cell infiltration. The levels of LDH, AST, and CK enzymes were also reduced in the treated infected mice compared with those untreated infected mice. This result suggested that the methaolic extract of Calliandra haematocephala may represent a potential antiviral drug to treatment viral myocarditis

  8. Synergistic Effect on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Ginger Affinale Extract in Controlling Corrosion of Mild Steel in Acid Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Ananth Kumar; Arumugam, Sankar [Kandaswami Kandar' s College, Namakkal (India); Mallaiya, Kumaravel; Subramaniam, Rameshkumar [PSG College of Technology Peelamedu, Coimbatore (India)

    2013-12-15

    The corrosion inhibition nature of Ginger affinale extract for the corrosion of mild steel in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was investigated using weight loss, electrochemical impedance and potentiodynamic polarization methods. The results revealed that Ginger affinale extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor in 0.5N H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium. The inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in inhibitor concentration. The inhibition could be attributed to the adsorption of the inhibitor on the steel surface.

  9. Curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract synergically inhibit inflammatory and catabolic mediator's synthesis by normal bovine and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes in monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comblain, Fanny; Sanchez, Christelle; Lesponne, Isabelle; Balligand, Marc; Serisier, Samuel; Henrotin, Yves

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the in vitro effects of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract in normal bovine chondrocytes and osteoarthritic human chondrocytes cultured in monolayer. This study also investigated the synergic or additive effects of these compounds. Enzymatically isolated primary bovine or human chondrocytes were cultured in monolayer until confluence and then incubated for 24 hours or 48 hours in the absence or in the presence of interleukin-1β and with or without curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen or green tea extract, added alone or in combination, at different concentrations. Cell viability was neither affected by these compounds, nor by interleukin 1β. In the absence of interleukin-1β, compounds did not significantly affect bovine chondrocytes metabolism. In human chondrocytes and in the absence of interleukin 1β, curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract significantly inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-3 production. In interleukin-1β-stimulated bovine chondrocytes, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase2, matrix metalloproteinase 3, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 4 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type I motifs 5 expressions were decreased by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. The combination of the three compounds was significantly more efficient to inhibit interleukin-1β stimulated matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression than curcuminoids extract alone. In interleukin-1β-stimulated human chondrocytes, nitric oxide, interleukin-6 and matrix metalloproteinase 3 productions were significantly reduced by curcuminoids extract alone or in combination with hydrolyzed collagen and green tea extract. These findings indicate that a mixture of curcuminoids extract, hydrolyzed collagen and green tea

  10. Effect of crude saponins from Gaultheria trichophylla extract on growth inhibition in human colorectal cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiaz Alam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Gaultheria also comprised of species with reported cytotoxic activities. Current research work was carried out to evaluate G. trichophylla crude extract and respective saponins fraction against human colorectal cancer cell line (Caco-2 based on cell viability assays. Caco-2 cells treated with the crude extract showed significant growth inhibition (p< 0.001 in a dose dependent manner with apparent IC50 value of 200 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL in MTT and NRU assays respectively. The fractioned crude saponins showed an enhanced response and inhibited the growth of Caco-2 by 93.6 and 97.4% in MTT and NRU assays respectively, with compared to actinomycin-D (65%. The DAPI staining of cell treated with crude saponins observed under confocal microscope showed shrunken nuclei with apparent nuclear fragmentation and chromatin condensation indicating apoptosis mode of cell death. The study exhibited that the G. Trichophylla saponins induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cell lines. This study provides new evidences to further explore this plant for the novel targets in anticancer drug development.

  11. Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manciu, Felicia

    2012-10-01

    In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

  12. Tapirira guianensis Aubl. Extracts Inhibit Proliferation and Migration of Oral Cancer Cells Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Oliveira, Renato José; Lopes, Gabriela Francine; Camargos, Luiz Fernando; Ribeiro, Ana Maciel; dos Santos, Fábio Vieira; Severino, Richele Priscila; Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto; Terezan, Ana Paula; Thomé, Ralph Gruppi; dos Santos, Hélio Batista; Reis, Rui Manuel; Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck is a group of upper aerodigestive tract neoplasms in which aggressive treatments may cause harmful side effects to the patient. In the last decade, investigations on natural compounds have been particularly successful in the field of anticancer drug research. Our aim is to evaluate the antitumor effect of Tapirira guianensis Aubl. extracts on a panel of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Analysis of secondary metabolites classes in fractions of T. guianensis was performed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Mutagenicity effect was evaluated by Ames mutagenicity assay. The cytotoxic effect, and migration and invasion inhibition were measured. Additionally, the expression level of apoptosis-related molecules (PARP, Caspases 3, and Fas) and MMP-2 was detected using Western blot. Heterogeneous cytotoxicity response was observed for all fractions, which showed migration inhibition, reduced matrix degradation, and decreased cell invasion ability. Expression levels of MMP-2 decreased in all fractions, and particularly in the hexane fraction. Furthermore, overexpression of FAS and caspase-3, and increase of cleaved PARP indicates possible apoptosis extrinsic pathway activation. Antiproliferative activity of T. guianensis extract in HNSCC cells lines suggests the possibility of developing an anticancer agent or an additive with synergic activities associated with conventional anticancer therapy. PMID:27834805

  13. Extract from Eugenia punicifolia is an antioxidant and inhibits enzymes related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Galeno, Denise Morais; Carvalho, Rosany Piccolotto; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Lima, Arleilson Sousa; Oliveira de Almeida, Patricia Danielle; Pacheco, Carolina Carvalho; Pereira de Souza, Tatiane; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate in vitro biological activities of extract of Eugenia punicifolia leaves (EEP), emphasizing the inhibitory activity of enzymes related to metabolic syndrome and its antioxidant effects. The antioxidant activity was analyzed by free radicals scavengers in vitro assays: DPPH·, ABTS(·+), O2(·−), and NO· and a cell-based assay. EEP were tested in inhibitory colorimetric assays using α-amylase, α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase, and pancreatic lipase enzymes. The EEP exhibited activity in ABTS(·+), DPPH·, and O2(·−) scavenger (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.2, 28.84 ± 0.54, and 38.12 ± 2.6 μg/mL), respectively. EEP did not show cytotoxic effects, and it showed antioxidant activity in cells in a concentration-dependent manner. EEP exhibited inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase activities in vitro assays (IC50 = 122.8 ± 6.3; 2.9 ± 0.1; 23.5 ± 2.6), respectively; however, EEP did not inhibit the lipase activity. The findings supported that extract of E. punicifolia leaves is a natural antioxidant and inhibitor of enzymes, such as α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and xanthine oxidase, which can result in a reduction in the carbohydrate absorption rate and decrease of risks factors of cardiovascular disease, thereby providing a novel dietary opportunity for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

  14. An extract of Uncaria tomentosa inhibiting cell division and NF-kappa B activity without inducing cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akesson, Christina; Lindgren, Hanna; Pero, Ronald W; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2003-12-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that extracts of the plant Uncaria tomentosa inhibit tumor cell proliferation and inflammatory responses. We have confirmed that C-Med 100, a hot water extract of this plant, inhibits tumor cell proliferation albeit with variable efficiency. We extend these findings by showing that this extract also inhibits proliferation of normal mouse T and B lymphocytes and that the inhibition is not caused by toxicity or by induction of apoptosis. Further, the extract did not interfere with IL-2 production nor IL-2 receptor signaling. Since there was no discrete cell cycle block in C-Med 100-treated cells, we propose that retarded cell cycle progression caused the inhibition of proliferation. Collectively, these data suggested interference with a common pathway controlling cell growth and cell cycle progression. Indeed, we provide direct evidence that C-Med 100 inhibits nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) activity and propose that this at least partially causes the inhibition of proliferation.

  15. Structure-function relationships of anthocyanins from various anthocyanin-rich extracts on the inhibition of colon cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Pu; Bomser, Joshua A; Schwartz, Steven J; He, Jian; Magnuson, Bernadene A; Giusti, M Mónica

    2008-10-22

    Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants and may be chemoprotective. However, the structure-function relationships are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to compare the chemoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) with variable anthocyanin profiles to understand the relationship between anthocyanin chemical structure and chemoprotective activity, measured as inhibition of colon cancer cell proliferation. Additionally, the chemoprotective interaction of anthocyanins and other phenolics was investigated. AREs with different anthocyanin profiles from purple corn, chokeberry, bilberry, purple carrot, grape, radish, and elderberry were tested for growth inhibition (GI 50) using a human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell line. All AREs suppressed HT29 cell growth to various degrees as follows: purple corn (GI 50 approximately 14 microg of cy-3-glu equiv/mL) > chokeberry and bilberry > purple carrot and grape > radish and elderberry (GI 50 > 100 microg of cy-3-glu equiv/mL). Anthocyanins played a major role in AREs' chemoprotection and exerted an additive interaction with the other phenolics present. Statistical analyses suggested that anthocyanin chemical structure affected chemoprotection, with nonacylated monoglycosylated anthocyanins having greater inhibitory effect on HT-29 cell proliferation, whereas anthocyanins with pelargonidin, triglycoside, and/or acylation with cinnamic acid exerted the least effect. These findings should be considered for crop selection and the development of anthocyanin-rich functional foods.

  16. Protein Synthesis Inhibition Activity by Strawberry Tissue Protein Extracts during Plant Life Cycle and under Biotic and Abiotic Stresses

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    Walther Faedi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, enzymes that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, inhibit protein synthesis by depurinating rRNA and many other polynucleotidic substrates. Although RIPs show antiviral, antifungal, and insecticidal activities, their biological and physiological roles are not completely understood. Additionally, it has been described that RIP expression is augmented under stressful conditions. In this study, we evaluated protein synthesis inhibition activity in partially purified basic proteins (hereafter referred to as RIP activity from tissue extracts of Fragaria × ananassa (strawberry cultivars with low (Dora and high (Record tolerance to root pathogens and fructification stress. Association between the presence of RIP activity and the crop management (organic or integrated soil, growth stage (quiescence, flowering, and fructification, and exogenous stress (drought were investigated. RIP activity was found in every tissue tested (roots, rhizomes, leaves, buds, flowers, and fruits and under each tested condition. However, significant differences in RIP distribution were observed depending on the soil and growth stage, and an increase in RIP activity was found in the leaves of drought-stressed plants. These results suggest that RIP expression and activity could represent a response mechanism against biotic and abiotic stresses and could be a useful tool in selecting stress-resistant strawberry genotypes.

  17. Study on Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency of Stem Alkaloid Extract of Different Varieties of Holy Basil on Aluminium in HCl Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpawat, Nutan; Chaturvedi, Alok; Upadhyay, R. K. [Synthetic and Surface Science Laboratory, Ajmer (India)

    2012-08-15

    Corrosion inhibition efficiencies of holy basil on Al in HCl solution were studied by weight loss and thermometric methods in presence and in absence of stem extract of three different varieties of holy basil viz. ocimum basilicum (E{sub B}), ocimum canum (E{sub C}) and ocimum sanctum (E{sub S}). Inhibition efficiency increases with the increasing concentration of stem extract and decreases with increases in acid strength. Results show that all varieties under study are good corrosion inhibitors, among which, E{sub B} is most effective. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found 97.09% in 0.5N HCl solution with 0.6% stem extract. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm indicates that surface coverage also increases with increasing in the concentration of extract of stem in HCl solution.

  18. Molecularly imprinted polymers: New molecular recognition materials for selective solid-phase extraction of organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Esteban, A.

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years molecularly imprinted polymers have appeared as new selective sorbents for solid-phase extraction of organic compounds in different samples. Molecular imprinting technology involves the preparation of a polymer with specific recognition sites for certain molecules. Once the polymer has been obtained, it can be used in solid-phase extraction protocols, where a careful selection of the most appropriate solvents to be used in the different steps (sample loading, washing...

  19. Aqueous extract of Rabdosia rubescens leaves: forming nanoparticles, targeting P-selectin, and inhibiting thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Y

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yuji Wang,1 Jingcheng Tang,1 Haimei Zhu,1 Xueyun Jiang,1 Jiawang Liu,1 Wenyun Xu,1 Haiping Ma,1 Qiqi Feng,1 Jianhui Wu,1 Ming Zhao,1,2 Shiqi Peng1 1Beijing Area Major Laboratory of Peptide and Small Molecular Drugs, Engineering Research Center of Endogenous Prophylactic of Ministry of Education of China, Beijing Laboratory of Biomedical Materials, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Biomedical Science and Environmental Biology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: The hot water extract of Rabdosia rubescens was traditionally used as an antithrombotic medicine. To explore its antithrombotic utility and mechanism, we carried out a series of in vitro and in vivo assays in this study. In vitro platelet aggregation assay showed that the half maximal inhibitory concentration values of aqueous extract of R. rubescens leaves (AERL inhibiting platelet aggregation induced by thrombin, arachidonic acid, adenosine diphosphate, and platelet-activating factor ranged from 0.12 mg/mL to 1.43 mg/mL. The minimal effective oral dose of AERL inhibiting the rats from forming thrombus was 25 mg/kg. Both in vitro and in vivo actions were correlated with AERL concentration-dependently inhibiting sP-selectin release. In water, AERL formed nanoparticles, and their size depended on the concentration. Docking the five nucleotides, 21 phenolic acids, and four diterpenoids identified by high-performance liquid chromatography–photodiode array detector/(-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis into the active site of P-selectin, rosmarinic acid was predicted to be the antithrombotic ingredient of AERL. In flow cytometry analysis, 1 µM of rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited sP-selectin release in arachidonic acid-activated platelets. In a rat model, 5 mg/kg of oral rosmarinic acid effectively inhibited thrombosis. Keywords: R. rubescens, s

  20. Ethanol Extract of Atractylodes macrocephala Protects Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation

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    Youn-Hwan Hwang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala has been used mainly in Traditional Chinese Medicine for invigorating the functions of the stomach and spleen. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of the 70% ethanol extract of the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala (AMEE on osteoclast differentiation. We found that AMEE inhibits osteoclast differentiation from its precursors induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, an essential cytokine required for osteoclast differentiation. AMEE attenuated RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB signaling pathway, subsequently inhibiting the induction of osteoclastogenic transcription factors, c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1. Consistent with the in vitro results, administration of AMEE protected RANKL-induced bone loss in mice. We also identified atractylenolide I and II as active constituents contributing to the anti-osteoclastogenic effect of AMEE. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AMEE has a protective effect on bone loss via inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and suggest that AMEE may be useful in preventing and treating various bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  1. 新型己内酰胺萃取剂的筛选和评价%Selection and evaluation of a new extractant for caprolactam Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚行楚; 吕阳成; 李牧; 马雪峰; 倪前银; 骆广生

    2008-01-01

    Mixed solvent of 1-octanol and cyclohexane with 60% (by mass) 1-octanol content was selected as a new extractant for caprolactam extraction. Compared with benzene or toluene, the new extractant has larger extraction capacity and much lower toxicity. Although the extraction capacity of the new extractant is smaller than that of pure 1-octanol, 1-octanol solubility of the new extractant in aqueous phase is much smaller. Because of its physical properties of lower density, lower viscosity, and higher interfacial tension, the new extractant performed much better phase separation ability than pure 1-octanol. The new extractant showed certain selectivity when dealing with lactam oil. The mixed solvent of 1-octanol and cyclohexane with 60% (by mass) 1-octanol content is a promising extractant for caprolactam extraction.

  2. Gracilaria edulis extract induces apoptosis and inhibits tumor in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Satyajit; Muthuraman, Meenakshi Sundaram

    2013-11-25

    Marine environment is inestimable for their chemical and biological diversity and therefore is an extraordinary resource for the discovery of new anticancer drugs. Recent development in elucidation of the mechanism and therapeutic action of natural products helped to evaluate for their potential activity. We evaluated Gracilaria edulis J. Ag (Brown algae), for its antitumor potential against the Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in vivo and in vitro. Cytotoxicity evaluation of Ethanol Extract of Gracilaria edulis (EEGE) using EAT cells showed significant activity. In vitro studies indicated that EEGE cytotoxicity to EAT cells is mediated through its ability to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) and therefore decreasing intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels may be attributed to oxidative stress. Apoptotic parameters including Annexin-V positive cells, increased levels of DNA fragmentation and increased caspase-2, caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities indicated the mechanism might be by inducing apoptosis. Intraperitoneally administration of EEGE to EAT-bearing mice helped to increase the lifespan of the animals significantly inhibited tumor growth and increased survival of mice. Extensive hematology, biochemistry and histopathological analysis of liver and kidney indicated that daily doses of EEGE up to 300 mg/kg for 35 days are well tolerated and did not cause hematotoxicity nor renal or hepatotoxicity. Comprehensive antitumor analysis in animal model and in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor cells was done including biochemical, and pathological evaluations indicate antitumor activity of the extract and non toxic in vivo. It was evident that the mechanism explains the apoptotic activity of the algae extract.

  3. Aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea inhibits the damage induced by ultraviolet radiations, in plasmid DNA

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    Marioly Vernhes Tamayo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: The incidence of solar ultraviolet radiation (UV on Earth has increased due to diminish of the ozone layer. This enviromental agent is highly genotoxic causing numerous damage in DNA molecule. Nowadays there is a growing interest in the search of compounds capable to minimize these effects. In particular, phytocompounds have been tested as excelent candidates for their antigenotoxic properties. Aims: To evaluate the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Pinus caribaea (EPC against the damage induced by the UVB and UVC radiation. Methods: The cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed. The forms of plasmid were separated electrophoretically in agarose gel. For genotoxic and photoprotective evaluation of P. caribaea, different concentrations of the extract (0.1 – 2.0 mg/mL and exposure times were evaluated. The CPD lesions were detected enzymatically. Additionally, the transmittance of the aqueous extract against 254 nm and 312 nm was measured. Results: None of the concentrations were genotoxic in 30 min of treatment, for superior times a clastogenic effect was observed. The EPC despite inhibiting the activity of the enzyme T4 endo V, impedes photolesions formation in DNA at concentrations ≥ 0.1 mg/mL. Conclusions: The EPC has photoprotective properties, this effect could be related with its antioxidants and absorptives capacities.

  4. Fresh raspberry phytochemical extract inhibits hepatic lesion in a Wistar rat model

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    Wang Lei

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red raspberry possesses potent antioxidant capacity and antiproliferative activity against cancer in vitro. Methods The objective of this study was to determine the protective effects of raspberry 80% acetone extract in a rat hepatic lesions model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN. Rats were treated with the red raspberry extract (0.75, 1.5 or 3.0 g/kg of body weight by gavage starting 2 h after DEN administration and continuing for 20 weeks. Results A dose-dependent inhibition by red raspberry extract of DEN-induced hepatic nodule formation which stands for hepatic lesions was observed. Corresponding hepatic nodule incidence rates were 45.0, 40.0, 25.0 and 5.0% in positive control, low, middle and high groups, respectively (P Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the potent capacity of red raspberry diet could not only suppress DEN-induced hepatic lesions in rats, but also reduce the definite diagnostic features of neoplasm.

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of thai mango seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  6. Salacia campestris root bark extract: peroxidase inhibition, antioxidant and antiradical profile

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    José Carlos Rebuglio Vellosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS and free radical species have been implicated in initiating or accompanying many diseases in living organisms; there is thus, a continual need for antioxidants molecules to inactivate ROS/free radicals. Many studies of plants crude extracts have demonstrated free-radical scavenging and antioxidant action. Salacia species have long been used, in several countries, as traditional medicines against certain diseases and for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, Salacia campestris Walp (Hippocrateaceae root bark ethanol extract (ScEtOH was assessed for its ability to scavenge free radicals and reactive oxygen species; the results were expressed as percentage inhibition of the active species. ScEtOH was efficient against studied species: DPPH radical (obtained inhibition = 30%, ABTS•+ (IC50 = 1.8±0.8 μg/mL, HOCl (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.1 μg/mL, O2•- (obtained inhibition = 32%, and NO• (obtained inhibition = 18 %. Peroxidase activity inhibition was evaluated through the guaiacol oxidation reaction catalyzed by hemin, HRP and myeloperoxidase (MPO; data showed that ScEtOH at 10 μg/mL led to 54 and 51% of inhibition, respectively, for the hemin and HRP systems. In the MPO system, ScEtOH promoted a 50% inhibition at 8.9 μg/mL, whereas quercetin, a powerful MPO inhibitor, inhibited this system at 1.35 μg/mL.Espécies reativas do oxigênio (ERO e radicais livres estão relacionados ao início ou à exacerbação de muitas doenças em organismos vivos; existindo portanto uma necessidade contínua por moléculas antioxidantes que inativem as ERO e radicais livres. Muitos estudos com extratos brutos de plantas têm demonstrado propriedades antioxidantes e seqüestradoras de radicais livres. Espécies de Salacia são utilizadas, em muitos países, como remédio tradicional contra certas doenças e por suas propriedades antiinflamatórias. Neste estudo, o extrato bruto etanólico da casca da raiz da Salacia

  7. Grape seed extract inhibits angiogenesis via suppression of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wei; Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Chen, Shiuan

    2008-12-01

    Blockade of angiogenesis is an important approach for cancer treatment and prevention. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most critical factors that induce angiogenesis and has thus become an attractive target for antiangiogenesis treatment. However, most current anti-VEGF agents often cause some side effects when given chronically. Identification of naturally occurring VEGF inhibitors derived from diet would be one alternative approach with an advantage of known safety. Grape seed extract (GSE), a widely used dietary supplement, is known to have antitumor activity. In this study, we have explored the activity of GSE on VEGF receptor and angiogenesis. We found that GSE could directly inhibit the kinase activity of purified VEGF receptor 2, a novel activity of GSE that has not been characterized. GSE could also inhibit the VEGF receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signaling pathway in endothelial cells. As a result, GSE could inhibit VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation and migration as well as sprout formation from aorta ring. In vivo assay further showed that GSE could inhibit tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in mice. Consistent with the in vitro data, GSE treatment of tumor-bearing mice led to concomitant reduction of blood vessel density and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Depletion of polyphenol with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished the antiangiogenic activity of GSE, suggesting a water-soluble fraction of polyphenol in GSE is responsible for the antiangiogenic activity. Taken together, this study indicates that GSE is a well-tolerated and inexpensive natural VEGF inhibitor and could potentially be useful in cancer prevention or treatment.

  8. Selective pharmacologic inhibition of a PASTA kinase increases Listeria monocytogenes susceptibility to β-lactam antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensinger, Daniel A; Aliota, Matthew T; Schaenzer, Adam J; Boldon, Kyle M; Ansari, Israr-ul H; Vincent, William J B; Knight, Benjamin; Reniere, Michelle L; Striker, Rob; Sauer, John-Demian

    2014-08-01

    While β-lactam antibiotics are a critical part of the antimicrobial arsenal, they are frequently compromised by various resistance mechanisms, including changes in penicillin binding proteins of the bacterial cell wall. Genetic deletion of the penicillin binding protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated protein (PASTA) kinase in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been shown to restore β-lactam susceptibility. However, the mechanism remains unclear, and whether pharmacologic inhibition would have the same effect is unknown. In this study, we found that deletion or pharmacologic inhibition of the PASTA kinase in Listeria monocytogenes by the nonselective kinase inhibitor staurosporine results in enhanced susceptibility to both aminopenicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics. Resistance to vancomycin, another class of cell wall synthesis inhibitors, or antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis was unaffected by staurosporine treatment. Phosphorylation assays with purified kinases revealed that staurosporine selectively inhibited the PASTA kinase of L. monocytogenes (PrkA). Importantly, staurosporine did not inhibit a L. monocytogenes kinase without a PASTA domain (Lmo0618) or the PASTA kinase from MRSA (Stk1). Finally, inhibition of PrkA with a more selective kinase inhibitor, AZD5438, similarly led to sensitization of L. monocytogenes to β-lactam antibiotics. Overall, these results suggest that pharmacologic targeting of PASTA kinases can increase the efficacy of β-lactam antibiotics.

  9. Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Replication by Rheum palmatum L. Ethanol Extract in a Stable HBV-producing Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan SUN; Li-jun LI; Jing LI; Zhi LI

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection is a severe health problem in the world.However,there is still not a satisfactory therapeutic strategy for the HBV infection.To search for new anti-HBV agents with higher efficacy and less side-effects,the inhibitory activities of traditional Chinese medicine Rheum palmatum L.ethanol extract(RPE) against HBV replication were investigated in this study.Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR) was employed to analyze the inhibitory activity of RPE against HBV-DNA replication in a stable HBV-producing cell line HepAD38; the expression levels of HBV surface antigen(HBsAg) and e antigen(HBeAg) were also determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) after RPE treatment.RPE could dose-dependently inhibit the production of HBV-DNA and HBsAg.The concentration of 50% inhibition(IC50) was calculated at 209.63,252.53 μg/mL,respectively.However,its inhibitory activity against HBeAg expression was slight even at high concentrations.RPE had a weak cytotoxic effect on HepAD38 cells(CC50 = 1 640 μg/mL) and the selectivity index(SI) was calculated at 7.82.Compared with two anthraquinone derivatives emodin and rhein,RPE showed higher ability of anti-HBV and weaker cytotoxicity.So Rheum palmatum L.might possess other functional agents which could effectively inhibit HBV-DNA replication and HBsAg expression.Further purification of the active agents,identification and modification of their structures to improve the efficacy and decrease the cytotoxicity are required.

  10. Substrate-selective Inhibition of Cyclooxygeanse-2 by Fenamic Acid Derivatives Is Dependent on Peroxide Tone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Benjamin J; Malkowski, Michael G

    2016-07-15

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzes the oxygenation of arachidonic acid (AA) and endocannabinoid substrates, placing the enzyme at a unique junction between the eicosanoid and endocannabinoid signaling pathways. COX-2 is a sequence homodimer, but the enzyme displays half-of-site reactivity, such that only one monomer of the dimer is active at a given time. Certain rapid reversible, competitive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to inhibit COX-2 in a substrate-selective manner, with the binding of inhibitor to a single monomer sufficient to inhibit the oxygenation of endocannabinoids but not arachidonic acid. The underlying mechanism responsible for substrate-selective inhibition has remained elusive. We utilized structural and biophysical methods to evaluate flufenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid for their ability to act as substrate-selective inhibitors. Crystal structures of each drug in complex with human COX-2 revealed that the inhibitor binds within the cyclooxygenase channel in an inverted orientation, with the carboxylate group interacting with Tyr-385 and Ser-530 at the top of the channel. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching, continuous-wave electron spin resonance, and UV-visible spectroscopy demonstrate that flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid are substrate-selective inhibitors that bind rapidly to COX-2, quench tyrosyl radicals, and reduce higher oxidation states of the heme moiety. Substrate-selective inhibition was attenuated by the addition of the lipid peroxide 15-hydroperoxyeicosatertaenoic acid. Collectively, these studies implicate peroxide tone as an important mechanistic component of substrate-selective inhibition by flufenamic acid, mefenamic acid, and tolfenamic acid.

  11. Dietary administration of scallion extract effectively inhibits colorectal tumor growth: cellular and molecular mechanisms in mice.

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    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is a common malignancy and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Diet is known to play an important role in the etiology of colon cancer and dietary chemoprevention is receiving increasing attention for prevention and/or alternative treatment of colon cancers. Allium fistulosum L., commonly known as scallion, is popularly used as a spice or vegetable worldwide, and as a traditional medicine in Asian cultures for treating a variety of diseases. In this study we evaluated the possible beneficial effects of dietary scallion on chemoprevention of colon cancer using a mouse model of colon carcinoma (CT-26 cells subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/c mice. Tumor lysates were subjected to western blotting for analysis of key inflammatory markers, ELISA for analysis of cytokines, and immunohistochemistry for analysis of inflammatory markers. Metabolite profiles of scallion extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Scallion extracts, particularly hot-water extract, orally fed to mice at 50 mg (dry weight/kg body weight resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth and enhanced the survival rate of test mice. At the molecular level, scallion extracts inhibited the key inflammatory markers COX-2 and iNOS, and suppressed the expression of various cellular markers known to be involved in tumor apoptosis (apoptosis index, proliferation (cyclin D1 and c-Myc, angiogenesis (VEGF and HIF-1α, and tumor invasion (MMP-9 and ICAM-1 when compared with vehicle control-treated mice. Our findings may warrant further investigation of the use of common scallion as a chemopreventive dietary agent to lower the risk of colon cancer.

  12. Selective extraction of copper, mercury, silver and palladium ionsfrom water using hydrophobic ionic liquids.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Lee, Jong-Min; Salminen, Justin; VonStosch, Moritz; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Extraction of dilute metal ions from water was performed near room temperature with a variety of ionic liquids. Distribution coefficients are reported for fourteen metal ions extracted with ionic liquids containing cations 1-octyl-4-methylpyridinium [4MOPYR]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPYRRO]{sup +} or 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPIP]{sup +}, and anions tetrafluoroborate [BF{sub 4}]{sup +}, trifluoromethyl sulfonate [TfO]{sup +} or nonafluorobutyl sulfonate [NfO]{sup +}. Ionic liquids containing octylpyridinium cations are very good for extracting mercury ions. However, other metal ions were not significantly extracted by any of these ionic liquids. Extractions were also performed with four new task-specific ionic liquids. Such liquids containing a disulfide functional group are efficient and selective for mercury and copper, whereas those containing a nitrile functional group are efficient and selective for silver and palladium.

  13. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocoń Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  14. Inhibition of prostate cancer cell growth by an avocado extract: role of lipid-soluble bioactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qing-Yi; Arteaga, James R; Zhang, Qifeng; Huerta, Sergio; Go, Vay Liang W; Heber, David

    2005-01-01

    Although the avocado is known as a rich source of monounsaturated fatty acids, there has been far less attention given to its content of other bioactive substances including carotenoids, which might contribute to cancer preventive properties similar to those attributed to other fruits and vegetables. The yellow-green color of the avocado prompted us to study the carotenoid content of this fruit using established methods in our laboratory. The California Hass avocado (Persea americana Mill.) was selected for study, because it is the most commonly consumed variety in the southwest United States. These avocados were found to contain the highest content of lutein among commonly eaten fruits as well as measurable amounts of related carotenoids (zeaxanthin, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene). Lutein accounted for 70% of the measured carotenoids, and the avocado also contained significant quantities of vitamin E. An acetone extract of avocado containing these carotenoids and tocopherols was shown to inhibit the growth of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent (PC-3) prostate cancer cell lines in vitro. Incubation of PC-3 cells with the avocado extract led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest accompanied by an increase in p27 protein expression. Lutein alone did not reproduce the effects of the avocado extract on cancer cell proliferation. In common with other colorful fruits and vegetables, the avocado contains numerous bioactive carotenoids. Because the avocado also contains a significant amount of monounsaturated fat, these bioactive carotenoids are likely to be absorbed into the bloodstream, where in combination with other diet-derived phytochemicals they may contribute to the significant cancer risk reduction associated with a diet of fruits and vegetables.

  15. Stimulation of the subthalamic region facilitates the selection and inhibition of motor responses in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.P.M. van den Wildenberg; G.J.M. van Boxtel; M.W. van der Molen; D.A. Bosch; J.D. Speelman; C.H.M. Brunia

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to specify the involvement of the basal ganglia in motor response selection and response inhibition, Two samples Were studied. The First sample consisted of patients diagnosed with Parkinson's disease (PD) who received deep-brain Stimulation (DBS) Of the subthalamic

  16. Melissa officinalis extract inhibits laser-induced choroidal neovascularization in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Kyoung Lee

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. METHODS: Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19 as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. RESULTS: The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001, 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P = 0.016, and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001. The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser

  17. Selective separation of Cu (II), Zn (II), and Cd (II) by solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Keng; WEN Jiankang; HUA Yixin; RUAN Renman

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation was presented on the separation of Cu (II), Zn (II), and Cd (II) from a rich sulfate leachate of zinc slag by solvent extraction. The results of orthogonal experiments indicate that LIX 984N is highly selective and very efficient in the extraction of Cu (II), and the analysis of variance indicates that the sequence of parameters according to their influence on the separation efficiency is phase ratio>LIX 984N concentration>pH value>extraction time. The optimal condition for copper extraction is obtained as 25% of LIX 984N concentration, 7 min of extraction time, 3:2 of phase ratio O/A, and pH=1.7. The separation of Zn (II) and Cd (II) was performed after the copper extraction from the raffinate. Comparative analysis of the separation with di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), D2EHPA-tributyl-phosophate (TBP) synergistic extracting system, and 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono 2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHEHP) was made at pH=2.0. It is demonstrated that the extraction efficiency with D2EHPA is improved after being saponified by sodium hydroxide, and D2EHPA-TBP synergistic extracting, as well as HEHEHP, has a superior selectivity to Zn (II) over Cd (II).

  18. The effect of different concentrations of Neem (Azadiractha indica leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans (In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Kavi Subramaniam

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The Neem plant has a history for treating gum and teeth problems and this plant is used for oral care in India. The active component (Azadirachta indica has been proven to exhibit antibacterial properties. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of different concentrations of Neem leaves extract on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. Neem leaves extract at concentrations of 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% was prepared. Fifty milliliters of each concentration were dropped into holes of 6 millimeters in diameter on a MHA agar that has been inoculated with Streptococcus mutans. Distilled water was used as a control. After 24 hours of incubation, the inhibition diameters were measured and analyzed. The statistical results of the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA illustrated that the different concentrations of Neem extract had a significant influence on the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans. This was followed with the Least Significant Difference (LSD which implied that there were significant differences between all the concentrations of Neem leaves extract used in this experiment. The conclusion of this study was that Neem leaves extract exhibited antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans and different concentration of Neem leaves extract influenced the inhibition of Streptococcus mutans.

  19. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+ from aqueous waste streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis describes the design and selectivity of new Ra2+ extractants. The results presented provide insight in both the requirements needed to give Ra2+ selectivity and in the achievable Ra2+/Mn+ (Mn+ = alkali(ne earth) cation) separations.

  20. Inhibition of CYP1 by berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine: Selectivity, kinetic characterization, and molecular modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Sheng-Nan [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Yu-Ping; Tsai, Keng-Chang [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Chia-Yu [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 101, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wu, Tian-Shung [Department of Chemistry, National Chung-Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Ueng, Yune-Fang, E-mail: ueng@nricm.edu.tw [National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Biopharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Medical Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 101, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 1 family plays a primary role in the detoxification and bioactivation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 exhibit differential substrate specificity and tissue distribution. Berberine, palmatine, and jatrorrhizine are protoberberine alkaloids present in several medicinal herbs, such as Coptis chinensis (Huang-Lian) and goldenseal. These protoberberines inhibited CYP1A1.1- and CYP1B1.1-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities, whereas CYP1A2.1 activity was barely affected. Kinetic analysis revealed that berberine noncompetitively inhibited EROD activities of CYP1A1.1 and CYP1B1.1, whereas palmatine and jatrorrhizine caused either competitive or mixed type of inhibition. Among protoberberines, berberine caused the most potent and selective inhibitory effect on CYP1B1.1 with the least K{sub i} value of 44 ± 16 nM. Berberine also potently inhibited CYP1B1.1 activities toward 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-methoxyresorufin, whereas the inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylation activity was less pronounced. Berberine inhibited the polymorphic variants, CYP1B1.3 (V432L) and CYP1B1.4 (N453S), with IC{sub 50} values comparable to that for CYP1B1.1 inhibition. Berberine-mediated inhibition was abolished by a mutation of Asn228 to Thr in CYP1B1.1, whereas the inhibition was enhanced by a reversal mutation of Thr223 to Asn in CYP1A2.1. This result in conjugation with the molecular modeling revealed the crucial role of hydrogen-bonding interaction of Asn228 on CYP1B1.1 with the methoxy moiety of berberine. These findings demonstrate that berberine causes a selective CYP1B1-inhibition, in which Asn228 appears to be crucial. The inhibitory effects of berberine on CYP1B1 activities toward structurally diverse substrates can be different. - Highlights: • Berberine preferentially inhibited CYP1B1 activity. • Berberine caused similar inhibitory effects on CYP1B1.1, CYP1B1.3 and CYP1B1.4. • Asn228 in CYP

  1. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation by extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis A. Juss.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajbir; Thind, Tarunpreet Singh; Singh, Bikram; Arora, Saroj

    2009-01-01

    Polyphenols and polyphenol-rich fractions of plants have been reported to have protective effects against lipid peroxidation, most probably by serving as scavengers of free radicals and/or by chelating metal ions. In the present study, the effect of different extracts/subfractions of Chickrassy ( Chukrasia tabularis) on peroxyl radical mediated damage to the polyunsaturated fatty acids was investigated. Liver homogenate was used as experimental material. The production of malondialdehyde served as a marker of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress. It was observed that polyphenol-rich fractions, particularly the ethyl acetate fractions of bark and leaves, showed the highest protective activity of 83.02% and 88.62% inhibition, respectively. This study will help in knowing the scientific validation of this plant, for its use in ayurvedic formulations.

  2. Bergamot juice extract inhibits proliferation by inducing apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visalli, Giuseppa; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Cirmi, Santa; Campiglia, Pietro; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Di Pietro, Angela; Calapai, Gioacchino; Navarra, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality in the industrialized world, second to lung cancer. A lot of evidences highlight that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of some types of cancer including CRC. In this study we demonstrate that Citrus bergamia juice extracts (BJe) reduces CRC cell growth by multiple mechanisms. Low BJe concentrations inhibit MAPKs pathway and alter apoptosis-related proteins, that in turn induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Instead, high concentrations of BJe induce oxidative stress causing DNA damage. Our study highlights the role of BJe as modulator of cell apoptosis in CRC cells and strengthens our previous hypothesis that the flavonoid fraction of bergamot juice may play a role as anti-cancer drug.

  3. Bioguided Fractionation Shows Cassia alata Extract to Inhibit Staphylococcus epidermidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth and Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Takashi Saito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant extracts have a long history to be used in folk medicine. Cassia alata extracts are known to exert antibacterial activity but details on compounds and mechanism of action remain poorly explored. We purified and concentrated the aqueous leaf extract of C. alata by reverse phase-solid phase extraction and screened the resulting CaRP extract for antimicrobial activity. CaRP extract exhibited antimicrobial activity for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, S. aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. CaRP also inhibited biofilm formation of S. epidermidis and P. aeruginosa. Several bacterial growth-inhibiting compounds were detected when CaRP extract was fractionated by TLC chromatography coupled to bioautography agar overlay technique. HPLC chromatography of CaRP extract yielded 20 subfractions that were tested by bioautography for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Five bioactive fractions were detected and chemically characterized, using high-resolution mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS. Six compounds from four fractions could be characterized as kaempferol, kaempferol-O-diglucoside, kaempferol-O-glucoside, quercetin-O-glucoside, rhein, and danthron. In the Salmonella/microsome assay CaRP showed weak mutagenicity (MI<3 only in strain TA98, pointing to a frameshift mutation activity. These results indicate that C. alata leaf extract contains a minimum of 7 compounds with antimicrobial activity and that these together or as single substance are active in preventing formation of bacterial biofilm, indicating potential for therapeutic applications.

  4. Cytotoxic and Nitric Oxide Inhibition Activities of Propolis Extract along with Microencapsulation by Complex Coacervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onbas, Rabia; Kazan, Aslihan; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2016-09-01

    In this study, cytotoxicity of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) originating from Sivas, Turkey was screened against several cancer cell lines, namely PC-3, U87MG, A-549, mPANC96, CaCo-2, MCF-7, HeLa, MDA-MB-231 and a non-tumor cell line HEK293 by MTT assay. The inhibition levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were also determined by using RAW 264.7 macrophage cells following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. EEP exhibited significant cytotoxic nitric oxide inhibition activities with an IC50 value of 0.1 ± 0.1 μg/ml indicating a high potential as an anti-inflammatory agent. In spite of these promising results and the fact that propolis is a highly nutritive substance, its low solubility and bitter taste limit the applications as a natural supplement. Encapsulation might serve as a good strategy in order to overcome these problems. Complex coacervation was applied where the main focus was on surfactant type, polymer ratio (alginate:gelatin), stirring rate and concentration of core material. The mean particle size of unloaded microparticles were 22.62 μm obtained with gelatin:alginate ratio of 1:1 at a stirring rate of 1400 rpm with 2 ml of 1 % (w/v) sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), whereas addition of EEP at a concentration of 100 mg/ml increased the mean particle size to 36.44 μm and yielded an encapsulation efficiency of 98.77 %. The cytotoxicities of EEP loaded microparticles were also assessed both on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 where similar results were achieved as free EEP which can enhance the possible use of propolis extract in the industry as a natural supplement.

  5. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF SOLVENT FRACTIONS OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC LEAF EXTRACTS OF VERNONIA COLORATA AGAINST SELECTED HUMAN PATHOGENIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseni Lateef Adebayo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vernonia colorata has been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases related to certain bacteria. Crude leaf extracts of the plant have also been reported to contain antibacterial agents in previous in vitro studies. Fractionation of crude solvent extracts may lead to isolation and subsequent characterization of the active compound(s. In the current research, crude aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of V. colorata were evaluated for antibacterial activity against five human pathogenic bacteria. The crude extracts were further fractionated by solvent-solvent partitioning using petroleum ether, chloroform and diethyl ether. The various fractions were tested against selected bacteria using the agar-well diffusion method. Crude ethanolic extract showed MIC ranging between 5-6 mg/ml while aqueous extract showed MIC between 6-7.5 mg/ml. All fractions from the aqueous extract at 10 mg/ml did not show zone of inhibition against the bacteria tested. However, the chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract showed activity only against S. aureus at 10 mg/ml with zone of inhibition of 15.00 ± 0.20 mm. The antibacterial activity of the chloroform fraction of the ethanolic extract was significant in comparison with control (P < 0.05. The results suggested that the crude ethanolic leaf extract of V. colorata possess superior antibacterial activity as compared with aqueous extract. The result further suggests that chloroform fraction of the ethanolic leaf extract possesses antibacterial activity hence turn out to be a good candidate for further isolation and characterization of antibacterial agents.

  6. Affinity mesh screen materials for selective extraction and analysis of antibiotics using transmission mode desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Samuel H; Wang, Evelyn H; Gurak, John A; Bhawal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rajendrasing; Wijeratne, Aruna B; Edwards, Brian L; Foss, Frank W; Timmons, Richard B; Schug, Kevin A

    2013-06-25

    The extraction of active compounds from natural sources has shown to be an effective approach to drug discovery. However, the isolation and identification of natural products from complex extracts can be an arduous task. A novel approach to drug discovery is presented through the use of polymer screens functionalized with an l-lysine-d-alanine-d-alanine (Kaa) peptide to create new affinity capture mesh screen materials. The Kaa sequence is a well-characterized specific binding site for antibiotics that inhibit cell wall synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. The detailed synthesis and characterization of these novel screen materials are presented in this work. Polypropylene mesh screens were first coated with a poly(acrylic acid) film by pulsed plasma polymerization. The synthesized Kaa peptide was then covalently attached to carboxylic acid groups through a condensation reaction. An analysis of captured compounds was performed in a rapid fashion with transmission-mode desorption electrospray ionization (TM-DESI) mass spectrometry. A proof of principle was demonstrated to show the ability of the novel affinity capture materials to select for a macrocyclic antibiotic, vancomycin, over a negative control compound, spectinomycin. With further development, this method may provide a rapid screening technique for new antibacterial compounds, for example, those extracted from natural product sources having a limited supply. Here, we show that the screen can capture vancomycin preferentially over spectinomycin in a spiked extract of tea leaves.

  7. The α-glucosidase inhibiting isoflavones isolated from Belamcanda chinensis leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongming Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dried rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis is an important Chinese traditional medicine used for the treatment of inflammation and many other disorders. Previously, we reported the hypo- and antihyper-glycemic effects of the aqueous leaf extract of B. chinensis (BCL and identified the isoflavones as its principal active fraction. In the present study, the α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of BCL and its rough isoflavone preparation (BIF was tested in vitro and in vivo. Thirteen isoflavones were isolated from BCL and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was screened in vitro. The results showed that BCL (500 and 1000 mg/kg and BIF (250 and 500 mg/kg greatly inhibited the increase in blood glucose level after 5 g/kg starch loading in normal mice. Six out of the thirteen isoflavones (swertisin, 2 ” -O-rhamnosylswertisin, genistein, genistin, mangiferin and daidzin exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity in vitro. HPLC analysis showed that swertisin was the most abundant isoflavone in BCL accounting for 1.24% of BCL, 7.44% of BIF, and 11.24% of the total isoflavone fraction of BCL, respectively. These results demonstrate that BCL possesses significant α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and swertisin may be the principal active component of BCL in α-glucosidase inhibition.

  8. Ethanol Extract of Capsella bursa-pastoris Improves Hepatic Steatosis Through Inhibition of Histone Acetyltransferase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyo-Kyoung; Shin, Eun Ju; Park, Su Jin; Hur, Haeng Jeon; Park, Jae Ho; Chung, Min-Yu; Kim, Myung Sunny; Hwang, Jin-Taek

    2017-03-01

    Histone lysine acetylation is thought to play a role in regulating the balance between energy storage and energy expenditure. However, the epigenetic mechanisms by which food phytochemicals influence metabolic processes in the liver have not been thoroughly investigated. In this study, we investigated the effect of an ethanol extract of Capsella bursa-pastoris (ECB) on histone acetyltransferase (HAT) inhibition, and whether it could thereby attenuate lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo. We observed that ECB inhibits HAT activity as assessed by colorimetric and autoradiography assay systems. ECB also reduced oleic acid (OA)-stimulated histone acetylation at H4K5 and H4K12 and attenuated OA-mediated lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells, in the absence of observable cytotoxicity. We then investigated these effects in vivo. Mice were fed on either a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) in the presence or absence of ECB supplementation. In comparison with the ND controls, the HFD mice exhibited higher body weight, liver fat, adipose tissue size, and total serum cholesterol concentrations, and these effects were significantly attenuated by ECB supplementation. Taken together, these results suggest that ECB protects against the mechanisms responsible for HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, and may involve the targeting of histone H4K acetylation.

  9. Siegesbeckia orientalis Extract Inhibits TGFβ1-Induced Migration and Invasion of Endometrial Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chang Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Type II endometrial carcinoma typically exhibits aggressive metastasis and results in a poor prognosis. Siegesbeckia orientalis Linne is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb with several medicinal benefits, including the cytotoxicity against various cancers. This study investigates the inhibitory effects of S. orientalis ethanol extract (SOE on the migration and invasion of endometrial cancer cells, which were stimulated by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ. The inhibitory effects were evaluated by determining wound healing and performing the Boyden chamber assay. This study reveals that SOE can inhibit TGFβ1-induced cell wound healing, cell migration, and cell invasion in a dose-dependent manner in RL95-2 and HEC-1A endometrial cancer cells. SOE also reversed the TGFβ1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition, including the loss of the cell-cell junction and the lamellipodia-like structures. Western blot analysis revealed that SOE inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and Akt, as well as the expression of MMP-9, MMP-2, and u-PA in RL95-2 cells dose-dependently. The results of this investigation suggest that SOE is a potential anti-metastatic agent against human endometrial tumors.

  10. Curcumin and Boswellia serrata gum resin extract inhibit chikungunya and vesicular stomatitis virus infections in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rhein, Christine; Weidner, Tatjana; Henß, Lisa; Martin, Judith; Weber, Christopher; Sliva, Katja; Schnierle, Barbara S

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever and has infected millions of people mainly in developing countries. The associated disease is characterized by rash, high fever, and severe arthritis that can persist for years. CHIKV has adapted to Aedes albopictus, which also inhabits temperate regions including Europe and the United States of America. CHIKV has recently caused large outbreaks in Latin America. No treatment or licensed CHIKV vaccine exists. Traditional medicines are known to have anti-viral effects; therefore, we examined whether curcumin or Boswellia serrata gum resin extract have antiviral activity against CHIKV. Both compounds blocked entry of CHIKV Env-pseudotyped lentiviral vectors and inhibited CHIKV infection in vitro. In addition, vesicular stomatitis virus vector particles and viral infections were also inhibited to the same extent, indicating a broad antiviral activity. Although the bioavailability of these compounds is rather poor, they might be used as a lead structure to develop more effective antiviral drugs or might be used topically to prevent CHIKV spread in the skin after mosquito bites.

  11. Ethanol extract of Elaeocarpus petiolatus inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in macrophage cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ok-Kyoung; Ahn, Kyung-Seop; Park, Ji-Won; Jang, Ha-Young; Joung, Hyouk; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Oh, Sei-Ryang

    2012-04-01

    Elaeocarpus petiolatus is known to exert active oxygen scavenging, anti-aging, and whitening actions. However, the biological effects of E. petiolatus on inflammation and the underlying mechanisms are yet to be established. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethanol extract from E. petiolatus (EPE) bark in murine Raw264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). EPE inhibited the production of PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner in Raw264.7 cells stimulated with LPS. The decrease in PGE(2) production was correlated with reduced COX-2 expression. Furthermore, EPE suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 as well as translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit from the cytosol to nucleus. Our results suggest that EPE exerts anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of inflammatory mediators, such as PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-1β, and downregulation of COX-2 via suppression of NF-κB translocation and phosphorylation of ERK, JNK, and p38 in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 cells.

  12. The Extract of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Inhibits Melanogenesis through the MEK/ERK Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Hsun Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing hyperpigmentation has been a big issue for years. Even though pigmentation is a normal mechanism protecting skin from UV-causing DNA damage and oxidative stress, it is still an aesthetic problem for many people. Bacteria can produce some compounds in response to their environment. These compounds are widely used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical applications. Some probiotics have immunomodulatory activities and modulate the symptoms of several diseases. Previously, we found that the extracts of Rhodobacter sphaeroides (Lycogen™ inhibited nitric oxide production and inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression in activated macrophages. In this study, we sought to investigate an anti-melanogenic signaling pathway in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH-treated B16F10 melanoma cells and zebrafish. Treatment with Lycogen™ inhibited the cellular melanin contents and expression of melanogenesis-related protein, including microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF and tyrosinase in B16F10 cells. Moreover, Lycogen™ reduced phosphorylation of MEK/ERK without affecting phosphorylation of p38. Meanwhile, Lycogen™ decreased zebrafish melanin expression in a dose-dependent manner. These findings establish Lycogen™ as a new target in melanogenesis and suggest a mechanism of action through the ERK signaling pathway. Our results suggested that Lycogen™ may have potential cosmetic usage in the future.

  13. Selected phytotoxins and organic extracts from endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae as light reaction of photosynthesis inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; Ruiz-Velasco Sobrino, María Emma; Meléndez-González, Claudio; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2014-09-05

    In a search for natural herbicides, we investigated the action mechanism of the naphthoquinone spiroketals, isolated from the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae: preussomerins EG1 (1) and EG4 (2), and palmarumycins CP17 (3), and CP2 (4) on the photosynthesis light reactions. The naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 inhibited the ATP synthesis in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids from water to MV, and they also inhibited the non-cyclic electron transport in the basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled conditions from water to MV. Therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors. The results suggested that naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 have two interactions and inhibition site on the PSII electron transport chain. The first one involves the water splitting enzyme inhibition; and, the second on the acceptor site of PSII in a similar way that herbicide Diuron, studied by polaroghaphy and corroborated by fluorescence of the chlorophyll a of PSII. The culture medium and mycelium organic extracts from four morphological variants of E. gomezpompae were phytotoxic, and the culture medium extracts were more potent than mycelium extracts. They also act as Hill reaction inhibitors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibition of prostate cancer growth by muscadine grape skin extract and resveratrol through distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Tamaro S; Hartle, Diane K; Hursting, Stephen D; Nunez, Nomeli P; Wang, Thomas T Y; Young, Heather A; Arany, Praveen; Green, Jeffrey E

    2007-09-01

    The phytochemical resveratrol contained in red grapes has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth, in part, through its antioxidant activity. Muscadine grapes contain unique phytochemical constituents compared with other grapes and are potentially a source for novel compounds with antitumor activities. We compared the antitumor activities of muscadine grape skin extract (MSKE), which we show contains no resveratrol, with that of resveratrol using primary cultures of normal prostate epithelial cells (PrEC) and the prostate cancer cell lines RWPE-1, WPE1-NA22, WPE1-NB14, and WPE1-NB26, representing different stages of prostate cancer progression. MSKE significantly inhibited tumor cell growth in all transformed prostate cancer cell lines but not PrEC cells. Prostate tumor cell lines, but not PrEC cells, exhibited high rates of apoptosis in response to MSKE through targeting of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase survival pathways. The reduction in Akt activity by MSKE is mediated through a reduction in Akt transcription, enhanced proteosome degradation of Akt, and altered levels of DJ-1, a known regulator of PTEN. In contrast to MSKE, resveratrol did not induce apoptosis in this model but arrested cells at the G(1)-S phase transition of the cell cycle associated with increased expression of p21 and decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 proteins. These results show that MSKE and resveratrol target distinct pathways to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in this system and that the unique properties of MSKE suggest that it may be an important source for further development of chemopreventive or therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  15. Grape seed extract inhibits in vitro and in vivo growth of human colorectal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manjinder; Singh, Rana P; Gu, Mallikarjuna; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2006-10-15

    Accumulating evidences suggest the beneficial effects of fruit-and-vegetable consumption in lowering the risk of various cancers, including colorectal cancer. Herein, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects and associated mechanisms of grape seed extract (GSE), a rich source of proanthocyanidins, against colorectal cancer. Effects of GSE were examined on human colorectal cancer HT29 and LoVo cells in culture for proliferation, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. The in vivo effect of oral GSE was examined on HT29 tumor xenograft growth in athymic nude mice. Xenografts were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for proliferation and apoptosis. The molecular changes associated with the biological effects of GSE were analyzed by Western blot analysis. GSE (25-100 microg/mL) causes a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition of cell growth with concomitant increase in cell death. GSE induced G1 phase cell cycle arrest along with a marked increase in Cip1/p21 protein level and a decrease in G1 phase-associated cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases. GSE-induced cell death was apoptotic and accompanied by caspase-3 activation. GSE feeding to mice at 200 mg/kg dose showed time-dependent inhibition of tumor growth without any toxicity and accounted for 44% decrease in tumor volume per mouse after 8 weeks of treatment. GSE inhibited cell proliferation but increased apoptotic cell death in tumors. GSE-treated tumors also showed enhanced Cip1/p21 protein levels and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage. GSE may be an effective chemopreventive agent against colorectal cancer, and that growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of GSE against colorectal cancer could be mediated via an up-regulation of Cip1/p21.

  16. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata Extract Prevents Bone Loss by Inhibiting Osteoclastogenesis in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Young Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone resorbing disorders such as osteoporosis, periodontitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, discovery of agents capable of suppressing osteoclast differentiation may aid the development of a therapeutic access for the treatment of pathological bone loss. Ampelopsis brevipedunculata has been used as herbal folk medicine to treat liver diseases and inflammation in Asia. However, its effects on osteoclast differentiation are unknown. We were aimed to investigate the anti-osteoclastogenic activity in vitro and in vivo and to elucidate the underlying mechanism of Ampelopsis brevipedunculata extract (ABE. In this study, ABE inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, the formation of filamentous actin rings and the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. ABE inhibited RANKL-induced p38 and IκB phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Also, ABE suppressed the mRNA and protein expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1 and c-Fos, and the mRNA expression of genes required for cell fusion and bone resorption, such as osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP, cathepsin K, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP, β3-integrin and osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (OC-STAMP. Furthermore, results of micro-CT and histologic analysis indicated that ABE remarkably prevented lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced bone erosion. These results demonstrate that ABE prevents LPS-induced bone erosion through inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and function, suggesting the promise of ABE as a potential cure for various osteoclast-associated bone diseases.

  17. Ethanolic extract of propolis inhibits atherosclerosis in ApoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yongqi; Sang, Hui; Yuan, Na; Sun, Hongli; Yao, Shutong; Wang, Jiafu; Qin, Shucun

    2013-08-13

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects and underlying mechanism of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE-/- mice. Eight-week-old male ApoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet were treated with EEP (160 mg/kg/d) or vehicle (the same dose) respectively for 14 weeks. The serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) were determined by enzymatic methods. Non-HDL-C was calculated as TC minus HDL-C. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-17 (IL-17), endothelin (ET), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Nitric oxide (NO) content was measured with an enzymatic nitrate reductase assay. Analyses of atherosclerotic lesions in whole aorta and aortic root sections were performed with plaque staining using Oil Red O. Compared with the vehicle-treated group, serum contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and non-HDL-C reduced significantly by 31.88%, 21.01%, and 27.11% respectively in the EEP-treated group. Administration of EEP decreased the level of IL-6 and increased the level of IL-17 in ApoE-/- mice with a high-fat diet. Compared with the vehicle-treated group,EEP significantly reduced the levels of ET and VEGF,and showed a trend to increase NO and inhibit iNOS. In the ApoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet, EEP significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion development in the aortic root and whole aorta. EEP can inhibit atherosclerotic lesion formation in ApoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet possibly through modulating cholesterol, regulating inflammatory reaction,inhibiting ET and VEGF, and protecting vascular endothelial cells.

  18. Corrosion inhibition of Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri leaf extracts on cast iron surface in 1 M HCl medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswari, Velayutham; Kesavan, Devarayan; Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Poonkuzhali, Kaliyaperumal; Palvannan, Thayumanavan

    2014-09-01

    The adsorption and corrosion inhibition activities of Eleusine aegyptiaca (E. aegyptiaca) and Croton rottleri (C. rottleri) leaf extracts on cast iron corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution were studied first time by weight loss and electrochemical techniques viz., Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the weight loss and electrochemical methods showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the extracts acted as mixed-type inhibitors. The addition of halide additives (KCl, KBr, and KI) on the inhibition efficiency has also been investigated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on cast iron surface both in the presence and absence of halides follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The inhibiting nature of the inhibitors was supported by FT-IR, UV-vis, Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and SEM methods.

  19. Allelopathic inhibition on red tide microalgae Skeletonema costatum by five macroalgal extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen AN; Zhenyu WANG; Fengmin LI; Zhijia TIAN; Hongying HU

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to identify effective antialgal allelochemicals from marine macroalgae that inhibit the growth of red tide-,microalgae. Practically, new algicidal agents were developed to control red tide. The growth inhibitory effects of 5 marinemacroalgae Porphyra tenera, Laminaria japonica, Ulva pertusa, Enteromorpha cla- thrata, and Undaria pinnatifida on Skeletonema costatum were evaluated by adding crude seawater extracts of macroalgal dry tissue into the culture medium containing S. costatum. The half-effective concentrations at 120 h (EC50, 120h) of the seawater extracts were 0.6, 0.9, 1.0, 1.0, and 4.7 g/L for the five macroalgae above, respect-ively. E. clathrata, L. japonica and U. pertusa showed strong allelopathic effect on the growth of S. costatum. There have been no previous reports with regard to the allelopathic effects of the former two macroalgae so far. The possible allelochemicals of 21 compounds of the E. clathrata were detected using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Unsaturated fatty acids, acrylic acid (C3H4O2), and linolenic acid (C18H30O2) were the most likely allelochemicals in E. clathrata.

  20. Inhibition of 12/15 lipoxygenase by curcumin and an extract from Curcuma longa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezáková, Lýdia; Košťálová, Daniela; Obložinský, Marek; Hoffman, Peter; Pekárová, Mária; Kollárová, Renáta; Holková, Ivana; Mošovská, Silvia; Sturdík, Ernest

    2014-02-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) is an orange-yellow secondary metabolic compound from the rhizome of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), a spice often found in curry powder. It is one of the major curcuminoids of turmeric. For centuries, curcumin has been used in some medicinal preparations or as a food colouring agent. A variety of enzymes that are closely associated with inflammation and cancer were found to be modulated by curcumin. This paper summarized the results of the inhibitory effect of curcumin and a Curcuma longa L. ethanolic extract on lipoxygenase from the rat lung cytosolic fraction. The positional specificity determination of arachidonic acid dioxygenation by RP- and SP-HPLC methods showed that in a purified enzyme preparation from the rat lung cytosol the specific form of lipoxygenase (LOX) is present exhibiting 12/15-LOX dual specificity (with predominant 15-LOX activity). The inhibitory activity of curcumin and Curcuma longa extract on LOX from cytosolic fraction of rat lung was expressed in the percentage of inhibition and as IC50. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis has indicated that curcumin is the competitive inhibitor of 12/15 LOX from the rat lung cytosolic fraction.

  1. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  2. COMPARISONS OF SOXHLET EXTRACTION, PRESSURIZED LIQUID EXTRACTION, SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION, AND SUBCRITICAL WATER EXTRACTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLIDS: RECOVERY, SELECTIVITY, AND EFFECTS ON SAMPLE MATRIX. (R825394)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extractions of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site were performed with a Soxhlet apparatus (18 h), by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (50 min at 100°C), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) (1 h at 150°...

  3. Antiviral activity and mode of action of propolis extracts and selected compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Paul; Neuner, Annett; Nolkemper, Silke; Zundel, Christine; Nowack, Hans; Sensch, Karl Heinz; Reichling, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous and ethanol extracts of propolis were analysed phytochemically and examined for their antiviral activity in vitro. Different polyphenols, flavonoids and phenylcarboxylic acids were identified as major constituents. The antiviral effect of propolis extracts and selected constituents, e.g. caffeic acid (1), p-coumaric acid (2), benzoic acid (3), galangin (4), pinocembrin (5) and chrysin (6) against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) was analysed in cell culture. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of aqueous and ethanol propolis extracts for HSV-1 plaque formation was determined at 0.0004% and 0.000035%, respectively. Both propolis extracts exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests, plaque formation was significantly reduced by >98%. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of propolis, the extracts were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Both propolis extracts exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity when the viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Among the analysed compounds, only galangin and chrysin displayed some antiviral activity. However, the extracts containing many different components exhibited significantly higher antiherpetic effects as well as higher selectivity indices than single isolated constituents. Propolis extracts might be suitable for topical application against herpes infection.

  4. Recurrent antitopographic inhibition mediates competitive stimulus selection in an attention network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dihui; Brandt, Sebastian; Luksch, Harald; Wessel, Ralf

    2011-02-01

    Topographically organized neurons represent multiple stimuli within complex visual scenes and compete for subsequent processing in higher visual centers. The underlying neural mechanisms of this process have long been elusive. We investigate an experimentally constrained model of a midbrain structure: the optic tectum and the reciprocally connected nucleus isthmi. We show that a recurrent antitopographic inhibition mediates the competitive stimulus selection between distant sensory inputs in this visual pathway. This recurrent antitopographic inhibition is fundamentally different from surround inhibition in that it projects on all locations of its input layer, except to the locus from which it receives input. At a larger scale, the model shows how a focal top-down input from a forebrain region, the arcopallial gaze field, biases the competitive stimulus selection via the combined activation of a local excitation and the recurrent antitopographic inhibition. Our findings reveal circuit mechanisms of competitive stimulus selection and should motivate a search for anatomical implementations of these mechanisms in a range of vertebrate attentional systems.

  5. Ligand-independent and tissue-selective androgen receptor inhibition by pyrvinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Minyoung; Otto-Duessel, Maya; He, Miaoling; Su, Leila; Nguyen, Dan; Chin, Emily; Alliston, Tamara; Jones, Jeremy O

    2014-03-21

    Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is a potent noncompetitive inhibitor of the androgen receptor (AR). Using a novel method of target identification, we demonstrate that AR is a direct target of PP in prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PP inhibits AR activity via the highly conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), the only AR inhibitor that functions via this domain. Furthermore, computational modeling predicts that pyrvinium binds at the interface of the DBD dimer and the minor groove of the AR response element. Because PP acts through the DBD, PP is able to inhibit the constitutive activity of AR splice variants, which are thought to contribute to the growth of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PP also inhibits androgen-independent AR activation by HER2 kinase. The antiandrogen activity of pyrvinium manifests in the ability to inhibit the in vivo growth of CRPC xenografts that express AR splice variants. Interestingly, PP was most potent in cells with endogenous AR expression derived from prostate or bone. PP was able to inhibit several other hormone nuclear receptors (NRs) but not structurally unrelated transcription factors. PP inhibition of other NRs was similarly cell-type selective. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, we demonstrate that the cell-type specificity of PP manifests in tissue-selective inhibition of AR activity in mice, as PP decreases prostate weight and bone mineral density but does not affect lean body mass. Our results suggest that the noncompetitive AR inhibitor pyrvinium has significant potential to treat CRPC, including cancers driven by ligand-independent AR signaling.

  6. Anticariogenic and Hemolytic Activity of Selected Seed Protein Extracts In vitro conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpesh B Ishnava

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the anticariogenic and hemolytic activity of crude plant seed protein extracts against tooth decaying bacteria.The proteins from seeds of 12 different plants were extracted and used for antimicrobial assay against six different organisms. The extraction was carried out in 10mM of sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0. Protein concentrations were determined as described by Bradford method. Anticariogenic activity was studied by agar well diffusion method and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC was evaluated by the two-fold serial broth dilution method. Hemolytic activity, treatment of proteinase K and Kinetic study in Mimusops elengi crude seed protein extract.The anticariogenic assay demonstrated the activity of Mimusops elengi against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes. A minor activity of Glycine wightii against Streptococcus mutans was also found. The protein content of Mimusops elengi seed protein extract was 5.84mg/ml. The MIC values for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes against Mimusops elengi seed protein extract were 364.36μg/ml and 182.19μg/ml, respectively. Kinetic study further elucidated the mode of inhibition in the presence of the Mimusops elengi plant seed protein with respect to time. The concentration of crude extract which gave 50% hemolysis compared to Triton X-100 treatment (HC50 value was 1.58 mg/ml; which is more than five times larger than that of the MIC. Treatment with proteinase K of the Mimusops elengi seed protein resulted in absence of the inhibition zone; which clearly indicates that the activity was only due to protein.Our results showed the prominence of Mimusops elengi plant seed protein extract as an effective herbal medication against tooth decaying bacteria.

  7. Corrosion inhibition of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution by henna extract: A comparative study of the inhibition by henna and its constituents (Lawsone, Gallic acid, {alpha}-D-Glucose and Tannic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostovari, A. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: A.Ostovari@gmail.com; Hoseinieh, S.M.; Peikari, M. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shadizadeh, S.R. [Petroleum Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hashemi, S.J. [Technical Inspection Engineering Department, Petroleum University of Technology, Abadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-09-15

    The inhibitive action of henna extract (Lawsonia inermis) and its main constituents (lawsone, gallic acid, {alpha}-D-Glucose and tannic acid) on corrosion of mild steel in 1 M HCl solution was investigated through electrochemical techniques and surface analysis (SEM/EDS). Polarization measurements indicate that all the examined compounds act as a mixed inhibitor and inhibition efficiency increases with inhibitor concentration. Maximum inhibition efficiency (92.06%) is obtained at 1.2 g/l henna extract. Inhibition efficiency increases in the order: lawsone > henna extract > gallic acid > {alpha}-D-Glucose > tannic acid. Also, inhibition mechanism and thermodynamic parameters are discussed.

  8. Corrosion inhibition of Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri leaf extracts on cast iron surface in 1 M HCl medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswari, Velayutham [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Kesavan, Devarayan [Department of Chemistry, Dhirajlal Gandhi College of Technology, Salem 636309 (India); Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli 620015 (India); Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy, E-mail: viswanathamurthi72@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India); Poonkuzhali, Kaliyaperumal; Palvannan, Thayumanavan [Department of Bio-Chemistry, Periyar University, Salem 636011 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Eleusine aegyptiaca and Croton rottleri are commonly available, less-toxic and eco-friendly inhibitors for cast iron corrosion. • The active constituents present in extracts adsorbed on the iron surface to inhibit the acidic corrosion. • The higher values of E{sub a} and ΔH{sup *} point out the higher inhibition efficiency noticed for the inhibitors. • Weight loss methods at various temperature and spectral data provides evidence for adsorption mechanism of inhibitors. - Abstract: The adsorption and corrosion inhibition activities of Eleusine aegyptiaca (E. aegyptiaca) and Croton rottleri (C. rottleri) leaf extracts on cast iron corrosion in 1 M hydrochloric acid solution were studied first time by weight loss and electrochemical techniques viz., Tafel polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the weight loss and electrochemical methods showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with inhibitor concentrations. It was found that the extracts acted as mixed-type inhibitors. The addition of halide additives (KCl, KBr, and KI) on the inhibition efficiency has also been investigated. The adsorption of the inhibitors on cast iron surface both in the presence and absence of halides follows the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The inhibiting nature of the inhibitors was supported by FT-IR, UV–vis, Wide-angle X-ray diffraction and SEM methods.

  9. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats’ Penile Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO, hydroxyl (OH scavenging abilities, and Fe2+-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe2+-induced MDA production in rats’ penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO∗, OH∗, chelated Fe2+, and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe2+-induced MDA production, and radical (OH∗, NO∗ scavenging and Fe2+-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction.

  10. Hydrophilic extract from Posidonia oceanica inhibits activity and expression of gelatinases and prevents HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, Emanuela; Ramazzotti, Matteo; Fratianni, Florinda; Pessani, Daniela; Degl'Innocenti, Donatella

    2015-01-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile is an endemic Mediterranean sea-grass distributed in the infralittoral zones, where it forms meadows playing a recognized ecological role in the coastal marine habitat. Although its use as a traditional herbal remedy is poorly documented, recent literature reports interesting pharmacological activities as antidiabetic, antioxidant and vasoprotective. Differently from previous literature, this study presents a hydrophilic extraction method that recovers metabolites that may be tested in biological buffers. We showed for the first time in the highly invasive HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cell line that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica was able to strongly decrease gene and protein expression of gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 and to directly inhibit in a dose-dependent manner gelatinolytic activity in vitro. Moreover, we have revealed that our extract strongly inhibited HT1080 cell migration and invasion. Biochemical analysis of the hydrophilic extract showed that catechins were the major constituents with minor contribution of gallic acid, ferulic acid and chlorogenic plus a fraction of uncharacterized phenols. However, if each individual compound was tested independently, none by itself was able to induce a direct inhibition of gelatinases as strong as that observed in total extract, opening up new routes to the identification of novel compounds. These results indicate that our hydrophilic extract from P. oceanica might be a source of new pharmacological natural products for treatment or prevention of several diseases related to an altered MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression.

  11. Hydroalcoholic extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its constituent carnosol inhibit formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, F; Ali-Beig, H; Farahbakhsh, S; Mojabi, N; Rastegar-Moghadam, B; Arbabian, S; Kazemi, M; Tekieh, E; Golmanesh, L; Ranjbaran, M; Jalili, C; Noroozzadeh, A; Sahraei, H

    2013-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROL) extract and its major constituent, carnosol in male NMRI mice (W:25-30 g) have been evaluated in the present study. Formalin (2%, 20 microL) was injected into the plantar portion of the hind paw and resulting pain and inflammation was studied for 60 min. The plant extract, carnosol and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously 30 min before formalin injection. In a separate experiment, the effects of the extract and carnosol on plasma corticosterone levels and activity of the enzymes cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2) were investigated. Injection of different doses of ROL and carnosol reduced pain in the phase 2 of the formalin test, which was not inhibited by naloxone and/or memantine. In addition, pretreatment of the animals with ROL and/or carnosol reduces the formalin-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the extract and carnosol did not affect plasma corticosterone levels compared with the control group. Interestingly, both the extract and carnosol inhibited COX1 and COX2 activity. It could be concluded that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin injection, which may be due to inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity.

  12. Anthelmintic activity of selected ethno-medicinal plant extracts on parasitic stages of Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarasingha, Rasika; Preston, Sarah; Yeo, Tiong-Chia; Lim, Diana S L; Tu, Chu-Lee; Palombo, Enzo A; Shaw, Jillian M; Gasser, Robin B; Boag, Peter R

    2016-04-01

    Parasitic roundworms (nematodes) cause substantial morbidity and mortality in livestock animals globally, and considerable productivity losses to farmers. The control of these nematodes has relied largely on the use of a limited number of anthelmintics. However, resistance to many of these these anthelmintics is now widespread, and, therefore, there is a need to find new drugs to ensure sustained and effective treatment and control into the future. Recently, we developed a screening assay to test natural, plant extracts with known inhibitory effects against the free-living worm Caenorhabditis elegans. Using this assay, we assessed here the effects of the extracts on motility and development of parasitic larval stages of Haemonchus contortus, one of the most important nematodes of small ruminants worldwide. The study showed that two of five extracts from Picria fel-terrae Lour. have a significant inhibitory effect (at concentrations of 3-5 mg/ml) on the motility and development of H. contortus larvae. Although the two extracts originated from the same plant, they displayed different levels of inhibition on motility and development, which might relate to the presence of various active constituents in these extracts, or the same constituents at different concentrations in distinct parts of the plant. These results suggest that extracts from P. fel-terrae Lour. have promising anthelmintic activity and that more broadly, plant extracts are a potential rich source of anthelmintics to combat helminthic diseases.

  13. In vitro activity of heather [Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull] extracts on selected urinary tract pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučić, Dragana M.; Petković, Miroslav R.; Rodić-Grabovac, Branka B.; Stefanović, Olgica D.; Vasić, Sava M.; Čomić, Ljiljana R.

    2014-01-01

    Calluna vulgaris L. Hull (Ericaceae) has been used for treatment of urinary tract infections in traditional medicine. In this study we analyzed in vitro antibacterial activity of the plant extracts on different strains of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Proteus vulgaris, as well as the concentrations of total phenols and flavonoids in the extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and ranged between 67.55 to 142.46 mg GAE/g. The concentrations of flavonoids in extracts were determined using spectrophotometric method with aluminum chloride and the values ranged from 42.11 to 63.68 mg RUE/g. The aqueous extract of C. vulgaris showed a significant antibacterial activity. The values of MIC were in the range from 2.5 mg/ml to 20 mg/ml for this extract. Proteus vulgaris strains were found to be the most sensitive. The results obtained suggest that all tested extracts of C. vulgaris inhibit the growth of human pathogens, especially the aqueous extract. PMID:25428676

  14. Differential activities of fungi-derived tannases on biotransformation and substrate inhibition in green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Joo Hyun; Suh, Hyung Joo; Cho, So Young; Park, Yooheon; Choi, Hyeon-Son

    2014-11-01

    Tannases are important enzymes in the antioxidant potential of tea leaves. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two tannases (T1 and T2) on biotransformation of tea polyphenols and antioxidative activities from catechins in green tea extract (GTE). The T1 tannase-catalyzed reaction was inhibited by the addition of >2.0% GTE substrate, whereas the T2-catalyzed reaction was not inhibited, even by addition of 5.0% GTE. Furthermore, the T1 tannase-catalyzed reaction was inhibited by addition of 10 mg mL(-1) EGCG, whereas the T2 tannase-catalyzed reaction did not display any inhibitory effect. These results indicate that T2 tannase was more tolerant than T1 tannase to substrate inhibition in degallation reactions. Specifically, the substrate EGCG (90,687.1 μg mL(-1)) was transformed into gallic acid (50,242.9 μg mL(-1)) and EGC (92,598.3 μg mL(-1)) after 1-h treatment with T2 tannase (500 U g(-1)). The tannase-mediated product displayed higher in vitro radical-scavenging activity than the control. IC50 value of GTE on ABTS and DPPH radicals (46.1 μg mL(-1) and 18.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) decreased markedly after T2 tannase treatment (to 35.8 μg mL(-1) and 15.1 μg mL(-1), respectively). These results indicate that T2 tannase treatment of GTE enhanced its radical-scavenging activity, an increase that was also observed in the reaction using EGCG substrate. Taken together, our results revealed that T2 tannase is more suitable for biotransformation of catechins in GTE than T1 tannase, and T2 treatment provides an enhanced radical-scavenging effect.

  15. Extraction and Binding Efficiency of Calix[8]arene Derivative Toward Selected Transition Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imdadullah Qureshi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have explored the extraction efficiency as well as binding ability of calix[8]arene derivative (3 for selected transition metal ions (Co2+, Cd2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+. Picrate salt solutions of these metals were used in the liquid-liquid extraction experiments. It is apparent from the results that ligand 3 shows appreciable high extraction of transition metal cations, with the relative order Pb2+>Cu2+>Ni2+>Co2+>Cd2+ being observed. Highest extraction efficiency has been observed for Pb2+ and Cu2+ i.e. 95 and 91% respectively. The significant extraction and complexation ability for these metal ions may be attributed to the nature, size, structure and geometry of both ligand and metal ions.

  16. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum Bud Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum, shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N‑hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract, swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract, pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract. This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  17. Rock Tea extract (Jasonia glutinosa) relaxes rat aortic smooth muscle by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Marta Sofía; Oliván-Viguera, Aida; Garrido, Irene; Langa, Elisa; Berzosa, César; López, Víctor; Gómez-Rincón, Carlota; Murillo, María Divina; Köhler, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    In traditional herbal medicine, Rock Tea (Jasonia glutinosa) is known for its prophylactic and therapeutic value in various disorders including arterial hypertension. However, the mechanism by which Rock Tea exerts blood pressure-lowering actions has not been elucidated yet. Our aim was to demonstrate vasorelaxing effects of Rock Tea extract and to reveal its possible action mechanism. Isometric myography was conducted on high-K+-precontracted rings from rat thoracic aorta and tested extracts at concentrations of 0.5-5 mg/ml. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments were performed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (line A7r5) to determine blocking effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extract relaxed the aorta contracted by high [K+] concentration dependently with an EC50 of ≈2.4 mg/ml and produced ≈75 % relaxation at the highest concentration tested. The L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker, verapamil (10(-6) M), had similar effects. Rock Tea extract had no effect in nominally Ca(2+)-free high-K(+) buffer but significantly inhibited contractions to re-addition of Ca(2+). Rock Tea extract inhibited the contractions induced by the L-type Ca(2+) channel activator Bay K 8644 (10(-5) M) and by phenylephrine (10(-6) M). Rock Tea extract and Y-27632 (10(-6) M), Rho-kinase inhibitor, had similar effects and the respective effects were not additive. Patch-clamp experiments demonstrated that Rock Tea extract (2.5 mg/ml) virtually abolished L-type Ca(2+) currents in A7r5. We conclude that Rock Tea extract produced vasorelaxation of rat aorta and that this relaxant effect is mediated by inhibition of L-type Ca(2+) channels. Rock Tea extracts may be of phytomedicinal value for prevention and adjuvant treatment of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Selective extraction of PAHs from a sediment with structural preservation of Natural Organic Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merdy, Patricia; Achard, Romain; Samaali, Ismahen; Lucas, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Selective extraction of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) without structural modification of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) from a heavily contaminated sediment was investigated using various solvents mixtures. Structural modification of the NOM was monitored after extraction using 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy. Better results were obtained with a 15-h PAH extraction under reflux with a dichloromethane/cyclohexane 20/80 mixture. The experimental procedure was validated with NOM standard materials before to be applied on natural sediments. It could be applied to any environmental solid sample such as sediments and soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 3-Hydroxypyridin-2-thione as novel zinc binding group for selective histone deacetylase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Vishal; Sodji, Quaovi H; Kornacki, James R; Mrksich, Milan; Oyelere, Adegboyega K

    2013-05-09

    Small molecules bearing hydroxamic acid as the zinc binding group (ZBG) have been the most effective histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) to date. However, concerns about the pharmacokinetic liabilities of the hydroxamic acid moiety have stimulated research efforts aimed at finding alternative nonhydroxamate ZBGs. We have identified 3-hydroxypyridin-2-thione (3-HPT) as a novel ZBG that is compatible with HDAC inhibition. 3-HPT inhibits HDAC 6 and HDAC 8 with an IC50 of 681 and 3675 nM, respectively. Remarkably, 3-HPT gives no inhibition of HDAC 1. Subsequent optimization led to several novel 3HPT-based HDACi that are selective for HDAC 6 and HDAC 8. Furthermore, a subset of these inhibitors induces apoptosis in various cancer cell lines.

  20. Evaluation of in vitro antioxidant potential anti-inflammatory activity and melanogenesis inhibition of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. extracts

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    Mahadeva Nayak

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. belongs to Moraceae family and is endemic to Western Ghats and Kerala in India. This species is found to be effective in traditional medicine for the treatment of ulcer diarrhea and pimples. However extensive biological evaluation on each component of this specific species rarely appears in the literature which restricts its applicability as medicinal herb. The leaf bark and wood of Artocarpus hirsutus Lam. were separately extracted with hot ethanol. The wood extract was further fractionated to isolate major active molecule whose structure was determined from its NMR spectra and LCMS analysis. All the extracts of A. hirsutus Lam. were then studied in vitro to evaluate their potential on tyrosinase inhibition free radical scavenging activity by 11-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl DPPH method and oxygen radical absorbance capacity ORAC. Furthermore their effects on melanogenesis inhibition were also evaluated by using murine melanoma cells. Activity guided fractionation of wood extract yielded a pure molecule that was characterized as oxyresveratrol. It was observed that antioxidant activity was higher in wood extract compared to the leaf and bark extracts. Isolated pure oxyresveratrol exhibited a significant antioxidant potential with ORAC value of 366532570 mol Trolox equivalentg and having an IC50 of 4.3 gmL for DPPH free radical scavenging activity. This molecule was found to be effective for the tyrosinase inhibition with an IC50 of 0.1 gmL and melanogenesis inhibition in cultured melanoma cells by 44.62 at 0.2 gmL. Oxyresveratrol also exhibited significant inhibition of lipopolysaccharide LPS induced tumour necrosis factor alpha TNF-amp945 secretion from J774A1 murine macrophage cell lines. This study provides substantial evidence for the presence of oxyresveratrol in the wood of A. hirsutus Lam. with promising anti-inflammatory antioxidant and skin lightening property.

  1. Selective extraction of nitroaromatic explosives by using molecularly imprinted silica sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordel, Sonia; Chapuis-Hugon, Florence; Eudes, Véronique; Pichon, Valérie

    2011-01-01

    Two molecularly imprinted silicas (MISs) were synthesized and used as selective sorbents for the extraction of nitroaromatic explosives in post-blast samples. The synthesis of the MISs was carried out with phenyltrimethoxysilane as monomer, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) as template and triethoxysilane as cross-linker by a sol-gel approach in two molar ratios: 1/4/20 and 1/4/30 (template/monomer/cross-linker). Non-imprinted silica sorbents were also prepared following the same procedures without introducing the template. An optimized procedure dedicated to the selective treatment of aqueous samples was developed for both MISs for the simultaneous extraction of the template and other nitroaromatic compounds commonly used as explosives. The capacity of the MISs was measured by the extraction of increasing amounts of 2,4-DNT in pure water and is higher than 3.2 mg/g of sorbent for each MIS. For the first time, four nitroaromatic compounds were selectively extracted and determined simultaneously with extraction recoveries higher than 79%. The potential of these sorbents was then highlighted by their use for the clean-up of post-blast samples (motor oil, post-mortem blood, calcined fragments, etc.). The results were compared to those obtained using a conventional sorbent, thus demonstrating the interest of the use of these MISs as selective sorbents.

  2. Selective activity of extracts of Margaritaria discoidea and Homalium africanum on Onchocerca ochengi

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    Nyongbela Kennedy D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current treatment of onchocerciasis relies on the use of ivermectin which is only microfilaricidal and for which resistant parasite strains of veterinary importance are increasingly being detected. In the search for novel filaricides and alternative medicines, we investigated the selective activity of crude extracts of Margaritaria discoidea and Homalium africanum on Onchocerca ochengi, a model parasite for O. volvulus. These plants are used to treat the disease in North West Cameroon. Methods Sixteen crude extracts were prepared from various parts of M. discoidea and H. africanum using different organic solvents. The filaricidal activities were determined in vitro. Cytotoxicity of the active extracts was assessed on monkey kidney epithelial cells in vitro and the selectivity indices (SI of the extracts determined. Acute toxicity of the promising extracts was investigated in mice. Results Four out of the 16 extracts showed microfilaricidal activity based on motility reduction, whereas, none showed macrofilaricidal activity based on the MTT/formazan assay. The methylene chloride extract of H. africanum leaves (HLC recorded the lowest IC50 of 31.25 μg/mL and an IC100 of 62.5 μg/mL. The SI for the active extracts ranged from 0.5 - 2.63. No form of acute toxicity was observed in mice. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of anthraquinones, sterols and terpenoids in the promising extracts. Conclusions The non-polar extracts of M. discoidea and H. africanum are potential sources of new microfilaricidal lead compounds, and the results support their use in traditional medicine.

  3. Selective pressurized liquid extraction for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klees, Marcel; Bogatzki, Corinna; Hiester, Ernst

    2016-10-14

    During this study a high throughout selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from soil. To that end, extraction rates of PCBs from soil utilizing different extraction solvents and different extraction temperatures were investigated whereas extraction rates were comparable for toluene, n-hexane and dichloromethane (extraction conditions for all utilized solvents: 33mL PLE extraction cell, extraction temperature: 110°C, static extraction time: 5min, flush volume: 60%, purge 90s). Ratios of native PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs congener concentrations after Soxhlet and selective pressurized liquid extraction (SPLE) showed that SPLE is an alternative sample preparation step for the simultaneous determination of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in soil. Additional clean-up steps for the separation of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs utilizing alumina were performed in order to avoid interferences between the component classes.

  4. Selective Solid-phase Extraction of Aloe Emodin from Aloe by Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Ming-lei; LEE Yu-ri; PARK Dong-wha; ROW Kyung-ho

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and separation of aloe emodin were optimized via selective molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.Molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared from the functional monomer,methacrylic acid and a mixture of ethanol/dodecanol(90/10,volume ratio) as porogen.It overcomes the common problems of imprinting biological polar compounds and shows high selectivity compared favorably with those of non-imprinted polymer and commercially available C18 and silica cartridges in similar aloe emodin tests.Good linearity was obtained between 0.002 and 2.5 mg/mL(r2=0.998) with relative standard deviations below 3.3%.

  5. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  6. The selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifene inhibits neutrophil extracellular trap formation.

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    Roxana Flores

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator typically prescribed for the prevention/treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Although raloxifene is known to have anti-inflammatory properties, its effect on human neutrophils, the primary phagocytic leukocytes of the immune system, remain poorly understood. Here, through a screen of pharmacologically active small molecules, we find that raloxifene prevents neutrophil cell death in response to the classical activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a compound known to induce formation of DNA-based neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs. Inhibition of PMA-induced NET production by raloxifene was confirmed using quantitative and imaging-based assays. Human neutrophils from both male and female donors express the nuclear estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ, known targets of raloxifene. Like raloxifene, selective antagonists of these receptors inhibit PMA-induced NET production. Furthermore, raloxifene inhibited PMA-induced ERK phosphorylation but not reactive oxygen species (ROS production, pathways known to be key modulators of NET production. Finally, we found that raloxifene inhibited PMA-induced, NET-based killing of the leading human bacterial pathogen, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Our results reveal that raloxifene is a potent modulator of neutrophil function and NET production.

  7. A Herpesvirus Protein Selectively Inhibits Cellular mRNA Nuclear Export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Danyang; Kim, Yong Hoon; Xiao, Yuchen; Du, Yushen; Xie, Yafang; Lee, Kevin K; Feng, Jun; Farhat, Nisar; Zhao, Dawei; Shu, Sara; Dai, Xinghong; Chanda, Sumit K; Rana, Tariq M; Krogan, Nevan J; Sun, Ren; Wu, Ting-Ting

    2016-11-09

    Nuclear mRNA export is highly regulated to ensure accurate cellular gene expression. Viral inhibition of cellular mRNA export can enhance viral access to the cellular translation machinery and prevent anti-viral protein production but is generally thought to be nonselective. We report that ORF10 of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), a nuclear DNA virus, inhibits mRNA export in a transcript-selective manner to control cellular gene expression. Nuclear export inhibition by ORF10 requires an interaction with an RNA export factor, Rae1. Genome-wide analysis reveals a subset of cellular mRNAs whose nuclear export is blocked by ORF10 with the 3' UTRs of ORF10-targeted transcripts conferring sensitivity to export inhibition. The ORF10-Rae1 interaction is important for the virus to express viral genes and produce infectious virions. These results suggest that a nuclear DNA virus can selectively interfere with RNA export to restrict host gene expression for optimal replication. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Modes of Inhibition of α-Amylase and α-Glucosidase by Aqueous Extract of Morinda lucida Benth Leaf

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    M. I. Kazeem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. The management of blood glucose level is the hallmark in the treatment of this disease. This may be achieved through the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs such as biguanides, insulin secretagogues, and α-glucosidase inhibitors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of Morinda lucida leaf extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase. This was performed using α-amylase from Aspergillus oryzae and α-glucosidase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aqueous extract of Morinda lucida gave the highest percentage yield (9.99% of the plant out of the three extracts (compared to acetone and ethanolic extracts and possesses the highest inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 value of 2.30 mg/mL and α-glucosidase (IC50 value of 2.00 mg/mL. Kinetic analysis revealed that the aqueous extract of this plant leaf inhibited the α-amylase competitively but displayed mixed noncompetitive mode of inhibition towards α-glucosidase. It can be concluded that aqueous extract of Morinda lucida exhibited the best inhibitory activity on the two enzymes studied and the presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, and tannins may have contributed greatly to the inhibitory activity of the plant extract.

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits in vitro biofilm formation capacity of Candida albicans isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Issam Alshami; Ahmed E Alharbi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the prevention of recurrent candiduria using natural based approaches and to study the antimicrobial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) extract and the biofilm forming capacity of Candida albicans strains in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract.Methods:In this particular study, six strains of fluconazole resistant Candida albicans isolated from recurrent candiduria were used. The susceptibility of fungal isolates, time-kill curves and biofilm forming capacity in the present of the H. sabdariffa extract were determined. Results: Various levels minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract were observed against all the isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 mg/mL. Time-kill experiment demonstrated that the effect was fungistatic. The biofilm inhibition assay results showed that H. sabdariffa extract inhibited biofilm production of all the isolates. Conclusions: The results of the study support the potential effect of H. sabdariffa extract for preventing recurrent candiduria and emphasize the significance of the plant extract approach as a potential antifungal agent.

  10. Grape seed and red wine polyphenol extracts inhibit cellular cholesterol uptake, cell proliferation, and 5-lipoxygenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifert, Wayne R; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y

    2008-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that grape seed and wine polyphenol extracts possess a diverse array of actions and may be beneficial in the prevention of inflammatory-mediated disease such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. This study aimed to determine whether the reported pleiotropic effects of several polyphenolic extracts from grape seed products or red wine would also include inhibition of cholesterol uptake and cell proliferation, and inhibit a known specific target of the inflammatory process, that is, 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX). Incubation of HT29, Caco2, HepG2, or HuTu80 cells in a medium containing [(3)H]cholesterol in the presence of a grape seed extract (GSE) or red wine polyphenolic compounds (RWPCs) inhibited [(3)H]cholesterol uptake by up to 66% (which appeared maximal). The estimated IC(50) values were 60 and 83 microg/mL for RWPC and GSE, respectively. Similar cholesterol uptake inhibitory effects were observed using the fluorescent cholesterol analogue NBD cholesterol. The inhibition of cholesterol uptake was independent of the sample's (GSE and RWPC) potent antioxidative capacity. Red wine polyphenolic compound and GSE dose dependently inhibited HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cell proliferation, which was accompanied by an increase in apoptosis. In addition, RWPC and GSE inhibited 5-LOX activity with the IC(50) values being 35 and 13 microg/mL, respectively. Two of 3 other GSEs tested also significantly inhibited 5-LOX activity. Inhibition of cholesterol uptake and proinflammatory 5-LOX activity may be beneficial in preventing the development of chronic degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer.

  11. Selective IRAK4 Inhibition Attenuates Disease in Murine Lupus Models and Demonstrates Steroid Sparing Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudhgaonkar, Shailesh; Ranade, Sourabh; Nagar, Jignesh; Subramani, Siva; Prasad, Durga Shiv; Karunanithi, Preethi; Srivastava, Ratika; Venkatesh, Kamala; Selvam, Sabariya; Krishnamurthy, Prasad; Mariappan, T Thanga; Saxena, Ajay; Fan, Li; Stetsko, Dawn K; Holloway, Deborah A; Li, Xin; Zhu, Jun; Yang, Wen-Pin; Ruepp, Stefan; Nair, Satheesh; Santella, Joseph; Duncia, John; Hynes, John; McIntyre, Kim W; Carman, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    The serine/threonine kinase IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)4 is a critical regulator of innate immunity. We have identified BMS-986126, a potent, highly selective inhibitor of IRAK4 kinase activity that demonstrates equipotent activity against multiple MyD88-dependent responses both in vitro and in vivo. BMS-986126 failed to inhibit assays downstream of MyD88-independent receptors, including the TNF receptor and TLR3. Very little activity was seen downstream of TLR4, which can also activate an MyD88-independent pathway. In mice, the compound inhibited cytokine production induced by injection of several different TLR agonists, including those for TLR2, TLR7, and TLR9. The compound also significantly suppressed skin inflammation induced by topical administration of the TLR7 agonist imiquimod. BMS-986126 demonstrated robust activity in the MRL/lpr and NZB/NZW models of lupus, inhibiting multiple pathogenic responses. In the MRL/lpr model, robust activity was observed with the combination of suboptimal doses of BMS-986126 and prednisolone, suggesting the potential for steroid sparing activity. BMS-986126 also demonstrated synergy with prednisolone in assays of TLR7- and TLR9-induced IFN target gene expression using human PBMCs. Lastly, BMS-986126 inhibited TLR7- and TLR9-dependent responses using cells derived from lupus patients, suggesting that inhibition of IRAK4 has the potential for therapeutic benefit in treating lupus. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Saffron Aqueous Extract Inhibits the Chemically-induced Gastric Cancer Progression in the Wistar Albino Rat

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    S. Zahra Bathaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Gastric cancer is the first and second leading cause of cancer related death in Iranian men and women, respectively. Gastric cancer management is based on the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. In the present study, for the first time, the beneficial effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. aqueous extract (SAE on the 1-Methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG-induced gastric cancer in rat was investigated. Materials and Methods: MNNG was used to induce gastric cancer and then, different concentrations of SAE were administered to rats. After sacrificing, the stomach tissue was investigated by both pathologist and flow cytometry, and several biochemical parameters was determined in the plasma (or serum and stomach of rats. Results: Pathologic data indicated the induction of cancer at different stages from hyperplasia to adenoma in rats; and the inhibition of cancer progression in the gastric tissue by SAE administration; so that, 20% of cancerous rats treated with higher doses of SAE was completely normal at the end of experiment and there was no rat with adenoma in the SAE treated groups. In addition, the results of the flow cytometry/ propidium iodide staining showed that the apoptosis/proliferation ratio was increased due to the SAE treatment of cancerous rats. Moreover, the significantly increased serum LDH and decreased plasma antioxidant activity due to cancer induction fell backwards after treatment of rats with SAE. But changes in the other parameters (Ca2+, tyrosine kinase activity and carcino-embryonic antigen were not significant. Conclusion: SAE inhibits the progression of gastric cancer in rats, in a dose dependent manner.

  13. Extracts of medicinal herb Sanguisorba officinalis inhibit the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jianguo; Chen, Jianping; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Zheng, Xiao; Nishiura, Kenji; Ng, Jenny; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Li

    2013-12-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been successful in reducing HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality since its introduction in 1996. It, however, fails to eradicate HIV-1 infection thoroughly. The high cost of life-long HAART and the emergence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected individuals have brought renewed pressure for the discovery of novel antivirals and alternative medicines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the mainstreams of complementary and alternative medicine, and serves as rich resources for new drug development. Despite almost 100 plant-derived compounds are in clinical trials, few target HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (SOE) has anti-HIV-1 activities. Using a cell-based assay and single-cycle luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with envelopes from HIV-1 or control viruses, we found that SOE exhibited significant inhibitory ability against both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 (ADA and HXB2) with respective IC50 values of 1.91±0.16 μg/ml and 3.70±0.53 μg/ml. Interestingly, SOE also inhibited SIV infection but failed to block vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), SARS-CoV and influeunza H5N1 pseudoviruses. Furthermore, we showed that SOE had no effects on post-entry events of HIV-1 replication. It blocked entry by acting on viral envelope directly because SOE pre-treatment with the virus but not with cell lines expressing viral receptors showed the maximal inhibitory activity. In addition, SOE was able to inhibit reverse-transcription-inhibitor-resistant viruses (K103N, Y188L, and K103N/Y188L/G190A) and a protease-inhibitor-resistant strain (PI-2840). Our findings demonstrated SOE as a novel and specific entry inhibitor, which shed lights on the discovery of anti-HIV-1 drugs from traditional herbal medicines.

  14. Oral infusion of pomegranate fruit extract inhibits prostate carcinogenesis in the TRAMP model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Siddiqui, Imtiaz Ahmad; Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul Kumar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2012-03-01

    We earlier provided evidence that oral consumption of pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) inhibits prostate cancer (PCa) cell growth in nude mice. To ascertain convincing evidence of chemopreventive effects of PFE against PCa, its efficacy requires to be evaluated in animal models that closely emulate human disease. Here, we provide evidence of remarkable tumor growth inhibitory effects of PFE using the TRAMP model. Mice received 0.1 and 0.2% PFE, equivalent to 250 and 500 ml of pomegranate juice, in drinking water, starting at 6 weeks and examined at 12, 20 and 34 weeks of age. In water-fed group, 100% mice developed palpable tumors by 20 weeks compared with only 30 and 20% in the 0.1 and 0.2% PFE-supplemented groups, respectively. At 34 weeks, palpable tumors were observed in 70 of 0.1% and only 50 of 0.2% PFE-supplemented mice. Compared with median survival of 43 weeks in water-fed mice, 0.1 and 0.2% PFE-supplemented mice exhibited median life expectancy of 73 and 92 weeks, respectively. Compared with respective water-fed groups, none of the mice in PFE-supplemented groups exhibited metastases to any of the distant organs at 20 weeks and only 20% mice exhibited metastasis at 34 weeks of age. Many of the PFE-supplemented animals had multiple foci of well-differentiated carcinoma but no evidence of poorly differentiated carcinoma. PFE supplementation resulted in simultaneous and significant inhibition of IGF-I/Akt/mTOR pathways in the prostate tissues and tumors. We suggest that pomegranate juice be evaluated in clinical trials in patients at high risk for developing PCa.

  15. Inhibition of glucose- and fructose-mediated protein glycation by infusions and ethanolic extracts of ten culinary herbs and spices

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    Jugjeet Singh Ramkissoon

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The higher rate of fluorescence generation by fructation suggests that glycation by fructose deserves much attention as a glycating agent. Data herein showed that the extracts inhibited GMG and FMG. Thus, these edible plants could be a natural source of antioxidants and anti-glycation agent for preventing advanced glycation end-products-mediated complications.

  16. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Potential, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of the Extracts from the Gametophyte and Archegoniophore of Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cao, Jianguo; Wu, Yuhuan; Wang, Quanxi; Xiao, Jianbo

    2016-03-17

    Marchantia polymorpha L. is a representative bryophyte used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for scald and pneumonia. The phytochemicals in M. polymorpha L. are terpenoids and flavonoids, among which especially the flavonoids show significant human health benefits. Many researches on the gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. have been reported. However, as the reproductive organ of M. polymorpha L., the bioactivity and flavonoids profile of the archegoniophore have not been reported, so in this work the flavonoid profiles, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of the extracts from the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were compared by radical scavenging assay methods (DPPH, ABTS, O(2-)), reducing power assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that the total flavonoids content in the archegoniophore was about 10-time higher than that of the gametophyte. Differences between the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were observed by LC-MS analysis. The archegoniophore extracts showed stronger bio-activities than those of the gametophyte. The archegoniophore extract showed a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition, while the gametophyte extract hardly inhibited it.

  17. Flavonoids, Antioxidant Potential, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activity of the Extracts from the Gametophyte and Archegoniophore of Marchantia polymorpha L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marchantia polymorpha L. is a representative bryophyte used as a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for scald and pneumonia. The phytochemicals in M. polymorpha L. are terpenoids and flavonoids, among which especially the flavonoids show significant human health benefits. Many researches on the gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. have been reported. However, as the reproductive organ of M. polymorpha L., the bioactivity and flavonoids profile of the archegoniophore have not been reported, so in this work the flavonoid profiles, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibition activities of the extracts from the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were compared by radical scavenging assay methods (DPPH, ABTS, O2−, reducing power assay, acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay and LC-MS analysis. The results showed that the total flavonoids content in the archegoniophore was about 10-time higher than that of the gametophyte. Differences between the archegoniophore and gametophyte of M. polymorpha L. were observed by LC-MS analysis. The archegoniophore extracts showed stronger bio-activities than those of the gametophyte. The archegoniophore extract showed a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibition, while the gametophyte extract hardly inhibited it.

  18. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

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    Tae-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell. Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr on ovariectomy- (OVX- induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

  19. Inhibition of residual n-hexane in anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes and microbial community shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Converting lipid-extracted microalgal wastes to methane (CH4) via anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to make microalgae-based biodiesel platform more sustainable. However, it is apparent that remaining n-hexane (C6H14) from lipid extraction could inhibit metabolic pathway of methanogens. To test an inhibitory influence of residual n-hexane, this study conducted a series of batch AD by mixing lipid-extracted Chlorella vulgaris with a wide range of n-hexane concentration (∼10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Experimental results show that the inhibition of n-hexane on CH4 yield was negligible up to 2 g COD/L and inhibition to methanogenesis became significant when it was higher than 4 g COD/L based on quantitative mass balance. Inhibition threshold was about 4 g COD/L of n-hexane. Analytical result of microbial community profile revealed that dominance of alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and syntrophic bacteria increased, while that of methanogens sharply dropped as n-hexane concentration increased. These findings offer a useful guideline of threshold n-hexane concentration and microbial community shift for the AD of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes.

  20. A selective electromembrane extraction of uranium (VI) prior to its fluorometric determination in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny, E-mail: ss-hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moazami, Hamid Reza [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Keshtkar, Ali Reza [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Banitaba, Mohammad Hossein; Nojavan, Saeed [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-06-14

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A method for fast and selective extraction of U{sup 6+} prior to fluorometric analysis. •Sample clean-up of U{sup 6+} water samples was done by electromembrane extraction (EME). •EME eliminated interfering effects of Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+} and Cl{sup −} ions. •EME reduced interfering effects of Mn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−}, considerably. -- Abstract: A novel method for the selective electromembrane extraction (EME) of U{sup 6+} prior to fluorometric determination has been proposed. The effect of extraction conditions including supported liquid membrane (SLM) composition, extraction time and extraction voltage were investigated. An SLM composition of 1% di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid in nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) showed good selectivity, recovery and enrichment factor. The best performance was achieved at an extraction potential of 80 volts and an extraction time of 14 minutes Under the optimized conditions, a linear range from 1 to 1000 ng mL{sup −1} and LOD of 0.1 ng mL{sup −1} were obtained for the determination of U{sup 6+}. The EME method showed good performance in sample cleanup and the reduction of the interfering effects of Mn{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Co{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Cl{sup −} and PO{sub 4}{sup 3−} ions during fluorometric determination of uranium in real water samples. The recoveries above 54% and enrichment factors above 64.7 were obtained by the proposed method for real sample analysis.

  1. Pentacyclic triterpenes in birch bark extract inhibit early step of herpes simplex virus type 1 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary Navid, M; Laszczyk-Lauer, M N; Reichling, J; Schnitzler, P

    2014-09-25

    Antiviral agents frequently applied for treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and its derivatives. The antiviral effect of a triterpene extract of birch bark and its major pentacyclic triterpenes, i.e. betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid against acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSV type 1 strains was examined. The cytotoxic effect of a phytochemically defined birch bark triterpene extract (TE) as well as different pentacyclic triterpenes was analyzed in cell culture, and revealed a moderate cytotoxicity on RC-37 cells. TE, betulin, lupeol and betulinic acid exhibited high levels of antiviral activity against HSV-1 in viral suspension tests with IC50 values ranging between 0.2 and 0.5 μg/ml. Infectivity of acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant HSV-1 strains was significantly reduced by all tested compounds and a direct concentration- and time-dependent antiherpetic activity could be demonstrated. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action, TE and the compounds were added at different times during the viral infection cycle. Addition of these drugs to uninfected cells prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells during intracellular replication had low effect on virus multiplication. Minor virucidal activity of triterpenes was observed, however both TE and tested compounds exhibited high anti-herpetic activity when viruses were pretreated with these drugs prior to infection. Pentacyclic triterpenes inhibit acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant clinical isolates of HSV-1 in the early phase of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Antioxidant properties of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, H J Damien; Bachmayer, Oliver; Kosar, Müberra; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2004-02-25

    Water-soluble extracts from black thyme (Thymbra spicata L.), savory (Satureja cuneifolia Ten.), Spanish oregano (Coridothymus capitatus (L.) Reichb. f.), sweet marjoram (Majorana hortensis Moench), Syrian oregano (Origanum syriacum L.), Toka oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz et P. H. Davis), and Turkish oregano (Origanum onites L.) were screened for antioxidant properties in a battery of six in vitro assays. Total phenol content and qualitative-quantitative compositional analyses were also carried out. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in each screen. The savory extract was the most effective at reducing iron(III), scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, inhibiting ascorbate-iron(III)-catalyzed hydroxyl radical-mediated brain phospholipid peroxidation, and site-specific hydroxyl radical-mediated 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation. The Syrian oregano extract was the most effective chelator of iron(II), while Spanish and Turkish oregano extracts were the most effective inhibitors of nonsite-specific hydroxyl radical-mediated 2-deoxy-d-ribose degradation. All the extracts contained Folin-Ciocalteu reagent-reactive substances, which was confirmed by the presence of polar phenolic analytes (i.e., hydroxybenzoates, hydroxycinnamates, and flavonoids).

  3. Design of a new cartridge for selective solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymers: selective extraction of theophylline from human serum samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Afshin Rajabi; Rashidpur, Amene

    2009-11-15

    This paper describes design of a new cartridge for selective solid phase extraction (SPE) using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). The apparatus which is termed solvent extraction-MISPE (SE-MISPE) cartridge, consisted of a modified conventional micro test tube and has been developed to perform simultaneous forward-extraction of analyte from aqueous sample solution to an organic phase and back-extraction to MIP solid phase. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, extraction of theophylline (THP) from human serum sample was investigated. An appropriate amount of THP-imprinted polymer was placed in the bottom of the micro tube and an organic solvent pipetted onto it and left to swell the polymer completely. A polyethylene frit to secure MIP particles was positioned by two Teflon rings such that it was fixed below the level of the organic layer. Then, aqueous sample solution containing THP was layered over the organic phase and the lid was closed. After completion of extraction, the organic and aqueous phases were removed and the adsorbed analyte was desorbed using a polar organic solvent. In order to reach the highest recovery, the experimental parameters such as the type of organic solvent, pH and ionic strength of aqueous phase, organic to aqueous volume ratio, time of extraction, type and amount of desorbent solvent were optimized. Under the experimental conditions, a plot of HPLC peak areas vs. initial concentrations of THP in the concentration interval of 0.5-30 microg ml(-1) showed a good linearity (r=0.9974). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) based on three and ten times of the noise of HPLC profile were 0.09 and 0.3 microg ml(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the proposed method for the extraction and determination of 5 microg THP from 200 microl standard sample solution for 3 replicate measurements was 3.5%. The results showed that by means of the proposed cartridge, THP could

  4. Cigarette Smoke Extract Inhibits the Proliferation of Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Augments the Expression of P21WAF1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongxian JIAO; Qilin AO; Xiaona GE; Mi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is intimately related with the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and alveolar epithelium is a major target for the exposure of cigarette smoke ex- tract. In order to investigate the effect of cigarette smoke extract on the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type Ⅱand its relationship with P21WAF1, the alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cell line (A549) cells were chosen as surrogate cells to represent alveolar epithelial type Ⅱ cells. MTT assay was used to detect cell viability after interfered with different concentrations of cigarette smoke ex-tract. It was observed cigarette smoke extract inhibited the growth of A549 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The morphological changes, involving the condensation and margination of nuclear chromatin, even karyorrhexis, were observed by both Hoechst staining and electronic mi-croscopy. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated the increased cell percentages in G1 and subG1phases after the cells were incubated with cigarette smoke extract. The expression of p21WAF1 protein and mRNA was also significantly increased as detected by the methods of Western blot or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction respectively. In conclusion, cigarette smoke extract inhibits the proliferation of alveolar epithelial cell type Ⅱ and blocks them in G1/S phase. The intracellular accumulation of P21WAF1 may be one of the mechanisms which contribute to cigarette smoke ex-tract-induced inhibition of cell proliferation.

  5. A Novel Role of Eruca sativa Mill. (Rocket Extract: Antiplatelet (NF-κB Inhibition and Antithrombotic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown the prevention of cardiovascular diseases through the regular consumption of vegetables. Eruca sativa Mill., commonly known as rocket, is a leafy vegetable that has anti-inflammatory activity. However, its antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities have not been described. Methods: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL, was evaluated on human platelets: (i P-selectin expression by flow cytometry; (ii platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and arachidonic acid; (iii IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 release; and (iv activation of NF-κB and PKA by western blot. Furthermore, (v antithrombotic activity (200 mg/kg and (vi bleeding time in murine models were evaluated. Results: Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract (0.1 to 1 mg/mL inhibited P-selectin expression and platelet aggregation induced by ADP. The release of platelet inflammatory mediators (IL-1β, TGF-β1, CCL5 and thromboxane B2 induced by ADP was inhibited by Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract. Furthermore, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract inhibited NF-κB activation. Finally, in murine models, Eruca sativa Mill. aqueous extract showed significant antithrombotic activity and a slight effect on bleeding time. Conclusion: Eruca sativa Mill. presents antiplatelet and antithrombotic activity.

  6. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition starting from extracts of Bauhinia variegata L., Bauhinia var. candida (Aiton Buch.-Ham., and Bauhinia ungulata L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilla Monteiro dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A treatment to the Alzheimer's disease consists inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for the acetylcholine control in the synapses. METHODS: We have investigated the potential of inhibition of the acetylcholinesterase produced by hexane extracts of leaves, branches, and flowers from three Bauhinia specimens, which is based on the technique of thin layer chromatography and on identifying the organ of the plant that possesses larger concentration of inhibitors. RESULTS: Retention factor analysis shows values of 0.31aA, 0.31aA, and 0.46aB for flowers B. variegata, B. var. candida, and B. ungulata, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The flower extract of B. ungulata is the most suitable for further studies on this inhibition.

  7. The inhibition of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume leaf extract on COX-2 expression of Wi Dr colon cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Agustina Setiawati; Handika Immanuel; Mery Tri Utami

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the inhibition activity of Typhonium flagelliforme Lodd. Blume(T. flagelliforme) leaf extract on cyclooxygenase 2(COX-2) expression of colon cancer cells.Methods: T. flagelliforme leaf extract was prepared to macerate in ethyl acetate. In vitro anticancer activity was assayed by MTT method on Wi Dr colon cancer cells. This study applied apoptosis induction assay to investigate the mechanism of cell death using double staining method. COX-2 expression was stained by immunocytochemistry.Results: T. flagelliforme showed anticancer activity and induced apoptosis on Wi Dr cells through inhibition of COX-2 expression with IC5070 mg/m L.Conclusions: This study showed that T. flagelliforme is a promising chemopreventive agent for colon cancer through COX-2 inhibition.

  8. Inhibition of Morganella morganii Histidine Decarboxylase Activity and Histamine Accumulation in Mackerel Muscle Derived from Filipendula ulumaria Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Yoko; Yasukata, Fumiko; Kitamoto, Noritoshi; Ito, Mikiko; Sakaue, Motoyoshi; Kikuzaki, Hiroe; Ueno, Hiroshi

    2016-03-01

    Filipendula ulmaria, also known as meadowsweet, is an herb; its extract was examined for the prevention of histamine production, primarily that caused by contaminated fish. The efficacy of meadowsweet was assessed using two parameters: inhibition of Morganella morganii histidine decarboxylase (HDC) and inhibition of histamine accumulation in mackerel. Ellagitannins from F. ulmaria (rugosin D, rugosin A methyl ester, tellimagrandin II, and rugosin A) were previously shown to be potent inhibitors of human HDC; and in the present work, these compounds inhibited M. morganii HDC, with half maximal inhibitory concentration values of 1.5, 4.4, 6.1, and 6.8 μM, respectively. Application of the extracts (at 2 wt%) to mackerel meat yielded significantly decreased histamine accumulation compared with treatment with phosphate-buffered saline as a control. Hence, F. ulmaria exhibits inhibitory activity against bacterial HDC and might be effective for preventing food poisoning caused by histamine.

  9. Inhibition of P2X7 Receptor by Extracts of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Spielmann; 顾全保; 马春辉; 黄成钢; 宣利江; Wolfgang Schwarz

    2008-01-01

    目的:探讨中草药石菖蒲粗提物SCP01及其纯化物SCP02(α-细辛脑)和迷迭香抽提物X0728对人肥大细胞的作用.方法:用膜片钳技术全细胞记录人肥大细胞膜ATP激活的P2X7受体的电流.结果:40μg/mL SCP01抑制P2X7电流(27.6±2.0)%,而同样浓度的SCP02抑制(29.5±2.2)%(-100 mV电位下),笔者还比较了商业用α-细辛脑的效厘,42 μg/mL可抑制P2X7电流(52.2±2.0)%.相反,40 μg/mL X0728激活P2X7电流(28.6±2.8)%,所有这些作用都是电压依赖性的.结论:α-细辛脑对P2X7的抑制将阻滞胞内钙的增加,从而可以解释抑制神经元死亡的原因.而X0728刺激P2X7的药理学效应尚需进一步研究.%Objective: To investigate the influence of Acorus gramineus (Soland), a crude extract, SCP01, and a purified component, SCP02, and of Rosmarinus officinalis L., X0728 on human mast cells (HMC-1 Cell Line). Methods: Current-voltage of P2X7 receptors on human mast cell membrane activated by ATP was recorded by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results: The current at-100 mV mediated by P2X7was inhibited by (27.6±2.0) % in the presence of 40 μg/mL SCP01 and by (29.5±2.2) % in the presence of 40 μg/mL SCP02, which was identified as α-asarone. 42 μg/mL of the commercially available α-asarone inhibited the P2X7-mediated current by (52.2±2.0) %. In contrast to SCP01 and SCP02, 40μg/mL X0728 provoked stimulation of the current by (28.6±2.8) %. All effects were voltage-independent. Conclusion: The inhibition of P2X7by α-asarone will inhibit intracellular calcium increase and this may account for the inhibition of reported excitotoxic cell death. The pharmacological function of P2X7stimulation by X0728 needs further investigation.

  10. Aqueous Leaf Extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae) Inhibits Enzymatic and Biological Actions of Bothrops jararaca Snake Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix-Silva, Juliana; Souza, Thiago; Menezes, Yamara A. S.; Cabral, Bárbara; Câmara, Rafael B. G.; Silva-Junior, Arnóbio A.; Rocha, Hugo A. O.; Rebecchi, Ivanise M. M.; Zucolotto, Silvana M.; Fernandes-Pedrosa, Matheus F.

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs), including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs), as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2). Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects, suggesting that

  11. Aqueous leaf extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae inhibits enzymatic and biological actions of Bothrops jararaca snake venom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Félix-Silva

    Full Text Available Snakebites are a serious public health problem due their high morbi-mortality. The main available specific treatment is the antivenom serum therapy, which has some disadvantages, such as poor neutralization of local effects, risk of immunological reactions, high cost and difficult access in some regions. In this context, the search for alternative therapies is relevant. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antiophidic properties of Jatropha gossypiifolia, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine to treat snakebites. The aqueous leaf extract of the plant was prepared by decoction and phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of sugars, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, terpenes and/or steroids and proteins. The extract was able to inhibit enzymatic and biologic activities induced by Bothrops jararaca snake venom in vitro and in vivo. The blood incoagulability was efficiently inhibited by the extract by oral route. The hemorrhagic and edematogenic local effects were also inhibited, the former by up to 56% and the latter by 100%, in animals treated with extract by oral and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. The inhibition of myotoxic action of B. jararaca reached almost 100%. According to enzymatic tests performed, it is possible to suggest that the antiophidic activity may be due an inhibitory action upon snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs and/or serine proteinases (SVSPs, including fibrinogenolytic enzymes, clotting factors activators and thrombin like enzymes (SVTLEs, as well upon catalytically inactive phospholipases A2 (Lys49 PLA2. Anti-inflammatory activity, at least partially, could also be related to the inhibition of local effects. Additionally, protein precipitating and antioxidant activities may also be important features contributing to the activity presented. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the potential antiophidic activity of J. gossypiifolia extract, including its significant action upon local effects

  12. Campomanesia adamantium Peel Extract in Antidiarrheal Activity: The Ability of Inhibition of Heat-Stable Enterotoxin by Polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Caroline Honaiser; de Oliveira, Ivan Pires; Zaminelli, Tiago; Baldivia, Débora da Silva; da Silva, Luan Ramos; Napolitano, Mauro; Silvério, Camila Bitencourt Mendes; Lincopan, Nilton; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet

    2016-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model. The possible inhibition exerted by the gallic acid of the peel extract on the STa peptide was inferred by molecular dynamics simulations. The antidiarrheal effects were investigated measuring cGMP accumulation in cells after stimulation by STa toxin and antibacterial activity was assessed. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. MTT and LDH assays were used to evaluate any possible cytotoxic action while the CyQUANT test was used to investigate the effect on cell proliferation. A representation showing how the possible interactions between STa and the gallic acid of the extract might reduce the action of the enterotoxin is presented. C. adamantium peel extract significantly decreased the levels of cGMP in T84 cells. However, no effect on the species of microorganisms was observed. The extract also inhibited COX-1 (IC50 255.70 ± 0.04 ng/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 569.50 ± 0.11 ng/mL) enzymes. Cytotoxicity assay have shown significant changes in cells treated with the extract, which inhibited the cell proliferation until 72 hours of treatment. Direct interactions of phenolic compounds present in the extract with the STa toxin may limit its activity. Curative effect in the diarrhea treatment and its anti-inflammatory action is based on the pharmacological properties, mechanism of action of the C. adamantium peel extract, and no toxic effects of the peel extract presented on this work.

  13. Campomanesia adamantium Peel Extract in Antidiarrheal Activity: The Ability of Inhibition of Heat-Stable Enterotoxin by Polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Caroline Honaiser; de Oliveira, Ivan Pires; Zaminelli, Tiago; Baldivia, Débora da Silva; da Silva, Luan Ramos; Napolitano, Mauro; Silvério, Camila Bitencourt Mendes; Lincopan, Nilton; Sanjinez-Argandoña, Eliana Janet

    2016-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium (Myrtaceae) is a medicinal plant distributed in Brazilian Cerrado. Different parts of this plant are used in popular medicine for treatment of several diseases like fever, diarrhea, hypercholesterolemia and rheumatism. The aim of this work was to evaluate the inhibition of heat-stable enterotoxin type A (STa) by gallic acid present in the peel of C. adamantium fruit and assays to assess the antidiarrheal activity, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic properties of peel extract using the T84 cell line model. The possible inhibition exerted by the gallic acid of the peel extract on the STa peptide was inferred by molecular dynamics simulations. The antidiarrheal effects were investigated measuring cGMP accumulation in cells after stimulation by STa toxin and antibacterial activity was assessed. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2. MTT and LDH assays were used to evaluate any possible cytotoxic action while the CyQUANT test was used to investigate the effect on cell proliferation. A representation showing how the possible interactions between STa and the gallic acid of the extract might reduce the action of the enterotoxin is presented. C. adamantium peel extract significantly decreased the levels of cGMP in T84 cells. However, no effect on the species of microorganisms was observed. The extract also inhibited COX-1 (IC50 255.70 ± 0.04 ng/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 569.50 ± 0.11 ng/mL) enzymes. Cytotoxicity assay have shown significant changes in cells treated with the extract, which inhibited the cell proliferation until 72 hours of treatment. Direct interactions of phenolic compounds present in the extract with the STa toxin may limit its activity. Curative effect in the diarrhea treatment and its anti-inflammatory action is based on the pharmacological properties, mechanism of action of the C. adamantium peel extract, and no toxic effects of the peel extract presented on this work. PMID:27764241

  14. A selective electromembrane extraction of uranium (VI) prior to its fluorometric determination in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Moazami, Hamid Reza; Keshtkar, Ali Reza; Banitaba, Mohammad Hossein; Nojavan, Saeed

    2013-06-14

    A novel method for the selective electromembrane extraction (EME) of U(6+) prior to fluorometric determination has been proposed. The effect of extraction conditions including supported liquid membrane (SLM) composition, extraction time and extraction voltage were investigated. An SLM composition of 1% di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid in nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) showed good selectivity, recovery and enrichment factor. The best performance was achieved at an extraction potential of 80 volts and an extraction time of 14 minutes Under the optimized conditions, a linear range from 1 to 1000 ng mL(-1) and LOD of 0.1 ng mL(-1) were obtained for the determination of U(6+). The EME method showed good performance in sample cleanup and the reduction of the interfering effects of Mn(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Cl(-) and PO4(3-) ions during fluorometric determination of uranium in real water samples. The recoveries above 54% and enrichment factors above 64.7 were obtained by the proposed method for real sample analysis.

  15. Selective extraction of berberine from Cortex Phellodendri using polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hai-Li; Peng, Shu-Lin; Sun, Jun; Liu, Yi-Ming; Zhu, Yuan-Ting; Qing, Lin-Sen; Liao, Xun

    2014-03-01

    A new extraction agent featuring dopamine self-polymerized on magnetic Fe3 O4 nanoparticles has been successfully synthesized and evaluated for the SPE of berberine from the extract of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant, Cortex Phellodendri. The nanoparticles prepared possessed a core-shell structure and showed super-paramagnetism. It was found that these polydopamine-coated nanoparticles exhibited strong and selective adsorption for berberine. Among the chemical components present in C. Phellodendri, only berberine was adsorbed by the nanoparticles and extracted by a following SPE procedure. Various conditions such as the amount of polydopamine-coated nanoparticles, desorption solvent, desorption time and equilibrium time were optimized for the SPE of berberine. The purity of berberine extracted from C. Phellodendri was determined to be as high as 91.3% compared with that of 9.5% in the extract. The established SPE protocol combined advantages of highly selective enrichment with easy magnetic separation, and proved to be a facile efficient procedure for the isolation of berberine. Further, the prepared polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles could be reused for multiple times, reducing operational cost. The applicability and reliability of the developed SPE method were demonstrated by isolating berberine from three different C. Phellodendri extracts. Recoveries of 85.4-111.2% were obtained with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.27-2.05%. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Arrabidaea chica Hexanic Extract Induces Mitochondrion Damage and Peptidase Inhibition on Leishmania spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A. Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently available leishmaniasis treatments are limited due to severe side effects. Arrabidaea chica is a medicinal plant used in Brazil against several diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5 fractions obtained from the crude hexanic extract of A. chica against Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Promastigotes were treated with several concentrations of the fractions obtained from A. chica for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. In addition, the effect of the most active fraction (B2 on parasite’s ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of B2 fraction on Leishmania peptidases, parasites lysates were treated with the inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of the B2 fraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration of B2 fraction was 37.2 and 18.6 μg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. infantum, respectively. Important ultrastructural alterations as mitochondrial swelling with loss of matrix content and the presence of vesicles inside this organelle were observed in treated parasites. Moreover, B2 fraction was able to completely inhibit the peptidase activity of promastigotes at pH 5.5. The results presented here further support the use of A. chica as an interesting source of antileishmanial agents.

  17. Arrabidaea chica Hexanic Extract Induces Mitochondrion Damage and Peptidase Inhibition on Leishmania spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Azevedo, Mariana M. B.; Chaves, Francisco C. M.; Alviano, Celuta S.; Alviano, Daniela S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently available leishmaniasis treatments are limited due to severe side effects. Arrabidaea chica is a medicinal plant used in Brazil against several diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of 5 fractions obtained from the crude hexanic extract of A. chica against Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum, as well as on the interaction of these parasites with host cells. Promastigotes were treated with several concentrations of the fractions obtained from A. chica for determination of their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, the effect of the most active fraction (B2) on parasite's ultrastructure was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. To evaluate the inhibitory activity of B2 fraction on Leishmania peptidases, parasites lysates were treated with the inhibitory and subinhibitory concentrations of the B2 fraction. The minimum inhibitory concentration of B2 fraction was 37.2 and 18.6 μg/mL for L. amazonensis and L. infantum, respectively. Important ultrastructural alterations as mitochondrial swelling with loss of matrix content and the presence of vesicles inside this organelle were observed in treated parasites. Moreover, B2 fraction was able to completely inhibit the peptidase activity of promastigotes at pH 5.5. The results presented here further support the use of A. chica as an interesting source of antileishmanial agents. PMID:24818162

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal compounds for selective inhibition of denitrification in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladan, Shiva; Jacinthe, Pierre-André

    2016-12-08

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an atmospheric constituent implicated in climate warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Both bacteria and fungi participate in N2O production, but information is lacking with regard to the relative contribution of bacterial and fungal denitrifiers to the denitrification process in agricultural soils. The selective inhibition (SI) technique is widely used to assess the contribution of different groups of microbes to soil processes, but success of the technique depends on the effectiveness of the inhibitors. In this study, laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the contribution of bacteria and fungi to denitrification using soils from a woodlot, agricultural fields under conventional plowing (PT), and no-till for either 50 years (long-term) or 11 years (medium-term). A selective inhibition (SI) technique was developed using two bactericides (streptomycin and bronopol) and two fungicides (cycloheximide and captan) applied at different rates (0-32 mg per g soil). Regardless of the application rate, streptomycin and cycloheximide were not effective inhibitors of denitrification, with a degree of inhibition only between 2 and 20% relative to controls. These results are significant given the wide use of these products in SI studies. However, the bactericide bronopol and the fungicide captan effectively inhibited denitrification, with the strongest inhibition observed at an application rate of 16 mg per g soil. The ratio of fungal to bacterial denitrification activity (F : B) was generally less than 1, indicating a dominance of bacteria in denitrification activity in the soils investigated. However, an increase in the F : B ratio from 0.24 in medium-term NT to 0.87 in long-term NT soils was noted, suggesting perhaps a progressive increase in the role of fungal denitrifiers with a longer duration of NT farming.

  19. Fractionation of five technical lignins by selective extraction in green solvents and characterization of isolated fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeriu, C.G.; Fitigau, F.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Frissen, A.E.; Stoutjesdijk, J.H.; Peter, F.

    2014-01-01

    Lignins from softwood, hardwood, grass and wheat straw were fractionated by selective extraction at ambient temperature using green solvents like acetone/water solutions of 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% (v/v) acetone and ethyl acetate. A comparison between the isolated fractions and unfractionated lignins

  20. Determination of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Soil and Sediment by Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction with Immunochemical Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A selective liquid pressurized extraction (SPLE) method was developed as a streamlined sample preparation/cleanup procedure for determining Aroclors and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in soil and sediment matrices. The SPLE method was coupled with an enzyme-linked imm...

  1. Selective extraction of carotenoids from microalga Dunadiella salina with retention of viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.A.; Lamarliere, de C.; Rocha, J.M.S.; Vermuë, M.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous production and selective extraction of -carotene from living cells of Dunaliella salina in a two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases has been investigated. Solvents with values of log Poctanol, which denotes hydrophobicity of a compound, ranging from 3 to 9 were used as organic

  2. Selective extraction of carotenoids from microalga Dunadiella salina with retention of viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.A.; Lamarliere, de C.; Rocha, J.M.S.; Vermuë, M.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Simultaneous production and selective extraction of -carotene from living cells of Dunaliella salina in a two-phase system of aqueous and organic phases has been investigated. Solvents with values of log Poctanol, which denotes hydrophobicity of a compound, ranging from 3 to 9 were used as organic p

  3. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-05-01

    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets.

  4. Novel biphasic separations utilising highly selective molecularly imprinted polymers as biorecognition solvent extraction agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Oliver K; Allender, Christopher J; Barrow, David A

    2006-10-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) represent a class of artificial receptors that promise an environmentally robust alternative to naturally occurring biorecognition elements of biosensing devices and systems. However, in general, the performance of conventional MIPs in aqueous environments is poor. In the study reported here, this limitation has been addressed by the novel application of MIPs as a solvent extraction solid phase in a biphasic solvent system. This paper describes a previously unreported use of MIPs as solvent extraction reagents, their successful application to aqueous sample media and the opportunities for utilisation of this unique system in novel biosensing and separation procedures. This study demonstrates the development of a novel biphasic solvent system utilising MIP in the extracting phase to enhance both efficiency and selectivity of a simple two phase liquid extraction. Monodisperse propranolol imprinted polymer microspheres [p(divinylbenzene-co-methacrylic acid)] were prepared by precipitation polymerisation. Initially, the affinity of the polymers for (R,S)-propranolol was assessed by established techniques whereby the MIP demonstrated greater affinity for the template than did the non-imprinted control polymer (NIP). Importantly, MIP performance was also assessed using the novel dual solvent system. The depletion of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase into the polymer containing organic phase was determined. When compared to control extractions containing no polymer the presence of MIP in the extracting solvent phase resulted in an increased extraction of (R,S)-propranolol from the aqueous phase. Importantly, this extraction was significantly greater in the presence of MIP when compared to NIP. This unique principle generates opportunities for MIP based extractions and chemical enrichments in industrial applications, offering commercial, ecological and practical advantages to traditional solvent extraction techniques. The

  5. Critical review of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sovilj Milan N.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, as a relatively new separation technique, can be used as a very efficient process in the production of essential oils and oleoresins from many of plant materials. The extracts from these materials are a good basis for the new pharmaceutical products and ingredients in the functional foods. This paper deals with supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected oil seeds which are of little interest in classical extraction in the food industry. In this article the process parameters in the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, such as pressure, temperature, solvent flow rate, diameter of gound materials, and moisture of oil seed were presented for the following seeds: almond fruits, borage seed, corn germ, grape seed, evening primrose, hazelnut, linseed, pumpkin seed, walnut, and wheat germ. The values of investigated parameters in supercritical extraction were: pressure from 100 to 600 bar, temperature from 10 to 70oC, diameter of grinding material from 0.16 to 2.0 mm, solvent flow used from 0.06 to 30.0 kg/h, amount of oil in the feed from 10.0 to 74.0%, and moisture of oil seed from 1.1 to 7.5%. The yield and quality of the extracts of all the oil seeds as well as the possibility of their application in the pharmaceutical and food, industries were analyzed.

  6. Linking selective chemical extraction of iron oxyhydroxides to arsenic bioaccessibility in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Wragg, Joanna; Cave, Mark

    2015-12-01

    The relationship between As bioaccessibility using the physiologically based extraction test (PBET) and As extracted by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HH), targeting the dissolution of amorphous Fe oxyhydroxides, is established in soils from the British Geological Survey Geochemical Baseline Survey of SW England, UK, to represent low As background and high As mineralised/mined soils. The HH-extracted As was of the same order of magnitude as the As extracted in the bioaccessibility test and proved to be a better estimate of bioaccessible As than total As (bioaccessible As - total As: r = 0.955; bioaccessible As - HH-extracted As: r = 0.974; p-values = 0.000). These results provide a means of estimating soil As bioaccessibility on the basis of the HH extraction. Further selective extraction data, using hydrochloride acid that seeks to dissolve both amorphous and crystalline Fe oxyhydroxides, indicates a decrease in the As bioaccessible fraction with the increase of the soil Fe oxyhydroxide crystallinity.

  7. Direction selectivity in the larval zebrafish tectum is mediated by asymmetric inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhinav eGrama

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of the direction of motion is an important computation performed by many sensory systems and in particular, the mechanism by which direction selective ganglion cells (DS-RGCs in the retina acquire their selective properties, has been studied extensively. However, whether DS-RGCs simply relay this information to downstream areas or whether additional and potentially de-novo processing occurs in these recipient structures is a matter of great interest. Neurons in the larval zebrafish tectum, the largest retino-recipent area in this animal, show direction selective responses to moving visual stimuli but how these properties are acquired is still unknown. In order to study this, we first used two-photon calcium imaging to classify the population responses of tectal cells to bars moving at different speeds and in different directions. Subsequently, we performed in-vivo whole cell electrophysiology on these direction selective tectal neurons and we found that their inhibitory inputs were strongly biased towards the null direction of motion, whereas the excitatory inputs showed little selectivity. In addition, we found that excitatory currents evoked by a stimulus moving in the preferred direction occurred before the inhibitory currents whereas a stimulus moving in the null direction evoked currents in the reverse temporal order. The membrane potential modulations resulting from these currents were enhanced by the spike generation mechanism to generate amplified direction selectivity in the spike output. Thus our results implicate a local inhibitory circuit in generating direction selectivity in tectal neurons.

  8. Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaf extract inhibits the growth of MDA-MB-231 tumors in nude mouse xenografts and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Min-Sook; Jeong, Kyu-Shik; Kim, Eun; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Hyeon-A

    2016-04-01

    The present study was conducted to examine the inhibitory effect of loquat leaves on MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation and invasion. Female athymic nude mice were given a subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation of MDA-MB-231 cells and randomly grouped to receive a s.c. injection of either 500 mg/kg ethanol, water extract or vehicle five times a week. Tumor growth, mitotic rate and necrosis were examined. MDA-MB-231 cells were cultured with DMSO or with various concentrations of loquat water or ethanol extract. Proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity were examined. Tumor growth of xenograft nude mouse was significantly reduced by loquat extracts. The results of mitotic examination revealed that loquat extracts reduced tumor cell division. Both ethanol and water extracts significantly inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell proliferation. The protein expression of ErbB3 was significantly down-regulated by loquat leaf extracts. Loquat leaf extracts increased apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells following 24 hour incubation and the ethanol extract was more potent in inducing apoptosis than the water extract. Furthermore, loquat extracts inhibited adhesion, migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. MMP activity was significantly inhibited by loquat extracts. Our results show that extracts of loquat inhibit the growth of tumor in MDA-MB-231 xenograft nude mice and the invasion of human breast cancer cells, indicating the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and invasion.

  9. Psoralea corylifolia L. Seed Extract Ameliorates Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in Mice by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunhui Seo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic beta-cell death is known to be the cause of deficient insulin production in diabetes mellitus. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of beta-cell death. In this study, we investigated the effects of Psoralea corylifolia L. seed (PCS extract on beta-cell death. Oral administration of PCS extract resulted in a significant improvement of hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PCS extract treatment improved glucose tolerance and increased serum insulin levels. To study the mechanisms involved, we investigated the effects of PCS extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in INS-1 cells. Treatment with PCS extract inhibited cell death. PCS extract treatment decreased reactive oxygen species level and activated antioxidative enzymes. Among the major components of PCS extract, psoralen and isopsoralen (coumarins, but not bakuchiol, showed preventive effects against H2O2-induced beta-cell death. These findings indicate that PCS extract may be a potential pharmacological agent to protect against pancreatic beta-cell damage caused by oxidative stress associated with diabetes.

  10. Antinociception produced by Thalassia testudinum extract BM-21 is mediated by the inhibition of acid sensing ionic channels by the phenolic compound thalassiolin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Olivier P

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs have a significant role in the sensation of pain and constitute an important target for the search of new antinociceptive drugs. In this work we studied the antinociceptive properties of the BM-21 extract, obtained from the sea grass Thalassia testudinum, in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The action of the BM-21 extract and the major phenolic component isolated from this extract, a sulphated flavone glycoside named thalassiolin B, was studied in the chemical nociception test and in the ASIC currents of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons obtained from Wistar rats. Results Behavioral antinociceptive experiments were made on male OF-1 mice. Single oral administration of BM-21 produced a significant inhibition of chemical nociception caused by acetic acid and formalin (specifically during its second phase, and increased the reaction time in the hot plate test. Thalassiolin B reduced the licking behavior during both the phasic and tonic phases in the formalin test. It was also found that BM-21 and thalassiolin B selectively inhibited the fast desensitizing (τ Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of an ASIC-current inhibitor derived of a marine-plant extract, and in a phenolic compound. The antinociceptive effects of BM-21 and thalassiolin B may be partially because of this action on the ASICs. That the active components of the extract are able to cross the blood-brain barrier gives them an additional advantage for future uses as tools to study pain mechanisms with a potential therapeutic application.

  11. Resistance to selective BRAF inhibition can be mediated by modest upstream pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fei; Bradley, William D; Wang, Qiongqing; Yang, Hong; Xu, Lizhong; Higgins, Brian; Kolinsky, Kenneth; Packman, Kathryn; Kim, Min Jung; Trunzer, Kerstin; Lee, Richard J; Schostack, Kathleen; Carter, Jade; Albert, Thomas; Germer, Soren; Rosinski, Jim; Martin, Mitchell; Simcox, Mary Ellen; Lestini, Brian; Heimbrook, David; Bollag, Gideon

    2012-02-15

    A high percentage of patients with BRAF(V600E) mutant melanomas respond to the selective RAF inhibitor vemurafenib (RG7204, PLX4032) but resistance eventually emerges. To better understand the mechanisms of resistance, we used chronic selection to establish BRAF(V600E) melanoma clones with acquired resistance to vemurafenib. These clones retained the V600E mutation and no second-site mutations were identified in the BRAF coding sequence. Further characterization showed that vemurafenib was not able to inhibit extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation, suggesting pathway reactivation. Importantly, resistance also correlated with increased levels of RAS-GTP, and sequencing of RAS genes revealed a rare activating mutation in KRAS, resulting in a K117N change in the KRAS protein. Elevated levels of CRAF and phosphorylated AKT were also observed. In addition, combination treatment with vemurafenib and either a MAP/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor or an AKT inhibitor synergistically inhibited proliferation of resistant cells. These findings suggest that resistance to BRAF(V600E) inhibition could occur through several mechanisms, including elevated RAS-GTP levels and increased levels of AKT phosphorylation. Together, our data implicate reactivation of the RAS/RAF pathway by upstream signaling activation as a key mechanism of acquired resistance to vemurafenib, in support of clinical studies in which combination therapy with other targeted agents are being strategized to combat resistance.

  12. Time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 by sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masubuchi, Yasuhiro; Kawaguchi, Yuki

    2013-11-01

    Drug-drug interactions associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are widely known. A major interaction by SSRIs is the inhibition of cytochrome P450 (P450)-mediated hepatic drug metabolism. The SSRI, sertraline, is also reported to increase the blood concentration of co-administered drugs. The potency of sertraline directly to inhibit hepatic drug metabolism is relatively weak compared with the other SSRIs, implying that additional mechanisms are involved in the interactions. The study examined whether sertraline produces time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 and/or other P450 enzymes. Incubation of human liver microsomes with sertraline in the presence of NADPH resulted in marked decreases in testosterone 6β-hydroxylation activities, indicating that sertraline metabolism leads to CYP3A4 inactivation. This inactivation required NADPH and was not protected by glutathione. No significant inactivation was observed for other P450 enzymes. Spectroscopic evaluation revealed that microsomes with and without sertraline in the presence of NADPH gave a Soret peak at 455 nm, suggesting the formation of metabolic intermediate (MI) complexes of sertraline metabolite(s) with the reduced form of P450. This is the first report indicating that sertraline produced time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4, which may be associated with MI complex formation.

  13. Interactions of extracts from selected chewing stick sources with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwamin Francis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin that activates a pro-inflammatory death of human monocytes/macrophages. A specific clone of this bacterium (JP2 has a 530-base pair deletion in the leukotoxin promoter gene and significantly enhanced expression of leukotoxin. This specific clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans is common in some African populations and has a strong association with periodontal attachment loss in adolescents in these populations. Chewing sticks of plant origin are commonly used as oral hygiene tool in Africa, but their role as a therapeutic agent in periodontal disease is poorly investigated. Results Ethanol extracts were made from 7 common plants used as chewing sticks in West-Africa. None of the tested extracts inhibited growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, extracts from Psidium guajava (Guava completely neutralized the cell death and pro-inflammatory response of human leukocytes induced by the leukotoxin. None of the six other tested chewing stick extracts showed this effect. Conclusions The discovery that extracts from Guava efficiently neutralizes A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxicity might lead to novel therapeutic agents and strategies for prevention and treatment of aggressive forms of periodontitis induced by infections with the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of this bacterium.

  14. Selective extraction and determination of chlorogenic acid in fruit juices using hydrophilic magnetic imprinted nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yi; Gao, Ruixia; Liu, Dechun; He, Gaiyan; Tang, Yuhai; Guo, Zengjun

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the novel hydrophilic magnetic molecularly imprinted nanoparticles were developed for selective separation and determination of chlorogenic acid in aqueous fruit juices. The polymers were prepared by using amino-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles as carriers, branched polyethyleneimine as functional monomer, and chlorogenic acid as template molecule. Branched polyethyleneimine with abundant active amino groups could react with template sufficiently, and its unique dendritic structure may amplify the number of the imprinted cavities. Meanwhile, it would improve the hydrophilicity of imprinted materials for attaining high extraction efficiency. The resulted polymers exhibit fast kinetics, high adsorption capacity, and favorable selectivity. In addition, the obtained nanoparticles were used as solid-phase extraction sorbents for selective isolation and determination of chlorogenic acid in peach, apple, and grape juices (0.92, 4.21, and 0.75 μg mL(-1), respectively).

  15. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  16. Selective extraction of actinides by calixarenes: application to bioassay analysis; Extraction selective des actinides par les calixarenes: application a l'analyse radiotoxicologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, B

    2006-01-15

    In the context of nuclear workers monitoring, the aim of this PhD was to selectively isolate U, Pu, and Am from urine to propose a new analytical procedure to the Medical and Biology Analysis Laboratories. The 1,3,5-OCH{sub 3}-2,4,6-OCH{sub 2}CONHOH-p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene molecule has been selected as a promising extractant for U, Pu, and Am. Its physico-chemical properties and its affinity for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} have been studied through two approaches, one theoretical (molecular modelling at DFT level), and one experimental. The extractions of the three actinides by the hydroxamic calix[6]arene were quantitative in liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Their separation has also been shown possible and efficient. After optimization, the proposed procedure should allow the laboratories to carry out the chemical treatment of urine, before the measurement, in one day instead of the three days needed nowadays. (author)

  17. Inhibition of human calcineurin and yeast calcineurin-dependent gene expression by Jasminum humile leaf and root extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Thomas A K; Ariño, Joaquín; Kite, Geoffrey C; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2012-03-27

    The leaves of Jasminum humile are used to treat skin disorders in a way which resembles the use of modern topical anti-inflammatory drugs. Ethanolic extracts of the roots and leaves were shown to inhibit calcineurin which is a regulator of inflammatory gene expression. A novel yeast calcineurin reporter gene assay suitable for a 96 well plate format was developed to test for inhibition of calcineurin-dependent gene expression. Calmodulin/calcineurin phosphatase assays were then used to further elucidate the mode of action of the extracts. Jasminum humile root and leaf extract exhibited calcineurin inhibition activity that was shown to be mediated through a direct interaction with calcineurin enzyme. The activity is sufficient to block calcineurin-dependent gene expression in a yeast model. The activity of the plant supports its traditional use in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders. The specially adapted yeast reporter assay was found to be a highly effective way of detecting calcineurin inhibitors in plant extracts. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Malabaricone C-containing mace extract inhibits safrole bioactivation and DNA adduct formation both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martati, Erryana; Boonpawa, Rungnapa; van den Berg, Johannes H J; Paini, Alicia; Spenkelink, Albertus; Punt, Ans; Vervoort, Jacques; van Bladeren, Peter J; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2014-04-01

    Safrole, present in mace and its essential oils, causes liver tumors in rodents at high dose levels due to formation of a DNA reactive 1'-sulfooxysafrole. The present study identifies malabaricone C as a mace constituent able to inhibit safrole DNA adduct formation at the level of sulfotransferase mediated bioactivation. This inhibition was incorporated into physiologically based biokinetic rat and human models. Dosing safrole at 50mg/kg body weight and malabaricone C-containing mace extract at a ratio reflecting the relative presence in mace, and assuming 100% or 1% uptake of malabaricone C-containing mace extract, the model predicted inhibition of 1'-sulfooxysafrole formation for rats and humans by 90% and 100% or 61% and 91%, respectively. To validate the model, mace extract and safrole were co-administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats. LC-ECI-MS/MS based quantification of DNA adduct levels revealed a significant (padduct formation by malabaricone C-containing mace extract in the liver of rats exposed to safrole. The data obtained were used to perform a refined risk assessment of safrole. Overall, the results suggest a lower tumor incidence when safrole would be tested within a relevant food matrix containing sulfotransferase inhibitors compared to dosing pure safrole.

  19. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Marcela Medeiros; Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  20. Extracts of Morus nigra L. Leaves Standardized in Chlorogenic Acid, Rutin and Isoquercitrin: Tyrosinase Inhibition and Cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Pedro Ribeiro; Souza, Paula Monteiro; William Fagg, Christopher; Neves Silva Guerra, Eliete; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla; Silveira, Damaris; Fonseca-Bazzo, Yris; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Homem-de-Mello, Maurício; Oliveira Magalhães, Pérola

    2016-01-01

    Melanogenesis is a process responsible for melanin production, which is stored in melanocytes containing tyrosinase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a target in the cosmetics industry, since it controls undesirable skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation due to the overproduction of melanin. Species of the Morus genus are known for the beneficial uses offered in different parts of its plants, including tyrosinase inhibition. Thus, this project aimed to study the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase by extracts from Morus nigra leaves as well as the characterization of its chromatographic profile and cytotoxicity in order to become a new therapeutic option from a natural source. M. nigra leaves were collected, pulverized, equally divided into five batches and the standardized extract was obtained by passive maceration. There was no significant difference between batches for total solids content, yield and moisture content, which shows good reproducibility of the extraction process. Tyrosinase enzymatic activity was determined for each batch, providing the percentage of enzyme inhibition and IC50 values obtained by constructing dose-response curves and compared to kojic acid, a well-known tyrosinase inhibitor. High inhibition of tyrosinase activity was observed (above 90% at 15.625 μg/mL). The obtained IC50 values ranged from 5.00 μg/mL ± 0.23 to 8.49 μg/mL ± 0.59 and were compared to kojic acid (3.37 μg/mL ± 0.65). High Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis revealed the presence of chlorogenic acid, rutin and, its major compound, isoquercitrin. The chromatographic method employed was validated according to ICH guidelines and the extract was standardized using these polyphenols as markers. Cytotoxicity, assessed by MTT assay, was not observed on murine melanomas, human keratinocytes and mouse fibroblasts in tyrosinase IC50 values. This study demonstrated the potential of M. nigra leaf extract as a promising whitening agent of natural source against skin

  1. Treating enhanced GABAergic inhibition in Down syndrome: use of GABA α5-selective inverse agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Cué, Carmen; Delatour, Benoît; Potier, Marie-Claude

    2014-10-01

    Excess inhibition in the brain of individuals carrying an extra copy of chromosome 21 could be responsible for cognitive deficits observed throughout their lives. A change in the excitatory/inhibitory balance in adulthood would alter synaptic plasticity, potentially triggering learning and memory deficits. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system and binds to GABAA receptors, opens a chloride channel, and reduces neuronal excitability. In this review we discuss methods to alleviate neuronal inhibition in a mouse model of Down syndrome, the Ts65Dn mouse, using either an antagonist (pentylenetetrazol) or two different inverse agonists selective for the α5-subunit containing receptor. Both inverse agonists, which reduce inhibitory GABAergic transmission, could rescue learning and memory deficits in Ts65Dn mice. We also discuss safety issues since modulation of the excitatory-inhibitory balance to improve cognition without inducing seizures remains particularly difficult when using GABA antagonists.

  2. Aluminium and hydrogen ions inhibit a mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J. P.; Pickard, B. G.

    1993-01-01

    The tension-dependent activity of mechanosensory calcium-selective cation channels in excised plasmalemmal patches from onion bulb scale epidermis is modulated by pH in the physiologically meaningful range between 4.5 and 7.2. It is rapidly lowered by lowering pH and rapidly raised by raising pH. Channel activity is effectively inhibited by low levels of aluminium ions and activity can be partially restored by washing for a few minutes. We suggest that under normal conditions the sensitivity of the mechanosensory channels to pH of the wall free space plays important roles in regulation of plant activities such as growth. We further suggest that, when levels of acid and aluminium ions in the soil solution are high, they might inhibit similar sensory channels in cells of the root tip, thus contributing critically to the acid soil syndrome.

  3. Sansanmycin natural product analogues as potent and selective anti-mycobacterials that inhibit lipid I biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T.; Watson, Emma E.; Pujari, Venugopal; Conroy, Trent; Dowman, Luke J.; Giltrap, Andrew M.; Pang, Angel; Wong, Weng Ruh; Linington, Roger G.; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Saunders, Jessica; Charman, Susan A.; West, Nicholas P.; Bugg, Timothy D. H.; Tod, Julie; Dowson, Christopher G.; Roper, David I.; Crick, Dean C.; Britton, Warwick J.; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is responsible for enormous global morbidity and mortality, and current treatment regimens rely on the use of drugs that have been in use for more than 40 years. Owing to widespread resistance to these therapies, new drugs are desperately needed to control the TB disease burden. Herein, we describe the rapid synthesis of analogues of the sansanmycin uridylpeptide natural products that represent promising new TB drug leads. The compounds exhibit potent and selective inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological agent of TB, both in vitro and intracellularly. The natural product analogues are nanomolar inhibitors of Mtb phospho-MurNAc-pentapeptide translocase, the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of lipid I in mycobacteria. This work lays the foundation for the development of uridylpeptide natural product analogues as new TB drug candidates that operate through the inhibition of peptidoglycan biosynthesis.

  4. Glucagon Amyloid-like Fibril Morphology Is Selected via Morphology-Dependent Growth Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.B.; Otzen, D.; Christiansen, Gunna

    2007-01-01

    concentrations, we find that the lag time has an unexpected maximum at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, with faster fibrillation at both lower and higher concentrations. Seeding experiments show that small amounts of straight fibril seeds can accelerate fibril growth at both low and high glucagon concentration, while...... twisted fibril seeds cannot grow at high concentrations. We conclude that there exists a morphology-dependent mechanism for inhibition of glucagon fibril growth. Light scattering experiments indicate that glucagon is mainly monomeric below 1 mg/mL and increasingly trimeric above this concentration. We...... propose that the glucagon trimer is able to specifically inhibit growth of the twisted fibril morphology. Such inhibitory binding of molecules in an unproductive conformation could also play a role in the selection of morphologies for other fibril-forming peptides and proteins....

  5. Vellozia flavicans Mart. ex Schult. hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Snakebite is a significant public health issue in tropical countries. In Brazil, some of the most common snake envenomations are from Bothrops. Bothrops bites trigger local and systemic effects including edema, pain, erythema, cyanosis, infections, and necrosis. Vellozia flavicans is a plant from the Brazilian “cerrado” (savanna) that is popularly used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Since inflammation develops quickly after Bothrops bites, which can lead to infection, the aim of the present study was to observe possible anti-snake venom and antimicrobial activities of V. flavicans (Vf). Methods The chromatographic profile of the main constituents from the Vf leaf hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf’s ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). After a 20 min incubation, preparations of PND were added to Tyrode’s solution (control); Vf (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL); 40 μg/mL Bjssu; pre-incubation for 30 min with Bjssu and 1 mg/mL Vf; and a Bjssu pretreated preparation (for 10 min) followed by 1 mg/mL Vf. Myographic recording was performed, and the contractile responses were recorded. The antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]) was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis, using gentamicin and vancomycin as positive controls. Results TLC analysis yielded several compounds from Vf, such as flavonoids (quercetin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Bjssu completely blocked the contractile responses of PND preparations, while Vf preserved 97% (±10%) of the contractile responses when incubated with Bjssu. In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. MIC and MBC of Vf ranged

  6. Phytotoxicity analysis of extracts from compost and their ability to inhibit soil-borne pathogenic fungi and reduce root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dabing; Raza, Waseem; Yu, Guanghui; Zhao, Qingyun; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2012-03-01

    Compost extracts are novel organic amendments, typically applied to suppress soil-borne diseases. This research evaluated the phytotoxicity of compost extracts and analyzed their ability to inhibit pathogenic fungal growth and reduce root-knot nematodes. The physical, chemical and biological characteristics of extracts from a pig manure and straw compost were analyzed. Three types of extracts were tested: direct extracts of compost (DEC), aerated fermentation extracts of compost (AFEC) and non-aerated fermentation extracts of compost (NAFEC). All compost extracts showed low phytotoxicity against lettuce and cress, but AFEC and NAFEC were more phytotoxic than DEC. All compost extracts significantly inhibited pathogenic fungal growth except for the fungus Rhizoctonia solania AG4. For two seasons, tomato root biomass of three compost extracts was 1.25-5.67 times greater than CK (water control), and AFEC and NAFEC showed the best tomato root growth promotion. The reduction ratio of root egg mass and density of soil nematodes were 34.51-87.77% and 30.92-51.37%, when applied with three compost extracts. The microbial population in compost extracts was considered to be the most significant factor of inhibition pathogenic fungal growth. No markedly correlations among bacterial community diversity, the inhibition of pathogenic fungal growth and the reduction of root-knot nematodes were observed. This information adds to the understanding of the growth-promoting and suppression effects of compost extracts and will help to enhance crop production.

  7. Selective Separation of Fluorite, Barite and Calcite with Valonea Extract and Sodium Fluosilicate as Depressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijie Ren

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluorite, barite and calcite are important industry minerals. However, they often co-exist, presenting difficulty in selectively separating them due to their similar surface properties. In this study, valonea extract and sodium fluosilicate were used as depressants to selectively separate them by flotation, with sodium oleate as the collector. The single mineral flotation results showed that valonea extract displayed the strongest depression on calcite, while sodium fluosilicate displayed the strongest depression on barite. These two depressants allowed selective separation of the three minerals through sequential flotation. The flotation of mixed minerals showed that 94% of the calcite was successfully depressed by the valonea extract, and 95% recovery of the fluorite was achieved in the subsequent flotation with sodium fluosilicate depressing barite. The different depressant–mineral interactions were investigated via electro-kinetic studies and molecular dynamics (MD simulations using the Materials Studio 6.0 program. The valonea extract exhibited the strongest adsorption on the calcite surface, and sodium fluosilicate exhibited the strongest adsorption on the barite surface, which prevented oleate species from reacting with Ca2+ or Ba2+ surface sites. This study provides useful guidance for how to process fluorite, barite and calcite resources.

  8. Effect of Ganoderma applanatum mycelium extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Sung-Jin; Yu, Mi-Hee; Lee, Sam-Pin

    2014-10-01

    Ganoderma applanatum (GA) and related fungal species have been used for over 2000 years in China to prevent and treat various human diseases. However, there is no critical research evaluating the functionality of GA grown using submerged culture technology. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of submerged culture GA mycelium (GAM) and its active components (protocatechualdehyde [PCA]) on preadipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. Mouse-derived preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells were treated with differentiation inducers in the presence or absence of GAM extracts. We determined triglyceride accumulations, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activities, and differentiation makers. PCA, the active component of GAM extract, was also used to treat 3T3-L1 cells. The MTT assay showed that the GAM extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) was not toxic to 3T3-L1 preadipocyte. Treatment of cells with GAM extracts and its active components significantly decreased the GPDH activity and lipid accumulation, a marker of adipogenesis, in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis results showed that the protein expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) were inhibited by the GAM extract. In addition, adipogenic-specific genes such as perilipin, fatty acid synthase (FAS), fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the GAM extract contained 1.14 mg/g PCA. GAM extracts suppressed differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, in part, through altered regulation of PPARγ, C/EBPα, and SREBP1. These results suggest that GAM extracts and PCA may suppress adipogenesis by inhibiting differentiation of preadipocytes.

  9. Evaluation of the Inhibition of Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes, the Antioxidant Activity, and the Polyphenolic Content of Citrus limetta Peel Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Padilla-Camberos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most frequent causes of death in Mexico, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. One alternative strategy for this metabolic abnormality is inhibiting the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates. We evaluated whether the aqueous Citrus limetta peel extract could inhibit the metabolism of carbohydrates. We found that this extract inhibited primarily the enzyme α-amylase by 49.6% at a concentration of 20 mg/mL and to a lesser extent the enzyme α-glucosidase with an inhibition of 28.2% at the same concentration. This inhibition is likely due to the high polyphenol content in the Citrus limetta peel (19.1 mg GAE/g. Antioxidant activity of the Citrus limetta peel demonstrated dose-dependent antioxidant activity, varying from 6.5% at 1.125 mg/mL to 42.5% at 20 mg/mL. The study of these polyphenolic compounds having both antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activities may provide a new approach to the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. Selective Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Protects against Neurodegeneration in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Justin; Pryce, Gareth; Hill, Julia M.; Shi, Xiao; Lennerås, Felicia; Puentes, Fabiola; Kip, Maarten; Hilditch, Laura; Walker, Paul; Simone, Michela I.; Chan, A. W. Edith; Towers, Greg J.; Coker, Alun R.; Duchen, Michael R.; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Baker, David; Selwood, David L.

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a recognized drug target for neurodegenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis and for ischemia-reperfusion injury in the brain and heart. The peptidylprolyl isomerase, cyclophilin D (CypD, PPIF), is a positive regulator of the pore, and genetic down-regulation or knock-out improves outcomes in disease models. Current inhibitors of peptidylprolyl isomerases show no selectivity between the tightly conserved cyclophilin paralogs and exhibit significant off-target effects, immunosuppression, and toxicity. We therefore designed and synthesized a new mitochondrially targeted CypD inhibitor, JW47, using a quinolinium cation tethered to cyclosporine. X-ray analysis was used to validate the design concept, and biological evaluation revealed selective cellular inhibition of CypD and the permeability transition pore with reduced cellular toxicity compared with cyclosporine. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease model of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis, JW47 demonstrated significant protection of axons and improved motor assessments with minimal immunosuppression. These findings suggest that selective CypD inhibition may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for MS and identify quinolinium as a mitochondrial targeting group for in vivo use. PMID:26679998

  11. Selective Inhibition of the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore Protects against Neurodegeneration in Experimental Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warne, Justin; Pryce, Gareth; Hill, Julia M; Shi, Xiao; Lennerås, Felicia; Puentes, Fabiola; Kip, Maarten; Hilditch, Laura; Walker, Paul; Simone, Michela I; Chan, A W Edith; Towers, Greg J; Coker, Alun R; Duchen, Michael R; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Baker, David; Selwood, David L

    2016-02-26

    The mitochondrial permeability transition pore is a recognized drug target for neurodegenerative conditions such as multiple sclerosis and for ischemia-reperfusion injury in the brain and heart. The peptidylprolyl isomerase, cyclophilin D (CypD, PPIF), is a positive regulator of the pore, and genetic down-regulation or knock-out improves outcomes in disease models. Current inhibitors of peptidylprolyl isomerases show no selectivity between the tightly conserved cyclophilin paralogs and exhibit significant off-target effects, immunosuppression, and toxicity. We therefore designed and synthesized a new mitochondrially targeted CypD inhibitor, JW47, using a quinolinium cation tethered to cyclosporine. X-ray analysis was used to validate the design concept, and biological evaluation revealed selective cellular inhibition of CypD and the permeability transition pore with reduced cellular toxicity compared with cyclosporine. In an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease model of neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis, JW47 demonstrated significant protection of axons and improved motor assessments with minimal immunosuppression. These findings suggest that selective CypD inhibition may represent a viable therapeutic strategy for MS and identify quinolinium as a mitochondrial targeting group for in vivo use.

  12. Substrate-selective COX-2 inhibition decreases anxiety via endocannabinoid activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanson, Daniel J; Hartley, Nolan D; Gamble-George, Joyonna; Brown, Naoko; Shonesy, Brian C; Kingsley, Phillip J; Colbran, Roger J; Reese, Jeffrey; Marnett, Lawrence J; Patel, Sachin

    2013-09-01

    Augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling represents an emerging approach to the treatment of affective disorders. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) oxygenates arachidonic acid to form prostaglandins, but also inactivates eCBs in vitro. However, the viability of COX-2 as a therapeutic target for in vivo eCB augmentation has not been explored. Using medicinal chemistry and in vivo analytical and behavioral pharmacological approaches, we found that COX-2 is important for the regulation of eCB levels in vivo. We used a pharmacological strategy involving substrate-selective inhibition of COX-2 to augment eCB signaling without affecting related non-eCB lipids or prostaglandin synthesis. Behaviorally, substrate-selective inhibition of COX-2 reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice via increased eCB signaling. Our data suggest a key role for COX-2 in the regulation of eCB signaling and indicate that substrate-selective pharmacology represents a viable approach for eCB augmentation with broad therapeutic potential.

  13. Phenolic Extract from Moringa oleifera Leaves Inhibits Key Enzymes Linked to Erectile Dysfunction and Oxidative Stress in Rats' Penile Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O; Ademosun, Ayokunle O; Olasehinde, Tosin A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the antioxidant properties and inhibitory effects of extract from Moringa oleifera leaves on angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) and arginase activities in vitro. The extract was prepared and phenolic (total phenols and flavonoid) contents, radical (nitric oxide (NO), hydroxyl (OH)) scavenging abilities, and Fe(2+)-chelating ability were assessed. Characterization of the phenolic constituents was done via high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) analysis. Furthermore, the effects of the extract on Fe(2+)-induced MDA production in rats' penile tissue homogenate as well as its action on ACE and arginase activities were also determined. The extract scavenged NO (∗) , OH (∗) , chelated Fe(2+), and inhibited MDA production in a dose-dependent pattern with IC50 values of 1.36, 0.52, and 0.38 mg/mL and 194.23 µg/mL, respectively. Gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol were the most abundant phenolic compounds identified in the leaf extract. The extract also inhibited ACE and arginase activities in a dose-dependent pattern and their IC50 values were 303.03 and 159.59 µg/mL, respectively. The phenolic contents, inhibition of ACE, arginase, and Fe(2+)-induced MDA production, and radical (OH (∗) , NO (∗) ) scavenging and Fe(2+)-chelating abilities could be some of the possible mechanisms by which M. oleifera leaves could be used in the treatment and/or management of erectile dysfunction.

  14. Water extract of the fungi from Fuzhuan brick tea improves the beneficial function on inhibiting fat deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yuxuan; Xiong, Zhe; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Teng, Cuiqin; Gong, Yushun; Liu, Zhonghua

    2014-08-01

    Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) is traditionally consumed by the ethnic group in the border region of northwest China. The unique yellow fungal (Eurotium cristatum) growth phase is considered to be the key process point in the manufacture of the brick tea. The fungi from FBT are not only strongly correlated to the quality of brick tea, but also have the potential function of preventing obesity. The water extract of fungi (100 μg/mL) can significantly inhibit fat deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocyte and Caenorhabditis elegans. Furthermore, the inhibition of 3T3-L1 adipocyte formation was not due to the suppression on cell viability.

  15. Anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract inhibit diabetes-associated glomerular angiogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Kyung Kang

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major diabetic complications and the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Abnormal angiogenesis results in new vessels that are often immature and play a pathological role in DN, contributing to renal fibrosis and disrupting glomerular failure. Purple corn has been utilized as a daily food and exerts disease-preventive activities. This study was designed to investigate whether anthocyanin-rich purple corn extract (PCE prevented glomerular angiogenesis under hyperglycemic conditions. Human endothelial cells were cultured in conditioned media of mesangial cells exposed to 33 mM high glucose (HG-HRMC-CM. PCE decreased endothelial expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF-1α induced by HG-HRMC-CM. Additionally, PCE attenuated the induction of the endothelial marker of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1 and integrin β3 enhanced in HG-HRMC-CM. Endothelial tube formation promoted by HG-HRMC-CM was disrupted in the presence of PCE. In the in vivo study employing db/db mice treated with 10 mg/kg PCE for 8 weeks, PCE alleviated glomerular angiogenesis of diabetic kidneys by attenuating the induction of VEGF and HIF-1α. Oral administration of PCE retarded the endothelial proliferation in db/db mouse kidneys, evidenced by its inhibition of the induction of vascular endothelium-cadherin, PECAM-1 and Ki-67. PCE diminished the mesangial and endothelial induction of angiopoietin (Angpt proteins under hypeglycemic conditions. The induction and activation of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2 were dampened by treating PCE to db/db mice. These results demonstrate that PCE antagonized glomerular angiogenesis due to chronic hyperglycemia and diabetes through disturbing the Angpt-Tie-2 ligand-receptor system linked to renal VEGFR2 signaling pathway. Therefore, PCE may be a potent therapeutic agent targeting abnormal angiogenesis in DN leading to kidney failure.

  16. Inhibition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pdr5p by a natural compound extracted from Brazilian Red Propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Lotti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug resistance of cancer cells and pathogenic microorganisms leading to the treatment failure of some forms of cancer or life-threatening bacterial or fungal infections is often caused by the overexpression of multidrug efflux pumps belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily. The multidrug resistance of fungal cells often involves the overexpression of efflux pumps belonging to the pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR family of ABC transporters. Possibly the best-studied fungal PDR transporter is the multidrug resistance transporter Pdr5p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some research groups have been searching for new inhibitors of these efflux pumps in order to alleviate resistance. Natural products are a great source for the discovery of new compounds with biological activity. Propolis is a complex resinous material collected by honeybees from exudates and buds of certain plant sources and this material is thought to serve as a defense substance for bee hives. Propolis is widely used in traditional medicine and is reported to have a broad spectrum of pharmacological properties. Literature reported some biological functionalities of propolis, such as antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic activities. The chemical composition of propolis is qualitatively and quantitatively variable. Components isolated from methanolic extract of red Brazilian propolis (Alagoas, Northeast of Brazil are isoflavonoids (including pterocarpans, isoflavans, isoflavones, flavanones and polyprenylated benzophenones. In this work we demonstrated the effects of five different isolated compounds on the ATPase activity of Pdr5p. Out of all five substances tested, only BRP-1 was able to completely abolish the enzymatic activity while others worked as positive modulators of the enzyme activity. BRP-1also inhibited the efflux of Rhodamine 6G from yeast cells overexpressing Pdr5p. Taken together, these results

  17. Extract from Aronia melanocarpa fruits potentiates the inhibition of platelet aggregation in the presence of endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzak, Boguslawa; Golanski, Jacek; Rozalski, Marek; Krajewska, Urszula; Olas, Beata

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Some polyphenolic compounds extracted from Aronia melanocarpa fruits (AM) have been reported to be cardioprotective agents. In this study we evaluated the ability of AM extract to increase the efficacy of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to inhibit platelet functions in vitro. Material and methods This study encompasses two models of monitoring platelet reactivity: optical aggregation and platelet degranulation (monitored as the surface CD62P expression) in PRP upon the stimulation with ADP. Results We observed that only at low concentrations (5 µg/ml) did AM extract significantly improve antiplatelet action of HUVECs towards ADP-activated platelets in the aggregation test. Conclusions It is concluded that the potentiating effect of AM extract on the endothelial cell-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation clearly depends on the used concentrations of Aronia-derived active compounds. Therefore, despite these encouraging preliminary outcomes on the beneficial effects of AM extract polyphenols, more profound dose-effect studies should certainly be considered before the implementation of Aronia-originating compounds in antiplatelet therapy and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:22371737

  18. Studies on Total Polyphenols Content and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts from Selected Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Viorica Pop Cuceu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Salvia is one of the largest genera in the family of Labiatae, comprising about 900 species distributed widely throughout the world. Many species of Salvia are commonly used as herbal tea and for food flavoring, as well as in cosmetics, perfumery and in the pharmaceutical industry. The present study compares the antioxidant properties of four methanolic extracts, obtained by two extraction methods, from Salvia elegans, Salvia officinalis Purpurascens, Salvia officinalis Tricolor and Salvia lavandulifolia. The amount of total phenolics was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, while the antioxidant activity of selected herbs was determined with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH reagent. The total amount of phenolics was between 1122.50 and 3672.16 mg GAE/100g dry plant for the first methanolic extract, while for the second extract was between 767.66 and 2725.04mg GAE/100g dry plant. A positive linear correlation was observed between total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the extracts. The results suggested that the extracts of Salvia species, notably Salvia officinalis Tricolor with the highest antioxidant activity, can be used as natural antioxidants in the food industry.

  19. Two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy for the selective enrichment of aminoglycosides in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Aijin; Wei, Jie; Yan, Jingyu; Jin, Gaowa; Ding, Junjie; Yang, Bingcheng; Guo, Zhimou; Zhang, Feifang; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-03-01

    An orthogonal two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy was established for the selective enrichment of three aminoglycosides including spectinomycin, streptomycin, and dihydrostreptomycin in milk. A reversed-phase liquid chromatography material (C18 ) and a weak cation-exchange material (TGA) were integrated in a single solid-phase extraction cartridge. The feasibility of two-dimensional clean-up procedure that experienced two-step adsorption, two-step rinsing, and two-step elution was systematically investigated. Based on the orthogonality of reversed-phase and weak cation-exchange procedures, the two-dimensional solid-phase extraction strategy could minimize the interference from the hydrophobic matrix existing in traditional reversed-phase solid-phase extraction. In addition, high ionic strength in the extracts could be effectively removed before the second dimension of weak cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. Combined with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry, the optimized procedure was validated according to the European Union Commission directive 2002/657/EC. A good performance was achieved in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, decision limit, and detection capability in milk. Finally, the optimized two-dimensional clean-up procedure incorporated with liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was successfully applied to the rapid monitoring of aminoglycoside residues in milk. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Inhibitive effect of Xylopia ferruginea extract on the corrosion of mild steel in 1M HCl medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Pandian Bothi; Rahim, Afidah Abdul; Osman, Hasnah; Awang, Khalijah

    2011-08-01

    The alkaloid content of the leaves and stem bark of Xylopia ferruginea plant was isolated and tested for its anticorrosion potential on mild steel corrosion in a hydrochloric acid medium by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) analysis. The experimental results reveal the effective anticorrosion potential of the plant extract. The mixed mode of action exhibited by the plant extract is evidenced from the polarization study. SEM images proof the formation of a protective layer over the mild steel surface, and this is supported by the FTIR study. The possible mode of the corrosion inhibition mechanism has also been discussed.

  1. Lysimachia foenum-graecum Herba Extract, a Novel Biopesticide, Inhibits ABC Transporter Genes and Mycelial Growth of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjin Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To identify a novel biopesticide controlling rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae, 700 plant extracts were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on mycelial growth of M. oryzae. The L. foenum-graecum Herba extract showed the lowest inhibition concentration (IC₅₀ of 39.28 μg/ml, which is lower than the IC₅₀ of blasticidin S (63.06 μg/ml, a conventional fungicide for rice blast disease. When treatments were combined, the IC₅₀ of blasticidin S was dramatically reduced to 10.67 μg/ml. Since ABC transporter genes are involved in fungicide resistance of many organisms, we performed RT-PCR to investigate the transcriptional changes of 40 ABC transporter family genes of M. oryzae treated with the plant extract, blasticidin S, and tetrandrine, a recognized ABC transporter inhibitor. Four ABC transporter genes were prominently activated by blasticidin S treatment, but were suppressed by combinational treatment of blasticidin S with the plant extract, or with tetrandrine that didn’t show cellular toxicity by itself in this study. Mycelial death was detected via confocal microscopy at 24 h after plant extract treatment. Finally, subsequent rice field study revealed that the plant extract had high control efficacy of 63.3% and should be considered a biopesticide for rice blast disease. These results showed that extract of L. foenum graecum Herba suppresses M. oryzae ABC transporter genes inducing mycelial death and therefore may be a potent novel biopesticide.

  2. Inhibition shapes selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus of awake mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary eMayko

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The inferior colliculus (IC is a major center for integration of auditory information as itreceives ascending projections from a variety of brainstem nuclei as well as descending projectionsfrom the thalamus and auditory cortex. The ascending projections are both excitatory andinhibitory and their convergence at the IC results in a microcircuitry that is important forshaping responses to simple, binaural, and modulated sounds in the IC. Here, we examined therole inhibition plays in shaping selectivity to vocalizations in the IC of awake, normal-hearingadult mice (CBA/CaJ strain. Neurons in the IC of mice show selectivity in their responses tovocalizations, and we hypothesized that this selectivity is created by inhibitory microcircuitryin the IC. We compared single unit responses in the IC to pure tones and a variety of ultrasonicmouse vocalizations before and after iontophoretic application of GABAA receptor (GABAARand glycine receptor (GlyR antagonists. The most pronounced effects of blocking GABAAR andGlyR on IC neurons were to increase spike rates and broaden excitatory frequency tuning curvesin response to pure tone stimuli, and to decrease selectivity to vocalizations. Thus, inhibitionplays an important role in creating selectivity to vocalizations in the inferior colliculus.

  3. Molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction monolithic capillary column for selective extraction and sensitive determination of safranine T in wolfberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zihao; Zhai, Haiyun; Chen, Zuanguang; Zhou, Qing; Li, Jiangmei; Liu, Zhenping

    2014-02-01

    A method was developed to sensitively determine safranine T in wolfberry by molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and laser-induced fluorescence detection (HPLC-LIF). The MISPE capillary monolithic column was prepared by water-bath in situ polymerization, using safranine T, methacrylic acid (MAA), and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as template, functional monomer, and cross-linker, respectively. The properties of the homemade MISPE capillary monolithic column, including capacity and specificity, were investigated under optimized conditions and the morphologies of inner polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mean recoveries of safranine T in wolfberry ranged from 91.2 % to 92.9 % and the intraday and interday relative standard deviation (RSD) values all ranged from 3.4 % to 4.2 %. Good linearity was obtained over 0.001-1.0 μg mL(-1) (r = 0.9999) with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 0.4 ng g(-1). Under the selected conditions, enrichment factors of over 90-fold were obtained and the extraction on the monolithic column effectively cleaned up the wolfberry matrix. The results demonstrated that the proposed MISPE-HPLC-LIF method could be applied to sensitively determine safranine T in wolfberry.

  4. Structured Dendritic Inhibition Supports Branch-Selective Integration in CA1 Pyramidal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, Erik B; Cembrowski, Mark S; Karsh, Bill; Colonell, Jennifer; Fetter, Richard D; Spruston, Nelson

    2016-03-02

    Neuronal circuit function is governed by precise patterns of connectivity between specialized groups of neurons. The diversity of GABAergic interneurons is a hallmark of cortical circuits, yet little is known about their targeting to individual postsynaptic dendrites. We examined synaptic connectivity between molecularly defined inhibitory interneurons and CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites using correlative light-electron microscopy and large-volume array tomography. We show that interneurons can be highly selective in their connectivity to specific dendritic branch types and, furthermore, exhibit precisely targeted connectivity to the origin or end of individual branches. Computational simulations indicate that the observed subcellular targeting enables control over the nonlinear integration of synaptic input or the initiation and backpropagation of action potentials in a branch-selective manner. Our results demonstrate that connectivity between interneurons and pyramidal cell dendrites is more precise and spatially segregated than previously appreciated, which may be a critical determinant of how inhibition shapes dendritic computation.

  5. Selective tracheal relaxation and phosphodiesterase-IV inhibition by xanthine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, K; Kurita, M; Ohmae, S; Sakai, R; Sanae, F; Takagi, K

    1994-05-17

    The effects of substitutions in the xanthine nucleus on tracheal relaxant activity, atrium chronotropic activity, adenosine A1 affinity, and inhibitory activities on cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase isoenzymes in guinea pigs were studied. Substitution with a long alkyl chain at the N1-position of xanthine nucleus increased the tracheal relaxant activity without leading to positive chronotropic action, and long alkyl chains at the N3-position increased both activities. N7-substitutions with n-propyl and 2'-oxopropyl groups, such as in denbufylline, increased bronchoselectivity. N7-substitution decreased the adenosine A1 affinity, but substitution at either the N1- or N3-position increased it. The bronchorelaxant activity of xanthine derivatives was closely correlated with their inhibition of phosphodiesterase-IV, but not with their adenosine A1 affinity; the positive chronotropic effects were related to their inhibition of phosphodiesterase-III. This study confirms that the bronchorelaxation of xanthine derivatives is mediated by inhibition of the isoenzyme phosphodiesterase-IV. The results of structure-activity analysis suggest that substitutions at the N1- and N7-positions should be tried in the development of xanthine derivatives that are selective bronchodilators and phosphodiesterase-IV inhibitors.

  6. Development of sulfamethoxazole-imprinted polymers for the selective extraction from waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtchev, Martin; Palm, Barbara S; Schiller, Marion; Steinfeld, Ute

    2009-10-30

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an antibiotic of growing environmental concern. As specific filter material for the extraction of SMX from waters, a series of SMX-imprinted polymers have been synthesised varying their composition parameters, and their efficiency to selectively remove the contaminant SMX from complex polluted water was tested. Most of the developed materials exhibited an excellent uptake of the target pollutant SMX of more than 80% or even 90% and effective separation from selected easily degradable accompanying substances even in complex wastewater mixtures. All the results for SMX uptake and release were compared to the commonly used adsorbent activated carbon (AC).

  7. Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Feiz Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7 and multi-drug resistant (K1 strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. Results: According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25.  Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively.  The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts. Conclusion: This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of             C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action.

  8. Antimalarial evaluation of selected medicinal plant extracts used in Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Mohammad Hossein Feiz; Mahbodfar, Hamidreza; Zamani, Zahra; Ramazani, Ali

    2017-04-01

    In an attempt to discover new natural active extracts against malaria parasites, the present study evaluated the antiplasmodial properties of selected plants based on Iranian traditional medicine. Ten plant species found in Iran were selected and collected based on the available literature about the Iranian traditional medicine. The methanolic extracts of these plants were investigated for in vitro antimalarial properties against chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and multi-drug resistant (K1) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Their in vivo activity against Plasmodium berghei infection in mice was also determined. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the Raji cells line using the MTT assay. The extracts were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. According to the IC50 and selectivity index (SI) values, of the 10 selected plant species, Citrullus colocynthis, Physalis alkekengi, and Solanum nigrum displayed potent in vitro antimalarial activity against both 3D7 and K1 strains with no toxicity (IC50= 2.01-18.67 µg/ml and SI=3.55 to 19.25). Comparisons between treated and untreated control mice showed that the mentioned plant species reduced parasitemia by 65.08%, 57.97%, and 60.68%, respectively. The existence of antiplasmodial compounds was detected in these plant extracts. This was the first study to highlight the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial effects of C. colocynthis, P. alkekengi, and S. nigrum in Iran. Future studies can use these findings to design further biological tests to identify the active constituents of the mentioned plant species and clarify their mechanism of action.

  9. Protection of renal function by four selected plant extracts during Plasmodium berghei infection

    OpenAIRE

    Adewale Adetutu; Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola; Kazeem Iyanda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Weakening of renal function from reactive oxygen species generated during malaria infection is one of the prominent causes of death in prevalent regions. The potential toxicity of free radical generated by malaria parasites are counteracted by a large number of cytoprotective phytochemicals. Therefore, this study examined the influence of extracts of five selected antimalarial plants (Azadirachta indica, Parquetina nigrescens, Citrus paradisi, and Khaya senigalensis) on reduction ...

  10. Selective ALDH3A1 inhibition by benzimidazole analogues increase mafosfamide sensitivity in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Bibek; Fishel, Melissa L; Hurley, Thomas D

    2014-01-23

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes irreversibly oxidize aldehydes generated from metabolism of amino acids, fatty acids, food, smoke, additives, and xenobiotic drugs. Cyclophosphamide is one such xenobiotic used in cancer therapies. Upon activation, cyclophosphamide forms an intermediate, aldophosphamide, which can be detoxified to carboxyphosphamide by aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH), especially ALDH1A1 and ALDH3A1. Consequently, selective inhibition of ALDH3A1 could increase chemosensitivity toward cyclophosphamide in ALDH3A1 expressing tumors. Here, we report detailed kinetics and structural characterization of a highly selective submicromolar inhibitor of ALDH3A1, 1-[(4-fluorophenyl)sulfonyl]-2-methyl-1H-benzimidazole (CB7, IC50 of 0.2 μM). CB7 does not inhibit ALDH1A1, ALDH1A2, ALDH1A3, ALDH1B1, or ALDH2 activity. Structural, kinetics, and mutagenesis studies show that CB7 binds to the aldehyde binding pocket of ALDH3A1. ALDH3A1-expressing lung adenocarcinoma and glioblastoma cell lines are sensitized toward mafosfamide (MF) treatment in the presence analogues of CB7, whereas primary lung fibroblasts lacking ALDH3A1 expression, are not.

  11. Theory of Mind and Selective Attention, Response Inhibition, Cognitive Flexibility in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eşsizoğlu, Altan; Köşger, Ferdi; Akarsu, Ferdane Özlem; Özaydin, Özer; Güleç, Gülcan

    2017-06-01

    The aims of the current study are to investigate the relationship between selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility that are among executive functions and sociocognitive and socioperceptual theory of mind (ToM) functions and also to investigate whether selective attention, response inhibition, and cognitive flexibility are predictive factors for ToM functions in patients with schizophrenia. Forty-seven patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a control group consisting of 42 individuals were administered demographic information form, Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), Stroop test, Eye test, Hinting test. Positive and negative syndrome scale was applied to the schizophrenia group. In comparison to the control group, the schizophrenia group performed significantly worse on Eyes test and Hinting test. Eyes Test score and age, WCST perseverative error scores were significantly negatively correlated; education and WCST categories achieved scores were significantly positively correlated in patients with schizophrenia. Age and cognitive flexibility were found to predict the Eyes test score in patients with schizophrenia. ToM functions that are important in maintaining socioperceptual functioning are closely related with cognitive flexibility, and impairment in cognitive flexibility may predict the ToM functions in patients with schizophrenia.

  12. Antimicrobial and selected in vitro enzyme inhibitory effects of leaf extracts, flavonols and indole alkaloids isolated from Croton menyharthii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderogba, Mutalib A; Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Rengasamy, Kannan R R; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-10-11

    Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D) spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1), quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2) and quercetin (3) along with an indole alkaloid, (E)-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl)-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol) and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3) was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin (4) were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2-4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl) serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1-3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1-4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  13. Antimicrobial and Selected In Vitro Enzyme Inhibitory Effects of Leaf Extracts, Flavonols and Indole Alkaloids Isolated from Croton menyharthii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Croton species are used in folk medicine in the management of infections, inflammation and oxidative stress-related diseases. In order to isolate, characterize and evaluate the bioactive constituents of Croton menyharthii Pax leaf extracts, repeated column fractionation of the ethyl acetate fraction from a 20% aqueous methanol crude extract afforded three flavonols identified by NMR (1D and 2D spectroscopic methods as myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (myricetrin, 1, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (2 and quercetin (3 along with an indole alkaloid, (E-N-(4-hydroxycinnamoyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, [trans-N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin, 4]. All the compounds are reported from the leaf extract of this plant for the first time. The crude extracts, four solvent fractions (hexane, DCM, ethyl acetate and butanol and isolated compounds obtained from the leaves were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on selected bacteria, a fungus (Candida albicans, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, α-glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE. Amongst the compounds, quercetin (3 was the most active against Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans while myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1 and trans-N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin (4 were the most active compounds against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. The inhibitory activity of myricetrin-3-O-rhamnoside (1 against COX-2 was insignificant while that of the other three compounds 2–4 was low. The AChE inhibitory activity of the alkaloid, trans-N-(p-coumaroyl serotonin was high, with a percentage inhibitory activity of 72.6% and an IC50 value of 15.0 µg/mL. The rest of the compounds only had moderate activity. Croton menyharthii leaf extracts and isolated compounds inhibit α-glucosidase at very low IC50 values compared to the synthetic drug acarbose. Structure activity relationship of the isolated flavonols 1–3 is briefly outlined. Compounds 1–4 and the leaf extracts exhibited a broad spectrum of activities. This validates the

  14. Excess Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation by repressing the progression of replication forks in Xenopus egg extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Yuta; Tsuyama, Takashi; Seki, Masayuki; Takahashi, Mikiko; Enomoto, Takemi; Tada, Shusuke

    2016-02-01

    Cdt1 is a protein essential for initiation of DNA replication; it recruits MCM helicase, a core component of the replicative DNA helicase, onto replication origins. In our previous study, we showed that addition of excess Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation during DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism behind the inhibitory effect of Cdt1. We found that addition of recombinant Cdt1 inhibited nascent DNA synthesis in a reinitiation-independent manner. To identify the mechanism by which Cdt1 inhibits nascent strand elongation, the effect of Cdt1 on loading of Mcm4 and Rpa70 onto chromatin was examined. The results showed that Cdt1 suppressed the excessive Rpa70 binding caused by extensive, aphidicolin-induced DNA unwinding; this unwinding occurs between stalled DNA polymerases and advancing replication forks. These findings suggested that excess Cdt1 suppressed the progression of replication forks.

  15. Chelidonium majus crude extract inhibits migration and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljanin, Milena; Nikolic, Mladen; Baskic, Dejan; Todorovic, Danijela; Djurdjevic, Predrag; Zaric, Milan; Stankovic, Milan; Todorovic, Milos; Avramovic, Dusko; Popovic, Suzana

    2016-08-22

    Chelidonium majus L (Papaveraceae) is widely used in alternative medicine for treatment of various disorders. Antitumor activities of alkaloids isolated from this plant have been reviewed, while there are only a few studies that examine properties of the whole extract. The aim of the present study was to investigate direct cytotoxic effects, as well as indirect antitumor effects of Chelidonium majus ethanolic extract against different tumor cell lines,. MTT and SRB assays were performed to estimate cytotoxic effects of Chelidonium majus extract against human tumor cell lines A549, H460, HCT 116, SW480, MDA-MB 231 and MCF-7 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy individuals. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry. Type of cell death induced by extract was determined by flow cytometry and cell morphology assessment. Inhibitory effect on migration of cancer cells was assessed by wound healing assay. Chelidonium majus extract showed selective time- and dose-dependent increase of cytotoxicity in all six cell lines, with individual cell line sensitivities. Extract promoted cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis. Cotreatment with doxorubicin enhanced cytotoxicity of the drug. Also, inhibitory effect on migration was shown with non-toxic extract concentration. These results indicate possible usefulness of Chelidonium majus crude extract in antitumor therapy, whether through its direct cytotoxic effect, by prevention of metastasis, or as adjuvant therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils using new selective EDTA derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jun-Min; Huang, Xiong-Fei; Xia, Bing; Su, Cheng-Yong; Luo, Guo-Fan; Xu, Yao-Wei; Wu, Ying-Xin; Mao, Zong-Wan; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2013-11-15

    Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives for removing metal contaminants. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and its salts can substantially increase heavy metal removal from contaminated soils and have been extensively studied for soil washing. However, EDTA has a poor utilization ratio due to its low selectivity resulting from the competition between soil major cations and trace metal ions for chelation. The present study evaluated the potential for soil washing using EDTA and three of its derivatives: CDTA (trans-1,2-cyclohexanediaminetetraacetic acid), BDTA (benzyldiaminetetraacetic acid), and PDTA (phenyldiaminetetraacetic acid), which contain a cylcohexane ring, a benzyl group, and a phenyl group, respectively. Titration results showed that PDTA had the highest stability constants for Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) and the highest overall selectivity for trace metals over major cations. Equilibrium batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the EDTA derivatives at extracting Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), Ca(2+), and Fe(3+) from a contaminated soil. At pH 7.0, PDTA extracted 1.5 times more Cu(2+) than did EDTA, but only 75% as much Ca(2+). Although CDTA was a strong chelator of heavy metal ions, its overall selectivity was lower and comparable to that of EDTA. BDTA was the least effective extractant because its stability constants with heavy metals were low. PDTA is potentially a practical washing agent for soils contaminated with trace metals.

  17. Antioxidant activities and total phenol content of Inula viscosa extracts selected from three regions of Morocco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naima; Chahmi; Jaouad; Anissi; Sanae; Jennan; Abdellah; Farah; Khalid; Sendide; Mohammed; El; Hassouni

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antioxidant activity,total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol(E) and ethyl acetate(A) extracts of Inula viscosa aerial parts selected from three regions of Morocco(Imouzzer.Sefrou and Taounate).Methods:Antioxidants properties were measured by three different test systems of assay namely free radical scavenging activities against 2,2-diphenyI-1-picrylhydrazyl,total antioxidant capacity and iron-reducing capacity.Total phenolic content was measured by FolinCiocalteu reagent.Results:All the extracts showed significant antioxidant activities and contained important levels of phenols.The ethanol extract(0.3 mg/mL) from Sefrou showed the greatest antioxidant capacity in the three systems of assay,which was probably due to its high content of polyphenols(274.39±6.94) mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry extract.Total flavonoid content was found equal for all extracts.Conclusions:Our results of antioxidant assays were justified and partially supported the popular usage of the tested plants.The high antioxidant activity found in the plant from Sefrou and its great biomass in this region suggested that Inula viscosa is a good source of natural antioxidants compounds which might have benefits for health.

  18. Selective extraction and determination of neonicotinoid insecticides in wine by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cabo, T; Casado, J; Rodríguez, I; Ramil, M; Cela, R

    2016-08-19

    A simplified, high throughput procedure for the determination of five neonicotinoid insecticides in red and white wines, using liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), is presented. The effects of different experimental parameters (extraction sorbent, solvent elution and clean-up conditions) in the efficiency and the selectivity of the sample preparation process were assessed through calculation of the extraction yields and the matrix effects (MEs). Wines (10mL) were concentrated using OASIS HLB cartridges, on-line connected to Florisil clean-up cartridges, with acetonitrile serving as the elution solvent. The extract (5mLvol) was concentrated to 1mL and injected in the LC-ESI-MS/MS system. The optimized procedure provided quantitative extraction yields at the same time that the efficiency of ESI ionization remained unchanged between standards and sample extracts. Overall recoveries, calculated against authentic standards in ACN, varied between 77 and 119% and the attained limits of quantification remained below 0.2ngmL(-1). Analysis of commercial wines revealed imidacloprid residues in more than 50% of processed samples, with a maximum level of 14ngmL(-1). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hawberry (Crataegus monogyna Jaqc.) extracts inhibit lipid oxidation and improve consumer liking of ready-to-eat (RTE) pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcan, T; Estévez, M; Rico, S; Ventanas, S; Morcuende, D

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effectiveness of extracts from hawberry (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.) to inhibit lipid oxidation and odor deterioration during processing of ready-to-eat (RTE) pork patties subjected to roasting (180 °C/16 min), chilling (10 days/+3 °C) and reheating in microwave (600 mW/1 min). Acetone extracts of hawberry were chosen based on their total phenolic content (1281.1 ± 84.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g fruit) and in vitro antiradical activity (DPPH) (53.33 ± 15.40 g equivalent Trolox per g of fruits). Pork patties treated with increasing concentrations of hawberry extract, 200 and 800 ppm GAE (T2 and T8, respectively) and a control group (T0) of samples, were analyzed for TBARS, volatile carbonyls and odor liking in a consumer test. Hawberry extracts significantly improved the oxidative stability of cooked pork patties keeping TBARS and hexanal counts at basal levels during the whole process. The addition of hawberry phenolic-rich extracts significantly improved the degree of consumer satisfaction regarding the odor of patties. In conclusion, the hawberry extract displayed potential usage as an ingredient with antioxidant properties for the manufacture of high-quality RTE meat products.

  20. Tinospora crispa extract inhibits MMP-13 and migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hataipan; Phienwej; Ih-si; Swasdichira; Surattana; Amnuoypol; Prasit; Pavasant; Piyamas; Sumrejkanchanakij

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Tinospora crispa(T. crispa) extract on matrix metalloproteinase 13(MMP-13) expression and cell migration. Methods: The cytotoxicity of T. crispa extract was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma(HNSCC) cell lines. The effect on expression of MMP-13 was analysed by RT-PCR and ELISA. The migration was assessed by wound healing assay. Results: MMP-13 m RNA was highly expressed in the metastatic human HNSCC cell lines, HN22 and HSC-3. T. crispa extract at a concentration of 100.0 μg/m L caused about 50% reduction of cell survival. T. crispa extract at a non-toxic concentration of 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 μg/m L signii cantly suppressed MMP-13 m RNA expression and secreted MMP-13 in both HN22 and HSC-3. The expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease by HSC-3 cells was attenuated by 25.0 and 50.0 μg/m L of T. crispa extract. Addition of the extract to cells in a wound healing assay showed inhibition of cell migration by HN22 cells. Conclusions: These data suggest that T. crispa could be considered as a potential therapeutic drug to prevent metastasis of HNSCC.

  1. Tinospora crispa extract inhibits MMP-13 and migration of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hataipan Phienwej; Ih-si Swasdichira; Surattana Amnuoypol; Prasit Pavasant; Piyamas Sumrejkanchanakij

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of Tinospora crispa (T. crispa) extract on matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) expression and cell migration. Methods: The cytotoxicity of T. crispa extract was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The effect on expression of MMP-13 was analysed by RT-PCR and ELISA. The migration was assessed by wound healing assay. Results: MMP-13 mRNA was highly expressed in the metastatic human HNSCC cell lines, HN22 and HSC-3. T. crispa extract at a concentration of 100.0 µg/mL caused about 50% reduction of cell survival. T. crispa extract at a non-toxic concentration of 12.5, 25.0 and 50.0 µg/mL significantly suppressed MMP-13 mRNA expression and secreted MMP-13 in both HN22 and HSC-3. The expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloprotease by HSC-3 cells was attenuated by 25.0 and 50.0 µg/mL of T. crispa extract. Addition of the extract to cells in a wound healing assay showed inhibition of cell migration by HN22 cells. Conclusions: These data suggest that T. crispa could be considered as a potential therapeutic drug to prevent metastasis of HNSCC.

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus) ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, inhibits morphine-induced place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshooni, H; Daryaafzoon, M; Sadeghi-Gharjehdagi, S; Zardooz, H; Sahraei, H; Tehrani, S P; Noroozzadeh, A; Bahrami-Shenasfandi, F; Kaka, G H; Sadraei, S H

    2011-10-15

    The effects of saffron ethanolic extract and its constituent, safranal, on the acquisition and