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Sample records for extracts functionally modulate

  1. Extracting a shape function for a signal with intra-wave frequency modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Thomas Y; Shi, Zuoqiang

    2016-04-13

    In this paper, we develop an effective and robust adaptive time-frequency analysis method for signals with intra-wave frequency modulation. To handle this kind of signals effectively, we generalize our data-driven time-frequency analysis by using a shape function to describe the intra-wave frequency modulation. The idea of using a shape function in time-frequency analysis was first proposed by Wu (Wu 2013 Appl. Comput. Harmon. Anal. 35, 181-199. (doi:10.1016/j.acha.2012.08.008)). A shape function could be any smooth 2π-periodic function. Based on this model, we propose to solve an optimization problem to extract the shape function. By exploring the fact that the shape function is a periodic function with respect to its phase function, we can identify certain low-rank structure of the signal. This low-rank structure enables us to extract the shape function from the signal. Once the shape function is obtained, the instantaneous frequency with intra-wave modulation can be recovered from the shape function. We demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our method by applying it to several synthetic and real signals. One important observation is that this approach is very stable to noise perturbation. By using the shape function approach, we can capture the intra-wave frequency modulation very well even for noise-polluted signals. In comparison, existing methods such as empirical mode decomposition/ensemble empirical mode decomposition seem to have difficulty in capturing the intra-wave modulation when the signal is polluted by noise. © 2016 The Author(s).

  2. Interactions Between Flavonoid-Rich Extracts and Sodium Caseinate Modulate Protein Functionality and Flavonoid Bioaccessibility in Model Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elegbede, Jennifer L; Li, Min; Jones, Owen G; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2018-05-01

    With growing interest in formulating new food products with added protein and flavonoid-rich ingredients for health benefits, direct interactions between these ingredient classes becomes critical in so much as they may impact protein functionality, product quality, and flavonoids bioavailability. In this study, sodium caseinate (SCN)-based model products (foams and emulsions) were formulated with grape seed extract (GSE, rich in galloylated flavonoids) and green tea extract (GTE, rich in nongalloylated flavonoids), respectively, to assess changes in functional properties of SCN and impacts on flavonoid bioaccessibility. Experiments with pure flavonoids suggested that galloylated flavonoids reduced air-water interfacial tension of 0.01% SCN dispersions more significantly than nongalloylated flavonoids at high concentrations (>50 μg/mL). This observation was supported by changes in stability of 5% SCN foam, which showed that foam stability was increased at high levels of GSE (≥50 μg/mL, P < 0.05) but was not affected by GTE. However, flavonoid extracts had modest effects on SCN emulsion. In addition, galloylated flavonoids had higher bioaccessibility in both SCN foam and emulsion. These results suggest that SCN-flavonoid binding interactions can modulate protein functionality leading to difference in performance and flavonoid bioaccessibility of protein-based products. As information on the beneficial health effects of flavonoids expands, it is likely that usage of these ingredients in consumer foods will increase. However, the necessary levels to provide such benefits may exceed those that begin to impact functionality of the macronutrients such as proteins. Flavonoid inclusion within protein matrices may modulate protein functionality in a food system and modify critical consumer traits or delivery of these beneficial plant-derived components. The product matrices utilized in this study offer relevant model systems to evaluate how fortification with flavonoid

  3. Modulation of platelet functions by crude rice (Oryza sativa) bran policosanol extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai-Teng; Ismail, Maznah; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Zhang, Yi-Da

    2016-07-28

    Rice bran is bioactive-rich and has proven health benefits for humans. Moreover, its source, the brown rice has antioxidant, hypolipidemic and other functional properties that are increasingly making it a nutritional staple especially in Asian countries. This study investigated the antiplatelet aggregation mechanisms of crude hexane/methanolic rice bran extract, in which policosanol was the targeted bioactive. Platelets play a vital role in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, and their increased activities could potentially cause arterial thrombus formation or severe bleeding disorders. Thus, in this study, platelet aggregation and adhesion of platelets to major components of basal lamina were examined in vitro. In addition, cellular protein secretion was quantified as a measurement of platelet activation. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), collagen, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation were studied using the microtiter technique. Rat platelets were pre-treated with various concentrations of policosanol extract, and the adhesion of platelets onto collagen- and laminin-coated surface (extracellular matrix) was studied using the acid phosphatase assay. The effect of crude policosanol extract on released proteins from activated platelets was measured using modified Lowry determination method. Rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited in vitro platelet aggregation induced by different agonists in a dose dependent manner. The IC50 of ADP-, collagen-, and AA-induced platelet aggregation were 533.37 ± 112.16, 635.94 ± 78.45 and 693.86 ± 70.57 μg/mL, respectively. The present study showed that crude rice bran policosanol extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to collagen in a dose dependent manner. Conversely, at a low concentration of 15.625 μg/mL, the extract significantly inhibited platelet adhesion to laminin stimulated by different platelet agonists. In addition to the alteration of cell adhesive

  4. Modulation of rat macrophage function by the Mangifera indica L. extracts Vimang and mangiferin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Delgado, R; Ubeira, F M; Leiro, J

    2002-05-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangiferia indica L., traditionally used in Cuba as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Vimang and of mangiferin (a C-glucosylxanthone present in the extract) on rat macrophage functions including phagocytic activity and the respiratory burst. Both Vimang and mangiferin showed inhibitory effects on macrophage activity: (a) intraperitoneal doses of only 50-250 mg/kg markedly reduced the number of macrophages in peritoneal exudate following intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate 5 days previously (though there was no significant effect on the proportion of macrophages in the peritoneal-exudate cell population); (b) in vitro concentrations of 0.1-100 microg/ml reduced the phagocytosis of yeasts cells by resident peritoneal and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages; (c) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced nitric oxide (NO) production by thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and IFNgamma; and (d) in vitro concentrations of 1-50 microg/ml reduced the extracellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by resident and thioglycollate-elicited macrophages stimulated in vitro with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). These results suggest that components of Vimang, including the polyphenol mangiferin, have depressor effects on the phagocytic and ROS production activities of rat macrophages and, thus, that they may be of value in the treatment of diseases of immunopathological origin characterized by the hyperactivation of phagocytic cells such as certain autoimmune disorders.

  5. Modulation of Immune Function in Rats Using Oligosaccharides Extracted from Palm Kernel Cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh Jahromi, Mohammd; Shokryazdan, Parisa; Idrus, Zulkifli; Ebrahimi, Rohollah; Bashokouh, Fatemeh; Liang, Juan Boo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prebiotic and immunomodulatory effects of PKC extract (OligoPKC) a total of 24 male rats were randomly assigned to three treatment groups receiving basal diet (control), basal diet containing 0.5% OligoPKC, or basal diet containing 1% OligoPKC for four weeks. We found that OligoPKC had no significant effect on the tested growth parameters. However, it increased the size of the total and beneficial bacterial populations while reducing pathogen populations. OligoPKC increased the concentration of immunoglobulins in the serum and cecal contents of rats. It also enhanced the antioxidant capacity of the liver while reducing lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. OligoPKC affected the expression of genes involved in immune system function in the intestine. Therefore, OligoPKC could be considered a potential mannan-based prebiotic for humans and animals due to its beneficial effects on the health and well-being of the model rats.

  6. Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zingiber officinale Roscoe aqueous extract modulates Matrixmetalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of Metalloproteinases expressions in Dengue virus-infected cells: implications for prevention of vascular permeability.

  7. Standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera protect against MPP+- and paraquat-induced toxicity by modulating mitochondrial activities, proteasomal functions, and redox pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjeet; Murthy, Ven; Ramassamy, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age-related neurodegenerative diseases and affects millions of people worldwide. Strong evidence supports the role of free radicals, oxidative stress, mitochondrial, and proteasomal dysfunctions underlying neuronal death in PD. Environmental factors, especially pesticides, represent one of the primary classes of neurotoxic agents associated with PD, and several epidemiological studies have identified the exposure of the herbicide paraquat (PQ) as a potential risk factor for the onset of PD. The objective of our study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the standardized extracts of Bacopa monniera (BM) against PQ-induced and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-pyridinium iodide (MPP(+))-induced toxicities and to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this protection. Our results show that a pretreatment with the BM extract from 50 μg/ml protected the dopaminergic SK-N-SH cell line against MPP(+)- and PQ-induced toxicities in various cell survival assays. We demonstrate that BM pretreatment prevented the depletion of glutathione (GSH) besides preserving the mitochondrial membrane potential and maintaining the mitochondrial complex I activity. BM pretreatment from 10.0 μg/ml also prevented the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased the mitochondrial superoxide level. BM treatment activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 pathway by modulating the expression of Keap1, thereby upregulating the endogenous GSH synthesis. The effect of BM on the phosphorylation of Akt further strengthens its role in the promotion of cell survival. By preserving the cellular redox homeostasis and mitochondrial activities and by promoting cell survival pathways, BM extract may have therapeutic uses in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as PD.

  8. Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-15

    ARL-TR-8138 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction by...not return it to the originator. ARL-TR-8138 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Modeling of a Stacked Power Module for... Power Module for Parasitic Inductance Extraction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven Kaplan

  9. PyEEG: an open source Python module for EEG/MEG feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of neural diseases from EEG signals (or other physiological signals that can be treated as time series, e.g., MEG) is an emerging field that has gained much attention in past years. Extracting features is a key component in the analysis of EEG signals. In our previous works, we have implemented many EEG feature extraction functions in the Python programming language. As Python is gaining more ground in scientific computing, an open source Python module for extracting EEG features has the potential to save much time for computational neuroscientists. In this paper, we introduce PyEEG, an open source Python module for EEG feature extraction.

  10. Zingiber officinale Roscoe Aqueous Extract Modulates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Z. officinale rhizomes were extracted with water by continuous shaking for 5 ... Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ZOA may ameliorate plasma leakage in dengue .... AS1000 autosampler, UV2000 UV detector and.

  11. Task Oriented Evaluation of Module Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Ignazio; Tamma, Valentina; Payne, Terry; Doran, Paul

    Ontology Modularization techniques identify coherent and often reusable regions within an ontology. The ability to identify such modules, thus potentially reducing the size or complexity of an ontology for a given task or set of concepts is increasingly important in the Semantic Web as domain ontologies increase in terms of size, complexity and expressivity. To date, many techniques have been developed, but evaluation of the results of these techniques is sketchy and somewhat ad hoc. Theoretical properties of modularization algorithms have only been studied in a small number of cases. This paper presents an empirical analysis of a number of modularization techniques, and the modules they identify over a number of diverse ontologies, by utilizing objective, task-oriented measures to evaluate the fitness of the modules for a number of statistical classification problems.

  12. PyEEG: An Open Source Python Module for EEG/MEG Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Forrest Sheng; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnosis of neural diseases from EEG signals (or other physiological signals that can be treated as time series, e.g., MEG) is an emerging field that has gained much attention in past years. Extracting features is a key component in the analysis of EEG signals. In our previous works, we have implemented many EEG feature extraction functions in the Python programming language. As Python is gaining more ground in scientific computing, an open source Python module for extracting ...

  13. GOMA: functional enrichment analysis tool based on GO modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Huang; Ling-Yun Wu; Yong Wang; Xiang-Sun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the function of gene sets is a critical step in interpreting the results of high-throughput experiments in systems biology.A variety of enrichment analysis tools have been developed in recent years,but most output a long list of significantly enriched terms that are often redundant,making it difficult to extract the most meaningful functions.In this paper,we present GOMA,a novel enrichment analysis method based on the new concept of enriched functional Gene Ontology (GO) modules.With this method,we systematically revealed functional GO modules,i.e.,groups of functionally similar GO terms,via an optimization model and then ranked them by enrichment scores.Our new method simplifies enrichment analysis results by reducing redundancy,thereby preventing inconsistent enrichment results among functionally similar terms and providing more biologically meaningful results.

  14. Cannabinoid modulation of executive functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Wiskerke, J.; Schoffelmeer, A.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Executive functions are higher-order cognitive processes such as attention, behavioural flexibility, decision-making, inhibitory control, planning, time estimation and working memory that exert top-down control over behaviour. In addition to the role of cannabinoid signaling in other cognitive

  15. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  16. Neuroimmune modulation of gut function

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is considerable interest in the mechanisms and pathways involved in the neuro-immune regulation of gut function. The number of cell types and possible interactions is staggering and there are a number of recent reviews detailing various aspects of these interactions, many of which focus on ...

  17. An NPARC Turbulence Module with Wall Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Shih, T.-H.

    1997-01-01

    The turbulence module recently developed for the NPARC code has been extended to include wall functions. The Van Driest transformation is used so that the wall functions can be applied to both incompressible and compressible flows. The module is equipped with three two-equation K-epsilon turbulence models: Chien, Shih-Lumley and CMOTR models. Details of the wall functions as well as their numerical implementation are reported. It is shown that the inappropriate artificial viscosity in the near-wall region has a big influence on the solution of the wall function approach. A simple way to eliminate this influence is proposed, which gives satisfactory results during the code validation. The module can be easily linked to the NPARC code for practical applications.

  18. Additive Functional Inequalities in Banach Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An JongSu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the following functional inequality in Banach modules over a -algebra and prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of linear mappings in Banach modules over a -algebra in the spirit of the Th. M. Rassias stability approach. Moreover, these results are applied to investigate homomorphisms in complex Banach algebras and prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of homomorphisms in complex Banach algebras.

  19. Extraction of Carbon Dioxide and Hydrogen from Seawater By an Electrolytic Cation Exchange Module (E-CEM) Part 5: E-CEM Effluent Discharge Composition as a Function of Electrode Water Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    module to function as an electrolytic cation exchange module (E-CEM) for the purposes of exploiting seawater’s pH as an indirect approach to recovery... purpose of scaling-up and integrating processes. In this environment at the larger scale the E-CEM was evaluated continuously under different...and 9 gpd (▼) RO water () KW-city water. 15 Recycling the anode compartment is another potential way to increase the conductivity of the

  20. A Walsh Function Module Users' Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    The solution of partial differential equations (PDEs) with Walsh functions offers new opportunities to simulate many challenging problems in mathematical physics. The approach was developed to better simulate hypersonic flows with shocks on unstructured grids. It is unique in that integrals and derivatives are computed using simple matrix multiplication of series representations of functions without the need for divided differences. The product of any two Walsh functions is another Walsh function - a feature that radically changes an algorithm for solving PDEs. A FORTRAN module for supporting Walsh function simulations is documented. A FORTRAN code is also documented with options for solving time-dependent problems: an advection equation, a Burgers equation, and a Riemann problem. The sample problems demonstrate the usage of the Walsh function module including such features as operator overloading, Fast Walsh Transforms in multi-dimensions, and a Fast Walsh reciprocal.

  1. Optimized Feature Extraction for Temperature-Modulated Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vergara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious limitations to the practical utilization of solid-state gas sensors is the drift of their signal. Even if drift is rooted in the chemical and physical processes occurring in the sensor, improved signal processing is generally considered as a methodology to increase sensors stability. Several studies evidenced the augmented stability of time variable signals elicited by the modulation of either the gas concentration or the operating temperature. Furthermore, when time-variable signals are used, the extraction of features can be accomplished in shorter time with respect to the time necessary to calculate the usual features defined in steady-state conditions. In this paper, we discuss the stability properties of distinct dynamic features using an array of metal oxide semiconductors gas sensors whose working temperature is modulated with optimized multisinusoidal signals. Experiments were aimed at measuring the dispersion of sensors features in repeated sequences of a limited number of experimental conditions. Results evidenced that the features extracted during the temperature modulation reduce the multidimensional data dispersion among repeated measurements. In particular, the Energy Signal Vector provided an almost constant classification rate along the time with respect to the temperature modulation.

  2. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  3. Ginger extract inhibits LPS induced macrophage activation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruch David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrophages play a dual role in host defence. They act as the first line of defence by mounting an inflammatory response to antigen exposure and also act as antigen presenting cells and initiate the adaptive immune response. They are also the primary infiltrating cells at the site of inflammation. Inhibition of macrophage activation is one of the possible approaches towards modulating inflammation. Both conventional and alternative approaches are being studied in this regard. Ginger, an herbal product with broad anti inflammatory actions, is used as an alternative medicine in a number of inflammatory conditions like rheumatic disorders. In the present study we examined the effect of ginger extract on macrophage activation in the presence of LPS stimulation. Methods Murine peritoneal macrophages were stimulated by LPS in presence or absence of ginger extract and production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were observed. We also studied the effect of ginger extract on the LPS induced expression of MHC II, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 molecules. We also studied the antigen presenting function of ginger extract treated macrophages by primary mixed lymphocyte reaction. Results We observed that ginger extract inhibited IL-12, TNF-α, IL-1β (pro inflammatory cytokines and RANTES, MCP-1 (pro inflammatory chemokines production in LPS stimulated macrophages. Ginger extract also down regulated the expression of B7.1, B7.2 and MHC class II molecules. In addition ginger extract negatively affected the antigen presenting function of macrophages and we observed a significant reduction in T cell proliferation in response to allostimulation, when ginger extract treated macrophages were used as APCs. A significant decrease in IFN-γ and IL-2 production by T cells in response to allostimulation was also observed. Conclusion In conclusion ginger extract inhibits macrophage activation and APC function and indirectly inhibits T cell activation.

  4. General well function for soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

  5. Preliminary modulation transfer function study on amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Ab Razak Hamzah; Mohd Ashhar Khalid

    2006-01-01

    Modulation Transfer Function, (MTF) is the scientific means of evaluating the fundamental spatial resolution performance of an imaging system. In the study, the modulation transfer function of an amorphous silicon (aSi) sensor array is measured by using Edge Spread Function (ESF) Technique which is extracting a profile from the linearised image of the sharp edge. The Platinum foil is used to determine the ESF. The detector under study was a 2,304 (h) x 3,200 (v) total pixel matrix, 127 μm2 pixel pitch, 57% fill factor and using Gd2O2S:Tb Kodak Lanex Regular as the conversion screen. The ESF measurement is done by using 75 - 100 kV range of x-ray with constant mA. (Author)

  6. Modulation of Immune Functions by Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Kaminogawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is rapidly accumulating as to the beneficial effects of foods. However, it is not always clear whether the information is based on data evaluated impartially in a scientific fashion. Human research into whether foods modulate immune functions in either intervention studies or randomized controlled trials can be classified into three categories according to the physical state of subjects enrolled for investigation: (i studies examining the effect of foods in healthy individuals; (ii studies analyzing the effect of foods on patients with hypersensitivity; and (iii studies checking the effect of foods on immunocompromized subjects, including patients who had undergone surgical resection of cancer and newborns. The systematization of reported studies has made it reasonable to conclude that foods are able to modulate immune functions manifesting as either innate immunity (phagocytic activity, NK cell activity or acquired immunity (T cell response, antibody production. Moreover, improvement of immune functions by foods can normalize the physical state of allergic patients or cancer patients, and may reduce the risk of diseases in healthy individuals. Therefore, it is valuable to assess the immune-modulating abilities of foods by measuring at least one parameter of either innate or acquired immunity.

  7. Modulation Based on Probability Density Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    2009-01-01

    A proposed method of modulating a sinusoidal carrier signal to convey digital information involves the use of histograms representing probability density functions (PDFs) that characterize samples of the signal waveform. The method is based partly on the observation that when a waveform is sampled (whether by analog or digital means) over a time interval at least as long as one half cycle of the waveform, the samples can be sorted by frequency of occurrence, thereby constructing a histogram representing a PDF of the waveform during that time interval.

  8. Fast logic modules with programmed functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov, V.G.; Selikov, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    Modern nuclear-physical experiment procedure requires automated control and adjustment of event selection and recording systems. Nanosecond programmed-control units realizing optional set of combinational logic functions are described. Programmed permanent storage device is the basis of one unit, and on-line storage device, preliminary provided with truth tables, is in the basis of the other units. The resolution time is 40 ns. By means of auxiliary unit the programmed logic devices with sequent storage elements (digital timer and pulse generator; multiple-phase generator; sequential digital controller) are realized. The units are performed in CAMAC standard, the modules size being 1M

  9. Extraction of temporal information in functional MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Sungkarat, W.; Jeong, Jeong-Won; Zhou, Yongxia

    2002-10-01

    The temporal resolution of functional MRI (fMRI) is limited by the shape of the haemodynamic response function (hrf) and the vascular architecture underlying the activated regions. Typically, the temporal resolution of fMRI is on the order of 1 s. We have developed a new data processing approach to extract temporal information on a pixel-by-pixel basis at the level of 100 ms from fMRI data. Instead of correlating or fitting the time-course of each pixel to a single reference function, which is the common practice in fMRI, we correlate each pixel's time-course to a series of reference functions that are shifted with respect to each other by 100 ms. The reference function yielding the highest correlation coefficient for a pixel is then used as a time marker for that pixel. A Monte Carlo simulation and experimental study of this approach were performed to estimate the temporal resolution as a function of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the time-course of a pixel. Assuming a known and stationary hrf, the simulation and experimental studies suggest a lower limit in the temporal resolution of approximately 100 ms at an SNR of 3. The multireference function approach was also applied to extract timing information from an event-related motor movement study where the subjects flexed a finger on cue. The event was repeated 19 times with the event's presentation staggered to yield an approximately 100-ms temporal sampling of the haemodynamic response over the entire presentation cycle. The timing differences among different regions of the brain activated by the motor task were clearly visualized and quantified by this method. The results suggest that it is possible to achieve a temporal resolution of /spl sim/200 ms in practice with this approach.

  10. Coupling a Transient Solvent Extraction Module with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Almeida, Valmor F [ORNL; Birdwell Jr, Joseph F [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2009-10-01

    A past difficulty in safeguards design for reprocessing plants is that no code existed for analysis and evaluation of the design. A number of codes have been developed in the past, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the SSPM Separations and Safeguards Performance Model, developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a much more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and the initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  11. Coupling a transient solvent extraction module with the separations and safeguards performance model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePaoli, David W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Birdwell, Joseph F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Gauld, Ian C. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Cipiti, Benjamin B.; de Almeida, Valmor F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN)

    2009-10-01

    A number of codes have been developed in the past for safeguards analysis, but many are dated, and no single code is able to cover all aspects of materials accountancy, process monitoring, and diversion scenario analysis. The purpose of this work was to integrate a transient solvent extraction simulation module developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, with the Separations and Safeguards Performance Model (SSPM), developed at Sandia National Laboratory, as a first step toward creating a more versatile design and evaluation tool. The SSPM was designed for materials accountancy and process monitoring analyses, but previous versions of the code have included limited detail on the chemical processes, including chemical separations. The transient solvent extraction model is based on the ORNL SEPHIS code approach to consider solute build up in a bank of contactors in the PUREX process. Combined, these capabilities yield a more robust transient separations and safeguards model for evaluating safeguards system design. This coupling and initial results are presented. In addition, some observations toward further enhancement of separations and safeguards modeling based on this effort are provided, including: items to be addressed in integrating legacy codes, additional improvements needed for a fully functional solvent extraction module, and recommendations for future integration of other chemical process modules.

  12. Physiological modulation of eustachian tube function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, J E; Doyle, W J; Karnavas, W

    1987-01-01

    The effect of changing body position on the Eustachian tube opening time (TOT) and nasal conductance (NC) was investigated in 5 subjects. Eustachian tube function was evaluated using a sonotubometric technique and NC was determined by anterior or posterior rhinomanometry. The results showed that both the TOT and NC were decreased by changing the body position from erect to recumbent. On a different day, Eustachian tube function and rhinomanometry tests were repeated every 30 min over a 5-7 h period. The results documented a nasal cycle in all subjects. Moreover, TOT tracked the ipsilateral NC in 3 subjects and the contralateral NC in 2 subjects. Since TOT measures mucosal venous congestion, these findings suggest that the tubal mucosa also experiences autonomically modulated cyclic fluctuations.

  13. On the Cauchy Functional Inequality in Banach Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Choonkil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We investigate the following functional inequality: in Banach modules over a -algebra, and prove the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of linear mappings in Banach modules over a -algebra.

  14. Acoustic Green's function extraction in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiaoqin

    The acoustic Green's function (GF) is the key to understanding the acoustic properties of ocean environments. With knowledge of the acoustic GF, the physics of sound propagation, such as dispersion, can be analyzed; underwater communication over thousands of miles can be understood; physical properties of the ocean, including ocean temperature, ocean current speed, as well as seafloor bathymetry, can be investigated. Experimental methods of acoustic GF extraction can be categorized as active methods and passive methods. Active methods are based on employment of man-made sound sources. These active methods require less computational complexity and time, but may cause harm to marine mammals. Passive methods cost much less and do not harm marine mammals, but require more theoretical and computational work. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages that should be carefully tailored to fit the need of each specific environment and application. In this dissertation, we study one passive method, the noise interferometry method, and one active method, the inverse filter processing method, to achieve acoustic GF extraction in the ocean. The passive method of noise interferometry makes use of ambient noise to extract an approximation to the acoustic GF. In an environment with a diffusive distribution of sound sources, sound waves that pass through two hydrophones at two locations carry the information of the acoustic GF between these two locations; by listening to the long-term ambient noise signals and cross-correlating the noise data recorded at two locations, the acoustic GF emerges from the noise cross-correlation function (NCF); a coherent stack of many realizations of NCFs yields a good approximation to the acoustic GF between these two locations, with all the deterministic structures clearly exhibited in the waveform. To test the performance of noise interferometry in different types of ocean environments, two field experiments were performed and ambient noise

  15. Conceptual design of Tritium Extraction System for the European HCPB Test Blanket Module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciampichetti, A.; Nitti, F.S.; Aiello, A.; Ricapito, I.; Liger, K.; Demange, D.; Sedano, L.; Moreno, C.; Succi, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER. ► Tritium extraction by gas purging, removal and transfer to the Tritium Plant. ► Conceptual design of TES and revision of the previous configuration. ► Main components: adsorption column, ZrCo getter beds and PERMCAT reactor. - Abstract: The HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed) Test Blanket Module (TBM), developed in EU to be tested in ITER, adopts a ceramic containing lithium as breeder material, beryllium as neutron multiplier and helium at 80 bar as primary coolant. In HCPB-TBM the main function of Tritium Extraction System (TES) is to extract tritium from the breeder by gas purging, to remove it from the purge gas and to route it to the ITER Tritium Plant for the final tritium processing. In this paper, starting from a revision of the so far reference process considered for HCPB-TES and considering a new modeling activity aimed to evaluate tritium concentration in purge gas, an updated conceptual design of TES is reported.

  16. Devil's Claw to suppress appetite--ghrelin receptor modulation potential of a Harpagophytum procumbens root extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Torres-Fuentes

    Full Text Available Ghrelin is a stomach-derived peptide that has been identified as the only circulating hunger hormone that exerts a potent orexigenic effect via activation of its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a. Hence, the ghrelinergic system represents a promising target to treat obesity and obesity-related diseases. In this study we analysed the GHS-R1a receptor activating potential of Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as Devil's Claw, and its effect on food intake in vivo. H. procumbens is an important traditional medicinal plant from Southern Africa with potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. This plant has been also used as an appetite modulator but most evidences are anecdotal and to our knowledge, no clear scientific studies relating to appetite modulation have been done to this date. The ghrelin receptor activation potential of an extract derived from the dried tuberous roots of H. procumbens was analysed by calcium mobilization and receptor internalization assays in human embryonic kidney cells (Hek stably expressing the GHS-R1a receptor. Food intake was investigated in male C57BL/6 mice following intraperitoneal administration of H. procumbens root extract in ad libitum and food restricted conditions. Exposure to H. procumbens extract demonstrated a significant increased cellular calcium influx but did not induce subsequent GHS-R1a receptor internalization, which is a characteristic for full receptor activation. A significant anorexigenic effect was observed in male C57BL/6 mice following peripheral administration of H. procumbens extract. We conclude that H. procumbens root extract is a potential novel source for potent anti-obesity bioactives. These results reinforce the promising potential of natural bioactives to be developed into functional foods with weight-loss and weight maintenance benefits.

  17. Auditory sensitivity to spectral modulation phase reversal as a function of modulation depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Emily; Grose, John

    2018-01-01

    The present study evaluated auditory sensitivity to spectral modulation by determining the modulation depth required to detect modulation phase reversal. This approach may be preferable to spectral modulation detection with a spectrally flat standard, since listeners appear unable to perform the task based on the detection of temporal modulation. While phase reversal thresholds are often evaluated by holding modulation depth constant and adjusting modulation rate, holding rate constant and adjusting modulation depth supports rate-specific assessment of modulation processing. Stimuli were pink noise samples, filtered into seven octave-wide bands (0.125-8 kHz) and spectrally modulated in dB. Experiment 1 measured performance as a function of modulation depth to determine appropriate units for adaptive threshold estimation. Experiment 2 compared thresholds in dB for modulation detection with a flat standard and modulation phase reversal; results supported the idea that temporal cues were available at high rates for the former but not the latter. Experiment 3 evaluated spectral modulation phase reversal thresholds for modulation that was restricted to either one or two neighboring bands. Flanking bands of unmodulated noise had a larger detrimental effect on one-band than two-band targets. Thresholds for high-rate modulation improved with increasing carrier frequency up to 2 kHz, whereas low-rate modulation appeared more consistent across frequency, particularly in the two-band condition. Experiment 4 measured spectral weights for spectral modulation phase reversal detection and found higher weights for bands in the spectral center of the stimulus than for the lowest (0.125 kHz) or highest (8 kHz) band. Experiment 5 compared performance for highly practiced and relatively naïve listeners, and found weak evidence of a larger practice effect at high than low spectral modulation rates. These results provide preliminary data for a task that may provide a better estimate of

  18. Fast-extraction modulators for Los Alamos Scientific LaboratorY Proton Storage Ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Hudgings, D.W.; Sarjeant, W.J.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator for the LASL proton storage ring has made necessary the design and development of a resonant transformer charging circuit and the design of a new FIB line circuit to provide bipolar pulse outputs with low prepulse, postpulse, and an optimum high-voltage switch environments. The systems are now being developed to operate reliably at the high-average powers required. The short-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is presently operating. The initial construction of the long-bunch mode fast-extraction modulator prototype is under way, with results expected within the year

  19. Extracting functionally feedforward networks from a population of spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kathleen; Tauskela, Joseph S; Thivierge, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal avalanches are a ubiquitous form of activity characterized by spontaneous bursts whose size distribution follows a power-law. Recent theoretical models have replicated power-law avalanches by assuming the presence of functionally feedforward connections (FFCs) in the underlying dynamics of the system. Accordingly, avalanches are generated by a feedforward chain of activation that persists despite being embedded in a larger, massively recurrent circuit. However, it is unclear to what extent networks of living neurons that exhibit power-law avalanches rely on FFCs. Here, we employed a computational approach to reconstruct the functional connectivity of cultured cortical neurons plated on multielectrode arrays (MEAs) and investigated whether pharmacologically induced alterations in avalanche dynamics are accompanied by changes in FFCs. This approach begins by extracting a functional network of directed links between pairs of neurons, and then evaluates the strength of FFCs using Schur decomposition. In a first step, we examined the ability of this approach to extract FFCs from simulated spiking neurons. The strength of FFCs obtained in strictly feedforward networks diminished monotonically as links were gradually rewired at random. Next, we estimated the FFCs of spontaneously active cortical neuron cultures in the presence of either a control medium, a GABA(A) receptor antagonist (PTX), or an AMPA receptor antagonist combined with an NMDA receptor antagonist (APV/DNQX). The distribution of avalanche sizes in these cultures was modulated by this pharmacology, with a shallower power-law under PTX (due to the prominence of larger avalanches) and a steeper power-law under APV/DNQX (due to avalanches recruiting fewer neurons) relative to control cultures. The strength of FFCs increased in networks after application of PTX, consistent with an amplification of feedforward activity during avalanches. Conversely, FFCs decreased after application of APV

  20. Variations of the bacterial foraging algorithm for the extraction of PV module parameters from nameplate data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadallah, Mohamed A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bacterial foraging algorithm is used to extract PV model parameters from nameplate data. • Five variations of the bacterial foraging algorithm are compared on a simple objective function. • Best results obtained when swarming is neglected, step size is varied, and global best is preserved. • The technique is successfully applied on single- and double-diode models. • Matching between computation and measurements validates the obtained set of parameters. - Abstract: The paper introduces the task of parameter extraction of photovoltaic (PV) modules as a nonlinear optimization problem. The concerned parameters are the series resistance, shunt resistance, diode ideality factor, and diode reverse saturation current for both the single- and double-diode models. An error function representing the mismatch between computed and targeted performance is minimized using different versions of the bacterial foraging (BF) algorithm of global search and heuristic optimization. The targeted performance is obtained from the nameplate data of the PV module. Five distinct variations of the BF algorithm are used to solve the problem independently for the single- and double-diode models. The best optimization results are obtained when swarming is eliminated, chemotactic step size is dynamically varied, and global best is preserved, all acting together. Under such conditions, the best global minimum of 0.0028 is reached in an average best time of 94.4 sec for the single-diode model. However, it takes an average of 153 sec to reach the best global minimum of 0.0021 in case of double-diode model. An experimental verification study involves the comparison of computed performance to measurements on an Eclipsall PV module. It is shown that all variants of the BF algorithm could reach equivalent-circuit parameters with accepted accuracy by solving the optimization problem. The good matching between analytical and experimental results indicates the effectiveness of the

  1. Identification of fractional order systems using modulating functions method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem; Gibaru, O.; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    can be transferred into the ones of the modulating functions. By choosing a set of modulating functions, a linear system of algebraic equations is obtained. Hence, the unknown parameters of a fractional order system can be estimated by solving a linear

  2. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    OpenAIRE

    Kang Sheon-Young; Chang Ick-Soon; Kim Hark-Mahn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation). Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation) mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  3. On Functional Inequalities Originating from Module Jordan Left Derivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sheon-Young

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We first examine the generalized Hyers-Ulam stability of functional inequality associated with module Jordan left derivation (resp., module Jordan derivation. Secondly, we study the functional inequality with linear Jordan left derivation (resp., linear Jordan derivation mapping into the Jacobson radical.

  4. Tracking the Reorganization of Module Structure in Time-Varying Weighted Brain Functional Connectivity Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christoph; Piper, Diana; Pester, Britta; Mierau, Andreas; Witte, Herbert

    2018-05-01

    Identification of module structure in brain functional networks is a promising way to obtain novel insights into neural information processing, as modules correspond to delineated brain regions in which interactions are strongly increased. Tracking of network modules in time-varying brain functional networks is not yet commonly considered in neuroscience despite its potential for gaining an understanding of the time evolution of functional interaction patterns and associated changing degrees of functional segregation and integration. We introduce a general computational framework for extracting consensus partitions from defined time windows in sequences of weighted directed edge-complete networks and show how the temporal reorganization of the module structure can be tracked and visualized. Part of the framework is a new approach for computing edge weight thresholds for individual networks based on multiobjective optimization of module structure quality criteria as well as an approach for matching modules across time steps. By testing our framework using synthetic network sequences and applying it to brain functional networks computed from electroencephalographic recordings of healthy subjects that were exposed to a major balance perturbation, we demonstrate the framework's potential for gaining meaningful insights into dynamic brain function in the form of evolving network modules. The precise chronology of the neural processing inferred with our framework and its interpretation helps to improve the currently incomplete understanding of the cortical contribution for the compensation of such balance perturbations.

  5. Designing a Growing Functional Modules “Artificial Brain”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Leboeuf-Pasquier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The present paper illustrates the design process for the Growing Functional Modules (GFM learning based controller. GFM controllers are elaborated interconnecting four kinds of components: Global Goals, Acting Modules, Sensations and Sensing Modules. Global Goals trigger intrinsic motivations, Acting and Sensing Modules develop specific functionalities and Sensations provide the controlled system's feedback. GFM controllers learn to satisfy some predefined goals while interacting with the environment and thus should be considered as artificial brains. An example of the design process of a simple controller is provided herein to explain the inherent methodology, to exhibit the components' interconnections and to demonstrate the control process.

  6. Functionality and performance of the ALFA_CTPIN module

    CERN Document Server

    Iwanski, Wieslaw; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Oechsle, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The ALFA_CTPIN module has been designed in response to increased internal processing time of the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) of the ATLAS experiment which resulted in reducing time left to the ALFA detector to deliver its own triggers to the CTP within specified latency. Accelerated extraction of ALFA triggers from encoded signals and the possibility to perform local triggers processing by this module allowed ALFA to contribute to global triggering of the ATLAS detector. A huge number of implemented scalers and flexibility in defining triggers processing criteria make also from this module a very attractive tool for in-depth analysis of properties of the LHC beam.

  7. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu; Farinha, A. S. F.; Sinha, Shahnawaz

    2017-01-01

    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any

  8. Ethanol extracts of Newbouldia laevis stem and leaves modulate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanol extracts of N. laevis leaves and stem possessed antioxidant activity as shown by increased activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase, and glutathione levels of the diabetic rats after treatment. High levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), which are typical of oxidative ...

  9. Functional Module Analysis for Gene Coexpression Networks with Network Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuqin; Zhao, Hongyu; Ng, Michael K

    2015-01-01

    Network has been a general tool for studying the complex interactions between different genes, proteins, and other small molecules. Module as a fundamental property of many biological networks has been widely studied and many computational methods have been proposed to identify the modules in an individual network. However, in many cases, a single network is insufficient for module analysis due to the noise in the data or the tuning of parameters when building the biological network. The availability of a large amount of biological networks makes network integration study possible. By integrating such networks, more informative modules for some specific disease can be derived from the networks constructed from different tissues, and consistent factors for different diseases can be inferred. In this paper, we have developed an effective method for module identification from multiple networks under different conditions. The problem is formulated as an optimization model, which combines the module identification in each individual network and alignment of the modules from different networks together. An approximation algorithm based on eigenvector computation is proposed. Our method outperforms the existing methods, especially when the underlying modules in multiple networks are different in simulation studies. We also applied our method to two groups of gene coexpression networks for humans, which include one for three different cancers, and one for three tissues from the morbidly obese patients. We identified 13 modules with three complete subgraphs, and 11 modules with two complete subgraphs, respectively. The modules were validated through Gene Ontology enrichment and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. We also showed that the main functions of most modules for the corresponding disease have been addressed by other researchers, which may provide the theoretical basis for further studying the modules experimentally.

  10. Modulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes function by incubation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    1Israel Poison Information Center, Rambam Medical Center Haifa 31096, Israel. 2Kupat Holim Clalit ... ethical standards laid down by the 1964 Declaration of. Helsinki. ... from R&D Systems (Minneapolis, MN, USA). 2.4 Lung function.

  11. Endothelial microparticles: Sophisticated vesicles modulating vascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Anne M; Edelberg, Jay; Jonas, Rebecca; Rogers, Wade T; Moore, Jonni S; Syed, Wajihuddin; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial microparticles (EMPs) belong to a family of extracellular vesicles that are dynamic, mobile, biological effectors capable of mediating vascular physiology and function. The release of EMPs can impart autocrine and paracrine effects on target cells through surface interaction, cellular fusion, and, possibly, the delivery of intra-vesicular cargo. A greater understanding of the formation, composition, and function of EMPs will broaden our understanding of endothelial communication and may expose new pathways amenable for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:23892447

  12. Optimization of flavanones extraction by modulating differential solvent densities and centrifuge temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebrolu, Kranthi K; Jayaprakasha, G K; Jifon, J; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-07-15

    Understanding the factors influencing flavonone extraction is critical for the knowledge in sample preparation. The present study was focused on the extraction parameters such as solvent, heat, centrifugal speed, centrifuge temperature, sample to solvent ratio, extraction cycles, sonication time, microwave time and their interactions on sample preparation. Flavanones were analyzed in a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and later identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). The five flavanones were eluted by a binary mobile phase with 0.03% phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in 20 min and detected at 280 nm, and later identified by mass spectral analysis. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethyl formamide (DMF) had optimum extraction levels of narirutin, naringin, neohesperidin, didymin and poncirin compared to methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and acetonitrile (ACN). Centrifuge temperature had a significant effect on flavanone distribution in the extracts. The DMSO and DMF extracts had homogeneous distribution of flavanones compared to MeOH, EtOH and ACN after centrifugation. Furthermore, ACN showed clear phase separation due to differential densities in the extracts after centrifugation. The number of extraction cycles significantly increased the flavanone levels during extraction. Modulating the sample to solvent ratio increased naringin quantity in the extracts. Current research provides critical information on the role of centrifuge temperature, extraction solvent and their interactions on flavanone distribution in extracts. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. THD-Module Extractor: An Application for CEN Module Extraction and Interesting Gene Identification for Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, Tulika; Kashyap, Hirak; Bhattacharyya, Dhruba K

    2016-11-30

    There exist many tools and methods for construction of co-expression network from gene expression data and for extraction of densely connected gene modules. In this paper, a method is introduced to construct co-expression network and to extract co-expressed modules having high biological significance. The proposed method has been validated on several well known microarray datasets extracted from a diverse set of species, using statistical measures, such as p and q values. The modules obtained in these studies are found to be biologically significant based on Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, pathway analysis, and KEGG enrichment analysis. Further, the method was applied on an Alzheimer's disease dataset and some interesting genes are found, which have high semantic similarity among them, but are not significantly correlated in terms of expression similarity. Some of these interesting genes, such as MAPT, CASP2, and PSEN2, are linked with important aspects of Alzheimer's disease, such as dementia, increase cell death, and deposition of amyloid-beta proteins in Alzheimer's disease brains. The biological pathways associated with Alzheimer's disease, such as, Wnt signaling, Apoptosis, p53 signaling, and Notch signaling, incorporate these interesting genes. The proposed method is evaluated in regard to existing literature.

  14. PHEROMONAL MODULATION OF REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION IN MAMMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Keller

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Social olfactory signals, often known as pheromones, are powerful regulators of reproductive function. These chemosignals can be detected by two olfactory systems, namely the main or the accessory olfactory systems. While initially anatomically segregated, both systems converge functionally as they can detect and process overlapping sets of chemosignals. This convergence also takes place at the level of their central projections in the hypothalamus. It is probably at this level that future investigations will be needed. Indeed, if the physiology of both olfactory system and reproductive function are now quite well characterized, the interrelation between both systems is unclear. Among the many cell populations that can serve as targets or relays for the pheromonal information in the hypothalamus are GnRH cells or the recently discovered Kispeptin population which have been showed to be activated after pheromonal activation. However, many works will be needed before having a definitive picture.

  15. CLARM: An integrative approach for functional modules discovery

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Saeed M.; Alroobi, Rami; Banitaan, Shadi; Seridi, Loqmane; Brewer, James E.; Aljarah, Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Functional module discovery aims to find well-connected subnetworks which can serve as candidate protein complexes. Advances in High-throughput proteomic technologies have enabled the collection of large amount of interaction data as well as gene expression data. We propose, CLARM, a clustering algorithm that integrates gene expression profiles and protein protein interaction network for biological modules discovery. The main premise is that by enriching the interaction network by adding interactions between genes which are highly co-expressed over a wide range of biological and environmental conditions, we can improve the quality of the discovered modules. Protein protein interactions, known protein complexes, and gene expression profiles for diverse environmental conditions from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used for evaluate the biological significance of the reported modules. Our experiments show that the CLARM approach is competitive to wellestablished module discovery methods. Copyright © 2011 ACM.

  16. Platelet modulation of human neutrophil functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarrity, S.T.; Hyers, T.M.; Webster, R.O.

    1986-03-01

    The combined presence of platelets (PLTS) and neutrophils (PMN) at inflammatory sites has led to examination of the hypothesis that interaction of these cells modulates their responses to stimuli. Gel-filtered human PLTS (GFP) were found to inhibit N-formyl-met-leu-phe (FMLP) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated PMN O/sub 2//sup -/ generation in a concentration-dependent fashion. The heat-stable inhibitory activity was present in the supernatants of GFP after incubation with FMLP (10/sup -7/M), thrombin (0.5 U/ml) or ADP (20 ..mu..M), suggesting a role for PLT release products. PLT lysates added to PMN produced up to 80% inhibition of O/sub 2//sup -/ generation for PMA and 40% for FMLP. Like GFP, lysates failed to scavenge O/sub 2/..pi.. produced by xanthine oxidase-hypoxanthine. The inhibitory activity could not be ascribed to serotonin or adenosine. PLT lysates failed to compete with /sup 3/H-FMLP for binding to PMN. Sephadex G-200 fractionation of PLT lysates releaved two peaks of inhibitory activity with apparent Mr > 200,000 and < 14,000 Daltons. Pretreatment of PMN with PLT lysates also results in a concentration-dependent inhibition of degranulation provoked by FMLP (2 x 10/sup -7/M) or PMA (2 ng/ml) and PMN chemotaxis to FMLP (10/sup -8/M). These studies indicate that preformed PLT mediator(s) released in response to physiological stimuli may limit tissue damage by PMN at sites of inflammation.

  17. Xanthophylls as modulators of membrane protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruban, Alexander V; Johnson, Matthew P

    2010-12-01

    This review discusses the structural aspect of the role of photosynthetic antenna xanthophylls. It argues that xanthophyll hydrophobicity/polarity could explain the reason for xanthophyll variety and help to understand their recently emerging function--control of membrane organization and the work of membrane proteins. The structure of a xanthophyll molecule is discussed in relation to other amphiphilic compounds like lipids, detergents, etc. Xanthophyll composition of membrane proteins, the role of their variety in protein function are discussed using as an example for the major light harvesting antenna complex of photosystem II, LHCII, from higher plants. A new empirical parameter, hydrophobicity parameter (H-parameter), has been introduced as an effective measure of the hydrophobicity of the xanthophyll complement of LHCII from different xanthophyll biosynthesis mutants of Arabidopsis. Photosystem II quantum efficiency was found to correlate well with the H-parameter of LHCII xanthophylls. PSII down-regulation by non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching, NPQ, had optimum corresponding to the wild-type xanthophyll composition, where lutein occupies intrinsic sites, L1 and L2. Xanthophyll polarity/hydrophobicity alteration by the activity of the xanthophyll cycle explains the allosteric character of NPQ regulation, memory of illumination history and the hysteretic nature of the relationship between the triggering factor, ΔpH, and the energy dissipation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Hunger-driven modulation in brain functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yukinori; Saitoe, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    \\All organisms must obtain nutrition in order to survive and produce their progeny. In the natural environment, however, adequate nutrition or food is not always available. Thus, all organisms are equipped with mechanisms by which their nutritional condition alters their internal activities. In animals, the loss of nutritional intake (fasting) alters not only metabolism, but also behavior in a manner dependent on hormones such as insulin, glucagon, leptin, and ghrelin. As a result, animals are able to maintain their blood sugar level, and are motivated to crave food upon fasting. Moreover, our recent study revealed a novel role of hunger, which facilitates long-term memory (LTM) formation, and its molecular mechanism in the fruit fly, Drosophila. Here, we review the overall effect of fasting, and how fasting affects brain function. I then introduce our finding in which mild fasting facilitates LTM formation, and discuss its biological significance.

  19. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Gregory A.

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a 'Th2 polarized' immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in

  20. Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Gregory A. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    In order to examine the effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the immune system we chose to examine an amplified adaptive cellular immunity response. This response is Type IV delayed-type hypersensitivity also called contact hypersensitivity. The agent fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) is a low molecular weight, lipophilic, reactive, fluorescent molecule that can be applied to the skin where it (hapten) reacts with proteins (carriers) to become a complete antigen. Exposure to FITC leads to sensitization which is easily measured as a hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction following a subsequent exposure to the ear. Ear swelling, eosinophil infiltration, immunoglobulin E production and cytokine secretion patterns characteristic of a “Th2 polarized” immune response are the components of the reaction. The reaction requires successful implementation of antigen processing and presentation by antigen presenting Langerhans cells, communication with naïve T lymphocytes in draining lymph nodes, expansion of activated T cell clones, migration of activated T cells to the circulation, and recruitment of memory T cells, macrophages and eosinophils to the site of the secondary challenge. Using this model our approach was to quantify system function rather than relying only on indirect biomarkers of cell. We measured the FITC-induced hypersensitivity reaction over a range of doses from 2 cGy to 2 Gy. Irradiations were performed during key events or prior to key events to deplete critical cell populations. In addition to quantifying the final inflammatory response, we assessed cell populations in peripheral blood and spleen, cytokine signatures, IgE levels and expression of genes associated with key processes in sensitization and elicitation/recall. We hypothesized that ionizing radiation would produce a biphasic effect on immune system function resulting in an enhancement at low doses and a depression at higher doses and suggested that this transition would occur in the

  1. Modulation of RNA function by aminoglycoside antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, R; Waldsich, C; Wank, H

    2000-01-04

    One of the most important families of antibiotics are the aminoglycosides, including drugs such as neomycin B, paromomycin, gentamicin and streptomycin. With the discovery of the catalytic potential of RNA, these antibiotics became very popular due to their RNA-binding capacity. They serve for the analysis of RNA function as well as for the study of RNA as a potential therapeutic target. Improvements in RNA structure determination recently provided first insights into the decoding site of the ribosome at high resolution and how aminoglycosides might induce misreading of the genetic code. In addition to inhibiting prokaryotic translation, aminoglycosides inhibit several catalytic RNAs such as self-splicing group I introns, RNase P and small ribozymes in vitro. Furthermore, these antibiotics interfere with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication by disrupting essential RNA-protein contacts. Most exciting is the potential of many RNA-binding antibiotics to stimulate RNA activities, conceiving small-molecule partners for the hypothesis of an ancient RNA world. SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) has been used in this evolutionary game leading to small synthetic RNAs, whose NMR structures gave valuable information on how aminoglycosides interact with RNA, which could possibly be used in applied science.

  2. FMFinder: A Functional Module Detector for PPI Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Modi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioinformatics is an integrated area of data mining, statistics and computational biology. Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI network is the most important biological process in living beings. In this network a protein module interacts with another module and so on, forming a large network of proteins. The same set of proteins which takes part in the organic courses of biological actions is detected through the Function Module Detection method. Clustering process when applied in PPI networks is made of proteins which are part of a larger communication network. As a result of this, we can define the limits for module detection as well as clarify the construction of a PPI network. For understating the bio-mechanism of various living beings, a detailed study of FMFinder detection by clustering process is called for.

  3. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue; Vázquez-Gutiérrez, José Luis; Johansson, Daniel P.; Landberg, Rikard; Langton, Maud

    2016-01-01

    A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE). These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications. PMID:26840533

  4. Yellow Mealworm Protein for Food Purposes - Extraction and Functional Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhao

    Full Text Available A protocol for extraction of yellow mealworm larvae proteins was established, conditions were evaluated and the resulting protein extract was characterised. The freeze-dried yellow mealworm larvae contained around 33% fat, 51% crude protein and 43% true protein on a dry matter basis. The true protein content of the protein extract was about 75%, with an extraction rate of 70% under optimised extraction conditions using 0.25 M NaOH, a NaOH solution:ethanol defatted worm ratio of 15:1 mL/g, 40°C for 1 h and extraction twice. The protein extract was a good source of essential amino acids. The lowest protein solubility in distilled water solution was found between pH 4 and 5, and increased with either increasing or decreasing pH. Lower solubility was observed in 0.5 M NaCl solution compared with distilled water. The rheological tests indicated that temperature, sample concentration, addition of salt and enzyme, incubation time and pH alterations influenced the elastic modulus of yellow mealworm protein extract (YMPE. These results demonstrate that the functional properties of YMPE can be modified for different food applications.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition by extracts from chromatin modulated fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Thomaz Nogueira Silva Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Major health challenges as the increasing number of cases of infections by antibiotic multiresistant microorganisms and cases of Alzheimer's disease have led to searching new control drugs. The present study aims to verify a new way of obtaining bioactive extracts from filamentous fungi with potential antimicrobial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities, using epigenetic modulation to promote the expression of genes commonly silenced. For such finality, five filamentous fungal species (Talaromyces funiculosus, Talaromyces islandicus, Talaromyces minioluteus, Talaromyces pinophilus, Penicillium janthinellum were grown or not with DNA methyltransferases inhibitors (procainamide or hydralazine and/or a histone deacetylase inhibitor (suberohydroxamic acid. Extracts from T. islandicus cultured or not with hydralazine inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth in 57.66 ± 5.98% and 15.38 ± 1.99%, respectively. Increment in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity was observed for the extract from P. janthinellum grown with procainamide (100%, when compared to the control extract (39.62 ± 3.76%. Similarly, inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity increased from 20.91 ± 3.90% (control to 92.20 ± 3.72% when the tested extract was obtained from T. pinophilus under a combination of suberohydroxamic acid and procainamide. Concluding, increases in antimicrobial activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibition were observed when fungal extracts in the presence of DNA methyltransferases and/or histone deacetylase modulators were tested.

  6. Markers of liver function and inflammatory cytokines modulation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Aerobic exercise training modulates inflammatory cytokine levels and markers of liver function in patients with nonalcoholic ... and is associated with over nutrition and under activity, ... of these subjects with leptin reduced liver fat and liver enzyme ... tissue, muscle-released interleukin-6 inhibition of tumor.

  7. Identification of fractional order systems using modulating functions method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan

    2013-06-01

    The modulating functions method has been used for the identification of linear and nonlinear systems. In this paper, we generalize this method to the on-line identification of fractional order systems based on the Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives. First, a new fractional integration by parts formula involving the fractional derivative of a modulating function is given. Then, we apply this formula to a fractional order system, for which the fractional derivatives of the input and the output can be transferred into the ones of the modulating functions. By choosing a set of modulating functions, a linear system of algebraic equations is obtained. Hence, the unknown parameters of a fractional order system can be estimated by solving a linear system. Using this method, we do not need any initial values which are usually unknown and not equal to zero. Also we do not need to estimate the fractional derivatives of noisy output. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed estimators are robust against high frequency sinusoidal noises and the ones due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, the efficiency and the stability of the proposed method is confirmed by some numerical simulations.

  8. Multi-functional Electric Module for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Reed, Ryan (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Figuered, Joshua M. (Inventor); Herrera, Eduardo (Inventor); Markee, Mason M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A multi-functional electric module (eModule) is provided for a vehicle having a chassis, a master controller, and a drive wheel having a propulsion-braking module. The eModule includes a steering control assembly, mounting bracket, propulsion control assembly, brake controller, housing, and control arm. The steering control assembly includes a steering motor controlled by steering controllers in response to control signals from the master controller. A mounting feature of the bracket connects to the chassis. The propulsion control assembly and brake controller are in communication with the propulsion-braking module. The control arm connects to the lower portion and contains elements of a suspension system, with the control arm being connectable to the drive wheel via a wheel input/output block. The controllers are responsive to the master controller to control a respective steering, propulsion, and braking function. The steering motor may have a dual-wound stator with windings controlled via the respective steering controllers.

  9. Human Intellectual Disability Genes Form Conserved Functional Modules in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oortveld, Merel A. W.; Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Oti, Martin; Nijhof, Bonnie; Fernandes, Ana Clara; Kochinke, Korinna; Castells-Nobau, Anna; van Engelen, Eva; Ellenkamp, Thijs; Eshuis, Lilian; Galy, Anne; van Bokhoven, Hans; Habermann, Bianca; Brunner, Han G.; Zweier, Christiane; Verstreken, Patrik; Huynen, Martijn A.; Schenck, Annette

    2013-01-01

    Intellectual Disability (ID) disorders, defined by an IQ below 70, are genetically and phenotypically highly heterogeneous. Identification of common molecular pathways underlying these disorders is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of cognition and for the development of therapeutic intervention strategies. To systematically establish their functional connectivity, we used transgenic RNAi to target 270 ID gene orthologs in the Drosophila eye. Assessment of neuronal function in behavioral and electrophysiological assays and multiparametric morphological analysis identified phenotypes associated with knockdown of 180 ID gene orthologs. Most of these genotype-phenotype associations were novel. For example, we uncovered 16 genes that are required for basal neurotransmission and have not previously been implicated in this process in any system or organism. ID gene orthologs with morphological eye phenotypes, in contrast to genes without phenotypes, are relatively highly expressed in the human nervous system and are enriched for neuronal functions, suggesting that eye phenotyping can distinguish different classes of ID genes. Indeed, grouping genes by Drosophila phenotype uncovered 26 connected functional modules. Novel links between ID genes successfully predicted that MYCN, PIGV and UPF3B regulate synapse development. Drosophila phenotype groups show, in addition to ID, significant phenotypic similarity also in humans, indicating that functional modules are conserved. The combined data indicate that ID disorders, despite their extreme genetic diversity, are caused by disruption of a limited number of highly connected functional modules. PMID:24204314

  10. Intranasal oxytocin modulates neural functional connectivity during human social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilling, James K; Chen, Xiangchuan; Chen, Xu; Haroon, Ebrahim

    2018-02-10

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model. Here, we conduct an extensive re-analysis of these data to explore how OT modulates functional connectivity across a neural network that animal studies implicate in social behavior. OT induced widespread increases in functional connectivity in response to positive social interactions among men and widespread decreases in functional connectivity in response to negative social interactions among women. Nucleus basalis of Meynert, an important regulator of selective attention and motivation with a particularly high density of OT receptors, had the largest number of OT-modulated connections. Regions known to receive mesolimbic dopamine projections such as the nucleus accumbens and lateral septum were also hubs for OT effects on functional connectivity. Our results suggest that the neural mechanism by which OT influences primate social cognition may include changes in patterns of activity across neural networks that regulate social behavior in other animals. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Monaural and binaural subjective modulation transfer functions in simple reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    conditions, with single reflections at different arrival times in the two ears and with a simulated room impulse response. The monaural data describe a subjective MTF, which is similar to the physical MTF. An interaural modulation phase difference can create an interaural intensity fluctuation, which can......, M.R. (1981) Modulation transfer-functions: Definition and measurement, Acustica, 49, 179-182]. The envelope of a speech signal is critical for intelligibility, and the speech transmission index (STI) predicts the intelligibility of speech through a given transmission channel based on its MTF...

  12. Amplitude modulation of atomic wave functions. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    The major theoretical advance has been to show that one can modulate Rydberg wave functions using either of two methods: (1) the amplitude modulation technique which depends on autoionization to deplete part of the wave function, or (2) a phase modulation method, which uses a change in the core potential to create a localized phase shift in the wave function. Essentially, these two methods can both be seen as using the core potential to change the Rydberg wave function, using the imaginary part of the potential to do amplitude modulation, or using the real part of the potential to do phase modulation. This work will be published as the authors acquire experimental results which show the differences between the two methods. One of the results of this theoretical study is that the initial proposal to study Barium 6snd states had a significant flaw. Neither the autoionization time, nor the quantum defect shifts are very large in these cases. This means that the modulation is relatively small. This shows itself primarily in the difficulty of seeing significant population redistribution into different 6snd states. The authors intend to correct this in the next funding cycle either: (a) by using the more quickly decaying Ba 6pnf states to modulate 6snd states, or (b) by using Sr 5 snd states, as outlined in this report. Their first, low power experiments are complete. These experiments have used two pulses to do a temporal version of the Ramsey separated oscillatory fields excitation. The two pulses are generated by passing the single pulse through a Michelson-Morley interferometer, which is computer controlled to sweep one arm through 2.5 {micro}m in steps of 10 nm. The second pulse`s excitation interferes with that of the first pulse, and so the total excitation has a sinusoidal variation (with a time period equal to the optical period) on top of a constant background. The amplitude of the total variation should decay at half of the rate decay rate of the autoionizing

  13. GA Based Optimal Feature Extraction Method for Functional Data Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wan; Zehua Chen; Yingwu Chen; Zhidong Bai

    2010-01-01

    Classification is an interesting problem in functional data analysis (FDA), because many science and application problems end up with classification problems, such as recognition, prediction, control, decision making, management, etc. As the high dimension and high correlation in functional data (FD), it is a key problem to extract features from FD whereas keeping its global characters, which relates to the classification efficiency and precision to heavens. In this paper...

  14. Proper Analytic Point Spread Function for Lateral Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Chikayoshi; Shimizu, Kunio; Matsui, Norihiko

    2010-07-01

    For ultrasonic lateral modulation for the imaging and measurement of tissue motion, better envelope shapes of the point spread function (PSF) than of a parabolic function are searched for within analytic functions or windows on the basis of the knowledge of the ideal shape of PSF previously obtained, i.e., having a large full width at half maximum and short feet. Through simulation of displacement vector measurement, better shapes are determined. As a better shape, a new window is obtained from a Turkey window by changing Hanning windows by power functions with an order larger than the second order. The order of measurement accuracies obtained is as follows, the new window > rectangular window > power function with a higher order > parabolic function > Akaike window.

  15. Cholinergic modulation of cognition: Insights from human pharmacological functional neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Paul; Driver, Jon; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from lesion and cortical-slice studies implicate the neocortical cholinergic system in the modulation of sensory, attentional and memory processing. In this review we consider findings from sixty-three healthy human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies that probe interactions of cholinergic drugs with brain activation profiles, and relate these to contemporary neurobiological models. Consistent patterns that emerge are: (1) the direction of cholinergic modulation of sensory cortex activations depends upon top-down influences; (2) cholinergic hyperstimulation reduces top-down selective modulation of sensory cortices; (3) cholinergic hyperstimulation interacts with task-specific frontoparietal activations according to one of several patterns, including: suppression of parietal-mediated reorienting; decreasing ‘effort’-associated activations in prefrontal regions; and deactivation of a ‘resting-state network’ in medial cortex, with reciprocal recruitment of dorsolateral frontoparietal regions during performance-challenging conditions; (4) encoding-related activations in both neocortical and hippocampal regions are disrupted by cholinergic blockade, or enhanced with cholinergic stimulation, while the opposite profile is observed during retrieval; (5) many examples exist of an ‘inverted-U shaped’ pattern of cholinergic influences by which the direction of functional neural activation (and performance) depends upon both task (e.g. relative difficulty) and subject (e.g. age) factors. Overall, human cholinergic functional neuroimaging studies both corroborate and extend physiological accounts of cholinergic function arising from other experimental contexts, while providing mechanistic insights into cholinergic-acting drugs and their potential clinical applications. PMID:21708219

  16. Functional modules by relating protein interaction networks and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornow, Sabine; Mewes, H W

    2003-11-01

    Genes and proteins are organized on the basis of their particular mutual relations or according to their interactions in cellular and genetic networks. These include metabolic or signaling pathways and protein interaction, regulatory or co-expression networks. Integrating the information from the different types of networks may lead to the notion of a functional network and functional modules. To find these modules, we propose a new technique which is based on collective, multi-body correlations in a genetic network. We calculated the correlation strength of a group of genes (e.g. in the co-expression network) which were identified as members of a module in a different network (e.g. in the protein interaction network) and estimated the probability that this correlation strength was found by chance. Groups of genes with a significant correlation strength in different networks have a high probability that they perform the same function. Here, we propose evaluating the multi-body correlations by applying the superparamagnetic approach. We compare our method to the presently applied mean Pearson correlations and show that our method is more sensitive in revealing functional relationships.

  17. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    II Kim Jae

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. Methods In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB. Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Results Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining. Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Conclusions Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  18. Abalone visceral extract inhibit tumor growth and metastasis by modulating Cox-2 levels and CD8+ T cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Gu; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Ryu, Jae Ha; Kang, Sung Jin; Im, Chang-Rok; Ii Kim, Jae; Im, Sin-Hyeog

    2010-10-20

    Abalone has long been used as a valuable food source in East Asian countries. Although the nutritional importance of abalone has been reported through in vitro and in vivo studies, there is little evidence about the potential anti-tumor effects of abalone visceral extract. The aim of the present study is to examine anti-tumor efficacy of abalone visceral extract and to elucidate its working mechanism. In the present study, we used breast cancer model using BALB/c mouse-derived 4T1 mammary carcinoma and investigated the effect of abalone visceral extract on tumor development. Inhibitory effect against tumor metastasis was assessed by histopathology of lungs. Cox-2 productions by primary and secondary tumor were measured by real-time RT-PCR and immunoblotting (IB). Proliferation assay based on [3H]-thymidine incorporation and measurement of cytokines and effector molecules by RT-PCR were used to confirm tumor suppression efficacy of abalone visceral extract by modulating cytolytic CD8+ T cells. The cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cell was compared by JAM test. Oral administration of abalone visceral extract reduced tumor growth (tumor volume and weight) and showed reduced metastasis as confirmed by decreased level of splenomegaly (spleen size and weight) and histological analysis of the lung metastasis (gross analysis and histological staining). Reduced expression of Cox-2 (mRNA and protein) from primary tumor and metastasized lung was also detected. In addition, treatment of abalone visceral extract increased anti-tumor activities of CD8+ T cells by increasing the proliferation capacity and their cytolytic activity. Our results suggest that abalone visceral extract has anti-tumor effects by suppressing tumor growth and lung metastasis through decreasing Cox-2 expression level as well as promoting proliferation and cytolytic function of CD8+ T cells.

  19. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of 99m TcO 4 - , in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na 99m TcO 4 , purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced 99m Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fabricating and Characterizing the Microfluidic Solid Phase Extraction Module Coupling with Integrated ESI Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hangbin Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic chips coupling with mass spectrometry (MS will be of great significance to the development of relevant instruments involving chemical and bio-chemical analysis, drug detection, food and environmental applications and so on. In our previous works, we proposed two types of microfluidic electrospray ionization (ESI chip coupling with MS: the two-phase flow focusing (FF ESI microfluidic chip and the corner-integrated ESI emitter, respectively. However the pretreatment module integrated with these ESI emitters is still a challenging problem. In this paper, we concentrated on integrating the solid phase micro-extraction (SPME module with our previous proposed on-chip ESI emitters; the fabrication processes of such SPME module are fully compatible with our previous proposed ESI emitters based on the multi-layer soft lithography. We optimized the structure of the integrated chip and characterized its performance using standard samples. Furthermore, we verified its abilities of salt removal, extraction of multiple analytes and separation through on-chip elution using mimic biological urine spiked with different drugs. The results indicated that our proposed integrated module with ESI emitters is practical and effective for real biological sample pretreatment and MS detection.

  1. Robust fractional order differentiators using generalized modulating functions method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims at designing a fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation with unknown parameters. A generalized modulating functions method is proposed first to estimate the unknown parameters, then to derive accurate integral formulae for the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives of the studied signal. Unlike the improper integral in the definition of the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, the integrals in the proposed formulae can be proper and be considered as a low-pass filter by choosing appropriate modulating functions. Hence, digital fractional order differentiators applicable for on-line applications are deduced using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Moreover, some error analysis are given for noise error contributions due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, numerical examples are given to show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiators.

  2. Robust fractional order differentiators using generalized modulating functions method

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Dayan

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims at designing a fractional order differentiator for a class of signals satisfying a linear differential equation with unknown parameters. A generalized modulating functions method is proposed first to estimate the unknown parameters, then to derive accurate integral formulae for the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivatives of the studied signal. Unlike the improper integral in the definition of the left-sided Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative, the integrals in the proposed formulae can be proper and be considered as a low-pass filter by choosing appropriate modulating functions. Hence, digital fractional order differentiators applicable for on-line applications are deduced using a numerical integration method in discrete noisy case. Moreover, some error analysis are given for noise error contributions due to a class of stochastic processes. Finally, numerical examples are given to show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed fractional order differentiators.

  3. The partial coherence modulation transfer function in testing lithography lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiun-Woei

    2018-03-01

    Due to the lithography demanding high performance in projection of semiconductor mask to wafer, the lens has to be almost free in spherical and coma aberration, thus, in situ optical testing for diagnosis of lens performance has to be established to verify the performance and to provide the suggesting for further improvement of the lens, before the lens has been build and integrated with light source. The measurement of modulation transfer function of critical dimension (CD) is main performance parameter to evaluate the line width of semiconductor platform fabricating ability for the smallest line width of producing tiny integrated circuits. Although the modulation transfer function (MTF) has been popularly used to evaluation the optical system, but in lithography, the contrast of each line-pair is in one dimension or two dimensions, analytically, while the lens stand along in the test bench integrated with the light source coherent or near coherent for the small dimension near the optical diffraction limit, the MTF is not only contributed by the lens, also by illumination of platform. In the study, the partial coherence modulation transfer function (PCMTF) for testing a lithography lens is suggested by measuring MTF in the high spatial frequency of in situ lithography lens, blended with the illumination of partial and in coherent light source. PCMTF can be one of measurement to evaluate the imperfect lens of lithography lens for further improvement in lens performance.

  4. Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the “global workspace” theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs

  5. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  6. Development of a new compound method to extract the five parameters of PV modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Jianbo; Liu, Sheng; Hao, Yuzhe; Zhang, Zhen; Jiang, Meng; Zhang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A compound method to extract the five parameters of the five-parameter PV model. • A piecewise curve-fitting method to obtain the differential values at the short and open circuit points. • Simulated and experimental I–V and P–V curves at any operating conditions have excellent agreement. • Prediction of generation output for a PV power station has high accuracy. - Abstract: The five-parameter photovoltaic (PV) mathematical model has been considered a reliable and accurate method for simulating the performance of PV modules. This paper puts forth a new compound method to extract the five parameters of the model with the basic manufacture template data. As the two differential values at the short and open circuit points of the I–V curve at standard testing conditions (STC) are fundamental data to obtain the five parameters and not normally available from the template data, we use a piecewise I–V curve-fitting method combined with the four-parameter PV model to calculate them with which an explicit extraction method is then presented to extract the five parameters at STC conditions by using five individual algebraic equations. Furthermore, the five parameters are revised according to certain operating conditions. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the simulated I–V characteristic curves for three types of PV modules over a range of operating conditions are compared with the measured data. The experimental results demonstrate that the method has high accuracy. This method is also used to predict the generation power of an actual PV power station; the simulation results show good agreement with the field data. This proposed method is easy to carry out and especially useful for simulating the actual performances of PV modules or arrays at various operating conditions and predicting the output power of real PV power stations

  7. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, Jack; Rutledge, Veronica; Pereira, Candido; Copple, Jackie; Frey, Kurt; Krebs, John; Maggos, Laura; Nichols, Kevin; Wardle, Kent; Sadasivan, Pratap; DeAlmieda, Valmor; Depaoli, David

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets and integrated

  8. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Law; Veronica Rutledge; Candido Pereira; Jackie Copple; Kurt Frey; John Krebs; Laura Maggos; Kevin Nichols; Kent Wardle; Pratap Sadasivan; Valmor DeAlmieda; David Depaoli

    2011-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Program has been established to create and deploy next generation, verified and validated nuclear energy modeling and simulation capabilities for the design, implementation, and operation of future nuclear energy systems to improve the U.S. energy security. As part of the NEAMS program, Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (IPSC's) are being produced to significantly advance the status of modeling and simulation of energy systems beyond what is currently available to the extent that the new codes be readily functional in the short term and extensible in the longer term. The four IPSC areas include Safeguards and Separations, Reactors, Fuels, and Waste Forms. As part of the Safeguards and Separations (SafeSeps) IPSC effort, interoperable process models are being developed that enable dynamic simulation of an advanced separations plant. A SafeSepss IPSC 'toolkit' is in development to enable the integration of separation process modules and safeguards tools into the design process by providing an environment to compose, verify and validate a simulation application to be used for analysis of various plant configurations and operating conditions. The modules of this toolkit will be implemented on a modern, expandable architecture with the flexibility to explore and evaluate a wide range of process options while preserving their stand-alone usability. Modules implemented at the plant-level will initially incorporate relatively simple representations for each process through a reduced modeling approach. Final versions will incorporate the capability to bridge to subscale models to provide required fidelity in chemical and physical processes. A dynamic solvent extraction model and its module implementation are needed to support the development of this integrated plant model. As a stand-alone application, it will also support solvent development of extraction flowsheets

  9. Functionalization of mesoporous materials for lanthanide and actinide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Justyna; Giret, Simon; Juère, Estelle; Larivière, Dominic; Kleitz, Freddy

    2016-10-14

    Among the energy sources currently available that could address our insatiable appetite for energy and minimize our CO2 emission, solar, wind, and nuclear energy currently occupy an increasing portion of our energy portfolio. The energy associated with these sources can however only be harnessed after mineral resources containing valuable constituents such as actinides (Ac) and rare earth elements (REEs) are extracted, purified and transformed into components necessary for the conversion of energy into electricity. Unfortunately, the environmental impacts resulting from their manufacture including the generation of undesirable and, sometimes, radioactive wastes and the non-renewable nature of the mineral resources, to name a few, have emerged as challenges that should be addressed by the scientific community. In this perspective, the recent development of functionalized solid materials dedicated to selective elemental separation/pre-concentration could provide answers to several of the above-mentioned challenges. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of mesoporous solid-phase (SP) sorbents designed for REEs and Ac liquid-solid extraction. Particular attention will be devoted to silica and carbon sorbents functionalized with commonly known ligands, such as phosphorus or amide-containing functionalities. The extraction performances of these new systems are discussed in terms of sorption capacity and selectivity. In order to support potential industrial applications of the silica and carbon-based sorbents, their main drawbacks and advantages are highlighted and discussed.

  10. Cholinergic modulation of the hippocampal region and memory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haam, Juhee; Yakel, Jerrel L

    2017-08-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) plays an important role in memory function and has been implicated in aging-related dementia, in which the impairment of hippocampus-dependent learning strongly manifests. Cholinergic neurons densely innervate the hippocampus, mediating the formation of episodic as well as semantic memory. Here, we will review recent findings on acetylcholine's modulation of memory function, with a particular focus on hippocampus-dependent learning, and the circuits involved. In addition, we will discuss the complexity of ACh actions in memory function to better understand the physiological role of ACh in memory. This is an article for the special issue XVth International Symposium on Cholinergic Mechanisms. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  11. Evaluation of Geometrical Modulation Transfer Function in Optical Lens System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Mu Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ray tracing algorithms to evaluate the geometrical modulation transfer function (GMTF of optical lens system. There are two kinds of ray tracings methods that can be applied to help simulate the point spread function (PSF in the image plane, for example, paraxial optics and real ray tracings. The paraxial optics ray tracing is used to calculate the first-order properties such as the effective focal length (EFL and the entrance pupil position through less cost of computation. However, the PSF could have a large tolerance by only using paraxial optics ray tracing for simulation. Some formulas for real ray tracing are applied in the sagittal and tangential line spread function (LSF. The algorithms are developed to demonstrate the simulation of LSF. Finally, the GMTF is evaluated after the fast Fourier transform (FFT of the LSF.

  12. Selective Androgen Receptor Modulators (SARMs) as Function Promoting Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review The last decade has witnessed unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Recent Findings While steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5α-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with AR contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. Summary SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis. PMID:19357508

  13. Selective androgen receptor modulators as function promoting therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi

    2009-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed an unprecedented discovery effort to develop selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) that improve physical function and bone health without adversely affecting the prostate and cardiovascular outcomes. This review describes the historical evolution, the rationale for SARM development, and the mechanisms of testosterone action and SARM selectivity. Although steroidal SARMs have been around since the 1940s, a number of nonsteroidal SARMs that do not serve as substrates for CYP19 aromatase or 5alpha-reductase, act as full agonists in muscle and bone and as partial agonists in prostate are in development. The differing interactions of steroidal and nonsteroidal compounds with androgen receptor (AR) contribute to their unique pharmacologic actions. Ligand binding induces specific conformational changes in the ligand-binding domain, which could modulate surface topology and protein-protein interactions between AR and coregulators, resulting in tissue-specific gene regulation. Preclinical studies have demonstrated the ability of SARMs to increase muscle and bone mass in preclinical rodent models with varying degree of prostate sparing. Phase I trials of SARMs in humans have reported modest increments in fat-free mass. SARMs hold promise as a new class of function promoting anabolic therapies for a number of clinical indications, including functional limitations associated with aging and chronic disease, frailty, cancer cachexia, and osteoporosis.

  14. Structuring detergents for extracting and stabilizing functional membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Matar-Merheb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane proteins are privileged pharmaceutical targets for which the development of structure-based drug design is challenging. One underlying reason is the fact that detergents do not stabilize membrane domains as efficiently as natural lipids in membranes, often leading to a partial to complete loss of activity/stability during protein extraction and purification and preventing crystallization in an active conformation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anionic calix[4]arene based detergents (C4Cn, n=1-12 were designed to structure the membrane domains through hydrophobic interactions and a network of salt bridges with the basic residues found at the cytosol-membrane interface of membrane proteins. These compounds behave as surfactants, forming micelles of 5-24 nm, with the critical micellar concentration (CMC being as expected sensitive to pH ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 mM. Both by 1H NMR titration and Surface Tension titration experiments, the interaction of these molecules with the basic amino acids was confirmed. They extract membrane proteins from different origins behaving as mild detergents, leading to partial extraction in some cases. They also retain protein functionality, as shown for BmrA (Bacillus multidrug resistance ATP protein, a membrane multidrug-transporting ATPase, which is particularly sensitive to detergent extraction. These new detergents allow BmrA to bind daunorubicin with a Kd of 12 µM, a value similar to that observed after purification using dodecyl maltoside (DDM. They preserve the ATPase activity of BmrA (which resets the protein to its initial state after drug efflux much more efficiently than SDS (sodium dodecyl sulphate, FC12 (Foscholine 12 or DDM. They also maintain in a functional state the C4Cn-extracted protein upon detergent exchange with FC12. Finally, they promote 3D-crystallization of the membrane protein. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These compounds seem promising to extract in a functional state

  15. Remote synchronization reveals network symmetries and functional modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Valencia, Miguel; Chavez, Mario; Díaz-Guilera, Albert; Latora, Vito

    2013-04-26

    We study a Kuramoto model in which the oscillators are associated with the nodes of a complex network and the interactions include a phase frustration, thus preventing full synchronization. The system organizes into a regime of remote synchronization where pairs of nodes with the same network symmetry are fully synchronized, despite their distance on the graph. We provide analytical arguments to explain this result, and we show how the frustration parameter affects the distribution of phases. An application to brain networks suggests that anatomical symmetry plays a role in neural synchronization by determining correlated functional modules across distant locations.

  16. Bessel-like beams modulated by arbitrary radial functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman; Wiggins

    2000-06-01

    An approximate method for determining the radial and axial intensity of a Bessel-like beam is presented for the general case in which a radial Bessel distribution of any order is modulated by an arbitrary function. For Bessel-Gauss, generalized Bessel-Gauss, and Bessel-super-Gauss beams, this simple approximation yields results that are very close to the exact values, while they are exact for Bessel beams. A practical beam that can be generated with a combination of simple lenses is also analyzed and illustrated.

  17. EFFECT OF NATURAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PORCINE OVARIAN FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kádasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report provides information about the impact of chosen natural plant extracts on basic ovarian functions. This article summarizes our results concerning the effect of selected plant extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion – release of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and leptin (L on porcine granulosa cells (GC, We analyzed effects of ginkgo (GB, rooibos (RB, flaxseed (FL, green tea polyphenols (GTPP, green tea - epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, resveratrol (RSV and curcumin (CURC (0; 1; 10 and 100 μg.ml-1 on markers of proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of porcine ovarian granulosa cells by using immunocytochemistry and EIA. It was demonstrated, that all these natural plants and plant molecules inhibited the accumulation of proliferation-related peptide (PCNA and apoptosis-associated peptide (Bax in cultured. Furthermore, it was observed that natural plant extracts altered progesterone, testosterone and leptin release in porcine ovarian cells. It is concluded, that GB, RB, FL, RSV, CURC, GTPP and EGCG can directly affect ovarian cells and therefore they could potentially influence ovarian functions.

  18. Module-based quality system functionality evaluation in production logistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabbazi, M.R.; Wikander, J.; Onori, M.; Maffei, A.; Chen, D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper addresses a comprehensive modeling and functionality evaluation of a module-based quality system in production logistics at the highest domain abstract level of business processes. All domain quality business processes and quality data transactions are modeled using BPMN and UML tools and standards at the business process and data modeling. A modular web-based prototype is developed to evaluate the models addressing the quality information system functionality requirements and modularity in production logistics through data scenarios and data queries. Using the object-oriented technique in design at the highest domain level, the proposed models are subject further development in the lower levels for the implementing case. The models are specifically able to manipulate all quality operations including remedy and control in a lot-based make-to-order production logistics system as an individual module. Due to the specification of system as domain design structure, all proposed BPMs, data models, and the actual database prototype are seen referential if not a solution as a practical “to-be” quality business process re-engineering template. This paper sets out to provide an explanatory approach using different practical technique at modeling steps as well as the prototype implementation. (Author)

  19. Enhancing NMDA Receptor Function: Recent Progress on Allosteric Modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs are subtype glutamate receptors that play important roles in excitatory neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Their hypo- or hyperactivation are proposed to contribute to the genesis or progression of various brain diseases, including stroke, schizophrenia, depression, and Alzheimer’s disease. Past efforts in targeting NMDARs for therapeutic intervention have largely been on inhibitors of NMDARs. In light of the discovery of NMDAR hypofunction in psychiatric disorders and perhaps Alzheimer’s disease, efforts in boosting NMDAR activity/functions have surged in recent years. In this review, we will focus on enhancing NMDAR functions, especially on the recent progress in the generation of subunit-selective, allosteric positive modulators (PAMs of NMDARs. We shall also discuss the usefulness of these newly developed NMDAR-PAMs.

  20. The modulation of visceral functions by somatic afferent activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, A; Schmidt, R F

    1987-01-01

    We began by briefly reviewing the historical background of neurophysiological studies of the somato-autonomic reflexes and then discussed recent studies on somatic-visceral reflexes in combination with autonomic efferent nerve activity and effector organ responses. Most of the studies that have advanced our knowledge in this area have been carried out on anesthetized animals, thus eliminating emotional factors. We would like to emphasize again that the functions of many, or perhaps all visceral organs can be modulated by somato-sympathetic or somato-parasympathetic reflex activity induced by a appropriate somatic afferent stimulation in anesthetized animals. As mentioned previously, some autonomic nervous outflow, e.g. the adrenal sympathetic nerve activity, is involved in the control of hormonal secretion. John F. Fulton wrote in his famous textbook "Physiology of the Nervous System" (1949) that the posterior pituitary neurosecretion system (i.e. for oxytocin and vasopressin) could be considered a part of the parasympathetic nervous system. In the study of body homeostasis and environmental adaptation it would seem very important to further analyze the contribution of somatic afferent input to the autonomic nervous and hormonal regulation of visceral organ activity. Also, some immunological functions have been found to be influenced by autonomic nerves or hormones (e.g. adrenal cortical hormone and catecholamines). Finally, we must take into account, as we have briefly discussed, that visceral functions can be modulated by somatic afferent input via various degrees of integration of autonomic nerves, hormones, and immunological processes. We trust that such research will be expanded to higher species of mammals, and that ultimately this knowledge of somato-visceral reflexes obtained in the physiological laboratory will become clinically useful in influencing visceral functions.

  1. Modulation of T-type Ca2+ channels by Lavender and Rosemary extracts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaymae El Alaoui

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants represent a significant reservoir of unexplored substances for early-stage drug discovery. Of interest, two flowering Mediterranean plants have been used for thousands of years for their beneficial effects on nervous disorders, including anxiety and mood. However, the therapeutic potential of these plants regarding their ability to target ion channels and neuronal excitability remains largely unknown. Towards this goal, we have investigated the ability of Lavender and Rosemary to modulate T-type calcium channels (TTCCs. TTCCs play important roles in neuronal excitability, neuroprotection, sensory processes and sleep. These channels are also involved in epilepsy and pain. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we have characterized how Lavender and Rosemary extracts, as well as their major active compounds Linalool and Rosmarinic acid, modulate the electrophysiological properties of recombinant TTCCs (CaV3.2 expressed in HEK-293T cells. Both the methanolic and essential oil extracts as well as the active compounds of these plants inhibit Cav3.2 current in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, these products also induce a negative shift of the steady-state inactivation of CaV3.2 current with no change in the activation properties. Taken together, our findings reveal that TTCCs are a molecular target of the Lavender and Rosemary compounds, suggesting that inhibition of TTCCs could contribute to the anxiolytic and the neuroprotective effects of these plants.

  2. Extracting neuronal functional network dynamics via adaptive Granger causality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhattar, Alireza; Miran, Sina; Liu, Ji; Fritz, Jonathan B; Shamma, Shihab A; Kanold, Patrick O; Babadi, Behtash

    2018-04-24

    Quantifying the functional relations between the nodes in a network based on local observations is a key challenge in studying complex systems. Most existing time series analysis techniques for this purpose provide static estimates of the network properties, pertain to stationary Gaussian data, or do not take into account the ubiquitous sparsity in the underlying functional networks. When applied to spike recordings from neuronal ensembles undergoing rapid task-dependent dynamics, they thus hinder a precise statistical characterization of the dynamic neuronal functional networks underlying adaptive behavior. We develop a dynamic estimation and inference paradigm for extracting functional neuronal network dynamics in the sense of Granger, by integrating techniques from adaptive filtering, compressed sensing, point process theory, and high-dimensional statistics. We demonstrate the utility of our proposed paradigm through theoretical analysis, algorithm development, and application to synthetic and real data. Application of our techniques to two-photon Ca 2+ imaging experiments from the mouse auditory cortex reveals unique features of the functional neuronal network structures underlying spontaneous activity at unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution. Our analysis of simultaneous recordings from the ferret auditory and prefrontal cortical areas suggests evidence for the role of rapid top-down and bottom-up functional dynamics across these areas involved in robust attentive behavior.

  3. Extracts of medicinal plants as functional beer additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Sofija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on determining the level of the antioxidant activity of beer, to which sensory acceptable amounts of selected extracts of medicinal plants were added, with the aim of obtaining a beer with increased functional and new sensory features. For purposes of this study a commercial lager beer type Pils and extracts of herbal drugs: Melissae folium, Thymi herba, Juniperi fructus, Urticae radix and Lupuli strobuli, were used. Total phenols were analyzed by the method of Folin-Ciocalteu, and the antioxidant activity of samples using FRAP and DPPH test. Sensory evaluation of beer was conducted on 80 subjects, using a nine levels hedonic scale. The results showed that the content of total phenols was the highest in the beer which thyme, juniper and lemon balm were added to (384.22, 365.38 and 363.08 mg GAE/L, respectively, representing the increase of 37.09, 30.36 and 29.55% (respectively compared to the commercial lager beer. Values of antioxidant activity were correlated with the content of total phenols. The extract of lemon balm blended in the best manner with the baseline, commercial lager beer in terms of sensory acceptability. New beer, enriched with lemon balm, had a pleasant, appealing and harmonious flavor and aroma.

  4. AKIP1 expression modulates mitochondrial function in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjuan Yu

    Full Text Available A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1 is a molecular regulator of protein kinase A and nuclear factor kappa B signalling. Recent evidence suggests AKIP1 is increased in response to cardiac stress, modulates acute ischemic stress response, and is localized to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. The mitochondrial function of AKIP1 is, however, still elusive. Here, we investigated the mitochondrial function of AKIP1 in a neonatal cardiomyocyte model of phenylephrine (PE-induced hypertrophy. Using a seahorse flux analyzer we show that PE stimulated the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR in cardiomyocytes. This was partially dependent on PE mediated AKIP1 induction, since silencing of AKIP1 attenuated the increase in OCR. Interestingly, AKIP1 overexpression alone was sufficient to stimulate mitochondrial OCR and in particular ATP-linked OCR. This was also true when pyruvate was used as a substrate, indicating that it was independent of glycolytic flux. The increase in OCR was independent of mitochondrial biogenesis, changes in ETC density or altered mitochondrial membrane potential. In fact, the respiratory flux was elevated per amount of ETC, possibly through enhanced ETC coupling. Furthermore, overexpression of AKIP1 reduced and silencing of AKIP1 increased mitochondrial superoxide production, suggesting that AKIP1 modulates the efficiency of electron flux through the ETC. Together, this suggests that AKIP1 overexpression improves mitochondrial function to enhance respiration without excess superoxide generation, thereby implicating a role for AKIP1 in mitochondrial stress adaptation. Upregulation of AKIP1 during different forms of cardiac stress may therefore be an adaptive mechanism to protect the heart.

  5. Modulating functional and dysfunctional mentalizing by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eSchuwerk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mentalizing, the ability to attribute mental states to others and oneself, is a cognitive function with high relevance for social interactions. Recent neuroscientific research has increasingly contributed to attempts to decompose this complex social cognitive function into constituting neurocognitive building blocks. Additionally, clinical research that focuses on social cognition to find links between impaired social functioning and neurophysiological deviations has accumulated evidence that mentalizing is affected in most psychiatric disorders. Recently, both lines of research have started to employ transcranial magnetic stimulation: the first to modulate mentalizing in order to specify its neurocognitive components, the latter to treat impaired mentalizing in clinical conditions. This review integrates findings of these two different approaches to draw a more detailed picture of the neurocognitive basis of mentalizing and its deviations in psychiatric disorders. Moreover, we evaluate the effectiveness of hitherto employed stimulation techniques and protocols, paradigms and outcome measures. Based on this overview we highlight new directions for future research on the neurocognitive basis of functional and dysfunctional social cognition.

  6. TAAR1 Modulates Cortical Glutamate NMDA Receptor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Stefano; Lignani, Gabriele; Caffino, Lucia; Maggi, Silvia; Sukhanov, Ilya; Leo, Damiana; Mus, Liudmila; Emanuele, Marco; Ronzitti, Giuseppe; Harmeier, Anja; Medrihan, Lucian; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Chieregatti, Evelina; Hoener, Marius C; Benfenati, Fabio; Tucci, Valter; Fumagalli, Fabio; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 (TAAR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the mammalian brain and known to influence subcortical monoaminergic transmission. Monoamines, such as dopamine, also play an important role within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) circuitry, which is critically involved in high-o5rder cognitive processes. TAAR1-selective ligands have shown potential antipsychotic, antidepressant, and pro-cognitive effects in experimental animal models; however, it remains unclear whether TAAR1 can affect PFC-related processes and functions. In this study, we document a distinct pattern of expression of TAAR1 in the PFC, as well as altered subunit composition and deficient functionality of the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the pyramidal neurons of layer V of PFC in mice lacking TAAR1. The dysregulated cortical glutamate transmission in TAAR1-KO mice was associated with aberrant behaviors in several tests, indicating a perseverative and impulsive phenotype of mutants. Conversely, pharmacological activation of TAAR1 with selective agonists reduced premature impulsive responses observed in the fixed-interval conditioning schedule in normal mice. Our study indicates that TAAR1 plays an important role in the modulation of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission in the PFC and related functions. Furthermore, these data suggest that the development of TAAR1-based drugs could provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of disorders related to aberrant cortical functions. PMID:25749299

  7. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-03-16

    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any combination thereof from water, such as produced water, are provided. In an embodiment, the functionalized material is a mineral material, such as mica, silica (e.g. an SiO2 microsphere) or a metal oxide, and the outer surface of the material is functionalized with an alkyl chain or a perfluorinated species. In an embodiment, the method of making the functionalized material, includes: a) providing a mineral material; b) providing an alkyl chain and/or a perfluorinated species, the alkyl chain or perfluorinated species selected to dissolve organic foulants, charged contaminants or oily matter from water or any combination thereof; c) hydroxylating the material via a concentrated acid solution or a basic solution; and d) grafting the alkyl chain and/or the perfluorinated species onto the material via a silanation reaction.

  8. Modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement method based on support vector machine (SVM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Yueting; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi

    2016-03-01

    An imaging system's spatial quality can be expressed by the system's modulation spread function (MTF) as a function of spatial frequency in terms of the linear response theory. Methods have been proposed to assess the MTF of an imaging system using point, slit or edge techniques. The edge method is widely used for the low requirement of targets. However, the traditional edge methods are limited by the edge angle. Besides, image noise will impair the measurement accuracy, making the measurement result unstable. In this paper, a novel measurement method based on the support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. Image patches with different edge angles and MTF levels are generated as the training set. Parameters related with MTF and image structure are extracted from the edge images. Trained with image parameters and the corresponding MTF, the SVM classifier can assess the MTF of any edge image. The result shows that the proposed method has an excellent performance on measuring accuracy and stability.

  9. Extract from the Zooxanthellate Jellyfish Cotylorhiza tuberculata Modulates Gap Junction Intercellular Communication in Human Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Piraino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, jellyfish populations in coastal marine ecosystems exhibit increasing trends of abundance. High-density outbreaks may directly or indirectly affect human economical and recreational activities, as well as public health. As the interest in biology of marine jellyfish grows, a number of jellyfish metabolites with healthy potential, such as anticancer or antioxidant activities, is increasingly reported. In this study, the Mediterranean “fried egg jellyfish” Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Macri, 1778 has been targeted in the search forputative valuable bioactive compounds. A medusa extract was obtained, fractionated, characterized by HPLC, GC-MS and SDS-PAGE and assayed for its biological activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEKa. The composition of the jellyfish extract included photosynthetic pigments, valuable ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, and polypeptides derived either from jellyfish tissues and their algal symbionts. Extract fractions showed antioxidant activity and the ability to affect cell viability and intercellular communication mediated by gap junctions (GJIC differentially in MCF-7and HEKa cells. A significantly higher cytotoxicity and GJIC enhancement in MCF-7 compared to HEKa cells was recorded. A putative action mechanism for the anticancer bioactivity through the modulation of GJIC has been hypothesized and its nutraceutical and pharmaceutical potential was discussed.

  10. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) and mangiferin modulate mouse humoral immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, D; Leiro, J; Delgado, R; Sanmartín, M L; Ubeira, F M

    2003-12-01

    The present study investigated the effects of orally administered Vimang (an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica) and mangiferin (the major polyphenol present in Vimang) on mouse antibody responses induced by inoculation with spores of microsporidian parasites. Inoculation induced specific antibody production with an exponential timecourse, peaking after about one month. Vimang significantly inhibited this antibody production from about three weeks post-inoculation, and most markedly by four weeks post-inoculation; by contrast, mangiferin had no significant effect. Determination of Ig isotypes showed that the IgM to IgG switch began about four weeks post-inoculation, with IgG2a predominating. Vimang significantly inhibited IgG production, but had no effect on IgM. Mangiferin did no affect either IgM or IgG2a, but significantly enhanced production of IgG1 and IgG2b. Neither Vimang nor mangiferin enhanced specific antibody secretion by splenic plasma cells from mice inoculated with microsporidian spores, whether administered in vivo before serum extraction or in vitro to the culture medium. Inoculation with spores induced splenomegaly, which was significantly reduced by Vimang and significantly enhanced by mangiferin. These results suggest that components of Mangifera indica extracts may be of potential value for modulating the humoral response in different immunopathological disorders. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Modulation of antigen presenting cell functions during chronic HPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abate Assefa Bashaw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available High-risk human papillomaviruses (HR-HPV infect basal keratinocytes, where in some individuals they evade host immune responses and persist. Persistent HR-HPV infection of the cervix causes precancerous neoplasia that can eventuate in cervical cancer. Dendritic cells (DCs are efficient in priming/cross-priming antigen-specific T cells and generating antiviral and antitumor cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. However, HR-HPV have adopted various immunosuppressive strategies, with modulation of DC function crucial to escape from the host adaptive immune response. HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins alter recruitment and localization of epidermal DCs, while soluble regulatory factors derived from HPV-induced hyperplastic epithelium change DC development and influence initiation of specific cellular immune responses. This review focuses on current evidence for HR-HPV manipulation of antigen presentation in dendritic cells and escape from host immunity.

  12. Spatial distribution measured by the modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, P.; Brice, D.K.; Doyle, B.L.

    2003-01-01

    Spatial distributions in ion micro-beam and IBA experimental practice are regularly characterized through the parameters of FWHM and tail area percentage (TF, tail fraction). Linear and stationary transducer theory allows these distributions to be described in the Fourier-dual frequency space, and provides an indirect method to evaluate them through measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF). We suggest direct measurement of MTF by employing bar pattern grids, similar to those used for calibration of radiological equipment. Assuming spatial distributions of the form exp(-(|αx|) η ), we are able to relate the MTF measurements to the more popular FWHM and TF. This new approach to determine spatial resolution can become a standard for use by the micro-beam community

  13. Experimental research of limits for thermal modulation transfer function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Ljubiša D.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented testing of surface defects by pulse video thermography techniques. Such techniques rely on transient infrared radiation from the sample heated by the short duration flux initiated by flesh. Experimental measurements are realized by infrared sensor (FLIR camera. Testing results are considered for the samples with controlled designed defects beyond observed surfaces. The effects of response through the transparent wall are measured as infrared visible radiance. Researches with controlled samples are performed to verify visibility threshold of defect dimensions and forms, for possible use as modulation transfer function of defects hidden beyond the surfaces of thin metal walls. Dimensionless coefficients are derived for method estimations as the results from experimental research.

  14. Spleen lymphocyte function modulated by a cocoa-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro-Puig, E; Pérez-Cano, F J; Ramírez-Santana, C; Castellote, C; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Permanyer, J; Franch, A; Castell, M

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown the down-regulating in vitro effect of cocoa flavonoids on lymphocyte and macrophage activation. In the present paper, we report the capacity of a long-term rich cocoa diet to modulate macrophage cytokine secretion and lymphocyte function in young rats. Weaned rats received natural cocoa (4% or 10% food intake), containing 32 mg flavonoids/g, for 3 weeks. Spleen immune function was then evaluated through the analysis of lymphocyte composition, their proliferative response and their ability to secrete cytokines and Ig. In addition, the status of activated peritoneal macrophages was established through tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha secretion. The richest cocoa diet (10%) caused a reduction of TNF-alpha secretion by peritoneal macrophages showing anti-inflammatory activity. Similarly, although a 10% cocoa diet increased lymphocyte proliferation rate, it down-regulated T helper 2 (Th2)-related cytokines and decreased Ig secretion. These changes were accompanied by an increase in spleen B cell proportion and a decrease in Th cell percentage. In summary, these results demonstrate the functional activity of a cocoa-high dosage in down-regulating the immune response that might be beneficial in hypersensitivity and autoimmunity.

  15. A Combined Water Extract of Frankincense and Myrrh Alleviates Neuropathic Pain in Mice via Modulation of TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyou Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Frankincense and myrrh are widely used in clinics as a pair of herbs to obtain a synergistic effect for relieving pain. To illuminate the analgesia mechanism of frankincense and myrrh, we assessed its effect in a neuropathic pain mouse model. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 plays a crucial role in neuropathic pain and influences the plasticity of neuronal connectivity. We hypothesized that the water extraction of frankincense and myrrh (WFM exerted its analgesia effect by modulating the neuronal function of TRPV1. In our study, WFM was verified by UHPLC-TQ/MS assay. In vivo study showed that nociceptive response in mouse by heat and capsaicin induced were relieved by WFM treatment. Furthermore, thermal hypersensitivity and mechanical allodynia were also alleviated by WFM treatment in a chronic constriction injury (CCI mouse model. CCI resulted in increased TRPV1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in predominantly small-to-medium neurons. However, after WFM treatment, TRPV1 expression was reverted in real-time PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence experiments. Calcium response to capsaicin was also decreased in cultured DRG neurons from CCI model mouse after WFM treatment. In conclusion, WFM alleviated CCI-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hypersensitivity via modulating TRPV1.

  16. Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S.; Shen, Xilin; Constable, R. Todd; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained attention task, and a low-attention network, comprising connections negatively correlated with performance. Validating the networks as generalizable biomarkers of attention, models based on network strength at rest predicted attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in an independent group of individuals (Rosenberg et al., 2016). To investigate whether these networks play a causal role in attention, here we examined their strength in healthy adults given methylphenidate (Ritalin), a common ADHD treatment, compared with unmedicated controls. As predicted, individuals given methylphenidate showed patterns of connectivity associated with better sustained attention: higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength than controls. There was significant overlap between the high-attention network and a network with greater strength in the methylphenidate group, and between the low-attention network and a network with greater strength in the control group. Network strength also predicted behavior on a stop-signal task, such that participants with higher go response rates showed higher high-attention and lower low-attention network strength. These results suggest that methylphenidate acts by modulating functional brain networks related to sustained attention, and that changing whole-brain connectivity patterns may help improve attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent work identified a promising neuromarker of sustained attention based on whole

  17. Bacopa monnieri Extract (CDRI-08 Modulates the NMDA Receptor Subunits and nNOS-Apoptosis Axis in Cerebellum of Hepatic Encephalopathy Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papia Mondal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy (HE, characterized by impaired cerebellar functions during chronic liver failure (CLF, involves N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR overactivation in the brain cells. Bacopa monnieri (BM extract is a known neuroprotectant. The present paper evaluates whether BM extract is able to modulate the two NMDAR subunits (NR2A and NR2B and its downstream mediators in cerebellum of rats with chronic liver failure (CLF, induced by administration of 50 mg/kg bw thioacetamide (TAA i.p. for 14 days, and in the TAA group rats orally treated with 200 mg/kg bw BM extract from days 8 to 14. NR2A is known to impart neuroprotection and that of NR2B induces neuronal death during NMDAR activation. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase- (nNOS- apoptosis pathway is known to mediate NMDAR led excitotoxicity. The level of NR2A was found to be significantly reduced with a concomitant increase of NR2B in cerebellum of the CLF rats. This was consistent with significantly enhanced nNOS expression, nitric oxide level, and reduced Bcl2/Bax ratio. Moreover, treatment with BM extract reversed the NR2A/NR2B ratio and also normalized the levels of nNOS-apoptotic factors in cerebellum of those rats. The findings suggest modulation of NR2A and NR2B expression by BM extract to prevent neurochemical alterations associated with HE.

  18. Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl (U(VI)) ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

  19. Method for estimating modulation transfer function from sample images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiga, Rino; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Mizutani, Ryuta

    2018-02-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) represents the frequency domain response of imaging modalities. Here, we report a method for estimating the MTF from sample images. Test images were generated from a number of images, including those taken with an electron microscope and with an observation satellite. These original images were convolved with point spread functions (PSFs) including those of circular apertures. The resultant test images were subjected to a Fourier transformation. The logarithm of the squared norm of the Fourier transform was plotted against the squared distance from the origin. Linear correlations were observed in the logarithmic plots, indicating that the PSF of the test images can be approximated with a Gaussian. The MTF was then calculated from the Gaussian-approximated PSF. The obtained MTF closely coincided with the MTF predicted from the original PSF. The MTF of an x-ray microtomographic section of a fly brain was also estimated with this method. The obtained MTF showed good agreement with the MTF determined from an edge profile of an aluminum test object. We suggest that this approach is an alternative way of estimating the MTF, independently of the image type. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of vascular function by diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, G L; Chin-Dusting, J P; Kingwell, B A; Dart, A M; Cameron, J; Esler, M; Lewis, T V

    1997-01-01

    Clinical research is conducted in free living individuals who are always subject to the influences on vascular function and the major cardiovascular regulators of their lifestyle. The purpose of this paper is to review some lifestyle influences on cardiovascular function, particularly the sympathetic nervous system and endothelially mediated vasodilatation. There are highly differentiated sympathetic responses to feeding, and to acute exercise. Over a longer period obesity has a typical pattern of sympathetic activity. Reduced dietary salt intake elicits profound localised increases in sympathetic activity to the kidney. Marine oil supplementation attenuates the sympathetic responses to psychological stress and improves endothelially mediated vasodilatation in hypercholesterolaemics. Exercise training reduced total noradrenaline spillover, the major beds affected being the renal and skeletal muscle. These examples illustrate the dynamic nature of vascular dilatation and that, like the sympathetic nervous system, it is modulated by short, medium and long term influences. In both cases there is regulation both at a local and systemic level. Habitual, and recent, lifestyle can exert important cardiovascular effects which must be taken into account in clinical and epidemiological research.

  1. Accessory stimulus modulates executive function during stepping task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Tatsunori; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Nojima, Ippei

    2015-07-01

    When multiple sensory modalities are simultaneously presented, reaction time can be reduced while interference enlarges. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of task-irrelevant acoustic accessory stimuli simultaneously presented with visual imperative stimuli on executive function during stepping. Executive functions were assessed by analyzing temporal events and errors in the initial weight transfer of the postural responses prior to a step (anticipatory postural adjustment errors). Eleven healthy young adults stepped forward in response to a visual stimulus. We applied a choice reaction time task and the Simon task, which consisted of congruent and incongruent conditions. Accessory stimuli were randomly presented with the visual stimuli. Compared with trials without accessory stimuli, the anticipatory postural adjustment error rates were higher in trials with accessory stimuli in the incongruent condition and the reaction times were shorter in trials with accessory stimuli in all the task conditions. Analyses after division of trials according to whether anticipatory postural adjustment error occurred or not revealed that the reaction times of trials with anticipatory postural adjustment errors were reduced more than those of trials without anticipatory postural adjustment errors in the incongruent condition. These results suggest that accessory stimuli modulate the initial motor programming of stepping by lowering decision threshold and exclusively under spatial incompatibility facilitate automatic response activation. The present findings advance the knowledge of intersensory judgment processes during stepping and may aid in the development of intervention and evaluation tools for individuals at risk of falls. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Modulation of estrogen and epidermal growth factor receptors by rosemary extract in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Molina, Susana; Vicente, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Martínez, Ruth; Vargas, Teodoro; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2014-06-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among females worldwide, and therefore the development of new therapeutic approaches is still needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract possesses antitumor properties against tumor cells from several organs, including breast. However, in order to apply it as a complementary therapeutic agent in breast cancer, more information is needed regarding the sensitivity of the different breast tumor subtypes and its effect in combination with the currently used chemotherapy. Here, we analyzed the antitumor activities of a supercritical fluid rosemary extract (SFRE) in different breast cancer cells, and used a genomic approach to explore its effect on the modulation of ER-α and HER2 signaling pathways, the most important mitogen pathways related to breast cancer progression. We found that SFRE exerts antitumor activity against breast cancer cells from different tumor subtypes and the downregulation of ER-α and HER2 receptors by SFRE might be involved in its antitumor effect against estrogen-dependent (ER+) and HER2 overexpressing (HER2+) breast cancer subtypes. Moreover, SFRE significantly enhanced the effect of breast cancer chemotherapy (tamoxifen, trastuzumab, and paclitaxel). Overall, our results support the potential utility of SFRE as a complementary approach in breast cancer therapy. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Extraction of functional ingredients from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using liquid solvent and supercritical CO₂ extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Laura; Vázquez, Erika; Fornari, Tiziana; López-Hazas, María del Carmen; García-Risco, Mónica R; Santoyo, Susana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2015-03-15

    In this work three different techniques were applied to extract dry leaves of spinach (Spinacia oleracea): solid-liquid extraction (SLE), pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to investigate the influence of extraction solvent and technique on extracts composition and antioxidant activity. Moreover, the influence of carotenoids and phenolic compounds on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of spinach extracts was also studied. The higher concentrations of carotenoids and the lower content of phenolic compounds were observed in the supercritical CO₂ extracts; whereas water and/or ethanol PLE extracts presented low amounts of carotenoids and the higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. PLE extract with the highest content of phenolic compounds showed the highest antioxidant activity, although SFE carotenoid rich extract also showed a high antioxidant activity. Moreover, both extracts presented an important anti-inflammatory activity. PLE seems to be a good technique for the extraction of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds from spinach leaves. Moreover, spinach phenolic compounds and carotenoids present a high antioxidant activity, whereas spinach carotenoids seem to show a higher anti-inflammatory activity than phenolic compounds. It is worth noting that of our knowledge this is the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of lipophilic extracts from spinach leaves is reported. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Quetiapine modulates functional connectivity in brain aggression networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Schwenzer, Michael; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Sarkheil, Pegah; Weber, René; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-07-15

    Aggressive behavior is associated with dysfunctions in an affective regulation network encompassing amygdala and prefrontal areas such as orbitofrontal (OFC), anterior cingulate (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). In particular, prefrontal regions have been postulated to control amygdala activity by inhibitory projections, and this process may be disrupted in aggressive individuals. The atypical antipsychotic quetiapine successfully attenuates aggressive behavior in various disorders; the underlying neural processes, however, are unknown. A strengthened functional coupling in the prefrontal-amygdala system may account for these anti-aggressive effects. An inhibition of this network has been reported for virtual aggression in violent video games as well. However, there have been so far no in-vivo observations of pharmacological influences on corticolimbic projections during human aggressive behavior. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, quetiapine and placebo were administered for three successive days prior to an fMRI experiment. In this experiment, functional brain connectivity was assessed during virtual aggressive behavior in a violent video game and an aggression-free control task in a non-violent modification. Quetiapine increased the functional connectivity of ACC and DLPFC with the amygdala during virtual aggression, whereas OFC-amygdala coupling was attenuated. These effects were observed neither for placebo nor for the non-violent control. These results demonstrate for the first time a pharmacological modification of aggression-related human brain networks in a naturalistic setting. The violence-specific modulation of prefrontal-amygdala networks appears to control aggressive behavior and provides a neurobiological model for the anti-aggressive effects of quetiapine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Modulation Transfer Function of Infrared Focal Plane Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Rafol, S. B.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.; Hill, C. J.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Hoglund, L.; Luong, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation transfer function (MTF) is the ability of an imaging system to faithfully image a given object. The MTF of an imaging system quantifies the ability of the system to resolve or transfer spatial frequencies. In this presentation we will discuss the detail MTF measurements of 1024x1024 pixels mid -wavelength and long- wavelength quantum well infrared photodetector, and 320x256 pixels long- wavelength InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs). Long wavelength Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) based on InAs/GaSb superlattice material is hybridized to recently designed and fabricated 320x256 pixel format ROIC. The n-type CBIRD was characterized in terms of performance and thermal stability. The experimentally measured NE delta T of the 8.8 micron cutoff n-CBIRD FPA was 18.6 mK with 300 K background and f/2 cold stop at 78K FPA operating temperature. The horizontal and vertical MTFs of this pixel fully delineated CBIRD FPA at Nyquist frequency are 49% and 52%, respectively.

  6. A product of heme catabolism modulates bacterial function and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher L Nobles

    Full Text Available Bilirubin is the terminal metabolite in heme catabolism in mammals. After deposition into bile, bilirubin is released in large quantities into the mammalian gastrointestinal (GI tract. We hypothesized that intestinal bilirubin may modulate the function of enteric bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of bilirubin on two enteric pathogens; enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, a Gram-negative that causes life-threatening intestinal infections, and E. faecalis, a Gram-positive human commensal bacterium known to be an opportunistic pathogen with broad-spectrum antibiotic resistance. We demonstrate that bilirubin can protect EHEC from exogenous and host-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS through the absorption of free radicals. In contrast, E. faecalis was highly susceptible to bilirubin, which causes significant membrane disruption and uncoupling of respiratory metabolism in this bacterium. Interestingly, similar results were observed for other Gram-positive bacteria, including B. cereus and S. aureus. A model is proposed whereby bilirubin places distinct selective pressure on enteric bacteria, with Gram-negative bacteria being protected from ROS (positive outcome and Gram-positive bacteria being susceptible to membrane disruption (negative outcome. This work suggests bilirubin has differential but biologically relevant effects on bacteria and justifies additional efforts to determine the role of this neglected waste catabolite in disease processes, including animal models.

  7. Curcumin Modulates Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cell-Derived Exosomal Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Carlos J. Diaz; Lynch, James C.; Leaf, Patrick; Gonda, Amber; Ferguson Bennit, Heather R.; Griffiths, Duncan; Wall, Nathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has the highest mortality rates of all cancer types. One potential explanation for the aggressiveness of this disease is that cancer cells have been found to communicate with one another using membrane-bound vesicles known as exosomes. These exosomes carry pro-survival molecules and increase the proliferation, survival, and metastatic potential of recipient cells, suggesting that tumor-derived exosomes are powerful drivers of tumor progression. Thus, to successfully address and eradicate pancreatic cancer, it is imperative to develop therapeutic strategies that neutralize cancer cells and exosomes simultaneously. Curcumin, a turmeric root derivative, has been shown to have potent anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. Recent studies have suggested that exosomal curcumin exerts anti-inflammatory properties on recipient cells. However, curcumin’s effects on exosomal pro-tumor function have yet to be determined. We hypothesize that curcumin will alter the pro-survival role of exosomes from pancreatic cancer cells toward a pro-death role, resulting in reduced cell viability of recipient pancreatic cancer cells. The main objective of this study was to determine the functional alterations of exosomes released by pancreatic cancer cells exposed to curcumin compared to exosomes from untreated pancreatic cancer cells. We demonstrate, using an in vitro cell culture model involving pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2, that curcumin is incorporated into exosomes isolated from curcumin-treated pancreatic cancer cells as observed by spectral studies and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, curcumin is delivered to recipient pancreatic cancer cells via exosomes, promoting cytotoxicity as demonstrated by Hoffman modulation contrast microscopy as well as AlamarBlue and Trypan blue exclusion assays. Collectively, these data suggest that the efficacy of curcumin may be enhanced in pancreatic cancer cells through

  8. Modulation detection as a function of carrier frequency and level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassel, R.; Kohlrausch, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent experiments investigating temporal processing in the auditory system. Subjects had to discriminate sinusoidal signals with a flat temporal envelope from those with a sinusoidal amplitude modulation. The modulation depth at threshold was measured for a wide range of

  9. Using structure to inform carbohydrate binding module function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, D. Wade; Lammerts van Bueren, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Generally, non-catalytic carbohydrate binding module (CBM) specificity has been shown to parallel the catalytic activity of the carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) module it is appended to. With the rapid expansion in metagenomic sequence space for the potential discovery of new CBMs in addition to

  10. Cross-flow filtration of yeast extract with multi-tubular membrane module and rotating-disk membrane module; Makukaitengata heibanmaku module to tankanjomaku module ni yoru kobo hasaieki no cross flow roka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushita, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Watanabe, a. [Toto Ltd., Kitakyushu (Japan)

    1994-09-15

    A membrane separation experiment was made with multi-tubular membrane module and rotating-disk membrane module to study the cross-flow filtration of yeast extract. The membrane was an alumina precision filtration membrane with 0.15 micron m diameter pores. A multi-tubular membrane which was 19 in number of channels and 0.113{sup 2} in effective membrane area was fitted to the multi-tubular membrane module. A rotating-disk membrane which was 0.071m{sup 2} in effective membrane area was fitted to the rotating-disk membrane module. Judging from the concentration speed and factor, the rotating-disk type is more advantageous in concentrating the suspension than the multi-tubular type. The soluble high-molecular component was more easily filtrated through the rotating-disk type, which is judged attributable to its possible operation at a high flow rate on the membrane surface without necessitating a high-flow rate circulation pump. As compared with the conventional cross-filtration type, the rotating-disk type gives a high permeate flux even at a high concentration factor. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Extract of Lillium candidum L. Can Modulate the Genotoxicity of the Antibiotic Zeocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bryant

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Lilium candidum L. extract (LE is well known in folk medicine for the treatment of burns, ulcers, inflammations and for healing wounds. This work aims to clarify whether the genotoxic potential of the radiomimetic antibiotic zeocin (Zeo could be modulated by LE. Our results indicate that LE exerts no cytotoxic, DNA-damaging and clastogenic activity in in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Pisum sativum L. and Hordeum vulgare L. test systems over a broad concentration range. Weak but statistically significant clastogenic effects due to the induction of micronuclei and chromosome aberrations have been observed in H. vulgare L. after treatment with 200 and 300 μg/mL LE. To discriminate protective from adverse action of LE different experimental designs have been used. Our results demonstrate that the treatment with mixtures of LE and Zeo causes an increase in the level of DNA damage, micronuclei and “metaphases with chromatid aberrations” (MwA. Clear evidence has been also obtained indicating that pretreatment with LE given 4 h before the treatment with Zeo accelerates the rejoining kinetics of Zeo-induced DNA damage in P. sativum L. and C. reinhardtii, and can decrease clastogenic effect of Zeo measured as frequencies of micronuclei and MwA in H. vulgare L. Here, we show for the first time that LE can modulate the genotoxic effects of zeocin. The molecular mode of action strongly depends on the experimental design and varies from synergistic to protective effect (adaptive response–AR. Our results also revealed that LE-induced AR to zeocin involves up-regulation of DSB rejoining in C. reinhardtii and P. sativum L. cells.

  12. Large Work Function Modulation of Monolayer MoS2 by Ambient Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Young; Kim, Un Jeong; Chung, JaeGwan; Nam, Honggi; Jeong, Hye Yun; Han, Gang Hee; Kim, Hyun; Oh, Hye Min; Lee, Hyangsook; Kim, Hyochul; Roh, Young-Geun; Kim, Jineun; Hwang, Sung Woo; Park, Yeonsang; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-06-28

    Although two-dimensional monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides reveal numerous unique features that are inaccessible in bulk materials, their intrinsic properties are often obscured by environmental effects. Among them, work function, which is the energy required to extract an electron from a material to vacuum, is one critical parameter in electronic/optoelectronic devices. Here, we report a large work function modulation in MoS2 via ambient gases. The work function was measured by an in situ Kelvin probe technique and further confirmed by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and theoretical calculations. A measured work function of 4.04 eV in vacuum was converted to 4.47 eV with O2 exposure, which is comparable with a large variation in graphene. The homojunction diode by partially passivating a transistor reveals an ideal junction with an ideality factor of almost one and perfect electrical reversibility. The estimated depletion width obtained from photocurrent mapping was ∼200 nm, which is much narrower than bulk semiconductors.

  13. Modulation by Polypodium leucotomos extract of cytokine patterns in experimental trichomoniasis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogal-Ruiz J.J.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The immunomodulating effects of Anapsos®, an aqueous hydrosoluble extract obtained from the rhizomes of the fern Polypodium leucotomos, on both pathogenicity and cytokine levels in serum (IFN-γ/IL-4 were assayed in a Trichomonas vaginalis experimental model (BALB/c mice infected with 107 trichomonads and examined at day 15 after infection. Doses of 20 mg/kg/day administered for 10 days before the infection with the parasite induced a decrease of the experimental pathogenicity approximately 10-20 % compared to controls. Gross histopathologic changes at abdominal organs and mortality rate, as a consequence of pathogenicity of the protozoa and the immune response of the host, were evaluated. IFN-y and IL-4 cytokines were determined on days -5, 0, 5, 10, and 15 postinfection by indirect ELISA. Treatment with PAL before infection modulates and downregulates the IFN-γ concentration, while anticipates and upregulates the IL-4 level. The assays performed have showed the utility of the murine model of experimental trichomoniasis for the evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of synthetic or natural products.

  14. Temporal modulation transfer functions in cochlear implantees using a method that limits overall loudness cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Matthew; McKay, Colette M.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) were measured for six users of cochlear implants, using different carrier rates and levels. Unlike most previous studies investigating modulation detection, the experimental design limited potential effects of overall loudness cues. Psychometric functions (percent correct discrimination of modulated from unmodulated stimuli versus modulation depth) were obtained. For each modulation depth, each modulated stimulus was loudness balanced to the unmodulated reference stimulus, and level jitter was applied in the discrimination task. The loudness-balance data showed that the modulated stimuli were louder than the unmodulated reference stimuli with the same average current, thus confirming the need to limit loudness cues when measuring modulation detection. TMTFs measured in this way had a low-pass characteristic, with a cut-off frequency (at comfortably loud levels) similar to that for normal-hearing listeners. A reduction in level caused degradation in modulation detection efficiency and a lower-cut-off frequency (i.e. poorer temporal resolution). An increase in carrier rate also led to a degradation in modulation detection efficiency, but only at lower levels or higher modulation frequencies. When detection thresholds were expressed as a proportion of dynamic range, there was no effect of carrier rate for the lowest modulation frequency (50 Hz) at either level. PMID:22146425

  15. Modulation of cell surface hydrophobicity and attachment of bacteria to abiotic surfaces and shrimp by Malaysian herb extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Yew Woh; Dykes, Gary A

    2012-08-01

    The use of simple crude water extracts of common herbs to reduce bacterial attachment may be a cost-effective way to control bacterial foodborne pathogens, particularly in developing countries. The ability of water extracts of three common Malaysian herbs (Andrographis paniculata, Eurycoma longifolia, and Garcinia atroviridis) to modulate hydrophobicity and attachment to surfaces of five food-related bacterial strains (Bacillus cereus ATCC 14576, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923) were determined. The bacterial attachment to hydrocarbon assay was used to determine bacterial hydrophobicity. Staining and direct microscopic counts were used to determine attachment of bacteria to glass and stainless steel. Plating on selective media was used to determine attachment of bacteria to shrimp. All extracts were capable of either significantly ( P 0.05) to bacterial attachment. For specific combinations of bacteria, surface material, and plant extract, significant correlations (R > 0.80) between hydrophobicity and attachment were observed. The highest of these was observed for S. aureus attachment to stainless steel and glass after treatment with the E. longifolia extract (R = 0.99, P < 0.01). The crude water herb extracts in this study were shown to have the potential to modulate specific bacterial and surface interactions and may, with further work, be useful for the simple and practical control of foodborne pathogens.

  16. Improving functional modules discovery by enriching interaction networks with gene profiles

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Saeed

    2013-05-01

    Recent advances in proteomic and transcriptomic technologies resulted in the accumulation of vast amount of high-throughput data that span multiple biological processes and characteristics in different organisms. Much of the data come in the form of interaction networks and mRNA expression arrays. An important task in systems biology is functional modules discovery where the goal is to uncover well-connected sub-networks (modules). These discovered modules help to unravel the underlying mechanisms of the observed biological processes. While most of the existing module discovery methods use only the interaction data, in this work we propose, CLARM, which discovers biological modules by incorporating gene profiles data with protein-protein interaction networks. We demonstrate the effectiveness of CLARM on Yeast and Human interaction datasets, and gene expression and molecular function profiles. Experiments on these real datasets show that the CLARM approach is competitive to well established functional module discovery methods.

  17. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L.) and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, J P; Sacramento, L V S; Carlos, I Z

    2017-11-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America), is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines' production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12) and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  18. Fungal infection control by garlic extracts (Allium sativum L. and modulation of peritoneal macrophages activity in murine model of sporotrichosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Burian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Garlic (Allium sativum L. is grown all over the world as seasoning and medicinal vegetable since 3,000 BC. Allicin is the main component of garlic, being attributed to it the most of its biological activities, such as bactericidal, antifungal and antiviral actions. However, other compounds of garlic present antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, vasodilator activities, protective action against different types of cancer, and immunomodulatory. Fungal infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality in people mainly in immunosuppressed ones. Sporothrix schenckii, the causing agent of Sporotrichosis (most common subcutaneous mycosis in Latin America, is dimorphic fungus, of saprophytic life in soil or plants, infecting people and animals mainly through skin injuries and bruises. The main of this work was to evaluate the influence of garlic consuming on immune modulation of healthy and infected Swiss mice in induced way by S. schenckii, since these animals functioning of peritoneal macrophages as well as the nitric oxide and cytokines’ production (IL-1β, IL-10 and IL-12 and to evaluate the antifungal potential of garlic with S. schenckii through minimum inhibitory concentration test and colony-forming units. The results showed that garlic offers antifungal potential with S. schenckii. The oral taking of garlic extracts influences the releasing of cytokines by macrophages, regular consuming shows anti-inflammatory effect, and its acute use may take to an inflammatory response. Mice that consumed garlic responded more effectively to fight against the infection.

  19. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Heterodyne technique for measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal; Birkedal, Dan; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    In this letter, we propose a technique based on heterodyne detection for accurately and simultaneously measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator. The technique is used to characterize an InGaAsp multiple quantum-well electroabsorption modulator. From the measure...... the measurements we derive the small-signal alpha-parameter and the time-dependent chirp for different operation conditions.......In this letter, we propose a technique based on heterodyne detection for accurately and simultaneously measuring the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator. The technique is used to characterize an InGaAsp multiple quantum-well electroabsorption modulator. From...

  1. Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with working memory capacity limitations in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Johnson, Nathan F

    2017-11-01

    Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60-77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Podophyllum hexandrum (Himalayan mayapple) extract provides radioprotection by modulating the expression of proteins associated with apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Sharma, Ashok; Prasad, Jagdish; Sagar, Ravinder; Singh, Surender; Arora, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2005-08-01

    demonstrated that P. hexandrum extract provides protection from gamma-radiation by the modulation of expression of proteins associated with cell death.

  3. Extracting intrinsic functional networks with feature-based group independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Vince D; Allen, Elena

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing use of functional imaging data to understand the macro-connectome of the human brain. Of particular interest is the structure and function of intrinsic networks (regions exhibiting temporally coherent activity both at rest and while a task is being performed), which account for a significant portion of the variance in functional MRI data. While networks are typically estimated based on the temporal similarity between regions (based on temporal correlation, clustering methods, or independent component analysis [ICA]), some recent work has suggested that these intrinsic networks can be extracted from the inter-subject covariation among highly distilled features, such as amplitude maps reflecting regions modulated by a task or even coordinates extracted from large meta analytic studies. In this paper our goal was to explicitly compare the networks obtained from a first-level ICA (ICA on the spatio-temporal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data) to those from a second-level ICA (i.e., ICA on computed features rather than on the first-level fMRI data). Convergent results from simulations, task-fMRI data, and rest-fMRI data show that the second-level analysis is slightly noisier than the first-level analysis but yields strikingly similar patterns of intrinsic networks (spatial correlations as high as 0.85 for task data and 0.65 for rest data, well above the empirical null) and also preserves the relationship of these networks with other variables such as age (for example, default mode network regions tended to show decreased low frequency power for first-level analyses and decreased loading parameters for second-level analyses). In addition, the best-estimated second-level results are those which are the most strongly reflected in the input feature. In summary, the use of feature-based ICA appears to be a valid tool for extracting intrinsic networks. We believe it will become a useful and important approach in the study of the macro

  4. AKIP1 expression modulates mitochondrial function in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Hongjuan; Tigchelaar, Wardit; Koonen, Debby P. Y.; Patel, Hemal H.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Westenbrink, B. Daan; Sillje, Herman H. W.

    2013-01-01

    A kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) is a molecular regulator of protein kinase A and nuclear factor kappa B signalling. Recent evidence suggests AKIP1 is increased in response to cardiac stress, modulates acute ischemic stress response, and is localized to mitochondria in cardiomyocytes. The

  5. Mining Functional Modules in Heterogeneous Biological Networks Using Multiplex PageRank Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Patrick X

    2016-01-01

    Identification of functional modules/sub-networks in large-scale biological networks is one of the important research challenges in current bioinformatics and systems biology. Approaches have been developed to identify functional modules in single-class biological networks; however, methods for systematically and interactively mining multiple classes of heterogeneous biological networks are lacking. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm (called mPageRank) that utilizes the Multiplex PageRank approach to mine functional modules from two classes of biological networks. We demonstrate the capabilities of our approach by successfully mining functional biological modules through integrating expression-based gene-gene association networks and protein-protein interaction networks. We first compared the performance of our method with that of other methods using simulated data. We then applied our method to identify the cell division cycle related functional module and plant signaling defense-related functional module in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results demonstrated that the mPageRank method is effective for mining sub-networks in both expression-based gene-gene association networks and protein-protein interaction networks, and has the potential to be adapted for the discovery of functional modules/sub-networks in other heterogeneous biological networks. The mPageRank executable program, source code, the datasets and results of the presented two case studies are publicly and freely available at http://plantgrn.noble.org/MPageRank/.

  6. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Kotowska, Dorota Ewa; C. B. Olsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes...

  7. Modulating functions method for parameters estimation in the fifth order KdV equation

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-07-25

    In this work, the modulating functions method is proposed for estimating coefficients in higher-order nonlinear partial differential equation which is the fifth order Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation. The proposed method transforms the problem into a system of linear algebraic equations of the unknowns. The statistical properties of the modulating functions solution are described in this paper. In addition, guidelines for choosing the number of modulating functions, which is an important design parameter, are provided. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are shown through numerical simulations in both noise-free and noisy cases.

  8. Identification of PV solar cells and modules parameters using the genetic algorithms: Application to maximum power extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagrouba, M.; Sellami, A.; Bouaicha, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, des Semi-conducteurs et des Nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, Tunis, B.P. 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Ksouri, M. [Unite de Recherche RME-Groupe AIA, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees et de Technologie (Tunisia)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we propose to perform a numerical technique based on genetic algorithms (GAs) to identify the electrical parameters (I{sub s}, I{sub ph}, R{sub s}, R{sub sh}, and n) of photovoltaic (PV) solar cells and modules. These parameters were used to determine the corresponding maximum power point (MPP) from the illuminated current-voltage (I-V) characteristic. The one diode type approach is used to model the AM1.5 I-V characteristic of the solar cell. To extract electrical parameters, the approach is formulated as a non convex optimization problem. The GAs approach was used as a numerical technique in order to overcome problems involved in the local minima in the case of non convex optimization criteria. Compared to other methods, we find that the GAs is a very efficient technique to estimate the electrical parameters of PV solar cells and modules. Indeed, the race of the algorithm stopped after five generations in the case of PV solar cells and seven generations in the case of PV modules. The identified parameters are then used to extract the maximum power working points for both cell and module. (author)

  9. Effects of Extracts of Portulaca oleracea on Reproductive Functions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous (AEPO) and methanolic (MEPO) extracts of Portulaca oleracea were investigated on estrous cycle and histopathology of the ovaries and uteri in female albino rats. Treatments of rats for 21 days with 75mg/kg BW AEPO produced no significant (P>0.05) change in the duration of all the phases of ...

  10. Reduction of the barium concentration presents in liquid effluents by mean of non-dispersive extraction in hollow fiber modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperle Yaruro, Gladys; Pena, Dario Yesid; Escalante Hernandez, Humberto

    2008-01-01

    This work has been focused on the study of the viability of barium removal, present in a waste liquid phase, by means of non-dispersive extraction (NDE) in hollow fiber modules. An organic solution based on DEPHA (Bis-2-ethylhexyl phosphate) 30% (v/v), isopropilic alcohol 30% (v/v) and kerosene is used as selective extraction medium. For the extraction process was made a contactor with five hollow microporous propilenic fibers. A solution contained 100 ppm of BaCl 2 H 2 O, level concentration very equal as generated on the petroleum industrial wastes, is used as liquid phase. a efficiency of 95,25% is obtained when the NDE take place at pH = 9, and them 9 hours of process

  11. Lambert W-function based exact representation for double diode model of solar cells: Comparison on fitness and parameter extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiankun; Cui, Yan; Hu, Jianjun; Xu, Guangyin; Yu, Yongchang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Lambert W-function based exact representation (LBER) is presented for double diode model (DDM). • Fitness difference between LBER and DDM is verified by reported parameter values. • The proposed LBER can better represent the I–V and P–V characteristics of solar cells. • Parameter extraction difference between LBER and DDM is validated by two algorithms. • The parameter values extracted from LBER are more accurate than those from DDM. - Abstract: Accurate modeling and parameter extraction of solar cells play an important role in the simulation and optimization of PV systems. This paper presents a Lambert W-function based exact representation (LBER) for traditional double diode model (DDM) of solar cells, and then compares their fitness and parameter extraction performance. Unlike existing works, the proposed LBER is rigorously derived from DDM, and in LBER the coefficients of Lambert W-function are not extra parameters to be extracted or arbitrary scalars but the vectors of terminal voltage and current of solar cells. The fitness difference between LBER and DDM is objectively validated by the reported parameter values and experimental I–V data of a solar cell and four solar modules from different technologies. The comparison results indicate that under the same parameter values, the proposed LBER can better represent the I–V and P–V characteristics of solar cells and provide a closer representation to actual maximum power points of all module types. Two different algorithms are used to compare the parameter extraction performance of LBER and DDM. One is our restart-based bound constrained Nelder-Mead (rbcNM) algorithm implemented in Matlab, and the other is the reported R_c_r-IJADE algorithm executed in Visual Studio. The comparison results reveal that, the parameter values extracted from LBER using two algorithms are always more accurate and robust than those from DDM despite more time consuming. As an improved version of DDM, the

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction kinetics of uranyl nitrate and actinides (III)-lanthanides nitrates by extractants with amide function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toulemonde, V.

    1995-01-01

    Nowadays, the most important part of electric power is generated by fission energy. But spent fuels have then to be reprocessed. The production of these reprocessed materials separately and with a high purity level is done according to a liquid-liquid extraction process (Purex process) with the use of tributyl phosphate as solvent. Optimization studies concerning the extracting agent have been undertaken. This work gives the results obtained for the uranyl nitrate and the actinides (III)-lanthanides (III) nitrates extraction by extractants with amide function (monoamide for U(VI) and diamide for actinides (III) and lanthanides (III)). The extraction kinetics have been studied in the case of a metallic specie transfer from the aqueous phase towards the organic phase. The experiments show that the nitrates extraction kinetics is limited by the complexation chemical reaction of the species at the interface between the two liquids. An adsorption-desorption interfacial reactional mechanism (Langmuir theory) is proposed for the uranyl nitrate. (O.M.)

  13. Disrupted Module Efficiency of Structural and Functional Brain Connectomes in Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaou Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated disrupted topological organization of brain connectome in multiple sclerosis (MS. However, whether the communication efficiency between different functional systems is affected in the early stage of MS remained largely unknown. In this study, we constructed the structural connectivity (SC and functional connectivity (FC networks in 41 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, 32 MS patients and 35 healthy controls (HC based on diffusion and resting-state functional MRI. To quantify the communication efficiency within and between different functional systems, we proposed two measures called intra- and inter-module efficiency. Based on the module parcellation of functional backbone network, the intra- and inter-module efficiency of SC and FC networks was calculated for each participant. For the SC network, CIS showed decreased inter-module efficiency between the sensory-motor network (SMN, the visual network (VN, the default-mode network (DMN and the fronto-parietal network (FPN compared with HC, while MS showed more widespread decreased module efficiency both within and between modules relative to HC and CIS. For the FC network, no differences were found between CIS and HC, and a decreased inter-module efficiency between SMN and FPN and between VN and FPN was identified in MS, compared with HC and CIS. Moreover, both intra- and inter-module efficiency of SC network were correlated with the disability and cognitive scores in MS. Therefore, our results demonstrated early SC changes between modules in CIS, and more widespread SC alterations and inter-module FC changes were observed in MS, which were further associated with cognitive impairment and physical disability.

  14. Modulating functions method for parameters estimation in the fifth order KdV equation

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Liu, Da-Yan; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the modulating functions method is proposed for estimating coefficients in higher-order nonlinear partial differential equation which is the fifth order Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation. The proposed method transforms the problem into a

  15. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating

  16. Nanomechanics and sodium permeability of endothelial surface layer modulated by hawthorn extract WS 1442.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Peters

    Full Text Available The endothelial glycocalyx (eGC plays a pivotal role in the physiology of the vasculature. By binding plasma proteins, the eGC forms the endothelial surface layer (ESL which acts as an interface between bloodstream and endothelial cell surface. The functions of the eGC include mechanosensing of blood flow induced shear stress and thus flow dependent vasodilation. There are indications that levels of plasma sodium concentrations in the upper range of normal and beyond impair flow dependent regulation of blood pressure and may therefore increase the risk for hypertension. Substances, therefore, that prevent sodium induced endothelial dysfunction may be attractive for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. By means of combined atomic force-epifluorescence microscopy we studied the impact of the hawthorn (Crataegus spp. extract WS 1442, a herbal therapeutic with unknown mechanism of action, on the mechanics of the ESL of ex vivo murine aortae. Furthermore, we measured the impact of WS 1442 on the sodium permeability of endothelial EA.hy 926 cell monolayer. The data show that (i the ESL contributes by about 11% to the total endothelial barrier resistance for sodium and (ii WS 1442 strengthens the ESL resistance for sodium up to about 45%. This mechanism may explain some of the vasoprotective actions of this herbal therapeutic.

  17. A binaural advantage in the subjective modulation transfer function with simple impulse responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Eric Robert; Dau, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    into account that humans listen with two ears. There can be large interaural phase differences in the modulation transfer functions, which can create detectable interaural level difference fluctuations. Measurements were made to determine whether these interaural modulation phase differences can be used......The speech transmission index (STI) has been a popular method for predicting speech intelligibility in rooms. It is based on the magnitude of the modulation transfer function, which can be derived from the impulse response of the room and the background noise levels. However, it does not take...

  18. A Method of Extracting Ontology Module Using Concept Relations for Sharing Knowledge in Mobile Cloud Computing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keonsoo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.

  19. A method of extracting ontology module using concept relations for sharing knowledge in mobile cloud computing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keonsoo; Rho, Seungmin; Lee, Seok-Won

    2014-01-01

    In mobile cloud computing environment, the cooperation of distributed computing objects is one of the most important requirements for providing successful cloud services. To satisfy this requirement, all the members, who are employed in the cooperation group, need to share the knowledge for mutual understanding. Even if ontology can be the right tool for this goal, there are several issues to make a right ontology. As the cost and complexity of managing knowledge increase according to the scale of the knowledge, reducing the size of ontology is one of the critical issues. In this paper, we propose a method of extracting ontology module to increase the utility of knowledge. For the given signature, this method extracts the ontology module, which is semantically self-contained to fulfill the needs of the service, by considering the syntactic structure and semantic relation of concepts. By employing this module, instead of the original ontology, the cooperation of computing objects can be performed with less computing load and complexity. In particular, when multiple external ontologies need to be combined for more complex services, this method can be used to optimize the size of shared knowledge.

  20. Air Pollution and Other Environmental Modulators of Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorr, Matthew W; Falvo, Michael J; Wold, Loren E

    2017-09-12

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in developed regions and a worldwide health concern. Multiple external causes of CVD are well known, including obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, age, and sedentary behavior. Air pollution has been linked with the development of CVD for decades, though the mechanistic characterization remains unknown. In this comprehensive review, we detail the background and epidemiology of the effects of air pollution and other environmental modulators on the heart, including both short- and long-term consequences. Then, we provide the experimental data and current hypotheses of how pollution is able to cause the CVD, and how exposure to pollutants is exacerbated in sensitive states. Published 2017. Compr Physiol 7:1479-1495, 2017. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Cadmium modulates adipocyte functions in metallothionein-null mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige; Nishiyama, Kaori; Kadota, Yoshito; Sato, Masao; Inoue, Masahisa; Suzuki, Shinya, E-mail: suzukis@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2013-11-01

    Our previous study has demonstrated that exposure to cadmium (Cd), a toxic heavy metal, causes a reduction of adipocyte size and the modulation of adipokine expression. To further investigate the significance of the Cd action, we studied the effect of Cd on the white adipose tissue (WAT) of metallothionein null (MT{sup −/−}) mice, which cannot form atoxic Cd–MT complexes and are used for evaluating Cd as free ions, and wild type (MT{sup +/+}) mice. Cd administration more significantly reduced the adipocyte size of MT{sup −/−} mice than that of MT{sup +/+} mice. Cd exposure also induced macrophage recruitment to WAT with an increase in the expression level of Ccl2 (MCP-1) in the MT{sup −/−} mice. The in vitro exposure of Cd to adipocytes induce triglyceride release into culture medium, decrease in the expression levels of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and lipid hydrolysis at 24 h, and at 48 h increase in phosphorylation of the lipid-droplet-associated protein perilipin, which facilitates the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes. Therefore, the reduction in adipocyte size by Cd may arise from an imbalance between lipid synthesis and lipolysis. In addition, the expression levels of leptin, adiponectin and resistin decreased in adipocytes. Taken together, exposure to Cd may induce unusually small adipocytes and modulate the expression of adipokines differently from the case of physiologically small adipocytes, and may accelerate the risk of developing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. - Highlights: • Cd causes a marked reduction in adipocyte size in MT-null mice. • Cd enhances macrophage migration into adipose tissue and disrupt adipokine secretion. • MT gene alleviates Cd-induced adipocyte dysfunctions. • Cd enhances the degradation of stored lipids in adipocytes, mediated by perilipin. • Cd induces unusually small adipocytes and the abnormal expression of adipokines.

  2. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability ...

  3. Semantic integration to identify overlapping functional modules in protein interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan Murali

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The systematic analysis of protein-protein interactions can enable a better understanding of cellular organization, processes and functions. Functional modules can be identified from the protein interaction networks derived from experimental data sets. However, these analyses are challenging because of the presence of unreliable interactions and the complex connectivity of the network. The integration of protein-protein interactions with the data from other sources can be leveraged for improving the effectiveness of functional module detection algorithms. Results We have developed novel metrics, called semantic similarity and semantic interactivity, which use Gene Ontology (GO annotations to measure the reliability of protein-protein interactions. The protein interaction networks can be converted into a weighted graph representation by assigning the reliability values to each interaction as a weight. We presented a flow-based modularization algorithm to efficiently identify overlapping modules in the weighted interaction networks. The experimental results show that the semantic similarity and semantic interactivity of interacting pairs were positively correlated with functional co-occurrence. The effectiveness of the algorithm for identifying modules was evaluated using functional categories from the MIPS database. We demonstrated that our algorithm had higher accuracy compared to other competing approaches. Conclusion The integration of protein interaction networks with GO annotation data and the capability of detecting overlapping modules substantially improve the accuracy of module identification.

  4. A normal form for hypergraph-based module extraction for SROIQ

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nortje, R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Modularization is an important part of the modular design and maintenance of large scale ontologies. Syntactic locality modules, with their desirable model theoretic properties, play an ever increasing role in the design of algorithms...

  5. Autonomous Time-Frequency Cropping and Feature-Extraction Algorithms for Classification of LPI Radar Modulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zilberman, Eric R

    2006-01-01

    ...), uses the marginal frequency distribution and the adaptive threshold binarization algorithm to determine the start and stop frequencies of the modulation energy to locate and adapt the size of the cropping window...

  6. Extracts from New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida Containing Fucoxanthin as Potential Functional Biomaterials against Cancer in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Kelvin Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study tested extracts from New Zealand seaweed Undaria pinnatifida containing fucoxanthin, in parallel with pure fucoxanthin, in nine human cancer cell lines, for anticancer activity. Growth inhibition effects of extracts from Undaria pinnatifida were found in all types of cancer cell lines in dose- and time- dependent manners. Cytotoxicity of fucoxanthin in three human non-cancer cell lines was also tested. Compared with pure fucoxanthin, our extracts containing low level of fucoxanthin were found to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of lung carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma and neuroblastoma. Our results suggest that fucoxanthin is a functional biomaterial that may be used as a chemopreventive phytochemical or in combination chemotherapy. Furthermore, we show for the first time that some unknown compounds with potential selective anti-cancer effects may exist in extracts of New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida, and New Zealand Undaria pinnatifida could be used as a source for either functional biomaterial extraction or production of functional food.

  7. Growing functional modules from a seed protein via integration of protein interaction and gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrakopoulou Konstantina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays modern biology aims at unravelling the strands of complex biological structures such as the protein-protein interaction (PPI networks. A key concept in the organization of PPI networks is the existence of dense subnetworks (functional modules in them. In recent approaches clustering algorithms were applied at these networks and the resulting subnetworks were evaluated by estimating the coverage of well-established protein complexes they contained. However, most of these algorithms elaborate on an unweighted graph structure which in turn fails to elevate those interactions that would contribute to the construction of biologically more valid and coherent functional modules. Results In the current study, we present a method that corroborates the integration of protein interaction and microarray data via the discovery of biologically valid functional modules. Initially the gene expression information is overlaid as weights onto the PPI network and the enriched PPI graph allows us to exploit its topological aspects, while simultaneously highlights enhanced functional association in specific pairs of proteins. Then we present an algorithm that unveils the functional modules of the weighted graph by expanding a kernel protein set, which originates from a given 'seed' protein used as starting-point. Conclusion The integrated data and the concept of our approach provide reliable functional modules. We give proofs based on yeast data that our method manages to give accurate results in terms both of structural coherency, as well as functional consistency.

  8. Modulation of ionizing radiation induced oxidative imbalance by semi-fractionated extract of Piper betle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita; Dutta, Ajaswrata; Sankhwar, Sanghmitra; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The study was planned to evaluate modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Piper betle leaf (PBL) on ionizing radiation mediated oxidative stress leading to normal tissues damage during radiotherapy and other radiation exposures. The total polyphenols and flavonoids known as free radical scavenger (chelators) were measured in the extract. To ascertain antioxidant potential of PBL extract, we studied free radical scavenging, metal chelation, reducing power, lipid peroxidation inhibition and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP ) using in vitro assays. Mice were exposed to varied radiation doses administered with the same extract prior to irradiation to confirm its oxidative stress minimizing efficacy by evaluating ferric reducing ability of plasma, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation and micro-nuclei frequency. PBL extract was effective in scavenging DPPH (up to 92% at 100 µg/ml) and superoxide radicals (up to 95% at 80 µg/ml), chelated metal ions (up to 83% at 50 µg/ml) and inhibited lipid peroxidation (up to 45.65% at 500 µg/ml) in a dose dependant manner using in vitro model. Oral administration of PBL extract (225 mg/kg body weight) 1 hr before irradiation in mice significantly enhanced (p < 0.01) radiation abated antioxidant potential of plasma and GSH level in all the observed organs. The treatment with extract effectively lowered the radiation induced lipid peroxidation at 24 hrs in all the selected organs with maximum inhibition in thymus (p < 0.01). After 48 hrs, lipid peroxidation was maximally inhibited in the group treated with the extract. Frequency of radiation induced micronucleated cells declined significantly (34.78%, p < 0.01) at 24 hrs post-irradiation interval by PBL extract administration. The results suggest that PBL extract has high antioxidant potential and relatively non-toxic and thus could be assertively used to mitigate radiotherapy inflicted normal tissues damage and also injuries caused by moderate doses of radiation

  9. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt.

  10. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  11. Modulation of the pupil function of microscope objective lens for multifocal multi-photon microscopy using a spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Naoya; Okazaki, Shigetoshi; Takamoto, Hisayoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Terakawa, Susumu

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method for high precision modulation of the pupil function of a microscope objective lens to improve the performance of multifocal multi-photon microscopy (MMM). To modulate the pupil function, we adopt a spatial light modulator (SLM) and place it at the conjugate position of the objective lens. The SLM can generate an arbitrary number of spots to excite the multiple fluorescence spots (MFS) at the desired positions and intensities by applying an appropriate computer-generated hologram (CGH). This flexibility allows us to control the MFS according to the photobleaching level of a fluorescent protein and phototoxicity of a specimen. However, when a large number of excitation spots are generated, the intensity distribution of the MFS is significantly different from the one originally designed due to misalignment of the optical setup and characteristics of the SLM. As a result, the image of a specimen obtained using laser scanning for the MFS has block noise segments because the SLM could not generate a uniform MFS. To improve the intensity distribution of the MFS, we adaptively redesigned the CGH based on the observed MFS. We experimentally demonstrate an improvement in the uniformity of a 10 × 10 MFS grid using a dye solution. The simplicity of the proposed method will allow it to be applied for calibration of MMM before observing living tissue. After the MMM calibration, we performed laser scanning with two-photon excitation to observe a real specimen without detecting block noise segments.

  12. Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Extracting the Essential Cartographic Functionality of Programs on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Florian

    2018-05-01

    Following Aristotle, F. P. Brooks (1987) emphasizes the distinction between "essential difficulties" and "accidental difficulties" as a key challenge in software engineering. From the point of view of cartography, it would be desirable to identify the cartographic essence of a program, and subject it to additional scrutiny, while its accidental proper-ties, again from the point of view of cartography, are usually of lesser relevance to cartographic analysis. In this paper, two methods that facilitate extracting the cartographic essence of programs are presented: close reading of their source code, and the automated analysis of their runtime behavior. The advantages and shortcomings of both methods are discussed, followed by an outlook to future developments and potential applications.

  14. Functional modules, mutational load and human genetic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghloul, Norann A; Katsanis, Nicholas

    2010-04-01

    The ability to generate a massive amount of sequencing and genotyping data is transforming the study of human genetic disorders. Driven by such innovation, it is likely that whole exome and whole-genome resequencing will replace regionally focused approaches for gene discovery and clinical testing in the next few years. However, this opportunity brings a significant interpretative challenge to assigning function and phenotypic variance to common and rare alleles. Understanding the effect of individual mutations in the context of the remaining genomic variation represents a major challenge to our interpretation of disease. Here, we discuss the challenges of assigning mutation functionality and, drawing from the examples of ciliopathies as well as cohesinopathies and channelopathies, discuss possibilities for the functional modularization of the human genome. Functional modularization in addition to the development of physiologically relevant assays to test allele functionality will accelerate our understanding of disease architecture and enable the use of genome-wide sequence data for disease diagnosis and phenotypic prediction in individuals. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multiple Functional Variants in cis Modulate PDYN Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Silverman, Jesse S; Haygood, Ralph; Reininga, Jennifer M; Rockman, Matthew V; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-02-01

    Understanding genetic variation and its functional consequences within cis-regulatory regions remains an important challenge in human genetics and evolution. Here, we present a fine-scale functional analysis of segregating variation within the cis-regulatory region of prodynorphin, a gene that encodes an endogenous opioid precursor with roles in cognition and disease. In order to characterize the functional consequences of segregating variation in cis in a region under balancing selection in different human populations, we examined associations between specific polymorphisms and gene expression in vivo and in vitro. We identified five polymorphisms within the 5' flanking region that affect transcript abundance: a 68-bp repeat recognized in prior studies, as well as two microsatellites and two single nucleotide polymorphisms not previously implicated as functional variants. The impact of these variants on transcription differs by brain region, sex, and cell type, implying interactions between cis genotype and the differentiated state of cells. The effects of individual variants on expression level are not additive in some combinations, implying epistatic interactions between nearby variants. These data reveal an unexpectedly complex relationship between segregating genetic variation and its expression-trait consequences and highlights the importance of close functional scrutiny of natural genetic variation within even relatively well-studied cis-regulatory regions.

  16. The neuropsychopharmacology of fronto-executive function: monoaminergic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Arnsten, A F T

    2009-01-01

    We review the modulatory effects of the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and dopamine on prefrontal cortical function. The effects of pharmacologic manipulations of these systems, sometimes in comparison with the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT), on performance on a variety of tasks that tap working memory, attentional-set formation and shifting, reversal learning, and response inhibition are compared in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans using, in a behavioral context, several techniques ranging from microiontophoresis and single-cell electrophysiological recording to pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dissociable effects of drugs and neurotoxins affecting these monoamine systems suggest new ways of conceptualizing state-dependent fronto-executive functions, with implications for understanding the molecular genetic basis of mental illness and its treatment.

  17. The Thickness Effect of the Functional Film for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Bowen; Kim, Jung Hyun; Choi, Wonseok

    2018-09-01

    In this study, a functional coating technology to improve the anti-fouling properties of the photo-voltaic module is introduced. The coating was applied on the cover glass, which is the same material as the photovoltaic module. After coating the cover glass once, twice, and three times in the horizontal and vertical directions respectively, the anti-fouling properties was tested according to the coating times and the thickness of the coating film. To ensure the durability of the coating film, the annealing process was performed for 1 hour at 200 °C in a furnace after coating. Finally, the photovoltaic module will be coated with the best coating method. Compared to uncoated modules, the coated photovoltaic modules showed significantly improved anti-fouling properties and also good performance in hardness and adhesion.

  18. Valproic acid modulates platelet and coagulation function ex vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bambakidis, Ted; Dekker, Simone E; Halaweish, Ihab

    2017-01-01

    of coagulopathy, it remains unknown whether this is a direct effect of the drug, or the establishment of an overall prosurvival phenotype. We thus conducted an ex-vivo experiment to determine if VPA has an effect on coagulation and platelet function. Ten swine were subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI...

  19. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang; Kim Hae Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response

  20. Study on cytokine modulation in mast cell-induced allergic reactions by using gamma-irradiated natural herbal extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim Hae Kyoung [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    We previously described that some natural herbal extracts such as Houttuynia cordata (H), Centella asiatica (C), Plantago asiatica (P), Morus alba L. (M), and Ulmus davidiana (U), differentially suppress an atopic dermatitis like skin lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pro-inflammatory cytokine modulation of the water extract of the H, C, P, M, U, and those mixtures (M) and their mechanism in a phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) plus calcium inopore A23187 treated human mast cell line (HMC-1). The H, C, P, M, U, and M inhibited the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8 stimulated by PMA plus A23187 from HMC-1 cells. In addition, the M did not significantly affect the cell viability and had no toxicity on the HMC-1 cells. Based on these results, M can be used for the treatment of an allergic inflammation response.

  1. Functional characterization of GABAA receptor-mediated modulation of cortical neuron network activity in microelectrode array recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bader, Benjamin M; Steder, Anne; Klein, Anders Bue

    2017-01-01

    The numerous γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR) subtypes are differentially expressed and mediate distinct functions at neuronal level. In this study we have investigated GABAAR-mediated modulation of the spontaneous activity patterns of primary neuronal networks from murine frontal...... of the information extractable from the MEA recordings offers interesting insights into the contributions of various GABAAR subtypes/subgroups to cortical network activity and the putative functional interplay between these receptors in these neurons....... cortex by characterizing the effects induced by a wide selection of pharmacological tools at a plethora of activity parameters in microelectrode array (MEA) recordings. The basic characteristics of the primary cortical neurons used in the recordings were studied in some detail, and the expression levels...

  2. Learning related modulation of functional retrieval networks in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, K M; Sandblom, J; Gisselgård, J; Ingvar, M

    2001-07-01

    The medial temporal lobe has been implicated in studies of episodic memory tasks involving spatio-temporal context and object-location conjunctions. We have previously demonstrated that an increased level of practice in a free-recall task parallels a decrease in the functional activity of several brain regions, including the medial temporal lobe, the prefrontal, the anterior cingulate, the anterior insular, and the posterior parietal cortices, that in concert demonstrate a move from elaborate controlled processing towards a higher degree of automaticity. Here we report data from two experiments that extend these initial observations. We used a similar experimental approach but probed for effects of retrieval paradigms and stimulus material. In the first experiment we investigated practice related changes during recognition of object-location conjunctions and in the second during free-recall of pseudo-words. Learning in a neural network is a dynamic consequence of information processing and network plasticity. The present and previous PET results indicate that practice can induce a learning related functional restructuring of information processing. Different adaptive processes likely subserve the functional re-organisation observed. These may in part be related to different demands for attentional and working memory processing. It appears that the role(s) of the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe in memory retrieval are complex, perhaps reflecting several different interacting processes or cognitive components. We suggest that an integrative interactive perspective on the role of the prefrontal and medial temporal lobe is necessary for an understanding of the processing significance of these regions in learning and memory. It appears necessary to develop elaborated and explicit computational models for prefrontal and medial temporal functions in order to derive detailed empirical predictions, and in combination with an efficient use and development of

  3. Assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients: development of a new module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Elena; Bianco, Flaviana; Martinelli, Diego; Glanzman, Allan M; Messina, Sonia; De Sanctis, Roberto; Main, Marion; Eagle, Michelle; Florence, Julaine; Krosschell, Kristin; Vasco, Gessica; Pelliccioni, Marco; Lombardo, Marilena; Pane, Marika; Finkel, Richard; Muntoni, Francesco; Bertini, Enrico; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2011-06-01

    We report the development of a module specifically designed for assessing upper limb function in nonambulant SMA patients, including young children and those with severe contractures. The application of the module to a preschool cohort of 40 children (age 30-48 months) showed that all the items could be completed by 30 months. The module was also used in 45 nonambulant SMA patients (age 30 months to 27 years). Their scores were more variable than in the preschool cohort, ranging from 0 to 18. The magnitude of scores was not related to age (r=-0.19). The upper limb scores had a good correlation with the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale, r=0.75, but the upper limb function did not always strictly follow the overall gross motor function. These findings suggest that even some of the very weak nonambulant children possess upper limb skills that can be measured. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Azurmendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG that follows uninephrectomy (uNx is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50% while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  5. Cholinergic modulation of mesolimbic dopamine function and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Gregory P; Shabani, Shkelzen; Dobbs, Lauren K; Hansen, Stephen T

    2011-07-25

    The substantial health risk posed by obesity and compulsive drug use has compelled a serious research effort to identify the neurobiological substrates that underlie the development these pathological conditions. Despite substantial progress, an understanding of the neurochemical systems that mediate the motivational aspects of drug-seeking and craving remains incomplete. Important work from the laboratory of Bart Hoebel has provided key information on neurochemical systems that interact with dopamine (DA) as potentially important components in both the development of addiction and the expression of compulsive behaviors such as binge eating. One such modulatory system appears to be cholinergic pathways that interact with DA systems at all levels of the reward circuit. Cholinergic cells in the pons project to DA-rich cell body regions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantial nigra (SN) where they modulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons and reward processing. The DA terminal region of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) contains a small but particularly important group of cholinergic interneurons, which have extensive dendritic arbors that make synapses with a vast majority of NAc neurons and afferents. Together with acetylcholine (ACh) input onto DA cell bodies, cholinergic systems could serve a vital role in gating information flow concerning the motivational value of stimuli through the mesolimbic system. In this report we highlight evidence that CNS cholinergic systems play a pivotal role in behaviors that are motivated by both natural and drug rewards. We argue that the search for underlying neurochemical substrates of compulsive behaviors, as well as attempts to identify potential pharmacotherapeutic targets to combat them, must include a consideration of central cholinergic systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa calices modulates the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Debón, R; Alonso-Villaverde, C; Aragonès, G; Rodríguez-Medina, I; Rull, A; Micol, V; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Camps, J; Joven, J

    2010-03-01

    Diet supplementation and/or modulation is an important strategy to significantly improve human health. The search of plants as additional sources of bioactive phenolic compounds is relevant in this context. The aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa is rich in anthocyanins and other phenolic compounds including hydroxycitric and chlorogenic acids. Using this extract we have shown an effective protection of cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the cellular death induced by H(2)O(2) and a significant role in the production of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro, the extract promotes the production of IL-6 and IL-8 and decreases the concentration of MCP-1 in supernatants in a dose-dependent manner. In humans, the ingestion of an acute dose of the extract (10g) was well tolerated and decreased plasma MCP-1 concentrations significantly without further effects on other cytokines. This effect was not due to a concomitant increase in the antioxidant capacity of plasma. Instead, its mechanisms probably involve a direct inhibition of inflammatory and/or metabolic pathways responsible for MCP-1 production, and may be relevant in inflammatory and chronic conditions in which the role of MCP-1 is well established. If beneficial effects are confirmed in patients, Hibiscus sabdariffa could be considered a valuable traditional herbal medicine for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases with the advantage of being devoid of caloric value or potential alcohol toxicity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. An Analysis of the Cost and Performance of Photovoltaic Systems as a Function of Module Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Alam, Mohammed A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-04-07

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with mc-Si and thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to $0.04/W, $0.10/W, and $0.13/W in module manufacturing costs for mc-Si, CdTe, and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional $0.05/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. However, these savings are dependent on the ability to maintain efficiency and manufacturing yield as area scales. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy. We explore the possible effects of module size on efficiency and energy production, and find that more research is required to understand these issues for each technology. Sensitivity of the $/W cost savings to module efficiency and manufacturing yield is presented. We also discuss non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  8. Bicarbonate modulates oxidative and functional damage in ischemia-reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queliconi, Bruno B; Marazzi, Thire B M; Vaz, Sandra M; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith; Augusto, Ohara; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-02-01

    The carbon dioxide/bicarbonate (CO(2)/HCO(3)(-)) pair is the main biological pH buffer. However, its influence on biological processes, and in particular redox processes, is still poorly explored. Here we study the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) on ischemic injury in three distinct models (cardiac HL-1 cells, perfused rat heart, and Caenorhabditis elegans). We found that, although various concentrations of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) do not affect function under basal conditions, ischemia-reperfusion or similar insults in the presence of higher CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) resulted in greater functional loss associated with higher oxidative damage in all models. Because the effect of CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) was observed in all models tested, we believe this buffer is an important determinant of oxidative damage after ischemia-reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Methylphenidate Modulates Functional Network Connectivity to Enhance Attention

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Monica D.; Zhang, Sheng; Hsu, Wei-Ting; Scheinost, Dustin; Finn, Emily S.; Shen, Xilin; Constable, R. Todd; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Chun, Marvin M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that human whole-brain functional connectivity patterns measured with fMRI contain information about cognitive abilities, including sustained attention. To derive behavioral predictions from connectivity patterns, our group developed a connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM) approach (Finn et al., 2015; Rosenberg et al., 2016). Previously using CPM, we defined a high-attention network, comprising connections positively correlated with performance on a sustained...

  10. BDNF genotype modulates resting functional connectivity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriah E Thomason

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A specific polymorphism of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF gene is associated with alterations in brain anatomy and memory; its relevance to the functional connectivity of brain networks, however, is unclear. Given that altered hippocampal function and structure has been found in adults who carry the methionine (met allele of the BDNF gene and the molecular studies elucidating the role of BDNF in neurogenesis and synapse formation, we examined in the association between BDNF gene variants and neural resting connectivity in children and adolescents. We observed a reduction in hippocampal and parahippocampal to cortical connectivity in met-allele carriers within each of three resting networks: the default-mode, executive, and paralimbic networks. In contrast, we observed increased connectivity to amygdala, insula and striatal regions in met-carriers, within the paralimbic network. Because the BDNF met-allele has been linked to increased susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disorders, this latter finding of greater connectivity in circuits important for emotion processing may indicate a new neural mechanism through which these gene-related psychiatric differences are manifest. Here we show that the BDNF gene, known to regulate synaptic plasticity and connectivity in the brain, affects functional connectivity at the neural systems level. Additionally, we provide the first demonstration that the spatial topography of multiple high-level resting state networks in healthy children and adolescents is similar to that observed in adults.

  11. Tenebrio molitor Extracts Modulate the Response to Environmental Stressors and Extend Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seong-Min; Cha, Hye-Uk; Yi, Sun Shin; Kim, Sung-Jo; Park, Sang-Kyu

    2016-09-08

    Tenebrio molitor are large insects and their larvae are consumed as food in many countries. The nutritional composition of T. molitor has been studied and contains high amounts of proteins, unsaturated fatty acids, and valuable minerals. However, the bioactivity of T. molitor has not been fully understood. We examined the effects of T. molitor extracts on resistance to oxidative stress and organism's lifespan using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system. The response to heat shock and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was monitored in vivo. The extracts from T. molitor showed significant effects on resistance to oxidative stress and UV irradiation and extend both mean and maximum lifespan of C. elegans. The number of progeny produced significantly increased in animals supplemented with T. molitor extracts. In addition, the expression of hsp-16.2 and sod-3 was markedly upregulated by supplementation with T. molitor extracts. These findings suggest that T. molitor extracts can increase response to stressors and extend lifespan by the induction of longevity assurance genes in C. elegans.

  12. Morus alba extract modulates blood pressure homeostasis through eNOS signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizzo, Albino; Ambrosio, Mariateresa; Damato, Antonio; Madonna, Michele; Storto, Marianna; Capocci, Luca; Campiglia, Pietro; Sommella, Eduardo; Trimarco, Valentina; Rozza, Francesco; Izzo, Raffaele; Puca, Annibale A; Vecchione, Carmine

    2016-10-01

    Morus alba is a promising phytomedicine cultivated in oriental countries that is extensively used to prevent and treat various cardiovascular problems. To date, despite its beneficial effects, the molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Thus, we investigate the vascular and haemodynamic effects of Morus alba extract in an experimental model focusing our attention on the molecular mechanisms involved. Through vascular reactivity studies, we demonstrate that Morus alba extract evokes endothelial vasorelaxation through a nitric oxide-dependent pathway. Our molecular analysis highlights an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. In vivo administration of Morus alba extract reduces blood pressure levels exclusively in wild-type mice, whereas it fails to evoke any haemodynamic effects in eNOS-deficient mice. Molecular analyses revealed that its beneficial action on vasculature is mediated by the activation of two important proteins that act as stress sensors and chaperones: PERK and heat shock protein 90. Finally, Morus alba extract exerts antihypertensive action in an experimental model of arterial hypertension. Through its action on eNOS signaling, Morus alba extract could act as a food supplement for the regulation of cardiovascular system, mainly in clinical conditions characterized by eNOS dysfunction, such as arterial hypertension. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Predictability of Genetic Interactions from Functional Gene Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan H. Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing genetic interactions is crucial to understanding cellular and organismal response to gene-level perturbations. Such knowledge can inform the selection of candidate disease therapy targets, yet experimentally determining whether genes interact is technically nontrivial and time-consuming. High-fidelity prediction of different classes of genetic interactions in multiple organisms would substantially alleviate this experimental burden. Under the hypothesis that functionally related genes tend to share common genetic interaction partners, we evaluate a computational approach to predict genetic interactions in Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By leveraging knowledge of functional relationships between genes, we cross-validate predictions on known genetic interactions and observe high predictive power of multiple classes of genetic interactions in all three organisms. Additionally, our method suggests high-confidence candidate interaction pairs that can be directly experimentally tested. A web application is provided for users to query genes for predicted novel genetic interaction partners. Finally, by subsampling the known yeast genetic interaction network, we found that novel genetic interactions are predictable even when knowledge of currently known interactions is minimal.

  14. Multiscale Geoscene Segmentation for Extracting Urban Functional Zones from VHR Satellite Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyuan Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban functional zones, such as commercial, residential, and industrial zones, are basic units of urban planning, and play an important role in monitoring urbanization. However, historical functional-zone maps are rarely available for cities in developing countries, as traditional urban investigations focus on geographic objects rather than functional zones. Recent studies have sought to extract functional zones automatically from very-high-resolution (VHR satellite images, and they mainly concentrate on classification techniques, but ignore zone segmentation which delineates functional-zone boundaries and is fundamental to functional-zone analysis. To resolve the issue, this study presents a novel segmentation method, geoscene segmentation, which can identify functional zones at multiple scales by aggregating diverse urban objects considering their features and spatial patterns. In experiments, we applied this method to three Chinese cities—Beijing, Putian, and Zhuhai—and generated detailed functional-zone maps with diverse functional categories. These experimental results indicate our method effectively delineates urban functional zones with VHR imagery; different categories of functional zones extracted by using different scale parameters; and spatial patterns that are more important than the features of individual objects in extracting functional zones. Accordingly, the presented multiscale geoscene segmentation method is important for urban-functional-zone analysis, and can provide valuable data for city planners.

  15. Modulation of ovomucoid-specific oral tolerance in mice fed plant extracts containing lectins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tanja; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of feeding extracts of four different legumes (red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), peanut (Arachis hypogaea), soyabean (Glycine max) and pea (Pisum sativum) on the specific immune response against a food protein. Mice were fed ovomucoid and the specific immune response...... influenced the immune response against ovomucoid; however, this was not as pronounced as for kidney bean and was only significant (Ppea extract was fed and peanut extract had a non-significant effect on induction of oral tolerance...... and on the general immune response. Plasma antibodies against kidney-bean lectin, but not against the three other legume lectins, were detected. Our current findings show that other dietary components can influence the specific immune response against food proteins. Various dietary components may thus contribute...

  16. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  17. Comparing success levels of different neural network structures in extracting discriminative information from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S. M.; Bozorgi, H.; Saberkari, A.

    2015-06-01

    Performances of three neural networks, consisting of a multi-layer perceptron, a radial basis function, and a neuro-fuzzy network with local linear model tree training algorithm, in modeling and extracting discriminative features from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor are quantitatively compared. For response pattern recording, a voltage staircase containing five steps each with a 20 s plateau is applied to the micro-heater of the sensor, when 12 different target gases, each at 11 concentration levels, are present. In each test, the hidden layer neuron weights are taken as the discriminatory feature vector of the target gas. These vectors are then mapped to a 3D feature space using linear discriminant analysis. The discriminative information content of the feature vectors are determined by the calculation of the Fisher’s discriminant ratio, affording quantitative comparison among the success rates achieved by the different neural network structures. The results demonstrate a superior discrimination ratio for features extracted from local linear neuro-fuzzy and radial-basis-function networks with recognition rates of 96.27% and 90.74%, respectively.

  18. Comparing success levels of different neural network structures in extracting discriminative information from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini-Golgoo, S M; Bozorgi, H; Saberkari, A

    2015-01-01

    Performances of three neural networks, consisting of a multi-layer perceptron, a radial basis function, and a neuro-fuzzy network with local linear model tree training algorithm, in modeling and extracting discriminative features from the response patterns of a temperature-modulated resistive gas sensor are quantitatively compared. For response pattern recording, a voltage staircase containing five steps each with a 20 s plateau is applied to the micro-heater of the sensor, when 12 different target gases, each at 11 concentration levels, are present. In each test, the hidden layer neuron weights are taken as the discriminatory feature vector of the target gas. These vectors are then mapped to a 3D feature space using linear discriminant analysis. The discriminative information content of the feature vectors are determined by the calculation of the Fisher’s discriminant ratio, affording quantitative comparison among the success rates achieved by the different neural network structures. The results demonstrate a superior discrimination ratio for features extracted from local linear neuro-fuzzy and radial-basis-function networks with recognition rates of 96.27% and 90.74%, respectively. (paper)

  19. Narcissism: its function in modulating self-conscious emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uji, Masayo; Nagata, Toshiaki; Kitamura, Toshinori

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on the functional aspects of narcissism in regulating self-conscious emotions (guilt, shame, hubristic pride, and achievement-oriented pride) as well as two other attribution styles (externalization and detachment). The authors investigated Japanese university students (N = 452) with regard to their self-conscious emotions using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3 (TOSCA-3) and their narcissistic personality using the short version of Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI-S). Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis. The authors found that narcissism led individuals to feel achievement-oriented pride, hubristic pride, externalization, and detachment, but inhibited feelings of shame. It did not have a significant effect on guilt. Shame-proneness prompted hubristic pride and externalization. Guilt-proneness inclined an individual toward achievement-oriented pride, but deterred externalization. In this article, the authors present and interpret these results in detail and then discuss how they can be utilized in psychotherapy.

  20. Oct4 targets regulatory nodes to modulate stem cell function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pearl A Campbell

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells are characterized by two defining features, the ability to self-renew and to differentiate into highly specialized cell types. The POU homeodomain transcription factor Oct4 (Pou5f1 is an essential mediator of the embryonic stem cell state and has been implicated in lineage specific differentiation, adult stem cell identity, and cancer. Recent description of the regulatory networks which maintain 'ES' have highlighted a dual role for Oct4 in the transcriptional activation of genes required to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency while concomitantly repressing genes which facilitate lineage specific differentiation. However, the molecular mechanism by which Oct4 mediates differential activation or repression at these loci to either maintain stem cell identity or facilitate the emergence of alternate transcriptional programs required for the realization of lineage remains to be elucidated. To further investigate Oct4 function, we employed gene expression profiling together with a robust statistical analysis to identify genes highly correlated to Oct4. Gene Ontology analysis to categorize overrepresented genes has led to the identification of themes which may prove essential to stem cell identity, including chromatin structure, nuclear architecture, cell cycle control, DNA repair, and apoptosis. Our experiments have identified previously unappreciated roles for Oct4 for firstly, regulating chromatin structure in a state consistent with self-renewal and pluripotency, and secondly, facilitating the expression of genes that keeps the cell poised to respond to cues that lead to differentiation. Together, these data define the mechanism by which Oct4 orchestrates cellular regulatory pathways to enforce the stem cell state and provides important insight into stem cell function and cancer.

  1. Solid phase extraction of Am (III) by resins impregnated with multiply diglycolamide-functionalized ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gujar, R.B.; Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Verboom, W.

    2016-01-01

    Solvent extraction studies with multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants such as tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) or diglycolamide-functionalized calix(4)arene (C4DGA) ligands have shown excellent results as compared to those of normal DGA ligands such as TODGA. A very high selectivity for Am(III) has been reported with these ligands with respect to U(VI) and Pu(IV). High selectivities and large extraction efficiencies of these ligands towards trivalent f elements were ascribed to a co-operative complexation mechanism. Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of these ligands increased several folds in ionic liquid medium as compared to paraffinic solvents. It was of interest, therefore, to prepare extraction chromatographic resins by impregnation of solvent systems containing these ligands in an ionic liquid. In the present work, solid phase extraction studies were carried out using these two multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants, viz. T-DGA (resin I) and C4DGA (resin-II) containing the ionic liquid C 4 mim. NTf 2 impregnated on Chromosorb-W

  2. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  3. Injection of a Phase Modulated Source into the Z-Beamlet Laser for Increased Energy Extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Schwarz, Jens; Smith, Ian C; Shores, Jonathon; Speas, Christopher; Porter, John L.

    2014-11-01

    The Z-Beamlet laser has been operating at Sandia National Laboratories since 2001 to provide a source of laser-generated x-rays for radiography of events on the Z-Accelerator. Changes in desired operational scope have necessitated the increase in pulse duration and energy available from the laser system. This is enabled via the addition of a phase modulated seed laser as an alternative front-end. The practical aspects of deployment are discussed here.

  4. Construction of multi-functional open modulized Matlab simulation toolbox for imaging ladar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Long; Zhao, Yuan; Tang, Meng; He, Jiang; Zhang, Yong

    2011-06-01

    Ladar system simulation is to simulate the ladar models using computer simulation technology in order to predict the performance of the ladar system. This paper presents the developments of laser imaging radar simulation for domestic and overseas studies and the studies of computer simulation on ladar system with different application requests. The LadarSim and FOI-LadarSIM simulation facilities of Utah State University and Swedish Defence Research Agency are introduced in details. This paper presents the low level of simulation scale, un-unified design and applications of domestic researches in imaging ladar system simulation, which are mostly to achieve simple function simulation based on ranging equations for ladar systems. Design of laser imaging radar simulation with open and modularized structure is proposed to design unified modules for ladar system, laser emitter, atmosphere models, target models, signal receiver, parameters setting and system controller. Unified Matlab toolbox and standard control modules have been built with regulated input and output of the functions, and the communication protocols between hardware modules. A simulation based on ICCD gain-modulated imaging ladar system for a space shuttle is made based on the toolbox. The simulation result shows that the models and parameter settings of the Matlab toolbox are able to simulate the actual detection process precisely. The unified control module and pre-defined parameter settings simplify the simulation of imaging ladar detection. Its open structures enable the toolbox to be modified for specialized requests. The modulization gives simulations flexibility.

  5. Data-driven haemodynamic response function extraction using Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Alle Meije; Hoogduin, Hans; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: We present a simple, data-driven method to extract haemodynamic response functions (HRF) from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series, based on the Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution (ForWaRD) technique. HRF data are required for many fMRI applications, such as

  6. Data-driven haemodynamic response function extraction using Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wink, Alle Meije; Hoogduin, Hans; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We present a simple, data-driven method to extract haemodynamic response functions (HRF) from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time series, based on the Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution (ForWaRD) technique. HRF data are required for many fMRI applications, such as

  7. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Li

    Full Text Available The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  8. Selective modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers in prostate cancer cells by a standardized mangosteen fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gongbo; Petiwala, Sakina M; Pierce, Dana R; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2013-01-01

    The increased proliferation of cancer cells is directly dependent on the increased activity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) machinery which is responsible for protein folding, assembly, and transport. In fact, it is so critical that perturbations in the endoplasmic reticulum can lead to apoptosis. This carefully regulated organelle represents a unique target of cancer cells while sparing healthy cells. In this study, a standardized mangosteen fruit extract (MFE) was evaluated for modulating ER stress proteins in prostate cancer. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells (PrECs) procured from two patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with MFE. Flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU and Western blot were used to evaluate cell apoptosis, viability, proliferation and ER stress. Next, we evaluated MFE for microsomal stability and anti-cancer activity in nude mice. MFE induced apoptosis, decreased viability and proliferation in prostate cancer cells. MFE increased the expression of ER stress proteins. Interestingly, MFE selectively promotes ER stress in prostate cancer cells while sparing PrECs. MFE suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model without obvious toxicity. Mangosteen fruit extract selectively promotes endoplasmic reticulum stress in cancer cells while sparing non-tumorigenic prostate epithelial cells. Furthermore, in an in vivo setting mangosteen fruit extract significantly reduces xenograft tumor formation.

  9. Dynamic functional modules in co-expressed protein interaction networks of dilated cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyang Yen-Jen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular networks represent the backbone of molecular activity within cells and provide opportunities for understanding the mechanism of diseases. While protein-protein interaction data constitute static network maps, integration of condition-specific co-expression information provides clues to the dynamic features of these networks. Dilated cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of heart failure. Although previous studies have identified putative biomarkers or therapeutic targets for heart failure, the underlying molecular mechanism of dilated cardiomyopathy remains unclear. Results We developed a network-based comparative analysis approach that integrates protein-protein interactions with gene expression profiles and biological function annotations to reveal dynamic functional modules under different biological states. We found that hub proteins in condition-specific co-expressed protein interaction networks tended to be differentially expressed between biological states. Applying this method to a cohort of heart failure patients, we identified two functional modules that significantly emerged from the interaction networks. The dynamics of these modules between normal and disease states further suggest a potential molecular model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Conclusions We propose a novel framework to analyze the interaction networks in different biological states. It successfully reveals network modules closely related to heart failure; more importantly, these network dynamics provide new insights into the cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. The revealed molecular modules might be used as potential drug targets and provide new directions for heart failure therapy.

  10. Dysprosium separation from aqueous phase by non-dispersive solvent extraction employing hollow fibre membrane module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, Kartikey K.; Singh, D.K.; Kain, V.

    2017-01-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) consist of fourteen lanthanides and three elements which are Sc, Y and La resulting in total 17 REEs. In the last decade, these rare earths elements which have unique physical and chemical properties have been highly in demand for their application in almost all walks of life. Various methods such as ion exchange, precipitation and solvent extraction have been used to recover these elements from aqueous solutions. These traditional methods have some inherent disadvantages like handling of hazardous organic chemicals, ineffectiveness to recover a very low concentration of contaminated source etc. In this regard, an important method i.e. liquid membrane offers separation scheme; which combines the characteristics, of solvent extraction and solid membrane separation, to overcome the disadvantages of conventional techniques. Various experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of feed acidity, metal ion concentration, carrier concentration, feed composition, flow rates and phase ratio on the transport of rare earths metal ions across the membrane

  11. Conical : An extended module for computing a numerically satisfactory pair of solutions of the differential equation for conical functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.M. Dunster (Mark); A. Gil (Amparo); J. Segura (Javier); N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractConical functions appear in a large number of applications in physics and engineering. In this paper we describe an extension of our module Conical (Gil et al., 2012) for the computation of conical functions. Specifically, the module includes now a routine for computing the function

  12. Increased Global Interaction Across Functional Brain Modules During Cognitive Emotion Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Felix; Mulej Bratec, Satja; Xie, Xiyao; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Riedl, Valentin; Meng, Chun; Sorg, Christian

    2017-07-13

    Cognitive emotion regulation (CER) enables humans to flexibly modulate their emotions. While local theories of CER neurobiology suggest interactions between specialized local brain circuits underlying CER, e.g., in subparts of amygdala and medial prefrontal cortices (mPFC), global theories hypothesize global interaction increases among larger functional brain modules comprising local circuits. We tested the global CER hypothesis using graph-based whole-brain network analysis of functional MRI data during aversive emotional processing with and without CER. During CER, global between-module interaction across stable functional network modules increased. Global interaction increase was particularly driven by subregions of amygdala and cuneus-nodes of highest nodal participation-that overlapped with CER-specific local activations, and by mPFC and posterior cingulate as relevant connector hubs. Results provide evidence for the global nature of human CER, complementing functional specialization of embedded local brain circuits during successful CER. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Simplified Swarm Optimization-Based Function Module Detection in Protein–Protein Interaction Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghan Zheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proteomics research has become one of the most important topics in the field of life science and natural science. At present, research on protein–protein interaction networks (PPIN mainly focuses on detecting protein complexes or function modules. However, existing approaches are either ineffective or incomplete. In this paper, we investigate detection mechanisms of functional modules in PPIN, including open database, existing detection algorithms, and recent solutions. After that, we describe the proposed approach based on the simplified swarm optimization (SSO algorithm and the knowledge of Gene Ontology (GO. The proposed solution implements the SSO algorithm for clustering proteins with similar function, and imports biological gene ontology knowledge for further identifying function complexes and improving detection accuracy. Furthermore, we use four different categories of species datasets for experiment: fruitfly, mouse, scere, and human. The testing and analysis result show that the proposed solution is feasible, efficient, and could achieve a higher accuracy of prediction than existing approaches.

  14. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  15. Estradiol modulates functional brain organization during the menstrual cycle : an analysis of interhemispheric inhibition.

    OpenAIRE

    Weis, S.; Hausmann, M.; Stoffers, B.; Vohn, R.; Kellermann, T.; Sturm, W.

    2008-01-01

    According to the hypothesis of progesterone-mediated interhemispheric decoupling (Hausmann and Güntürkün, 2000), functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs), which are stable in men and change during the menstrual cycle in women, are generated by interhemispheric inhibition of the dominant on the nondominant hemisphere. The change of lateralization during the menstrual cycle in women might indicate that sex hormones play an important role in modulating FCAs. We used functional magnetic resonance i...

  16. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Functional Lipophilic Compounds from Arthrospira platensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Esquivel-Hernández

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE. The temperature (T factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P, temperature (T, and co-solvent (ethanol (CS were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14% and (4.27% ± 0.10% for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID. The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 μg/g and 629 ± 0.13 μg/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 μg/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 μg/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO2 produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.

  17. Malonamide, phosphine oxide and calix[4]arene functionalized ionic liquids: synthesis and extraction of actinides and lanthanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternova, Dariia

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment is a crucial problem nowadays. This work was dedicated to the development of the new extracting systems for radionuclides on the basis of 'green' solvents Ionic Liquids (Ils). For this purpose Ils were functionalized with various extracting patterns: phosphine oxide, carbamoyl phosphine oxide groups and malonamide fragment. Also the calix[4]arene platforms were used for the synthesis of functionalized ionic liquids (Fils) and their precursors. The Fils of both types cationic and anionic have been obtained. The synthesized Fils were tested for the liquid-liquid extraction of radionuclides. lt was found that extraction well occurs due to the extracting patterns, however a charge of a modified ion influences extraction.The various extracting experiments and mathematical modelling have been performed to determine the mechanisms of extraction. These studies showed that each extracting system is characterized by a different set of extracting equilibria, based mostly on cationic exchange. (author)

  18. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  19. Design and implementation of a control automatic module for the volume extraction of a 99mTc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yon; Urquizo, Rafael; Gago, Javier; Mendoza, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    A module for the automatic extraction of volume from 0.05 mL to 1 mL has been developed using a 3D printer, using as base material acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). The design allows automation of the input and ejection eluate 99m Tc in the generator prototype 99 Mo/ 99m Tc processes; use in other systems is feasible due to its high degree of versatility, depending on the selection of the main components: precision syringe and multi-way solenoid valve. An accuracy equivalent to commercial equipment has been obtained, but at lower cost. This article describes the mechanical design, design calculations of the movement mechanism, electronics and automatic syringe dispenser control. (authors).

  20. Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile Ethanolic Extract Modulates Cell Activities with Skin Health Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cornara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seagrasses are high plants sharing adaptive metabolic features with both terrestrial plants and marine algae, resulting in a phytocomplex possibly endowed with interesting biological properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro activities on skin cells of an ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Posidonia oceanica (L. Delile, family Potamogetonaceae, herein named Posidonia ethanolic extract (PEE. PEE showed high radical scavenging activity, high phenolic content, and resulted rich in chicoric acid, as determined through HPLC-MS analysis. The use of MTT assay on fibroblasts showed a PEE cytotoxicity threshold (IC05 of 50 µg/mL at 48 h, while a sub-toxic dose of 20 µg/mL induced a significant increase of fibroblast growth rate after 10 days. In addition, an ELISA assay revealed that PEE doses of 5 and 10 µg/mL induced collagen production in fibroblasts. PEE induced dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibition, up to about 45% inhibition at 1000 µg/mL, while 50% reduction of melanin was observed in melanoma cells exposed to 50 µg/mL PEE. Finally, PEE lipolytic activity was assessed by measuring glycerol release from adipocytes following triglyceride degradation. In conclusion, we have collected new data about the biological activities of the phytocomplex of P. oceanica seagrass on skin cells. Our findings indicate that PEE could be profitably used in the development of products for skin aging, undesired hyperpigmentation, and cellulite.

  1. Launch and Functional Considerations Guiding the Scaling and Design of Rigid Inflatable Habitat Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) has a long history of projects that involve design of space structures, including habitats for low-Earth orbit (LEO) and planetary applications. Most of these facilities and component systems are planned to comply with size, geometry and mass restrictions imposed by the Space Shuttle Orbiter's payload and lift/landing abort restrictions. These constraints limit launch elements to approximately 15 ft. diameter, 40 ft. long cylindrical dimensions weighing no more than approximately 25 metric tons. It is clear that future success of commercial space programs such as tourism will hinge upon the availability of bigger and more efficient Earth to LEO launch vehicles which can greatly reduce transportation and operational costs. This will enable development and utilization of larger habitat modules and other infrastructure elements which can be deployed with fewer launches and on-orbit assembly procedures. The sizing of these new heavy lift launchers should be scaled to optimize habitat functionality and efficiency, just as the habitat designs must consider optimization of launch vehicle economy. SICSA's planning studies address these vehicle and habitat optimization priorities as parallel and interdependent considerations. The allowable diameter of habitat modules established by launch vehicle capacity dictates functionally acceptable internal configuration options. Analyses of these options relative to practical dimensions for Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle scaling were conducted for two general schemes. The "bologna slice" configuration stacks the floors within a predominately cylindrical or spherical envelope, producing circular areas. The "banana split" approach divides a cylindrical module longitudinally, creating floors that are generally rectangular in shape. The assessments established minimum sizes for reasonable utility and efficiency. The bologna slice option. This configuration is only acceptable

  2. Flavonoid-rich extract of Chromolaena odorata modulate circulating GLP-1 in Wistar rats: computational evaluation of TGR5 involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotuyi, Olaposi Idowu; Nash, Oyekanmi; Inyang, Olumide Kayode; Ogidigo, Joyce; Enejoh, Ojochenemi; Okpalefe, Okiemute; Hamada, Tsuyoshi

    2018-02-01

    Chromolaena odorata is a major bio-resource in folkloric treatment of diabetes. In the present study, its anti-diabetic component and underlying mechanism were investigated. A library containing 140 phytocompounds previously characterized from C. odorata was generated and docked (Autodock Vina) into homology models of dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-4, Takeda-G-protein-receptor-5 (TGR5), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) receptor, renal sodium dependent glucose transporter (SGLUT)-1/2 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins 1&2. GLP-1 gene (RT-PCR) modulation and its release (EIA) by C. odorata were confirmed in vivo. From the docking result above, TGR5 was identified as a major target for two key C. odorata flavonoids (5,7-dihydroxy-6-4-dimethoxyflavanone and homoesperetin-7-rutinoside); sodium taurocholate and C. odorata powder included into the diet of the animals both raised the intestinal GLP-1 expression versus control ( p  < 0.05); When treated with flavonoid-rich extract of C. odorata (CoF) or malvidin, circulating GLP-1 increased by 130.7% in malvidin-treated subjects (0 vs. 45 min). CoF treatment also resulted in 128.5 and 275% increase for 10 and 30 mg/kg b.w., respectively. The results of this study support that C. odorata flavonoids may modulate the expression of GLP-1 and its release via TGR5. This finding may underscore its anti-diabetic potency.

  3. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language.

  4. Development of Calculation Module for Intake Retention Functions based on Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Siwan; Kwon, Tae-Eun; Lee, Jai-Ki; Lee, Jong-Il; Kim, Jang-Lyul

    2014-01-01

    In internal dosimetry, intake retention and excretion functions are essential to estimate intake activity using bioassay sample such as whole body counter, lung counter, and urine sample. Even though ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection)provides the functions in some ICRP publications, it is needed to calculate the functions because the functions from the publications are provided for very limited time. Thus, some computer program are generally used to calculate intake retention and excretion functions and estimate intake activity. OIR (Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides) will be published soon by ICRP, which totally replaces existing internal dosimetry models and relevant data including intake retention and excretion functions. Thus, the calculation tool for the functions is needed based on OIR. In this study, we developed calculation module for intake retention and excretion functions based on OIR using C++ programming language with Intel Math Kernel Library. In this study, we developed the intake retention and excretion function calculation module based on OIR using C++ programing language

  5. Macleaya cordata Extract Decreased Diarrhea Score and Enhanced Intestinal Barrier Function in Growing Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macleaya cordata extract is of great scientific and practical interest to researchers, due to its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory responses within experimental animals. This study was designed to determine the diarrhea score and innate immunity of growing piglets after they had received Macleaya cordata extract supplements. A total of 240 growing pigs were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 10 piglets per replicate. All pigs received a basal diet containing similar amounts of nutrients. The three treatments were a control (no additive, an antibiotic (200 mg/kg colistin, and the Macleaya cordata extract supplement group (40 mg/kg Macleaya cordata extract. The diarrhea score was calculated after D 28. The jejunal samples were obtained from five piglets selected randomly from each treatment on D 28. In comparison with the control group, the dietary Macleaya cordata extract and colistin group demonstrated a substantially decreased diarrhea score. The introduction of Macleaya cordata extract supplements to the diet significantly increased volumes of ZO-1 and claudin-1, particularly in comparison with the pigs in the control group (P<0.05. The findings indicate that Macleaya cordata extract does enhance intestinal barrier function in growing piglets and that it could be used as a viable substitute for antibiotics.

  6. Ethanolic extract of Piper betle Linn. leaves reduces nociception via modulation of arachidonic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Soumita; Maroo, Niteeka; Saha, Piu; Hazra, Samik; Chatterjee, Mitali

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the peripheral analgesic effect of Piper betle leaf extract (PBE) along with establishing its putative mechanism of action. Male Swiss albino mice after pre-treatment (1 h) with different doses of PBE were injected 0.8% (v/v) acetic acid i.p.; the onset and number of writhes were noted up to 15 min. To evaluate the mechanism of action, the murine peritoneal exudate was incubated with PBE for 1 h, followed by exposure to arachidonic acid (AA) and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured by flow cytometry using 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. PBE in a dose dependent manner significantly reduced acetic acid induced writhing response in mice (P < 0.001). In peritoneal exudates, PBE significantly inhibited AA induced generation of ROS, P < 0.01. The present study indicates that PBE has promising analgesic activity, worthy of future pharmacological consideration.

  7. Modulation of eosinophil generation and migration by Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá-Nunes, Anderson; Rogerio, Alexandre P; Medeiros, Alexandra I; Fabris, Viciany E; Andreu, Gilberto P; Rivera, Dagmar G; Delgado, René; Faccioli, Lúcia H

    2006-09-01

    The effects of Vimang, an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae), on cell migration in an experimental model of asthma was investigated. In vivo treatment of Toxocara canis-infected BALB/c mice for 18 days with 50 mg/kg Vimang reduced eosinophil migration into the bronchoalveolar space and peritoneal cavity. Also, eosinophil generation in bone marrow and blood eosinophilia were inhibited in infected mice treated with Vimang. This reduction was associated with inhibition of IL-5 production in serum and eotaxin in lung homogenates. In all these cases the effects of Vimang were more selective than those observed with dexamethasone. Moreover, Vimang treatment is not toxic for the animals, as demonstrated by the normal body weight increase during infection. These data confirm the potent anti-inflammatory effect of Vimang and support its potential use as an alternative therapeutic drug to the treatment of eosinophilic disorders including those caused by nematodes and allergic diseases.

  8. Effects of aqueous extract of Musa paradisiaca root on testicular function parameters of male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oyeyipo, Theo Oyetayo; Quadri, Ayodeji Luqman; Akanji, Musbau Adewumi

    2013-01-01

    There is an age-long claim that the Musa paradisiaca root is used to manage reproductive dysfunction, most especially sexual dysfunction (as an aphrodisiac), but there are no data in the open scientific literature that have refuted or supported this claim and the effects of M. paradisiaca root on the testes. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the effect of oral administration of the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca root on the testicular function parameters of male rat testes. Sexually matured male albino rats (138.67±5.29 g) were randomly assigned into four groups, A, B, C, and D, that respectively received 0.5 mL (3.6 mL/kg body weight) of distilled water and 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of the extract, orally, once daily, for 14 days. The extract significantly increased (pparadisiaca root extract at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight enhanced the testosterone-dependent normal functioning of the testes. Overall, the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca stimulated the normal functioning of the testes and exhibited both androgenic and anabolic properties. The results may explain the rationale behind the folkloric beneficial effect of the plant in the management of reproductive dysfunction.

  9. Modulating conversion of isoflavone glycosides to aglycones using crude beta-glycosidase extracts from almonds and processed soy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn-Jarvis, J H; Teegarden, M D; Schwartz, S J; Lee, K; Vodovotz, Y

    2017-12-15

    Food processing alters the physicochemical state of soy which can enhance chemical and enzymatic conversion of isoflavones to their aglycone forms. This study investigated the role of β-glycosidase from processed soy-ingredient mixture (SIM) or almonds, and examined the impact of isoflavone composition in mediating conversion to aglycones. β-Glycosidase activity was quantified using p-nitrophenol-β-d-glucopyranoside and SIM isoflavone extracts. Almond β-glycosidase activity was significantly (palmonds. SIM β-glycosidase activity, however, increased, with steaming by 66% (p<0.001) and with roasting by 52% (p=0.022), compared to raw SIM. After incubation with β-glycosidase, percentage of aglycone (total aglycone/total isoflavones) in SIM isoflavone extracts increased significantly in raw (35%), fermented (48%), roasted (88%) and steamed (91%) SIM, compared to their initial (∼5%) compositions. Manipulation of β-glycosidase activity and isoflavone composition can be used to modulate aglycone content in soy food products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sparing functional anatomical structures during intensity-modulated radiotherapy: an old problem, a new solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Wenyong; Han, Guang; Wei, Shaozhong; Hu, Desheng

    2014-08-01

    During intensity-modulated radiotherapy, an organ is usually assumed to be functionally homogeneous and, generally, its anatomical and spatial heterogeneity with respect to radiation response are not taken into consideration. However, advances in imaging and radiation techniques as well as an improved understanding of the radiobiological response of organs have raised the possibility of sparing the critical functional structures within various organs at risk during intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Here, we discuss these structures, which include the critical brain structure, or neural nuclei, and the nerve fiber tracts in the CNS, head and neck structures related to radiation-induced salivary and swallowing dysfunction, and functional structures in the heart and lung. We suggest that these structures can be used as potential surrogate organs at risk in order to minimize their radiation dose and/or irradiated volume without compromising the dose coverage of the target volume during radiation treatment.

  11. Complement factor H family proteins in their non-canonical role as modulators of cellular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsi, Mihály; Schneider, Andrea E; Kárpáti, Éva; Sándor, Noémi

    2018-01-04

    Complement factor H is a major regulator of the alternative pathway of the complement system. The factor H-related proteins are less characterized, but recent data indicate that they rather promote complement activation. These proteins have some common ligands with factor H and have both overlapping and distinct functions depending on domain composition and the degree of conservation of amino acid sequence. Factor H and some of the factor H-related proteins also appear in a non-canonical function that is beyond their role in the modulation of complement activation. This review covers our current understanding on this emerging role of factor H family proteins in modulating the activation and function of various cells by binding to receptors or receptor ligands. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carpobrotus edulis methanol extract inhibits the MDR efflux pumps, enhances killing of phagocytosed S. aureus and promotes immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Hohmann, Judit; Viveiros, Miguel; Viveiros, Antonio; Molnar, Joseph; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Gracio, Maria Amelia; Amaral, Leonard

    2003-05-01

    Although alkaloids from the family Aizoaceae have anticancer activity, species of this family have received little attention. Because these alkaloids also exhibit properties normally associated with compounds that have activity at the level of the plasma membrane, a methanol extract of Carpobrotus edulis, a common plant found along the Portuguese coast, was studied for properties normally associated with plasma membrane active compounds. The results of this study show that the extract is non-toxic at concentrations that inhibit a verapamil sensitive efflux pump of L5178 mouse T cell lymphoma cell line thereby rendering these multi-drug resistant cells susceptible to anticancer drugs. These non-toxic concentrations also prime THP-1 human monocyte-derived macrophages to kill ingested Staphylococcus aureus and to promote the release of lymphokines associated with cellular immune functions. The extract also induces the proliferation of THP-1 cells within 1 day of exposure to quantities normally associated with phytohaemagglutinin. The potential role of the compound(s) isolated from this plant in cancer biology is intriguing and is currently under investigation. It is supposed that the resistance modifier and immunomodulatory effect of this plant extract can be exploited in the experimental chemotherapy of cancer and bacterial or viral infections. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Stability for Function Trade-Offs in the Enolase Superfamily 'Catalytic Module'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, R.A.; Gonzalez, A.; Shoichet, B.K.; Brinen, L.S.; Babbitt, P.C.; /UC, San Francisco /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-07-12

    Enzyme catalysis reflects a dynamic interplay between charged and polar active site residues that facilitate function, stabilize transition states, and maintain overall protein stability. Previous studies show that substituting neutral for charged residues in the active site often significantly stabilizes a protein, suggesting a stability trade-off for functionality. In the enolase superfamily, a set of conserved active site residues (the ''catalytic module'') has repeatedly been used in nature in the evolution of many different enzymes for the performance of unique overall reactions involving a chemically diverse set of substrates. This catalytic module provides a robust solution for catalysis that delivers the common underlying partial reaction that supports all of the different overall chemical reactions of the superfamily. As this module has been so broadly conserved in the evolution of new functions, we sought to investigate the extent to which it follows the stability-function trade-off. Alanine substitutions were made for individual residues, groups of residues, and the entire catalytic module of o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS), a member of the enolase superfamily from Escherichia coli. Of six individual residue substitutions, four (K131A, D161A, E190A, and D213A) substantially increased protein stability (by 0.46-4.23 kcal/mol), broadly consistent with prediction of a stability-activity trade-off. The residue most conserved across the superfamily, E190, is by far the most destabilizing. When the individual substitutions were combined into groups (as they are structurally and functionally organized), nonadditive stability effects emerged, supporting previous observations that residues within the module interact as two functional groups within a larger catalytic system. Thus, whereas the multiple-mutant enzymes D161A/E190A/D213A and K131A/K133A/D161A/E190A/D213A/K235A (termed 3KDED) are stabilized relative to the wild-type enzyme (by 1

  14. Data-driven haemodynamic response function extraction using Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerdink Jos BTM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a simple, data-driven method to extract haemodynamic response functions (HRF from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI time series, based on the Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution (ForWaRD technique. HRF data are required for many fMRI applications, such as defining region-specific HRFs, effciently representing a general HRF, or comparing subject-specific HRFs. Results ForWaRD is applied to fMRI time signals, after removing low-frequency trends by a wavelet-based method, and the output of ForWaRD is a time series of volumes, containing the HRF in each voxel. Compared to more complex methods, this extraction algorithm requires few assumptions (separability of signal and noise in the frequency and wavelet domains and the general linear model and it is fast (HRF extraction from a single fMRI data set takes about the same time as spatial resampling. The extraction method is tested on simulated event-related activation signals, contaminated with noise from a time series of real MRI images. An application for HRF data is demonstrated in a simple event-related experiment: data are extracted from a region with significant effects of interest in a first time series. A continuous-time HRF is obtained by fitting a nonlinear function to the discrete HRF coeffcients, and is then used to analyse a later time series. Conclusion With the parameters used in this paper, the extraction method presented here is very robust to changes in signal properties. Comparison of analyses with fitted HRFs and with a canonical HRF shows that a subject-specific, regional HRF significantly improves detection power. Sensitivity and specificity increase not only in the region from which the HRFs are extracted, but also in other regions of interest.

  15. Phonological experience modulates voice discrimination: Evidence from functional brain networks analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueping; Wang, Xiangpeng; Gu, Yan; Luo, Pei; Yin, Shouhang; Wang, Lijun; Fu, Chao; Qiao, Lei; Du, Yi; Chen, Antao

    2017-10-01

    Numerous behavioral studies have found a modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination. However, the neural substrates underpinning this phenomenon are poorly understood. Here we manipulated language familiarity to test the hypothesis that phonological experience affects voice discrimination via mediating the engagement of multiple perceptual and cognitive resources. The results showed that during voice discrimination, the activation of several prefrontal regions was modulated by language familiarity. More importantly, the same effect was observed concerning the functional connectivity from the fronto-parietal network to the voice-identity network (VIN), and from the default mode network to the VIN. Our findings indicate that phonological experience could bias the recruitment of cognitive control and information retrieval/comparison processes during voice discrimination. Therefore, the study unravels the neural substrates subserving the modulation effect of phonological experience on voice discrimination, and provides new insights into studying voice discrimination from the perspective of network interactions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Antitumor properties and modulation of antioxidant enzymes' activity by Aloe vera leaf active principles isolated via supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shemy, H A; Aboul-Soud, M A M; Nassr-Allah, A A; Aboul-Enein, K M; Kabash, A; Yagi, A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential anticancer properties and modulatory effect of selected Aloe vera (A. vera) active principles on antioxidant enzyme activities. Thus, three anthraquinones (Namely: aloesin, aloe-emodin and barbaloin) were extracted from A. vera leaves by supercritical fluid extraction and subsequently purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the N-terminal octapeptide derived from verectin, a biologically active 14 kDa glycoprotein present in A. vera, was also tested. In vivo, active principles exhibited significant prolongation of the life span of tumor-transplanted animals in the following order: barbaloin> octapeptide> aloesin > aloe-emodin. A. vera active principles exhibited significant inhibition on Ehrlich ascite carcinoma cell (EACC) number, when compared to positive control group, in the following order: barbaloin> aloe-emodin > octapeptide > aloesin. Moreover, in trypan blue cell viability assay, active principles showed a significant concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytes leukemia (ALL) cancerous cells. Furthermore, in MTT cell viability test, aloe-emodin was found to be active against two human colon cancer cell lines (i.e. DLD-1 and HT2), with IC(50) values of 8.94 and 10.78 microM, respectively. Treatments of human AML leukemic cells with active principles (100 microg ml(-1)) resulted in varying intensities of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis, in the following order: aloe-emodin> aloesin> barbaloin> octapeptide. Intererstingly, treatment of EACC tumors with active principles resulted in a significant elevation activity of key antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GST, tGPx, and LDH). Our data suggest that the tested A. vera compounds may exert their chemo-preventive effect through modulating antioxidant and detoxification enzyme activity levels, as they are one of the indicators of tumorigenesis. These

  17. Efficient and accurate Greedy Search Methods for mining functional modules in protein interaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jieyue; Li, Chaojun; Ye, Baoliu; Zhong, Wei

    2012-06-25

    Most computational algorithms mainly focus on detecting highly connected subgraphs in PPI networks as protein complexes but ignore their inherent organization. Furthermore, many of these algorithms are computationally expensive. However, recent analysis indicates that experimentally detected protein complexes generally contain Core/attachment structures. In this paper, a Greedy Search Method based on Core-Attachment structure (GSM-CA) is proposed. The GSM-CA method detects densely connected regions in large protein-protein interaction networks based on the edge weight and two criteria for determining core nodes and attachment nodes. The GSM-CA method improves the prediction accuracy compared to other similar module detection approaches, however it is computationally expensive. Many module detection approaches are based on the traditional hierarchical methods, which is also computationally inefficient because the hierarchical tree structure produced by these approaches cannot provide adequate information to identify whether a network belongs to a module structure or not. In order to speed up the computational process, the Greedy Search Method based on Fast Clustering (GSM-FC) is proposed in this work. The edge weight based GSM-FC method uses a greedy procedure to traverse all edges just once to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. The proposed methods are applied to the protein interaction network of S. cerevisiae. Experimental results indicate that many significant functional modules are detected, most of which match the known complexes. Results also demonstrate that the GSM-FC algorithm is faster and more accurate as compared to other competing algorithms. Based on the new edge weight definition, the proposed algorithm takes advantages of the greedy search procedure to separate the network into the suitable set of modules. Experimental analysis shows that the identified modules are statistically significant. The algorithm can reduce the

  18. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe-Salpeter wave function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Chang, Lei; Liu, Yu-xin

    2017-07-01

    We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA) from the Euclidean Bethe-Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM). The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA) can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  19. Bayesian extraction of the parton distribution amplitude from the Bethe–Salpeter wave function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new numerical method to compute the parton distribution amplitude (PDA from the Euclidean Bethe–Salpeter wave function. The essential step is to extract the weight function in the Nakanishi representation of the Bethe–Salpeter wave function in Euclidean space, which is an ill-posed inversion problem, via the maximum entropy method (MEM. The Nakanishi weight function as well as the corresponding light-front parton distribution amplitude (PDA can be well determined. We confirm prior work on PDA computations, which was based on different methods.

  20. Extraction of level density and γ strength function from primary γ spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiller, A.; Bergholt, L.; Guttormsen, M.; Melby, E.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new iterative procedure to extract the level density and the γ strength function from primary γ spectra for energies close up to the neutron binding energy. The procedure is tested on simulated spectra and on data from the 173 Yb( 3 He,α) 172 Yb reaction

  1. A charge-pump 60kV modulator for the ISOLDE target extraction voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Barlow, R A; Fowler, A; Gaudillet, H; Gharsa, T; Schipper, J

    2015-01-01

    The ISOLDE facility at CERN provides radioactive ion beams to a number of experimental stations. These ions are produced by a metal target, floating at 60 kV, which is impacted by a 1.4 GeV high intensity proton beam. The ions are then accelerated by a grounded extraction electrode to 60 keV, before transport to the experimental area. During proton beam impact extremely high ionisation of the volume around the target gives rise to significant leakage current which results in loss of charge on the effective target capacitance of approximately 6 nF. If short life-time isotopes are to be studied, the 60 kV must be re-established within a maximum of 10 ms. Recharging the target capacitance to 60 kV and to the required stability of better than 10-4 precludes a direct charging system and an alternative method of re-establishing the 60 kV is used. The present system [1], in operation since 1991, employs a resonant circuit which is triggered 35 µs prior to beam impact. This circuit transfers the charge on the effec...

  2. Degradation of sulfated polysaccharide extracted from algal Laminaria japonica and its modulation on calcium oxalate crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouyang Jianming, E-mail: toyjm@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Wang Miao; Lu Peng; Tan Jin [Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-08-30

    Sulfated polysaccharide (LPS) extracted from alga Laminaria japonica was degraded by hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). The average molecular weight of LPS was apparently decreased from 172,000 to 9550 after degradation, while the proportion of sulfate groups (-OSO{sub 3}{sup -}) and carboxylic groups (-COO{sup -}) in the molecular chains of LPS were slightly decreased from 4.5% and 5.20% to 3.9% and 4.64%, respectively. The effects of degraded and natural LPS on formation of calcium oxalate (CaOxa) crystals were investigated in vitro using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), zeta-potential, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. LPS could increase the concentration of soluble Ca{sup 2+} ions in the solution, decrease the weight of precipitated CaOxa, and increase the negative value of zeta-potential of CaOxa crystals. LPS also inhibits the formation of thermodynamically stable calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals, while inducing and stabilizing metastable calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals. These results suggested that both degraded and natural LPS could decrease CaOxa crystallization, but the inhibition efficiency of the degraded LPS was clearly superior to that of the natural LPS. We expected this investigation would provide encouragement for further exploration into new drugs for the prevention and treatment of urolithiasis.

  3. Cell-Intrinsic Roles for Autophagy in Modulating CD4 T Cell Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Jacquin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The catabolic process of autophagy plays important functions in inflammatory and immune responses by modulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Over the last decade, a cell-intrinsic role for autophagy in modulating CD4 T cell functions and differentiation was revealed. After the initial observation of autophagosomes in effector CD4 T cells, further work has shown that not only autophagy levels are modulated in CD4 T cells in response to environmental signals but also that autophagy critically affects the biology of these cells. Mouse models of autophagy deletion in CD4 T cells have indeed shown that autophagy is essential for CD4 T cell survival and homeostasis in peripheral lymphoid organs. Furthermore, autophagy is required for CD4 T cell proliferation and cytokine production in response to T cell receptor activation. Recent developments have uncovered that autophagy controls CD4 T cell differentiation and functions. While autophagy is required for the maintenance of immunosuppressive functions of regulatory T cells, it restrains the differentiation of TH9 effector cells, thus limiting their antitumor and pro-inflammatory properties. We will here discuss these findings that collectively suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting autophagy could be exploited for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  4. Using scale and feather traits for module construction provides a functional approach to chicken epidermal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Weier; Greenwold, Matthew J; Sawyer, Roger H

    2017-11-01

    Gene co-expression network analysis has been a research method widely used in systematically exploring gene function and interaction. Using the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) approach to construct a gene co-expression network using data from a customized 44K microarray transcriptome of chicken epidermal embryogenesis, we have identified two distinct modules that are highly correlated with scale or feather development traits. Signaling pathways related to feather development were enriched in the traditional KEGG pathway analysis and functional terms relating specifically to embryonic epidermal development were also enriched in the Gene Ontology analysis. Significant enrichment annotations were discovered from customized enrichment tools such as Modular Single-Set Enrichment Test (MSET) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Hub genes in both trait-correlated modules showed strong specific functional enrichment toward epidermal development. Also, regulatory elements, such as transcription factors and miRNAs, were targeted in the significant enrichment result. This work highlights the advantage of this methodology for functional prediction of genes not previously associated with scale- and feather trait-related modules.

  5. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polireddy, Kishore; Khan, Mohiuddin Md Taimur; Chavan, Hemantkumar; Young, Susan; Ma, Xiaochao; Waller, Anna; Garcia, Matthew; Perez, Dominique; Chavez, Stephanie; Strouse, Jacob J; Haynes, Mark K; Bologa, Cristian G; Oprea, Tudor I; Tegos, George P; Sklar, Larry A; Krishnamurthy, Partha

    2012-01-01

    ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS), can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity.

  6. A novel flow cytometric HTS assay reveals functional modulators of ATP binding cassette transporter ABCB6.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Polireddy

    Full Text Available ABCB6 is a member of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-binding cassette family of transporter proteins that is increasingly recognized as a relevant physiological and therapeutic target. Evaluation of modulators of ABCB6 activity would pave the way toward a more complete understanding of the significance of this transport process in tumor cell growth, proliferation and therapy-related drug resistance. In addition, this effort would improve our understanding of the function of ABCB6 in normal physiology with respect to heme biosynthesis, and cellular adaptation to metabolic demand and stress responses. To search for modulators of ABCB6, we developed a novel cell-based approach that, in combination with flow cytometric high-throughput screening (HTS, can be used to identify functional modulators of ABCB6. Accumulation of protoporphyrin, a fluorescent molecule, in wild-type ABCB6 expressing K562 cells, forms the basis of the HTS assay. Screening the Prestwick Chemical Library employing the HTS assay identified four compounds, benzethonium chloride, verteporfin, tomatine hydrochloride and piperlongumine, that reduced ABCB6 mediated cellular porphyrin levels. Validation of the identified compounds employing the hemin-agarose affinity chromatography and mitochondrial transport assays demonstrated that three out of the four compounds were capable of inhibiting ABCB6 mediated hemin transport into isolated mitochondria. However, only verteporfin and tomatine hydrochloride inhibited ABCB6's ability to compete with hemin as an ABCB6 substrate. This assay is therefore sensitive, robust, and suitable for automation in a high-throughput environment as demonstrated by our identification of selective functional modulators of ABCB6. Application of this assay to other libraries of synthetic compounds and natural products is expected to identify novel modulators of ABCB6 activity.

  7. Nonlinear modulation of interacting between COMT and depression on brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, L; He, C; Yin, Y; Ye, Q; Bai, F; Yuan, Y; Zhang, H; Lv, L; Zhang, H; Zhang, Z; Xie, C

    2017-09-01

    The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene is related to dopamine degradation and has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, how this gene affects brain function properties in MDD is still unclear. Fifty patients with MDD and 35 cognitively normal participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. A voxelwise and data-drive global functional connectivity density (gFCD) analysis was used to investigate the main effects and the interactions of disease states and COMT rs4680 gene polymorphism on brain function. We found significant group differences of the gFCD in bilateral fusiform area (FFA), post-central and pre-central cortex, left superior temporal gyrus (STG), rectal and superior temporal gyrus and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC); abnormal gFCDs in left STG were positively correlated with severity of depression in MDD group. Significant disease×COMT interaction effects were found in the bilateral calcarine gyrus, right vlPFC, hippocampus and thalamus, and left SFG and FFA. Further post-hoc tests showed a nonlinear modulation effect of COMT on gFCD in the development of MDD. Interestingly, an inverted U-shaped modulation was found in the prefrontal cortex (control system) but U-shaped modulations were found in the hippocampus, thalamus and occipital cortex (processing system). Our study demonstrated nonlinear modulation of the interaction between COMT and depression on brain function. These findings expand our understanding of the COMT effect underlying the pathophysiology of MDD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Morphological integration of anatomical, developmental, and functional postcranial modules in the crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Mark A; Schroeder, Lauren; von Cramon-Taubadel, Noreen

    2018-03-22

    Integration and modularity reflect the coordinated action of past evolutionary processes and, in turn, constrain or facilitate phenotypic evolvability. Here, we analyze magnitudes of integration in the macaque postcranium to test whether 20 a priori defined modules are (1) more tightly integrated than random sets of postcranial traits, and (2) are differentiated based on mode of definition, with developmental modules expected to be more integrated than functional or anatomical modules. The 3D morphometric data collected for eight limb and girdle bones for 60 macaques were collated into anatomical, developmental, and functional modules. A resampling technique was used to create random samples of integration values for each module for statistical comparison. Our results found that not all a priori defined modules were more strongly integrated than random samples of postcranial traits and that specific types of modules did not present consistent patterns of integration. Rather, girdle and joint modules were consistently less integrated than limb modules, and forelimb elements were less integrated than hindlimbs. The results suggest that morphometrically complex modules tend to be less integrated than simple limb bones, irrespective of the number of available traits. However, differences in integration of the fore- and hindlimb more likely reflects the multitude of locomotory, feeding, and social functions involved. It remains to be tested whether patterns of integration identified here are primate universals, and to what extent they vary depending on phylogenetic or functional factors. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The modulation of brain functional connectivity with manual acupuncture in healthy subjects: An electroencephalograph case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Guo-Sheng; Wang Jiang; Deng Bin; Wei Xi-Le; Li Nuo; Han Chun-Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Manual acupuncture is widely used for pain relief and stress control. Previous studies on acupuncture have shown its modulatory effects on the functional connectivity associated with one or a few preselected brain regions. To investigate how manual acupuncture modulates the organization of functional networks at a whole-brain level, we acupuncture at ST36 of a right leg to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals. By coherence estimation, we determine the synchronizations between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels in three acupuncture states. The resulting synchronization matrices are converted into functional networks by applying a threshold, and the clustering coefficients and path lengths are computed as a function of threshold. The results show that acupuncture can increase functional connections and synchronizations between different brain areas. For a wide range of thresholds, the clustering coefficient during acupuncture and post-acupuncture period is higher than that during the pre-acupuncture control period, whereas the characteristic path length is shorter. We provide further support for the presence of “small-world” network characteristics in functional networks by using acupuncture. These preliminary results highlight the beneficial modulations of functional connectivity by manual acupuncture, which could contribute to the understanding of the effects of acupuncture on the entire brain, as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture. Moreover, the proposed method may be a useful approach to the further investigation of the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. The modulation of brain functional connectivity with manual acupuncture in healthy subjects: An electroencephalograph case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Han, Chun-Xiao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xi-Le; Li, Nuo

    2013-02-01

    Manual acupuncture is widely used for pain relief and stress control. Previous studies on acupuncture have shown its modulatory effects on the functional connectivity associated with one or a few preselected brain regions. To investigate how manual acupuncture modulates the organization of functional networks at a whole-brain level, we acupuncture at ST36 of a right leg to obtain electroencephalograph (EEG) signals. By coherence estimation, we determine the synchronizations between all pairwise combinations of EEG channels in three acupuncture states. The resulting synchronization matrices are converted into functional networks by applying a threshold, and the clustering coefficients and path lengths are computed as a function of threshold. The results show that acupuncture can increase functional connections and synchronizations between different brain areas. For a wide range of thresholds, the clustering coefficient during acupuncture and post-acupuncture period is higher than that during the pre-acupuncture control period, whereas the characteristic path length is shorter. We provide further support for the presence of “small-world" network characteristics in functional networks by using acupuncture. These preliminary results highlight the beneficial modulations of functional connectivity by manual acupuncture, which could contribute to the understanding of the effects of acupuncture on the entire brain, as well as the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying acupuncture. Moreover, the proposed method may be a useful approach to the further investigation of the complexity of patterns of interrelations between EEG channels.

  11. Optimization of polysaccharides extraction from watermelon rinds: Structure, functional and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romdhane, Molka Ben; Haddar, Anissa; Ghazala, Imen; Jeddou, Khawla Ben; Helbert, Claire Boisset; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, optimization of hot water extraction, structural characteristics, functional properties, and biological activities of polysaccharides extracted from watermelon rinds (WMRP) were investigated. The physicochemical characteristics and the monosaccharide composition of these polysaccharides were then determined using chemical composition analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). SEM images showed that extracted polysaccharides had a rough surface with many cavities. GC-FID results proved that galactose was the dominant sugar in the extracted polysaccharides, followed by arabinose, glucose, galacturonic acid, rhamnose, mannose, xylose and traces of glucuronic acid. The findings revealed that WMRP displayed excellent antihypertensive and antioxidant activities. Those polysaccharides had also a protection effect against hydroxyl radical-induced DNA damage. Functional properties of extracted polysaccharides were also evaluated. WMRP showed good interfacial dose-dependent proprieties. Overall, the results suggested that WMRP presents a promising natural source of antioxidants and antihypertensive agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  13. Green Extraction from Pomegranate Marcs for the Production of Functional Foods and Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Boggia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of retrieving polyphenolic antioxidants directly from wet pomegranate marcs: the fresh by-products obtained after pomegranate juice processing. These by-products mainly consist of internal membranes (endocarp and aril residues. Even if they are still edible, they are usually discharged during juice production and, thus, they represent a great challenge in an eco-sustainable industrial context. Green technologies, such as ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE and microwave assisted extraction (MAE, have been employed to convert these organic residues into recycled products with high added value. UAE and MAE were used both in parallel and in series in order to make a comparison and to ensure exhaustive extractions, respectively. Water, as an environmentally friendly extraction solvent, has been employed. The results were compared with those ones coming from a conventional extraction. The most promising extract, in terms of total polyphenol yield and radical scavenging activity, has been tested both as a potential natural additive and as a functional ingredient after its incorporation in a real food model and in a real cosmetic matrix, respectively. This study represents a proposal to the agro-alimentary sector given the general need of environmental “responsible care”.

  14. Aptamer-functionalized Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles as a solid-phase extraction adsorbent for the selective extraction of berberine from Cortex phellodendri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling-Feng; Chen, Bo-Cheng; Chen, Ben; Li, Xue-Jian; Liao, Hai-Lin; Zhang, Wen-Yan; Wu, Lin

    2017-07-01

    The extraction adsorbent was fabricated by immobilizing the highly specific recognition and binding of aptamer onto the surface of Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles, which not only acted as recognition elements to recognize and capture the target molecule berberine from the extract of Cortex phellodendri, but also could favor the rapid separation and purification of the bound berberine by using an external magnet. The developed solid-phase extraction method in this work was useful for the selective extraction and determination of berberine in Cortex phellodendri extracts. Various conditions such as the amount of aptamer-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles, extraction time, temperature, pH value, Mg 2+ concentration, elution time and solvent were optimized for the solid-phase extraction of berberine. Under optimal conditions, the purity of berberine extracted from Cortex phellodendri was as high as 98.7% compared with that of 4.85% in the extract, indicating that aptamer-functionalized Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles-based solid-phase extraction method was very effective for berberine enrichment and separation from a complex herb extract. The applicability and reliability of the developed solid-phase extraction method were demonstrated by separating berberine from nine different concentrations of one Cortex phellodendri extract. The relative recoveries of the spiked solutions of all the samples were between 95.4 and 111.3%, with relative standard deviations ranging between 0.57 and 1.85%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Spirulina platensis Extract via the Modulation of Histone Deacetylases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tho X. Pham

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously demonstrated that the organic extract of Spirulina platensis (SPE, an edible blue-green alga, possesses potent anti-inflammatory effects. In this study, we investigated if the regulation of histone deacetylases (HDACs play a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of SPE in macrophages. Treatment of macrophages with SPE rapidly and dose-dependently reduced HDAC2, 3, and 4 proteins which preceded decreases in their mRNA levels. Degradation of HDAC4 protein was attenuated in the presence of inhibitors of calpain proteases, lysosomal acidification, and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, respectively, but not a proteasome inhibitor. Acetylated histone H3 was increased in SPE-treated macrophages to a similar level as macrophages treated with a pan-HDAC inhibitor, with concomitant inhibition of inflammatory gene expression upon LPS stimulation. Knockdown of HDAC3 increased basal and LPS-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression, while HDAC4 knockdown increased basal expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β, but attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that SPE decreased p65 binding and H3K9/K14 acetylation at the Il-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα promoters. Our results suggest that SPE increased global histone H3 acetylation by facilitating HDAC protein degradation, but decreases histone H3K9/K14 acetylation and p65 binding at the promoters of Il-1β and Tnfα to exert its anti-inflammatory effect.

  16. Modulation of adipogenesis and glucose uptake by Curcuma longa extract in 3T3L1 and L6 cell lines - An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prathapan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Curcuma longa against modulation of glucose uptake and adipogenesis in cell line models. Methods: We used 3T3L1 and L6 cells to investigate cytotoxicity, glucose uptake with 2-NBDG as probe and adipogenesis. All the analysis was done with flowcytometry. Results: The results showed that the extract did not possess any significant glucose uptake activity but it exhibited significant adipocyte differentiation potential. Conclusions: Ethyl acetate extract of Curcuma longa exhibits significant antiadipogenesis and can be used as an effective drug for the treatment of obesity and other associated complications.

  17. Functional Connectivity Modulation by Acupuncture in Patients with Bell’s Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Bian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bell’s palsy (BP, an acute unilateral facial paralysis, is frequently treated with acupuncture in many countries. However, the mechanism of treatment is not clear so far. In order to explore the potential mechanism, 22 healthy volunteers and 17 BP patients with different clinical duration were recruited. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted before and after acupuncture at LI4 (Hegu, respectively. By comparing BP-induced functional connectivity (FC changes with acupuncture-induced FC changes in the patients, the abnormal increased FC that could be reduced by acupuncture was selected. The FC strength of the selected FC at various stages was analyzed subsequently. Our results show that FC modulation of acupuncture is specific and consistent with the tendency of recovery. Therefore, we propose that FC modulation by acupuncture may be beneficial to recovery from the disease.

  18. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two-frequency scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  19. Measurements of ocean wave spectra and modulation transfer function with the airborne two frequency scatterometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, D. E.; Johnson, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    The directional spectrum and the microwave modulation transfer function of ocean waves can be measured with the airborne two frequency scatterometer technique. Similar to tower based observations, the aircraft measurements of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) show that it is strongly affected by both wind speed and sea state. Also detected are small differences in the magnitudes of the MTF between downwind and upwind radar look directions, and variations with ocean wavenumber. The MTF inferred from the two frequency radar is larger than that measured using single frequency, wave orbital velocity techniques such as tower based radars or ROWS measurements from low altitude aircraft. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The ability to measure the ocean directional spectrum with the two frequency scatterometer, with supporting MTF data, is demonstrated.

  20. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Arvid; Grüner, Renate

    2007-01-01

    on the right ear stimulus in the dichotic listening situation is thought to involve the same prefrontal attentional and executive functions that are involved in the suppression of tics, whereas, performance when focusing attention on the left ear stimulus additionally involves a callosal transfer...... to shift attention normally when instructed to focus on the right ear stimulus. When instructed to focus attention on the left ear stimulus, however, performance deteriorated in the TS group. Correlations with CC area further supported the hypothesized presence of deviant callosal functioning in the TS......We tested the hypothesis that children with Tourette syndrome (TS) would exhibit aberrant brain lateralization compared to a healthy control (HC) group in an attention-modulation version of a verbal dichotic listening task using consonant-vowel syllables. The modulation of attention to focus...

  1. Integrated analysis of microRNA and gene expression profiles reveals a functional regulatory module associated with liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Zhao, Wenshan; Yang, Aiting; Xu, Anjian; Wang, Huan; Cong, Min; Liu, Tianhui; Wang, Ping; You, Hong

    2017-12-15

    Liver fibrosis, characterized with the excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, represents the final common pathway of chronic liver inflammation. Ever-increasing evidence indicates microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation has important implications in the different stages of liver fibrosis. However, our knowledge of miRNA-gene regulation details pertaining to such disease remains unclear. The publicly available Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets of patients suffered from cirrhosis were extracted for integrated analysis. Differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and genes (DEGs) were identified using GEO2R web tool. Putative target gene prediction of DEMs was carried out using the intersection of five major algorithms: DIANA-microT, TargetScan, miRanda, PICTAR5 and miRWalk. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory network (FMGRN) was constructed based on the computational target predictions at the sequence level and the inverse expression relationships between DEMs and DEGs. DAVID web server was selected to perform KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. Functional miRNA-gene regulatory module was generated based on the biological interpretation. Internal connections among genes in liver fibrosis-related module were determined using String database. MiRNA-gene regulatory modules related to liver fibrosis were experimentally verified in recombinant human TGFβ1 stimulated and specific miRNA inhibitor treated LX-2 cells. We totally identified 85 and 923 dysregulated miRNAs and genes in liver cirrhosis biopsy samples compared to their normal controls. All evident miRNA-gene pairs were identified and assembled into FMGRN which consisted of 990 regulations between 51 miRNAs and 275 genes, forming two big sub-networks that were defined as down-network and up-network, respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis revealed that up-network was prominently involved in several KEGG pathways, in which "Focal adhesion", "PI3K-Akt signaling pathway" and "ECM

  2. Evaluation of the optimum region for mammographic system using computer simulation to study modulation transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Isaura N. Sombra; Schiable, Homero; Porcel, Naider T.; Frere, Annie F.; Marques, Paulo M.A.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the 'optimum region' of the radiation field considering mammographic systems is studied. Such a region was defined in previous works as the field range where the system has its best performance and sharpest images. This study is based on a correlation of two methods for evaluating radiologic imaging systems, both using computer simulation in order to determine modulation transfer functions (MTFs) due to the X-ray tube focal spot in several field orientation and locations

  3. Motor imagery learning modulates functional connectivity of multiple brain systems in resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning.

  4. Motor Imagery Learning Modulates Functional Connectivity of Multiple Brain Systems in Resting State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang; Long, Zhiying; Ge, Ruiyang; Xu, Lele; Jin, Zhen; Yao, Li; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Background Learning motor skills involves subsequent modulation of resting-state functional connectivity in the sensory-motor system. This idea was mostly derived from the investigations on motor execution learning which mainly recruits the processing of sensory-motor information. Behavioral evidences demonstrated that motor skills in our daily lives could be learned through imagery procedures. However, it remains unclear whether the modulation of resting-state functional connectivity also exists in the sensory-motor system after motor imagery learning. Methodology/Principal Findings We performed a fMRI investigation on motor imagery learning from resting state. Based on previous studies, we identified eight sensory and cognitive resting-state networks (RSNs) corresponding to the brain systems and further explored the functional connectivity of these RSNs through the assessments, connectivity and network strengths before and after the two-week consecutive learning. Two intriguing results were revealed: (1) The sensory RSNs, specifically sensory-motor and lateral visual networks exhibited greater connectivity strengths in precuneus and fusiform gyrus after learning; (2) Decreased network strength induced by learning was proved in the default mode network, a cognitive RSN. Conclusions/Significance These results indicated that resting-state functional connectivity could be modulated by motor imagery learning in multiple brain systems, and such modulation displayed in the sensory-motor, visual and default brain systems may be associated with the establishment of motor schema and the regulation of introspective thought. These findings further revealed the neural substrates underlying motor skill learning and potentially provided new insights into the therapeutic benefits of motor imagery learning. PMID:24465577

  5. Operational parameters analysis of the radiographic technique through the modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, Mauricio Saldanha; Guimaraes, Ari Sauer

    1995-01-01

    The influence of the focal size and image magnification variations on the radiographic final image is studied. The analysis used the modulation transfer function for evaluating the ratio of the radiographic image amplitude and that of the inspected object. it was concluded that the increase of the focal size and of the magnifications are not good for the image quality. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  6. Norepinephrine versus dopamine and their interaction in modulating synaptic function in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Bo; Li, Yan-Chun; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2016-06-15

    Among the neuromodulators that regulate prefrontal cortical circuit function, the catecholamine transmitters norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) stand out as powerful players in working memory and attention. Perturbation of either NE or DA signaling is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Although the precise mechanisms employed by NE and DA to cooperatively control prefrontal functions are not fully understood, emerging research indicates that both transmitters regulate electrical and biochemical aspects of neuronal function by modulating convergent ionic and synaptic signaling in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review summarizes previous studies that investigated the effects of both NE and DA on excitatory and inhibitory transmissions in the prefrontal cortical circuitry. Specifically, we focus on the functional interaction between NE and DA in prefrontal cortical local circuitry, synaptic integration, signaling pathways, and receptor properties. Although it is clear that both NE and DA innervate the PFC extensively and modulate synaptic function by activating distinctly different receptor subtypes and signaling pathways, it remains unclear how these two systems coordinate their actions to optimize PFC function for appropriate behavior. Throughout this review, we provide perspectives and highlight several critical topics for future studies. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from Vibrio cholerae by Allium sativum extract and the bioactive agent allyl sulfide plus synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial susceptibility by A. sativum extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Merissa M; Kakarla, Prathusha; Floyd, Jared T; Mukherjee, Mun Mun; Ponce, Robert C; Garcia, John A; Ranaweera, Indrika; Sanford, Leslie M; Hernandez, Alberto J; Willmon, T Mark; Tolson, Grace L; Varela, Manuel F

    2017-10-01

    The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux. Thus, we tested whether A. sativum extract acts in synergy with antimicrobials and that a main bioactive component allyl sulfide inhibits EmrD-3 efflux. We found that A. sativum extract and allyl sulfide inhibited ethidium bromide efflux in cells harboring EmrD-3 and that A. sativum lowered the MICs of multiple antibacterials. We conclude that A. sativum and allyl sulfide inhibit EmrD-3 and that A. sativum extract synergistically enhances antibacterial agents.

  8. NCS-1 associates with adenosine A2A receptors and modulates receptor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma eNavarro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signalling by local changes in intracellular calcium concentration is an established function of Calmodulin which is known to interact with many GPCRs. Less is known about the functional role of the closely related neuronal EF-hand Ca2+-sensor proteins that frequently associate with calmodulin targets with different functional outcome. In the present study we aimed to investigate if a target of calmodulin – the A2A adenosine receptor, is able to associate with two other neuronal calcium binding proteins, namely NCS-1 and caldendrin. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation experiments we show the existence of A2A - NCS-1 complexes in living cells whereas caldendrin did not associate with A2A receptors under the conditions tested. Interestingly, NCS-1 binding modulated downstream A2A receptor intracellular signalling in a Ca2+-dependent manner. Taken together this study provides further evidence that neuronal Ca2+-sensor proteins play an important role in modulation of GPCR signalling.

  9. Sex, hormones and neurogenesis in the hippocampus: hormonal modulation of neurogenesis and potential functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, L A M; Wainwright, S R; Roes, M M; Duarte-Guterman, P; Chow, C; Hamson, D K

    2013-11-01

    The hippocampus is an area of the brain that undergoes dramatic plasticity in response to experience and hormone exposure. The hippocampus retains the ability to produce new neurones in most mammalian species and is a structure that is targeted in a number of neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases, many of which are influenced by both sex and sex hormone exposure. Intriguingly, gonadal and adrenal hormones affect the structure and function of the hippocampus differently in males and females. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is regulated by both gonadal and adrenal hormones in a sex- and experience-dependent way. Sex differences in the effects of steroid hormones to modulate hippocampal plasticity should not be completely unexpected because the physiology of males and females is different, with the most notable difference being that females gestate and nurse the offspring. Furthermore, reproductive experience (i.e. pregnancy and mothering) results in permanent changes to the maternal brain, including the hippocampus. This review outlines the ability of gonadal and stress hormones to modulate multiple aspects of neurogenesis (cell proliferation and cell survival) in both male and female rodents. The function of adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is linked to spatial memory and depression, and the present review provides early evidence of the functional links between the hormonal modulation of neurogenesis that may contribute to the regulation of cognition and stress. © 2013 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  10. Feeding of the water extract from Ganoderma lingzhi to rats modulates secondary bile acids, intestinal microflora, mucins, and propionate important to colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongshou; Nirmagustina, Dwi Eva; Kumrungsee, Thanutchaporn; Okazaki, Yukako; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Kato, Norihisa

    2017-09-01

    Consumption of reishi mushroom has been reported to prevent colon carcinogenesis in rodents, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. To investigate this effect, rats were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% water extract from either the reishi mushroom (Ganoderma lingzhi) (WGL) or the auto-digested reishi G. lingzhi (AWGL) for three weeks. Both extracts markedly reduced fecal secondary bile acids, such as lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid (colon carcinogens). These extracts reduced the numbers of Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum (secondary bile acids-producing bacteria) in a per g of cecal digesta. Fecal mucins and cecal propionate were significantly elevated by both extracts, and fecal IgA was significantly elevated by WGL, but not by AWGL. These results suggest that the reishi extracts have an impact on colon luminal health by modulating secondary bile acids, microflora, mucins, and propionate that related to colon cancer.

  11. A Standardized Chemically Modified Curcuma longa Extract Modulates IRAK-MAPK Signaling in Inflammation and Potentiates Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minakshi Rana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The TLR/IL-1R pathway is a critical signaling module that is misregulated in pathologies like inflammation and cancer. Extracts from turmeric (Curcuma longa L. enriched in curcumin and carbonyls like turmerones have been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory effects. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity, cytotoxic effect and the underlying mechanism of a novel chemically modified, non-carbonyl compound enriched Curcuma longa L. (C. longa extract (CMCE. CMCE (1 or 10 µg/mL; 14 h significantly decreased LPS (50-100 ng/mL induced TNF-α and IL-1β production in THP-1 cells, human, and mouse whole blood as measured by ELISA. LPS-induced IRAK1, MAPK activation, TLR4 expression, TLR4-MyD88 interaction and IκBα degradation were significantly reduced in CMCE pre-treated THP-1 cells as assessed by Western blotting. CMCE (30, 100 and 300 mg/kg; 10 days p.o. pre-treated and LPS (10 mg/kg challenged Swiss mice exhibited attenuated plasma TNF-α, IL-1β, nitrite, aortic iNOS expression and vascular dysfunction. In a PI permeability assay, cell lines derived from acute myeloid leukemia were most sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of CMCE. Analysis of Sub-G1 phase, Annexin V-PI positivity, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, increased caspase-3 and PARP-1 activation confirmed CMCE induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. IRAK inhibition also sensitized HL-60 cells to CMCE induced cytotoxicity. The present study defines the mechanism underlying the action of CMCE and suggests a therapeutic potential for its use in sepsis and leukemia.

  12. Application of enzymes for efficient extraction, modification, and development of functional properties of lime pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Marie Søndergaard, Karen; Wichmann, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    pectin. The most efficient enzyme preparation was Laminex C2K derived from Penicillium funiculosum which, during 4 h treatment at pH 3.5, 50 °C, released pectin with similar yield (23% w/w), molecular weight (69 kDa), and functional properties e.g. gelling, stabilization of acidified milk drinks...... and viscosity as the classically acid-extracted pectins (8 h treatment at 70 °C, pH ... at higher temperatures. The Laminex CK2 extracted pectin polymers were not sensitive to the presence of Ca2+ ions, they formed a gel at low pH in the presence of sugar and were able to stabilize acidified milk drinks. Further modification by enzymatic de-esterification of the pectin extracted with Laminex C...

  13. Measurement of the amplitude and phase transfer functions of an optical modulator using a heterodyne technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal; Birkedal, Dan; Mørk, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    We present a new technique that measures the full amplitude and phase transfer curves of the modulator as a function of the applied bias, from which the small signal α-parameter can be calculated. The technique measures the amplitude and phase transfer functions simultaneously and directly......, compared to techniques where a time-consuming data analysis is necessary to calculate the a-parameter and an additional measurement is necessary to estimate the phase. Additionally, the chirp profile for all operation points can be calculated....

  14. Functional Redundancy Between Canonical Endocannabinoid Signaling Systems in the Modulation of Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedse, Gaurav; Hartley, Nolan D; Neale, Emily; Gaulden, Andrew D; Patrick, Toni A; Kingsley, Philip J; Uddin, Md Jashim; Plath, Niels; Marnett, Lawrence J; Patel, Sachin

    2017-10-01

    Increasing the available repertoire of effective treatments for mood and anxiety disorders represents a critical unmet need. Pharmacological augmentation of endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been suggested to represent a novel approach to the treatment of anxiety disorders; however, the functional interactions between two canonical eCB pathways mediated via anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamine [AEA]) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the regulation of anxiety are not well understood. We utilized pharmacological augmentation and depletion combined with behavioral and electrophysiological approaches to probe the role of 2-AG signaling in the modulation of stress-induced anxiety and the functional redundancy between AEA and 2-AG signaling in the modulation of anxiety-like behaviors in mice. Selective 2-AG augmentation reduced anxiety in the light/dark box assay and prevented stress-induced increases in anxiety associated with limbic AEA deficiency. In contrast, acute 2-AG depletion increased anxiety-like behaviors, which was normalized by selective pharmacological augmentation of AEA signaling and via direct cannabinoid receptor 1 stimulation with Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol. Electrophysiological studies revealed 2-AG modulation of amygdala glutamatergic transmission as a key synaptic correlate of the anxiolytic effects of 2-AG augmentation. Although AEA and 2-AG likely subserve distinct physiological roles, a pharmacological and functional redundancy between these canonical eCB signaling pathways exists in the modulation of anxiety-like behaviors. These data support development of eCB-based treatment approaches for mood and anxiety disorders and suggest a potentially wider therapeutic overlap between AEA and 2-AG augmentation approaches than was previously appreciated. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Posterior association networks and functional modules inferred from rich phenotypes of gene perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available Combinatorial gene perturbations provide rich information for a systematic exploration of genetic interactions. Despite successful applications to bacteria and yeast, the scalability of this approach remains a major challenge for higher organisms such as humans. Here, we report a novel experimental and computational framework to efficiently address this challenge by limiting the 'search space' for important genetic interactions. We propose to integrate rich phenotypes of multiple single gene perturbations to robustly predict functional modules, which can subsequently be subjected to further experimental investigations such as combinatorial gene silencing. We present posterior association networks (PANs to predict functional interactions between genes estimated using a Bayesian mixture modelling approach. The major advantage of this approach over conventional hypothesis tests is that prior knowledge can be incorporated to enhance predictive power. We demonstrate in a simulation study and on biological data, that integrating complementary information greatly improves prediction accuracy. To search for significant modules, we perform hierarchical clustering with multiscale bootstrap resampling. We demonstrate the power of the proposed methodologies in applications to Ewing's sarcoma and human adult stem cells using publicly available and custom generated data, respectively. In the former application, we identify a gene module including many confirmed and highly promising therapeutic targets. Genes in the module are also significantly overrepresented in signalling pathways that are known to be critical for proliferation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. In the latter application, we predict a functional network of chromatin factors controlling epidermal stem cell fate. Further examinations using ChIP-seq, ChIP-qPCR and RT-qPCR reveal that the basis of their genetic interactions may arise from transcriptional cross regulation. A Bioconductor package

  16. Polyphenol-enriched berry extracts naturally modulate reactive proteins in model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lila, Mary Ann; Schneider, Maggie; Devlin, Amy; Plundrich, Nathalie; Laster, Scott; Foegeding, E Allen

    2017-12-13

    Healthy foods like polyphenol-rich berries and high quality edible proteins are in demand in today's functional food marketplace, but it can be difficult to formulate convenient food products with physiologically-relevant amounts of these ingredients and still maintain product quality. In part, this is because proteins can interact with other food ingredients and precipitate destabilizing events, which can disrupt food structure and diminish shelf life. Proteins in foods can also interact with human receptors to provoke adverse consequences such as allergies. When proteins and polyphenols were pre-aggregated into stable colloidal particles prior to use as ingredients, highly palatable food formulations (with reduced astringency of polyphenols) could be prepared, and the overall structural properties of food formulations were significantly improved. All of the nutritive and phytoactive benefits of the proteins and concentrated polyphenols remained highly bioavailable, but the protein molecules in the particle matrix did not self-aggregate into networks or react with other food ingredients. Both the drainage half-life (a marker of structural stability) and the yield stress (resistance to flow) of model foams made with the protein-polyphenol particles were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Of high significance in this complexation process, the reactive allergenic epitopes of certain proteins were effectively blunted by binding with polyphenols, attenuating the allergenicity of the food proteins. Porcine macrophages produced TNF-α proinflammatory cytokine when provoked with whey protein, but, this response was blocked completely when the cells were stimulated with particles that complexed whey protein with cinnamon-derived polyphenols. Cytokine and chemokine production characteristic of allergic reactions were blocked by the polyphenols, allowing for the potential creation of hypoallergenic protein-berry polyphenol enriched foods.

  17. Functional evolution of cis-regulatory modules at a homeotic gene in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C W Ho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a long-held belief in evolutionary biology that the rate of molecular evolution for a given DNA sequence is inversely related to the level of functional constraint. This belief holds true for the protein-coding homeotic (Hox genes originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of the Hox genes in Drosophila embryos is essential for body patterning and is controlled by an extensive array of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs. How the regulatory modules functionally evolve in different species is not clear. A comparison of the CRMs for the Abdominal-B gene from different Drosophila species reveals relatively low levels of overall sequence conservation. However, embryonic enhancer CRMs from other Drosophila species direct transgenic reporter gene expression in the same spatial and temporal patterns during development as their D. melanogaster orthologs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals the presence of short conserved sequences within defined CRMs, representing gap and pair-rule transcription factor binding sites. One predicted binding site for the gap transcription factor KRUPPEL in the IAB5 CRM was found to be altered in Superabdominal (Sab mutations. In Sab mutant flies, the third abdominal segment is transformed into a copy of the fifth abdominal segment. A model for KRUPPEL-mediated repression at this binding site is presented. These findings challenge our current understanding of the relationship between sequence evolution at the molecular level and functional activity of a CRM. While the overall sequence conservation at Drosophila CRMs is not distinctive from neighboring genomic regions, functionally critical transcription factor binding sites within embryonic enhancer CRMs are highly conserved. These results have implications for understanding mechanisms of gene expression during embryonic development, enhancer function, and the molecular evolution of eukaryotic regulatory modules.

  18. Role of the hippocampus on learning and memory functioning and pain modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haimei Wang

    2008-01-01

    The hippocampus, an important part of the limbic system, is considered to be an important region of the brain for learning and memory functioning. Recent studies have demonstrated that synaptic plasticity is thought to be the basis of learning and memory functioning. A series of studies report that similar synaptic plasticity also exists in the spinal cord in the conduction pathway of pain sensation, which may contribute to hyperalgesia, abnormal pain, and analgesia. The synaptic plasticity of learning and memory functioning and that of the pain conduction pathway have similar mechanisms, which are related to the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor. The hippocampus also has a role in pain modulation. As pain signals can reach the hippocampus, the precise correlation between synaptic plasticity of the pain pathway and that of learning and memory functioning deserves further investigation. The role of the hippocampus in processing pain information requires to be identified.

  19. Amygdala activity can be modulated by unexpected chord functions during music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-12-03

    Numerous earlier studies have investigated the cognitive processing of musical syntax with regular and irregular chord sequences. However, irregular sequences may also be perceived as unexpected, and therefore have a different emotional valence than regular sequences. We provide behavioral data showing that irregular chord functions presented in chord sequence paradigms are perceived as less pleasant than regular sequences. A reanalysis of functional MRI data showed increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes bilaterally in the amygdala in response to music-syntactically irregular (compared with regular) chord functions. The combined data indicate that music-syntactically irregular events elicit brain activity related to emotional processes, and that, in addition to intensely pleasurable music or highly unpleasant music, single chord functions can also modulate amygdala activity.

  20. Andrographis paniculata Extract and Andrographolide Modulate the Hepatic Drug Metabolism System and Plasma Tolbutamide Concentrations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haw-Wen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide is the most abundant terpenoid of A. paniculata which is used in the treatment of diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of A. paniculata extract (APE and andrographolide on the expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes in rat liver and determined whether modulation of these enzymes changed the pharmacokinetics of tolbutamide. Rats were intragastrically dosed with 2 g/kg/day APE or 50 mg/kg/day andrographolide for 5 days before a dose of 20 mg/kg tolbutamide was given. APE and andrographolide reduced the AUC0–12 h of tolbutamide by 37% and 18%, respectively, compared with that in controls. The protein and mRNA levels and enzyme activities of CYP2C6/11, CYP1A1/2, and CYP3A1/2 were increased by APE and andrographolide. To evaluate whether APE or andrographolide affected the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide, high-fat diet-induced obese mice were used and treated in the same manner as the rats. APE and andrographolide increased CYP2C6/11 expression and decreased plasma tolbutamide levels. In a glucose tolerance test, however, the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide was not changed by APE or andrographolide. These results suggest that APE and andrographolide accelerate the metabolism rate of tolbutamide through increased expression and activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes. APE and andrographolide, however, do not impair the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide.

  1. Ethanol extract of Portulaca oleracea L. protects against hypoxia-induced neuro damage through modulating endogenous erythropoietin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyin, Wang; Liwei, Dong; Lin, Jia; Hailiang, Xin; Changquan, Ling; Min, Li

    2012-04-01

    In addition to its role in erythropoiesis, erythropoietin is also appreciated for its neuroprotective effects, and it has been suggested for treatment of some ischemic-hypoxic neurovascular diseases. The protective effects of endogenous erythropoietin in the brain give rise to the hypothesis that modulating erythropoietin expression might be a better way for treatment of ischemia-hypoxia neurovascular diseases. We have found that ethanol extract of Portulaca oleracea L. (EEPO) could increase erythropoietin expression in hypoxic mouse brain in our previous study. The present study is to investigate whether EEPO exerts its neuroprotective effects against hypoxia injury through regulating endogenous erythropoietin expression. The results demonstrated that EEPO decreased the serum neuron specific enolase level in hypoxia mice and the activity of caspase-3 in neuron, increased the neuron viability and attenuated the pathological damages caused by the hypoxia condition. Importantly, we also found that EEPO stimulated the endogenous erythropoietin expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Using the conditioned medium containing soluble erythropoietin receptor, we found that the neuroprotective effects of EEPO were dependent, at least partly, on erythropoietin expression. Although EEPO did not affect transcription of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), it did stabilize expression of HIF-1α. It is concluded that EEPO has neuroprotective effects against hypoxia injury, which is at least partly through stimulating endogenous erythropoietin expression by stabilizing HIF-1α. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction of Fragmentation Functions from Charged Kaon and Pion Production at COMPASS

    CERN Document Server

    Panknin, Regine Antje

    Quark helicity distributions can be accessed by measuring spin asymmetries in polarised deep-inelastic scattering, but for a full flavour separation the precise knowledge of quark fragmentation functions is essential. Those can only be inf erred from experimental data, and are still poorly determined today. The few existing para metrisations of fragmentation functions are derived from world data (mainly on electron-positron annihilation), and often differ considerably, most notably for strange quarks. This thesis presents an independent evaluation of fragmentation functions from deep- inelastic scattering data recorded at the COMPASS experiment. A method of extraction was developed, based on the relation between hadron multiplicities, r h ( x, z ), unpolarised parton distribution functions, q ( x ), and quark fragmentation functions into hadrons, D h d ( z ). (In this work x stands for the Bjorken scaling variable, and z for the fraction of the quark momentum that is transferred to the pro duced hadron.) Mult...

  3. Small-world organization of self-similar modules in functional brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigman, Mariano; Gallos, Lazaros; Makse, Hernan

    2012-02-01

    The modular organization of the brain implies the parallel nature of brain computations. These modules have to remain functionally independent, but at the same time they need to be sufficiently connected to guarantee the unitary nature of brain perception. Small-world architectures have been suggested as probable structures explaining this behavior. However, there is intrinsic tension between shortcuts generating small-worlds and the persistence of modularity. In this talk, we study correlations between the activity in different brain areas. We suggest that the functional brain network formed by the percolation of strong links is highly modular. Contrary to the common view, modules are self-similar and therefore are very far from being small-world. Incorporating the weak ties to the network converts it into a small-world preserving an underlying backbone of well-defined modules. Weak ties are shown to follow a pattern that maximizes information transfer with minimal wiring costs. This architecture is reminiscent of the concept of weak-ties strength in social networks and provides a natural solution to the puzzle of efficient infomration flow in the highly modular structure of the brain.

  4. Modulation of the transducer function of Na+,K+-ATPase: new mechanism of heart remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopatina, Ekaterina V; Kipenko, Anna V; Pasatetskaya, Natalia A; Penniyaynen, Valentina A; Krylov, Boris V

    2016-10-01

    Endogenous digitalis-like factors were found in the mammalian and human blood. It was the starting point for the elucidation of the new non-pumping function of the Na + ,K + -ATPase. It was previously well known that Na + ,K + -ATPase is a pharmacological target receptor for cardiac glycosides (J.C. Skou. 1957. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 23: 394-401). We have investigated the trophotropic effects of such agents as ouabain, epinephrine, norepinephrine, atenolol, and comenic acid using the organotypic tissue culture combined with the reconstruction of optical cross sections and confocal microscopy. It was shown that the growth zone of organotypic culture forms a multidimensional structure. Our results indicate that the cardiac glycoside ouabain applied in endogenous concentrations (10 -8 , 10 -10 mol/L) can modulate transducer function of Na + ,K + -ATPase and control the cell growth and proliferation. It was also shown that Src-kinase is involved in "endogenous" ouabain activated intracellular pathways as a series unit. Epinephrine (10 -9 -10 -14 mol/L) and comenic acid (10 -6 -10 -10 mol/L) were demonstrated to modulate the growth of 10- to 12-day-old chicken embryo cardiac tissue explants in a dose-dependent manner. Epinephrine and comenic acid regulate growth and proliferation of the cardiac tissue via receptor-mediated modulation Na + ,K + -ATPase as a signal transducer. The trophotropic effects of the investigated agents specifically control the heart remodeling phenomenon.

  5. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, Sabine; Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual's degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Decreased Modulation of EEG Oscillations in High-Functioning Autism During a Motor Control Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Benjamin Ewen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are thought to result in part from altered cortical excitatory-inhibitory balance; this pathophysiology may impact the generation of oscillations on EEG. We investigated premotor-parietal cortical physiology associated with praxis, which has strong theoretical and empirical associations with ASD symptomatology. 25 children with high-functioning ASD (HFA and 33 controls performed a praxis task involving the pantomiming of tool use, while EEG was recorded. We assessed task-related modulation of signal power in alpha and beta frequency bands. Compared with controls, subjects with HFA showed 27% less left central (motor/premotor beta (18-22 Hz event-related desynchronization (ERD (p = 0.030, as well as 24% less left parietal alpha (7-13 Hz ERD (p = 0.046. Within the HFA group, blunting of central ERD attenuation was associated with impairments in clinical measures of praxis imitation (r = -0.4; p = 0.04 and increased autism severity (r = 0.48; p = 0.016. The modulation of central beta activity is associated, among other things, with motor imagery, which may be necessary for imitation. Impaired imitation has been associated with core features of ASD. Altered modulation of oscillatory activity may be mechanistically involved in those aspects of motor network function that relate to the core symptoms of ASD.

  7. Effects of water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) roots on immunity and telomerase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Wu, Jia-Ching; Ho, Chi-Tang; Badmaev, Vladimir

    2017-05-12

    Background Immunity and Longevity Methods A water extract of Curcuma longa (L.) [vern. Turmeric] roots (TurmericImmune™) standardized for a minimum 20 % of turmeric polysaccharides ukonan A, B, C and D was evaluated for its biological properties in in vitro tissue culture studies. Results The water extract of turmeric (TurP) exhibited induced-nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 macrophages. These results suggested the immunomodulatory effects of TurP. In addition, the polysaccharides up-regulated function of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) equally to the phenolic compound from turmeric, curcumin. Conclusions The ukonan family of polysaccharides may assist in promoting cellular immune responses, tissue repair and lifespan by enhancing immune response and telomere function.

  8. Analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic hepatic carcinoma via functional modules in a protein-protein interaction network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aims to identify protein clusters with potential functional relevance in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and metastatic hepatic carcinoma using network analysis. Materials and Methods: We used human protein interaction data to build a protein-protein interaction network with Cytoscape and then derived functional clusters using MCODE. Combining the gene expression profiles, we calculated the functional scores for the clusters and selected statistically significant clusters. Meanwhile, Gene Ontology was used to assess the functionality of these clusters. Finally, a support vector machine was trained on the gold standard data sets. Results: The differentially expressed genes of HCC were mainly involved in metabolic and signaling processes. We acquired 13 significant modules from the gene expression profiles. The area under the curve value based on the differentially expressed modules were 98.31%, which outweighed the classification with DEGs. Conclusions: Differentially expressed modules are valuable to screen biomarkers combined with functional modules.

  9. Comparison of two schemes for automatic keyword extraction from MEDLINE for functional gene clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Ciliax, Brian J; Borges, Karin; Dasigi, Venu; Ram, Ashwin; Navathe, Shamkant B; Dingledine, Ray

    2004-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the unprecedented quatities of data on gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the nature of the functional links among genes within the derived clusters. However, the quality of the keyword lists extracted from biomedical literature for each gene significantly affects the clustering results. We extracted keywords from MEDLINE that describes the most prominent functions of the genes, and used the resulting weights of the keywords as feature vectors for gene clustering. By analyzing the resulting cluster quality, we compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalized z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). The best combination of background comparison set, stop list and stemming algorithm was selected based on precision and recall metrics. In a test set of four known gene groups, a hierarchical algorithm correctly assigned 25 of 26 genes to the appropriate clusters based on keywords extracted by the TDFIDF weighting scheme, but only 23 og 26 with the z-score method. To evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clusters from microarray profiles, 44 yeast genes that are differentially expressed during the cell cycle were used as a second test set. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords had higher purity, lower entropy, and higher mutual information than those produced from normalized z-score weighted keywords. The optimized algorithms should be useful for sorting genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  10. Modulation transfer function cascade model for a sampled IR imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, L; Cardone, G

    1991-05-01

    The performance of the infrared scanning radiometer (IRSR) is strongly stressed in convective heat transfer applications where high spatial frequencies in the signal that describes the thermal image are present. The need to characterize more deeply the system spatial resolution has led to the formulation of a cascade model for the evaluation of the actual modulation transfer function of a sampled IR imaging system. The model can yield both the aliasing band and the averaged modulation response for a general sampling subsystem. For a line scan imaging system, which is the case of a typical IRSR, a rule of thumb that states whether the combined sampling-imaging system is either imaging-dependent or sampling-dependent is proposed. The model is tested by comparing it with other noncascade models as well as by ad hoc measurements performed on a commercial digitized IRSR.

  11. Lipoproteins as modulators of atherothrombosis: From endothelial function to primary and secondary coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouweneel, Amber B; Van Eck, Miranda

    2016-07-01

    Atherothrombosis is a complication of atherosclerosis that causes acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Circulating lipid levels are highly correlated with atherosclerotic plaque development. In addition, experimental evidence suggests that lipids also directly influence thrombosis and influence the risk and the outcome of acute cardiovascular events. Plasma lipoproteins influence three aspects important to atherothrombosis: endothelial function, platelet aggregation (primary coagulation) and secondary coagulation. Overall, VLDL, LDL and oxLDL promote thrombus formation, whereas HDL shows antithrombotic actions. In this review we will address the current knowledge about modulation of atherothrombosis by lipoproteins, summarizing findings from in vitro and in vivo animal studies, as well as from observational and interventional studies in humans. We will conclude with future perspectives for lipid modulation in the prevention of atherothrombosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human lung mast cells modulate the functions of airway smooth muscle cells in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhouri, H; Hollins, F; Moir, L M; Brightling, C E; Armour, C L; Hughes, J M

    2011-09-01

    Activated mast cell densities are increased on the airway smooth muscle in asthma where they may modulate muscle functions and thus contribute to airway inflammation, remodelling and airflow obstruction. To determine the effects of human lung mast cells on the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Freshly isolated human lung mast cells were stimulated with IgE/anti-IgE. Culture supernatants were collected after 2 and 24 h and the mast cells lysed. The supernatants/lysates were added to serum-deprived, subconfluent airway smooth muscle cells for up to 48 h. Released chemokines and extracellular matrix were measured by ELISA, proliferation was quantified by [(3) H]-thymidine incorporation and cell counting, and intracellular signalling by phospho-arrays. Mast cell 2-h supernatants reduced CCL11 and increased CXCL8 and fibronectin production from both asthmatic and nonasthmatic muscle cells. Leupeptin reversed these effects. Mast cell 24-h supernatants and lysates reduced CCL11 release from both muscle cell types but increased CXCL8 release by nonasthmatic cells. The 24-h supernatants also reduced asthmatic, but not nonasthmatic, muscle cell DNA synthesis and asthmatic cell numbers over 5 days through inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidylinositol (PI3)-kinase pathways. However, prostaglandins, thromboxanes, IL-4 and IL-13 were not involved in reducing the proliferation. Mast cell proteases and newly synthesized products differentially modulated the secretory and proliferative functions of airway smooth muscle cells from donors with and without asthma. Thus, mast cells may modulate their own recruitment and airway smooth muscle functions locally in asthma. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 function also as modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Kuwayama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the early stages of development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum, chemotaxis toward cAMP plays a pivotal role in organizing discrete cells into a multicellular structure. In this process, a series of signaling molecules, such as G-protein-coupled cell surface receptors for cAMP, phosphatidylinositol metabolites, and cyclic nucleotides, function as the signal transducers for controlling dynamics of cytoskeleton. Differentiation-inducing factor-1 and -2 (DIF-1 and DIF-2 were originally identified as the factors (chlorinated alkylphenones that induce Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, but it remained unknown whether the DIFs had any other physiologic functions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further elucidate the functions of DIFs, in the present study we investigated their effects on chemotaxis under various conditions. Quite interestingly, in shallow cAMP gradients, DIF-1 suppressed chemotaxis whereas DIF-2 promoted it greatly. Analyses with various mutants revealed that DIF-1 may inhibit chemotaxis, at least in part, via GbpB (a phosphodiesterase and a decrease in the intracellular cGMP concentration ([cGMP](i. DIF-2, by contrast, may enhance chemotaxis, at least in part, via RegA (another phosphodiesterase and an increase in [cGMP](i. Using null mutants for DimA and DimB, the transcription factors that are required for DIF-dependent prestalk differentiation, we also showed that the mechanisms for the modulation of chemotaxis by DIFs differ from those for the induction of cell differentiation by DIFs, at least in part. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DIF-1 and DIF-2 function as negative and positive modulators for Dictyostelium chemotaxis, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report in any organism of physiologic modulators (small molecules for chemotaxis having differentiation-inducing activity.

  14. Task-modulated activation and functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas during speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q; Zhang, L; Xu, G; Shu, H; Li, P

    2013-05-01

    There is general consensus in the literature that a distributed network of temporal and frontal brain areas is involved in speech comprehension. However, how active versus passive tasks modulate the activation and the functional connectivity of the critical brain areas is not clearly understood. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify intelligibility and task-related effects in speech comprehension. Participants performed a semantic judgment task on normal and time-reversed sentences, or passively listened to the sentences without making an overt response. The subtraction analysis demonstrated that passive sentence comprehension mainly engaged brain areas in the left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus (aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG), whereas active sentence comprehension recruited bilateral frontal regions in addition to the aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG regions. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that during passive sentence comprehension, the left aSTS/MTG was functionally connected with the left Heschl's gyrus (HG) and bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG) but no area was functionally connected with the left pSTS/MTG; during active sentence comprehension, however, both the left aSTS/MTG and pSTS/MTG were functionally connected with bilateral superior temporal and inferior frontal areas. While these results are consistent with the view that the ventral stream of the temporo-frontal network subserves semantic processing, our findings further indicate that both the activation and the functional connectivity of the temporal and frontal areas are modulated by task demands. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of clearance and arteriovenous extraction techniques for measurements of renal hemodynamic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzberg, R.W.; Pabico, R.C.; Morris, T.W.; Hayakawa, K.; McKenna, B.A.; Ventura, J.A.; Fischer, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    No previous studies have directly compared timed urine collections (UV/P) vs. arteriovenous (A-V) extraction methods for determination of renal function in whole kidney preparations. We examined different markers and techniques for assessing renal plasma flow (RPF), filtration fraction (FF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both steady-state and rapidly changing conditions following 2 ml/kg bolus intravenous injections of either Renografin 76% (meglumine/sodium diatrizoate-76%) or hypertonic mannitol 25%. During steady-state conditions, excellent correlations were obtained when comparing markers and techniques. Thus, timed urinary clearances of inulin vs. 99m-technetium DTPA (Tc) had a correlation coefficient (R) of .96 (P less than .01; n = 16), and the A-V extraction technique of inulin vs. Tc as determinants of GFR showed a correlation of R = .98 (P less than .01; n = 15). The timed urinary clearance of inulin vs. the A-V extraction of inulin for glomerular filtration gave a correlation of R = .93 (P less than .01; n = 15). The clearance of para-aminohippurate (PAH) divided by the extraction of PAH vs. flow determinations using the electromagnetic flowmeter gave a correlation of R = .92 (P less than .01; n = 16). The anticipated decrease in GFR following contrast medium and hypertonic mannitol was observed using the A-V extraction technique, whereas an artifactual, exaggerated increase in GFR was observed using the timed urine collection technique. Similarly, we noted an exaggerated increase in RPF using CPAH/EPAH as the methodology. We conclude that rapid changes in renal hemodynamics may be measured accurately using the A-V extraction technique but not with clearance techniques requiring timed urine collections

  16. Functional characterization of neurotransmitter activation and modulation in a nematode model ligand-gated ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Stephanie A; Yoluk, Özge; Klement, Göran; Riederer, Erika A; Lindahl, Erik; Howard, Rebecca J

    2016-07-01

    The superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels includes neurotransmitter receptors that mediate fast synaptic transmission in vertebrates, and are targets for drugs including alcohols, anesthetics, benzodiazepines, and anticonvulsants. However, the mechanisms of ion channel opening, gating, and modulation in these receptors leave many open questions, despite their pharmacological importance. Subtle conformational changes in both the extracellular and transmembrane domains are likely to influence channel opening, but have been difficult to characterize given the limited structural data available for human membrane proteins. Recent crystal structures of a modified Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) in multiple states offer an appealing model system for structure-function studies. However, the pharmacology of the crystallographic GluCl construct is not well established. To establish the functional relevance of this system, we used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes to characterize activation of crystallographic and native-like GluCl constructs by L-glutamate and ivermectin. We also tested modulation by ethanol and other anesthetic agents, and used site-directed mutagenesis to explore the role of a region of Loop F which was implicated in ligand gating by molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings indicate that the crystallographic construct functionally models concentration-dependent agonism and allosteric modulation of pharmacologically relevant receptors. Specific substitutions at residue Leu174 in loop F altered direct L-glutamate activation, consistent with computational evidence for this region's role in ligand binding. These insights demonstrate conservation of activation and modulation properties in this receptor family, and establish a framework for GluCl as a model system, including new possibilities for drug discovery. In this study, we elucidate the validity of a modified glutamate

  17. Comparisons between two wavelet functions in extracting coherent structures from solar wind time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolzani, M.J.A.; Guarnieri, F.L.; Vieira, Paulo Cesar

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, wavelet analysis of turbulent flows have become increasingly popular. However, the study of geometric characteristics from wavelet functions is still poorly explored. In this work we compare the performance of two wavelet functions in extracting the coherent structures from solar wind velocity time series. The data series are from years 1996 to 2002 (except 1998 and 1999). The wavelet algorithm decomposes the annual time-series in two components: the coherent part and non-coherent one, using the daubechies-4 and haar wavelet function. The threshold assumed is based on a percentage of maximum variance found in each dyadic scale. After the extracting procedure, we applied the power spectral density on the original time series and coherent time series to obtain spectral indices. The results from spectral indices show higher values for the coherent part obtained by daubechies-4 than those obtained by the haar wavelet function. Using the kurtosis statistical parameter, on coherent and non-coherent time series, it was possible to conjecture that the differences found between two wavelet functions may be associated with their geometric forms. (author)

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligands and modulators from dietary compounds: Types, screening methods and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haixia; Xiao, Lei; Wang, Nanping

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) plays a key role in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis and a crucial role in the prevention and treatment of metabolic diseases. Natural dietary compounds, including nutrients and phytochemicals, are PPARα ligands or modulators. High-throughput screening assays have been developed to screen for PPARα ligands and modulators in our diet. In the present review, we discuss recent advances in our knowledge of PPARα, including its structure, function, and ligand and modulator screening assays, and summarize the different types of dietary PPARα ligands and modulators. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. Functional brain asymmetry, attentional modulation, and interhemispheric transfer in boys with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Lundervold, Arvid; Grüner, Renate

    2007-01-01

    on the right ear stimulus in the dichotic listening situation is thought to involve the same prefrontal attentional and executive functions that are involved in the suppression of tics, whereas, performance when focusing attention on the left ear stimulus additionally involves a callosal transfer...... to shift attention normally when instructed to focus on the right ear stimulus. When instructed to focus attention on the left ear stimulus, however, performance deteriorated in the TS group. Correlations with CC area further supported the hypothesized presence of deviant callosal functioning in the TS...... of information. In light of presumed disturbances in transfer of information across the corpus callosum, we hypothesized that children with TS would, however, have difficulty modulating the functional lateralization that ensues through a shift of attention to the left side. This hypothesis was tested...

  20. Age-related decline in brain resources modulates genetic effects on cognitive functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulman Lindenberger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitive functioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging.Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008, who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitive functioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed.

  1. Age-Related Differences and Heterogeneity in Executive Functions: Analysis of NAB Executive Functions Module Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz

    2016-05-01

    Normative data from the German adaptation of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery were used to examine age-related differences in 6 executive function tasks. A multivariate analysis of variance was employed to investigate the differences in performance in 484 participants aged 18-99 years. The coefficient of variation was calculated to compare the heterogeneity of scores between 10 age groups. Analyses showed an increase in the dispersion of scores with age, varying from 7% to 289%, in all subtests. Furthermore, age-dependent heterogeneity appeared to be associated with age-dependent decline because the subtests with the greatest increase in dispersion (i.e., Mazes, Planning, and Categories) also exhibited the greatest decrease in mean scores. In contrast, scores for the subtests Letter Fluency, Word Generation, and Judgment had the lowest increase in dispersion with the lowest decrease in mean scores. Consequently, the results presented here show a pattern of age-related differences in executive functioning that is consistent with the concept of crystallized and fluid intelligence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Deficits of entropy modulation in schizophrenia are predicted by functional connectivity strength in the theta band and structural clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Pilar, Javier; de Luis-García, Rodrigo; Lubeiro, Alba; de Uribe, Nieves; Poza, Jesús; Núñez, Pablo; Ayuso, Marta; Hornero, Roberto; Molina, Vicente

    2018-01-01

    Spectral entropy (SE) allows comparing task-related modulation of electroencephalogram (EEG) between patients and controls, i.e. spectral changes of the EEG associated to task performance. A SE modulation deficit has been replicated in different schizophrenia samples. To investigate the underpinnings of SE modulation deficits in schizophrenia, we applied graph-theory to EEG recordings during a P300 task and fractional anisotropy (FA) data from diffusion tensor imaging in 48 patients (23 first episodes) and 87 healthy controls. Functional connectivity was assessed from phase-locking values among sensors in the theta band, and structural connectivity was based on FA values for the tracts connecting pairs of regions. From those data, averaged clustering coefficient (CLC), characteristic path-length (PL) and connectivity strength (CS, also known as density) were calculated for both functional and structural networks. The corresponding functional modulation values were calculated as the difference in SE and CLC, PL and CS between the pre-stimulus and response windows during the task. The results revealed a higher functional CS in the pre-stimulus window in patients, predictive of smaller modulation of SE in this group. The amount of increase in theta CS from pre-stimulus to response related to SE modulation in patients and controls. Structural CLC was associated with SE modulation in the patients. SE modulation was predictive of negative symptoms, whereas CLC and PL modulation was associated with cognitive performance in the patients. These results support that a hyperactive functional connectivity and/or structural connective deficits in the patients hamper the dynamical modulation of connectivity underlying cognition.

  3. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. Hydroalcoholic Extract Inhibits Neutrophil Functions Related to Innate Host Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Diego Barioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. D.C. is a herb native to South America, and its inflorescences are popularly employed to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, the effects of the in vivo actions of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from inflorescences of A. satureioides on neutrophil trafficking into inflamed tissue were investigated. Male Wistar rats were orally treated with A. satureioides extract, and inflammation was induced one hour later by lipopolysaccharide injection into the subcutaneous tissue. The number of leukocytes and the amount of chemotactic mediators were quantified in the inflammatory exudate, and adhesion molecule and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4 expressions and phorbol-myristate-acetate- (PMA- stimulated oxidative burst were quantified in circulating neutrophils. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were quantified in the mesentery tissue. Enzymes and tissue morphology of the liver and kidney were evaluated. Treatment with A. satureioides extract reduced neutrophil influx and secretion of leukotriene B4 and CINC-1 in the exudates, the number of rolling and adhered leukocytes in the mesentery postcapillary venules, neutrophil L-selectin, β2-integrin and TLR-4 expression, and oxidative burst, but did not cause an alteration in the morphology and activities of liver and kidney. Together, the data show that A. satureioides extract inhibits neutrophil functions related to the innate response and does not cause systemic toxicity.

  4. Spray-drying microencapsulation of synergistic antioxidant mushroom extracts and their use as functional food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Andreia; Ruphuy, Gabriela; Lopes, José Carlos; Dias, Madalena Maria; Barros, Lillian; Barreiro, Filomena; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-12-01

    In this work, hydroalcoholic extracts of two mushrooms species, Suillus luteus (L.: Fries) (Sl) and Coprinopsis atramentaria (Bull.) (Ca), were studied for their synergistic antioxidant effect and their viability as functional food ingredients tested by incorporation into a food matrix (cottage cheese). In a first step, the individual extracts and a combination of both, showing synergistic effects (Sl:Ca, 1:1), were microencapsulated by spray-drying using maltodextrin as the encapsulating material. The incorporation of free extracts resulted in products with a higher initial antioxidant activity (t0) but declining after 7 days (t7), which was associated with their degradation. However, the cottage cheese enriched with the microencapsulated extracts, that have revealed a lower activity at the initial time, showed an increase at t7. This improvement can be explained by an effective protection provided by the microspheres together with a sustained release. Analyses performed on the studied cottage cheese samples showed the maintenance of the nutritional properties and no colour modifications were noticed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiochemical and functional properties of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skin gelatin extracted at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Xia, Lining; Jia, Hui; Li, Qi; Jin, Wengang; Dong, Xiuping; Pan, Jinfeng

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic source gelatins are gaining more attention due to the advantages in safety and religion acceptability compared with mammalian sources. For understanding the effects of extracting temperature on gelatins from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) skins (GCSS), gelatins were extracted at temperatures from 40 to 90°C and the physiochemical properties of GCSS were investigated. GCSS yield increased while imino acids content declined as the increase of temperature. GCSS40, 50 and 60 showed strong β-, α1- and α2-chains but the three faded in GCSS70, 80 and 90, with the presence of low molecular weight fragments. Amides A, I and III were shifted to higher wavenumber in GCSS70, 80 and 90 compared with that of GCSS40, 50 and 60. X-ray diffraction showed lower intensity of peak at 7° in GCSS80 and 90 than in the other GCSS. Gel strength declined while a*, b* and ΔE* value increased as temperature increased. Foam expansion and stability of GCSS40, 50 and 60 were lower than those of GCSS70, 80 and 90. Emulsion activity and stability decreased as temperature increased. Extracting temperature greatly affected yield, molecular composition and functionalities of GCSS. A temperature lower than 50°C is recommended for GCSS extraction. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Modulating functions-based method for parameters and source estimation in one-dimensional partial differential equations

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space–time-dependent unknowns in one-dimensional partial differential equations. The proposed method simplifies the problem into a system of algebraic equations linear

  7. Calibration of Modulation Transfer Function of Surface Profilometers with 1D and 2D Binary Pseudo-random Array Standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.

    2008-01-01

    We suggest and describe the use of a binary pseudo-random grating as a standard test surface for calibration of the modulation transfer function of microscopes. Results from calibration of a MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope are presented.

  8. Source Estimation for the Damped Wave Equation Using Modulating Functions Method: Application to the Estimation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on modulating functions is proposed to estimate the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). The problem is written in an input estimation problem for a damped wave equation which is used to model the spatiotemporal variations

  9. Dopamine transporter polymorphism modulates oculomotor function and DAT1 mRNA expression in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, Ikwunga; Hong, L Elliot; Stine, O Colin; Mitchell, Braxton D; Elliott, Amie; Roberts, Rosalinda C; Conley, Robert R; McMahon, Robert P; Thaker, Gunvant K

    2009-03-05

    Smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM) deficit is an established schizophrenia endophenotype with a similar neurocognitive construct to working memory. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons controlling SPEM maintain firing when visual sensory information is removed, and their firing rates directly correlate with SPEM velocity. We previously demonstrated a paradoxical association between a functional polymorphism of dopamine signaling (COMT gene) and SPEM. Recent evidence implicates the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) in modulating cortical dopamine and associated neurocognitive functions. We hypothesized that DAT1 10/10 genotype, which reduces dopamine transporter expression and increases extracellular dopamine, would affect SPEM. We examined the effects of DAT1 genotype on: Clinical diagnosis in the study sample (n = 418; 190 with schizophrenia), SPEM measures in a subgroup with completed oculomotor measures (n = 200; 87 schizophrenia), and DAT1 gene expression in FEF tissue obtained from postmortem brain samples (n = 32; 16 schizophrenia). DAT1 genotype was not associated with schizophrenia. DAT1 10/10 genotype was associated with better SPEM in healthy controls, intermediate SPEM in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia subjects, and worse SPEM in schizophrenia subjects. In the gene expression study, DAT1 10/10 genotype was associated with significantly reduced DAT1 mRNA transcript in FEF tissue from healthy control donors (P < 0.05), but higher expression in schizophrenia donors. Findings suggest regulatory effects of another gene(s) or etiological factor in schizophrenia, which modulate DAT1 gene function. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Conceptual design on interface between ITER and tritium extraction system of Chinese helium-cooled solid breeder test blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Long; Luo Tianyong; Feng Kaiming

    2010-01-01

    Tritium extraction system is essential for CN HCSB TBM for safety and technical reasons. Based on the assessments of system functions, integration issues and safety considerations, two main modifications of the system from previous design (Feng et al., 2007 ; Chen et al., 2008 ) are adopted: a)the TES has been split to 2 parts with one in port cell and another in tritium building. Q 2 O in the purge gas is reduced to Q 2 in a hot metal bed located in port cell; Q 2 is separated from the stream by a pair of cryogenic molecular sieve beds and a Pd/Ag diffuser located in tritium building. b)isotope separation process has been excluded. TES components sizes are estimated and space allocations are estimated. Required services and where and when they are needed are preliminary defined. Fluids delivered towards ITER tritium system are analyzed.

  11. Development of a Kelp-Type Structure Module in a Coastal Ocean Model to Assess the Hydrodynamic Impact of Seawater Uranium Extraction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiping Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of global energy demand, interest in extracting uranium from seawater for nuclear energy has been renewed. While extracting seawater uranium is not yet commercially viable, it serves as a “backstop” to the conventional uranium resources and provides an essentially unlimited supply of uranium resource. With recent technology advances, extracting uranium from seawater could be economically feasible only when the extraction devices are deployed at a large scale (e.g., several hundred km2. There is concern however that the large scale deployment of adsorbent farms could result in potential impacts to the hydrodynamic flow field in an oceanic setting. In this study, a kelp-type structure module based on the classic momentum sink approach was incorporated into a coastal ocean model to simulate the blockage effect of a farm of passive uranium extraction devices on the flow field. The module was quantitatively validated against laboratory flume experiments for both velocity and turbulence profiles.Model results suggest that the reduction in ambient currents could range from 4% to 10% using adsorbent farm dimensions and mooring densities previously described in the literature and with typical drag coefficients.

  12. Theory of lidar method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of water layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolin, Lev S

    2013-01-10

    We develop a method to evaluate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of a water layer from the characteristics of lidar signal backscattered by water volume. We propose several designs of a lidar system for remote measurement of the MTF and the procedure to determine optical properties of water using the measured MTF. We discuss a laser system for sea-bottom imaging that accounts for the influence of water slab on the image structure and allows for correction of image distortions caused by light scattering in water. © 2013 Optical Society of America

  13. Modulation Transfer Function of a Gaussian Beam Based on the Generalized Modified Atmospheric Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.

  14. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffin, John Clark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  15. Modulating Function-Based Method for Parameter and Source Estimation of Partial Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-10-08

    Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) are commonly used to model complex systems that arise for example in biology, engineering, chemistry, and elsewhere. The parameters (or coefficients) and the source of PDE models are often unknown and are estimated from available measurements. Despite its importance, solving the estimation problem is mathematically and numerically challenging and especially when the measurements are corrupted by noise, which is often the case. Various methods have been proposed to solve estimation problems in PDEs which can be classified into optimization methods and recursive methods. The optimization methods are usually heavy computationally, especially when the number of unknowns is large. In addition, they are sensitive to the initial guess and stop condition, and they suffer from the lack of robustness to noise. Recursive methods, such as observer-based approaches, are limited by their dependence on some structural properties such as observability and identifiability which might be lost when approximating the PDE numerically. Moreover, most of these methods provide asymptotic estimates which might not be useful for control applications for example. An alternative non-asymptotic approach with less computational burden has been proposed in engineering fields based on the so-called modulating functions. In this dissertation, we propose to mathematically and numerically analyze the modulating functions based approaches. We also propose to extend these approaches to different situations. The contributions of this thesis are as follows. (i) Provide a mathematical analysis of the modulating function-based method (MFBM) which includes: its well-posedness, statistical properties, and estimation errors. (ii) Provide a numerical analysis of the MFBM through some estimation problems, and study the sensitivity of the method to the modulating functions\\' parameters. (iii) Propose an effective algorithm for selecting the method\\'s design parameters

  16. Canarium ovatum Engl. (Pili exocarp crude extract as functional food colorant incorporated in yogurt developed product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aril-dela Cruz, J.V.,

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Canarium ovatum Engl. (Pili, a locally grown plant in the Philippines, bears highly pigmented fruits. In this research study, the deeply pigmented fruit exocarp was evaluated for phytochemical contents, functional properties and possible application to yogurt as a colorant. Spectrophotometric analysis of the extract revealed high phenolic and flavonoid content, particularly anthocyanins (17.5 mg CE/g DW of the sample. The pigment extract also exhibited potential antioxidant activities as determined by DPPH and FRAP assays and did not show any inhibitory activity against gut normal flora, Escherichia coli, but also failed to express cytotoxic activity against HCT116 colon cancer cell line. Stability tests showed decreased redness with increasing temperature or pH. The pigment exhibited excellent color retention in yogurt during the two-week storage at 4oC. Sensory evaluation showed a slight difference in over-all acceptability between natural and synthetic-colored yogurt. Thus, Pili exocarp extract can be used as a functional food colorant in yogurt.

  17. Zea mays L. extracts modify glomerular function and potassium urinary excretion in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, D V O; Xavier, H S; Batista, J E M; de Castro-Chaves, C

    2005-05-01

    Diuretic and uricosuric properties have traditionally been attributed to corn silk, stigma/style of Zea mays L. Although the diuretic effect was confirmed, studies of the plant's effects on renal function or solute excretion were lacking. Thus, we studied the effects of corn silk aqueous extract on the urinary excretion of water, Na+, K+, and uric acid. Glomerular and proximal tubular function and Na+ tubular handling were also studied. Conscious, unrestrained adult male rats were housed in individual metabolic cages (IMC) with continuous urine collection for 5 and 3 h, following two protocols. The effects of 25, 50, 200, 350, and 500 mg/kg body wt. corn silk extract on urine volume plus Na+ and K+ excretions were studied in water-loaded conscious rats (2.5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 5 h (Protocol 1). Kaliuresis was observed with doses of 350 (100.42 +/- 22.32-120.28 +/- 19.70 microEq/5 h/100 g body wt.; n = 13) and 500 mg/kg body wt. (94.97+/- 29.30-134.32 +/- 39.98 microEq/5h/100 g body wt.; n = 12; pcorn silk extract on urine volume, Na+, K+ and uric acid excretions, and glomerular and proximal tubular function, were measured respectively by creatinine (Cler) and Li+ (ClLi) clearances and Na+ tubular handling, in water-loaded rats (5 ml/100 g body wt.) in the IMC for 3 h (Protocol 2). Clcr (294.6 +/- 73.2, n = 12, to 241.7 +/- 48.0 microl/ min/100 g body wt.; n = 13; pcorn silk aqueous extract is diuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt. and kaliuretic at doses of 350 and 500 mg/kg body wt. In water-loaded conscious rats (5.0 ml/100 g body wt.), corn silk aqueous extract is kaliuretic at a dose of 500 mg/kg body wt., but glomerular filtration and filtered load decrease without affecting proximal tubular function, Na+, or uric acid excretion.

  18. Olea europaea leaf extract improves the treatment response of GBM stem cells by modulating miRNA expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Gulcin; Tunca, Berrin; Bekar, Ahmet; Budak, Ferah; Sahin, Saliha; Cecener, Gulsah; Egeli, Unal; Taskapılıoglu, Mevlut Ozgur; Kocaeli, Hasan; Tolunay, Sahsine; Malyer, Hulusi; Demir, Cevdet; Tumen, Gulendam

    2014-01-01

    The stem-like cells of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors (GSCs) are one of the important determinants of recurrence and drug resistance. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the anticancer effect of Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) on GBM cell lines, the association between OLE and TMZ responses, and the effect of OLE and the OLE-TMZ combination in GSCs and to clarify the molecular mechanism of this effect on the expression of miRNAs related to cell death. The anti-proliferative activity of OLE and the effect of the OLE-TMZ combination were tested in the T98G, U-138MG and U-87MG GBM cell lines using WST-1 assay. The mechanism of cell death was analyzed with Annexin V/FITC and TUNEL assays. The effects of OLE on the expression levels of miR-181b, miR-153, miR-145 and miR-137 and potential mRNA targets were analyzed in GSCs using RT-qPCR. OLE exhibited anti-proliferative effects via apoptosis and necrosis in the GBM cell lines. In addition, OLE significantly induced the expression of miR-153, miR-145, and miR-137 and decreased the expression of the target genes of these miRNAs in GSCs (p GBM cells with different TMZ responses, and this effect is synergistically increased when the cells are treated with a combination of OLE and TMZ. This is the first study to indicate that OLE may interfere with the pluripotency of GSCs by modulating miRNA expression. Further studies are required, but we suggest that OLE may have a potential for advanced therapeutic cancer drug studies in GBM.

  19. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sik Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility

  20. Morusinol extracted from Morus alba inhibits arterial thrombosis and modulates platelet activation for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Jin; Yang, Hyun; Yoo, Yeong-Min; Hong, Seong Su; Lee, Dongho; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Hak-Ju; Myung, Chang-Seon; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-01-01

    Morus alba (white mulberry) has been used in traditional Chinese medicine as an anti-headache, diuretic, expectorant, and anti-diabetic agent. In previous studies, extracts of Morus alba demonstrated favorable biological properties, such as antioxidant activity, suppression of lipoxygenase (LOX)-1, cytotoxicity against cancer cells, and inhibition of the invasion and migration of cancer cells. This study further evaluated the effects of morusinol, a flavonoid derived from Morus alba root bark, on platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2) (TXB(2) formation in vitro and thrombus formation in vivo. The antiplatelet potential of morusinol was measured using in vitro rabbit platelet aggregation and TXB(2) formation assays. Arterial thrombus formation was investigated using an in vivo ferric chloride (FeCl(3)-induced thrombosis model. Morusinol significantly inhibited collagen- and arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and TXB(2) formation in cultured platelets in a concentration-dependent manner. Thrombus formation was reduced by 32.1, 42.0, and 99.0% for collagen-induced TXB(2) formation, and 8.0, 24.1, and 29.2% for arachadonic acid-induced TXB(2) formation, with 5, 10, and 30 µg/mL morusinol, respectively. Moreover, oral morusinol (20 mg/kg) or aspirin (20 mg/kg) for three days significantly increased the time to occlusion in vivo by 20.3±5.0 or 6.8±2.9 min, respectively, compared with the control (1% CMC, carboxymethyl cellulose). Taken together, these results indicate that morusinol may significantly inhibit arterial thrombosis in vivo due to antiplatelet activity. Thus, morusinol may exert beneficial effects on transient ischemic attacks or stroke via the modulation of platelet activation.

  1. Extraversion modulates functional connectivity hubs of resting-state brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yajing; Cui, Qian; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Heng; Zeng, Ling; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Lu, Guangming; Chen, Huafu

    2017-09-01

    Personality dimension extraversion describes individual differences in social behaviour and socio-emotional functioning. The intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the brain are reportedly associated with extraversion. However, whether or not extraversion is associated with functional hubs warrants clarification. Functional hubs are involved in the rapid integration of neural processing, and their dysfunction contributes to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this study, we employed the functional connectivity density (FCD) method for the first time to distinguish the energy-efficient hubs associated with extraversion. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 71 healthy subjects were used in the analysis. Short-range FCD was positively correlated with extraversion in the left cuneus, revealing a link between the local functional activity of this region and extraversion in risk-taking. Long-range FCD was negatively correlated with extraversion in the right superior frontal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analyses revealed that a decreased long-range FCD in individuals with high extraversion scores showed a low long-range functional connectivity pattern between the medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex. This result suggests that decreased RSFC patterns are responsible for self-esteem, self-evaluation, and inhibitory behaviour system that account for the modulation and shaping of extraversion. Overall, our results emphasize specific brain hubs, and reveal long-range functional connections in relation to extraversion, thereby providing a neurobiological basis of extraversion. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Origin of heart rate variability and turbulence: an appraisal of autonomic modulation of cardiovascular function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico eLombardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of autonomic modulation of sinus node by non-invasive techniques has provided relevant clinical information in patients with several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases and has facilitated the appraisal of neural regulatory mechanisms in normal and diseased subjects. The finding that even during resting conditions the heart period changes on a beat to beat basis and that after a premature ventricular beat there are small variations in RR interval whose measurements may be utilised to evaluate the autonomic modulation of sinus node, has provided unprecedented clinical and pathophysiological information. Heart rate variability (HRV and Heart Rate Turbulence (HRT have been extensively utilised in the clinical setting. To explain the negative predictive value of a reduced HRV it was determined that overall HRV was largely dependent on vagal mechanisms and that a reduction in HRV could reflect an increased sympathetic and a reduced vagal modulation of sinus node; i.e. an autonomic alteration favouring cardiac electrical instability. This initial interpretation was challenged by several findings indicating a greater complexity of the relationship between neural input and sinus node responsiveness as well as the possible interference with non-neural mechanisms.Under controlled conditions, however, the computation of low and high frequency components and of their ratio seems capable of providing adequate information on sympatho-vagal balance in normal subjects as well as in most patients with a preserved left ventricular function, thus providing a unique tool to investigate neural control mechanisms. Analysis on non-linear dynamics of HRV has also been utilised to describe the fractal like characteristic of the variability signal and proven effective to identify patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. A reduction on HRT parameters reflecting reduced baroreflex sensitivity as a likely result of a reduced vagal and of an increased sympathetic

  3. Membrane proteins bind lipids selectively to modulate their structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganowsky, Arthur; Reading, Eamonn; Allison, Timothy M; Ulmschneider, Martin B; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Baldwin, Andrew J; Robinson, Carol V

    2014-06-05

    Previous studies have established that the folding, structure and function of membrane proteins are influenced by their lipid environments and that lipids can bind to specific sites, for example, in potassium channels. Fundamental questions remain however regarding the extent of membrane protein selectivity towards lipids. Here we report a mass spectrometry approach designed to determine the selectivity of lipid binding to membrane protein complexes. We investigate the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and aquaporin Z (AqpZ) and the ammonia channel (AmtB) from Escherichia coli, using ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), which reports gas-phase collision cross-sections. We demonstrate that folded conformations of membrane protein complexes can exist in the gas phase. By resolving lipid-bound states, we then rank bound lipids on the basis of their ability to resist gas phase unfolding and thereby stabilize membrane protein structure. Lipids bind non-selectively and with high avidity to MscL, all imparting comparable stability; however, the highest-ranking lipid is phosphatidylinositol phosphate, in line with its proposed functional role in mechanosensation. AqpZ is also stabilized by many lipids, with cardiolipin imparting the most significant resistance to unfolding. Subsequently, through functional assays we show that cardiolipin modulates AqpZ function. Similar experiments identify AmtB as being highly selective for phosphatidylglycerol, prompting us to obtain an X-ray structure in this lipid membrane-like environment. The 2.3 Å resolution structure, when compared with others obtained without lipid bound, reveals distinct conformational changes that re-position AmtB residues to interact with the lipid bilayer. Our results demonstrate that resistance to unfolding correlates with specific lipid-binding events, enabling a distinction to be made between lipids that merely bind from those that modulate membrane

  4. Effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract Hibiscus sabdariffa L. on renal function of healthy volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, N.; Darmawan, E.; Nurani, L. H.

    2017-11-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa contains flavonoid, triterpenoid, anthocyanin which function as immunostimulant. H. sabdariffa is considered safe for animal renal; nonetheless, there are known side effects of which need to be further investigated for human renal. This research aims to investigate the effect of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa for renal function of healthy male and female for 30 days period by monitoring Scr and Clcr component in their blood samples. The method of this experimental research was by pre and post-treatment by involving 20 healthy volunteers who have met inclusion and exclusion criteria. The volunteers have completed the informed consent for this experiment. Furthermore, volunteers were divided into two groups (10 male and 10 female). Each group was given orally 500 mg of calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa per day for 30 days period. Blood tests were taken on day 0, day 30 after consuming the capsule and day 45 (15 days after the last day of capsule intake) in order to measure the Scr and Clcr concentration in the blood samples by using Jaffe dan Cockcroft-Gault method. The results of each sampling day were further analyzed statistically and compared using Repeated ANOVA dan Friedman test. The results suggest that there was a difference in the renal function on day 0, 30 and 45 samplings. However, there was no significant difference in Scr dan Clcr concentrations on female and male volunteers (p>0.05). Specifically, the type of gender affects Scr concentration (p0.05). In addition, age and Body Mass Index (BMI) does not affect Scr and Clcr concentrations (p>0.05). The side effects discovered through the monitoring increased in mixturition and bloatedness. Calyx capsule-ethanol extract H. sabdariffa does not affect on renal function of healthy volunteers.

  5. Measurement of the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function of digital imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A.; Hangiandreou, Nicholas J.; Schueler, Beth A.; Ritenour, E. Russell

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop methods to measure the presampled two-dimensional modulation transfer function (2D MTF) of digital imaging systems. A custom x-ray 'point source' phantom was created by machining 256 holes with diameter 0.107 mm through a 0.5-mm-thick copper plate. The phantom was imaged several times, resulting in many images of individual x-ray 'spots'. The center of each spot (with respect to the pixel matrix) was determined to subpixel accuracy by fitting each spot to a 2D Gaussian function. The subpixel spot center locations were used to create a 5x oversampled system point spread function (PSF), which characterizes the optical and electrical properties of the system and is independent of the pixel sampling of the original image. The modulus of the Fourier transform of the PSF was calculated. Next, the Fourier function was normalized to the zero frequency value. Finally, the Fourier transform function was divided by the first-order Bessel function that defined the frequency content of the holes, resulting in the presampled 2D MTF. The presampled 2D MTF of a 0.1 mm pixel pitch computed radiography system and 0.2 mm pixel pitch flat panel digital imaging system that utilized a cesium iodide scintillator was measured. Comparison of the axial components of the 2D MTF to one-dimensional MTF measurements acquired using an edge device method demonstrated that the two methods produced consistent results

  6. Functions and requirements for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford Site tank waste supernatants will be pretreated to separate the low-level and high-level fractions. The low-level waste fraction, containing the bulk of the chemical constituents, must be processed into a vitrified waste product which will be disposed of onsite, in a safe, environmentally sound, and cost effective manner. The high-level waste fraction separated during supernatant pretreatment (primarily cesium) will be recombined with an additional high-level waste fraction generated from pretreatment of the tank waste sludges and solids. This combined high-level waste fraction will be immobilized as glass and disposed in a geological repository. The purpose of this document is to establish the functional requirements baseline for Project W-236B, Initial Pretreatment Module, by defining the level 5 and 6 functions and requirements for the project. A functional analysis approach has been used to break down the program functions and associated physical requirements that each function must meet. As the systems engineering process evolves, the design requirements document will replace this preliminary functions and requirements document. The design requirements document (DRD) will identify key decisions and associated uncertainties that impact the project. A revision of this document to a DRD is not expected to change the performance requirements or open issues. However, additional requirements and issues may be identified

  7. In vitro uptake and immune functionality of digested Rosemary extract delivered through food grade vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, E; Guri, A; Fornari, T; Mendiola, J A; Reglero, G; Corredig, M

    2017-07-01

    The digestion, absorption, uptake and bioavailability of a rosemary supercritical fluid extract encapsulated in oil in water emulsion were studied. Two emulsions with opposite surface charge were prepared, containing 7% canola oil, and either 2% lactoferrin or whey protein isolate. When absorption and uptake of carnosic acid and carnosol were followed on Caco-2 cell monolayers, there were no differences with protein type. However, when co-cultures of HT-29 MTX were employed, the presence of mucus caused a higher retention of carnosic acid in the apical layer for lactoferrin emulsions. The immune activity of the bioavailable fractions collected from cell absorption experiments was tested ex vivo on murine splenocytes. Although transport through the intestinal barrier models was low, the bioavailable fractions showed a significant effect on splenocytes proliferation. These results demonstrated the potential of using rosemary supercritical extract through protein stabilized oil in water emulsions, as a food with immunomodulatory functionality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explicit formulation of the model can be deduced. The proposed technique takes suitable method of selecting sample points, which are used to calculate the values of the model parameters. By comparing with the Quasi-Newton method, the results verify accuracy and reliability of this method.

  9. Effect of methanol leaf extract of Dalbergia saxatilis Hook.f (fabaceae on renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ismail Hassan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dalbegia saxatilis (D.saxatilis is used as a decoction in traditional medicine for ailments such as cough, small pox, skin lesions, bronchial ailments and toothache. This study is aimed at evaluating the toxic effect of methanol leaf extract of D.saxatilis on renal function. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats of both sexes were divided into four groups of five: control animals (group 1 received distilled water 1 ml/kg while groups 2, 3 and 4 were given graded doses of the extract (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, respectively daily for 28 days. Body weight changes were estimated by weighing the rats twice weekly using digital weighing balance. After 28 days, blood samples were obtained for evaluation of renal indices and the kidney was used for histopathology. Data were analysed using one–way and repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS version 20. Results: Significant weight increase in all groups were observed (p

  10. Dual role of betel leaf extract on thyroid function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, S; Kar, A

    1998-12-01

    The effects of betel leaf extract (0.10, 0.40, 0.80 and 2.0 g kg-1 day-1 for 15 days) on the alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations. lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were investigated in male Swiss mice. Administration of betel leaf extract exhibited a dual role, depending on the different doses. While the lowest dose decreased thyroxine (T4) and increased serum triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, reverse effects were observed at two higher doses. Higher doses also increased LPO with a concomitant decrease in SOD and CAT activities. However, with the lowest dose most of these effects were reversed. These findings suggest that betel leaf can be both stimulatory and inhibitory to thyroid function, particularly for T3 generation and lipid peroxidation in male mice, depending on the amount consumed.

  11. Text analysis of MEDLINE for discovering functional relationships among genes: evaluation of keyword extraction weighting schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Navathe, Shamkant B; Pivoshenko, Alex; Dasigi, Venu G; Dingledine, Ray; Ciliax, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the functional links among genes. However, the quality of the keyword lists significantly affects the clustering results. We compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalised z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). Two gene sets were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clustering. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords outperformed those produced from normalised z-score weighted keywords. The optimised algorithms should be useful for partitioning genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  12. Error of the slanted edge method for measuring the modulation transfer function of imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xufen; Fan, Hongda; Wang, Hongyuan; Wang, Zebin; Zou, Nianyu

    2018-03-01

    The slanted edge method is a basic approach for measuring the modulation transfer function (MTF) of imaging systems; however, its measurement accuracy is limited in practice. Theoretical analysis of the slanted edge MTF measurement method performed in this paper reveals that inappropriate edge angles and random noise reduce this accuracy. The error caused by edge angles is analyzed using sampling and reconstruction theory. Furthermore, an error model combining noise and edge angles is proposed. We verify the analyses and model with respect to (i) the edge angle, (ii) a statistical analysis of the measurement error, (iii) the full width at half-maximum of a point spread function, and (iv) the error model. The experimental results verify the theoretical findings. This research can be referential for applications of the slanted edge MTF measurement method.

  13. Negative modulation of NMDA receptor channel function by DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3 provides neuroprotection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, KeWei; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels highly permeable to calcium and essential to excitatory neurotransmission. The NMDARs have attracted much attention because of their role in synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Evidence has recently accumulated that NMDARs are negatively regulated by intracellular calcium binding proteins. The calcium-dependent suppression of NMDAR function serves as a feedback mechanism capable of regulating subsequent Ca2+ entry into the postsynaptic cell, and may offer an alternative approach to treating NMDAR-mediated excitotoxic injury. This short review summarizes the recent progress made in understanding the negative modulation of NMDAR function by DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3, a neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein. PMID:22518099

  14. The modulation of neural gain facilitates a transition between functional segregation and integration in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, James M; Aburn, Matthew J; Breakspear, Michael; Poldrack, Russell A

    2018-01-29

    Cognitive function relies on a dynamic, context-sensitive balance between functional integration and segregation in the brain. Previous work has proposed that this balance is mediated by global fluctuations in neural gain by projections from ascending neuromodulatory nuclei. To test this hypothesis in silico, we studied the effects of neural gain on network dynamics in a model of large-scale neuronal dynamics. We found that increases in neural gain directed the network through an abrupt dynamical transition, leading to an integrated network topology that was maximal in frontoparietal 'rich club' regions. This gain-mediated transition was also associated with increased topological complexity, as well as increased variability in time-resolved topological structure, further highlighting the potential computational benefits of the gain-mediated network transition. These results support the hypothesis that neural gain modulation has the computational capacity to mediate the balance between integration and segregation in the brain. © 2018, Shine et al.

  15. Oxytocin and vasopressin modulation of the neural correlates of motivation and emotion: results from functional MRI studies in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febo, Marcelo; Ferris, Craig F

    2014-09-11

    Oxytocin and vasopressin modulate a range of species typical behavioral functions that include social recognition, maternal-infant attachment, and modulation of memory, offensive aggression, defensive fear reactions, and reward seeking. We have employed novel functional magnetic resonance mapping techniques in awake rats to explore the roles of these neuropeptides in the maternal and non-maternal brain. Results from the functional neuroimaging studies that are summarized here have directly and indirectly confirmed and supported previous findings. Oxytocin is released within the lactating rat brain during suckling stimulation and activates specific subcortical networks in the maternal brain. Both vasopressin and oxytocin modulate brain regions involved unconditioned fear, processing of social stimuli and the expression of agonistic behaviors. Across studies there are relatively consistent brain networks associated with internal motivational drives and emotional states that are modulated by oxytocin and vasopressin. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin and Social Behav. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Discontinuous modulation functions and their application for analysis of modulated structures with the computing system JANA2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petříček, Václav; Eigner, Václav; Dušek, Michal; Čejchan, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 231, č. 5 (2016), s. 301-312 ISSN 2194-4946 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : crystal structure analysis * Jana2006 * modulated structures Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.179, year: 2016

  17. Effective coupling functions extracted from the scattering experiments with polarized protons at moderate energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barut, A.O.; Anders, T.B.; Jachmann, W.

    1992-06-01

    The experimental data for the polarization asymmetries of pp-scattering available at the scattering angle θ = 90 deg. and at various moderate energies, as well as at E = 2.4434 GeV and various scattering angles are described by smooth phenomenological coupling functions for scalar, vector, tensor and the ''magnetic moment'' couplings as well as the corresponding parity conserving axial couplings. The analysis shows a predominant role of the ''axial magnetic moment'', the axial scalar, and the axial vector interactions. Moreover, the data contain oscillations of the type sin(qw 0 -π)/(qw 0 -π), where q is the square root of the energy-momentum transfer. The oscillations have amplitudes of 5%, and a constant frequency w o = 2π/0.88 m p . They arise from oscillating modulations up to 25% of the non-axial coupling functions. 8 refs, 21 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Rearrangeable and exchangeable optical module with system-on-chip for wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Numata, Takashi; Sato, Hiroki; Hiraizumi, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Yuichi; Kuwabara, Hidenobu; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    We developed a system-on-chip (SoC)-incorporated light-emitting diode (LED) and avalanche photodiode (APD) modules to improve the usability and flexibility of a fiberless wearable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) system. The SoC has a microprocessing unit and programmable circuits. The time division method and the lock-in method were used for separately detecting signals from different positions and signals of different wavelengths, respectively. Each module autonomously works for this time-divided-lock-in measurement with a high sensitivity for haired regions. By supplying [Formula: see text] of power and base and data clocks, the LED module emits both 730- and 855-nm wavelengths of light, amplitudes of which are modulated in each lock-in frequency generated from the base clock, and the APD module provides the lock-in detected signals synchronizing with the data clock. The SoC provided many functions, including automatic-power-control of the LED, automatic judgment of detected power level, and automatic-gain-control of the programmable gain amplifier. The number and the arrangement of modules can be adaptively changed by connecting this exchangeable modules in a daisy chain and setting the parameters dependent on the probing position. Therefore, users can configure a variety of arrangements (single- or multidistance combinations) of them with this module-based system.

  19. Functional MRI studies of acupuncture analgesia modulating within the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Jinwen; Huang Weihao; Wang Qing; Feng Jingwei; Pu Yonglin; Gao Jiahong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the correlation between acupuncture analgesia and specific functional areas of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Acupuncture stimulation was induced by manipulating acupuncture needle at the acupuncture point, large intestine 4 (LI 4, Hegu) on the right (dominant) hand of 8 healthy subjects. Functional MRI data were obtained from scanning the whole brain. A block-design paradigm was applied. Functional responses were established by students' group t-test analysis. Results: The data sets from 6 of 8 subjects were used in the study. Signal increases and signal decreases elicited by acupuncture stimulating were demonstrated in multiple brain regions. Signal increases in periaqueductal gray matter and ventral posterior nucleus of the left thalamus, and signal decreases in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral occipital lobes were considered as the response to the acupuncture modulating within the human brain. Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of acupuncture analgesia was probably produced by the interaction of multiple brain structures of functional connectivity rather than through the activation of a single brain region

  20. Salivary gland function of nasopharyngeal cancer patients treated by simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Li Huanbin; Wang Ling

    2007-01-01

    The work was to study protective effect of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) on salivary function of nasopharyngeal cancer patients. Forty-six patients were treated by SMART with 2.5Gy/fraction at gross tumor volume to a total does of 70 Gy, and 2.0 Gy/fraction at the clinical treatment volume to a total does of 56 Gy. The SMART was practiced in step-and-shoot mode, one time a day, and five times each week. Fourteen patients were treated by conventional radiation therapy. All the patients received salivary gland function imaging for their uptake index, excretive index and excretive speed, so as to evaluate their degree of salivary function injury. Meanwhile, the dry discomfort in mouth of the patients was recorded and classified. The results showed that the functional indexes of the SMART group were significantly higher than those of the conventional radiation therapy group (P 2 =23.52, P<0.005). Therefore, SMART can play a key role in protecting salivary gland function of naso- pharyngeal cancer patients. (authors)

  1. Diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquids for nuclear waste remediation: extraction, luminescence, theoretical and EPR investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Manna, D.; Ghanty, T.K.; Iqbal, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2014-01-01

    A 3.6 × 10−2 M solution of a diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquid (DGA-TSIL) in [C4mim][NTf2] was used for the extraction of actinides (mainly Am) and other elements present in high level nuclear waste. The extraction of Eu3+ was relatively higher than that of Am3+ conforming to

  2. Extraction complexes of Pu(IV) with carbamoylmethylphosphine oxide ligands. A relativistic density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Lan, Jian-Hui; Feng, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun; Wei, Yue-Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The extraction complexes of Pu(IV) with n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutyl-methylcarbamoyl phosphine oxide (CMPO) and diphenyl-N,N-diisobutyl carbamoyl phosphine oxide (Ph 2 CMPO) have been studied by using density functional theory (DFT) combined with relativistic small-core pseudopotentials. For most complexes, the CMPO and Ph 2 CMPO molecules are coordinated as bidentate chelating ligands through the carbonyl oxygen and phosphoric oxygen atoms. The metal-ligand bonding is mainly ionic for all of these complexes. The neutral PuL(NO 3 ) 4 and PuL 2 (NO 3 ) 4 complexes are predicted to be the most thermodynamically stable molecules according to the metal-ligand complexation reactions. In addition, hydration energies may also play a significant role in the extractability of CMPO and Ph 2 CMPO for the plutonium cations. In most cases, the complexes with CMPO possess qualitatively similar geometries and electron structures to those with Ph 2 CMPO, and they also have comparable metal-ligand binding energies. Thus, replacement of alkyl groups by phenyl groups at the phosphorus atom of CMPO seems to have no obvious influence on the extraction of Pu(IV). (orig.)

  3. EXTRACTION OF STRONTIUM(II BY CROWN ETHER: INSIGHTS FROM DENSITY FUNCTIONAL CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprizal Hadisaputra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structures, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of crown ethers with different cavity size, electron donating/withdrawing substituent groups and donor atoms have been determined with density functional method at B3LYP level of theory in gas and solvent phase. Small core quasi-relativistic effective core potentials was used together with the accompanying SDD basis set for Sr2+ and DZP basis set was used for crown ether atoms. Natural bond orbital (NBO analysis was evaluated to characterize the distribution of electrons on the complexes. The interaction energy is well correlated with the values of Strontium charge after complexation, the second order interaction energies (E2 and HOMO-LUMO energy gab (∆Egab. The interaction energy and thermodynamics parameters in gas phase are reduced in solvent phase as the solvent molecules weaken the metal-crown ether interaction. The thermodynamic parameters indicated that less feasibility to extract Sr2+ ion directly from pure water without presence of organic solvent. The theoretical values of extraction energy for Sr(NO32 salt from aqueous solution in different organic solvent is validated by the experimental trend. This study would have strong contribution in planning the experiments to the design of specific host ligand and screening of solvent for extraction of metal ion.

  4. Extraction of palm tree cellulose and its functionalization via graft copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hoqbani, Abdulmajeed A; Abdel-Halim, E S; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2014-09-01

    The work in this paper was planned with the aim of extracting the cellulosic component of palm tree waste and functionalizing this cellulose through graft copolymerization with acrylic acid. The cellulose extraction included hot alkali treatment with aqueous sodium hydroxide to remove the non-cellulosic binding materials. The alkali treatment was followed by an oxidative bleaching using peracid/hydrogen peroxide mixture with the aim of removing the rest of non-cellulosic materials to improve the fiber hydrophilicity and accessibility towards further grafting reaction. Optimum conditions for cellulose extraction are boiling in 5% (W/V) NaOH in a material to liquor ratio of 1:20 for 1 h then bleaching with 60 ml/l bleaching mixture at initial pH value of 6.5 for 30 min. The pH of the bleaching medium is turned to the alkaline range 11 and bleaching continues for extra 30 min. Graft copolymerization reaction was initiated by potassium bromate/thiourea dioxide redox system. Optimum conditions for grafting are 30 mmol of potassium bromate, 30 mmol of thiourea dioxide and 150 g of acrylic acid (each per 100 g of cellulose). The polymerization reaction was carried out for 120 min at 50°C using a material to liquor ratio of 1:20. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ligand fishing from Dioscorea nipponica extract using human serum albumin functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinga, Lin-Sen; Xue, Ying; Zheng, Yi; Xiong, Jing; Liao, Xun; Ding, Li-Sheng; Li, Bo-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ming

    2010-07-09

    Dioscorea nipponica and the preparations made from it have been used for long to prevent and treat coronary heart disease in traditional Chinese medicine. A group of steroidal saponins present in the plant are believed to be the active ingredients. It has been a challenge to study the individual saponins separately due to the similarities in their chemical and physical properties. In this work, human serum albumin (HSA) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used to isolate and identify saponin ligands that bind to HSA from D. nipponica extract. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used for compound identification and semi-quantification. Three saponins, i.e. dioscin, gracillin, and pseudo-protodioscin showed affinity to HSA-MNPs and thus isolated effectively from the extract. The other two saponins detected in the extract (i.e. protodioscin and 26-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,20α,26-triol-25(R)-Δ(5,22)-dienofurostan-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→4)]-β-D-glucopyranoside) exhibited no affinity at all. Among the three saponins fished out, dioscin bound to HSA much stronger than gracillin and pseudo-protodioscin did. The results indicated that affinity interaction between HSA immobilized on MNPs and small molecule compounds were highly dependent on chemical structures and, potentially, medicinal usefulness. The present work demonstrates a facile and effective way to isolate and identify ligands of receptors from medicinal plants.

  6. Mental Task Classification Scheme Utilizing Correlation Coefficient Extracted from Interchannel Intrinsic Mode Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mostafizur; Fattah, Shaikh Anowarul

    2017-01-01

    In view of recent increase of brain computer interface (BCI) based applications, the importance of efficient classification of various mental tasks has increased prodigiously nowadays. In order to obtain effective classification, efficient feature extraction scheme is necessary, for which, in the proposed method, the interchannel relationship among electroencephalogram (EEG) data is utilized. It is expected that the correlation obtained from different combination of channels will be different for different mental tasks, which can be exploited to extract distinctive feature. The empirical mode decomposition (EMD) technique is employed on a test EEG signal obtained from a channel, which provides a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and correlation coefficient is extracted from interchannel IMF data. Simultaneously, different statistical features are also obtained from each IMF. Finally, the feature matrix is formed utilizing interchannel correlation features and intrachannel statistical features of the selected IMFs of EEG signal. Different kernels of the support vector machine (SVM) classifier are used to carry out the classification task. An EEG dataset containing ten different combinations of five different mental tasks is utilized to demonstrate the classification performance and a very high level of accuracy is achieved by the proposed scheme compared to existing methods.

  7. Effects of extraction parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of chitosan from Penaeus monodon shell

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    Jubril Olayinka Akolade

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of extraction parameters with particular interest during the microwave deacetylation process on the characteristics of chitosan produced from Penaeus monodon (P. monodon sourced within the coastal region of Lagos, Nigeria for applications of controlled release systems for pharmaceutical industries. Methods: Chitosan was extracted from shrimp (P. monodon shell and evaluated as a controlled release system for curcumin. Effects of relevant processing parameters on physicochemical and functional characteristics of the extracted chitosan were assessed. The crude chitosan was purified and used to prepare controlled release formulations for curcumin via ionic gelation with tripolyphosphate. Results: Data from the study showed that increasing time and temperature during deproteinization significantly improved the removal of protein bound to the shell matrix. Also, the ratio of the weight of the deproteinized sample to the volume of HCl used for demineralization influenced the process. During microwave-assisted production of chitosan from chitin, increase in the concentration of the deacetylating medium significantly increased solubility, viscosity and degree of deacetylation, whereas increasing temperature and time during deacetylation of chitin degraded the biopolymer to give low molecular weight chitosan. Optimized extraction and purification process yielded absolutely soluble medium to low molecular weight chitosan. The encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, percentage yield, release efficiencies in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids of curcumin loaded in the formulations of chitosan from P. monodon were compared favorably to encapsulation and release characteristics of the encapsulated curcumin in commercially available chitosan used as the reference. Conclusions: Valorization of shrimp waste into pharmaceutically graded medium molecular weight chitosan was achieved. The chitosan obtained can be used as

  8. Extraction of triazole fungicides in environmental waters utilizing poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Liao, Yingmin; Huang, Xiaojia

    2017-11-17

    This work prepared a new poly (ionic liquid)-functionalized magnetic adsorbent (PFMA) for the extraction of triazole fungicides (TFs) in environmental waters prior to determination by high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). A polymerizable ionic liquid, 1-methyl-3-allylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was employed to copolymerize with divinylbenzene on the surface of modified magnetite to fabricate the PFMA. The morphology, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the new adsorbent were investigated by different techniques. A series of key parameters that influence the extraction performance including the amount of PFMA, desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time, sample pH value and ionic strength were optimized in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the prepared PFMA could extract targeted TFs effectively and quickly under the format of magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). Satisfactory linearities were achieved in the range of 0.1-200.0μg/L for triadimenol and 0.05-200.0μg/L for other TFs with good coefficients of determination above 0.99 for all analytes. The limits of detection (S/N=3) and limits of quantification (S/N=10) for TFs were in the range of 0.0050-0.0078μg/L and 0.017-0.026μg/L, respectively. Environmental waters including lake, river and well waters were used to demonstrate the applicability of developed MSPE-HPLC-DAD method, and satisfactory recoveries and repeatability were obtained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence of functional connectivity between auditory cortical areas revealed by amplitude modulation sound processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguin, Marie; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Chauvel, Patrick; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the interarea connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus (IG), primary and secondary cortices (Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale), and associative areas (Brodmann area [BA] 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in 4 epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between 2 signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed 1) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency, 2) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, 3) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones, particularly at 8, 16, and 32 Hz, and 4) a particular role of Heschl's sulcus dispatching information to the different auditory areas. These findings suggest that cortical processing of auditory information is performed in serial and parallel streams. Our data showed that the auditory propagation could not be associated to a unidirectional traveling wave but to a constant interaction between these areas that could reflect the large adaptive and plastic capacities of auditory cortex. The role of the IG is discussed.

  10. Response inhibition is modulated by functional cerebral asymmetries for facial expression perception

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    Sebastian eOcklenburg

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of executive functions is critically modulated by information processing in earlier cognitive stages. For example, initial processing of verbal stimuli in the language-dominant left-hemisphere leads to more efficient response inhibition than initial processing of verbal stimuli in the non-dominant right hemisphere. However, it is unclear whether this organizational principle is specific for the language system, or a general principle that also applies to other types of lateralized cognition. To answer this question, we investigated the neurophysiological correlates of early attentional processes, facial expression perception and response inhibition during tachistoscopic presentation of facial ‘Go’ and ‘Nogo’ stimuli in the left and the right visual field. Participants committed fewer false alarms after Nogo-stimulus presentation in the left compared to the right visual field. This right-hemispheric asymmetry on the behavioral level was also reflected in the neurophysiological correlates of face perception, specifically in a right-sided asymmetry in the N170 amplitude. Moreover, the right-hemispheric dominance for facial expression processing also affected event-related potentials typically related to response inhibition, namely the Nogo-N2 and Nogo-P3. These findings show that an effect of hemispheric asymmetries in early information processing on the efficacy of higher cognitive functions is not limited to left-hemispheric language functions, but can be generalized to predominantly right-hemispheric functions.

  11. Electro-acupuncture at different acupoints modulating the relative specific brain functional network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jiliang; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Yin; Liu, Hesheng; Hong, Yang; Liu, Jun; Zhou, Kehua; Wang, Lei; Xue, Chao; Song, Ming; Liu, Baoyan; Zhu, Bing

    2010-11-01

    Objective: The specific brain effects of acupoint are important scientific concern in acupuncture. However, previous acupuncture fMRI studies focused on acupoints in muscle layer on the limb. Therefore, researches on acupoints within connective tissue at trunk are warranted. Material and Methods: Brain effects of acupuncture on abdomen at acupoints Guanyuan (CV4) and Zhongwan (CV12) were tested using fMRI on 21 healthy volunteers. The data acquisition was performed at resting state, during needle retention, electroacupuncture (EA) and post-EA resting state. Needling sensations were rated after every electroacupuncture (EA) procedure. The needling sensations and the brain functional activity and connectivity were compared between CV4 and CV12 using SPSS, SPM2 and the local and remote connectivity maps. Results and conclusion: EA at CV4 and CV12 induced apparent deactivation effects in the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network. The default mode of the brain was modified by needle retention and EA, respectively. The functional brain network was significantly changed post EA. However, the minor differences existed between these two acupoints. The results demonstrated similarity between functional brain network mode of acupuncture modulation and functional circuits of emotional and cognitive regulation. Acupuncture may produce analgesia, anti-anxiety and anti-depression via the limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN).

  12. Flexible establishment of functional brain networks supports attentional modulation of unconscious cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Adams, Sarah C; Kiefer, Markus

    2014-11-01

    In classical theories of attention, unconscious automatic processes are thought to be independent of higher-level attentional influences. Here, we propose that unconscious processing depends on attentional enhancement of task-congruent processing pathways implemented by a dynamic modulation of the functional communication between brain regions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we tested our model with a subliminally primed lexical decision task preceded by an induction task preparing either a semantic or a perceptual task set. Subliminal semantic priming was significantly greater after semantic compared to perceptual induction in ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) and inferior frontal cortex, brain areas known to be involved in semantic processing. The functional connectivity pattern of vOT varied depending on the induction task and successfully predicted the magnitude of behavioral and neural priming. Together, these findings support the proposal that dynamic establishment of functional networks by task sets is an important mechanism in the attentional control of unconscious processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Validation of Skeletal Muscle cis-Regulatory Module Predictions Reveals Nucleotide Composition Bias in Functional Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Chou, Alice Yi; Arenillas, David J.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions. PMID:22144875

  14. Validation of skeletal muscle cis-regulatory module predictions reveals nucleotide composition bias in functional enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kwon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions.

  15. Endogenous 24S-hydroxycholesterol modulates NMDAR-mediated function in hippocampal slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min-Yu; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Benz, Ann; Zorumski, Charles F; Mennerick, Steven

    2016-03-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), a major subtype of glutamate receptors mediating excitatory transmission throughout the central nervous system (CNS), play critical roles in governing brain function and cognition. Because NMDAR dysfunction contributes to the etiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders including stroke and schizophrenia, NMDAR modulators are potential drug candidates. Our group recently demonstrated that the major brain cholesterol metabolite, 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24S-HC), positively modulates NMDARs when exogenously administered. Here, we studied whether endogenous 24S-HC regulates NMDAR activity in hippocampal slices. In CYP46A1(-/-) (knockout; KO) slices where endogenous 24S-HC is greatly reduced, NMDAR tone, measured as NMDAR-to-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) ratio, was reduced. This difference translated into more NMDAR-driven spiking in wild-type (WT) slices compared with KO slices. Application of SGE-301, a 24S-HC analog, had comparable potentiating effects on NMDAR EPSCs in both WT and KO slices, suggesting that endogenous 24S-HC does not saturate its NMDAR modulatory site in ex vivo slices. KO slices did not differ from WT slices in either spontaneous neurotransmission or in neuronal intrinsic excitability, and exhibited LTP indistinguishable from WT slices. However, KO slices exhibited higher resistance to persistent NMDAR-dependent depression of synaptic transmission induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an effect restored by SGE-301. Together, our results suggest that loss of positive NMDAR tone does not elicit compensatory changes in excitability or transmission, but it protects transmission against NMDAR-mediated dysfunction. We expect that manipulating this endogenous NMDAR modulator may offer new treatment strategies for neuropsychiatric dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Red wine extract, resveratrol, on maintenance of organ function following trauma-hemorrhage

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    Fu-Chao Liu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Resveratrol, is a polyphenol that can be extracted from grapes and red wine, possess potential anti-inflammatory effects, which would result in the reduction of cytokine production, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecule molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. Resveratrol might also act as an antioxidant, anti-aging, and control of cell cycle and apoptosis. Resveratrol has been shown to have protective effects for patients inshock-like states. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways including the regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK/ hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1 pathway, activates estrogen receptor (ER, and the mediation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and reactive. Moreover, through anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant properties, the resveratrol is believed to maintain organ function following trauma-hemorrhage.

  17. Hexane extracts of Polygonum multiflorum improve tissue and functional outcome following focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Vin; Choi, Kyung Ha; Choi, Young Whan; Hong, Jin Woo; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2014-04-01

    Polygonum multiflorum is a traditional Korean medicine that has been utilized widely in East Asian countries as a longevity agent. Clinical studies have demonstrated that Polygonum multiflorum improves hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease, neurosis and other diseases commonly associated with aging. However, scientific evidence defining the protective effects and mechanisms of Polygonum multiflorum against ischemic stroke is incomplete. In the present study, we investigated the cerebrovascular protective effects of Polygonum multiflorum against ischemic brain injury using an in vivo photothrombotic mouse model. To examine the underlying mechanism of action, we utilized an in vitro human brain microvascular endothelial cell (HBMEC) culture system. Hexane extracts (HEPM), ethyl acetate extracts (EAEPM) and methanol extracts (MEPM) of Polygonum multiflorum (100 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 min prior to ischemic insult. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced in C57BL/6J mice and endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout (eNOS KO) mice by photothrombotic cortical occlusion. We evaluated the infarct volume, as well as neurological and motor function, 24 h after ischemic brain injury. Following ischemic insult, HEPM induced a significant reduction in infarct volume and subsequent neurological deficits, compared with EAEPM and MEPM. HEPM significantly decreased infarct size and improved neurological and motor function, which was not observed in eNOS KO mice, suggesting that this cerebroprotective effect is primarily an eNOS-dependent mechanism. In vitro, HEPM effectively promoted NO production, however these effects were inhibited by the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME and the PI3K/Akt inhibitor, LY-294002. Furthermore, HEPM treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation-dependent activation of Akt and eNOS in HBMEC, suggesting that HEPM increased NO production via phosphorylation-dependent activation of Akt and eNOS. In conclusion, HEPM prevents cerebral

  18. Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O; Wightman, Emma L

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery.

  19. Herbal Extracts and Phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the Enhancement of Human Brain Function1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, David O.; Wightman, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery. PMID:22211188

  20. Short-term estriol administration modulates hypothalamo-pituitary function in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Prati, Alessia; Despini, Giulia; Angioni, Stefano; Simoncini, Tommaso; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of short-term estriol administration (10 d) on the hypothalamus-pituitary function and gonadotropins secretion in patients affected by functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Controlled clinical study on patients with FHA (n = 12) in a clinical research environment. Hormonal determinations and gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone [LH] and FSH) response to a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) bolus (10 μg) at baseline condition and after 10 d of therapy with 2 mg/d of estriol per os. Measurements of plasma LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol, androstenedione, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, insulin, cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone, free triiodothyronine, and free thyroxine. After treatment, the FHA patients showed a statistically significant increase of both LH and FSH plasma levels and the significant increase of their responses to the GnRH bolus. Estriol short-term therapy modulates within 10 d of administration the neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamus-pituitary unit and induces the recovery of both gonadotropins synthesis and secretion in hypogonadotropic patients with FHA.

  1. Fucoidan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide, Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Modulating RANKL Signaling

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    Young Woo Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated osteoclasts differentiate from hematopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Because of its pivotal role in bone resorption, regulation of osteoclast differentiation is a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of erosive bone disease. In this study, we have found that fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweed, inhibited osteoclast differentiation. In particular, addition of fucoidan into the early stage osteoclast cultures significantly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, thus suggesting that fucoidan affects osteoclast progenitors. Furthermore, fucoidan significantly inhibited the activation of RANKL-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs such as JNK, ERK, and p38, and also c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis. In addition, the activation of NF-κB, which is an upstream transcription factor modulating NFATc1 expression, was alleviated in the fucoidan-treated cells. These results collectively suggest that fucoidan inhibits osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting RANKL-induced p38, JNK, ERK and NF-κB activation, and by downregulating the expression of genes that partake in both osteoclast differentiation and resorption.

  2. Modulation of α power and functional connectivity during facial affect recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Tzvetan; Miller, Gregory A; Rockstroh, Brigitte; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-04-03

    Research has linked oscillatory activity in the α frequency range, particularly in sensorimotor cortex, to processing of social actions. Results further suggest involvement of sensorimotor α in the processing of facial expressions, including affect. The sensorimotor face area may be critical for perception of emotional face expression, but the role it plays is unclear. The present study sought to clarify how oscillatory brain activity contributes to or reflects processing of facial affect during changes in facial expression. Neuromagnetic oscillatory brain activity was monitored while 30 volunteers viewed videos of human faces that changed their expression from neutral to fearful, neutral, or happy expressions. Induced changes in α power during the different morphs, source analysis, and graph-theoretic metrics served to identify the role of α power modulation and cross-regional coupling by means of phase synchrony during facial affect recognition. Changes from neutral to emotional faces were associated with a 10-15 Hz power increase localized in bilateral sensorimotor areas, together with occipital power decrease, preceding reported emotional expression recognition. Graph-theoretic analysis revealed that, in the course of a trial, the balance between sensorimotor power increase and decrease was associated with decreased and increased transregional connectedness as measured by node degree. Results suggest that modulations in α power facilitate early registration, with sensorimotor cortex including the sensorimotor face area largely functionally decoupled and thereby protected from additional, disruptive input and that subsequent α power decrease together with increased connectedness of sensorimotor areas facilitates successful facial affect recognition.

  3. Modulating the physicochemical and structural properties of gold-functionalized protein nanotubes through thiol surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreño-Fuentes, Liliana; Plascencia-Villa, Germán; Palomares, Laura A; Moya, Sergio E; Ramírez, Octavio T

    2014-12-16

    Biomolecules are advantageous scaffolds for the synthesis and ordering of metallic nanoparticles. Rotavirus VP6 nanotubes possess intrinsic affinity to metal ions, a property that has been exploited to synthesize gold nanoparticles over them. The resulting nanobiomaterials have unique properties useful for novel applications. However, the formed nanobiomaterials lack of colloidal stability and flocculate, limiting their functionality. Here we demonstrate that it is possible to synthesize thiol-protected gold nanoparticles over VP6 nanotubes, which resulted in soluble nanobiomaterials. With this strategy, it was possible to modulate the size, colloidal stability, and surface plasmon resonance of the synthesized nanoparticles by controlling the content of the thiolated ligands. Two types of water-soluble ligands were tested, a small linear ligand, sodium 3-mercapto-1-propanesulfonate (MPS), and a bulky ligand, 5-mercaptopentyl β-D-glucopyranoside (GlcC5SH). The synthesized nanobiomaterials had a higher stability in suspension, as determined by Z-potential measurements. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first time that a rational strategy is developed to modulate the particular properties of metal nanoparticles in situ synthesized over a protein bioscaffold through thiol coating, achieving a high spatial and structural organization of nanoparticles in a single integrative hybrid structure.

  4. A Novel Modulation Function-Based Control of Modular Multilevel Converters for High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems

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    Majid Mehrasa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel modulation function-based method including analyses of the modulation index and phase is proposed for operation of modular multilevel converters (MMCs in high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission systems. The proposed modulation function-based control technique is developed based on thorough and precise analyses of all MMC voltages and currents in the a-b-c reference frame in which the alternating current (AC-side voltage is the first target to be obtained. Using the AC-side voltage, the combination of the MMC upper and lower arm voltages is achieved as the main structure of the proposed modulation function. The main contribution of this paper is to obtain two very simple new modulation functions to control MMC performance in different operating conditions. The features of the modulation function-based control technique are as follows: (1 this control technique is very simple and can be easily achieved in a-b-c reference frame without the need of using Park transformation; and (2 in addition, the inherent properties of the MMC model are considered in the proposed control technique. Considering these properties leads to constructing a control technique that is robust against MMC parameters changes and also is a very good tracking method for the components of MMC input currents. These features lead to improving the operation of MMC significantly, which can act as a rectifier in the HVDC structure. The simulation studies are conducted through MATLAB/SIMULINK software, and the results obtained verify the effectiveness of the proposed modulation function-based control technique.

  5. Abstinence duration modulates striatal functioning during monetary reward processing in cocaine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Juan-Carlos; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Costumero, Víctor; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Llopis, Juan-José; Ávila, César

    2014-09-01

    Pre-clinical and clinical studies in cocaine addiction highlight alterations in the striatal dopaminergic reward system that subserve maintenance of cocaine use. Using an instrumental conditioning paradigm with monetary reinforcement, we studied striatal functional alterations in long-term abstinent cocaine-dependent patients and striatal functioning as a function of abstinence and treatment duration. Eighteen patients and 20 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a Monetary Incentive Delay task. Region of interest analyses based on masks of the dorsal and ventral striatum were conducted to test between-group differences and the functional effects in the cocaine group of time (in months) with no more than two lapses from the first time patients visited the clinical service to seek treatment at the scanning time (duration of treatment), and the functional effects of the number of months with no lapses or relapses at the scanning session time (length of abstinence). We applied a voxel-wise and a cluster-wise FWE-corrected level (pFWE) at a threshold of P reward anticipation than the control group. The regression analyses in the patients group revealed a positive correlation between duration of treatment and brain activity in the left caudate during reward anticipation. Likewise, length of abstinence negatively correlated with brain activity in the bilateral nucleus accumbens during monetary outcome processing. In conclusion, caudate and nucleus accumbens show a different brain response pattern to non-drug rewards during cocaine addiction, which can be modulated by treatment success. © 2013 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. 3D-printed gelatin scaffolds of differing pore geometry modulate hepatocyte function and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Phillip L; Green, Richard M; Shah, Ramille N

    2018-03-15

    Three dimensional (3D) printing is highly amenable to the fabrication of tissue-engineered organs of a repetitive microstructure such as the liver. The creation of uniform and geometrically repetitive tissue scaffolds can also allow for the control over cellular aggregation and nutrient diffusion. However, the effect of differing geometries, while controlling for pore size, has yet to be investigated in the context of hepatocyte function. In this study, we show the ability to precisely control pore geometry of 3D-printed gelatin scaffolds. An undifferentiated hepatocyte cell line (HUH7) demonstrated high viability and proliferation when seeded on 3D-printed scaffolds of two different geometries. However, hepatocyte specific functions (albumin secretion, CYP activity, and bile transport) increases in more interconnected 3D-printed gelatin cultures compared to a less interconnected geometry and to 2D controls. Additionally, we also illustrate the disparity between gene expression and protein function in simple 2D culture modes, and that recreation of a physiologically mimetic 3D environment is necessary to induce both expression and function of cultured hepatocytes. Three dimensional (3D) printing provides tissue engineers the ability spatially pattern cells and materials in precise geometries, however the biological effects of scaffold geometry on soft tissues such as the liver have not been rigorously investigated. In this manuscript, we describe a method to 3D print gelatin into well-defined repetitive geometries that show clear differences in biological effects on seeded hepatocytes. We show that a relatively simple and widely used biomaterial, such as gelatin, can significantly modulate biological processes when fabricated into specific 3D geometries. Furthermore, this study expands upon past research into hepatocyte aggregation by demonstrating how it can be manipulated to enhance protein function, and how function and expression may not precisely correlate in

  7. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana

    2015-12-01

    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones.

  8. Effects of inspiratory muscle exercise in the pulmonary function, autonomic modulation, and hemodynamic variables in older women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Coelho, Hélio José; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Ruberti, Olivia Moraes; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac autonomic modulation and respiratory function of older women with metabolic syndrome (MS). For this, sixteen older women with MS and 12 aged-matched controls participated of the present study. Two days before and 2 days after the main experiment, fasting blood samples (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose), cardiac autonomic modulation (i.e., heart rate variability), and respiratory muscle function were obtained and evaluated. The sessions of physical exercise was based on a IME, which was performed during 7 days. Each session of IME was performed during 20 min, at 30% of maximal static inspiratory pressure. In the results, MS group presented higher levels of triglycerides, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure when compared to control group. IME was not able to change these variables. However, although MS group showed impaired respiratory muscle strength and function, as well as cardiac autonomic modulation, IME was able to improve these parameters. Thus, the data showed that seven days of IME are capable to improve respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation of older women with MS. These results indicate that IME can be a profitable therapy to counteracting the clinical markers of MS, once repeated sessions of acute IME can cause chronical alterations on respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:28503537

  9. Estimation of Multiple Point Sources for Linear Fractional Order Systems Using Modulating Functions

    KAUST Repository

    Belkhatir, Zehor

    2017-06-28

    This paper proposes an estimation algorithm for the characterization of multiple point inputs for linear fractional order systems. First, using polynomial modulating functions method and a suitable change of variables the problem of estimating the locations and the amplitudes of a multi-pointwise input is decoupled into two algebraic systems of equations. The first system is nonlinear and solves for the time locations iteratively, whereas the second system is linear and solves for the input’s amplitudes. Second, closed form formulas for both the time location and the amplitude are provided in the particular case of single point input. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the performance of the proposed technique in both noise-free and noisy cases. The joint estimation of pointwise input and fractional differentiation orders is also presented. Furthermore, a discussion on the performance of the proposed algorithm is provided.

  10. Ouabain modulates cell contacts as well as functions that depend on cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larre, Isabel; Contreras, Ruben G; Cereijido, Marcelino

    2011-01-01

    Ouabain, a toxic of vegetal origin used for centuries to treat heart failure, has recently been demonstrated to have an endogenous counterpart, most probably ouabain itself, which behaves as a hormone. Therefore, the challenge now is to discover the physiological role of hormone ouabain. We have recently shown that it modulates cell contacts such as gap junctions, which communicate neighboring cells, as well as tight junctions (TJs), which are one of the two differentiated features of epithelial cells, the other being apical/basolateral polarity. The importance of cell contacts can be hardly overestimated, since the most complex object in the universe, the brain, assembles itself depending on what cells contacts what other(s) how, when, and how is the molecular composition and special arrangement of the contacts involved. In the present chapter, we detail the protocols used to demonstrate the effect of ouabain on the molecular structure and functional properties of one of those cell-cell contacts: the TJ.

  11. Evaluation of the modulation transfer function for computer tomography by using American Association Physics Medicine Phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kwan Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Seo Goo [Dept. of Medical Science, Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Wonkwang Health Science University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In clinical computed tomography (CT), regular quality assurance (QA) has been required. This study is to evaluate the MTF for analyzing the spatial resolution using AAPM phantom in CT exam. The dual source somatom definition flash (siemens healthcare, forchheim, Germany), the brilliance 64 (philips medical system Netherlands) and aquilion 64 (toshiba medical system, Japan) were used in this study. The quantitative evaluation was performed using the image J (wayne rasband national institutes of health, USA) and chart method which is measurement of modulation transfer function (MTF). In MTF evaluation, the spatial frequencies corresponding to the 50% MTF for the CT systems were 0.58, 0.28, and 0.59 mm-1, respectively and the 10% MTF for the CT systems were 1.63, 0.89, and 1.21 mm-1, respectively. This study could evaluate the characteristic of spatial resolution of MTF using chart method, suggesting the quantitative evaluation method using the data.

  12. Optimized logarithmic phase masks used to generate defocus invariant modulation transfer function for wavefront coding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Yingcai

    2010-08-01

    In a previous Letter [Opt. Lett. 33, 1171 (2008)], we proposed an improved logarithmic phase mask by making modifications to the original one designed by Sherif. However, further studies in another paper [Appl. Opt. 49, 229 (2010)] show that even when the Sherif mask and the improved one are optimized, their corresponding defocused modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are still not stable with respect to focus errors. So, by further modifying their phase profiles, we design another two logarithmic phase masks that exhibit more stable defocused MTF. However, with the defocus-induced phase effect considered, we find that the performance of the two masks proposed in this Letter is better than the Sherif mask, but worse than our previously proposed phase mask, according to the Hilbert space angle.

  13. The modulation of stem cell behaviors by functionalized nanoceramic coatings on Ti-based implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoceramic coating on the surface of Ti-based metallic implants is a clinical potential option in orthopedic surgery. Stem cells have been found to have osteogenic capabilities. It is necessary to study the influences of functionalized nanoceramic coatings on the differentiation and proliferation of stem cells in vitro or in vivo. In this paper, we summarized the recent advance on the modulation of stem cells behaviors through controlling the properties of nanoceramic coatings, including surface chemistry, surface roughness and microporosity. In addition, mechanotransduction pathways have also been discussed to reveal the interaction mechanisms between the stem cells and ceramic coatings on Ti-based metals. In the final part, the osteoinduction and osteoconduction of ceramic coating have been also presented when it was used as carrier of BMPs in new bone formation.

  14. The Structure–Function Relationships of Classical Cannabinoids: CB1/CB2 Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bow, Eric W.; Rimoldi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The cannabinoids are members of a deceptively simple class of terpenophenolic secondary metabolites isolated from Cannabis sativa highlighted by (−)-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), eliciting distinct pharmacological effects mediated largely by cannabinoid receptor (CB1 or CB2) signaling. Since the initial discovery of THC and related cannabinoids, synthetic and semisynthetic classical cannabinoid analogs have been evaluated to help define receptor binding modes and structure–CB1/CB2 functional activity relationships. This perspective will examine the classical cannabinoids, with particular emphasis on the structure–activity relationship of five regions: C3 side chain, phenolic hydroxyl, aromatic A-ring, pyran B-ring, and cyclohexenyl C-ring. Cumulative structure–activity relationship studies to date have helped define the critical structural elements required for potency and selectivity toward CB1 and CB2 and, more importantly, ushered the discovery and development of contemporary nonclassical cannabinoid modulators with enhanced physicochemical and pharmacological profiles. PMID:27398024

  15. Enhancement of TE polarized light extraction efficiency in nanoscale (AlN)m /(GaN)n (m>n) superlattice substitution for Al-rich AlGaN disorder alloy: ultra-thin GaN layer modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xin-he; Shi, Jun-jie; Zhong, Hong-xia; Huang, Pu; Ding, Yi-min; Yu, Tong-jun; Shen, Bo; Lu, Jing; Zhang, Min; Wang, Xihua

    2014-01-01

    The problem of achieving high light extraction efficiency in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N is of paramount importance for the realization of AlGaN-based deep ultraviolet (DUV) optoelectronic devices. To solve this problem, we investigate the microscopic mechanism of valence band inversion and light polarization, a crucial factor for enhancing light extraction efficiency, in Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N alloy using the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof hybrid functional, local-density approximation with 1/2 occupation, and the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof functional, in which the spin–orbit coupling effect is included. We find that the microscopic Ga-atom distribution can effectively modulate the valence band structure of Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N. Moreover, we prove that the valence band arrangement in the decreasing order of heavy hole, light hole, and crystal-field split-off hole can be realized by using nanoscale (AlN) m /(GaN) n (m>n) superlattice (SL) substituting for Al-rich Al x Ga 1−x N disorder alloy as the active layer of optoelectronic devices due to the ultra-thin GaN layer modulation. The valence band maximum, i.e., the heavy hole band, has p x - and p y -like characteristics and is highly localized in the SL structure, which leads to the desired transverse electric (TE) polarized (E⊥c) light emission with improved light extraction efficiency in the DUV spectral region. Some important band-structure parameters and electron/hole effective masses are also given. The physical origin for the valence band inversion and TE polarization in (AlN) m /(GaN) n SL is analyzed in depth. (paper)

  16. The extracellular redox state modulates mitochondrial function, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis in murine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocito, Laura; Kleckner, Amber S; Yoo, Elsia J; Jones Iv, Albert R; Liesa, Marc; Corkey, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB)/acetoacetate (Acoc), reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(P)H and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases.

  17. The extracellular redox state modulates mitochondrial function, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen synthesis in murine hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nocito

    Full Text Available Circulating redox state changes, determined by the ratio of reduced/oxidized pairs of different metabolites, have been associated with metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenic contribution of these changes and whether they modulate normal tissue function is unclear. As alterations in hepatic gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism are hallmarks that characterize insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, we tested whether imposed changes in the extracellular redox state could modulate these processes. Thus, primary hepatocytes were treated with different ratios of the following physiological extracellular redox couples: β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB/acetoacetate (Acoc, reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG, and cysteine/cystine. Exposure to a more oxidized ratio via extracellular βOHB/Acoc, GSH/GSSG, and cysteine/cystine in hepatocytes from fed mice increased intracellular hydrogen peroxide without causing oxidative damage. On the other hand, addition of more reduced ratios of extracellular βOHB/Acoc led to increased NAD(PH and maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity in hepatocytes. Greater βOHB/Acoc ratios were also associated with decreased β-oxidation, as expected with enhanced lipogenesis. In hepatocytes from fasted mice, a more extracellular reduced state of βOHB/Acoc led to increased alanine-stimulated gluconeogenesis and enhanced glycogen synthesis capacity from added glucose. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that the extracellular redox state regulates the major metabolic functions of the liver and involves changes in intracellular NADH, hydrogen peroxide, and mitochondrial respiration. Because redox state in the blood can be communicated to all metabolically sensitive tissues, this work confirms the hypothesis that circulating redox state may be an important regulator of whole body metabolism and contribute to alterations associated with metabolic diseases.

  18. p21/Cyclin E pathway modulates anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1 in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wen; Zhou, Yuan; Tiwari, Agnes FY; Su, Hang; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Dandan; Lau, Victoria Ming Yi; Hau, Pok Man; Yip, Yim Ling; Cheung, Annie LM; Guan, Xin-Yuan; Tsao, Sai Wah

    2015-01-01

    Apart from regulating stem cell self-renewal, embryonic development and proliferation, Bmi-1 has been recently reported to be critical in the maintenance of genome integrity. In searching for novel mechanisms underlying the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1, we observed, for the first time, that Bmi-1 positively regulates p21 expression. We extended the finding that Bmi-1 deficiency induced chromosome breaks in multiple cancer cell models. Interestingly, we further demonstrated that knockdown of cyclin E or ectopic overexpression of p21 rescued Bmi-1 deficiency-induced chromosome breaks. We therefore conclude that p21/cyclin E pathway is crucial in modulating the anticlastogenic function of Bmi-1. As it is well established that the overexpression of cyclin E potently induces genome instability and p21 suppresses the function of cyclin E, the novel and important implication from our findings is that Bmi-1 plays an important role in limiting genomic instability in cylin E-overexpressing cancer cells by positive regulation of p21. PMID:25131797

  19. Cysteine regulation of protein function--as exemplified by NMDA-receptor modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Stuart A; Choi, Yun-Beom; Takahashi, Hiroto; Zhang, Dongxian; Li, Weizhong; Godzik, Adam; Bankston, Laurie A

    2002-09-01

    Until recently cysteine residues, especially those located extracellularly, were thought to be important for metal coordination, catalysis and protein structure by forming disulfide bonds - but they were not thought to regulate protein function. However, this is not the case. Crucial cysteine residues can be involved in modulation of protein activity and signaling events via other reactions of their thiol (sulfhydryl; -SH) groups. These reactions can take several forms, such as redox events (chemical reduction or oxidation), chelation of transition metals (chiefly Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Cu(2+)) or S-nitrosylation [the catalyzed transfer of a nitric oxide (NO) group to a thiol group]. In several cases, these disparate reactions can compete with one another for the same thiol group on a single cysteine residue, forming a molecular switch composed of a latticework of possible redox, NO or Zn(2+) modifications to control protein function. Thiol-mediated regulation of protein function can also involve reactions of cysteine residues that affect ligand binding allosterically. This article reviews the basis for these molecular cysteine switches, drawing on the NMDA receptor as an exemplary protein, and proposes a molecular model for the action of S-nitrosylation based on recently derived crystal structures.

  20. Fluoride-induced modulation of ionic transport in asymmetric nanopores functionalized with "caged" fluorescein moieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mubarak; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Ramirez, Patricio; Nasir, Saima; Cervera, Javier; Niemeyer, Christof M; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    2016-04-28

    We demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a nanofluidic fluoride sensing device based on a single conical pore functionalized with "caged" fluorescein moieties. The nanopore functionalization is based on an amine-terminated fluorescein whose phenolic hydroxyl groups are protected with tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS) moieties. The protected fluorescein (Fcn-TBDPS-NH2) molecules are then immobilized on the nanopore surface via carbodiimide coupling chemistry. Exposure to fluoride ions removes the uncharged TBDPS moieties due to the fluoride-promoted cleavage of the silicon-oxygen bond, leading to the generation of negatively charged groups on the fluorescein moieties immobilized onto the pore surface. The asymmetrical distribution of these groups along the conical nanopore leads to the electrical rectification observed in the current-voltage (I-V) curve. On the contrary, other halides and anions are not able to induce any significant ionic rectification in the asymmetric pore. In each case, the success of the chemical functionalization and deprotection reactions is monitored through the changes observed in the I-V curves before and after the specified reaction step. The theoretical results based on the Nernst-Planck and Poisson equations further demonstrate the validity of an experimental approach to fluoride-induced modulation of nanopore current rectification behaviour.

  1. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  2. Fat Modulates the Relationship between Sarcopenia and Physical Function in Nonobese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is intuitive to think that sarcopenia should be associated with declines in physical function though recent evidence questions this assertion. This study investigated the relationship between absolute and relative sarcopenia, with physical performance in 202 nonobese (mean BMI =26.6 kg/ht2 community-dwelling older (mean age = 73.8±5.9 years adults. While absolute sarcopenia (appendicular skeletal mass (ASM/ht2 was either not associated, or weakly associated with physical performance, relative sarcopenia (ASM/kg demonstrated moderate (r=0.31 to r=0.51, P<0.01 relationships with performance outcomes in both males and females. Knee extension strength (r=0.27 and leg extension power (r=0.41 were both related to absolute sarcopenia (P<0.001 in females and not in males. Strength and power were associated with relative sarcopenia in both sexes (from r=0.47 to r=0.67, P<0.001. The ratio of lean mass to total body mass, that is, relative sarcopenia, is an important consideration relative to physical function in older adults even in the absence of obesity. Stratifying these individuals into equal tertiles of total body fat revealed a trend of diminished regression coefficients across each incrementally higher fat grouping for performance measures, providing further evidence that total body fat modulates the relationship between sarcopenia and physical function.

  3. A mental retardation gene, motopsin/neurotrypsin/prss12, modulates hippocampal function and social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, Shinichi; Osako, Yoji; Yokoi, Fumiaki; Dang, Mai T; Yuri, Kazunari; Li, Yuqing; Yamaguchi, Nozomi

    2009-12-01

    Motopsin is a mosaic serine protease secreted from neuronal cells in various brain regions, including the hippocampus. The loss of motopsin function causes nonsyndromic mental retardation in humans and impairs long-term memory formation in Drosophila. To understand motopsin's function in the mammalian brain, motopsin knockout (KO) mice were generated. Motopsin KO mice did not have significant deficits in memory formation, as tested using the Morris water maze, passive avoidance and Y-maze tests. A social recognition test showed that the motopsin KO mice had the ability to recognize two stimulator mice, suggesting normal social memory. In a social novelty test, motopsin KO mice spent a longer time investigating a familiar mouse than wild-type (WT) mice did. In a resident-intruder test, motopsin KO mice showed prolonged social interaction as compared with WT mice. Consistent with the behavioral deficit, spine density was significantly decreased on apical dendrites, but not on basal dendrites, of hippocampal pyramidal neurons of motopsin KO mice. In contrast, pyramidal neurons at the cingulate cortex showed normal spine density. Spatial learning and social interaction induced the phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) in hippocampal neurons of WT mice, whereas the phosphorylation of CREB was markedly decreased in mutant mouse brains. Our results indicate that an extracellular protease, motopsin, preferentially affects social behaviors, and modulates the functions of hippocampal neurons.

  4. Update on the slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Ks)): role in modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2012-01-01

    The slow delayed rectifier current (I(Ks)) is the slow component of cardiac delayed rectifier current and is critical for the late phase repolarization of cardiac action potential. This current is also an important target for Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS) to regulate the cardiac electivity to accommodate to heart rate alterations in response to exercise or emotional stress and can be up-regulated by β- adrenergic or other signal molecules. I(Ks) channel is originated by the co-assembly of pore-forming KCNQ1 α-subunit and accessory KCNE1 β-subunit. Mutations in any subunit can bring about severe long QT syndrome (LQT-1, LQT-5) as characterized by deliquium, seizures and sudden death. This review summarizes the normal physiological functions and molecular basis of I(Ks) channels, as well as illustrates up-to-date development on its blockers and activators. Therefore, the current extensive survey should generate fundamental understanding of the role of I(Ks) channel in modulating cardiac function and donate some instructions to the progression of I(Ks) blockers and activators as potential antiarrhythmic agents or pharmacological tools to determine the physiological and pathological function of I(Ks).

  5. Accurate evaluation of modulation transfer function using the Fourier shift theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Gwon; Ryu, Yeunchul

    2017-12-01

    Accurate determination of the line spread function (LSF) on the basis of the edge processing algorithm in X-ray imaging systems is one of the most basic procedures for evaluating the performance of such systems. Extensive research has been focused on algorithms for the precise or fast measurement of the LSF in digital X-ray systems. Most of the standard methods for evaluating the performance of an imaging system are based on a fully digitalized radiographic system or a film-based system. However, images obtained by computed radiography (CR), which converts a captured analog signal into a digital image through an analog-to-digital converting scanner, show the combined characteristics of analog and digital imaging systems. Fundamentally, the characteristics of digital imaging systems differ substantially from those of film imaging systems because of their different methods of acquiring and displaying image data. In addition, a system with both analog and digital component has characteristics that differ from those of both digital and analog systems. In this research, we present a new modulation transfer function (MTF) that mimics the existing MTF in terms of measurement but satisfies existing standard protocols through modification of the hypothesis contents. In the case of the LSF and the point spread function measured with a CR system, the developed edge algorithm shows better performance than the conventional methods. We also demonstrate the usefulness of this method in an actual measurement with a CR digital X-ray imaging system.

  6. Polyphenol-Rich Propolis Extracts Strengthen Intestinal Barrier Function by Activating AMPK and ERK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propolis has abundant polyphenolic constituents and is used widely as a health/functional food. Here, we investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich propolis extracts (PPE on intestinal barrier function in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells, as well as in rats. In Caco-2 cells, PPE increased transepithelial electrical resistance and decreased lucifer yellow flux. PPE-treated cells showed increased expression of the tight junction (TJ loci occludin and zona occludens (ZO-1. Confocal microscopy showed organized expressions in proteins related to TJ assembly, i.e., occludin and ZO-1, in response to PPE. Furthermore, PPE led to the activation of AMPK, ERK1/2, p38, and Akt. Using selective inhibitors, we found that the positive effects of PPE on barrier function were abolished in cells in which AMPK and ERK1/2 signaling were inhibited. Moreover, rats fed a diet supplemented with PPE (0.3% in the diet exhibited increased colonic epithelium ZO-1 expression. Overall, these data suggest that PPE strengthens intestinal barrier function by activating AMPK and ERK signaling and provide novel insights into the potential application of propolis for human gut health.

  7. Expression of Versican 3′-Untranslated Region Modulates Endogenous MicroRNA Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel Y.; Jeyapalan, Zina; Fang, Ling; Yang, Jennifer; Zhang, Yaou; Yee, Albert Y.; Li, Minhui; Du, William W.; Shatseva, Tatiana; Yang, Burton B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. In our previous study, we have shown that versican 3′UTR, a fragment of non-coding transcript, has the ability to antagonize miR-199a-3p function thereby regulating expression of the matrix proteins versican and fibronectin, and thus resulting in enhanced cell-cell adhesion and organ adhesion. However, the impact of this non-coding fragment on tumorigenesis is yet to be determined. Methods and Findings Using computational prediction confirmed with in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that the expression of versican 3′UTR not only antagonizes miR-199a-3p but can also lower its steady state expression. We found that expression of versican 3′UTR in a mouse breast carcinoma cell line, 4T1, decreased miR-199a-3p levels. The decrease in miRNA activity consequently translated into differences in tumor growth. Computational analysis indicated that both miR-199a-3p and miR-144 targeted a cell cycle regulator, Rb1. In addition, miR-144 and miR-136, which have also been shown to interact with versican 3′UTR, was found to target PTEN. Expression of Rb1 and PTEN were up-regulated synergistically in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the 3′UTR binds and modulates miRNA activities, freeing Rb1 and PTEN mRNAs for translation. In tumor formation assays, cells transfected with the 3′UTR formed smaller tumors compared with cells transfected with a control vector. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that a 3′UTR fragment can be used to modulate miRNA functions. Our study also suggests that miRNAs in the cancer cells are more susceptible to degradation, due to its interaction with a non-coding 3′UTR. This non-coding component of mRNA may be used retrospectively to modulate miRNA activities. PMID:21049042

  8. Expression of versican 3'-untranslated region modulates endogenous microRNA functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel Y; Jeyapalan, Zina; Fang, Ling; Yang, Jennifer; Zhang, Yaou; Yee, Albert Y; Li, Minhui; Du, William W; Shatseva, Tatiana; Yang, Burton B

    2010-10-25

    Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. In our previous study, we have shown that versican 3'UTR, a fragment of non-coding transcript, has the ability to antagonize miR-199a-3p function thereby regulating expression of the matrix proteins versican and fibronectin, and thus resulting in enhanced cell-cell adhesion and organ adhesion. However, the impact of this non-coding fragment on tumorigenesis is yet to be determined. Using computational prediction confirmed with in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that the expression of versican 3'UTR not only antagonizes miR-199a-3p but can also lower its steady state expression. We found that expression of versican 3'UTR in a mouse breast carcinoma cell line, 4T1, decreased miR-199a-3p levels. The decrease in miRNA activity consequently translated into differences in tumor growth. Computational analysis indicated that both miR-199a-3p and miR-144 targeted a cell cycle regulator, Rb1. In addition, miR-144 and miR-136, which have also been shown to interact with versican 3'UTR, was found to target PTEN. Expression of Rb1 and PTEN were up-regulated synergistically in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the 3'UTR binds and modulates miRNA activities, freeing Rb1 and PTEN mRNAs for translation. In tumor formation assays, cells transfected with the 3'UTR formed smaller tumors compared with cells transfected with a control vector. Our results demonstrated that a 3'UTR fragment can be used to modulate miRNA functions. Our study also suggests that miRNAs in the cancer cells are more susceptible to degradation, due to its interaction with a non-coding 3'UTR. This non-coding component of mRNA may be used retrospectively to modulate miRNA activities.

  9. Expression of versican 3'-untranslated region modulates endogenous microRNA functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Y Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mature microRNAs (miRNAs are single-stranded RNAs that regulate post-transcriptional gene expression. In our previous study, we have shown that versican 3'UTR, a fragment of non-coding transcript, has the ability to antagonize miR-199a-3p function thereby regulating expression of the matrix proteins versican and fibronectin, and thus resulting in enhanced cell-cell adhesion and organ adhesion. However, the impact of this non-coding fragment on tumorigenesis is yet to be determined. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using computational prediction confirmed with in vitro and in vivo experiments, we report that the expression of versican 3'UTR not only antagonizes miR-199a-3p but can also lower its steady state expression. We found that expression of versican 3'UTR in a mouse breast carcinoma cell line, 4T1, decreased miR-199a-3p levels. The decrease in miRNA activity consequently translated into differences in tumor growth. Computational analysis indicated that both miR-199a-3p and miR-144 targeted a cell cycle regulator, Rb1. In addition, miR-144 and miR-136, which have also been shown to interact with versican 3'UTR, was found to target PTEN. Expression of Rb1 and PTEN were up-regulated synergistically in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the 3'UTR binds and modulates miRNA activities, freeing Rb1 and PTEN mRNAs for translation. In tumor formation assays, cells transfected with the 3'UTR formed smaller tumors compared with cells transfected with a control vector. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrated that a 3'UTR fragment can be used to modulate miRNA functions. Our study also suggests that miRNAs in the cancer cells are more susceptible to degradation, due to its interaction with a non-coding 3'UTR. This non-coding component of mRNA may be used retrospectively to modulate miRNA activities.

  10. The effect of Tea Misletoe (Scurrula oortiana Stem Extract as Immuno-Modulator on Oncogenic Marek’s Disease Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulyoto Samsi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Marek’s disease virus (MDV is one of oncogenic herpesvirus. It causes immunosupresion and cancer in chicken. Several plants produce bioactive compounds which are very useful for treatment of many disease, especially hiperproliveration and virus infection. This study was aimed to find out mechanism of immuno-modulatory capacity in layer commercial chicken administered orally with extract of tea parasite (Scurrula oortiana in dose of 10 mg/kg BW through drinking water, then the chicken were infected by intraperitoneal oncogenic MDV in dose of 1,0 x103 TCID50. The study used 60 layer commercial day old chicks (DOC divided into four group treatments. The treatments were group A (administered S. oortiana extract and without MDV infection, B (neither S. oortiana nor MDV infection, C (administered S. oortiana extract and with MDV infection, and D (without administered S. oortiana extract, but with MDV infection. Results showed that MDV oncogenic caused immunosupresion at a day post infection (p.i and recovery to be normal based on relative weight of bursa Fabricius and thymus at 40 days p.i. The extract of S. oortiana had a capability as an immunomodulator indicated by the increase of relative weight of bursa Fabricius and thymus at day 20 days p.i. (Animal Production 9(2: 172-177 (2007 Key Words: Marek’s disease virus (MDV, Scurrula oortiana, immuno-modulator

  11. Factors modulating bioavailability of quercetin-related flavonoids and the consequences of their vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Junji

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays dietary flavonoids attract much attention in the prevention of chronic diseases. Epidemiological and intervention studies strongly suggest that flavonoid intake has beneficial effects on vascular health. It is unlikely that flavonoids act as direct antioxidants, although oxidative stress profoundly contributes to vascular impairment leading to cardiovascular diseases. Instead, flavonoids may exert their function by tuning the cellular redox state to an adaptive response or tolerable stress. However, the optimum intake of flavonoids from supplements or diet has not been clarified yet, because a number of exogenous and endogenous factors modulating their bioavailability affect their vascular function. This review will focus on the current knowledge of the bioavailability and vascular function of quercetin as a representative of antioxidative flavonoids. Current intervention studies imply that intake of quercetin-rich onion improves vascular health. Onion may be superior to quercetin supplement from the viewpoint of quercetin bioavailability, probably because the food matrix enhances the intestinal absorption of quercetin. α-Glucosylation increases its bioavailability by elevating the accessibility to the absorptive cells. Prenylation may enhance bioaccumulation at the target site by increasing the cellular uptake. However, these chemical modifications do not guarantee health benefits to the vascular system. Dietary quercetin is exclusively present as their conjugated form in the blood stream. Quercetin may exert its vascular function as an aglycone within macrophage cells after inflammation-induced deconjugation and as conjugated metabolites by targeting endothelial cells. The relationship between the bioavailability and bio-efficacy should be clarified, to evaluate the vascular function of a wide variety of dietary flavonoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R F; Linke, K; Teichert, H; Ehrmann, M A

    2008-01-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property

  13. Atypical modulation of distant functional connectivity by cognitive state in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen eYou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether modulation of functional connectivity by cognitive state differed between pre-adolescent children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD and age and IQ-matched control children. Children underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during two states, a resting state followed by a sustained attention task. A voxel-wise method was used to characterize functional connectivity at two levels, local (within a voxel’s 14 mm neighborhood and distant (outside of the voxel’s 14 mm neighborhood to the rest of the brain and regions exhibiting Group X State interaction were identified for both types of connectivity maps. Distant functional connectivity of regions in the left frontal lobe (dorsolateral [BA 11, 10]; supplementary motor area extending into dorsal anterior cingulate [BA 32/8]; and premotor [BA 6, 8, 9], right parietal lobe (paracentral lobule [BA 6 ]; angular gyrus [BA 39/40], and left posterior middle temporal cortex (BA 19/39 showed a Group X State interaction such that relative to the resting state, connectivity reduced (i.e., became focal in control children but increased (i.e., became diffuse in ASD children during the task state. Higher state-related increase in distant connectivity of left frontal and right angular gyrus predicted worse inattention in ASD children. Two graph theory measures (global efficiency and modularity were also sensitive to Group X State differences, with the magnitude of state-related change predicting inattention in the ASD children. Our results indicate that as ASD children transition from an unconstrained to a sustained attentional state, functional connectivity of frontal and parietal regions with the rest of the brain becomes more widespread in a manner that may be maladaptive as it was associated with attention problems in everyday life.

  14. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, R F; Linke, K; Teichert, H; Ehrmann, M A [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Technische Mikrobiologie, Weihenstephaner Steig 16, 85350 Freising (Germany)], E-mail: rudi.vogel@wzw.tum.de

    2008-07-15

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  15. High pressure modulated transport and signaling functions of membrane proteins in models and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, R. F.; Linke, K.; Teichert, H.; Ehrmann, M. A.

    2008-07-01

    Cellular membranes serve in the separation of compartments, recognition of the environment, selective transport and signal transduction. Membrane lipids and membrane proteins play distinct roles in these processes, which are affected by environmental chemical (e. g. pH) or physical (e. g. pressure and temperature) changes. High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) affects fluidity and integrity of bacterial membranes instantly during the ramp, resulting in a loss of membrane potential and vital membrane protein functions. We have used the multiple drug transporter LmrA from Lactococcus lactis and ToxR, a membrane protein sensor from Photobacterium profundum, a deep-sea bacterium, and Vibrio cholerae to study membrane protein interaction and functionality in proteolioposomes and by the use of in vivo reporter systems, respectively. Both proteins require dimerization in the phospholipid bilayer for their functionality, which was favoured in the liquid crystalline lipid phase with ToxR and LmrA. Whereas LmrA, which resides in liposomes consisting of DMPC, DMPC/cholesterol or natural lipids, lost its ATPase activity above 20 or 40 MPa, it maintained its active dimeric structure in DOPC/DPPC/cholesterol liposomes up to 120 MPa. By using a specific indicator strain in which the dimerisation of ToxR initiates the transcription of lacZ it was demonstrated, that the amino acid sequence of the transmembrane domain influences HHP stability of ToxR dimerization in vivo. Thus, both the lipid structure and the nature of the protein affect membrane protein interaction. It is suggested that the protein structure determines basic functionality, e.g. principle ability or kinetics to dimerize to a functional complex, while the lipid environment modulates this property.

  16. Chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle with turmeric extracts addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervika Rahayu N., H.; Ariani, Dini; Miftakhussolikhah, E., Maharani P.; Yudi, P.

    2017-01-01

    Arenga starch-taro (Colocasia esculanta L.) flour noodle is an alternative carbohydrate source made from 75% arenga starch and 25% taro flour, but it has a different color with commercial noodle product. The addition of natural color from turmeric may change the consumer preference and affect chemical characteristic and functional properties of noodle. This research aims to identify chemical characteristic and functional properties of arenga starch-taro flour noodle with turmeric extract addition. Extraction was performed using 5 variances of turmeric rhizome (0.06; 0.12; 0.18; 0.24; and 0.30 g (fresh weight/ml water). Then, noodle was made and chemical characteristic (proximate analysis) as well as functional properties (amylose, resistant starch, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity) were then evaluated. The result showed that addition of turmeric extract did not change protein, fat, carbohydrate, amylose, and resistant starch content significantly, while antioxidant activity was increased (23,41%) with addition of turmeric extract.

  17. Emotional Availability Modulates Electrophysiological Correlates of Executive Functions in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Hassloff, Henriette; Zwönitzer, Annabel; Künster, Anne K; Mayer, Carmen; Ziegenhain, Ute; Kiefer, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) - a set of cognitive control abilities - mediate resilience to stress and are associated with academic achievement and health throughout life. They are crucially linked to prefrontal cortex function as well as to other cortical and subcortical brain functions, which are maturing throughout childhood at different rates. Recent behavioral research suggested that children's EFs were related to parenting quality and child attachment security, but the neural correlates of these associations are unknown. With this study we tested in 4- to 6-year-old healthy children (N = 27) how emotional availability (EA) of the mother-child-interaction was associated with behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition (a core EF) in a Go/Nogo task, using event-related potential recordings (ERPs), and with behavioral performance in a Delay of Gratification (DoG) and a Head-Toes-Knees-Shoulders task (HTKS). Our data showed that the Go/Nogo task modulated children's ERP components resembling adult electrophysiological indices of response inhibition - the N2 and P3/LPC ERPs-, but the children's N2 and P3/LPC ERPs showed longer latencies. Higher maternal autonomy-fostering behavior and greater child responsiveness were significantly associated with smaller children's N2 Go/Nogo effects at fronto-central and parietal sites and with greater Go/Nogo effects in the N2 time window at occipital sites, over and above children's age and intelligence. Additionally, greater maternal sensitivity and a higher dyadic EA quality of the mother-child-interaction went along with greater occipital Go/Nogo effects in the N2 time window, but this effect clearly diminished when we controlled for children's age and intelligence. Higher maternal autonomy-support was also positively associated with better HTKS performance, and higher dyadic EA quality went along with higher HTKS and DoG scores. However, no significant associations were found between EA variables and

  18. Fructus ligustri lucidi ethanol extract improves bone mineral density and properties through modulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum of growing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Lyu, Ying; Wu, Zhenghao; Fang, Yuehui; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Pengling; Xu, Yajun; Feng, Haotian

    2014-04-01

    Optimizing peak bone mass in early life is one of key preventive strategies against osteoporosis. Fructus ligustri lucidi (FLL), the fruit of Ligustrum lucidum Ait., is a commonly prescribed herb in many kidney-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal formulas to alleviate osteoporosis. Previously, FLL extracts have been shown to have osteoprotective effect in aged or ovariectomized rats. In the present study, we investigated the effects of FLL ethanol extract on bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in growing male rats and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male weaning Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups and orally administrated for 4 months an AIN-93G formula-based diet supplementing with different doses of FLL ethanol extract (0.40, 0.65, and 0.90 %) or vehicle control, respectively. Then calcium balance, serum level of Ca, P, 25(OH)2D3, 1,25(OH)2D3, osteocalcin (OCN), C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I), and parathyroid hormone, bone microarchitecture, and calcium absorption-related genes expression in duodenum and kidney were analyzed. The results demonstrated that FLL ethanol extract increased BMD of growing rats and improved their bone microarchitecture and mechanical properties. FLL ethanol extract altered bone turnover, as evidenced by increasing a bone formation maker, OCN, and decreasing a bone resorption maker, CTX-I. Intriguingly, both Ca absorption and Ca retention rate were elevated by FLL ethanol extract treatment, possibly through the mechanisms of up-regulating the transcriptions of calcitropic genes in kidney (1α-hydroxylase) and duodenum (vitamin D receptor, calcium transporter calbindin-D9k, and transient receptor potential vanilloid 6). In conclusion, FLL ethanol extract increased bone mass gain and improved bone properties via modulating bone turnover and up-regulating calcium absorption-related gene expression in kidney and duodenum, which could then activate 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent calcium

  19. A comparative evaluation of rate of space closure after extraction using E-chain and stretched modules in bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Rajat; Londhe, S M; Kumar, Prasanna

    2011-04-01

    Aim of this study was to compare the rate of space closure between E-chain mechanics in one side of upper arch and by elastomeric module with ligature wire on the contralateral side in same patient. Thirty bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion cases were taken up for comprehensive fixed orthodontic treatment after extraction of all first premolars to retract both upper and lower anterior teeth. After initial alignment and levelling, alginate impressions were made for upper and lower arches and models constructed. In the upper arch model a vernier caliper was used to measure the extraction space in both sides from middle point of distal surface of canine to the middle most point of mesial surface of second premolar. This is the amount of space present before the onset of retraction mechanics. During space closure procedure two different retracting components were applied in right and left sides of each case. On right side elastic chain (E-chain) applied in both upper and lower arches and on left side elastomeric module with steel ligature (0.010") stretched double its diameter fixed in both arches. Both the mechanisms produced approximately 250-300 g of force as measured by a tension gauge. After onset of retraction mechanism all patients were recalled after every six weeks for three visits. In all these three visits modules and E-chains were changed. In all three visits impression was made, models constructed, and the remaining available space was measured by a vernier caliper up to 0.1 mm level variations. Mean value for total space closure in case of E-chain was 2.777 mm whereas in case of module with ligature wire the value increased to 3.017 mm. Mean value for rate of space closure in case of E-chain was 0.2143 mm, whereas in case of module with ligature wire the value increased to 0.2343 mm with a standard deviation of 0.001104 and 0.001194, respectively. The standard deviation for total space closure was 0.1305 for E-chain and 0.1487 for module with ligature

  20. Physiochemical and functional properties of tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes) skin gelatin as affected by extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinfeng; Li, Qi; Jia, Hui; Xia, Lining; Jin, Wengang; Shang, Meijun; Xu, Chang; Dong, Xiuping

    2018-04-01

    The study investigated physiochemical and functional properties of gelatins from tiger puffer skin (GTPS) extracted with warm-water method at 45, 55 and 65°C for 3, 6 and 12h. GTPS45 exhibited strong γ-, β-, α1- and α2-chains, but they faded with the presence of fragments (<80KDa) in other GTPS. As the increase of temperature and time, amide I and A were shifted to higher wavenumber and their amplitudes in GTPS65-12 decreased. Lightness declined while redness and yellowness were enhanced. Gel strength was in a range of 144.5-79.8g, where it of GTPS45-3 was the highest while it of GTPS65-12 was the lowest (p<0.05), coincided with the longer relaxation time of T 22 for immobilized water. Decline in gelling and melting temperature was observed when temperature and time increased. EAI and ESI increased as time prolonged or temperature climbed (p<0.05), in agreement with the form of emulsion droplet by microscopy. Both category and level of volatile compounds increased GTPS65-12 and 55-12 compared with those in GTPS45-12. Results suggest that temperature and time greatly affect the properties of GTPS. To ensure good properties, GTPS should be extracted at a temperature of 45-55°C for less than 12h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction, chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokht, Shaghayegh Keshani; Djomeh, Zahra Emam; Yarmand, Mohammad Saeid; Fathi, Morteza

    2018-06-14

    This paper aims to investigate chemical composition, rheological behavior, antioxidant activity and functional properties of Cordia myxa mucilage (CMM). Response surface methodology (RSM) demonstrated that optimum conditions for CMM extraction were as follow: ultrasound power of 99.37 W, extraction temperature of 88.05 °C and solid to water ratio of 16.25 w/w. CMM had, on average, 77.51% carbohydrate, 5.86% total ash, 8.90% protein, 6.90% moisture, and 1.00% fat. Due to a high level of nutrients, CMM can be suggested as a value added by-product in food and pharmaceutical systems. CMM is a low molecular weight polysaccharide containing three fractions with various molecular weights. FT-IR spectrum illustrated that this polymer had all typical bands and peaks characteristics of polysaccharides. Based on steady shear measurements, CMM can be introduced as a new source of hydrocolloid with high-temperature stability. CMM had the desirable antiradical capacity, water solubility and water/oil holding capacity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Exercise capacity in the Bidirectional Glenn physiology: Coupling cardiac index, ventricular function and oxygen extraction ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecilla, Carolina; Khiabani, Reza H; Trusty, Phillip; Sandoval, Néstor; Fogel, Mark; Briceño, Juan Carlos; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2015-07-16

    In Bi-directional Glenn (BDG) physiology, the superior systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation are in series. Consequently, only blood from the superior vena cava is oxygenated in the lungs. Oxygenated blood then travels to the ventricle where it is mixed with blood returning from the lower body. Therefore, incremental changes in oxygen extraction ratio (OER) could compromise exercise tolerance. In this study, the effect of exercise on the hemodynamic and ventricular performance of BDG physiology was investigated using clinical patient data as inputs for a lumped parameter model coupled with oxygenation equations. Changes in cardiac index, Qp/Qs, systemic pressure, oxygen extraction ratio and ventricular/vascular coupling ratio were calculated for three different exercise levels. The patient cohort (n=29) was sub-grouped by age and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) at rest. It was observed that the changes in exercise tolerance are significant in both comparisons, but most significant when sub-grouped by PVR at rest. Results showed that patients over 2 years old with high PVR are above or close to the upper tolerable limit of OER (0.32) at baseline. Patients with high PVR at rest had very poor exercise tolerance while patients with low PVR at rest could tolerate low exercise conditions. In general, ventricular function of SV patients is too poor to increase CI and fulfill exercise requirements. The presented mathematical model provides a framework to estimate the hemodynamic performance of BDG patients at different exercise levels according to patient specific data. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Stochastic nanoroughness modulates neuron-astrocyte interactions and function via mechanosensing cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Nils R; Hermanson, Ola; Heimrich, Bernd; Shastri, V Prasad

    2014-11-11

    Extracellular soluble signals are known to play a critical role in maintaining neuronal function and homeostasis in the CNS. However, the CNS is also composed of extracellular matrix macromolecules and glia support cells, and the contribution of the physical attributes of these components in maintenance and regulation of neuronal function is not well understood. Because these components possess well-defined topography, we theorize a role for topography in neuronal development and we demonstrate that survival and function of hippocampal neurons and differentiation of telencephalic neural stem cells is modulated by nanoroughness. At roughnesses corresponding to that of healthy astrocytes, hippocampal neurons dissociated and survived independent from astrocytes and showed superior functional traits (increased polarity and calcium flux). Furthermore, telencephalic neural stem cells differentiated into neurons even under exogenous signals that favor astrocytic differentiation. The decoupling of neurons from astrocytes seemed to be triggered by changes to astrocyte apical-surface topography in response to nanoroughness. Blocking signaling through mechanosensing cation channels using GsMTx4 negated the ability of neurons to sense the nanoroughness and promoted decoupling of neurons from astrocytes, thus providing direct evidence for the role of nanotopography in neuron-astrocyte interactions. We extrapolate the role of topography to neurodegenerative conditions and show that regions of amyloid plaque buildup in brain tissue of Alzheimer's patients are accompanied by detrimental changes in tissue roughness. These findings suggest a role for astrocyte and ECM-induced topographical changes in neuronal pathologies and provide new insights for developing therapeutic targets and engineering of neural biomaterials.

  4. Interaction of prostaglandins and angiotensin II in the modulation of renal function in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, M

    1988-06-01

    Despite a dramatic fall in renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate is usually preserved in patients with congestive heart failure until the terminal stages of the disease. This maintenance of renal function appears to be achieved in part by the synthesis of two vasoactive factors within the kidney--angiotensin II and prostaglandins--which are rapidly released whenever renal perfusion is compromised or sympathetic nerve traffic to the kidneys is increased. Although these two hormonal systems exert opposite effects on systemic and renal blood flow and sodium and water excretion, both act to preserve glomerular filtration rate: prostaglandins by a vasodilator action exerted primarily on the afferent arteriole and angiotensin II by a vasoconstrictor effect on the efferent arteriole. Consequently, when the synthesis of these hormones is experimentally blocked, renal function deteriorates, especially in subjects with marked renal hypoperfusion and sodium depletion; these two factors interact to determine the importance of intrarenal hormonal release in the modulation of renal function. Clinically, four specific factors have been identified that predispose patients with heart failure to the development of functional renal insufficiency after treatment with converting-enzyme or cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors: (1) marked renal hypoperfusion, (2) vigorous diuretic therapy, (3) diabetes mellitus, and (4) intensity of hormonal inhibition within the kidney. This last risk factor may provide the basis for differentiating among enzyme-inhibitory drugs and suggests that renal insufficiency in low-output states may be minimized by the development of therapeutic agents that block hormonal synthesis selectively at sites that are critical to the disease process but spare the homeostatic tissue-based enzyme systems that exist within the kidney.

  5. Effects of plasma viscosity modulation on cardiac function during moderate hemodilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatpun Surapong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Previous studies have found that increasing plasma viscosity as whole blood viscosity decrease has beneficial effects in microvascular hemodynamics. As the heart couples with systemic vascular network, changes in plasma and blood viscosity during hemodilution determine vascular pressure drop and flow rate, which influence cardiac function. This study aimed to investigate how changes in plasma viscosity affect on cardiac function during acute isovolemic hemodilution. Materials and Methods: Plasma viscosity was modulated by hemodilution of 40% of blood volume with three different plasma expanders (PEs. Dextran 2000 kDa (Dx2M, 6.3 cP and dextran 70 kDa (Dx70, 3.0 cP were used as high and moderate viscogenic PEs, respectively. Polyethylene glycol conjugated with human serum albumin (PEG-HSA, 2.2 cP was used as low viscogenic PE. The cardiac function was assessed using a miniaturized pressure-volume conductance catheter. Results: After hemodilution, pressure dropped to 84%, 79%, and 78% of baseline for Dx2M, Dx70 and PEG-HSA, respectively. Cardiac output markedly increased for Dx2M and PEG-HSA. Dx2M significantly produced higher stroke work relative to baseline and compared to Dx70. Conclusion: Acute hemodilution with PEG-HSA without increasing plasma viscosity provided beneficial effects on cardiac function compared to Dx70, and similar to those measured with Dx2M. Potentially negative effects of increasing peripheral vascular resistance due to the increase in plasma viscosity were prevented.

  6. Depth-time interpolation of feature trends extracted from mobile microelectrode data with kernel functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen; Hargreaves, Eric L; Baltuch, Gordon H; Jaggi, Jurg L; Danish, Shabbar F

    2012-01-01

    Microelectrode recording (MER) is necessary for precision localization of target structures such as the subthalamic nucleus during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Attempts to automate this process have produced quantitative temporal trends (feature activity vs. time) extracted from mobile MER data. Our goal was to evaluate computational methods of generating spatial profiles (feature activity vs. depth) from temporal trends that would decouple automated MER localization from the clinical procedure and enhance functional localization in DBS surgery. We evaluated two methods of interpolation (standard vs. kernel) that generated spatial profiles from temporal trends. We compared interpolated spatial profiles to true spatial profiles that were calculated with depth windows, using correlation coefficient analysis. Excellent approximation of true spatial profiles is achieved by interpolation. Kernel-interpolated spatial profiles produced superior correlation coefficient values at optimal kernel widths (r = 0.932-0.940) compared to standard interpolation (r = 0.891). The choice of kernel function and kernel width resulted in trade-offs in smoothing and resolution. Interpolation of feature activity to create spatial profiles from temporal trends is accurate and can standardize and facilitate MER functional localization of subcortical structures. The methods are computationally efficient, enhancing localization without imposing additional constraints on the MER clinical procedure during DBS surgery. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Water extract of Acer tegmentosum reduces bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Hyunil; Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; An, Hyosun; Lee, Chung-Jo; Lee, Kwang Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-04-01

    The stem of Acer tegmentosum has been widely used in Korea for the treatment of hepatic disorders. In this study, we investigated the bone protective effect of water extract of the stem of Acer tegmentosum (WEAT). We found that WEAT inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), an essential cytokine for osteoclast differentiation. In osteoclast precursor cells, WEAT inhibited RANKL-induced activation of JNK, NF-κB, and cAMP response element-binding protein, leading to suppression of the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, key transcription factors for osteoclast differentiation. In addition, WEAT inhibited bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Furthermore, the oral administration of WEAT reduced RANKL-induced bone resorption and trabecular bone loss in mice. Taken together, our study demonstrates that WEAT possesses a protective effect on bone destruction by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and function.

  8. Modulating functions-based method for parameters and source estimation in one-dimensional partial differential equations

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2016-10-20

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space–time-dependent unknowns in one-dimensional partial differential equations. The proposed method simplifies the problem into a system of algebraic equations linear in unknown parameters. The well-posedness of the modulating functions-based solution is proved. The wave and the fifth-order KdV equations are used as examples to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in both noise-free and noisy cases.

  9. Roles of estrogen and progesterone in modulating renal nerve function in the rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graceli, J.B.; Cicilini, M.A.; Bissoli, N.S.; Abreu, G.R.; Moysés, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    The maintenance of extracellular Na + and Cl - concentrations in mammals depends, at least in part, on renal function. It has been shown that neural and endocrine mechanisms regulate extracellular fluid volume and transport of electrolytes along nephrons. Studies of sex hormones and renal nerves suggested that sex hormones modulate renal function, although this relationship is not well understood in the kidney. To better understand the role of these hormones on the effects that renal nerves have on Na + and Cl - reabsorption, we studied the effects of renal denervation and oophorectomy in female rats. Oophorectomized (OVX) rats received 17β-estradiol benzoate (OVE, 2.0 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc) and progesterone (OVP, 1.7 mg·kg -1 ·day -1 , sc). We assessed Na + and Cl - fractional excretion (FE Na + and FE Cl - , respectively) and renal and plasma catecholamine release concentrations. FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, urinary flow, and renal and plasma catecholamine release levels increased in OVX vs control rats. These effects were reversed by 17β-estradiol benzoate but not by progesterone. Renal denervation did not alter FE Na + , FE Cl - , water intake, or urinary flow values vs controls. However, the renal catecholamine release level was decreased in the OVP (236.6±36.1 ng/g) and denervated rat groups (D: 102.1±15.7; ODE: 108.7±23.2; ODP: 101.1±22.1 ng/g). Furthermore, combining OVX + D (OD: 111.9±25.4) decreased renal catecholamine release levels compared to either treatment alone. OVE normalized and OVP reduced renal catecholamine release levels, and the effects on plasma catecholamine release levels were reversed by ODE and ODP replacement in OD. These data suggest that progesterone may influence catecholamine release levels by renal innervation and that there are complex interactions among renal nerves, estrogen, and progesterone in the modulation of renal function

  10. Size-dependent accumulation of particles in lysosomes modulates dendritic cell function through impaired antigen degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydoux E

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Seydoux,1,2 Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser,1,3 Izabela M Nita,1 Sandor Balog,3 Amiq Gazdhar,1 Philip A Stumbles,4,5 Alke Petri-Fink,3,6 Fabian Blank,1,* Christophe von Garnier1,*1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Department of Clinical Research, University of Bern, 2Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Adolphe Merkle Institute, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland; 4School of Veterinary and Life Sciences, Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, Murdoch University, Perth, WA, Australia; 5Telethon Kids Institute, Perth, WA, Australia; 6Department of Chemistry, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland*These authors contributed equally to the manuscriptIntroduction: Nanosized particles may enable therapeutic modulation of immune responses by targeting dendritic cell (DC networks in accessible organs such as the lung. To date, however, the effects of nanoparticles on DC function and downstream immune responses remain poorly understood. Methods: Bone marrow–derived DCs (BMDCs were exposed in vitro to 20 or 1,000 nm polystyrene (PS particles. Particle uptake kinetics, cell surface marker expression, soluble protein antigen uptake and degradation, as well as in vitro CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, co-localization of particles within the lysosomal compartment, lysosomal permeability, and endoplasmic reticulum stress were analyzed. Results: The frequency of PS particle–positive CD11c+/CD11b+ BMDCs reached an early plateau after 20 minutes and was significantly higher for 20 nm than for 1,000 nm PS particles at all time-points analyzed. PS particles did not alter cell viability or modify expression of the surface markers CD11b, CD11c, MHC class II, CD40, and CD86. Although particle exposure did not modulate antigen uptake, 20 nm PS particles decreased the capacity

  11. A nanobody modulates the p53 transcriptional program without perturbing its functional architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethuyne, Jonas; De Gieter, Steven; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Garcia-Pino, Abel; Durinck, Kaat; Verhelle, Adriaan; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Speleman, Frank; Loris, Remy; Gettemans, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The p53 transcription factor plays an important role in genome integrity. To perform this task, p53 regulates the transcription of genes promoting various cellular outcomes including cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence. The precise regulation of this activity remains elusive as numerous mechanisms, e.g. posttranslational modifications of p53 and (non-)covalent p53 binding partners, influence the p53 transcriptional program. We developed a novel, non-invasive tool to manipulate endogenous p53. Nanobodies (Nb), raised against the DNA-binding domain of p53, allow us to distinctively target both wild type and mutant p53 with great specificity. Nb3 preferentially binds ‘structural’ mutant p53, i.e. R175H and R282W, while a second but distinct nanobody, Nb139, binds both mutant and wild type p53. The co-crystal structure of the p53 DNA-binding domain in complex with Nb139 (1.9 Å resolution) reveals that Nb139 binds opposite the DNA-binding surface. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Nb139 does not disturb the functional architecture of the p53 DNA-binding domain using conformation-specific p53 antibody immunoprecipitations, glutaraldehyde crosslinking assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Functionally, the binding of Nb139 to p53 allows us to perturb the transactivation of p53 target genes. We propose that reduced recruitment of transcriptional co-activators or modulation of selected post-transcriptional modifications account for these observations. PMID:25324313

  12. Modulation of working memory function by motivation through loss-aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Daniel C; D'Esposito, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Cognitive performance is affected by motivation. Few studies, however, have investigated the neural mechanisms of the influence of motivation through potential monetary punishment on working memory. We employed functional MRI during a delayed recognition task that manipulated top-down control demands with added monetary incentives to some trials in the form of potential losses of bonus money. Behavioral performance on the task was influenced by loss-threatening incentives in the form of faster and more accurate performance. As shown previously, we found enhancement of activity for relevant stimuli occurs throughout all task periods (e.g., stimulus encoding, maintenance, and response) in both prefrontal and visual association cortex. Further, these activation patterns were enhanced for trials with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. During the incentive cue, the amygdala and striatum showed significantly greater activation when money was at a possible loss on the trial. We also evaluated patterns of functional connectivity between regions responsive to monetary consequences and prefrontal areas responsive to the task. This analysis revealed greater delay period connectivity between and the left insula and prefrontal cortex with possible monetary loss relative to nonincentive trials. Overall, these results reveal that incentive motivation can modulate performance on working memory tasks through top-down signals via amplification of activity within prefrontal and visual association regions selective to processing the perceptual inputs of the stimuli to be remembered. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Influence of intensity-modulated radiation therapy on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Tiantian; Wu Shaoxiong; Han Fei; Lu Lixia; Huang Shaomin; Deng Xiaowu; Lu Taixiang; Zhao Chong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) on parotid function in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Eighty-three NPC patients received prima- ry IMRT between 2001 and 2003. Xerostomia before radiotherapy, at the end of radiotherapy, at 6-month, 1-, 2-,3-,4- and 5-year after radiotherapy were investigated, respectively. The relation between xerostomia and parotid dose distribution was analyzed. Results: Of all the patients, 4, 31, 31 and 17 had stage I, II, III and IV A disease, respectively. Sixteen patients received chemo-radiotherapy. The median followed-up time was 65 months. The 5-year local control and regional control rate were 96% and 95%, respectively. The 5- year overall survival rate was 80%. The mild xerostomia rate at the seven time points was 42%, 51%, 71%, 77%, 58%, 38% and 26%. The corresponding moderate xerostomia rate was 52%, 53%, 21%, 8%, 3%, 2% and 2%, respectively. No serious xerostomia was observed. The mean dose of the bilateral parotid glands was 34.34 Gy. Xerostomia at 6-month after radiotherapy was positively correlated with the mean dose of the parotid glands, and D 50 was the independent factor in predicting the xerostomia. Parotid function was well protected when the mean dose and D 50 were no more than 33 Gy and 29 Gy, respectively. Conclusions: IMRT can improve the local-regional control of NPC and protect the parotid glands from radiation-induced injury. (authors)

  14. Disintegrins: integrin selective ligands which activate integrin-coupled signaling and modulate leukocyte functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barja-Fidalgo C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix proteins and cell adhesion receptors (integrins play essential roles in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Interactions of integrins with the extracellular matrix proteins lead to phosphorylation of several intracellular proteins such as focal adhesion kinase, activating different signaling pathways responsible for the regulation of a variety of cell functions, including cytoskeleton mobilization. Once leukocytes are guided to sites of infection, inflammation, or antigen presentation, integrins can participate in the initiation, maintenance, or termination of the immune and inflammatory responses. The modulation of neutrophil activation through integrin-mediated pathways is important in the homeostatic control of the resolution of inflammatory states. In addition, during recirculation, T lymphocyte movement through distinct microenvironments is mediated by integrins, which are critical for cell cycle, differentiation and gene expression. Disintegrins are a family of low-molecular weight, cysteine-rich peptides first identified in snake venom, usually containing an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp motif, which confers the ability to selectively bind to integrins, inhibiting integrin-related functions in different cell systems. In this review we show that, depending on the cell type and the microenvironment, disintegrins are able to antagonize the effects of integrins or to act agonistically by activating integrin-mediated signaling. Disintegrins have proven useful as tools to improve the understanding of the molecular events regulated by integrin signaling in leukocytes and prototypes in order to design therapies able to interfere with integrin-mediated effects.

  15. Honey Bee Allatostatins Target Galanin/Somatostatin-Like Receptors and Modulate Learning: A Conserved Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    Full Text Available Sequencing of the honeybee genome revealed many neuropeptides and putative neuropeptide receptors, yet functional characterization of these peptidic systems is scarce. In this study, we focus on allatostatins, which were first identified as inhibitors of juvenile hormone synthesis, but whose role in the adult honey bee (Apis mellifera brain remains to be determined. We characterize the bee allatostatin system, represented by two families: allatostatin A (Apime-ASTA and its receptor (Apime-ASTA-R; and C-type allatostatins (Apime-ASTC and Apime-ASTCC and their common receptor (Apime-ASTC-R. Apime-ASTA-R and Apime-ASTC-R are the receptors in bees most closely related to vertebrate galanin and somatostatin receptors, respectively. We examine the functional properties of the two honeybee receptors and show that they are transcriptionally expressed in the adult brain, including in brain centers known to be important for learning and memory processes. Thus we investigated the effects of exogenously applied allatostatins on appetitive olfactory learning in the bee. Our results show that allatostatins modulate learning in this insect, and provide important insights into the evolution of somatostatin/allatostatin signaling.

  16. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Martin; Kiefer, Markus; Bongartz, Walter; Grön, Georg; Hoenig, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus) and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area). Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes. PMID:25923740

  17. Suggestion-Induced Modulation of Semantic Priming during Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ulrich

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a primed visual lexical decision task, we investigated the neural and functional mechanisms underlying modulations of semantic word processing through hypnotic suggestions aimed at altering lexical processing of primes. The priming task was to discriminate between target words and pseudowords presented 200 ms after the prime word which was semantically related or unrelated to the target. In a counterbalanced study design, each participant performed the task once at normal wakefulness and once after the administration of hypnotic suggestions to perceive the prime as a meaningless symbol of a foreign language. Neural correlates of priming were defined as significantly lower activations upon semantically related compared to unrelated trials. We found significant suggestive treatment-induced reductions in neural priming, albeit irrespective of the degree of suggestibility. Neural priming was attenuated upon suggestive treatment compared with normal wakefulness in brain regions supporting automatic (fusiform gyrus and controlled semantic processing (superior and middle temporal gyri, pre- and postcentral gyri, and supplementary motor area. Hence, suggestions reduced semantic word processing by conjointly dampening both automatic and strategic semantic processes.

  18. Modulating Cytotoxic Effector Functions by Fc Engineering to Improve Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Christian; Otte, Anna; Cappuzzello, Elisa; Klausz, Katja; Peipp, Matthias

    2017-09-01

    In the last two decades, monoclonal antibodies have revolutionized the therapy of cancer patients. Although antibody therapy has continuously been improved, still a significant number of patients do not benefit from antibody therapy. Therefore, rational optimization of the antibody molecule by Fc engineering represents a major area of translational research to further improve this potent therapeutic option. Monoclonal antibodies are able to trigger a variety of effector mechanisms. Especially Fc-mediated effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and complement- dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) are considered important in antibody therapy of cancer. Novel mechanistic insights into the action of monoclonal antibodies allowed the development of various Fc engineering approaches to modulate antibodies' effector functions. Strategies in modifying the Fc glycosylation profile (Fc glyco-engineering) or approaches in engineering the protein backbone (Fc protein engineering) have been intensively evaluated. In the current review, Fc engineering strategies resulting in improved ADCC, ADCP and CDC activity are summarized and discussed.

  19. Holographic Fabrication of Designed Functional Defect Lines in Photonic Crystal Lattice Using a Spatial Light Modulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Lutkenhaus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the holographic fabrication of designed defect lines in photonic crystal lattices through phase engineering using a spatial light modulator (SLM. The diffracted beams from the SLM not only carry the defect’s content but also the defect related phase-shifting information. The phase-shifting induced lattice shifting in photonic lattices around the defects in three-beam interference is less than the one produced by five-beam interference due to the alternating shifting in lattice in three beam interference. By designing the defect line at a 45 degree orientation and using three-beam interference, the defect orientation can be aligned with the background photonic lattice, and the shifting is only in one side of the defect line, in agreement with the theory. Finally, a new design for the integration of functional defect lines in a background phase pattern reduces the relative phase shift of the defect and utilizes the different diffraction efficiency between the defect line and background phase pattern. We demonstrate that the desired and functional defect lattice can be registered into the background lattice through the direct imaging of designed phase patterns.

  20. Characterizing 3D sensors using the 3D modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Timo; Breitbarth, Andreas; Zhang, Chen; Notni, Gunther

    2018-03-01

    The fields of optical 3D measurement system applications are continuously expanding and becoming more and more diverse. To evaluate appropriate systems for various measurement tasks, comparable parameters are necessary, whereas the 3D modulation transfer function (3D-MTF) has been established as a further criterion. Its aim is the determination of the system response between the measurement of a straight, sharp-edged cube and its opposite ideal calculated one. Within the scope of this work simulations and practical investigations regarding the 3D-MTF’s influences and its main issues are specifically investigated. Therefore, different determined edge radii representing the high-frequency spectra lead to various decreasing 3D-MTF characteristics. Furthermore, rising sampling frequencies improve its maximum transfer value to a saturation point in dependence of the radius. To approve these results of previous simulations, three fringe projection scanners were selected to determine the diversity. As the best 3D-MTF characteristic, a saturated transfer value of H_3D( f_N, 3D) = 0.79 has been identified at a sufficient sampling frequency, which is reached at four times the Nyquist limit. This high 3D resolution can mainly be achieved due to an improved camera projector interaction. Additionally, too small sampling ratios lead to uncertainties in the edge function determination, while higher ratios do not show major improvements. In conclusion, the 3D-MTF algorithm has thus been practically verified and its repeatability as well as its robustness have been confirmed.

  1. Cortical organization of inhibition-related functions and modulation by psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Stacie L; Crocker, Laura D; Spielberg, Jeffery M; Engels, Anna S; Banich, Marie T; Sutton, Bradley P; Miller, Gregory A; Heller, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in inhibition-related functions have been implicated as risk factors for a broad range of psychopathology, including anxiety and depression. Delineating neural mechanisms of distinct inhibition-related functions may clarify their role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The present study tested the hypothesis that activity in common and distinct brain regions would be associated with an ecologically sensitive, self-report measure of inhibition and a laboratory performance measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results indicated that sub-regions of DLPFC distinguished measures of inhibition, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal cortex were associated with both types of inhibition. Additionally, co-occurring anxiety and depression modulated neural activity in select brain regions associated with response inhibition. Results imply that specific combinations of anxiety and depression dimensions are associated with failure to implement top-down attentional control as reflected in inefficient recruitment of posterior DLPFC and increased activation in regions associated with threat (MTG) and worry (BA10). Present findings elucidate possible neural mechanisms of interference that could help explain executive control deficits in psychopathology.

  2. Cortical organization of inhibition-related functions and modulation by psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L. Warren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Individual differences in inhibition-related functions have been implicated as risk factors for a broad range of psychopathology, including anxiety and depression. Delineating neural mechanisms of distinct inhibition-related functions may clarify their role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. The present study tested the hypothesis that activity in common and distinct brain regions would be associated with an ecologically sensitive, self-report measure of inhibition and a laboratory performance measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results indicated that sub-regions of DLPFC distinguished measures of inhibition, whereas left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral inferior parietal cortex were associated with both types of inhibition. Additionally, co-occurring anxiety and depression modulated neural activity in select brain regions associated with response inhibition. Results imply that specific combinations of anxiety and depression dimensions are associated with failure to implement top-down attentional control as reflected in inefficient recruitment of posterior DLPFC and increased activation in regions associated with threat (MTG and worry (BA10. Present findings elucidate possible neural mechanisms of interference that could help explain executive control deficits in psychopathology.

  3. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura P; Walton, Gemma E; Psichas, Arianna; Frost, Gary S; Gibson, Glenn R; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2015-06-04

    Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation--another method used to modulate gut composition and function--could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre), inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria) or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  4. Mast Cell Subsets and Their Functional Modulation by the Acanthocheilonema viteae Product ES-62

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimity H. Ball

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ES-62, an immunomodulator secreted by filarial nematodes, exhibits therapeutic potential in mouse models of allergic inflammation, at least in part by inducing the desensitisation of FcεRI-mediated mast cell responses. However, in addition to their pathogenic roles in allergic and autoimmune diseases, mast cells are important in fighting infection, wound healing, and resolving inflammation, reflecting that mast cells exhibit a phenotypic and functional plasticity. We have therefore characterised the differential functional responses to antigen (via FcεRI and LPS and their modulation by ES-62 of the mature peritoneal-derived mast cells (PDMC; serosal and those of the connective tissue-like mast cells (CTMC and the mucosal-like mast cells derived from bone marrow progenitors (BMMC as a first step to produce disease tissue-targeted therapeutics based on ES-62 action. All three mast cell populations were rendered hyporesponsive by ES-62 and whilst the mechanisms underlying such desensitisation have not been fully delineated, they reflect a downregulation of calcium and PKCα signalling. ES-62 also downregulated MyD88 and PKCδ in mucosal-type BMMC but not PDMC, the additional signals targeted in mucosal-type BMMC likely reflecting that these cells respond to antigen and LPS by degranulation and cytokine secretion whereas PDMC predominantly respond in a degranulation-based manner.

  5. Modulated modularity clustering as an exploratory tool for functional genomic inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A Stone

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the advent of high-throughput assays, coupled with their diminishing cost, has facilitated a systems approach to biology. As a consequence, massive amounts of data are currently being generated, requiring efficient methodology aimed at the reduction of scale. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling is a standard component of systems-level analyses, and to reduce scale and improve inference clustering genes is common. Since clustering is often the first step toward generating hypotheses, cluster quality is critical. Conversely, because the validation of cluster-driven hypotheses is indirect, it is critical that quality clusters not be obtained by subjective means. In this paper, we present a new objective-based clustering method and demonstrate that it yields high-quality results. Our method, modulated modularity clustering (MMC, seeks community structure in graphical data. MMC modulates the connection strengths of edges in a weighted graph to maximize an objective function (called modularity that quantifies community structure. The result of this maximization is a clustering through which tightly-connected groups of vertices emerge. Our application is to systems genetics, and we quantitatively compare MMC both to the hierarchical clustering method most commonly employed and to three popular spectral clustering approaches. We further validate MMC through analyses of human and Drosophila melanogaster expression data, demonstrating that the clusters we obtain are biologically meaningful. We show MMC to be effective and suitable to applications of large scale. In light of these features, we advocate MMC as a standard tool for exploration and hypothesis generation.

  6. Extrasynaptic neurotransmission in the modulation of brain function. Focus on the striatal neuronal-glial networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell eFuxe

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Extrasynaptic neurotransmission is an important short distance form of volume transmission (VT and describes the extracellular diffusion of transmitters and modulators after synaptic spillover or extrasynaptic release in the local circuit regions binding to and activating mainly extrasynaptic neuronal and glial receptors in the neuroglial networks of the brain. Receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR heteromers play a major role, on dendritic spines and nerve terminals including glutamate synapses, in the integrative processes of the extrasynaptic signaling. Heteromeric complexes between GPCR and ion-channel receptors play a special role in the integration of the synaptic and extrasynaptic signals. Changes in extracellular concentrations of the classical synaptic neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA found with microdialysis is likely an expression of the activity of the neuron-astrocyte unit of the brain and can be used as an index of VT-mediated actions of these two neurotransmitters in the brain. Thus, the activity of neurons may be functionally linked to the activity of astrocytes, which may release glutamate and GABA to the extracellular space where extrasynaptic glutamate and GABA receptors do exist. Wiring transmission (WT and VT are fundamental properties of all neurons of the CNS but the balance between WT and VT varies from one nerve cell population to the other. The focus is on the striatal cellular networks, and the WT and VT and their integration via receptor heteromers are described in the GABA projection neurons, the glutamate, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT and histamine striatal afferents, the cholinergic interneurons and different types of GABA interneurons. In addition, the role in these networks of VT signaling of the energy-dependent modulator adenosine and of endocannabinoids mainly formed in the striatal projection neurons will be underlined to understand the communication in the striatal

  7. Radiation stability of diglycolamide functionalized calix[4]arenes in ionic liquid: Solvent extraction, EPR and GC–MS studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Patil, A.B.; Kadam, R.M.; Verboom, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Ionic liquid-based solvent systems containing diglycolamide-functionalized calix[4]arenes (C4DGAs) are efficient for actinide ion extraction from nitric acid feeds. Therefore, the radiolytic stability of three C4DGAs (wide-rim, narrow-rim and both side DGA-functionalized calix[4]arenes) and TODGA

  8. Ethanolic Extract of Vitis thunbergii Exhibits Lipid Lowering Properties via Modulation of the AMPK-ACC Pathway in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hsu Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitis thunbergii (VT is a wild grape that has been shown to provide various cardioprotective effects. The present study was designed to examine whether a VT extract could reduce serum lipid levels and prevent atherogenesis in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model. At the end of an 8-week study, our results showed that a VT extract supplement markedly suppressed the serum levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, reduced lipid accumulation in liver tissues, and limited aortic fatty streaks. Our findings suggest that the VT extract activated AMPK (5′-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase with subsequent inhibition of the activation of ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Our results suggest that this VT extract could be further developed as a potential lipid-lowering agent and as a natural health food to prevent atherogenesis.

  9. A small world of weak ties provides optimal global integration of self-similar modules in functional brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K; Makse, Hernán A; Sigman, Mariano

    2012-02-21

    The human brain is organized in functional modules. Such an organization presents a basic conundrum: Modules ought to be sufficiently independent to guarantee functional specialization and sufficiently connected to bind multiple processors for efficient information transfer. It is commonly accepted that small-world architecture of short paths and large local clustering may solve this problem. However, there is intrinsic tension between shortcuts generating small worlds and the persistence of modularity, a global property unrelated to local clustering. Here, we present a possible solution to this puzzle. We first show that a modified percolation theory can define a set of hierarchically organized modules made of strong links in functional brain networks. These modules are "large-world" self-similar structures and, therefore, are far from being small-world. However, incorporating weaker ties to the network converts it into a small world preserving an underlying backbone of well-defined modules. Remarkably, weak ties are precisely organized as predicted by theory maximizing information transfer with minimal wiring cost. This trade-off architecture is reminiscent of the "strength of weak ties" crucial concept of social networks. Such a design suggests a natural solution to the paradox of efficient information flow in the highly modular structure of the brain.

  10. Analysis of optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using modified Bessel-like function and trapezoid annulus modulation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Wei, Zhongchao; Liu, Yuebo; Huang, Aili

    2015-02-01

    Two amplitude modulation methods, including modified Bessel-like function modulation structure and trapezoid annulus structure, for suppressing sidelobes of optical vortices are studied. In the former approach, we propose that the order of the Bessel-like function can be an additional parameter to modulate diffraction patterns of optical vortices motivated by the idea of conventional annulus structures. Furthermore, new Bessel-like modulation functions are introduced to solve the problem of low diffraction efficiency of the original one. Trapezoid annulus structure is proposed as a compromise structure between the modified Bessel-like modulation structure and the conventional annulus one, and has advantages of both. It is demonstrated that these two approaches can achieve high-quality optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes effectively, and the relative structures behave as more flexible and applicable structures for producing optical vortices with large coverage of topological charges, which suggests great potential in simplifying the structure designing procedure. These reliable and generalized structures for generating high-quality optical vortices will help to promote the development of future optical communication and optical manipulation significantly.

  11. Taurine modulates neutrophil function but potentiates uropathogenic E. coli infection in the murine bladder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Condron, Claire

    2010-08-01

    Eradication of a urinary tract infection (UTI) appears to be related to a number of innate host defence mechanisms and their interactions with invading bacteria. Recurrent UTIs (rUTIs) pose a difficult problem in that these bacteria use both host and bacterial factors to evade elimination. Neutrophil bactericidal function is depressed, both systemically and in urine, in patients with a history of recurrent UTI. Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid and is successful in preserving neutrophil bactericidal function in urine. Taurine may preserve neutrophil function at the urothelium and thus aid UTI resolution. Adult female (6 weeks old) C57Bl\\/6 mice were randomised into three groups: a saline gavage only control group, a saline gavage + E. coli group, and a taurine gavage + E. coli group [21 g\\/70 kg taurine in 0.9% normal saline (N\\/S) for 5 days]. Whilst taurine gavage pre-treatment resulted in increased serum neutrophils respiratory burst activity, at the urothelial-endothelial interface it caused higher colony forming units in the urine and a higher incidence of E. coli invasion in the bladder wall with no evidence of increased bladder wall neutrophils infiltration on MPO assay of histological assessment. Histologically there was also evidence of reduced bladder inflammation and urothelial cell apoptosis. In conclusion, taurine effectively increases neutrophils activity but given its anti-inflammatory properties, at the expense of decreased urothelial-endothelial activation thus preventing clearance of active E. coli infection in the bladder. Despite the negative results, this study demonstrates the importance of modulating interactions at the urothelial interface.

  12. Proteomic Profiling in the Brain of CLN1 Disease Model Reveals Affected Functional Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Saara; Monogioudi, Evanthia; Gotsopoulos, Athanasios; Soliymani, Rabah; Pezzini, Francesco; Scifo, Enzo; Uusi-Rauva, Kristiina; Tyynelä, Jaana; Baumann, Marc; Jalanko, Anu; Simonati, Alessandro; Lalowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are the most commonly inherited progressive encephalopathies of childhood. Pathologically, they are characterized by endolysosomal storage with different ultrastructural features and biochemical compositions. The molecular mechanisms causing progressive neurodegeneration and common molecular pathways linking expression of different NCL genes are largely unknown. We analyzed proteome alterations in the brains of a mouse model of human infantile CLN1 disease-palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 (Ppt1) gene knockout and its wild-type age-matched counterpart at different stages: pre-symptomatic, symptomatic and advanced. For this purpose, we utilized a combination of laser capture microdissection-based quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight MS imaging to quantify/visualize the changes in protein expression in disease-affected brain thalamus and cerebral cortex tissue slices, respectively. Proteomic profiling of the pre-symptomatic stage thalamus revealed alterations mostly in metabolic processes and inhibition of various neuronal functions, i.e., neuritogenesis. Down-regulation in dynamics associated with growth of plasma projections and cellular protrusions was further corroborated by findings from RNA sequencing of CLN1 patients' fibroblasts. Changes detected at the symptomatic stage included: mitochondrial functions, synaptic vesicle transport, myelin proteome and signaling cascades, such as RhoA signaling. Considerable dysregulation of processes related to mitochondrial cell death, RhoA/Huntington's disease signaling and myelin sheath breakdown were observed at the advanced stage of the disease. The identified changes in protein levels were further substantiated by bioinformatics and network approaches, immunohistochemistry on brain tissues and literature knowledge, thus identifying various functional modules affected in the CLN1 childhood

  13. Functional variants of the dopamine receptor D2 gene modulate prefronto-striatal phenotypes in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Alessandro; Fazio, Leonardo; Caforio, Grazia; Blasi, Giuseppe; Rampino, Antonio; Romano, Raffaella; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Taurisano, Paolo; Papp, Audrey; Pinsonneault, Julia; Wang, Danxin; Nardini, Marcello; Popolizio, Teresa; Sadee, Wolfgang

    2009-02-01

    Dopamine D2 receptor signalling is strongly implicated in the aetiology of schizophrenia. We have recently characterized the function of three DRD2 SNPs: rs12364283 in the promoter affecting total D2 mRNA expression; rs2283265 and rs1076560, respectively in introns 5 and 6, shifting mRNA splicing to two functionally distinct isoforms, the short form of D2 (D2S) and the long form (D2L). These two isoforms differentially contribute to dopamine signalling in prefrontal cortex and in striatum. We performed a case-control study to determine association of these variants and of their main haplotypes with several schizophrenia-related phenotypes. We demonstrate that the minor allele in the intronic variants is associated with reduced expression of %D2S of total mRNA in post-mortem prefrontal cortex, and with impaired working memory behavioural performance, both in patients and controls. However, the fMRI results show opposite effects in patients compared with controls: enhanced engagement of prefronto-striatal pathways in controls and reduced activity in patients. Moreover, the promoter variant is also associated with working memory activity in prefrontal cortex and striatum of patients, and less robustly with negative symptoms scores. Main haplotypes formed by the three DRD2 variants showed significant associations with these phenotypes consistent with those of the individual SNPs. Our results indicate that the three functional DRD2 variants modulate schizophrenia phenotypes possibly by modifying D2S/D2L ratios in the context of different total D2 density.

  14. Evaluation of functionality and biological response of the multilayer flow modulator in porcine animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sherif; Kavanagh, Edel P; Hynes, Niamh; Diethrich, Edward B

    2016-02-01

    This study outlines the use of non-aneurysmal porcine animal models to study device functionality and biological response of the Multilayer Flow Modulator (MFM) (Cardiatis, Isnes, Belgium), with an emphasis on preclinical device functionality and biological response characteristics in an otherwise healthy aorta. Twelve animals were implanted with the study device in the abdominal aorta, in 6 animals for 1 month and 6 animals for 6 months. Upon completion of the study period, each animal underwent a necropsy to examine how the implanted device had affected the artery and surrounding tissue. Neointima and stenosis formation were recorded via morphometry, and endothelialization via histopathological analysis. The MFM devices were delivered to their respective implantation sites without difficulty. Six of the implanted stents were oversized with percentages ranging from 2.6% to 18.8%. Statistical analysis was carried out and showed no significance between the regular sized stent group and oversized stent group for neointimal area (P=0.17), neointimal thickness (P=0.17), and percentage area stenosis (P=0.65). Histopathological findings showed in most areas flattened endothelium like cells lined the luminal surface of the neointima. Scanning electron microscopy also showed the devices were well tolerated, inciting only a minimal neointimal covering and little fibrin or platelet deposition. Neointimal thickness of 239.7±55.6 μm and 318.3±130.4 μm, and percentage area stenosis of 9.6±2.6% and 12.6±5% were recorded at 1 and 6 months respectively. No statistical differences were found between these results. The MFM devices were delivered to their respective implantation sites without difficulty and incited little neointimal and stenosis formation in the aorta, affirming its functionality and biocompatibility.

  15. Supernatant from bifidobacterium differentially modulates transduction signaling pathways for biological functions of human dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille Hoarau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Probiotic bacteria have been shown to modulate immune responses and could have therapeutic effects in allergic and inflammatory disorders. However, the signaling pathways engaged by probiotics are poorly understood. We have previously reported that a fermentation product from Bifidobacterium breve C50 (BbC50sn could induce maturation, high IL-10 production and prolonged survival of DCs via a TLR2 pathway. We therefore studied the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K pathways on biological functions of human monocyte-derived DCs treated with BbC50sn. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: DCs were differentiated from human monocytes with IL-4 and GM-CSF for 5 days and cultured with BbC50sn, lipopolysaccharide (LPS or Zymosan, with or without specific inhibitors of p38MAPK (SB203580, ERK (PD98059, PI3K (LY294002 and GSK3 (SB216763. We found that 1 the PI3K pathway was positively involved in the prolonged DC survival induced by BbC50sn, LPS and Zymosan in contrast to p38MAPK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC survival; 2 p38MAPK and PI3K were positively involved in DC maturation, in contrast to ERK and GSK3 which negatively regulated DC maturation; 3 ERK and PI3K were positively involved in DC-IL-10 production, in contrast to GSK3 that was positively involved in DC-IL-12 production whereas p38MAPK was positively involved in both; 4 BbC50sn induced a PI3K/Akt phosphorylation similar to Zymosan and a p38MAPK phosphorylation similar to LPS. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We report for the first time that a fermentation product of a bifidobacteria can differentially activate MAPK, GSK3 and PI3K in order to modulate DC biological functions. These results give new insights on the fine-tuned balance between the maintenance of normal mucosal homeostasis to commensal and probiotic bacteria and the specific inflammatory immune responses to pathogen bacteria.

  16. The Case for TAAR1 as a Modulator of Central Nervous System Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Rutigliano

    2018-01-01

    polymorphisms have been identified, but their functional consequences have not been extensively investigated yet. In conclusion, the bulk of evidence points to a significant physiological role of TAAR1 in the modulation of central nervous system function and a potential pharmacological role of TAAR1 agonists in neurology and/or psychiatry. However, the specific effects of TAAR1 stimulation are still controversial, and many crucial issues require further investigation.

  17. Identification and Characterization of a Novel Human Methyltransferase Modulating Hsp70 Protein Function through Lysine Methylation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Magnus E.; Moen, Anders; Bousset, Luc; Egge-Jacobsen, Wolfgang; Kernstock, Stefan; Melki, Ronald; Falnes, Pål Ø.

    2013-01-01

    Hsp70 proteins constitute an evolutionarily conserved protein family of ATP-dependent molecular chaperones involved in a wide range of biological processes. Mammalian Hsp70 proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications, including methylation, but for most of these, a functional role has not been attributed. In this study, we identified the methyltransferase METTL21A as the enzyme responsible for trimethylation of a conserved lysine residue found in several human Hsp70 (HSPA) proteins. This enzyme, denoted by us as HSPA lysine (K) methyltransferase (HSPA-KMT), was found to catalyze trimethylation of various Hsp70 family members both in vitro and in vivo, and the reaction was stimulated by ATP. Furthermore, we show that HSPA-KMT exclusively methylates 70-kDa proteins in mammalian protein extracts, demonstrating that it is a highly specific enzyme. Finally, we show that trimethylation of HSPA8 (Hsc70) has functional consequences, as it alters the affinity of the chaperone for both the monomeric and fibrillar forms of the Parkinson disease-associated protein α-synuclein. PMID:23921388

  18. Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica sorbents for the solid-phase extraction of aromatic amines under normal phase conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Robin, Orlane; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2013-04-12

    Quaternary ammonium-functionalized silica materials were synthesized and applied for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of aromatic amines, which are classified as priority pollutants by US Environmental Protection Agency. Hexamethylenetetramine used for silica surface modification for the first time was employed as SPE sorbent under normal phase conditions. Hexaminium-functionalized silica demonstrated excellent extraction efficiencies for o-toluidine, 4-ethylaniline and quinoline (recoveries 101-107%), while for N,N-dimethylaniline and N-isopropylaniline recoveries were from low to moderate (14-46%). In addition, the suitability of 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica as SPE sorbent was tested under normal phase conditions. The recoveries achieved for the five aromatic amines ranged from 89 to 99%. The stability of the sorbent was evaluated during and after 150 extractions. Coefficients of variation between 4.5 and 10.2% proved a high stability of the synthesized sorbent. Elution was carried out using acetonitrile in the case of hexaminium-functionalized silica and water for 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent. After the extraction the analytes were separated and detected by liquid chromatography ultraviolet detection (LC-UV). The retention mechanism of the materials was primarily based on polar hydrogen bonding and π-π interactions. Comparison made with activated silica proved the quaternary ammonium-functionalized materials to offer different selectivity and better extraction efficiencies for aromatic amines. Finally, 1-alkyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium-functionalized silica sorbent was successfully tested for the extraction of wastewater and soil samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction of thermal Green's function using diffuse fields: a passive approach applied to thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Margherita; Sternini, Simone; Lanza di Scalea, Francesco; Mariani, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    In the field of non-destructive evaluation, defect detection and visualization can be performed exploiting different techniques relying either on an active or a passive approach. In the following paper the passive technique is investigated due to its numerous advantages and its application to thermography is explored. In previous works, it has been shown that it is possible to reconstruct the Green's function between any pair of points of a sensing grid by using noise originated from diffuse fields in acoustic environments. The extraction of the Green's function can be achieved by cross-correlating these random recorded waves. Averaging, filtering and length of the measured signals play an important role in this process. This concept is here applied in an NDE perspective utilizing thermal fluctuations present on structural materials. Temperature variations interacting with thermal properties of the specimen allow for the characterization of the material and its health condition. The exploitation of the thermographic image resolution as a dense grid of sensors constitutes the basic idea underlying passive thermography. Particular attention will be placed on the creation of a proper diffuse thermal field, studying the number, placement and excitation signal of heat sources. Results from numerical simulations will be presented to assess the capabilities and performances of the passive thermal technique devoted to defect detection and imaging of structural components.

  20. Cancellation of spurious arrivals in Green's function extraction and the generalized optical theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, R.; Van Wijk, K.; Haney, M.; Calvert, R.

    2008-01-01

    The extraction of the Green's function by cross correlation of waves recorded at two receivers nowadays finds much application. We show that for an arbitrary small scatterer, the cross terms of scattered waves give an unphysical wave with an arrival time that is independent of the source position. This constitutes an apparent inconsistency because theory predicts that such spurious arrivals do not arise, after integration over a complete source aperture. This puzzling inconsistency can be resolved for an arbitrary scatterer by integrating the contribution of all sources in the stationary phase approximation to show that the stationary phase contributions to the source integral cancel the spurious arrival by virtue of the generalized optical theorem. This work constitutes an alternative derivation of this theorem. When the source aperture is incomplete, the spurious arrival is not canceled and could be misinterpreted to be part of the Green's function. We give an example of how spurious arrivals provide information about the medium complementary to that given by the direct and scattered waves; the spurious waves can thus potentially be used to better constrain the medium. ?? 2008 The American Physical Society.

  1. Effect of the Aged Garlic Extract on Cardiovascular Function in Metabolic Syndrome Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Pérez-Torres

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract (AGE on cardiovascular functioning (CF in metabolic syndrome (MS remains poorly studied. Here we study the AGE effects on CF in a rat model of MS. Control rats plus saline solution (C + SS, MS rats (30% sucrose in drinking water from weaning plus saline solution (MS + SS, control rats receiving AGE (C + AGE 125 mg/Kg/12 h and MS rats with AGE (MS + AGE were studied. MS + SS had increased triglycerides, systolic blood pressure, insulin, leptin, HOMA index, and advanced glycation end products. AGE returned their levels to control values (p < 0.01. Cholesterol was decreased by AGE (p = 0.05. Glutathion and GPx activity were reduced in MS + SS rats and increased with AGE (p = 0.05. Lipid peroxidation was increased in MS + SS and AGE reduced it (p = 0.001. Vascular functioning was deteriorated by MS (increased vasocontraction and reduced vasodilation and AGE improved it (p = 0.001. Coronary vascular resistance was increased in MS rats and AGE decreased it (p = 0.001. Cardiac performance was not modified by MS but AGE increased it. NO measured in the perfusate liquid from the heart and serum citrulline, nitrites/nitrates were decreased in MS and AGE increased them (p < 0.01. In conclusion, AGE reduces MS-induced cardiovascular risk, through its anti-oxidant properties.

  2. Insights into physicochemical and functional properties of polysaccharides sequentially extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dan-Ye; Ma, Yi-Long; Wang, Cai-Hong; Wang, Hao; Ren, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Thakur, Kiran; Wei, Zhao-Jun

    2017-12-01

    Onion polysaccharides (ACLP) were sequentially extracted with four different solvents (hot buffer, chelating agent, dilute alkaline and concentrated alkaline) and obtained four fractions, named as HBSS, CHSS, DASS and CASS, respectively. The present studies characterized the ACLP concerning its physicochemical and functional properties. Monosaccharides analysis revealed that mannose (81.68%) was the dominant sugar in HBSS and galactose (67.59%) was the most in CASS. Similarly, CHSS and DASS possessed mannose and galactose as major sugar, which were 25.80% and 31.37%, 20.33% and 33.96%, respectively. The obtained molecular weight of ACLPs were 7.702×10 3 (HBSS), 4.690×10 3 (CHSS), 4.943×10 3 (DASS) and 1.390×10 3 kDa (CASS). CASS resulted in the strongest solubility, fat-binding capacity, foam capacity and foam stability whereas, HBSS showed the highest thermal stability. DASS showed the best hygroscopicity and the best moisture retention was obtained by CHSS. Subsequently, the emulsifying activity and emulsifying stability were the highest for HBSS and the longest for of CASS, respectively. The rheological properties of CHSS exhibited the largest viscosity. Our results indicated that all factions could be considered as functional polysaccharides according to their respective characteristics, which have vast potential in food production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Beneficial effects of fruit extracts on neuronal function and behavior following 56Fe irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, J. A.; Shukitt-Hale, B.; Carey, A. N.; Jenkins, D.; Rabin, B. M.

    Exposing young rats to particles of high energy and charge HZE particles enhances indices of oxidative stress and inflammation and disrupts the functioning of the dopaminergic system and behaviors mediated by this system in a manner similar to that seen in aged animals Previous research has shown that diets supplemented with 2 blueberry or strawberry extracts have the ability to retard and even reverse age-related deficits in behavior and signal transduction in rats perhaps due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties This study evaluated the efficacy of these diets on irradiation-induced deficits in these parameters by maintaining rats on these diets or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to whole-body irradiation with 1 5 Gy of 1 GeV n high-energy 56 Fe particles Irradiation impaired performance in the Morris water maze and measures of dopamine release one month following radiation these deficits were protected by the antioxidant diets The strawberry diet offered better protection against spatial deficits in the maze because strawberry-fed animals were better able to retain place information a hippocampally-mediated behavior compared to controls The blueberry diet on the other hand seemed to improve reversal learning a behavior more dependent on intact striatal function These data suggest that 56 Fe particle irradiation causes deficits in behavior and signaling in rats which were ameliorated by an antioxidant diet and that the polyphenols in these fruits might be acting in different brain regions

  4. Functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins extracted from two Mexican varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Sánchez, C; González-Castañeda, J; de León-Rodríguez, A; Barba de la Rosa, A P

    2004-01-01

    The functional and rheological properties of amaranth albumins isolates extracted from two new Mexican varieties were determined. Functional properties tested were protein solubility, foaming, water and oil absorption capacities, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability. The maximum solubility values for both amaranth albumins were found above pH 6 and values were compared to the solubility of egg albumins. Albumins from amaranth showed excellent foaming capacity and foaming stability at pH 5, suggesting that this protein could be used as whipping agents as egg albumins, also the water and oil absorption capacities reached their maximum values at acidic pH, suggesting that amaranth albumins could be appropriate in preparation of acidic foods. The rheological test based on farinograms and alveograms showed that wheat flour supplemented with 1% amaranth albumins improves the dough properties due to higher mixing stability and the bread had better crumb characteristics. In addition of the known high nutritional values of amaranth albumins, our results indicate the high potential for use of these proteins as an ingredient in food preparations.

  5. Enhancement of photocurrent extraction and electron injection in dual-functional CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite-based optoelectronic devices via interfacial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Lung; Lu, Yi-Chen; Hsiung Chang, Sheng

    2018-07-01

    Photocurrent extraction and electron injection in CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) perovskite-based optoelectronic devices are both significantly increased by improving the contact at the PCBM/MAPbBr3 interface with an extended solvent annealing (ESA) process. Photoluminescence quenching and x-ray diffraction experiments show that the ESA not only improves the contact at the PCBM/MAPbBr3 interface but also increases the crystallinity of the MAPbBr3 thin films. The optimized dual-functional PCBM-MAPbBr3 heterojunction based optoelectronic device has a high power conversion efficiency of 4.08% and a bright visible luminescence of 1509 cd m‑2. In addition, the modulation speed of the MAPbBr3 based light-emitting diodes is larger than 14 MHz, which indicates that the defect density in the MAPbBr3 thin film can be effectively reduced by using the ESA process.

  6. Modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency of electron bombarded charge coupled device detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 76, č. 9 (2005), 093704:1-6 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/1575 Keywords : electron bombarded CCD * modulation transfer function * detective quantum efficiency Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2005

  7. Light-reflection random-target method for measurement of the modulation transfer function of a digital video-camera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, Jaroslav; Jakubík, P.; Machala, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 116, - (2005), s. 573-585 ISSN 0030-4026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : random-target measuring method * light-reflection white - noise target * digital video camera * modulation transfer function * power spectral density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.395, year: 2005

  8. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper. PMID:26230694

  9. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Molina-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors. Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  10. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C

    2015-07-29

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  11. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component.

  12. Role of adipokines signaling in the modulation of T cells function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio eProcaccini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The field that links immunity and metabolism is rapidly expanding. Apparently non-immunological disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have been linked to immune dysregulation, suggesting that metabolic alterations can be induced by or be consequence of an altered self-immune tolerance. In this context, adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, termed adipokines, which can be considered as the bridge between obesity-related exogenous factors, such as nutrition and lifestyle, and the molecular events leading to metabolic syndrome, inflammatory and/or autoimmune conditions. In obesity, increased production of most adipokines impacts on multiple functions such as appetite and energy balance, modulation of immune responses, insulin sensitivity, angiogenesis, blood pressure, lipid metabolism, and so on. This report aims to discuss some of the recent topics of adipocytokine research and their related signaling pathways, that may be of particular importance as could lead to effective therapeutic strategies for obesity-associated diseases.

  13. Coded aperture imaging: the modulation transfer function for uniformly redundant arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenimore, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    Coded aperture imaging uses many pinholes to increase the SNR for intrinsically weak sources when the radiation can be neither reflected nor refracted. Effectively, the signal is multiplexed onto an image and then decoded, often by a computer, to form a reconstructed image. We derive the modulation transfer function (MTF) of such a system employing uniformly redundant arrays (URA). We show that the MTF of a URA system is virtually the same as the MTF of an individual pinhole regardless of the shape or size of the pinhole. Thus, only the location of the pinholes is important for optimum multiplexing and decoding. The shape and size of the pinholes can then be selected based on other criteria. For example, one can generate self-supporting patterns, useful for energies typically encountered in the imaging of laser-driven compressions or in soft x-ray astronomy. Such patterns contain holes that are all the same size, easing the etching or plating fabrication efforts for the apertures. A new reconstruction method is introduced called delta decoding. It improves the resolution capabilities of a coded aperture system by mitigating a blur often introduced during the reconstruction step

  14. Ibrutinib enhances IL-17 response by modulating the function of bone marrow derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Gayathri; Terrazas, Cesar; Oghumu, Steve; Varikuti, Sanjay; Dubovsky, Jason A; Byrd, John C; Satoskar, Abhay R

    Ibrutinib (PCI-32765) is an irreversible dual Btk/Itk inhibitor shown to be effective in treating several B cell malignancies. However, limited studies have been conducted to study the effect of this drug on myeloid cell function. Hence, we studied the effect of ibrutinib treatment on TLR-4 mediated activation of bone marrow derived dendritic cell culture (DCs). Upon ibrutinib treatment, LPS-treated DCs displayed lower synthesis of TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) and higher induction of IL-6, TGF-β, IL-10 and IL-18. While ibrutinib dampened MHC-II and CD86 expression on DCs, CD80 expression was upregulated. Further, ibrutinib-treated DCs promoted T cell proliferation and enhanced IL-17 production upon co-culture with nylon wool enriched T cells. Taken together, our results indicate that ibrutinib modulates TLR-4 mediated DC activation to promote an IL-17 response. We describe a novel mode of action for ibrutinib on DCs which should be explored to treat other forms of cancer besides B cell malignancies.

  15. Epigenetic modulators of monocytic function: implication for steady state and disease in the CNS .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nina Papavasiliou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic alterations are necessary for the establishment of functional and phenotypic diversity in populations of immune cells of the monocytic lineage. The epigenetic status of individual genes at different time points defines their transcriptional responses throughout development and in response to environmental stimuli. Epigenetic states are defined at the level of DNA modifications, chromatin modifications, as well as at the level of RNA base changes through RNA editing. Drawing from lessons regarding the epigenome and epitranscriptome of cells of the monocytic lineage in the periphery, and from recently published RNAseq data deriving from brain-resident monocytes, we discuss the impact of modulation of these epigenetic states and how they affect processes important for the development of a healthy brain, as well as mechanisms of neurodegenerative disease and aging. An understanding of the varied brain responses and pathologies in light of these novel gene regulatory systems in monocytes will lead to important new insights in the understanding of the aging process and the treatment and diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease.

  16. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA: Multiple Functions in West Nile Virus Pathogenesis and Modulation of Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Roby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR. sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'–3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.

  17. Cardiac effects of 3-iodothyronamine: a new aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiellini, Grazia; Frascarelli, Sabina; Ghelardoni, Sandra; Carnicelli, Vittoria; Tobias, Sandra C; DeBarber, Andrea; Brogioni, Simona; Ronca-Testoni, Simonetta; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Grandy, David K; Scanlan, Thomas S; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2007-05-01

    3-Iodothyronamine T1AM is a novel endogenous thyroid hormone derivative that activates the G protein-coupled receptor known as trace anime-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). In the isolated working rat heart and in rat cardiomyocytes, T1AM produced a reversible, dose-dependent negative inotropic effect (e.g., 27+/-5, 51+/-3, and 65+/-2% decrease in cardiac output at 19, 25, and 38 microM concentration, respectively). An independent negative chronotropic effect was also observed. The hemodynamic effects of T1AM were remarkably increased in the presence of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein, whereas they were attenuated in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate. No effect was produced by inhibitors of protein kinase A, protein kinase C, calcium-calmodulin kinase II, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, or MAP kinases. Tissue cAMP levels were unchanged. In rat ventricular tissue, Western blot experiments with antiphosphotyrosine antibodies showed reduced phosphorylation of microsomal and cytosolic proteins after perfusion with synthetic T1AM; reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction experiments revealed the presence of transcripts for at least 5 TAAR subtypes; specific and saturable binding of [125I]T1AM was observed, with a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range (5 microM); and endogenous T1AM was detectable by tandem mass spectrometry. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence for the existence of a novel aminergic system modulating cardiac function.

  18. Functional toxicogenomic profiling expands insight into modulators of formaldehyde toxicity in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew North

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (FA is a commercially important chemical with numerous and diverse uses. Accordingly, occupational and environmental exposure to FA is prevalent worldwide. Various adverse effects, including nasopharyngeal, sinonasal, and lymphohematopoietic cancers, have been linked to FA exposure, prompting designation of FA as a human carcinogen by U.S. and international scientific entities. Although the mechanism(s of FA toxicity have been well studied, additional insight is needed in regard to the genetic requirements for FA tolerance. In this study, a functional toxicogenomics approach was utilized in the model eukaryotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genes and cellular processes modulating the cellular toxicity of FA. Our results demonstrate mutant strains deficient in multiple DNA repair pathways–including homologous recombination, single strand annealing, and postreplication repair–were sensitive to FA, indicating FA may cause various forms of DNA damage in yeast. The SKI complex and its associated factors, which regulate mRNA degradation by the exosome, were also required for FA tolerance, suggesting FA may have unappreciated effects on RNA stability. Furthermore, various strains involved in osmoregulation and stress response were sensitive to FA. Together, our results are generally consistent with FA-mediated damage to both DNA and RNA. Considering DNA repair and RNA degradation pathways are evolutionarily conserved from yeast to humans, mechanisms of FA toxicity identified in yeast may be relevant to human disease and genetic susceptibility.

  19. RETRACTED: Adaptive neuro-fuzzy prediction of modulation transfer function of optical lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Md Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Akib, Shatirah

    2014-07-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor. Sections ;1. Introduction; and ;2. Modulation transfer function;, as well as Figures 1-3, plagiarize the article published by N. Gül and M. Efe in Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci 18 (2010) 71 (http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/elektrik/issues/elk-10-18-1/elk-18-1-6-0811-9.pdf). Sections ;4. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; and ;6. Conclusion; duplicate parts of the articles previously published by the corresponding author et al in ;Expert Systems with Applications; 39 (2012) 13295-13304, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.05.072 and ;Expert Systems with Applications; 40 (2013) 281-286, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2012.07.076. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that the paper is not under consideration for publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents an abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  20. Modulated electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media, hyperbolic pseudoanalytic functions, and transmutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khmelnytskaya, Kira V., E-mail: khmel@uaq.edu.mx [Faculty of Engineering, Autonomous University of Queretaro, Cerro de las Campanas s/n, col. Las Campanas Querétaro, Qro. CP 76010 (Mexico); Kravchenko, Vladislav V., E-mail: vkravchenko@math.cinvestav.edu.mx; Torba, Sergii M., E-mail: storba@math.cinvestav.edu.mx [Department of Mathematics, CINVESTAV del IPN, Unidad Querétaro, Libramiento Norponiente # 2000 Fracc. Real de Juriquilla Querétaro, Qro., CP 76230 (Mexico)

    2016-05-15

    The time-dependent Maxwell system describing electromagnetic wave propagation in inhomogeneous isotropic media in the one-dimensional case reduces to a Vekua-type equation for bicomplex-valued functions of a hyperbolic variable, see Kravchenko and Ramirez [Adv. Appl. Cliord Algebr. 21(3), 547–559 (2011)]. Using this relation, we solve the problem of the transmission through an inhomogeneous layer of a normally incident electromagnetic time-dependent plane wave. The solution is written in terms of a pair of Darboux-associated transmutation operators [Kravchenko, V. V. and Torba, S. M., J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45, 075201 (2012)], and combined with the recent results on their construction [Kravchenko, V. V. and Torba, S. M., Complex Anal. Oper. Theory 9, 379-429 (2015); Kravchenko, V. V. and Torba, S. M., J. Comput. Appl. Math. 275, 1–26 (2015)] can be used for efficient computation of the transmitted modulated signals. We develop the corresponding numerical method and illustrate its performance with examples.

  1. Contrast computation methods for interferometric measurement of sensor modulation transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battula, Tharun; Georgiev, Todor; Gille, Jennifer; Goma, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    Accurate measurement of image-sensor frequency response over a wide range of spatial frequencies is very important for analyzing pixel array characteristics, such as modulation transfer function (MTF), crosstalk, and active pixel shape. Such analysis is especially significant in computational photography for the purposes of deconvolution, multi-image superresolution, and improved light-field capture. We use a lensless interferometric setup that produces high-quality fringes for measuring MTF over a wide range of frequencies (here, 37 to 434 line pairs per mm). We discuss the theoretical framework, involving Michelson and Fourier contrast measurement of the MTF, addressing phase alignment problems using a moiré pattern. We solidify the definition of Fourier contrast mathematically and compare it to Michelson contrast. Our interferometric measurement method shows high detail in the MTF, especially at high frequencies (above Nyquist frequency). We are able to estimate active pixel size and pixel pitch from measurements. We compare both simulation and experimental MTF results to a lens-free slanted-edge implementation using commercial software.

  2. Functional Genomic Screening Reveals Core Modulators of Echinocandin Stress Responses in Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavia Caplan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Candida albicans is a leading cause of death due to fungal infection. Treatment of systemic candidiasis often relies on echinocandins, which disrupt cell wall synthesis. Resistance is readily acquired via mutations in the drug target gene, FKS1. Both basal tolerance and resistance to echinocandins require cellular stress responses. We performed a systematic analysis of 3,030 C. albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins. We identified 16 genes for which deletion or transcriptional repression enhanced echinocandin susceptibility, including components of the Pkc1-MAPK signaling cascade. We discovered that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for the stability of Pkc1 and Bck1, establishing key mechanisms through which Hsp90 mediates echinocandin resistance. We also discovered that perturbation of the CCT chaperonin complex causes enhanced echinocandin sensitivity, altered cell wall architecture, and aberrant septin localization. Thus, we provide insights into the mechanisms by which cellular chaperones enable crucial responses to echinocandin-induced stress. : Caplan et al. screen 3,030 Candida albicans mutants to define circuitry governing cellular responses to echinocandins, the first-line therapy for systemic candidiasis. They reveal that the molecular chaperone Hsp90 is required for stability of Pkc1 and Bck1 and that the CCT chaperonin complex is a key modulator of echinocandin susceptibility. Keywords: fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, echinocandins, Hsp90, Pkc1, CCT complex, client protein, stress response, functional genomic screen, drug resistance

  3. Addressing challenges of modulation transfer function measurement with fisheye lens cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Brian M.; Denny, Patrick E.; Zlokolica, Vladimir; Dever, Barry; Russell, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Modulation transfer function (MTF) is a well defined and accepted method of measuring image sharpness. The slanted edge test, as defined in ISO12233 is a standard method of calculating MTF, and is widely used for lens alignment and auto-focus algorithm verification. However, there are a number of challenges which should be considered when measuring MTF in cameras with fisheye lenses. Due to trade-offs related Petzval curvature, planarity of the optical plane is difficult to achieve in fisheye lenses. It is therefore critical to have the ability to accurately measure sharpness throughout the entire image, particularly for lens alignment. One challenge for fisheye lenses is that, because of the radial distortion, the slanted edges will have different angles, depending on the location within the image and on the distortion profile of the lens. Previous work in the literature indicates that MTF measurements are robust for angles between 2 and 10 degrees. Outside of this range, MTF measurements become unreliable. Also, the slanted edge itself will be curved by the lens distortion, causing further measurement problems. This study summarises the difficulties in the use of MTF for sharpness measurement in fisheye lens cameras, and proposes mitigations and alternative methods.

  4. Variation of the count-dependent Metz filter with imaging system modulation transfer function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Schwinger, R.B.; Penney, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A systematic investigation was conducted of how a number of parameters which alter the system modulation transfer function (MTF) influence the count-dependent Metz filter. Since restoration filters are most effective at those frequencies where the object power spectrum dominates that of the noise, it was observed that parameters which significantly degrade the MTF at low spatial frequencies strongly influence the formation of the Metz filter. Thus the radionuclide imaged and the depth of the source in a scattering medium had the most influence. This is because they alter the relative amount of scattered radiation being imaged. For low-energy photon emitters, the collimator employed and the distance from the collimator were found to have less of an influence but still to be significant. These cause alterations in the MTF which are more gradual, and hence are most pronounced at mid to high spatial frequencies. As long as adequate spatial sampling is employed, the Metz filter was determined to be independent of the exact size of the sampling bin width, to a first approximation. For planar and single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) imaging, it is shown that two-dimensional filtering with the Metz filter optimized for the imaging conditions is able to deconvolve scatter and other causes of spatial resolution loss while diminishing noise, all in a balanced manner

  5. Prebiotics Modulate the Effects of Antibiotics on Gut Microbial Diversity and Functioning in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura P. Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal bacteria carry out many fundamental roles, such as the fermentation of non-digestible dietary carbohydrates to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, which can affect host energy levels and gut hormone regulation. Understanding how to manage this ecosystem to improve human health is an important but challenging goal. Antibiotics are the front line of defence against pathogens, but in turn they have adverse effects on indigenous microbial diversity and function. Here, we have investigated whether dietary supplementation—another method used to modulate gut composition and function—could be used to ameliorate the side effects of antibiotics. We perturbed gut bacterial communities with gentamicin and ampicillin in anaerobic batch cultures in vitro. Cultures were supplemented with either pectin (a non-fermentable fibre, inulin (a commonly used prebiotic that promotes the growth of beneficial bacteria or neither. Although antibiotics often negated the beneficial effects of dietary supplementation, in some treatment combinations, notably ampicillin and inulin, dietary supplementation ameliorated the effects of antibiotics. There is therefore potential for using supplements to lessen the adverse effects of antibiotics. Further knowledge of such mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic manipulation of the human gut microbiota.

  6. The Macrophage Galactose-Type C-Type Lectin (MGL Modulates Regulatory T Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Grazia Zizzari

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are physiologically designed to prevent autoimmune disease and maintain self-tolerance. In tumour microenvironments, their presence is related to a poor prognosis, and they influence the therapeutic outcome due to their capacity to suppress the immune response by cell-cell contact and to release immunosuppressive cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that Treg immunosuppressive activity can be modulated by the cross-linking between the CD45RA expressed by Tregs and the C-type lectin MGL. This specific interaction strongly decreases the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, restoring the proliferative capacity of co-cultured T lymphocytes. This effect can be attributed to changes in CD45RA and TCR signalling through the inhibition of Lck and inactivation of Zap-70, an increase in the Foxp3 methylation status and, ultimately, the reduced production of suppressive cytokines. These results indicate a role of MGL as an immunomodulator within the tumour microenvironment interfering with Treg functions, suggesting its possible use in the design of anticancer vaccines.

  7. Binary Pseudo-Random Gratings and Arrays for Calibration of Modulation Transfer Functions of Surface Profilometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Samuel K.; Anderson, Erik D.; Cambie, Rossana; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Stover, John C.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2009-09-11

    A technique for precise measurement of the modulation transfer function (MTF), suitable for characterization of a broad class of surface profilometers, is investigated in detail. The technique suggested in [Proc. SPIE 7077-7, (2007), Opt. Eng. 47(7), 073602-1-5 (2008)]is based on use of binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays as standard MTF test surfaces. Unlike most conventional test surfaces, BPR gratings and arrays possess white-noise-like inherent power spectral densities (PSD), allowing the direct determination of the one- and two-dimensional MTF, respectively, with a sensitivity uniform over the entire spatial frequency range of a profiler. In the cited work, a one dimensional realization of the suggested method based on use of BPR gratings has been demonstrated. Here, a high-confidence of the MTF calibration technique is demonstrated via cross comparison measurements of a number of two dimensional BPR arrays using two different interferometric microscopes and a scatterometer. We also present the results of application of the experimentally determined MTF correction to the measurement taken with the MicromapTM-570 interferometric microscope of the surface roughness of a super-polished test mirror. In this particular case, without accounting for the instrumental MTF, the surface rms roughness over half of the instrumental spatial frequency bandwidth would be underestimated by a factor of approximately 1.4.

  8. Fluorescence Polarization Screening Assays for Small Molecule Allosteric Modulators of ABL Kinase Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Prerna; Shi, Haibin; Baumgartner, Matthew; Camacho, Carlos J; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    The ABL protein-tyrosine kinase regulates intracellular signaling pathways controlling diverse cellular processes and contributes to several forms of cancer. The kinase activity of ABL is repressed by intramolecular interactions involving its regulatory Ncap, SH3 and SH2 domains. Small molecules that allosterically regulate ABL kinase activity through its non-catalytic domains may represent selective probes of ABL function. Here we report a screening assay for chemical modulators of ABL kinase activity that target the regulatory interaction of the SH3 domain with the SH2-kinase linker. This fluorescence polarization (FP) assay is based on a purified recombinant ABL protein consisting of the N-cap, SH3 and SH2 domains plus the SH2-kinase linker (N32L protein) and a short fluorescein-labeled probe peptide that binds to the SH3 domain. In assay development experiments, we found that the probe peptide binds to the recombinant ABL N32L protein in vitro, producing a robust FP signal that can be competed with an excess of unlabeled peptide. The FP signal is not observed with control N32L proteins bearing either an inactivating mutation in the SH3 domain or enhanced SH3:linker interaction. A pilot screen of 1200 FDA-approved drugs identified four compounds that specifically reduced the FP signal by at least three standard deviations from the untreated controls. Secondary assays showed that one of these hit compounds, the antithrombotic drug dipyridamole, enhances ABL kinase activity in vitro to a greater extent than the previously described ABL agonist, DPH. Docking studies predicted that this compound binds to a pocket formed at the interface of the SH3 domain and the linker, suggesting that it activates ABL by disrupting this regulatory interaction. These results show that screening assays based on the non-catalytic domains of ABL can identify allosteric small molecule regulators of kinase function, providing a new approach to selective drug discovery for this important

  9. Spinal cord stimulation modulates cerebral function: an fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moens, M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Neurosurgery and Center for Neuroscience, Brussels (Belgium); Sunaert, S.; Peeters, R. [UZ Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Marien, P. [ZNA Middelheim General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Antwerp (Belgium); Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Department of Clinical and Experimental Neurolinguistics, Brussels (Belgium); Brouns, R.; Smedt, A. de [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Neurology and Center for Neuroscience, Brussels (Belgium); Droogmans, S. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Cardiology, Brussels (Belgium); Schuerbeek, P. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Poelaert, J. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Department of Anesthesiology, Brussels (Belgium); Nuttin, B. [UZ Leuven, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Neurosurgery, Leuven (Belgium)

    2012-12-15

    Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is widely used for chronic neuropathic pain after failed spinal surgery, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms. This study aims to investigate the neural substrate underlying short-term (30 s) SCS by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Twenty patients with FBSS, treated with externalized SCS, participated in a blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging design with stimulation and rest phases of 30 s each, repeated eight times in a row. During scanning, patients rated pain intensity over time using an 11-point numerical rating scale with verbal anchors (0 = no pain at all to 10 = worst pain imaginable) by pushing buttons (left hand, lesser pain; right hand, more pain). This scale was back projected to the patients on a flat screen allowing them to manually direct the pain indicator. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the 8-min block measurements were repeated three times. Marked deactivation of the bilateral medial thalamus and its connections to the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex and the insula was found; the study also showed immediate pain relief obtained by short-term SCS correlated negatively with activity in the inferior olivary nucleus, the cerebellum, and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Results indicate the key role of the medial thalamus as a mediator and the involvement of a corticocerebellar network implicating the modulation and regulation of averse and negative affect related to pain. The observation of a deactivation of the ipsilateral antero-medial thalamus might be used as a region of interest for further response SCS studies. (orig.)

  10. In smokers, Sonic hedgehog modulates pulmonary endothelial function through vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henno, Priscilla; Grassin-Delyle, Stanislas; Belle, Emeline; Brollo, Marion; Naline, Emmanuel; Sage, Edouard; Devillier, Philippe; Israël-Biet, Dominique

    2017-05-23

    Tobacco-induced pulmonary vascular disease is partly driven by endothelial dysfunction. The Sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway is involved in vascular physiology. We sought to establish whether the SHH pathway has a role in pulmonary endothelial dysfunction in smokers. The ex vivo endothelium-dependent relaxation of pulmonary artery rings in response to acetylcholine (Ach) was compared in 34 current or ex-smokers and 8 never-smokers. The results were expressed as a percentage of the contraction with phenylephrine. We tested the effects of SHH inhibitors (GANT61 and cyclopamine), an SHH activator (SAG) and recombinant VEGF on the Ach-induced relaxation. The level of VEGF protein in the pulmonary artery ring was measured in an ELISA. SHH pathway gene expression was quantified in reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reactions. Ach-induced relaxation was much less intense in smokers than in never-smokers (respectively 24 ± 6% and 50 ± 7% with 10 -4 M Ach; p = 0.028). All SHH pathway genes were expressed in pulmonary artery rings from smokers. SHH inhibition by GANT61 reduced Ach-induced relaxation and VEGF gene expression in the pulmonary artery ring. Recombinant VEGF restored the ring's endothelial function. VEGF gene and protein expression levels in the pulmonary artery rings were positively correlated with the degree of Ach-induced relaxation and negatively correlated with the number of pack-years. SHH pathway genes and proteins are expressed in pulmonary artery rings from smokers, where they modulate endothelial function through VEGF.

  11. Spinal cord stimulation modulates cerebral function: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, M.; Sunaert, S.; Peeters, R.; Marien, P.; Brouns, R.; Smedt, A. de; Droogmans, S.; Schuerbeek, P. van; Poelaert, J.; Nuttin, B.

    2012-01-01

    Although spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is widely used for chronic neuropathic pain after failed spinal surgery, little is known about the underlying physiological mechanisms. This study aims to investigate the neural substrate underlying short-term (30 s) SCS by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Twenty patients with FBSS, treated with externalized SCS, participated in a blocked functional magnetic resonance imaging design with stimulation and rest phases of 30 s each, repeated eight times in a row. During scanning, patients rated pain intensity over time using an 11-point numerical rating scale with verbal anchors (0 = no pain at all to 10 = worst pain imaginable) by pushing buttons (left hand, lesser pain; right hand, more pain). This scale was back projected to the patients on a flat screen allowing them to manually direct the pain indicator. To increase the signal-to-noise ratio, the 8-min block measurements were repeated three times. Marked deactivation of the bilateral medial thalamus and its connections to the rostral and caudal cingulate cortex and the insula was found; the study also showed immediate pain relief obtained by short-term SCS correlated negatively with activity in the inferior olivary nucleus, the cerebellum, and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex. Results indicate the key role of the medial thalamus as a mediator and the involvement of a corticocerebellar network implicating the modulation and regulation of averse and negative affect related to pain. The observation of a deactivation of the ipsilateral antero-medial thalamus might be used as a region of interest for further response SCS studies. (orig.)

  12. Estriol administration modulates luteinizing hormone secretion in women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genazzani, Alessandro D; Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Santagni, Susanna; Rattighieri, Erica; Ricchieri, Federica; Chierchia, Elisa; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of estriol administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary function and gonadotropins secretion in patients affected by functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Controlled clinical study. Patients with FHA in a clinical research environment. Twelve hypogonadotropic patients affected by FHA. Pulsatility study of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test (10 μg in bolus) at baseline condition and after 8 weeks of therapy with 2 mg/day of estriol. Measurements of plasma LH, FSH, estradiol (E(2)), androstenedione (A), 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), cortisol, androstenedione (A), testosterone (T), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT(3)), free thyroxine (fT(4)), and insulin, and pulse detection. After treatment, the FHA patients showed a statistically significant increase of LH plasma levels (from 0.7 ± 0.1 mIU/mL to 3.5 ± 0.3 mIU/mL) and a statistically significant increase of LH pulse amplitude with no changes in LH pulse frequency. In addition, the LH response to the GnRH bolus was a statistically significant increase. Estriol administration induced the increase of LH plasma levels in FHA and improved GnRH-induced LH secretion. These findings suggest that estriol administration modulates the neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamus-pituitary unit and induces the recovery of LH synthesis and secretion in hypogonadotropic patients with FHA. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Post-nerve-sparing prostatectomy, dose-escalated intensity-modulated radiotherapy: effect on erectile function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastasch, Michael D.; Teh, Bin S.; Mai, W.-Y.; Carpenter, L. Steven; Lu, Hsin H.; Chiu, J. Kam; Woo, Shiao Y.; Grant, Walter H.; Miles, Brian J.; Kadmon, Dov; Butler, E. Brian

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The advent of widespread prostate-specific antigen screening has resulted in more younger, potent men being diagnosed with early-stage, organ-confined prostate cancer amenable to definitive surgery. Nerve-sparing prostatectomy is a relatively new surgical advance in the treatment of prostate cancer. Very few data exist on the effect of postoperative radiotherapy (RT) on erectile function after nerve-sparing prostatectomy. They are based on conventional techniques using moderate doses of radiation, 45-54 Gy. Intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) is becoming more widespread because it allows dose escalation with increased sparing of the surrounding normal tissue. We investigated the effect of postprostatectomy, high-dose IMRT on patients' erectile function. Methods and Materials: A review of patient records found 51 patients treated between April 1998 and December 2000 with IMRT after unilateral or bilateral nerve-sparing prostatectomy. The pathologic disease stage in these patients was T2 in 47.4% and T3 in 52.6%. Postoperatively, 4 patients received hormonal ablation consisting of one injection of Lupron Depot (30 mg) 2 months before RT. The median age was 65 years (range 46-77) at the time of RT. The prescribed dose was 64 Gy (range 60-66). The mean dose was 69.6 Gy (range 64.0-72.3). Erectile function was assessed before and after RT by questionnaires. Sexual potency was defined as erectile rigidity adequate for vaginal penetration. Results: Of the 51 patients, 18 (35.3%) maintained their potency and 33 (64.7%) became impotent after nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Patients who underwent bilateral nerve-sparing prostatectomy had higher rates of postoperative potency than did those who underwent unilateral nerve-sparing surgery (72.2% vs. 27.8%; p=0.025). The follow-up for the entire group was 19.5 months. All 18 patients (100%) who were potent postoperatively remained potent after RT. The median follow-up for the 18 potent patients was 27.2 months, significantly

  14. Potential Anticancer Effects of Polyphenols from Chestnut Shell Extracts: Modulation of Cell Growth, and Cytokinomic and Metabolomic Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Sorice

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a hydroalcoholic chestnut shell extract was characterized and tested on six different human cell lines. Gallic, ellagic, and syringic acids were the most abundant non-condensed compounds in the chestnut extract, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Tannins were mainly represented by condensed monomeric units of epigallocatechin and catechin/epicatechin. After 48 h of treatment, only the human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells reached an inhibition corresponding to IC50 with an increase of apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization. The cytokinome evaluation before and after treatment revealed that the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α decreased after the treatment, suggesting a potential anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of this extract. Moreover, the metabolome evaluation by 1H-NMR evidenced that the polyphenols extracted from chestnut shell (PECS treatment affected the levels of some amino acids and other metabolites. Overall, these data highlight the effects of biomolecules on cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and mitochondrial depolarization, and on cytokinomics and metabolomics profiles.

  15. Myricitrin and bioactive extract of Albizia amara leaves: DNA protection and modulation of fertility and antioxidant-related genes expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mona El Said; Ibrahim, Lamya Fawzy; Hussein, Sameh Reda; El-Sharawy, Reham; El-Ansari, Mohamed Amin; Hassanane, Mahrousa Mohamed; Booles, Hoda Fahime

    2016-11-01

    Albizia species are reported to exhibit many biological activities including antiovulatory properties in female rats and antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic activities in male rats. The present study investig