WorldWideScience

Sample records for extracts electronic resource

  1. VT Mineral Resources - MRDS Extract

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) MRDSVT is an extract from the Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS) covering the State of Vermont only. MRDS database contains the records provided...

  2. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  3. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  4. Changing perspectives on resource extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Hazel; Stewart, Iain; Pahl, Sabine; Stokes, Alison

    2015-04-01

    Over the last century, resource extraction in the UK has changed immeasurably; from relatively small-scale, manually-operated facilities to the larger technological advanced sites that exist today. The communities that live near these sites have also changed, from housing workers that were as much of a resource as the geological material, to local residents who are environmentally literate and strongly value their landscape. Nowadays great pressure is put on the extractive industry to work in both environmentally sustainable and socially ethical ways, but how does this impact upon the local population? How do communities perceive the resource extraction that neighbours them? And is this perception rooted in a general understanding of geology and the subsurface? To explore resident's perceptions of the geological environment, three villages in the southwest of England have been investigated, using a mixed-methods mental models approach. The villages were selected as each has a different geological setting, both commercially and culturally. The first village has a strong historical geological identity, but little current geological activity. The second village has a large tungsten mine in the process of beginning production. The third village has no obvious cultural or commercial relationships with geology and acts as the control site. A broad sample from each of the three villages was qualitatively interviewed, the results of which were analyzed using an emergent thematic coding scheme. These qualitative results were then modelled using Morgan et al's mental models method (2002) and tested using a quantitative questionnaire. The results of this mixed method approach reveals the principal perceptions (or mental models) of residents in these three villages. The villages each present a different general perception of resource exploitation, which appears to be culturally driven, with the first village having the most positive correlations. These mental models are

  5. Resource Extraction in a Political Economy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ryszka, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    We analyze resource extraction in a political economy setting by introducing a political leader who optimizes both his own and the society's welfare function. We find that accounting for the private utility of a political elite, its higher discount rate and a different time horizon generally speeds up extraction. The higher than optimal resource extraction is not only relevant in welfare terms, but also regarding possible consequences with respect to climate change. The effect of higher extra...

  6. Application of keyword extraction on MOOC resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoxuan Jiang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of massive open online courses (MOOCs. With more and more courses being produced by instructors and being participated by learners all over the world, unprecedented massive educational resources are aggregated. The educational resources include videos, subtitles, lecture notes, quizzes, etc., on the teaching side, and forum contents, Wiki, log of learning behavior, log of homework, etc., on the learning side. However, the data are both unstructured and diverse. To facilitate knowledge management and mining on MOOCs, extracting keywords from the resources is important. This paper aims to adapt the state-of-the-art techniques to MOOC settings and evaluate the effectiveness on real data. In terms of practice, this paper also tries to answer the questions for the first time that to what extend can the MOOC resources support keyword extraction models, and how many human efforts are required to make the models work well. Design/methodology/approach – Based on which side generates the data, i.e instructors or learners, the data are classified to teaching resources and learning resources, respectively. The approach used on teaching resources is based on machine learning models with labels, while the approach used on learning resources is based on graph model without labels. Findings – From the teaching resources, the methods used by the authors can accurately extract keywords with only 10 per cent labeled data. The authors find a characteristic of the data that the resources of various forms, e.g. subtitles and PPTs, should be separately considered because they have the different model ability. From the learning resources, the keywords extracted from MOOC forums are not as domain-specific as those extracted from teaching resources, but they can reflect the topics which are lively discussed in forums. Then instructors can get feedback from the indication. The authors implement two

  7. The Lure of Extractive Natural Resource Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Lars; Kjær, Anne Mette; Therkildsen, Ole

    Natural resource-driven development in Africa has emerged as a hot topic. The hope is that extractive industries will generate foreign revenues, create jobs and boost economic growth – but how can the possibilities best be exploited for industrial development purposes?......Natural resource-driven development in Africa has emerged as a hot topic. The hope is that extractive industries will generate foreign revenues, create jobs and boost economic growth – but how can the possibilities best be exploited for industrial development purposes?...

  8. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  9. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  10. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  11. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  12. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  13. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  14. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  15. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  16. Quantum Phase Extraction in Isospectral Electronic Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    Quantum phase is not a direct observable and is usually determined by interferometric methods. We present a method to map complete electron wave functions, including internal quantum phase information, from measured single-state probability densities. We harness the mathematical discovery of drum-like manifolds bearing different shapes but identical resonances, and construct quantum isospectral nanostructures possessing matching electronic structure but divergent physical structure. Quantum measurement (scanning tunneling microscopy) of these 'quantum drums' [degenerate two-dimensional electron states on the Cu(111) surface confined by individually positioned CO molecules] reveals that isospectrality provides an extra topological degree of freedom enabling robust quantum state transplantation and phase extraction.

  17. Electron beam extraction from a HVPES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marghitu, S; Cramariuc, R [Accelerators Laboratory, Institute of Physics and Technology for Radiation Devices, PO Box MG-06, R-76900 Bucharest (Romania); Nicolescu, I; Niculescu, M [Institute of Research and Design for Electrical Engineering, ICPE - Electrostatica, Splaiul Unirii 313, Sect. 3, R-74204 Bucharest (Romania)

    1997-12-31

    The results of the research concerning the extraction system of the fast electrons from a cold cathode high voltage glow discharge plasma electron source (HVPES) are presented. For using the electron beam in a more flexible way, that is changing the shape of the minimum cross-section, (or beam cross-over), of the beam in a sample S frontal plane, without perturbing the discharge parameters, some modifications to a reference internal geometry were tested. Finally, a geometry was found in which the discharge volume may be separated in two parts, one, `a discharge space`, filled with plasma and fast electrons and another, `working space`, occupied specially by the fast electron beam. In this new geometry the electrical discharge parameters, I{sub d} - discharge current, U{sub d} - discharge voltage, were the same as for the reference geometry. (authors) 5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Electron beam extraction from a HVPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marghitu, S.; Cramariuc, R.; Nicolescu, I.; Niculescu, M.

    1996-01-01

    The results of the research concerning the extraction system of the fast electrons from a cold cathode high voltage glow discharge plasma electron source (HVPES) are presented. For using the electron beam in a more flexible way, that is changing the shape of the minimum cross-section, (or beam cross-over), of the beam in a sample S frontal plane, without perturbing the discharge parameters, some modifications to a reference internal geometry were tested. Finally, a geometry was found in which the discharge volume may be separated in two parts, one, 'a discharge space', filled with plasma and fast electrons and another, 'working space', occupied specially by the fast electron beam. In this new geometry the electrical discharge parameters, I d - discharge current, U d - discharge voltage, were the same as for the reference geometry. (authors)

  19. Political ecologies of resource extraction: Agendas pendientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Bebbington

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research related to extractive industries has grown significantly over the last decade. As the commodities boom appears to be winding down, this essay outlines areas for potential future research. Emphasis is placed on the need for research on: the relationships among extractivism, climate change and societal transitions; the aggregate effects of the commodity boom on the environment, on societal structures, on elite formation and on cultural politics; the implications of resource extraction on the couplings of space and power at different scales and with particular reference to the Colombian peace process; and the gendered and generation dimensions of the effects of extractivism on rights and citizenship. The paper calls for on-going collaborations among scholars and activists, for greater collaboration among social and bio-physical scientists, for comparative analysis with regions beyond Latin America and for innovative ways of bridging research and the public sphere. Resumen: Ecologías políticas de la extracción de recursos: Agendas pendientes Las investigaciones relacionadas con las industrias extractivas han aumentado considerablemente durante la última década. Como el boom de las materias primas está tocando su fin, este ensayo señala áreas que se prestan a posibles investigaciones en el futuro. Se pone el énfasis en la necesidad de investigar: las relaciones entre el extractivismo, el cambio climático y las transiciones sociales; los efectos agregados del boom de las materias primas en el medio ambiente, en las estructuras sociales, en la formación de élites y en las políticas culturales; las implicaciones de la extracción de recursos en las relaciones entre espacio y poder a distintas escalas y refiriéndose especialmente al proceso de paz colombiano; y las dimensiones generizadas y generacionales de los efectos del extractivismo en los derechos y en la ciudadanía. Este artículo hace un llamamiento a colaboraciones

  20. Extracting electron backscattering coefficients from backscattered electron micrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zupanic, F.

    2010-01-01

    Electron backscattering micrographs possess the so-called Z-contrast, carrying information about the chemical compositions of phases present in microstructures. The intensity at a particular point in the backscattered electron micrograph is proportional to the signal detected at a corresponding point in the scan raster, which is, in turn, proportional to the electron backscattering coefficient of a phase at that point. This article introduces a simple method for extracting the electron backscattering coefficients of phases present in the microstructure, from the backscattered electron micrographs. This method is able to convert the micrograph's greyscale to the backscattering-coefficient-scale. The prerequisite involves the known backscattering coefficients for two phases in the micrograph. In this way, backscattering coefficients of other phases can be determined. The method is unable to determine the chemical compositions of phases or the presence of an element only from analysing the backscattered electron micrograph. Nevertheless, this method was found to be very powerful when combined with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the calculations of backscattering coefficients. - Research Highlights: →A simple method for extracting the electron backscattering coefficients →The prerequisite is known backscattering coefficients for two phases →The information is complementary to the EDS-results. →This method is especially useful when a phase contains a light element (H, Li, Be, and B)

  1. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  2. Leasing policies for the extractive resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.; Johnson, S.R.

    1976-01-01

    Much of the available analysis of policies for the disposal of publicly held resources is based on comparatively straightforward extensions of the neoclassical pricing and allocation theory. As such, these analyses have to a large extent not fully incorporated the fact that firms normally acquire rights to these resources in sealed tender markets. In this paper, a simple bidding model is used to show that the choice of disposal policies can influence the firm's bid and also the public revenues obtained from the sale of the resource. It is additionally shown that the implications of such policy choices are conditioned by the firm's attitudes towards risk. Finally, it is argued that a modification of existing prescriptions may be necessary if a more realistic specification of the disposal problem taking account of the sealed tender market in which rights are obtained, is considered. ?? 1976 Annals of Regional Science.

  3. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  4. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  5. Extract from IAEA's Resources Manual in Nuclear Medicine - Part 2. - Human Resources Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency is now engaged in finalizing a reference manual in nuclear medicine, entitled, 'Resources Manual in Nuclear Medicine'. Several renowned professionals from all over the world, from virtually all fields of nuclear medicine have contributed to this manual. The World Journal of Nuclear Medicine will publish a series of extracts from this manual as previews. This is the second extract from the Resources Manual, Part-2 of the chapter on Human Resources Development. (author)

  6. Stresses in the foil of an electron accelerator extraction channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abroyan, M.A.; Makarenko, T.I.; Tokmakov, I.L.

    1983-01-01

    Stresses in the foil of an electron accelerator extraction channel are assessed with account of contributions of thermal expansion and stress concentrations during switchings. Optimization of extraction grid parameters of the electron accelerator extraction channel and choice of foil material for high current electron beam is conducted. It is suggested that an extraction grid with circular cells and Al-Mg foil should be used. A simple formula applicable for design calculations is proposed for evaluation of stress concentration coefficient during phase switchings

  7. Thallium in mineral resources extracted in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojakowska I.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thallium concentrations in primary mineral commodities extracted in Poland and processed in high temperatures were determined by ICP-MS method. Samples of hard and brown coal, copper-silver and zinclead ores, argillaceous and calcareous rocks of different genesis and age were analyzed. The highest thallium concentrations occur in the zinc-lead ores, the average content being of 52.1 mg/kg. The copper ores contain in average 1.4 mg/kg of thallium. Hard coals from the Upper Silesian Coal Basin display higher thallium content than those exploited in the Lublin Coal Basin. Brown coals from Turow deposit distinguish by much higher values, 0.7 mg/kg Tl, than those from huge Bełchatów and smaller Konin-Turek region deposits. Average thallium concentrations in clays used for ceramic materials are lower than 1 mg/kg, except of Mio-Pliocene Slowiany deposit. The average content of thallium in the studied limestone and dolomite raw materials for cement, lime, and metallurgical flux, and refractories is very low in comparison to the average amounts in the world carbonate rocks.

  8. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  9. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  10. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  11. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  12. Natural Resource Extraction, Armed Violence, and Environmental Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Bonds, Eric; Clark, Katherine

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this article is to demonstrate that environmental sociologists cannot fully explain the relationship between humans and the natural world without theorizing a link between natural resource extraction, armed violence, and environmental degradation. The authors begin by arguing that armed violence is one of several overlapping mechanisms that provide powerful actors with the means to (a) prevail over others in conflicts over natural resources and (b) ensure that natural resources critical to industrial production and state power continue to be extracted and sold in sufficient quantities to promote capital accumulation, state power, and ecological unequal exchange. The authors then identify 10 minerals that are critical to the functioning of the U.S. economy and/or military and demonstrate that the extraction of these minerals often involves the use of armed violence. They further demonstrate that armed violence is associated with the activities of the world's three largest mining companies, with African mines that receive World Bank funding, and with petroleum and rainforest timber extraction. The authors conclude that the natural resource base on which industrial societies stand is constructed in large part through the use and threatened use of armed violence. As a result, armed violence plays a critical role in fostering environmental degradation and ecological unequal exchange.

  13. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  14. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  15. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  16. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  17. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  18. Gaussian white noise as a resource for work extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechant, Andreas; Baule, Adrian; Sasa, Shin-Ichi

    2017-03-01

    We show that uncorrelated Gaussian noise can drive a system out of equilibrium and can serve as a resource from which work can be extracted. We consider an overdamped particle in a periodic potential with an internal degree of freedom and a state-dependent friction, coupled to an equilibrium bath. Applying additional Gaussian white noise drives the system into a nonequilibrium steady state and causes a finite current if the potential is spatially asymmetric. The model thus operates as a Brownian ratchet, whose current we calculate explicitly in three complementary limits. Since the particle current is driven solely by additive Gaussian white noise, this shows that the latter can potentially perform work against an external load. By comparing the extracted power to the energy injection due to the noise, we discuss the efficiency of such a ratchet.

  19. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  20. Resource Disambiguator for the Web: Extracting Biomedical Resources and Their Citations from the Scientific Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Burak Ozyurt

    Full Text Available The NIF Registry developed and maintained by the Neuroscience Information Framework is a cooperative project aimed at cataloging research resources, e.g., software tools, databases and tissue banks, funded largely by governments and available as tools to research scientists. Although originally conceived for neuroscience, the NIF Registry has over the years broadened in the scope to include research resources of general relevance to biomedical research. The current number of research resources listed by the Registry numbers over 13K. The broadening in scope to biomedical science led us to re-christen the NIF Registry platform as SciCrunch. The NIF/SciCrunch Registry has been cataloging the resource landscape since 2006; as such, it serves as a valuable dataset for tracking the breadth, fate and utilization of these resources. Our experience shows research resources like databases are dynamic objects, that can change location and scope over time. Although each record is entered manually and human-curated, the current size of the registry requires tools that can aid in curation efforts to keep content up to date, including when and where such resources are used. To address this challenge, we have developed an open source tool suite, collectively termed RDW: Resource Disambiguator for the (Web. RDW is designed to help in the upkeep and curation of the registry as well as in enhancing the content of the registry by automated extraction of resource candidates from the literature. The RDW toolkit includes a URL extractor from papers, resource candidate screen, resource URL change tracker, resource content change tracker. Curators access these tools via a web based user interface. Several strategies are used to optimize these tools, including supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms as well as statistical text analysis. The complete tool suite is used to enhance and maintain the resource registry as well as track the usage of individual

  1. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  2. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  3. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  4. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  5. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  6. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  7. The extraction of natural resources. The role of thermodynamic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roma, Antonio [Dipartimento di Economia Politica, Universita degli Studi di Siena (Italy); London Business School (United Kingdom); Pirino, Davide [Dipartimento di Fisica ' Enrico Fermi' , Universita degli Studi di Pisa (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    The modelling of production in microeconomics has been the subject of heated debate. The controversial issues include the substitutability between production inputs, the role of time and the economic consequences of irreversibility in the production process. A case in point is the use of Cobb-Douglas type production functions, which completely ignore the physical process underlying the production of a good. We examine these issues in the context of the production of a basic commodity (such as copper or aluminium). We model the extraction and the refinement of a valuable substance which is mixed with waste material, in a way which is fully consistent with the physical constraints of the process. The resulting analytical description of production unambiguously reveals that perfect substitutability between production inputs fails if a corrected thermodynamic approach is used. We analyze the equilibrium pricing of a commodity extracted in an irreversible way. We force consumers to purchase goods using energy as the means of payment and force the firm to account in terms of energy. The resulting market provides the firm with a form of reversibility of its use of energy. Under an energy numeraire, energy resources will naturally be used in a more parsimonious way. (author)

  8. Selected social phenomena following the extraction of mineral resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocoń Paweł

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The author, due to the didactic needs and seeing a small gap in the way of presenting scientific data on the area of social science, have decided to present this work hoping that it will influence on widening both the social science and geography knowledge of the recipients, having connected the development and creation of certain social phenomena with particular economic activity, that is, the extraction of mineral resources. The aim of the hereby text is to present such social phenomena like organizational culture, discourse and social capital. The notions mentioned above ought to concern not only students, but also the specialists and scientists dealing with any of those two fields, as it seems prudent to follow the path of closely connecting two major issues emerging from two distinctively separate areas of science if that may help to better understand how such mixture influence people’s behaviour and allows to draw conclusion on the effect such actions may have on community or society. Moreover, such fact was prior for the author to decide to work on the problem of protests for mining in the future. On the other hand, the article may help in organizing the process of exploitation of mineral resources in the different organizations involved in this type of activity.

  9. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. ► Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. ► Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. ► Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. ► Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  10. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  11. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  12. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  13. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  14. Electron current extraction from a permanent magnet waveguide plasma cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherford, B. R.; Foster, J. E. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Kamhawi, H. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    An electron cyclotron resonance plasma produced in a cylindrical waveguide with external permanent magnets was investigated as a possible plasma cathode electron source. The configuration is desirable in that it eliminates the need for a physical antenna inserted into the plasma, the erosion of which limits operating lifetime. Plasma bulk density was found to be overdense in the source. Extraction currents over 4 A were achieved with the device. Measurements of extracted electron currents were similar to calculated currents, which were estimated using Langmuir probe measurements at the plasma cathode orifice and along the length of the external plume. The influence of facility effects and trace ionization in the anode-cathode gap are also discussed.

  15. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  16. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  17. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  18. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  19. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  20. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  1. Statistical Feature Extraction and Recognition of Beverages Using Electronic Tongue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. PANCHARIYA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach for extraction of features from data generated from an electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry. In this approach statistical features of the meaningful selected variables from current response signals are extracted and used for recognition of beverage samples. The proposed feature extraction approach not only reduces the computational complexity but also reduces the computation time and requirement of storage of data for the development of E-tongue for field applications. With the reduced information, a probabilistic neural network (PNN was trained for qualitative analysis of different beverages. Before the qualitative analysis of the beverages, the methodology has been tested for the basic artificial taste solutions i.e. sweet, sour, salt, bitter, and umami. The proposed procedure was compared with the more conventional and linear feature extraction technique employing principal component analysis combined with PNN. Using the extracted feature vectors, highly correct classification by PNN was achieved for eight types of juices and six types of soft drinks. The results indicated that the electronic tongue based on large amplitude pulse voltammetry with reduced feature was capable of discriminating not only basic artificial taste solutions but also the various sorts of the same type of natural beverages (fruit juices, vegetable juices, soft drinks, etc..

  2. Review of Biohydrometallurgical Metals Extraction from Polymetallic Mineral Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Watling

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review has as its underlying premise the need to become proficient in delivering a suite of element or metal products from polymetallic ores to avoid the predicted exhaustion of key metals in demand in technological societies. Many technologies, proven or still to be developed, will assist in meeting the demands of the next generation for trace and rare metals, potentially including the broader application of biohydrometallurgy for the extraction of multiple metals from low-grade and complex ores. Developed biotechnologies that could be applied are briefly reviewed and some of the difficulties to be overcome highlighted. Examples of the bioleaching of polymetallic mineral resources using different combinations of those technologies are described for polymetallic sulfide concentrates, low-grade sulfide and oxidised ores. Three areas for further research are: (i the development of sophisticated continuous vat bioreactors with additional controls; (ii in situ and in stope bioleaching and the need to solve problems associated with microbial activity in that scenario; and (iii the exploitation of sulfur-oxidising microorganisms that, under specific anaerobic leaching conditions, reduce and solubilise refractory iron(III or manganese(IV compounds containing multiple elements. Finally, with the successful applications of stirred tank bioleaching to a polymetallic tailings dump and heap bioleaching to a polymetallic black schist ore, there is no reason why those proven technologies should not be more widely applied.

  3. Sustainable Development Strategy for Russian Mineral Resources Extracting Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotsenko, Elena; Ezdina, Natalya; Prilepskaya, Angelina; Pivnyk, Kirill

    2017-11-01

    The immaturity of strategic and conceptual documents in the sphere of sustainable development of the Russian economy had a negative impact on long-term strategic forecasting of its neo-industrialization. At the present stage, the problems of overcoming the mineral and raw material dependence, the negative structural shift of the Russian economy, the acceleration of the rates of economic growth, the reduction of technological gap from the developed countries become strategically in demand. The modern structure of the Russian economy, developed within the framework of the proposed market model, does not generate a sustainable type of development. It became obvious that in conditions of the market processes' entropy, without neo-industrial changes, the reconstruction of industry on a new convergence-technological basis and without increasing the share of high technology production the instability of macroeconomic system, the risks of environmental and economic security of Russia are growing. Therefore, today we need a transition from forming one industry development strategy to the national one that will take into account both the social and economic and environmental challenges facing Russia as a mineral resources extracting country.

  4. Translating the extractive resources to economic growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This gives the continent both the potential for, and threat to, growth/development. Natural resources yield “rents,” or profits from their production, which are crucial for resource-led development. The literature on the “rentier state” and how resource rents interact with institutions and political economy dynamics shows that rent ...

  5. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  6. Electron beam extraction system with a ring radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auslender, V.L.; Kuksanov, N.K.; Polyakov, V.A.; Salimov, R.A.; Chertok, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    Description and results of testings of two electron beam extraction systems for shaping of a circular irradiation field are given. One of the systems contains three 20 cm long outlet windows arranged at 120 deg angle with respect to each other. Tests at the ILU-6 accelerator have shown that the given system provides 150 mm zone irradiation from three sides. Beam utilization factor when irradiating three 40 mm dia tubes amounted to 35% which provides capacity of 2.5 txMrad/h at 20 kW beam power. The other extraction system includes two C-form magnets producing nonuniform and opposing magnetic fields. This system tests at the EhLV-2 accelerator have shown that at 0.8-1.5 MeV electron energy it is possible to irradiate of 60 and 100 mm dia objects, accordingly. The system may be used together with both constant-action and pulse-action accelerators having extraction with linear scanning [ru

  7. Electronic techniques for subsea oil exploration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Subsea oil exploration and extraction is becoming increasingly difficult, costly, and dangerous. Electronics is contributing to make offshore work easier and safer. It is used for positioning ships or oil rigs, for remotely controlling well-heads and tool reentry operations, for pipelaying operations, and for monitoring underwater equipment. It is also tending to replace men in diving operations. The specific achievements of THOMPSON--CSF in this field are described. Fully automated operation of the winches on the ETPM 1601 barge proved successful during a recent pipelaying operation. The technique used by THOMPSON--CSF in this venture allowed a single operator to control all the maneuvers. These are briefly described. (MCW)

  8. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. In-Situ Resource Utilization: Water Extraction from Regolith

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Several technologies are being evaluated to extract water from a variety of water-bearing extraterrestrial soils, including near-surface granular and hard hydrated...

  10. Value of sensitive in-situ environmental assets in energy resource extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thampapillai, Dodo J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of energy resources and the preservation of sensitive in-situ environmental assets are invariably mutually exclusive alternatives. The opportunity cost value of preserving the environmental assets can be assessed by recourse to resource rent taxes, and threshold values. The case study analysis carried out in this paper suggests that the preservation of these assets could be justifiable on the grounds of “acceptable sacrifice”. - Highlights: ► Resource rents owed to the state from energy resource extraction can be significant. ► Benefits if mining energy resources are over-stated when the role of sensitive environmental assets is ignored. ► Threshold values could help to resolve conflicts between environmental preservation and resource extraction.

  11. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  12. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  13. Towards a fluid and multiscalar governance of extractive resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political geographies of oil investigate extractive value chains with an emphasis on governance and scales, analysing the role that territories and especially spatial networks play in these dynamics. While underlining the limits and gaps of territorial governance, as it is nowadays theorized and used in the academic literature, ...

  14. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  15. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  16. Mining Matters : Natural Resource Extraction and Local Business Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, Ralph; Poelhekke, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the impact of local mining activity on the business constraints experienced by 22,150 firms across eight resource-rich countries. We find that with the presence of active mines, the business environment in the immediate vicinity (<20 km) of a firm deteriorates but business constraints of

  17. Modern Trends of Additional Professional Education Development for Mineral Resource Extracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Olga; Frolova, Victoria; Merzlikina, Elena

    2017-11-01

    The article contains the results of development of additional professional education research, including the field of mineral resource extracting in Russia. The paper describes the levels of education received in Russian Federation and determines the place and role of additional professional education among them. Key factors influencing the development of additional professional education are identified. As a result of the research, the authors proved the necessity of introducing additional professional education programs on educational Internet platforms for mineral resource extracting.

  18. On the Optimal Taxation of an Exhaustible Resource Under Monopolistic Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daubanes, J.

    2007-01-01

    In a simple model of resource depletion (isoelastic demand and constant unit extraction cost), we fully characterize the set of linear effiency-inducing tax/subsidy schemes. We show that this set is infinite and all the larger as the cost of extraction is low. Depending on the magnitude of the

  19. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  20. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  1. Maximum wind energy extraction strategies using power electronic converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy Qing

    2003-10-01

    This thesis focuses on maximum wind energy extraction strategies for achieving the highest energy output of variable speed wind turbine power generation systems. Power electronic converters and controls provide the basic platform to accomplish the research of this thesis in both hardware and software aspects. In order to send wind energy to a utility grid, a variable speed wind turbine requires a power electronic converter to convert a variable voltage variable frequency source into a fixed voltage fixed frequency supply. Generic single-phase and three-phase converter topologies, converter control methods for wind power generation, as well as the developed direct drive generator, are introduced in the thesis for establishing variable-speed wind energy conversion systems. Variable speed wind power generation system modeling and simulation are essential methods both for understanding the system behavior and for developing advanced system control strategies. Wind generation system components, including wind turbine, 1-phase IGBT inverter, 3-phase IGBT inverter, synchronous generator, and rectifier, are modeled in this thesis using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulation results have been verified by a commercial simulation software package, PSIM, and confirmed by field test results. Since the dynamic time constants for these individual models are much different, a creative approach has also been developed in this thesis to combine these models for entire wind power generation system simulation. An advanced maximum wind energy extraction strategy relies not only on proper system hardware design, but also on sophisticated software control algorithms. Based on literature review and computer simulation on wind turbine control algorithms, an intelligent maximum wind energy extraction control algorithm is proposed in this thesis. This algorithm has a unique on-line adaptation and optimization capability, which is able to achieve maximum wind energy conversion efficiency through

  2. Rights to land and extractive resources in Tanzania (1/2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundsbæk Pedersen, Rasmus; Jacob, Thabit; Maganga, Faustin

    The extractive industries are becoming more important for Tanzania’s economy. Mining and gas production contribute to generating jobs and revenues. However, investments may also pose a threat to existing rights to land, not least because it is the state that owns the sub-soil resources. Generally......, it prioritises extraction over the protection of surface land rights. Based on reviews of the extractive sector legislation, the extractive sector literature, and the literature on mainland Tanzania’s economic development models, this paper focused on how the rights of different stakeholders have changed over......, it has been on its way back in again through state co-ownership in joint-venture operations. This is documented in a second paper, Rights to land and natural resources in Tanzania (2/2): The return of the state....

  3. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  4. Optimal Extraction and Taxation of Strategic Natural Resources: A Differential Game Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Pemy, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal extraction and taxation of nonrenewable natural resources. It is well known the market values of the main strategic resources such as oil, natural gas, uranium, copper,...,etc, fluctuate randomly following global and seasonal macro-economic parameters, these values are modeled using Markov switching L\\'evy processes. We formulate this problem as a differential game where the two players are the mining company whose aim is to maximize the revenues generated from ...

  5. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  6. Information retrieval and terminology extraction in online resources for patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seljan, Sanja; Baretić, Maja; Kucis, Vlasta

    2014-06-01

    Terminology use, as a mean for information retrieval or document indexing, plays an important role in health literacy. Specific types of users, i.e. patients with diabetes need access to various online resources (on foreign and/or native language) searching for information on self-education of basic diabetic knowledge, on self-care activities regarding importance of dietetic food, medications, physical exercises and on self-management of insulin pumps. Automatic extraction of corpus-based terminology from online texts, manuals or professional papers, can help in building terminology lists or list of "browsing phrases" useful in information retrieval or in document indexing. Specific terminology lists represent an intermediate step between free text search and controlled vocabulary, between user's demands and existing online resources in native and foreign language. The research aiming to detect the role of terminology in online resources, is conducted on English and Croatian manuals and Croatian online texts, and divided into three interrelated parts: i) comparison of professional and popular terminology use ii) evaluation of automatic statistically-based terminology extraction on English and Croatian texts iii) comparison and evaluation of extracted terminology performed on English manual using statistical and hybrid approaches. Extracted terminology candidates are evaluated by comparison with three types of reference lists: list created by professional medical person, list of highly professional vocabulary contained in MeSH and list created by non-medical persons, made as intersection of 15 lists. Results report on use of popular and professional terminology in online diabetes resources, on evaluation of automatically extracted terminology candidates in English and Croatian texts and on comparison of statistical and hybrid extraction methods in English text. Evaluation of automatic and semi-automatic terminology extraction methods is performed by recall

  7. The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current collection and a simple method to extract an electron range for any generation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahreche, A.; Beggah, Y.; Corkish, R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of electron range on electron beam induced current (EBIC) is demonstrated and the problem of the choice of the optimal electron ranges to use with simple uniform and point generation function models is resolved by proposing a method to extract an electron range-energy relationship (ERER). The results show that the use of these extracted electron ranges remove the previous disagreement between the EBIC curves computed with simple forms of generation model and those based on a more realistic generation model. The impact of these extracted electron ranges on the extraction of diffusion length, surface recombination velocity and EBIC contrast of defects is discussed. It is also demonstrated that, for the case of uniform generation, the computed EBIC current is independent of the assumed shape of the generation volume. -- Highlights: → Effect of electron ranges on modeling electron beam induced current is shown. → A method to extract an electron range for simple form of generation is proposed. → For uniform generation the EBIC current is independent of the choice of it shape. → Uses of the extracted electron ranges remove some existing literature ambiguity.

  8. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Updated United Nations Framework Classification for reserves and resources of extractive industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.; Blaise, J.R.; Blystad, P.; Kelter, D.; Gabrielyants, G.; Heiberg, S.; Martinez, A.; Ross, J.G.; Slavov, S.; Subelj, A.; Young, E.D.

    2004-01-01

    The United Nations have studied how the oil and gas resource classification developed jointly by the SPE, the World Petroleum Congress (WPC) and the American Association of Petroleum Geologists (AAPG) could be harmonized with the United Nations Framework Classification (UNFC) for Solid Fuel and Mineral Resources (1). The United Nations has continued to build on this and other works, with support from many relevant international organizations, with the objective of updating the UNFC to apply to the extractive industries. The result is the United Nations Framework Classification for Energy and Mineral Resources (2) that this paper will present. Reserves and resources are categorized with respect to three sets of criteria: ??? Economic and commercial viability ??? Field project status and feasibility ??? The level of geologic knowledge The field project status criteria are readily recognized as the ones highlighted in the SPE/WPC/AAPG classification system of 2000. The geologic criteria absorb the rich traditions that form the primary basis for the Russian classification system, and the ones used to delimit, in part, proved reserves. Economic and commercial criteria facilitate the use of the classification in general, and reflect the commercial considerations used to delimit proved reserves in particular. The classification system will help to develop a common understanding of reserves and resources for all the extractive industries and will assist: ??? International and national resources management to secure supplies; ??? Industries' management of business processes to achieve efficiency in exploration and production; and ??? An appropriate basis for documenting the value of reserves and resources in financial statements.

  10. Stream mesocosm response sensitivities to simulated ion stress in produced waters from resource extraction activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase the ecological relevance of laboratory exposures intent on determining species sensitivity to ion stress from resource extraction activities we have conducted several stream mesocosm dosing studies that pair single-species and community-level responses in-situ and all...

  11. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  12. Observation of a very high electron current extraction mode in a hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1993-01-01

    Earlier results by Hershcovitch, Kovarik, and Prelec in J. Appl. Phys. 67, 671 (1990) proved that, in a low-pressure operating mode, hollow cathode discharges can have a two-component electron population, one of which is that of ''fast'' electrons having an energy corresponding to the cathode potential and a thermal spread of about 0.13 eV, which could form a basis for an excellent electron gun. Investigations of extracted electron currents in this low pressure mode indicate the existence of a narrow pressure range characterized by very high electron current extraction

  13. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  14. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  15. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of extraction system on grid of plasma generator electrode for pulsed electron irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agus Purwadi; Bambang Siswanto; Lely Susita RM; Suprapto; Anjar Anggraini H; Ihwanul Azis

    2016-01-01

    It has been carried out design and study of electron extraction particularly for obtaining the electron extraction current via grid on the Plasma Generator Chamber (PGC) caused by the existence of extraction voltage U_a. Electrons of plasma surface emitted to acceleration region through emission window and then extracted acceleration by extraction voltage U_a through foil window to atmospheric region for being applied to any target. Applied extraction voltage U_a on PEI device influences the forming and energy value of electron extraction current I_e then the PGC dimension influences the product of thermal electron emission current I_e_0. It has been determinated the PGC geometry and dimension of producing electron extraction current based on arc discharge plasma current to desire on any plasma density. From the calculation yield for the value of plasma density n_e = 78 x 10"1"0 cm"-"3 and the arc discharge current Id = 80 A (pulse width τ = 100µs) used the PGC size of (80 x 20 x 40) cm"3. Emission window area of (65 x 15) cm"2 located on the low part surface of PGC is covered by a grid sheet made of stainless steel of rectangular shape and the distance of one grid hole to another is 0,25 mm each others. Current value of I_e beside depends on plasma parameters also depends on the size of grid holes. The optimum of geometry and size is rectangular with its side size of p ≈ 0,50 mm with the plasma parameters optimum (density value n_e = 10"1"6 m"-"3 and electron temperature T_e = 6 eV). From the initial experiment yields obtained that the electron extraction efficiency value α = 37,25 % on extraction voltage V = 3 kV. (author)

  17. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  18. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  19. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-05

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additives. The present paper provides comprehensive information on the green extraction technologies of natural antioxidants, assessment of antioxidant activity at chemical and cellular based levels and their main resources from food and medicinal plants.

  20. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  1. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  2. Abnormally large energy spread of electron beams extracted from plasma sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, H [Technische Univ., Vienna (Austria). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Physik

    1976-07-01

    Intense electron beams extracted from DUOPLASMATRON-plasma cathodes show a high degree of modulation in intensity and an abnormally large energy spread; these facts cannot be explained simply by the temperature of the plasma electrons and the discharge structure. However, an analysis of the discharge stability behaviour and the interaction of source- and extracted beam-plasma leads to an explanation for the observed effects.

  3. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  4. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  5. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  6. Electron Acceleration In Impulsive Solar Flares : extract of a thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lenters, G T

    1999-01-01

    Impulsive solar flares generate a wide range of photon and particle emissions and hence provide an excellent backyard laboratory for studying particle acceleration processes in astrophysical plasmas. The source of the acceleration remains unidentified, but the basic observations are clear: (1) Hard X-ray and gamma-ray line emission occur simultaneously, indicating that electron and ion acceleration must occur simultaneously; (2) the electron and ion precipitation rates at the foot-points of the flare must be extremely large to account for the photon emission (∼1037 electrons s −1 and ∼1035 protons s−1, respectively), which means that replenishment of the acceleration region (which contains ≈1037 fully ionized hydrogen atoms) is a crucial issue; and (3) there are enhancements of the heavy ion abundances relative to normal coronal values. The basic model proposed assumes the generation of extremely low levels of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turb...

  7. New resource nationalism? Continuity and change in Tanzania’s extractive industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Thabit; Pedersen, Rasmus Hundsbæk

    2018-01-01

    in July 2017. Combined, the new acts aim to regain the loss of the country’s sovereignty over its resources, first and foremost by opening the renegotiation of existing contracts and removing firms’ access to international arbitration. Such actions have renewed the debate on resource nationalism......, with some political commentators referring to ‘a new resource nationalism’, supposedly marking a break with the previous administration. By analysing changes in extractive governance in recent years, this article argues that, whereas some new features related to the current President’s personality...... and populist style may explain some of the new nationalism, the continuities from previous administration are more pronounced. This can be seen in the repeated calls for a tougher fiscal take, involvement of state-owned enterprises and presidents’ direct involvement in deal-making, all of which were already...

  8. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  9. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  10. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  11. The design of the extraction window of high power electron accelerator used in flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Tongqi; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai; Hu Wei; Sun Guangkui; Shi Weiguo; Li Minxi; Zhang Yutian; Pu Gengqiang

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the pollution caused by industrial exhaust gas, especially, the air pollution and acid rain resulting from the sulfur of exhaust gas, is increasingly drawing people's attention. The flue gas desulfurization by electron beam produced by high-power electron accelerator has the characteristics of high efficiency and non-secondary contamination. As one of the most pivotal part of accelerator, the service lifetime of this extraction window directly effects the stable operation of the device. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the advantages, material selecting, structure, replacing, maintaining of the extraction window of high-power electron accelerator developed by SINAP. (authors)

  12. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  13. Seeing is Believing: Simulating Resource-Extraction Problems With Gams Ide and Microsoft Excel in an Intermediate-Level Natural-Resource Economics Course

    OpenAIRE

    Caplan, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we provide several GAMS- and Excel-based resource-extraction models that can be used in an intermediate-level natural-resource economics course to numerically solve a host of exhaustible- and replenishable-resource problems, and thereby help verify the intuition and symbolic solutions provided in the textbook. The specific textbook from which the examples are drawn is Tietenberg (2003).

  14. Offline combination of pressurized fluid extraction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy for antioxidant activity of grape skin extracts assessment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polovka, M.; Šťavíková, Lenka; Hohnová, Barbora; Karásek, Pavel; Roth, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1217, č. 51 (2010), s. 7990-8000 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/1536; GA MŠk LC06023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : pressurized fluid extraction * electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy * antioxidant activity Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.194, year: 2010

  15. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  16. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  17. Extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodman, M.R.; Gordon, L.I.; Chen, A.C.T.

    1979-02-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of U.S. coastal waters as a uranium resource and with the selection of a suitable site for construction of a large-scale plant for uranium extraction. Evaluation of the resource revealed that although the concentration of uranium is quite low, about 3.3 ppB in seawater of average oceanic salinity, the amount present in the total volume of the oceans is very great, some 4.5 billion metric tons. Of this, perhaps only that uranium contained in the upper 100 meters or so of the surface well-mixed layer should be considered accessible for recovery, some 160 million tonnes. The study indicated that open ocean seawater acquired for the purpose of uranium extraction would be a more favorable resource than rivers entering the sea, cooling water of power plants, or the feed or effluent streams of existing plants producing other products such as magnesium, bromine, or potable and/or agricultural water from seawater. Various considerations led to the selection of a site for a pumped seawater coastal plant at a coastal location. Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico was selected. Recommendations are given for further studies. 21 figures, 8 tables.

  18. Extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodman, M.R.; Gordon, L.I.; Chen, A.C.T.

    1979-02-01

    This report deals with the evaluation of U.S. coastal waters as a uranium resource and with the selection of a suitable site for construction of a large-scale plant for uranium extraction. Evaluation of the resource revealed that although the concentration of uranium is quite low, about 3.3 ppB in seawater of average oceanic salinity, the amount present in the total volume of the oceans is very great, some 4.5 billion metric tons. Of this, perhaps only that uranium contained in the upper 100 meters or so of the surface well-mixed layer should be considered accessible for recovery, some 160 million tonnes. The study indicated that open ocean seawater acquired for the purpose of uranium extraction would be a more favorable resource than rivers entering the sea, cooling water of power plants, or the feed or effluent streams of existing plants producing other products such as magnesium, bromine, or potable and/or agricultural water from seawater. Various considerations led to the selection of a site for a pumped seawater coastal plant at a coastal location. Puerto Yabucoa, Puerto Rico was selected. Recommendations are given for further studies. 21 figures, 8 tables

  19. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  20. The production and extraction of polarized electrons from an optically pumped helium discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandiver, R.J.; Schearer, L.D.; Gay, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Polarized electrons are produced from interactions involving nearly 100% polarized helium 2 3 S 1 metastable atoms in a weak electrical discharge. The high metastable polarizations are obtained through the use of recently developed, high-power lasers tunable to the relevant helium transitions near 1083 nm and the development of a crossed beam pumping technique. The dominant interactions involving the 2 3 S 1 atoms and electrons are spin preserving; hence the electrons of the discharge attain a high polarization. The authors have extracted a well collimated electron beam with over 20 μA of current from the discharge. An optical polarimeter will be used to determine the polarization of the extracted electrons

  1. A solution-processed binary cathode interfacial layer facilitates electron extraction for inverted polymer solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Liu, Chunyu; Guo, Jiaxin; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin

    2018-03-15

    The charge transfer and separation are significantly affected by the electron properties of the interface between the electron-donor layer and the carrier-transporting layer in polymer solar cells (PSCs). In this study, we investigate the electron extraction mechanism of PSCs with a low temperature solution-processed ZnO/PEI as electron transport layer. The incorporation of PEI layer can decrease the work function of ZnO and reduce interfacial barrier, which facilitates electron extraction and suppresses bimolecular recombination, leading to a significant performance enhancement. Furthermore, PEI layer can induce phase separation and passivite inorganic surface trap states as well as shift the interfacial energy offset between metal oxide and organic materials. This work offers a simple and effective way to improve the charge transporting property of organic photovoltaic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.; Rodman, M.R.; Binney, S.E.

    1979-02-06

    This bibliography contains 471 references pertaining to the evaluation of U.S. territorial ocean waters as a potential uranium resource and to the selection of a site for a plant designed for the large scale extraction of uranium from seawater. This bibliography was prepared using machine literature retrieval, bibliographic, and work processing systems at Oregon State University. The literature cited is listed by author with indices to the author's countries, geographic areas of study, and to a set of keywords to the subject matter.

  3. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: evaluation of uranium resources and plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.; Rodman, M.R.; Binney, S.E.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography contains 471 references pertaining to the evaluation of U.S. territorial ocean waters as a potential uranium resource and to the selection of a site for a plant designed for the large scale extraction of uranium from seawater. This bibliography was prepared using machine literature retrieval, bibliographic, and work processing systems at Oregon State University. The literature cited is listed by author with indices to the author's countries, geographic areas of study, and to a set of keywords to the subject matter

  4. Transitioning Groundwater from an Extractive Resource to a Managed Water Storage Resource: Geology and Recharge in Sedimentary Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Maxwell, R. M.; Liu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Civilizations have typically obtained water from natural and constructed surface-water resources throughout most of human history. Only during the last 50-70 years has a significant quantity of water for humans been obtained through pumping from wells. During this short time, alarming levels of groundwater depletion have been observed worldwide, especially in some semi-arid and arid regions that rely heavily on groundwater pumping from clastic sedimentary basins. In order to reverse the negative effects of over-exploitation of groundwater resources, we must transition from treating groundwater mainly as an extractive resource to one in which recharge and subsurface storage are pursued more aggressively. However, this remains a challenge because unlike surface-water reservoirs which are typically replenished over annual timescales, the complex geologic architecture of clastic sedimentary basins impedes natural groundwater recharge rates resulting in decadal or longer timescales for aquifer replenishment. In parts of California's Central Valley alluvial aquifer system, groundwater pumping has outpaced natural groundwater recharge for decades. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been promoted to offset continued groundwater overdraft, but MAR to the confined aquifer system remains a challenge because multiple laterally-extensive silt and clay aquitards limit recharge rates in most locations. Here, we simulate the dynamics of MAR and identify potential recharge pathways in this system using a novel combination of (1) a high-resolution model of the subsurface geologic heterogeneity and (2) a physically-based model of variably-saturated, three-dimensional water flow. Unlike most groundwater models, which have coarse spatial resolution that obscures the detailed subsurface geologic architecture of these systems, our high-resolution model can pinpoint specific geologic features and locations that have the potential to `short-circuit' aquitards and provide orders

  5. Extractable proteins from electron beam (EB) irradiated natural rubber (NR) latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feroza Akhtar; Fumio Yoshii; Keizo Makuuchi

    1996-01-01

    The protein assay of natural rubber latex (NRL) vulcanized by low energy electron beam (EB, 300 keV, 30 mA) has been carried out using Bicinchoninic acid (BCA) reagent. Extractable protein in irradiated latex film was determined by measuring the absorption of colored solution at 562 nm using UV spectrometer. The effect of various radiation doses on the extractable protein content of NRL was investigated. It was ,found that the quantities of extractable protein increases with radiation dose. When compared with ,gamma-ray irradiated samples the same trend was observed. Electron beam irradiated latex films are leached in 1% (ammonia water for various lengths of time. From the results it was established that within 2 hours of leaching in ammonia water most of the extractable protein (96%) were removed from rubber film

  6. Studies for determining thermal ion extraction potential for aluminium plasma generated by electron beam evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V Dileep; Barnwal, Tripti A; Mukherjee, Jaya; Gantayet, L M, E-mail: dileepv@barc.gov.i [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2010-02-01

    For effective evaporation of refractory metal, electron beam is found to be most suitable vapour generator source. Using electron beam, high throughput laser based purification processes are carried out. But due to highly concentrated electron beam, the vapour gets ionised and these ions lead to dilution of the pure product of laser based separation process. To estimate the concentration of these ions and extraction potential requirement to remove these ions from vapour stream, experiments have been conducted using aluminium as evaporant. The aluminium ingots were placed in water cooled copper crucible. Inserts were used to hold the evaporant, in order to attain higher number density in the vapour processing zone and also for confining the liquid metal. Parametric studies with beam power, number density and extraction potential were conducted. In this paper we discuss the trend of the generation of thermal ions and electrostatic field requirement for extraction.

  7. Electron current extraction from radio frequency excited micro-dielectric barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh; Kushner, Mark J.; Leoni, Napoleon; Birecki, Henryk; Gila, Omer

    2013-01-01

    Micro dielectric barrier discharges (mDBDs) consist of micro-plasma devices (10–100 μm diameter) in which the electrodes are fully or partially covered by dielectrics, and often operate at atmospheric pressure driven with radio frequency (rf) waveforms. In certain applications, it may be desirable to extract electron current out of the mDBD plasma, which necessitates a third electrode. As a result, the physical structure of the m-DBD and the electron emitting properties of its materials are important to its operation. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computer simulation of current extraction from mDBDs sustained in atmospheric pressure N 2 will be discussed. The mDBDs are sandwich structures with an opening of tens-of-microns excited with rf voltage waveforms of up to 25 MHz. Following avalanche by electron impact ionization in the mDBD cavity, the plasma can be expelled from the cavity towards the extraction electrode during the part of the rf cycle when the extraction electrode appears anodic. The electron current extraction can be enhanced by biasing this electrode. The charge collection can be controlled by choice of rf frequency, rf driving voltage, and permittivity of the dielectric barrier.

  8. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  9. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David

    2017-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. The bioregional assessment programme has modelled the impacts of coal seam gas development on surface and groundwater resources in three regions of eastern Australia, namely the Clarence-Moreton, Gloucester, and Namoi regions. This presentation will discuss the

  10. Information Extraction of Tourist Geological Resources Based on 3d Visualization Remote Sensing Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.

    2018-04-01

    Tourism geological resources are of high value in admiration, scientific research and universal education, which need to be protected and rationally utilized. In the past, most of the remote sensing investigations of tourism geological resources used two-dimensional remote sensing interpretation method, which made it difficult for some geological heritages to be interpreted and led to the omission of some information. This aim of this paper is to assess the value of a method using the three-dimensional visual remote sensing image to extract information of geological heritages. skyline software system is applied to fuse the 0.36 m aerial images and 5m interval DEM to establish the digital earth model. Based on the three-dimensional shape, color tone, shadow, texture and other image features, the distribution of tourism geological resources in Shandong Province and the location of geological heritage sites were obtained, such as geological structure, DaiGu landform, granite landform, Volcanic landform, sandy landform, Waterscapes, etc. The results show that using this method for remote sensing interpretation is highly recognizable, making the interpretation more accurate and comprehensive.

  11. Synthesis, extraction and electronic structure of Ce@C2n

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing-Bing; Zou, Guang-Tian; Yang, Hai-Bin; Yu, San; Lu, Jin-Shan; Liu, Zi-Yang; Liu, Shu-Ying; Xu, Wen-Guo

    1997-11-01

    In view of the growing interest in endohedral lanthanide fullerenes, Ce, as a typical+ 4 oxidation state lanthanide element, has been systematically studied. The synthesis, extraction and electronic structure of Ce @ C2n are investigated. Soot containing Ce@C2n was synthesized in high yield by carbonizing CeO2-containing graphite rods and are back-burning the CeC2-enriched cathode deposit in a DC arc plasma apparatus. Ce@C2n dominated by Ce@C82, can be efficiently extracted from the insoluble part of the soot after toluene Soxhlet extraction by pyridine at high temperature and high pressure in a closed vessel. About 60% Ce@C2n(2n = 82, 80, 78, 76) and 35% Ce@C82 can be enriched in the pyridine extract. This fact is identified by desorption electron impact mass spectrometry (DEI MS). The electronic structure of Ce@C2n is analyzed by using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) of pyridine-free film. It is suggested that the encapsulated Ce atom is in a charge state close to+ 3 and was effectively protected from reaction with water and oxygen by the enclosing fullerene cage. Unlike theoretical expectation, the electronic state of Ce@C82 is formally described as Ce+3@C3-82.

  12. Tables extracted from Messel and Crawford for electrons incident on 1 radiation length Pb plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos, J.

    1977-01-01

    Tables were extracted from the extensive tables of Messel and Crawford. The numbers given should be good for 1 r.1. Ta plates and may be helpful when looking at showers in these plates. The tables should be largely self-explanatory. An example is given of how to use these tables given a 1000-MeV incident electron

  13. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  14. A study on effective extraction of isoflavones from soy germ using the electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Hoon [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Tae Beom [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Wook [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: swkim@kaeri.re.kr; Hur, Min Goo; Yang, Seung Dae [Radiation Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongup-si, 580-185 Jeollabuk-do (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Kook Hyun [Department of Chemistry, Dongguk University, 3 Pildong, Chunggu, Seoul 100-715 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yukook@dongguk.edu

    2009-07-15

    Soy germ was irradiated with 2 MeV electron beam with different doses ranging from 1 to 20 kGy. The amount of isoflavones from irradiated soy germ was compared with those from natural soy germ by extracting with ethanol and methanol. The changed amounts of isoflavones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with standard calibration curve. Each extract of soy germ was quantified for antioxidant activity with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method. The amount of isoflavones was found to be increased after electron-beam irradiation. Particularly ethanol extract with 15 kGy irradiated soy germ contained the maximum amount of isoflavones. Antioxidant activity of irradiated soy germ was higher than that of natural soy germ.

  15. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  16. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  17. Multiaperture ion beam extraction from gas-dynamic electron cyclotron resonance source of multicharged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, A.; Dorf, M.; Zorin, V.; Bokhanov, A.; Izotov, I.; Razin, S.; Skalyga, V.; Rossbach, J.; Spaedtke, P.; Balabaev, A.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source with quasi-gas-dynamic regime of plasma confinement (ReGIS), constructed at the Institute of Applied Physics, Russia, provides opportunities for extracting intense and high-brightness multicharged ion beams. Despite the short plasma lifetime in a magnetic trap of a ReGIS, the degree of multiple ionization may be significantly enhanced by the increase in power and frequency of the applied microwave radiation. The present work is focused on studying the intense beam quality of this source by the pepper-pot method. A single beamlet emittance measured by the pepper-pot method was found to be ∼70 π mm mrad, and the total extracted beam current obtained at 14 kV extraction voltage was ∼25 mA. The results of the numerical simulations of ion beam extraction are found to be in good agreement with experimental data

  18. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  19. The status quo and the prospect of extraction of resources in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Shunsaku

    1991-01-01

    Sea is the natural storage, and the enormous quantity of river water which contains the large amount of ions and compositions flows into sea, accordingly it has been calculated that seawater is replaced with new water in about 4 x 10 4 years. Sea is always agitated by tidal current, therefore, the composition of seawater is nearly uniform in most sea areas. Almost all elements existing in nature are dissolved in seawater, and the state of dissolution of main elements and their concentration are shown. The total quantity of seawater is as enormous as 1.35 x 10 9 km 3 , accordingly even in the trace elements in seawater, the total dissolved amount is enormous. For Japan which lacks resources, it is the important subject to develop the technology of effectively utilizing the resources in sea. The methods of obtaining sodium chloride, magnesium, bromine and potassium, which are the main components of seawater, are briefly explained. As the extraction of trace components, gold and silver, uranium, lithium, boron, strontium, vanadium, molybdenum, yttrium and heavy water are taken up. The optimal system must be built including the development of high performance adsorbents. (K.I.)

  20. Managing Nature–Business as Usual: Resource Extraction Companies and Their Representations of Natural Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to knowledge of how one category of business organization, very large, British-based, natural resource extraction corporations, has begun to manage its operations for sustainability. The object of study is a large volume of texts that make representations of the managing-for-sustainability practices of these multinational corporations (MNCs. The macro-level textual analysis identifies patterns in the wording of the representations of practice. Hajer’s understanding of discourse, in which ideas are contextualized within social processes of practice, provides the theoretical approach for discourse analysis that gives an insight into how they understand and practice sustainability. Through this large-scale discourse analysis, illustrated in the article with specific textual examples, one can see that these natural resource MNCs are developing a vocabulary and a “grammar” which enables them to manage natural spaces in the same way that they are able to manage their own far-flung business operations. They make simplified representations of the much more complex natural landscapes in which their operations are sited and these models of nature can then be incorporated into the corporations’ operational management processes. Their journey towards sustainability delivers, in practice, the management of nature as business continues as usual.

  1. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  2. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  3. Investigation of the extraction of short diffusion lengths from simulated electron-beam induced current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wee, D.; Parish, G.; Nener, B. [Microelectronics Research Group, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, 6009 Crawley (Perth) (Australia)

    2010-10-15

    This paper reports on the investigations via 2-D simulation into the accuracy of diffusion length extraction from scanning electron-beam induced current measurements when the diffusion length, L is very short. L is extracted by using the direct method proposed by Chan et al.[1] and later refined by Kurniawan and Ong[2] to take finite junction depth into account. The 2-D simulations were undertaken using Synopsys {sup registered} Sentaurus TCAD and a realistic electron-hole pair generation volume was created using CASINO v2.42[3], a Monte Carlo Scanning Electron Microscope interaction simulation software, and imported into Sentaurus. The voltage and diameter of the electron beam and diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of the semiconductor materials were varied in the simulations to determine the errors in the diffusion length extracted from the EBIC signals as a function of these parameters. The results of the simulation show that the accuracy of the method proposed in[1] is reasonably accurate and that the beam voltage and spot size do not have significant effects on the accuracy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Investigation of the extraction of short diffusion lengths from simulated electron-beam induced current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wee, D.; Parish, G.; Nener, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the investigations via 2-D simulation into the accuracy of diffusion length extraction from scanning electron-beam induced current measurements when the diffusion length, L is very short. L is extracted by using the direct method proposed by Chan et al.[1] and later refined by Kurniawan and Ong[2] to take finite junction depth into account. The 2-D simulations were undertaken using Synopsys registered Sentaurus TCAD and a realistic electron-hole pair generation volume was created using CASINO v2.42[3], a Monte Carlo Scanning Electron Microscope interaction simulation software, and imported into Sentaurus. The voltage and diameter of the electron beam and diffusion length and surface recombination velocity of the semiconductor materials were varied in the simulations to determine the errors in the diffusion length extracted from the EBIC signals as a function of these parameters. The results of the simulation show that the accuracy of the method proposed in[1] is reasonably accurate and that the beam voltage and spot size do not have significant effects on the accuracy (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  6. Radioprotective efficacy of Carica papaya (L.) leaf extract in electron beam irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-sickling properties and has shown to increase the platelets in patients with dengue fever. In the present study, the radioprotective effects and radioadaptive response of Carica papaya (L.) was evaluated in mice irradiated with electron beam radiation. Radiation induced hematological suppression was seen at sublethal doses of 6 Gy irradiated groups. There was a decrease in hemoglobin, red blood cell, total white blood cell count and platelet counts in irradiated groups whereas papaya leaf extract enhanced platelet levels indicated thrombopoietic effect

  7. Scanning electron microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abdul; Thurairajah, Nalina

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and on partially purified cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1)); with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL(-1) and 4 mg mL(-1))]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract) was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (pPiper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL(-1) corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL(-1) of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. The SEM analysis confirmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are involved.

  8. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  9. Feasibility of Automatic Extraction of Electronic Health Data to Evaluate a Status Epilepticus Clinical Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Baria; Paolicchi, Juliann; Pon, Steven; Howell, Joy D; Grinspan, Zachary M

    2016-05-01

    Status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in children. Pediatric medical centers often develop protocols to standardize care. Widespread adoption of electronic health records by hospitals affords the opportunity for clinicians to rapidly, and electronically evaluate protocol adherence. We reviewed the clinical data of a small sample of 7 children with status epilepticus, in order to (1) qualitatively determine the feasibility of automated data extraction and (2) demonstrate a timeline-style visualization of each patient's first 24 hours of care. Qualitatively, our observations indicate that most clinical data are well labeled in structured fields within the electronic health record, though some important information, particularly electroencephalography (EEG) data, may require manual abstraction. We conclude that a visualization that clarifies a patient's clinical course can be automatically created using the patient's electronic clinical data, supplemented with some manually abstracted data. Future work could use this timeline to evaluate adherence to status epilepticus clinical protocols. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the antioxidant activity of extracts from Citrus unshiu pomaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong-Wan [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byung Cheol [Laboratory for Quantum Optics, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-Hwa [School of Bioresource Sciences, Andong National University, Andong 760-749 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki-Chang [Chemistry and Biotechnology Examinations Bureau, Korean Intellectual Property Office, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Cheol [Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Kyungnam University, Masan 631-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sclee@kyungnam.ac.kr

    2008-01-15

    After electron-beam irradiation of citrus pomaces (CP), the total phenolic content (TPC), radical scavenging activity (RSA), and reducing power (RP) were evaluated. When CP were irradiated at 37.9 kGy; the TPC, RSA and RP of water extract of CP increased from 6543.2 to 7405.4 {mu}M, 37.6% to 52.9%, and 0.64 to 0.90, respectively, compared with the non-irradiated control. The results indicate that the electron-beam irradiation can be an efficient process for increasing the antioxidant activity of CP.

  11. Using Three-Body Recombination to Extract Electron Temperatures of Ultracold Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, R. S.; Zhang, X. L.; Rolston, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    Three-body recombination, an important collisional process in plasmas, increases dramatically at low electron temperatures, with an accepted scaling of T e -9/2 . We measure three-body recombination in an ultracold neutral xenon plasma by detecting recombination-created Rydberg atoms using a microwave-ionization technique. With the accepted theory (expected to be applicable for weakly coupled plasmas) and our measured rates, we extract the plasma temperatures, which are in reasonable agreement with previous measurements early in the plasma lifetime. The resulting electron temperatures indicate that the plasma continues to cool to temperatures below 1 K

  12. Separation and Recovery of Precious Metals from Leach Liquors of Spent Electronic Wastes by Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi Hong; Wang, Lingyun; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Solvent extraction was employed to recover precious metals (Au (III), Pd (II) and Pt (IV)) from the leach solution of spent electronic wastes containing Cu (II), Cr (III) and Fe (III). First, pure Fe (III) and Au (III) were recovered by simultaneous extraction with Cyanex 923 followed by selective stripping with HCl and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Second, Pt (IV), Pd (II) and Cu (II) were extracted by Alamine 336 from the raffinate. After the removal of Cu (II) by stripping with weak HCl, Pd (II) and Pt (IV) were separately stripped by controlling the concentration of thiourea in the mixture with HCl. A process flow sheet for the separation of precious metals was proposed.

  13. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  14. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  15. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  16. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Photographs and drawings were edited into a book in relation with a joint project for environment preservation technologies in high-efficiency extraction and treatment of mineral resources, and detail design for a pilot plant. The book classified the related devices into fabricated devices, purchased devices and electrical devices, and contains detailed drawings and photographs thereof. (NEDO)

  17. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  18. A new approach to solvent extraction: Electronic pulses shatter water droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have invented a device that represents a significant improvement in the area of solvent extraction, which is a widely used technique to recover valuable materials from a liquid stream. Known as the Emulsion Phase Contactor (EPC), the technology uses a pulsed electrical field to enhance recovery of chemicals (either valuable products or pollutants) that are dissolved in water. Because of its higher efficiency, the recovery method can be accomplished in much smaller vessels than those used in conventional solvent extractors, which use mechanical processes to recover chemicals. When water droplets carrying the substance to be extracted are introduced into the EPC, they are shattered by electronic pulses that produce water particles in the 1- to 5-micron size range. These water particles are up to 100 times smaller than those created by mechanical agitation. These tiny particles produce a much greater surface area than can be achieved using chemical agitators, enabling the chemical solvent to extract more material from the water base. In addition, the EPC uses much less power than mechanical methods and has no moving parts; therefore, servicing requirements for the extraction apparatus are expected to be significantly reduced. ORNL researchers initially tested the technology at a very small scale, and evaluated its capabilities in extracting high-value substances such as isotopes, pharmaceuticals, and precious metals. Further work has indicated that the EPC can be applied on a much larger scale to handle more common chemical substances

  19. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  20. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  1. Protective effect of allium sativum ethanol extract on cultured human lymphocytes against electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Shama; Shetty, Sukanya; Suchetha Kumari; Madhu, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The development of radioprotective agent has been the subject of intense research because exposure to ionizing radiation causes DNA damage which may cause mutation and ultimately leads to cancer, on the other hand radiotherapy has become an integral part in treatment of cancer which uses ionizing radiations like X rays, gamma rays to kill the cancer cells. Amifostine is a well-known radioprotector which is clinically approved. There are many other radioprotectors like cysteine, cystamine, serotine but they are not used because of its normal tissue toxicity. Allium sativum is commonly known as garlic which has already been reported for its medicinal properties. In this study we evaluated radioprotection property of Allium sativum on DNA damage caused by electron beam radiation in cultured human lymphocytes. Allium sativum ethanol extract was used for this study. Cell viability was performed by MTT assay. DNA damage was assessed by comet assay parameters. The cultured lymphocytes were incubated with different concentrations 10, 50 and 100 μg/mL of Allium sativum extracts for 2, 4, 6 and 24 hour time intervals. Treatment of lymphocytes with various concentration of Allium sativum extract resulted in significant decrease in the level of DNA damage (Percentage tail DNA 6%) and increase in cell viability 93% (p>0.05) compare to the radiation control group. Results of this study revealed that Allium sativum protects cultured lymphocytes when exposed to electron beam radiation at its sub lethal dose. (author)

  2. Dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the electron-extraction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iñarrea, Manuel [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Lanchares, Víctor [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Palacián, Jesús [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo, E-mail: josepablo.salas@unirioja.es [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-01-23

    We study the classical dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the presence of a constant electric field in the electron-extraction situation [1], e.g., when the field attracts the electron to the vacuum. From a dynamical point of view, this field configuration provides a dynamics richer than in the usual ion-extraction scheme, because, depending on the values of field and the atom–surface distance, the atom can be ionized only towards the metal surface, only to the vacuum or to the both sides. The evolution of the phase space structure as a function of the atom–surface distance is explored in the bound regime of the atom. In the high energy regime, the ionization mechanism is also investigated. We find that the classical results of this work are in good agreement with the results obtained in the wave-packet propagation study carried out by So et al. [1]. - Highlights: • We study a classical hydrogen atom near a metal surface plus a electric field. • We explore the phase space structure as a function of the field strength. • We find most of the electronic orbits are oriented along the field direction. • We study the ionization of the atom for several atom–surface distances. • This classical study is in good agreement with the quantum results.

  3. ZnO nanostructures as electron extraction layers for hybrid perovskite thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Katerina; Sarang, Som; Tung, Vincent; Lu, Jennifer; Ghosh, Sayantani

    Optimum interaction between light harvesting media and electron transport layers is critical for the efficient operation of photovoltaic devices. In this work, ZnO layers of different morphologies are implemented as electron extraction and transport layers for hybrid perovskite CH3NH3PbI3 thin films. These include nanowires, nanoparticles, and single crystalline film. Charge transfer at the ZnO/perovskite interface is investigated and compared through ultra-fast characterization techniques, including temperature and power dependent spectroscopy, and time-resolved photoluminescence. The nanowires cause an enhancement in perovskite emission, which may be attributed to increased scattering and grain boundary formation. However, the ZnO layers with decreasing surface roughness exhibit better electron extraction, as inferred from photoluminescence quenching, reduction in the number of bound excitons, and reduced exciton lifetime in CH3NH3PbI3 samples. This systematic study is expected to provide an understanding of the fundamental processes occurring at the ZnO-CH3NH3PbI3 interface and ultimately, provide guidelines for the ideal configuration of ZnO-based hybrid Perovskite devices. This research was supported by National Aeronautics and Space administration (NASA) Grant No: NNX15AQ01A.

  4. Flavins contained in yeast extract are exploited for anodic electron transfer by Lactococcus lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Masaki; Freguia, Stefano; Wang, Yung-Fu; Tsujimura, Seiya; Kano, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Cyclic voltammograms of yeast extract-containing medium exhibit a clear redox peak around -0.4V vs. Ag|AgCl. Fermentative bacterium Lactococcus lactis was hereby shown to exploit this redox compound for extracellular electron transfer towards a graphite anode using glucose as an electron donor. High performance liquid chromatography revealed that this may be a flavin-type compound. The ability of L. lactis to exploit exogenous flavins for anodic glucose oxidation was confirmed by tests where flavin-type compounds were supplied to the bacterium in well defined media. Based on its mid-point potential, riboflavin can be regarded as a near-optimal mediator for microbially catalyzed anodic electron transfer. Riboflavin derivative flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was also exploited by L. lactis as a redox shuttle, unlike flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), possibly due to the absence of a specific transporter for the latter. The use of yeast extract in microbial fuel cell media is herein discouraged based on the related unwanted artificial addition of redox mediators which may distort experimental results. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on tooth extraction wound healing in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Akiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    The wound of the upper jaw 3 days after the first molar tooth extraction in female rats was exposed to 1,500 rads (Group 2) and 2,000 rads (Group 3) of the 10 MeV electron beams, and its pathohistological changes were compared with those of rats with the tooth extraction alone (control group). In the control group, the tooth extraction wound was covered with epithelium 10 days later and new bones were formed 17 days later. Wound healing with the epithelium was seen in all irradiated rats 24 days later. The formation of the new teeth was seen 24 days later in the Group 2 and 38 days later in Group 3. Cell infiltration under the epithelial layers was still observed in some of the Group 3, although the wound was covered with epithelium, and the new bone covering the extraction wound was formed 38 days later. Healing was prolonged in Group 3, as compared with that in Group 2. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  7. Magnetic field extraction of trap-based electron beams using a high-permeability grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, N. C.; Danielson, J. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    A method to form high quality electrostatically guided lepton beams is explored. Test electron beams are extracted from tailored plasmas confined in a Penning-Malmberg trap. The particles are then extracted from the confining axial magnetic field by passing them through a high magnetic permeability grid with radial tines (a so-called “magnetic spider”). An Einzel lens is used to focus and analyze the beam properties. Numerical simulations are used to model non-adiabatic effects due to the spider, and the predictions are compared with the experimental results. Improvements in beam quality are discussed relative to the use of a hole in a high permeability shield (i.e., in lieu of the spider), and areas for further improvement are described

  8. Extraction of High Charge Electron Bunch from the ELSA RF Injector Comparison Between Simulation and Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaire, J; Binet, A; Lagniel, J M; Le Flanchec, V; Pichoff, N

    2004-01-01

    A new scheme based on a photoinjector and a RF linear accelerator operating at 352 MHz has been recently proposed as a versatile radiographic facility. Beam pulses of 60 ns duration contain 20 succesive electron bunches which will be extracted at 2.5 MeV from a photoinjector then accelerated through the next structure to the final energy of 51 MeV. Bunches carrying 100 nC are required for this purpose. As a first demonstrating step, 50 nC electron bunches have been produced and accelerated to 2.5 MeV with the 144 MHz ELSA photoinjector at Bruyères le Chatel. For this experiment, we compare the results and the numerical simulations made with PARMELA, MAGIC and MAFIA codes.

  9. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  10. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  11. Direct extraction of electron parameters from magnetoconductance analysis in mesoscopic ring array structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, A.; Faniel, S.; Mineshige, S.; Kawabata, S.; Saito, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Sekine, Y.; Sugiyama, H.; Koga, T.

    2018-05-01

    We report an approach for examining electron properties using information about the shape and size of a nanostructure as a measurement reference. This approach quantifies the spin precession angles per unit length directly by considering the time-reversal interferences on chaotic return trajectories within mesoscopic ring arrays (MRAs). Experimentally, we fabricated MRAs using nanolithography in InGaAs quantum wells which had a gate-controllable spin-orbit interaction (SOI). As a result, we observed an Onsager symmetry related to relativistic magnetic fields, which provided us with indispensable information for the semiclassical billiard ball simulation. Our simulations, developed based on the real-space formalism of the weak localization/antilocalization effect including the degree of freedom for electronic spin, reproduced the experimental magnetoconductivity (MC) curves with high fidelity. The values of five distinct electron parameters (Fermi wavelength, spin precession angles per unit length for two different SOIs, impurity scattering length, and phase coherence length) were thereby extracted from a single MC curve. The methodology developed here is applicable to wide ranges of nanomaterials and devices, providing a diagnostic tool for exotic properties of two-dimensional electron systems.

  12. Extracting limits for the difuse non-electron neutrino flux from SNO data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguez, B.S.R.; Kemp, E.; Peres, O.L.G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin

    2009-07-01

    Full text. There is a prediction of a diffuse neutrino flux yield from the time integration of all supernova already exploded in the past governed by stellar formation and supernovae occurrence rates. The spectral characteristics of these neutrinos differ from those from recent supernovae mainly in two features: the reduction in their fluxes and their energy 'redshift' due the expansion of the universe. Thus, despite the fact that one single supernova is a transient state, their cumulative effect produces a steady flux of diffuse neutrinos everywhere in universe. These neutrinos have never been observed before. Only upper limits on their fluxes have been reported by the collaborations operating neutrino telescopes. Recently the SNO experiment have made an analysis where the total flux of diffuse electron neutrinos has an upper limit of phi{sub e} <= 61-93 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, depending on a specific supernova model. At the present, the best limit for the diffuse flux of non-electron neutrinos is phi{sub x} <= 10{sub 4} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, resulted from an analysis of the Super-Kamiokande data. In this work we have extended the SNO analysis including the elastic scattering on electrons via neutral current interactions to extract information on diffuse flux of the non-electron neutrino flavours (i.e. muon and tauon neutrinos). We make a comparison among our results and others from different experiments (LVD, SK, LSD). (author)

  13. Insuring Water Sustainability for Resource Extraction in the New Mexico Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Schuhen, M. D.; Lofton, O. W.; Walker, L. T. N.; Johnson, P. B.; Land, L. A.; Herrell, D.

    2017-12-01

    Advancements in directional drilling and well completion technologies have resulted in an exponential growth in the use of hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas extraction. Within the New Mexico portion of the Permian Basin (see figure), water demand to complete each hydraulically fractured well is estimated to average 7.3 acre-feet (2.4 million gallons), which has resulted in an increase in the regional water demand of over 5000 acre-feet per year. The rise in demand along with proposed rule changes that govern the regulation and management of hydraulic fracturing on Federal and Indian lands (40 CFS 3160) has created concern as to the regions ability to meet the demand in a manner that can sustainably meet the needs of the variety of water users and other stakeholders in the region while also protecting human health and the environment. Funded by the Bureau of Land Management who is charged with managing the regions water resources on Federal lands, this project is addressing those concerns using a multi-disciplinary approach that synthesizes data collection, field verification, and system dynamics (SD) modeling to better understand the dynamics of the regional water supply and demand under different management, policy, and growth scenarios. The scientific challenge has been in bringing together disparate data in a manner that exposes the temporal and spatial dynamics of the regional water supply in the context of increasing demands and changing policy and management scenarios. Field verification and testing activities are used to evaluate existing borehole data to insure that the data are accurate and up to date. The SD model simulates forecasted increases in drilling activity and water demand relative to each water source to identify areas that are most vulnerable and to estimate risk to water sustainability. Key to this is the models ability to seamlessly handle uncertainty such that it produces probabilistic outputs that allow decision makers to explore and

  14. Sodium bromide electron-extraction layers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Zhi; Qu, Bo; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Zhang, Lipei; Gong, Qihuang

    2014-01-01

    Inexpensive and non-toxic sodium bromide (NaBr) was introduced into polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL) and the electron extraction characteristics of the NaBr CBL were investigated in detail. The PSCs based on NaBr CBL with different thicknesses (i.e., 0 nm, 0.5 nm, 1 nm, and 1.5 nm) were prepared and studied. The optimal thickness of NaBr was 1 nm according to the photovoltaic data of PSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current density (J sc ), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC with 1 nm NaBr were evaluated to be 0.58 V, 7.36 mA/cm 2 , 0.63, and 2.70%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference device with the commonly used LiF. The optimized photovoltaic performance of PSC with 1 nm NaBr was ascribed to the improved electron transport and extraction capability of 1 nm NaBr in PSCs. In addition, the NaBr CBL could prevent the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor into the active layer and prolong the lifetime of the devices to some extent. Therefore, NaBr layer could be considered as a promising non-toxic CBL for PSCs in future

  15. Plasmonically sensitized metal-oxide electron extraction layers for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, S; Becker, T; Zilberberg, K; Behrendt, A; Polywka, A; Heiderhoff, R; Görrn, P; Riedl, T

    2015-01-16

    ZnO and TiOx are commonly used as electron extraction layers (EELs) in organic solar cells (OSCs). A general phenomenon of OSCs incorporating these metal-oxides is the requirement to illuminate the devices with UV light in order to improve device characteristics. This may cause severe problems if UV to VIS down-conversion is applied or if the UV spectral range (λ work, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are used to plasmonically sensitize metal-oxide based EELs in the vicinity (1-20 nm) of the metal-oxide/organic interface. We evidence that plasmonically sensitized metal-oxide layers facilitate electron extraction and afford well-behaved highly efficient OSCs, even without the typical requirement of UV exposure. It is shown that in the plasmonically sensitized metal-oxides the illumination with visible light lowers the WF due to desorption of previously ionosorbed oxygen, in analogy to the process found in neat metal oxides upon UV exposure, only. As underlying mechanism the transfer of hot holes from the metal to the oxide upon illumination with hν < Eg is verified. The general applicability of this concept to most common metal-oxides (e.g. TiOx and ZnO) in combination with different photoactive organic materials is demonstrated.

  16. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  17. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  18. Design of scan-horn and beam extraction window for a 3 MeV electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodke, S.R.; Acharya, S.; Puthran, G.P.; Majumder, R.; Mittal, K.C.; Mahendra Kumar; Sethi, R.C.

    2003-01-01

    A 3 MeV, 30 kW D.C. electron accelerator is being developed for installation at the Electron Beam Center at Khargar, Navi Mumbai to cater to industrial uses like cable irradiation. This paper describes the design of the scan horn and beam extraction window of this accelerator. (author)

  19. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  20. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  1. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  2. A Microcontroller Operated Device for the Generation of Liquid Extracts from Conventional Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chastain A; Bokota, Rachael E; Majeste, Andrew E; Murfee, Walter L; Wang, Shusheng

    2018-01-18

    Electronic cigarettes are the most popular tobacco product among middle and high schoolers and are the most popular alternative tobacco product among adults. High quality, reproducible research on the consequences of electronic cigarette use is essential for understanding emerging public health concerns and crafting evidence based regulatory policy. While a growing number of papers discuss electronic cigarettes, there is little consistency in methods across groups and very little consensus on results. Here, we describe a programmable laboratory device that can be used to create extracts of conventional cigarette smoke and electronic cigarette aerosol. This protocol details instructions for the assembly and operation of said device, and demonstrates the use of the generated extract in two sample applications: an in vitro cell viability assay and gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. This method provides a tool for making direct comparisons between conventional cigarettes and electronic cigarettes, and is an accessible entry point into electronic cigarette research.

  3. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  4. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  5. Environmentally Benign, Rapid, and Selective Extraction of Gold from Ores and Waste Electronic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chunlin; Sun, Huaming; Liu, Wen-Jing; Guan, Binbin; Deng, Xudong; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of gold from ores and electronic waste is an important topic worldwide, as this precious metal has immense value in a variety of fields. However, serious environmental pollution and high energy consumption due to the use of toxic oxidation reagents and harsh reaction conditions is a well-known problem in the gold industry. Herein, we report a new chemical method based on the combined use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and pyridine (Py), which has a greatly decreased environmental impact and reagent cost, as well as mild reaction requirements. This method can directly leach Au 0 from gold ore and electronic waste to form Au III in water. The process is achieved in a yield of approximately 90 % at room temperature and a nearly neutral pH. The minimum dose of NBS/Py is as low as 10 mm, which exhibits low toxicity towards mammalian cells and animals as well as aquatic creatures. The high leaching selectivity of Au over other metals during gold leaching is demonstrated, showing that this method has great potential for practical industrial application towards the sustainable refining of gold from ores and electronic waste. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Influence of Electron Irradiation Factor on Haruan Traditional Extract (HTE) for Oral Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang; Abdul Manan, M.J.; Kamaruddin Hashim

    2014-01-01

    Haruan or Channa striatus is source of protein, Haruan extract is well known in the region for having a medicinal quality and widely consumed. It is great advantage if this product could be administered by oral rather than injection because oral route of drug delivery is still preferred by the vast majority of patients. However protein and peptides can be denatured or degraded by conditions included the acidic pH of the stomach and presence of endogenous enzymes. In order to protect or prevent digestion and degradation of the protein in the stomach and to ensure the protein reach to gastro intestinal (GI) tract, CMS nano gel system was developed using electron irradiation method. However stability of HTE toward radiation needed to be ensured before being used for the next level. In this study, the HTE was radiated with electron radiation. Its stability was analysed in term of physical aspect by looking at the colour difference, melting point by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in terms of chemical aspect which include molecular bonds by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results of this study were that no apparent colour difference was seen on the HTE before and after irradiation. Those are supported by FTIR and DSC analysis results that showed that there were no change of molecular bonds and melting point, compared between no irradiation and irradiation HTE during electron irradiation up to 10 kGy. Statistically the test showed no significant difference at p<0.005 within melting temperatures. (author)

  7. Influence of Electron Beam Irradiation on Peptide of Haruan Traditional Extract (HTE) for Oral Drug Delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim Ijang

    2015-01-01

    Haruan or Channa striatus is source of protein, Haruan extract is well known in the region for having a medicinal quality and widely consumed. It is great advantage if this product could be administered by oral rather than injection because oral route of drug delivery is still preferred by the vast majority of patients. However protein and peptides can be denatured or degraded by conditions included the acidic pH of the stomach and presence of endogenous enzymes. In order to protect or prevent digestion and degradation of the protein in the stomach and to ensure the protein reach to gastro intestinal (GI) tract, CMS nano gel system was developed using electron irradiation method. However stability of HTE toward radiation needed to be ensured before being used for the next level. In this study, the HTE was radiated with electron radiation. Its stability was analysed in term of physical aspect by looking at the colour difference, melting point by using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and in terms of chemical aspect which include molecular bonds by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). The results of this study were that no apparent colour difference was seen on the HTE before and after irradiation. Those are supported by FTIR and DSC analysis results that showed that there were no change of molecular bonds and melting point, compared between no irradiation and irradiation HTE during electron irradiation up to 30 KGy. Statistically the test showed no significant difference at p<0.005 within melting temperatures. (author)

  8. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  9. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Extracting Wair from the electron beam measurements of Domen and Lamperti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Cojocaru, Claudiu D; Ross, Carl K

    2018-01-01

    The average energy expended by an energetic electron to create an ion pair in dry air, W air , is a key quantity in radiation dosimetry. Although W air is well established for electron energies up to about 3 MeV, there is limited data for higher energies. The measurements by Domen and Lamperti [Med. Phys. 3, 294-301 (1976)] using electron beams in the energy range from 15 to 50 MeV can, in principle, be used to deduce values for W air , if the electron stopping power of graphite and air are known. A previous analysis of these data revealed an anomalous variation of 2% in W air as a function of the electron energy. We use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to reanalyze the original data and obtain new estimates for W air , and to investigate the source of the reported anomaly. Domen and Lamperti (DL) reported the ratio of the response of a graphite calorimeter to that of a graphite ionization chamber for broad beams of electrons with energies between 15 and 50 MeV and at different depths in graphite (including depths well beyond the range of the primary electrons, i.e., in the bremsstrahlung photon regime). Using a detailed EGSnrc model of the DL apparatus, as well as up-to-date stopping powers, we compute the dose ratio between the ionization chamber cavity and the calorimeter core, for plane-parallel electron beams. This dose ratio, multiplied by the DL measured ratio, provides a direct estimate for W air . Despite an improved analysis of the original work, the extracted values of W air still exhibit an increase as the mean electron energy at the point of measurement decreases below about 15 MeV. This anomalous trend is dubious physically, and inconsistent with extensive data for W air obtained at lower energies. A thorough sensitivity analysis indicates that this trend is unlikely to stem from errors in extrapolation and correction procedures, uncertainties in electron stopping powers, or bias in calorimetry or ionization chamber measurements. However, we find

  11. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  12. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  13. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  14. Laboratory simulations of the mixed solvent extraction recovery of dominate polymers in electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Bo; Lv, Xu-Dong; Yang, Wan-Dong; Ni, Hong-Gang

    2017-11-01

    The recovery of four dominant plastics from electronic waste (e-waste) using mixed solvent extraction was studied. The target plastics included polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and styrene acrylonitrile (SAN). The extraction procedure for multi-polymers at room temperature yielded PC, PS, ABS, and SAN in acceptable recovery rates (64%, 86%, 127%, and 143%, respectively, where recovery rate is defined as the mass ratio of the recovered plastic to the added standard polymer). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to verify the recovered plastics' purity using a similarity analysis. The similarities ranged from 0.98 to 0.99. Another similar process, which was denoted as an alternative method for plastic recovery, was examined as well. Nonetheless, the FTIR results showed degradation may occur over time. Additionally, the recovery cost estimation model of our method was established. The recovery cost estimation indicated that a certain range of proportion of plastics in e-waste, especially with a higher proportion of PC and PS, can achieve a lower cost than virgin polymer product. It also reduced 99.6%, 30.7% and 75.8% of energy consumptions and CO 2 emissions during the recovery of PC, PS and ABS, and reduced the amount of plastic waste disposal via landfill or incineration and associated environmental impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  16. Extraction of uranium low-grade ores from Great Divide Basin, Wyoming. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, J.C.; Nichols, I.L.; Huiatt, J.L.

    1983-04-01

    The US Bureau of Mines is investigating the leachability of carbonaceous uranium ore samples submitted by the DOE under an Interagency Agreement. Studies on eight samples from the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming, are the basis of this report. The uranium content of the eight ore samples ranged from 0.003 to 0.03% U 3 O 8 and contained 0.7 to 45% organic carbon. Experiments were performed to determine the feasibility of extracting uranium using acid leaching, roast-acid leaching and pressure leaching techniques. Acid leaching with 600 lb/ton H 2 SO 4 plus 10 lb/ton NaClO 3 for 18 h at 70 0 C extracted 65 to 83% of the uranium. One sample responded best to a roast-leach treatment. When roasting for 4 h at 500 0 C followed by acid leaching of the calcine using 600 lb/ton H 2 SO 4 , the uranium extraction was 82%. Two of the samples responded best to an oxidative pressure leach for 3 h at 200 0 C under a total pressure of 260 psig; uranium extractions were 78 and 82%

  17. Extraction of a long-pulsed intense electron beam from a pulsed plasma based on hollow cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Johshin.

    1977-05-01

    An intense electron beam (up to 1.0 kV, 0.8 kA in 0.8 cm phi) is extracted along a uniform magnetic field with a long decay time (up to 2 msec) from a pulsed high density plasma source which is produced with a fast rise time (< 100 μsec) by a secondary discharge based on a dc hollow cathode discharge. Through a back stream of ionized ions from a beam-extracting anode region where a neutral gas is fed, a space charge limit of the electron beam is so reduced that the beam current is determined by an initially injected electron flux and concentrated in a central aperture of the extracting anode. Moreover, the beam pulse width is much extended by the neutral gas feed into the anode space. (auth.)

  18. Using non-renewable resources to promote economic development: The case of stock-dependent extraction cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferson, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Various policies for using a newly discovered deposit of a non-renewable resource to promote local economic development are considered. A model of optimal extraction, in which cost depends on both current output and remaining stock levels is constructed. The model is simplified by the assumptions that prices are exogenous and that extraction cost is linear homogeneous in current output and remaining stock. Both pure depletion and combined extraction and exploration models are considered. The models are solved using the dynamic programming algorithm. The effects of taxes on profit and gross revenue are analyzed both algebraically and through numerical simulations. The conditions under which a tax on profit does not distort production are specified. The welfare costs of tax-induced distortions in extraction and exploration are discussed using simulation results. The effects on production of future prices being stochastic are discussed, and it is shown that a firm which re-optimizes each period on the basis of new information concerning that period's price will choose to restrict output below that which would have been optimal if the expected price could be forecast with certainty

  19. A methodology for the extraction of quantitative information from electron microscopy images at the atomic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo, P L; Pizarro, J; Guerrero, E; Guerrero-Lebrero, M P; Scavello, G; Yáñez, A; Sales, D L; Herrera, M; Molina, S I; Núñez-Moraleda, B M; Maestre, J M

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe a methodology developed at the University of Cadiz (Spain) in the past few years for the extraction of quantitative information from electron microscopy images at the atomic level. This work is based on a coordinated and synergic activity of several research groups that have been working together over the last decade in two different and complementary fields: Materials Science and Computer Science. The aim of our joint research has been to develop innovative high-performance computing techniques and simulation methods in order to address computationally challenging problems in the analysis, modelling and simulation of materials at the atomic scale, providing significant advances with respect to existing techniques. The methodology involves several fundamental areas of research including the analysis of high resolution electron microscopy images, materials modelling, image simulation and 3D reconstruction using quantitative information from experimental images. These techniques for the analysis, modelling and simulation allow optimizing the control and functionality of devices developed using materials under study, and have been tested using data obtained from experimental samples

  20. Sensorial analysis and electronic aroma detection to compare olive oils produced by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Freire, L. T.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensorial analysis and an aroma analysis by electronic sensory devices were used to compare olive oils produced according to two different extraction methods. The extraction methods compared were the press system and two phase decanter. Samples were taken from the harvests of 2002-2004 and the olives were all from the same variety. The variety used was the Portuguese Galega sp. Olives were picked and technologically handled under predetermined and supervised conditions. Olive oils produced were better classified when the sensory analysis by a panel was applied than when an electronic sensory analysis was performed, even after sensor optimization. This observation is in accordance with the fact that olive oil has a low volatility matrix and “flavor”, rather than aroma, can give a clearer characterization than electronic sensory analysis alone, where aroma is the main characteristic evaluated.

    El análisis sensorial y el análisis de aromas por medio de sistemas sensoriales electrónicos han sido utilizado para comparar aceites de oliva producidos a través de dos sistemas de extracción diferentes. Los métodos de extracción comparados han sido el sistema de prensas y el decantador de dos fases. Las muestras fueron producidas durante las cosechas del periodo 2002- 2004, y las aceitunas eran todas de la misma variedad portuguesa Gallega sp. Las aceitunas fueron seleccionadas y tratadas tecnológicamente bajo condiciones predeterminadas y supervisadas. Los aceites producidos resultaron mejor clasificados cuando fue aplicado el análisis sensorial por panel que cuando se utilizó el análisis con detección electrónica de aromas, incluso después de la optimización de los sensores. Esta observación está de acuerdo con el hecho de que los aceites son una matriz poco volátil y que es el “flavour”, más que el aroma, el que junto con el gusto puede proporcionar una caracterización mejor que la detección electrónica, en

  1. On the electron extraction in a large RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source for the ITER NBI system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzen, P; Wünderlich, D; Fantz, U

    2014-01-01

    The test facility ELISE, equipped with a large RF-driven ion source (1 × 0.9 m 2 ) of half the size of the ion source for the ITER neutral beam injection (NBI) system, has been constructed over the last three years at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik (IPP), Garching, and is now operational. The first measurements of the dependence of the co-extracted electron currents on various operational parameters have been performed. ELISE has the unique feature that the electron currents can be measured individually on both extraction grid segments, leading to vertical spatial resolution. Although performed in volume operation, where the negative hydrogen ions are created in the plasma volume solely, the results are very encouraging for operation with caesium, this being necessary in order to achieve the relevant negative ion currents for the ITER NBI injectors. The amount of co-extracted electrons could be suppressed sufficiently with moderate magnetic filter fields and by plasma grid bias. Furthermore, the electron extraction is more or less decoupled from the main plasma, as the observed vertical asymmetry of electron extraction is not correlated at all with the plasma asymmetry, which is anyway rather small. Both effects are superior to the experience from the small IPP prototype source; the reason for these encouraging results is most probably the larger size of the source as well as the new geometry of the source having unbiased areas in its centre. The reasons, however, for the observed asymmetry of the extracted electron currents and their dependencies on various operational parameters are not well understood. (paper)

  2. Machine Learning Methods to Extract Documentation of Breast Cancer Symptoms From Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Alexander W; Barzilay, Regina; Hughes, Kevin S; Lui, Dickson; Lorenz, Karl A; Enzinger, Andrea; Tulsky, James A; Lindvall, Charlotta

    2018-02-27

    Clinicians document cancer patients' symptoms in free-text format within electronic health record visit notes. Although symptoms are critically important to quality of life and often herald clinical status changes, computational methods to assess the trajectory of symptoms over time are woefully underdeveloped. To create machine learning algorithms capable of extracting patient-reported symptoms from free-text electronic health record notes. The data set included 103,564 sentences obtained from the electronic clinical notes of 2695 breast cancer patients receiving paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy at two academic cancer centers between May 1996 and May 2015. We manually annotated 10,000 sentences and trained a conditional random field model to predict words indicating an active symptom (positive label), absence of a symptom (negative label), or no symptom at all (neutral label). Sentences labeled by human coder were divided into training, validation, and test data sets. Final model performance was determined on 20% test data unused in model development or tuning. The final model achieved precision of 0.82, 0.86, and 0.99 and recall of 0.56, 0.69, and 1.00 for positive, negative, and neutral symptom labels, respectively. The most common positive symptoms were pain, fatigue, and nausea. Machine-based labeling of 103,564 sentences took two minutes. We demonstrate the potential of machine learning to gather, track, and analyze symptoms experienced by cancer patients during chemotherapy. Although our initial model requires further optimization to improve the performance, further model building may yield machine learning methods suitable to be deployed in routine clinical care, quality improvement, and research applications. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Research cooperation project on environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment. Detail design for pilot plant (Mechanical fabrication)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper prepared plans of the mechanical equipment in the detailed design of a pilot plant in the joint research project on the environmental protection technology for highly efficient mineral resource extraction and treatment. (NEDO)

  4. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  5. All-inorganic perovskite nanocrystal assisted extraction of hot electrons and biexcitons from photoexcited CdTe quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Navendu; De, Apurba; Samanta, Anunay

    2018-01-03

    Excitation of semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) by photons possessing energy higher than the band-gap creates a hot electron-hole pair, which releases its excess energy as waste heat or under certain conditions (when hν > 2E g ) produces multiple excitons. Extraction of these hot carriers and multiple excitons is one of the key strategies for enhancing the efficiency of QD-based photovoltaic devices. However, this is a difficult task as competing carrier cooling and relaxation of multiple excitons (through Auger recombination) are ultrafast processes. Herein, we study the potential of all-inorganic perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) of CsPbX 3 (X = Cl, Br) as harvesters of these short-lived species from photo-excited CdTe QDs. The femtosecond transient absorption measurements show CsPbX 3 mediated extraction of both hot and thermalized electrons of the QDs (under a low pump power) and (under a high pump fluence) extraction of multiple excitons prior to their Auger assisted recombination. A faster timescale of thermalized electron transfer (∼2 ps) and a higher extraction efficiency of hot electrons (∼60%) are observed in the presence of CsPbBr 3 . These observations demonstrate the potential of all-inorganic perovskite NCs in the extraction of these short-lived energy rich species implying that complexes of the QDs and perovskite NCs are better suited for improving the efficiency of QD-sensitized solar cells.

  6. A Resource Assessment Of Geothermal Energy Resources For Converting Deep Gas Wells In Carbonate Strata Into Geothermal Extraction Wells: A Permian Basin Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdlac, Richard J., Jr.

    2006-10-12

    Previously conducted preliminary investigations within the deep Delaware and Val Verde sub-basins of the Permian Basin complex documented bottom hole temperatures from oil and gas wells that reach the 120-180C temperature range, and occasionally beyond. With large abundances of subsurface brine water, and known porosity and permeability, the deep carbonate strata of the region possess a good potential for future geothermal power development. This work was designed as a 3-year project to investigate a new, undeveloped geographic region for establishing geothermal energy production focused on electric power generation. Identifying optimum geologic and geographic sites for converting depleted deep gas wells and fields within a carbonate environment into geothermal energy extraction wells was part of the project goals. The importance of this work was to affect the three factors limiting the expansion of geothermal development: distribution, field size and accompanying resource availability, and cost. Historically, power production from geothermal energy has been relegated to shallow heat plumes near active volcanic or geyser activity, or in areas where volcanic rocks still retain heat from their formation. Thus geothermal development is spatially variable and site specific. Additionally, existing geothermal fields are only a few 10’s of square km in size, controlled by the extent of the heat plume and the availability of water for heat movement. This plume radiates heat both vertically as well as laterally into the enclosing country rock. Heat withdrawal at too rapid a rate eventually results in a decrease in electrical power generation as the thermal energy is “mined”. The depletion rate of subsurface heat directly controls the lifetime of geothermal energy production. Finally, the cost of developing deep (greater than 4 km) reservoirs of geothermal energy is perceived as being too costly to justify corporate investment. Thus further development opportunities

  7. Hole and electron extraction layers based on graphene oxide derivatives for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xue, Yuhua; Gao, Yunxiang; Yu, Dingshan; Durstock, Michael; Dai, Liming

    2012-05-02

    By charge neutralization of carboxylic acid groups in graphene oxide (GO) with Cs(2)CO(3) to afford Cesium-neutralized GO (GO-Cs), GO derivatives with appropriate modification are used as both hole- and electron-extraction layers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The normal and inverted devices based on GO hole- and GO-Cs electron-extraction layers both outperform the corresponding standard BHJ solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Hole and electron extraction layers based on graphene oxide derivatives for high-performance bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun; Gao, Yunxiang; Yu, Dingshan; Dai, Liming [Center of Advanced Science and Engineering for Carbon, Department of Macromolecular, Science and Engineering, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Xue, Yuhua [Center of Advanced Science and Engineering for Carbon, Department of Macromolecular, Science and Engineering, Case School of Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials for Nano-Bio Applications, School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Zhejiang 325027 (China); Durstock, Michael [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, RXBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2012-05-02

    By charge neutralization of carboxylic acid groups in graphene oxide (GO) with Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to afford Cesium-neutralized GO (GO-Cs), GO derivatives with appropriate modification are used as both hole- and electron-extraction layers for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. The normal and inverted devices based on GO hole- and GO-Cs electron-extraction layers both outperform the corresponding standard BHJ solar cells. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Adverse Event extraction from Structured Product Labels using the Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records (ETHER)system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Kreimeyer, Kory; Foster, Matthew; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Dang, Oanh; Ly, Thomas; Wang, Wei; Forshee, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Structured Product Labels follow an XML-based document markup standard approved by the Health Level Seven organization and adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration as a mechanism for exchanging medical products information. Their current organization makes their secondary use rather challenging. We used the Side Effect Resource database and DailyMed to generate a comparison dataset of 1159 Structured Product Labels. We processed the Adverse Reaction section of these Structured Product Labels with the Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records system and evaluated its ability to extract and encode Adverse Event terms to Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms. A small sample of 100 labels was then selected for further analysis. Of the 100 labels, Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records achieved a precision and recall of 81 percent and 92 percent, respectively. This study demonstrated Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Record's ability to extract and encode Adverse Event terms from Structured Product Labels which may potentially support multiple pharmacoepidemiological tasks.

  10. First Extraction of Transversity from a Global Analysis of Electron-Proton and Proton-Proton Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2018-05-01

    We present the first extraction of the transversity distribution in the framework of collinear factorization based on the global analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering and in proton-proton collisions with a transversely polarized proton. The extraction relies on the knowledge of dihadron fragmentation functions, which are taken from the analysis of electron-positron annihilation data. For the first time, the transversity is extracted from a global analysis similar to what is usually done for the spin-averaged and helicity distributions. The knowledge of transversity is important for, among other things, detecting possible signals of new physics in high-precision low-energy experiments.

  11. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  12. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  13. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing, E-mail: renytang@163.com; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.

  14. A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: Feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Wen; Tang, Bing; Fu, Fenglian; Huang, Shaosong; Zhao, Shiyuan; Bin, Liying; Ding, Jiewei; Chen, Cuiqun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A value-added product was extracted from the municipal excess sludge. • The effective components contained in the product were mixed amino acids. • The product could provide a reliable protection to the steel from the acid medium. • A new insight into the resource recovery of excess sewage sludge was provided. - Abstract: The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process

  15. Natural Antioxidants in Foods and Medicinal Plants: Extraction, Assessment and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Ya; Meng, Xiao; Zhou, Tong; Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Hua-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Natural antioxidants are widely distributed in food and medicinal plants. These natural antioxidants, especially polyphenols and carotenoids, exhibit a wide range of biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, anti-atherosclerosis and anticancer. The effective extraction and proper assessment of antioxidants from food and medicinal plants are crucial to explore the potential antioxidant sources and promote the application in functional foods, pharmaceuticals and food additive...

  16. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  17. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  18. Feasibility of extracting data from electronic medical records for research: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Majeed, Azeem; O'Donoghue, John; Car, Josip

    2016-07-13

    Electronic medical records (EMR) offer a major potential for secondary use of data for research which can improve the safety, quality and efficiency of healthcare. They also enable the measurement of disease burden at the population level. However, the extent to which this is feasible in different countries is not well known. This study aimed to: 1) assess information governance procedures for extracting data from EMR in 16 countries; and 2) explore the extent of EMR adoption and the quality and consistency of EMR data in 7 countries, using management of diabetes type 2 patients as an exemplar. We included 16 countries from Australia, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe to the Americas. We undertook a multi-method approach including both an online literature review and structured interviews with 59 stakeholders, including 25 physicians, 23 academics, 7 EMR providers, and 4 information commissioners. Data were analysed and synthesised thematically considering the most relevant issues. We found that procedures for information governance, levels of adoption and data quality varied across the countries studied. The required time and ease of obtaining approval also varies widely. While some countries seem ready for secondary uses of data from EMR, in other countries several barriers were found, including limited experience with using EMR data for research, lack of standard policies and procedures, bureaucracy, confidentiality, data security concerns, technical issues and costs. This is the first international comparative study to shed light on the feasibility of extracting EMR data across a number of countries. The study will inform future discussions and development of policies that aim to accelerate the adoption of EMR systems in high and middle income countries and seize the rich potential for secondary use of data arising from the use of EMR solutions.

  19. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  20. Determination of acetanilide herbicides in cereal crops using accelerated solvent extraction, solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaping; Yang, Jun; Shi, Ronghua; Su, Qingde; Yao, Li; Li, Panpan

    2011-07-01

    A method was developed to determine eight acetanilide herbicides from cereal crops based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) analysis. During the ASE process, the effect of four parameters (temperature, static time, static cycles and solvent) on the extraction efficiency was considered and compared with shake-flask extraction method. After extraction with ASE, four SPE tubes (graphitic carbon black/primary secondary amine (GCB/PSA), GCB, Florisil and alumina-N) were assayed for comparison to obtain the best clean-up efficiency. The results show that GCB/PSA cartridge gave the best recoveries and cleanest chromatograms. The analytical process was validated by the analysis of spiked blank samples. Performance characteristics such as linearity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), precision and recovery were studied. At 0.05 mg/kg spiked level, recoveries and precision values for rice, wheat and maize were 82.3-115.8 and 1.1-13.6%, respectively. For all the herbicides, LOD and LOQ ranged from 0.8 to 1.7 μg/kg and from 2.4 to 5.3 μg/kg, respectively. The proposed analytical methodology was applied for the analysis of the targets in samples; only three herbicides, propyzamid, metolachlor and diflufenican, were detected in two samples. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Value of Electronically Extracted Data for Auditing Outpatient Antimicrobial Prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livorsi, Daniel J; Linn, Carrie M; Alexander, Bruce; Heintz, Brett H; Tubbs, Traviss A; Perencevich, Eli N

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The optimal approach to auditing outpatient antimicrobial prescribing has not been established. We assessed how different types of electronic data-including prescriptions, patient-visits, and International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes-could inform automated antimicrobial audits. DESIGN Outpatient visits during 2016 were retrospectively reviewed, including chart abstraction, if an antimicrobial was prescribed (cohort 1) or if the visit was associated with an infection-related ICD-10 code (cohort 2). Findings from cohorts 1 and 2 were compared. SETTING Primary care clinics and the emergency department (ED) at the Iowa City Veterans Affairs Medical Center. RESULTS In cohort 1, we reviewed 2,353 antimicrobial prescriptions across 52 providers. ICD-10 codes had limited sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for validated cases of cystitis and pneumonia (sensitivity, 65.8%, 56.3%, respectively; PPV, 74.4%, 52.5%, respectively). The volume-adjusted antimicrobial prescribing rate was 13.6 per 100 ED visits and 7.5 per 100 primary care visits. In cohort 2, antimicrobials were not indicated in 474 of 851 visits (55.7%). The antimicrobial overtreatment rate was 48.8% for the ED and 59.7% for primary care. At the level of the individual prescriber, there was a positive correlation between a provider's volume-adjusted antimicrobial prescribing rate and the individualized rates of overtreatment in both the ED (r=0.72; P<.01) and the primary care setting (r=0.82; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS In this single-center study, ICD-10 codes had limited sensitivity and PPV for 2 infections that typically require antimicrobials. Electronically extracted data on a provider's rate of volume-adjusted antimicrobial prescribing correlated with the frequency at which unnecessary antimicrobials were prescribed, but this may have been driven by outlier prescribers. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:64-70.

  2. N-type polymers as electron extraction layers in hybrid perovskite solar cells with improved ambient stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, S.; Chen, Z.; Fang, H. -H.; ten Brink, G. H.; Bartesaghi, D.; Adjokatse, S.; Koster, L. J. A.; Kooi, B. J.; Facchetti, A.; Loi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied three n-type polymers of the naphthalenediimide-bithiophene family as electron extraction layers (EELs) in hybrid perovskite solar cells. The recombination mechanism in these devices is found to be heavily influenced by the EEL transport properties. The maximum efficiency of the devices

  3. Computerized extraction of information on the quality of diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a computerized method for extracting numeric clinical measurements related to diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records (EPR) of general practitioners. Design and Measurements: Accuracy of this number-oriented approach was compared to manual chart

  4. Optimising the extraction rate of a non-durable non-renewable resource in a monopolistic market: a mathematical programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corominas, Albert; Fossas, Enric

    2015-01-01

    We assume a monopolistic market for a non-durable non-renewable resource such as crude oil, phosphates or fossil water. Stating the problem of obtaining optimal policies on extraction and pricing of the resource as a non-linear program allows general conclusions to be drawn under diverse assumptions about the demand curve, discount rates and length of the planning horizon. We compare the results with some common beliefs about the pace of exhaustion of this kind of resources.

  5. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  6. Clinical Relation Extraction Toward Drug Safety Surveillance Using Electronic Health Record Narratives: Classical Learning Versus Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkhdalai, Tsendsuren; Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2018-04-25

    Medication and adverse drug event (ADE) information extracted from electronic health record (EHR) notes can be a rich resource for drug safety surveillance. Existing observational studies have mainly relied on structured EHR data to obtain ADE information; however, ADEs are often buried in the EHR narratives and not recorded in structured data. To unlock ADE-related information from EHR narratives, there is a need to extract relevant entities and identify relations among them. In this study, we focus on relation identification. This study aimed to evaluate natural language processing and machine learning approaches using the expert-annotated medical entities and relations in the context of drug safety surveillance, and investigate how different learning approaches perform under different configurations. We have manually annotated 791 EHR notes with 9 named entities (eg, medication, indication, severity, and ADEs) and 7 different types of relations (eg, medication-dosage, medication-ADE, and severity-ADE). Then, we explored 3 supervised machine learning systems for relation identification: (1) a support vector machines (SVM) system, (2) an end-to-end deep neural network system, and (3) a supervised descriptive rule induction baseline system. For the neural network system, we exploited the state-of-the-art recurrent neural network (RNN) and attention models. We report the performance by macro-averaged precision, recall, and F1-score across the relation types. Our results show that the SVM model achieved the best average F1-score of 89.1% on test data, outperforming the long short-term memory (LSTM) model with attention (F1-score of 65.72%) as well as the rule induction baseline system (F1-score of 7.47%) by a large margin. The bidirectional LSTM model with attention achieved the best performance among different RNN models. With the inclusion of additional features in the LSTM model, its performance can be boosted to an average F1-score of 77.35%. It shows that

  7. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  8. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  9. Estimation of visibility of phase contrast with extraction voltages for field emission gun electron microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Xing, E-mail: xmeng101@gmail.com

    2017-02-15

    Estimation was made for visibility of phase contrast with varying extraction voltages. The resulting decay rates of visibility show that images with low image contrast from cryo EM will be seriously impacted with high extraction voltages. - Highlights: • Cryo EM • Phase contrast • Extraction votage.

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction and solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous determination of five amide herbicides in fish samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhipeng; Bai, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Zhaoguang

    2017-03-01

    An efficient sample extraction and clean-up method was developed for simultaneous determination of five amide herbicides (alachlor, acetochlor, propisochlor, metazachlor, and butachlor) in fish samples. The protocol consisted of ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up. In detail, aliquots of homogenized fish flesh were thoroughly mixed with 20 mL of n-hexane and then extracted with ultrasonication for 40 min. Each sample was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected for the subsequent clean-up. For the sample preparation, the above supernatant was processed with a C 18 column with 3 mL of dichloromethane/n-hexane (1:1, v/v) as the eluant. Then the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The correlation coefficients of the five calibration curves were 0.9976-0.9998 (n = 3). The limits of detection (S/N = 3, n = 11) and limits of quantification (S/N = 10, n = 11) were 0.19-0.42 and 0.63-1.39 μg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of this method were 71.2-92.6% with good precision (<4.7% relative standard deviations, n = 6). The developed method was successfully applied to monitor the five amide herbicides in fish samples collected from different cities. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Study of methane hydrate as a future energy resource: low emission extraction and power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.; Yamada, H.; Kanda, Y.; Sasaki, H.; Okajima, J.; Iga, Y.; Komiya, A.; Maruyama, S.

    2016-08-01

    With the fast increase of world energy consumption in recent years, new and sustainable energy sources are becoming more and more important. Methane Hydrate is one promising candidate for the future energy supply of humankind, due to its vast existence in permafrost regions and near-coast seabed. This study is focused on the effective low emission utilization of methane hydrate from deep seabed. The Nankai Trough of Japan is taken as the target region in this study for methane hydrate extraction and utilization system design. Low emission system and power generation system with CCS (Carbon Capture and Sequestration) processes are proposed and analyzed for production rate and electricity generation efficiency problem study. It is found that the gas production price can reach the current domestic natural gas supply price level if the production rate can be improved. The optimized system is estimated to have power efficiency about 35%. In addition, current development and analysis from micro-to-macro scale methane hydrate production and dissociation dynamics are also discussed into detail in this study.

  12. Waste conversion into n-caprylate and n-caproate: resource recovery from wine lees using anaerobic reactor microbiomes and in-line extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Kucek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To convert wastes into sustainable liquid fuels and chemicals, new resource recovery technologies are required. Chain elongation is a carboxylate-platform bioprocess that converts short-chain carboxylates (SCCs (e.g., acetate C2 and n-butyrate C4 into medium-chain carboxylates (MCCs (e.g., n-caprylate C8 and n-caproate C6 with hydrogen gas as a side product. Ethanol or another electron donor (e.g., lactate, carbohydrate is required. Competitive MCC productivities, yields (product vs. substrate fed, and specificities (product vs. all products were only achieved previously from an organic waste material when exogenous ethanol had been added. Here, we converted a real organic waste, which inherently comprised of ethanol, into MCCs with n-caprylate as the target product. We used wine lees, which consisted primarily of settled yeast cells and ethanol from wine fermentation, and produced MCCs with a reactor microbiome. We operated the bioreactor at a pH of 5.2 and with continuous in-line extraction and achieved a MCC productivity of 3.9 g COD/L-d at an organic loading rate of 5.8 g COD/L-d, resulting in a promising MCC yield of 67% and specificities of 36% for each n-caprylate and n-caproate (72% for both. Compared to all other studies that used complex organic substrates, we achieved the highest n-caprylate-to-n-caproate product ratio of 1.0 (COD basis, because we used increased broth-recycle rates through the forward membrane contactor, which improved in-line extraction rates. Increased recycle rates also allowed us to achieve the highest reported MCC production flux per membrane surface area thus far (20.1 g COD/m2-d. Through microbial community analyses, we determined that an operational taxonomic unit (OTU for Bacteroides spp. was dominant and was positively correlated with increased MCC productivities. Our data also suggested that the microbiome may have been shaped for improved MCC production by the high broth-recycle rates. Comparable abiotic

  13. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  14. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  15. Platelet activation, adhesion, inflammation, and aggregation potential are altered in the presence of electronic cigarette extracts of variable nicotine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Sarah; Chen, Li; Wang, Tony; Ghebrehiwet, Berhane; Yin, Wei; Rubenstein, David A

    2016-11-01

    Tobacco smoke extracts prepared from both mainstream and sidestream smoking have been associated with heightened platelet activation, aggregation, adhesion, and inflammation. Conversely, it has been shown that pure nicotine inhibits similar platelet functions. In this work, we 1) evaluated the effects of e-cigarette extracts on platelet activities and 2) elucidated the differences between the nicotine-dependent and non-nicotine dependent (e.g. fine particulate matter or toxic compounds) effects of tobacco and e-cigarette products on platelet activities. To accomplish these goals, platelets from healthy volunteers (n = 50) were exposed to tobacco smoke extracts, e-cigarette vapor extracts, and pure nicotine and changes in platelet activation, adhesion, aggregation, and inflammation were evaluated, using optical aggregation, flow cytometry, and ELISA methods. Interestingly, the exposure of platelets to e-vapor extracts induced a significant up-regulation in the expression of the pro-inflammatory gC1qR and cC1qR and induced a marked increase in the deposition of C3b as compared with traditional tobacco smoke extracts. Similarly, platelet activation, as measured by a prothrombinase based assay, and platelet aggregation were also significantly enhanced after exposure to e-vapor extracts. Finally, platelet adhesion potential toward fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, and other platelets was also enhanced after exposure to e-cigarette vapor extracts. In the presence of pure nicotine, platelet functions were observed to be inhibited, which further suggests that other constituents of tobacco smoke and electronic vapor can antagonize platelet functions, however, the presence of nicotine in extracts somewhat perpetuated the platelet functional changes in a dose-dependent manner.

  16. Extracts from IAEA's Resources Manual in Nuclear Medicine. Part-3: Establishing Nuclear Medicine Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In the past, consideration was given to the categories of nuclear medicine ranging from simple imaging or in-vitro laboratories, to more complex departments performing a full range of in-vitro and in-vivo procedures that are also involved in advanced clinical services, training programmes, research and development. In developing countries, nuclear medicine historically has often been an offshoot of pathology, radiology or radiotherapy services. These origins are currently changing as less radioimmunoassay is performed and fully-fledged, independent departments of nuclear medicine are being set up. The trend appears to be that all assays (radioassay or ELISA) are done in a biochemistry laboratory whereas nuclear medicine departments are involved largely in diagnostic procedures, radionuclide therapy and non-imaging in-vitro tests. The level of nuclear medicine services is categorized according to three levels of need: Level 1: Only one gamma camera is needed for imaging purposes. The radiopharmaceutical supply, physics and radiation protection services are contracted outside the centre. Other requirements include a receptionist and general secretarial assistance. A single imaging room connected to a shared reporting room should be sufficient, with a staff of one nuclear medicine physician and one technologist, with back-up. This level is appropriate for a small private practice. Level 2: This is suitable for a general hospital where there are multiple imaging rooms where in-vitro and other non-imaging studies would generally be performed as well as radionuclide therapy. Level 3: his is appropriate for an academic institution where there is a need for a comprehensive clinical nuclear medicine service, human resource development and research programmes. Radionuclide therapy for in-patients and outpatients is provided

  17. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  18. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  19. The Use of an Electron Microchannel as a Self-Extracting and Focusing Plasma Cathode Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, S.; Khachan, J.

    2016-02-01

    A new and simple type of electron gun is presented. Unlike conventional electron guns, which require a heated filament or extractor, accelerator and focusing electrodes, this gun uses the collimated electron microchannels of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge to achieve the same outcome. A cylindrical cathode is placed coaxially within a cylindrical anode to create the discharge. Collimated beams of electrons and fast neutrals emerge along the axis of the cylindrical cathode. This geometry isolates one of the microchannels that emerge in a negatively biased IEC grid. The internal operating pressure range of the gun is 35-190 mTorr. A small aperture separates the gun from the main vacuum chamber in order to achieve a pressure differential. The chamber was operated at pressures of 4-12 mTorr. The measured current produced by the gun was 0.1-3 mA (0.2-14 mA corrected measurement) for discharge currents of 1-45 mA and discharge voltages of 0.5-12 kV. The collimated electron beam emerges from the aperture into the vacuum chamber. The performance of the gun is unaffected by the pressure differential between the vacuum chamber and the gun. This allows the aperture to be removed and the chamber pressure to be equal to the gun pressure if required.

  20. The Use of an Electron Microchannel as a Self-Extracting and Focusing Plasma Cathode Electron Gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, S.; Khachan, J.

    2016-01-01

    A new and simple type of electron gun is presented. Unlike conventional electron guns, which require a heated filament or extractor, accelerator and focusing electrodes, this gun uses the collimated electron microchannels of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge to achieve the same outcome. A cylindrical cathode is placed coaxially within a cylindrical anode to create the discharge. Collimated beams of electrons and fast neutrals emerge along the axis of the cylindrical cathode. This geometry isolates one of the microchannels that emerge in a negatively biased IEC grid. The internal operating pressure range of the gun is 35-190 mTorr. A small aperture separates the gun from the main vacuum chamber in order to achieve a pressure differential. The chamber was operated at pressures of 4-12 mTorr. The measured current produced by the gun was 0.1-3 mA (0.2-14 mA corrected measurement) for discharge currents of 1-45 mA and discharge voltages of 0.5-12 kV. The collimated electron beam emerges from the aperture into the vacuum chamber. The performance of the gun is unaffected by the pressure differential between the vacuum chamber and the gun. This allows the aperture to be removed and the chamber pressure to be equal to the gun pressure if required. (paper)

  1. Upgraded millimeter-wave interferometer for measuring the electron density during the beam extraction in the negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuzawa, T., E-mail: tokuzawa@nifs.ac.jp; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Ito, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Kaneko, O. [National Institutes of Natural Sciences, 4-3-13 Toranomon, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0001 (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    The upgraded millimeter-wave interferometer with the frequency of 70 GHz is installed on a large-scaled negative ion source. Measurable line-averaged electron density is from 2 × 10{sup 15} to 3 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} in front of the plasma grid. Several improvements such as the change to shorter wavelength probing with low noise, the installation of special ordered horn antenna, the signal modulation for a high accuracy digital phase detection, the insertion of insulator, and so on, are carried out for the measurement during the beam extraction by applying high voltage. The line-averaged electron density is successfully measured and it is found that it increases linearly with the arc power and drops suddenly at the beam extraction.

  2. Determination of organophosphorus pesticides by dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction coupled with gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Siti Umairah Mokhtar; Mazidatul Akmam Miskam; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method termed as dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for the determination of selected organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) namely chloropyrifos, dimethoate and diazinon in water sample. In this method, a mixture of carbon disulfide, CS 2 (extraction solvent) and methanol (disperser solvent) was rapidly injected using syringe into the 5.00 mL water sample to form a cloudy solution where the OPPs were extracted into the fine droplets of extraction solvent. Upon centrifugation for 3 min at 3500 rpm, the fine droplets were sedimented at the bottom of the centrifuge tube. Sedimented phase (1 μL) was injected into the GC-ECD for separation and determination of OPPs. Important extraction parameters, such as type of disperser solvent, volume of extraction solvent and volume of disperser solvent were investigated. The optimized conditions for DLLME of the selected OPPs were methanol as disperser solvent, 30 μL of extraction solvent (CS 2 ) and 1.0 mL of disperser solvent (methanol). Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 0.1 to 1.0 μg/ mL with correlation coefficient (r 2 ), in the range of 0.9976 to 0.9994 and low limits of detection (LOD) between 0.047 and 0.201 μg/ mL. The proposed method provided acceptable recoveries (72.67- 144 %) with good RSDs ranging from 2.74 % to 7.48 %. This method was successfully applied to the determination of OPPs in water samples obtained from a golf course and chloropyrifos and diazinon were detected at concentration 0.18 μg/ mL and 0.07 μg/ mL, respectively. (author)

  3. Experimental study and simulation of the extraction conditions of a multicharged ion beam from an electron cyclotron resonance source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandin, J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns the beam extraction studies of ECR Ion Sources for the SPIRAL project at GANIL (France). The optical properties (i.e. the emittances) of the radioactive ion beam production source is a crucial point in this project. We performed emittance measurements with a very high transport efficiency and developed a computer code for simulating the extraction and transport conditions. This simulation takes into account all the parameters acting on the extraction process: the characteristics of the ions and electrons emitted by the plasma, their space and energy distributions, the space charge, the magnetic filed of the source and the accelerating electric field. We explained the evolution of the emittances for two different types of ECR Ion Source. The simulation-experiment comparison showed us that the magnetic field and the intrinsic energy of the ions seem to be the most important parameters for explaining the overall emittance behaviour of the ECRIS. We precise their values and comment them. (author)

  4. Extraction of carbon 14-labeled compounds from plant tissue during processing for electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzee, J.; van der Merwe, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    Loss of 14 C-labeled compounds from bean leaf tissue was monitored during all the stages of routine specimen preparation. No significant differences in extraction were associated with the use of acetone, ethanol, or dioxane as dehydration fluids. Fixation at low temperature increased the loss of label. Prolonged fixation in glutaraldehyde increased the loss, but fixation in osmium solutions for periods as long as 4 hr had no influence on extraction. Buffer rinses and dehydration fluids caused appreciable amounts of label to be extracted. The use of propylene oxide as transition fluid resulted in low extraction. Some embedding media caused the loss of small amounts of labeled compounds, but one of the media tested (LR-white) extracted significant amounts of label

  5. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  6. Design of the extraction arc for the 2nd beam line of the free-electron laser FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I deal with the design of the extraction arc for the second beam line of FLASH, an FEL (Free-Electron Laser) user facility at DESY Hamburg. Both beam lines will use the same linear accelerator and their separation will take place behind the last accelerating module. I present the constraints for the extraction arc given by the beam line layout of the existing machine, by the building environment of the new beam line and in particular, by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). The impact from CSR is presented, and I show how to mitigate these effects and what that means for the beam line design. The optimization of the extraction arc was done applying the downhill simplex algorithm which is presented, first in its basic form to explain the operation principle and then in a more advanced version as used in the applied program. I introduce in this thesis the final layout of the extraction arc including the following matching section. This layout fulfills all given constraints and can provide the required electron beam quality for FEL operation. In order to prove this, I present start-to-end simulations for different bunch charges and for two different wavelengths.

  7. Application of extraction replicas and analytical electron microscopy to precipitate phase studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, E.A.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extraction replicas provide a powerful extension of AEM techniques for analysis of fine precipitates. In many cases, replicas allow more accurate analyses to be performed and, in some cases, allow unique analyses which cannot be performed in-foil. However, there are limitations to the use of extraction replicas in AEM, of which the analyst must be aware. Many can be eliminated by careful preparation. Often, combined AEM studies of precipitates in-foil and on extraction replicas provide complementary and corroborative information for the fullest analysis of precipitate phases

  8. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  9. Future Oil Spills and Possibilities for Intervention: A Model for the Coupled Human-Environmental Resource Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shughrue, C. M.; Werner, B.; Nugnug, P. T.

    2010-12-01

    The catastrophic Deepwater Horizon oil spill highlights the risks for widespread environmental damage resulting from petroleum resource extraction. Possibilities for amelioration of these risks depend critically on understanding the dynamics and nonlinear interactions between various components of the coupled human-environmental resource extraction system. We use a complexity analysis to identify the levels of description and time scales at which these interactions are strongest, and then use the analysis as the basis for an agent-based numerical model with which decadal trends can be analyzed. Oil industry economic and technological activity and associated oil spills are components of a complex system that is coupled to natural environment, legislation, regulation, media, and resistance systems over annual to decadal time scales. In the model, oil spills are produced stochastically with a range of magnitudes depending on a reliability-engineering-based assessment of failure for the technology employed, human factors including compliance with operating procedures, and risks associated with the drilling environment. Oil industry agents determine drilling location and technological investment using a cost-benefit analysis relating projected revenue from added production to technology cost and government regulation. Media outlet agents reporting on the oil industry and environmental damage from oil spills assess the impacts of aggressively covering a story on circulation increases, advertiser concerns and potential loss of information sources. Environmental advocacy group agents increase public awareness of environmental damage (through media and public contact), solicit memberships and donations, and apply direct pressure on legislators for policy change. Heterogeneous general public agents adjust their desire for change in the level of regulation, contact their representatives or participate in resistance via protest by considering media sources, personal

  10. Towards an Ontology for the Global Geodynamics Project: Automated Extraction of Resource Descriptions from an XML-Based Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumb, L. I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2005-12-01

    Using the Earth Science Markup Language (ESML), an XML-based data model for the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) was recently introduced [Lumb & Aldridge, Proc. HPCS 2005, Kotsireas & Stacey, eds., IEEE, 2005, 216-222]. This data model possesses several key attributes -i.e., it: makes use of XML schema; supports semi-structured ASCII format files; includes Earth Science affinities; and is on track for compliance with emerging Grid computing standards (e.g., the Global Grid Forum's Data Format Description Language, DFDL). Favorable attributes notwithstanding, metadata (i.e., data about data) was identified [Lumb & Aldridge, 2005] as a key challenge for progress in enabling the GGP for Grid computing. Even in projects of small-to-medium scale like the GGP, the manual introduction of metadata has the potential to be the rate-determining metric for progress. Fortunately, an automated approach for metadata introduction has recently emerged. Based on Gleaning Resource Descriptions from Dialects of Languages (GRDDL, http://www.w3.org/2004/01/rdxh/spec), this bottom-up approach allows for the extraction of Resource Description Format (RDF) representations from the XML-based data model (i.e., the ESML representation of GGP data) subject to rules of transformation articulated via eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT). In addition to introducing relationships into the GGP data model, and thereby addressing the metadata requirement, the syntax and semantics of RDF comprise a requisite for a GGP ontology - i.e., ``the common words and concepts (the meaning) used to describe and represent an area of knowledge'' [Daconta et al., The Semantic Web, Wiley, 2003]. After briefly reviewing the XML-based model for the GGP, attention focuses on the automated extraction of an RDF representation via GRDDL with XSLT-delineated templates. This bottom-up approach, in tandem with a top-down approach based on the Protege integrated development environment for ontologies (http

  11. Extraction of highly charged ions from the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap for interactions with a gas target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, F.I.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Fussmann, G.

    2006-01-01

    Highly charged ions are extracted from the Berlin Electron Beam Ion Trap for investigations of charge exchange with a gas target. The classical over-the-barrier model for slow highly charged ions describes this process, whereby one or more electrons are captured from the target into Rydberg states of the ion. The excited state relaxes via a radiative cascade of the electron to ground energy. The cascade spectra are characteristic of the capture state. We investigate x-ray photons emitted as a result of interactions between Ar 17+ ions at energies ≤5q keV with Ar atoms. Of particular interest is the velocity dependence of the angular momentum capture state l c

  12. Reliability metrics extraction for power electronics converter stressed by thermal cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the continuous demands for highly reliable and cost-effective power conversion, the quantified reliability performances of the power electronics converter are becoming emerging needs. The existing reliability modelling approaches for the power electronics converter mainly focuses on the pr...... performance of power electronics system. The final predicted results showed good accuracy with much more reliability information compared to the existing approaches, and the quantified reliability correlation to the mission profiles of converter is mathematically established....

  13. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  14. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  15. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  16. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  17. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  18. Community perspectives of natural resource extraction: coal-seam gas mining and social identity in Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a recent case study of community reaction to proposed coal-seam gas mining in eastern Australia, we illustrate the role of community views in issues of natural resource use. Drawing on interviews, observations and workshops, the paper explores the anti-coal-seam gas social movement from its stages of infancy through to being a national debate linking community groups across and beyond Australia. Primary community concerns of inadequate community consultation translate into fears regarding potential impacts on farmland and cumulative impacts on aquifers and future water supply, and questions regarding economic, social and environmental benefits. Many of the community activists had not previously been involved in such social action. A recurring message from affected communities is concern around perceived insufficient research and legislation for such rapid industrial expansion. A common citizen demand is the cessation of the industry until there is better understanding of underground water system interconnectivity and the methane extraction and processing life cycle. Improved scientific knowledge of the industry and its potential impacts will, in the popular view, enable better comparison of power generation efficiency with coal and renewable energy sources and better comprehension of the industry as a transition energy industry. It will also enable elected representatives and policy makers to make more informed decisions while developing appropriate legislation to ensure a sustainable future.

  19. High energy extraction of electron beam pumped KrF lasers at multi atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleikamp, B.M.H.H.; Witteman, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    The construction is described of a simple and compact KrF laser with electron beam excitation. The electron beam is generated in a coaxial vacuum diode, driven directly by a ten-stage coaxial Marx generator. A flat MgF2 outcoupler and a suprasil roof prism, protected by an MgF2 window, proved to be

  20. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  1. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  2. Highly Efficient Flexible Quantum Dot Solar Cells with Improved Electron Extraction Using MgZnO Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Santra, Pralay Kanti; Tian, Lei; Johansson, Malin B; Rensmo, Håkan; Johansson, Erik M J

    2017-08-22

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells have high potential for realizing an efficient and lightweight energy supply for flexible or wearable electronic devices. To achieve highly efficient and flexible CQD solar cells, the electron transport layer (ETL), extracting electrons from the CQD solid layer, needs to be processed at a low-temperature and should also suppress interfacial recombination. Herein, a highly stable MgZnO nanocrystal (MZO-NC) layer is reported for efficient flexible PbS CQD solar cells. Solar cells fabricated with MZO-NC ETL give a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.4% and 9.4%, on glass and flexible plastic substrates, respectively. The reported flexible CQD solar cell has the record efficiency to date of flexible CQD solar cells. Detailed theoretical simulations and extensive characterizations reveal that the MZO-NCs significantly enhance charge extraction from CQD solids and diminish the charge accumulation at the ETL/CQD interface, suppressing charge interfacial recombination. These important results suggest that the low-temperature processed MZO-NCs are very promising for use in efficient flexible solar cells or other flexible optoelectronic devices.

  3. Numerical design of an EBIS collector to optimize electron collection and ion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Jürgen

    1990-12-01

    For the Frankfurt EBIS (R. Becker et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B24/25 (1987) 838, ref. [1]), a new collector was designed using the relativistic electron optics program EGUN (W.B. Herrmannsfeldt, SLAC-331 (1988), ref. [2]) and the magnetic field program INTMAG (R. Becker, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B42 (1989) 303, ref. [3]). To model the fringing field of the main solenoid, a bucking coil and a cylindrical shim is provided. The current of the bucking coil and the position and shape of the shim are optimized with INTMAG for minimum fringing field to allow expansion of the electron beam by its space charge. The magnetic field data output from INTMAG is directly used as input for EGUN to calculate the electron and ion trajectories. The initial conditions for the trajectories were computed from the paraxial ray equation. Different operation modes of the collector are investigated including the behaviour of secondary electrons.

  4. A Novel Feature Extraction Approach Using Window Function Capturing and QPSO-SVM for Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhen Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel feature extraction approach which can be referred to as moving window function capturing (MWFC has been proposed to analyze signals of an electronic nose (E-nose used for detecting types of infectious pathogens in rat wounds. Meanwhile, a quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm is implemented in conjunction with support vector machine (SVM for realizing a synchronization optimization of the sensor array and SVM model parameters. The results prove the efficacy of the proposed method for E-nose feature extraction, which can lead to a higher classification accuracy rate compared to other established techniques. Meanwhile it is interesting to note that different classification results can be obtained by changing the types, widths or positions of windows. By selecting the optimum window function for the sensor response, the performance of an E-nose can be enhanced.

  5. Comparison of the Cytotoxic Potential of Cigarette Smoke and Electronic Cigarette Vapour Extract on Cultured Myocardial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Tsiapras

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Electronic cigarettes (ECs have been marketed as an alternative-to-smoking habit. Besides chemical studies of the content of EC liquids or vapour, little research has been conducted on their in vitro effects. Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoke (CS has well-established cytotoxic effects on myocardial cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of the vapour of 20 EC liquid samples and a “base” liquid sample (50% glycerol and 50% propylene glycol, with no nicotine or flavourings on cultured myocardial cells. Included were 4 samples produced by using cured tobacco leaves in order to extract the tobacco flavour. Methods: Cytotoxicity was tested according to the ISO 10993-5 standard. By activating an EC device at 3.7 volts (6.2 watts—all samples, including the “base” liquid and at 4.5 volts (9.2 watts—four randomly selected samples, 200 mg of liquid evaporated and was extracted in 20 mL of culture medium. Cigarette smoke (CS extract from three tobacco cigarettes was produced according to ISO 3308 method (2 s puffs of 35 mL volume, one puff every 60 s. The extracts, undiluted (100% and in four dilutions (50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, were applied to myocardial cells (H9c2; percent-viability was measured after 24 h incubation. According to ISO 10993-5, viability of 6.25% (viability: 76.9 ± 2.0% at 6.25%, 38.2 ± 0.5% at 12.5%, 3.1 ± 0.2% at 25%, 5.2 ± 0.8% at 50%, and 3.9 ± 0.2% at 100% extract concentration. Three EC extracts (produced by tobacco leaves were cytotoxic at 100% and 50% extract concentrations (viability range: 2.2%–39.1% and 7.4%–66.9% respectively and one (“Cinnamon-Cookies” flavour was cytotoxic at 100% concentration only (viability: 64.8 ± 2.5%. Inhibitory concentration 50 was >3 times lower in CS extract compared to the worst-performing EC vapour extract. For EC extracts produced by high-voltage and energy, viability was

  6. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  7. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  8. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  9. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina, E-mail: sinajahanbakhsh@gmail.com; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul 34342 (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  10. How gamma-rays and electron-beam irradiation would affect the antimicrobial activity of differently processed wild mushroom extracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M J; Fernandes, Â; Barreira, J C M; Lourenço, I; Fernandes, D; Moura, A; Ribeiro, A R; Salgado, J; Antonio, A; Ferreira, I C F R

    2015-03-01

    The effects of irradiation (gamma-rays and electron-beams), up to 10 kGy, in the antimicrobial activity of mushroom species (Boletus edulis, Hydnum repandum, Macrolepiota procera and Russula delica) differently processed (fresh, dried, freeze) were evaluated. Clinical isolates with different resistance profiles from hospitalized patients in Local Health Unit of Mirandela, Northeast of Portugal, were used as target micro-organisms. The mushrooms antimicrobial activity did not suffer significant changes that might compromise applying irradiation as a possible mushroom conservation technology. Two kGy dose (independently of using gamma-rays or electron-beams) seemed to be the most suitable choice to irradiate mushrooms. This study provides important results in antimicrobial activity of extracts prepared from irradiated mushroom species. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Numerical design of an EBIS collector to optimize electron collection and ion extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, J.

    1990-01-01

    For the Frankfurt EBIS, a new collector was designed using the relativistic electron optics program EGUN and the magnetic field program INTMAG. To model the fringing field of the main solenoid, a bucking coil and a cylindrical shim is provided. The current of the bucking coil and the position and shape of the shim are optimized with INTMAG for minimum fringing field to allow expansion of the electron beam by its space charge. The magnetic field data output from INTMAG is directly used as input for EGUN to calculate the ectron and ion trajectories. The initial conditions for the trajectories were computed from the paraxial ray equation. Different operation modes of the collector are investigated including the behaviour of secondary electrons. (orig.)

  12. Numerical design of an EBIS collector to optimize electron collection and ion extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, J. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik)

    1990-12-01

    For the Frankfurt EBIS, a new collector was designed using the relativistic electron optics program EGUN and the magnetic field program INTMAG. To model the fringing field of the main solenoid, a bucking coil and a cylindrical shim is provided. The current of the bucking coil and the position and shape of the shim are optimized with INTMAG for minimum fringing field to allow expansion of the electron beam by its space charge. The magnetic field data output from INTMAG is directly used as input for EGUN to calculate the ectron and ion trajectories. The initial conditions for the trajectories were computed from the paraxial ray equation. Different operation modes of the collector are investigated including the behaviour of secondary electrons. (orig.).

  13. A note on extracting electronic stopping from energy spectra of backscattered slow ions applying Bragg's rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, B.; Roth, D.; Goebl, D.; Bauer, P.; Primetzhofer, D.

    2018-05-01

    Electronic stopping measurements in chemically reactive targets, e.g., transition and rare earth metals are challenging. These metals often contain low Z impurities, which contribute to electronic stopping. In this article, we present two ways how one can correct for the presence of impurities in the evaluation of proton and He stopping in Ni for primary energies between 1 and 100 keV, either considering or ignoring the contribution of the low Z impurities to multiple scattering. We find, that for protons either method leads to concordant results, but for heavier projectiles, e.g. He ions, the influence on multiple scattering must not be neglected.

  14. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  15. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  16. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  17. Etched ion tracks in silicon oxide and silicon oxynitride as charge injection or extraction channels for novel electronic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, D.; Petrov, A.V.; Hoppe, K.; Fahrner, W.R.; Papaleo, R.M.; Berdinsky, A.S.; Chandra, A.; Chemseddine, A.; Zrineh, A.; Biswas, A.; Faupel, F.; Chadderton, L.T.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of swift heavy ions onto silicon oxide and silicon oxynitride on silicon creates etchable tracks in these insulators. After their etching and filling-up with highly resistive matter, these nanometric pores can be used as charge extraction or injection paths towards the conducting channel in the underlying silicon. In this way, a novel family of electronic structures has been realized. The basic characteristics of these 'TEMPOS' (=tunable electronic material with pores in oxide on silicon) structures are summarized. Their functionality is determined by the type of insulator, the etch track diameters and lengths, their areal densities, the type of conducting matter embedded therein, and of course by the underlying semiconductor and the contact geometry. Depending on the TEMPOS preparation recipe and working point, the structures may resemble gatable resistors, condensors, diodes, transistors, photocells, or sensors, and they are therefore rather universally applicable in electronics. TEMPOS structures are often sensitive to temperature, light, humidity and organic gases. Also light-emitting TEMPOS structures have been produced. About 37 TEMPOS-based circuits such as thermosensors, photosensors, humidity and alcohol sensors, amplifiers, frequency multipliers, amplitude modulators, oscillators, flip-flops and many others have already been designed and successfully tested. Sometimes TEMPOS-based circuits are more compact than conventional electronics

  18. Pulse length of ultracold electron bunches extracted from a laser cooled gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. H. Franssen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements of the pulse length of ultracold electron bunches generated by near-threshold two-photon photoionization of a laser-cooled gas. The pulse length has been measured using a resonant 3 GHz deflecting cavity in TM110 mode. We have measured the pulse length in three ionization regimes. The first is direct two-photon photoionization using only a 480 nm femtosecond laser pulse, which results in short (∼15 ps but hot (∼104 K electron bunches. The second regime is just-above-threshold femtosecond photoionization employing the combination of a continuous-wave 780 nm excitation laser and a tunable 480 nm femtosecond ionization laser which results in both ultracold (∼10 K and ultrafast (∼25 ps electron bunches. These pulses typically contain ∼103 electrons and have a root-mean-square normalized transverse beam emittance of 1.5 ± 0.1 nm rad. The measured pulse lengths are limited by the energy spread associated with the longitudinal size of the ionization volume, as expected. The third regime is just-below-threshold ionization which produces Rydberg states which slowly ionize on microsecond time scales.

  19. Polyurethanes irradiation by accelerated electrons: molecular and supramolecular evolution, incidence on the extractable and biomedical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignot, C.

    2002-11-01

    Face to the development of radiosterilization and polymers medical devices it was wished to study the behavior of polyurethanes under accelerated electrons in oxidizing atmosphere. This study has been made to reveal the physico chemical and organisational modifications of polyurethanes for a medical use. (N.C.)

  20. Automated Methods to Extract Patient New Information from Clinical Notes in Electronic Health Record Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    The widespread adoption of Electronic Health Record (EHR) has resulted in rapid text proliferation within clinical care. Clinicians' use of copying and pasting functions in EHR systems further compounds this by creating a large amount of redundant clinical information in clinical documents. A mixture of redundant information (especially outdated…

  1. The role of water in unconventional in situ energy resource extraction technologies: Chapter 7 in Food, energy, and water: The chemistry connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Haines, Seth; Engle, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Global trends toward developing new energy resources from lower grade, larger tonnage deposits that are not generally accessible using “conventional” extraction methods involve variations of subsurface in situ extraction techniques including in situ oil-shale retorting, hydraulic fracturing of petroleum reservoirs, and in situ recovery (ISR) of uranium. Although these methods are economically feasible and perhaps result in a smaller above-ground land-use footprint, there remain uncertainties regarding potential subsurface impacts to groundwater. This chapter provides an overview of the role of water in these technologies and the opportunities and challenges for water reuse and recycling.

  2. Extraction of electron beam dose parameters from EBT2 film data scored in a mini phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Dedri; Smit, Cobus J L; du Plessis, Freek C P

    2013-09-01

    Quality assurance of medical linear accelerators includes dosimetric parameter measurement of therapeutic electron beams e.g. relative dose at a depth of 80% (R₈₀). This parameter must be within a tolerance of 0.2 cm of the declared value. Cumbersome water tank measurements can be regarded as a benchmark to measure electron depth dose curves. A mini-phantom was designed and built, in which a strip of GAFCHROMIC® EBT2 film could be encased tightly for electron beam depth dose measurement. Depth dose data were measured for an ELEKTA Sl25 MLC, ELEKTA Precise, and ELEKTA Synergy (Elekta Oncology Systems, Crawley, UK) machines. The electron beam energy range was between 4 and 22 MeV among the machines. A 10 × 10 cm² electron applicator with 95 cm source-surface-distance was used on all the machines. 24 h after irradiation, the EBT2 film strips were scanned on Canon CanoScan N670U scanner. Afterwards, the data were analysed with in-house developed software that entailed optical density to dose conversion, and optimal fitting of the PDD data to de-noise the raw data. From the PDD data R₈₀ values were solved for and compared with acceptance values. A series of tests were also carried out to validate the use of the scanner for film Dosimetry. These tests are presented in this study. It was found that this method of R₈₀ evaluation was reliable with good agreement with benchmark water tank measurements using a commercial parallel plate ionization chamber as the radiation detector. The EBT2 film data yielded R₈₀ values that were on average 0.06 cm different from benchmark water tank measured R₈₀ values.

  3. Effect of Piper sarmentosum Extract on the Cardiovascular System of Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats: Electron Microscopic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Chi Thent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although Piper sarmentosum (PS is known to possess the antidiabetic properties, its efficacy towards diabetic cardiovascular tissues is still obscured. The present study aimed to observe the electron microscopic changes on the cardiac tissue and proximal aorta of experimental rats treated with PS extract. Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: untreated control group (C, PS-treated control group (CTx, untreated diabetic group (D, and PS-treated diabetic group (DTx. Intramuscular injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg body weight was given to induce diabetes. Following 28 days of diabetes induction, PS extract (0.125 g/kg body weight was administered orally for 28 days. Body weight, fasting blood glucose, and urine glucose levels were measured at 4-week interval. At the end of the study, cardiac tissues and the aorta were viewed under transmission electron microscope (TEM. DTx group showed increase in body weight and decrease in fasting blood glucose and urine glucose level compared to the D group. Under TEM study, DTx group showed lesser ultrastructural degenerative changes in the cardiac tissues and the proximal aorta compared to the D group. The results indicate that PS restores ultrastructural integrity in the diabetic cardiovascular tissues.

  4. Large improvement of electron extraction from CdSe quantum dots into a TiO2 thin layer by N3 dye coabsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora-Sero, Ivan; Dittrich, Thomas; Susha, Andrei S.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Bisquert, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Extraction of electrons and holes photogenerated in CdSe quantum dots (QD) of 2.3 nm diameter, is monitored by Surface Photovoltage Spectroscopy. The extraction of electrons into a thin TiO 2 layer increases five-fold by absorption of N3 dye molecules on top of the QD layer. This process is facilitated by efficient hole extraction from the valence band of the QDs to the ground state of the N3 dye. Our results represent a direct measurement of charge separation in the N3/QD/TiO 2 system

  5. Upgrade of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Bellodi, G; Dimov, V; Küchler, D; Lombardi, A M; Maintrot, M

    2016-02-01

    Linac3 is the first accelerator in the heavy ion injector chain of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), providing multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The ion beams are produced with GTS-LHC, a 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, operated in afterglow mode. Improvement of the GTS-LHC beam formation and beam transport along Linac3 is part of the upgrade program of the injector chain in preparation for the future high luminosity LHC. A mismatch between the ion beam properties in the ion source extraction region and the acceptance of the following Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section has been identified as one of the factors limiting the Linac3 performance. The installation of a new focusing element, an einzel lens, into the GTS-LHC extraction region is foreseen as a part of the Linac3 upgrade, as well as a redesign of the first section of the LEBT. Details of the upgrade and results of a beam dynamics study of the extraction region and LEBT modifications will be presented.

  6. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  7. Simulation study on ion extraction from electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S.; Kitagawa, A.; Yamada, S.

    1994-04-01

    In order to study beam optics of NIRS-ECR ion source used in the HIMAC project, the EGUN code has been modified to make it capable of modeling ion extraction from a plasma. Two versions of the modified code are worked out with two different methods in which 1D and 2D sheath theories are used, respectively. Convergence problem of the strong nonlinear self-consistent equations is investigated. Simulations on NIRS-ECR ion source and HYPER-ECR ion source are presented in this paper, exhibiting an agreement with the experiment results.

  8. Phenomenological extraction of two-photon exchange amplitudes from elastic electron-proton scattering cross section data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qattan, I. A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: The inconsistency in the results obtained from the Rosenbluth separation method and the high-Q2 recoil polarization results on the ratio μpGEp/GMp implies a systematic difference between the two techniques. Several studies suggest that missing higher-order radiative corrections to elastic electron-proton scattering cross section σR(ɛ ,Q2) and in particular hard two-photon-exchange (TPE) contributions could account for the discrepancy. Purpose: In this work, I improve on and extend to low and high Q2 values the extractions of the ɛ dependence of the real parts of the TPE amplitudes relative to the magnetic form factor, as well as the ratio Pl/PlBorn(ɛ ,Q2) by using world data on σR(ɛ ,Q2) with an emphasis on precise new data covering the low-momentum region which is sensitive to the large-scale structure of the nucleon. Method: I combine cross section and polarization measurements of elastic electron-proton scattering to extract the TPE amplitudes. Because the recoil polarization data were confirmed "experimentally" to be essentially independent of ɛ , I constrain the ratio Pt/Pl(ɛ ,Q2) to its ɛ -independent term (Born value) by setting the TPE contributions to zero. This allows for the amplitude YM(ɛ ,Q2) and σR(ɛ ,Q2) to be expressed in terms of the remaining two amplitudes YE(ɛ ,Q2) and Y3(ɛ ,Q2) which in turn are parametrized as second-order polynomials in ɛ and Q2 to reserve as possible the linearity of σR(ɛ ,Q2) as well as to account for possible nonlinearities in the TPE amplitudes. Furthermore, I impose the Regge limit which ensures the vanishing of the TPE contributions to σR(ɛ ,Q2) and the TPE amplitudes in the limit ɛ →1 . Results: I provide simple parametrizations of the TPE amplitudes, along with an estimate of the fit uncertainties. The extracted TPE amplitudes are compared with previous phenomenological extractions and TPE calculations. The Pl/PlBorn ratio is extracted by using the new parametrizations of the TPE

  9. Extracting and analyzing ejection fraction values from electronic echocardiography reports in a large health maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fagen; Zheng, Chengyi; Yuh-Jer Shen, Albert; Chen, Wansu

    2017-12-01

    The left ventricular ejection fraction value is an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular outcomes including morbidity and mortality and is often used clinically to indicate severity of heart disease. However, it is usually reported in free-text echocardiography reports. We developed and validated a computerized algorithm to extract ejection fraction values from echocardiography reports and applied the algorithm to a large volume of unstructured echocardiography reports between 1995 and 2011 in a large health maintenance organization. A total of 621,856 echocardiography reports with a description of ejection fraction values or systolic functions were identified, of which 70 percent contained numeric ejection fraction values and the rest (30%) were text descriptions explicitly indicating the systolic left ventricular function. The 12.1 percent (16.0% for male and 8.4% for female) of these extracted ejection fraction values are <45 percent. Validation conducted based on a random sample of 200 reports yielded 95.0 percent sensitivity and 96.9 percent positive predictive value.

  10. Using discrete-time mathematical programming to optimise the extraction rate of a durable non-renewable resource with a single primary supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Corominas

    Full Text Available A non-linear discrete-time mathematical program model is proposed to determining the optimal extraction policy for a single primary supplier of a durable non-renewable resource, such as gemstones or some metals. Karush, Kuhn and Tucker conditions allow obtaining analytic solutions and general properties of them in some specific settings. Moreover, provided that the objective function (i.e., the discounted value of the incomes throughout the planning horizon is concave, the model can be easily solved, even using standard commercial solver. However, the analysis of the solutions obtained for different assumptions of the values of the parameters show that the optimal extraction policies and the corresponding prices do not exhibit a general shape. Keywords: Durable non-renewable resources, Single primary supplier, Non-linear programming

  11. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracting Information about the Electronic Quality of Organic Solar-Cell Absorbers from Fill Factor and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaienburg, Pascal; Rau, Uwe; Kirchartz, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the fill factor in organic solar cells remains challenging due to its complex dependence on a multitude of parameters. By means of drift-diffusion simulations, we thoroughly analyze the fill factor of such low-mobility systems and demonstrate its dependence on a collection coefficient defined in this work. We systematically discuss the effect of different recombination mechanisms, space-charge regions, and contact properties. Based on these findings, we are able to interpret the thickness dependence of the fill factor for different experimental studies from the literature. The presented model provides a facile method to extract the photoactive layer's electronic quality which is of particular importance for the fill factor. We illustrate that over the past 15 years, the electronic quality has not been continuously improved, although organic solar-cell efficiencies increased steadily over the same period of time. Only recent reports show the synthesis of polymers for semiconducting films of high electronic quality that are able to produce new efficiency records.

  13. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  14. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  15. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  16. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  17. Permanent Magnets In Steerers Of The Beam Extracted From The Electron Accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Dovbnya, A N; Shendrik, V A; Tolstoj, A E

    2004-01-01

    The results of test bench simulation and magnetic measurements were used to develop and manufacture "dipole magnet"-type units with a constant field of intensity up to 1.8 kOe in the working gap, 3 to 3.5 cm in height. The operating experience at the technological accelerators has shown that these devices are convenient in service, are easy-to-transport and can be used for solving the various problems in electron beam formation and steering at the exit of the accelerator.

  18. Convergence study of isogeometric analysis based on Bezier extraction in electronic structure calculations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cimrman, R.; Novák, Matyáš; Kolman, Radek; Tůma, Miroslav; Plešek, Jiří; Vackář, Jiří

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 319, Feb (2018), s. 138-152 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-12925S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388998 ; RVO:67985807 Keywords : electronic structure calculation * density functional theory * finite element method * isogeometric analysis OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.); Materials engineering (UT-L); Applied mathematics (UIVT-O) Impact factor: 1.738, year: 2016

  19. Using numerical simulations to extract parameters of toroidal electron plasmas from experimental data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ha, B. N.; Stoneking,, M. R.; Marler, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of the image charge induced on electrodes provide the primary means of diagnosing plasmas in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II (LNT II) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008)]. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that determine characteristics of the electron plasma from......, as in the cylindrical case. In the toroidal case, additional information about the m=1 motion of the plasma can be obtained by analysis of the image charge signal amplitude and shape. Finally, results from the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from the LNT II and plasma characteristics...

  20. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  1. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  2. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  3. Evaluation of a manual DNA extraction protocol and an isothermal amplification assay for detecting HIV-1 DNA from dried blood spots for use in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeanne A; Ibe, Christine O; Moore, Miranda S; Host, Christel; Simon, Gary L

    2012-05-01

    In resource-limited settings (RLS) dried blood spots (DBS) are collected on infants and transported through provincial laboratories to a central facility where HIV-1 DNA PCR testing is performed using specialized equipment. Implementing a simpler approach not requiring such equipment or skilled personnel could allow the more numerous provincial laboratories to offer testing, improving turn-around-time to identify and treat infected infants sooner. Assess performances of a manual DNA extraction method and helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) assay for detecting HIV-1 DNA from DBS. 60 HIV-1 infected adults were enrolled, blood samples taken and DBS made. DBS extracts were assessed for DNA concentration and beta globin amplification using PCR and melt-curve analysis. These same extracts were then tested for HIV-1 DNA using HDA and compared to results generated by PCR and pyrosequencing. Finally, HDA limit of detection (LOD) studies were performed using DBS extracts prepared with known numbers of 8E5 cells. The manual extraction protocol consistently yielded high concentrations of amplifiable DNA from DBS. LOD assessment demonstrated HDA detected ∼470 copies/ml of HIV-1 DNA extracts in 4/4 replicates. No statistical difference was found using the McNemar's test when comparing HDA to PCR for detecting HIV-1 DNA from DBS. Using just a magnet, heat block and pipettes, the manual extraction protocol and HDA assay detected HIV-1 DNA from DBS at levels that would be useful for early infant diagnosis. Next steps will include assessing HDA for non-B HIV-1 subtypes recognition and comparison to Roche HIV-1 DNA v1.5 PCR assay. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microwave-assisted extraction and accelerated solvent extraction with ethyl acetate-cyclohexane before determination of organochlorines in fish tissue by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichbrodt, M; Vetter, W; Luckas, B

    2000-01-01

    Focused open-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (FOV-MAE), closed-vessel microwave-assisted extraction (CV-MAE), and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) were used for extraction before determination of organochlorine compounds (polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT, toxaphene, chlordane, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, and dieldrin) in cod liver and fish fillets. Wet samples were extracted without the time-consuming step of lyophilization or other sample-drying procedures. Extractions were performed with the solvent mixture ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v), which allowed direct use of gel-permeation chromatography without solvent exchange. For FOV-MAE, the solvent mixture removed water from the sample matrix via azeotropic distillation. The status of water removal was controlled during extraction by measuring the temperature of the distillate. After water removal, the temperature of the distillate increased and the solvent mixture became less polar. Only the pure extraction solvent allowed quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds. For CV-MAE, water could not be separated during the extraction. For this reason, the extraction procedure for wet fish tissue required 2 extraction steps: the first for manual removal of coextracted water, and the second for quantitative extraction of the organochlorine compounds with the pure solvent. Therefore, CV-MAE is less convenient for samples with high water content. For ASE, water in the sample was bound with Na2SO4. The reproducibility for each technique was very good (relative standard deviation was typically <10%); the slightly varying levels were attributed to deviations during sample cleanup and the generally low levels.

  5. Health and Natural Resources: The Extraction of Useful Chemicals from Plants and their Impact on Socio-Economic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munavu, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategies in developing countries are based on the need to develop and improve the quality of life of people. The successful strategies link wealth creating activities of adding value to local resources with employment creation. These strategies lead to increased capacity to produce needed consumer goods such as food, fuel, construction materials, textiles and pharmaceuticals starting from local resources. Most value-adding transformations of materials to consumer goods use chemicals conversion processes

  6. Extraction Of Electronic Evidence From VoIP: Identification & Analysis Of Digital Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Irwin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing in popularity as a cost effective and efficient means of making telephone calls via the Internet. However, VoIP may also be an attractive method of communication to criminals as their true identity may be hidden and voice and video communications are encrypted as they are deployed across the Internet. This produces in a new set of challenges for forensic analysts compared with traditional wire-tapping of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN infrastructure, which is not applicable to VoIP. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence from VoIP are required.  This research investigates the analysis and recovery of digitised human, which persists in computer memory after a VoIP call.This paper proposes a proof of concept how remnants of digitised human speech from a VoIP call may be identified within a forensic memory capture based on how the human voice is detected via a microphone and encoded to a digital format using the sound card of your personal computer. This digital format is unencrypted whist processed in Random Access Memory (RAM before it is passed to the VoIP application for encryption and  transmission over the Internet. Similarly, an incoming encrypted VoIP call is decrypted by the VoIP application and passes through RAM unencrypted in order to be played via the speaker output.A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby RAM captures were analysed for remnants of digital speech after a VoIP audio call with known conversation. The identification and analysis of digital speech from RAM attempts to construct an automatic process for the identification and subsequent reconstruction of the audio content of a VoIP call.

  7. Electronic simulation of the supported liquid membrane in electromembrane extraction systems: Improvement of the extraction by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Nojavan, Saeed; Zahedi, Pegah; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane. • A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction. • An improvement was observed by precise periodical reversing of the field polarity. - Abstract: In order to understand the limitations of electromebrane extraction procedure better, a simple equivalent circuit has been proposed for a supported liquid membrane consisting of a resistor and a low leakage capacitor in series. To verify the equivalent circuit, it was subjected to a simulated periodical polarity changing potential and the resulting time variation of the current was compared with that of a real electromembrane extraction system. The results showed a good agreement between the simulated current patterns and those of the real ones. In order to investigate the impact of various limiting factors, the corresponding values of the equivalent circuit were estimated for a real electromembrane extraction system and were attributed to the physical parameters of the extraction system. A dual charge transfer mechanism was proposed for electromembrane extraction by combining general migration equation and fundamental aspects derived from the simulation. Dual mechanism comprises a current dependent contribution of analyte in total current and could support the possibility of an improvement in performance of an electromembrane extraction by application of an asymmetric polarity changing potential. The optimization of frequency and duty cycle of the asymmetric polarity exchanging potential resulted in a higher recovery (2.17 times greater) in comparison with the conventional electromebrane extraction. The simulation also provided more quantitative approaches toward the investigation of the mechanism of extraction and contribution of different limiting factors in electromembrane extraction. Results showed that the buildup of the double layer is the main limiting factor and the Joule heating has

  8. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  9. Evaluation of Keyphrase Extraction Algorithm and Tiling Process for a Document/Resource Recommender within E-Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangina, Eleni; Kilbride, John

    2008-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is an examination of the applicability of IUI techniques in an online e-learning environment. In particular we make use of user modeling techniques, information retrieval and extraction mechanisms and collaborative filtering methods. The domains of e-learning, web-based training and instruction and intelligent…

  10. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  11. Examining database persistence of ISO/EN 13606 standardized electronic health record extracts: relational vs. NoSQL approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-de-Madariaga, Ricardo; Muñoz, Adolfo; Lozano-Rubí, Raimundo; Serrano-Balazote, Pablo; Castro, Antonio L; Moreno, Oscar; Pascual, Mario

    2017-08-18

    The objective of this research is to compare the relational and non-relational (NoSQL) database systems approaches in order to store, recover, query and persist standardized medical information in the form of ISO/EN 13606 normalized Electronic Health Record XML extracts, both in isolation and concurrently. NoSQL database systems have recently attracted much attention, but few studies in the literature address their direct comparison with relational databases when applied to build the persistence layer of a standardized medical information system. One relational and two NoSQL databases (one document-based and one native XML database) of three different sizes have been created in order to evaluate and compare the response times (algorithmic complexity) of six different complexity growing queries, which have been performed on them. Similar appropriate results available in the literature have also been considered. Relational and non-relational NoSQL database systems show almost linear algorithmic complexity query execution. However, they show very different linear slopes, the former being much steeper than the two latter. Document-based NoSQL databases perform better in concurrency than in isolation, and also better than relational databases in concurrency. Non-relational NoSQL databases seem to be more appropriate than standard relational SQL databases when database size is extremely high (secondary use, research applications). Document-based NoSQL databases perform in general better than native XML NoSQL databases. EHR extracts visualization and edition are also document-based tasks more appropriate to NoSQL database systems. However, the appropriate database solution much depends on each particular situation and specific problem.

  12. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized

  13. Measurement of polychlorinated biphenyls in solid waste such as transformer insulation paper by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikushi, Hiroaki; Fujii, Yuka; Toda, Kei

    2012-09-21

    In this work, a method for measuring polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated solid waste was investigated. This waste includes paper that is used in electric transformers to insulate electric components. The PCBs in paper sample were extracted by supercritical fluid extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. The recoveries with this method (84-101%) were much higher than those with conventional water extraction (0.08-14%), and were comparable to those with conventional organic solvent extraction. Limit of detection was 0.0074 mg kg(-1) and measurable up to 2.5 mg kg(-1) for 0.5 g of paper sample. Data for real insulation paper by the proposed method agreed well with those by the conventional organic solvent extraction. Extraction from wood and concrete was also investigated and good performance was obtained as well as for paper samples. The supercritical fluid extraction is simpler, faster, and greener than conventional organic solvent extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantifying the potential effects of high-volume water extractions on water resources during natural gas development: Marcellus Shale, NY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura C. Best

    2014-07-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The potential effects of the withdrawal scenarios on both the water table and stream discharge were quantified. Based on these impact results, locations in the aquifer and stream networks were identified, which demonstrate particular vulnerability to increased withdrawals and their distribution. These are the locations of importance for planners and regulators who oversee water permitting, to reach a sustainable management of the water resources under changing conditions of energy and corresponding water demand.

  15. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  16. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  17. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  18. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  19. Application of solid-phase micro extraction for the determination of pesticides in vegetable samples by gas chromatography with an electron capture detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat; Kumari, Asha

    2008-01-01

    A solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) method has been developed for the determination of 9 pesticides in 2 vegetables -cucumber and tomato - samples, based on direct immersion mode and subsequent desorption into the injection port of a gas chromatograph with an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). The main factors affecting the SPME process such as extraction time and temperature, desorption time and temperature, the effect of salt addition and fiber depth into the liner were studied and optimized. The analytical procedure proposed consisted of a 30 minute ultrasonic extraction of the target compounds from 1.0 g vegetable samples with 5 mL of distilled water. Then, the samples were filtered and topped up with distilled water to 10 mL. The analytes in this aqueous extract were extracted for 15 minutes with a 100 μm thickness polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber. Relative standard deviations for triplicate analyses of samples were less than 10 %. The recoveries of the pesticides studied in cucumber and tomato ranged from 52 % to 82 % and the RSD were below 10 %. Therefore, the proposed method is applicable in the analysis of pesticides in vegetable matrices. SPME has been shown to be a simple extraction technique, which has a number of advantages such as solvent free extraction, simplicity and compatibility with the chromatographic analytical system. (author)

  20. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  1. Swamp Works: A New Approach to Develop Space Mining and Resource Extraction Technologies at the National Aeronautics Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Sibille, L.; Leucht, K.; Smith, J. D.; Townsend, I. I.; Nick, A. J.; Schuler, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    environment and methodology, with associated laboratories that uses lean development methods and creativity-enhancing processes to invent and develop new solutions for space exploration. This paper will discuss the Swamp Works approach to developing space mining and resource extraction systems and the vision of space development it serves. The ultimate goal of the Swamp Works is to expand human civilization into the solar system via the use of local resources utilization. By mining and using the local resources in situ, it is conceivable that one day the logistics supply train from Earth can be eliminated and Earth independence of a space-based community will be enabled.

  2. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  3. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  4. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  5. Simultaneous analysis of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in air samples by using accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography dual electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Haifaa; Al Dine, Enaam Jamal; Elmoll, Ahmad; Liaud, Céline; Millet, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    An analytical method associating accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) in immersion mode combined with gas chromatography dual electrons capture detectors (SPME-GC-2ECD) has been developed and studied for the simultaneous determination of 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air samples (active and XAD-2 passive samplers). Samples were extracted with ASE with acetonitrile using the following conditions: temperature, 150 °C; pressure, 1500 psi; static, 15 min; cycles, 3; purge, 300 s; flush, 100 %. Extracts were reduced to 1 mL, and 500 μL of this extract, filled with deionised water, was subject to SPME extraction. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method attained the best extraction efficiency under the optimised conditions: extraction of PCB-OCP mixture using 100-μm PDMS fibre at 80 °C for 40 min with no addition of salt. The performance of the proposed ASE-SPME-GC-2ECD methodology with respect to linearity, limit of quantification and detection was evaluated by spiking of XAD-2 resin with target compounds. The regression coefficient (R (2)) of most compounds was found to be high of 0.99. limits of detection (LODs) are between 0.02 and 4.90 ng m(-3), and limits of quantification (LOQs) are between 0.05 and 9.12 ng m(-3) and between 0.2 and 49 ng/sampler and 0.52 and 91 ng/sampler, respectively, for XAD-2 passive samplers. Finally, a developed procedure was applied to determine selected PCBs and OCPs in the atmosphere.

  6. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafalskyi, D; Aanesland, A

    2014-01-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N 2 . The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam. (paper)

  7. Theoretical and experimental studies on the improvement of the time structure of the extracted electron beam from the stretcher ring ELSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neckenig, M.

    1993-03-01

    The Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA of Bonn University is the first electron-pulse-stretcher-ring in the GeV-range. It delivers an external electron beam in the energy range from 500 MeV to 3.5 GeV, with a current between 10 pA and 100 nA, depending on the demands of the experiments. A synchrotron is used to preaccelerate the electrons to energies between 500 MeV and 1.8 GeV. In this energy-range, ELSA is used in the pure stretcher-mode, whereas for higher energies it is used as a post accelerator. For beam extraction, a third-integer resonance, driven by sextupoles, is applied. The problems, delimiting the duty-factor of the extracted beam in the pure stretcher-mode, have been investigated and solved. In this mode, duty-factors -measured by coincidence methods - of up to 55% have been reached, which are of the order of the theoretical limit for the applied extraction method of about 60%. (orig.) [de

  8. New opportunities of the application of natural herb and spice extracts in plant oils: application of electron paramagnetic resonance in examining the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the applicability of natural water-ethanol extracts of herbs and spices in increasing the oxidative stability of plant oils and in the production of novel food. Different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm) of spice extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (100 ppm) were added to the studied oils. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts was determined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The study showed that the extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of the examined oils when compared to one of the strongest synthetic antioxidants--BHA. The applied simple production technology and addition of herb and spice extracts to plant oils enabled enhancement of their oxidative stability. The extracts are an alternative to the oils aromatized with an addition of fresh herbs, spices, and vegetables because it did not generate additional flavors thus enabling the maintenance of the characteristic ones. Moreover, it will increase the intake of natural substances in human diet, which are known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Studies of extraction and transport system for highly charged ion beam of 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorita, T; Hatanaka, K; Fukuda, M; Ueda, H; Yasuda, Y; Morinobu, S; Tamii, A; Kamakura, K

    2014-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source is installed to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions especially for highly charged heavy ions which can be accelerated by cyclotrons of Research Center for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Osaka University. The beam production developments of several ions from B to Xe have been already done [T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008) and T. Yorita, K. Hatanaka, M. Fukuda, M. Kibayashi, S. Morinobu, H.Okamura, and A. Tamii, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A332 (2010)] and the further studies for those beam extraction and its transport have been done in order to increase the beam current more. The plasma electrode, extraction electrode, and einzel lens are modified. Especially extraction electrode can be applied minus voltage for the beam extraction and it works well to improve the extracted beam current. The extraction voltage dependences of transmission and emittance also have been studied for beam current improvement which is injected into azimuthally varying field cyclotron at RCNP.

  10. Changes in the aromatic profile of espresso coffee as a function of the grinding grade and extraction time: a study by the electronic nose system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severini, C; Ricci, I; Marone, M; Derossi, A; De Pilli, T

    2015-03-04

    The changes in chemical attributes and aromatic profile of espresso coffee (EC) were studied taking into account the extraction time and grinding level as independent variables. Particularly, using an electronic nose system, the changes of the global aromatic profile of EC were highlighted. The results shown as the major amounts of organic acids, solids, and caffeine were extracted in the first 8 s of percolation. The grinding grade significantly affected the quality of EC probably as an effect of the particle size distribution and the percolation pathways of water through the coffee cake. The use of an electronic nose system allowed us to discriminate the fractions of the brew as a function of the percolation time and also the regular coffee obtained from different grinding grades. Particularly, the aromatic profile of a regular coffee (25 mL) was significantly affected by the grinding level of the coffee grounds and percolation time, which are two variables under the control of the bar operator.

  11. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  12. Extraction of topographic and material contrasts on surfaces from SEM images obtained by energy filtering detection with low-energy primary electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Masayasu; Aoyama, Tomohiro; Sato, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Secondary electron microscope (SEM) images have been obtained for practical materials using low primary electron energies and an in-lens type annular detector with changing negative bias voltage supplied to a grid placed in front of the detector. The kinetic-energy distribution of the detected electrons was evaluated by the gradient of the bias-energy dependence of the brightness of the images. This is divided into mainly two parts at about 500 V, high and low brightness in the low- and high-energy regions, respectively and shows difference among the surface regions having different composition and topography. The combination of the negative grid bias and the pixel-by-pixel image subtraction provides the band-pass filtered images and extracts the material and topographic information of the specimen surfaces. -- Highlights: ► Scanning electron (SE) images contain many kind of information on material surfaces. ► We investigate energy-filtered SE images for practical materials. ► The brightness of the images is divided into two parts by the bias voltage. ► Topographic and material contrasts are extracted by subtracting the filtered images.

  13. Calcium dynamics in the healing of tooth extraction sockets in mice evaluated using 45Ca-autoradiography and Electron Probe Micro Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takeo

    2006-01-01

    The calcium distribution in tooth extraction sockets of mice was examined using 45-Calcium autoradiography (ARG) and Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA). Mice were divided into 8 groups (n=8) according to the number of days (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 20 respectively) after extraction. Frozen sections were taken from mice on each experimental day after injection of 45-Calcium (RI). The process of formation of new bone was observed using ARG. An ultimate analysis was performed by EPMA. Histological analysis was performed with toluidine blue- and alizarin red S-staining. In toluidine blue-staining, an osteoblast was found along the socket wall at 4 days and non-calcified periodontal ligament was recognized until 5 days after extraction. In alizarin red S-staining, new bone was recognized separated from the socket wall at 4 days after extraction. 45 Ca-labeling was detected strongly in the periosteum of the mandible, the surface of cement and periodontal ligament in control animals. 45 Ca-labeling was moved from the bottom to the top of the tooth extraction socket during the period from 1 to 5 days after extraction, but in the periodontal ligament lower than in the granulation tissue. 45 Ca-labeling was detected in the socket at 7, 10 and 20 days. At 4 days, calcium phosphate was observed in the central portion of the socket using EPMA. 45 Ca-labeling showed deposition of calcium phosphate for alveolar bone and new bone. These results suggest that the granulation tissue may be involved in the initial calcification in the tooth extraction socket and lead to the formation of new bone in it. (author)

  14. Extraction of topographic and material contrasts on surfaces from SEM images obtained by energy filtering detection with low-energy primary electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoshi, Masayasu; Aoyama, Tomohiro; Sato, Kaoru

    2013-01-01

    Secondary electron microscope (SEM) images have been obtained for practical materials using low primary electron energies and an in-lens type annular detector with changing negative bias voltage supplied to a grid placed in front of the detector. The kinetic-energy distribution of the detected electrons was evaluated by the gradient of the bias-energy dependence of the brightness of the images. This is divided into mainly two parts at about 500 V, high and low brightness in the low- and high-energy regions, respectively and shows difference among the surface regions having different composition and topography. The combination of the negative grid bias and the pixel-by-pixel image subtraction provides the band-pass filtered images and extracts the material and topographic information of the specimen surfaces. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delferriere, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, DSM/IRFU, 91191 Gif/Yvette (France)

    2012-02-15

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  16. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  17. 非结构化电子病历关系抽取的机器学习%Machine Learning From Non-structured Electronic Medical Record on Relation Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晓华

    2017-01-01

    Objective:Implementation of electronic medical records (EMR) of the relation extraction in the field of machine learning.Methods:Using the GATE of the application components to deal with the Batch learning PR.Results:The result of relation extraction from machine learning meets the expected requirements and has good practicability.Conclusion:Using learning PR Batch can quickly and automatically get the required relation information in the EMR large section of the article.%目的:实现电子病历(EMR)病程记录中关系抽取的机器学习.方法:利用文本工程通用框架(GATE)的应用实例组件批处理学习进程资源(Batch learning Process Resource)进行机器学习.结果:机器学习关系抽取的结果符合预期要求,具有较好的实用性.结论:利用Batch learning PR可以在EMR大段文章中快速自动获取所需的关系信息.

  18. A method for extraction of crystallography-related information from a data cube of very-low-energy electron micrographs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knápek, Alexandr; Pokorná, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 148, JAN 2015 (2015), s. 52-56 ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212 Keywords : Very low energy * Scanning electron microscopy * SLEEM * Data cube * Image processing Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.874, year: 2015

  19. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  20. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  1. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  2. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  3. The electron trap parameter extraction-based investigation of the relationship between charge trapping and activation energy in IGZO TFTs under positive bias temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jihyun; Choi, Sungju; Kang, Hara; Kim, Jae-Young; Ko, Daehyun; Ahn, Geumho; Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sung-Jin; Myong Kim, Dong; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    Experimental extraction of the electron trap parameters which are associated with charge trapping into gate insulators under the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors. This was done by combining the PBTS/recovery time-evolution of the experimentally decomposed threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) and the technology computer-aided design (TCAD)-based charge trapping simulation. The extracted parameters were the trap density (NOT) = 2.6 × 1018 cm-3, the trap energy level (ΔET) = 0.6 eV, and the capture cross section (σ0) = 3 × 10-19 cm2. Furthermore, based on the established TCAD framework, the relationship between the electron trap parameters and the activation energy (Ea) is comprehensively investigated. It is found that Ea increases with an increase in σ0, whereas Ea is independent of NOT. In addition, as ΔET increases, Ea decreases in the electron trapping-dominant regime (low ΔET) and increases again in the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission/hopping-dominant regime (high ΔET). Moreover, our results suggest that the cross-over ΔET point originates from the complicated temperature-dependent competition between the capture rate and the emission rate. The PBTS bias dependence of the relationship between Ea and ΔET suggests that the electric field dependence of the PF emission-based electron hopping is stronger than that of the thermionic field emission-based electron trapping.

  4. Beam extraction dynamics at the space-charge-limit of the high brightness E-XFEL electron source at DESY-PITZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ye; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [TEMF, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The physics of the photoemission, as one of the key issues for successful operation of linac based free-electron lasers like the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (E-XFEL) and the Free-electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH), is playing an increasingly important role in the high brightness DESY-PITZ electron source. We study photoemission physics and discuss full three-dimensional numerical modeling of the electron bunch emission. The beam extraction dynamics at the photocathode has been investigated through the 3D fully electromagnetic (EM) Particle-in-Cell (PIC) solver of CST Particle Studio under the assumption of the photoemission source operating at or close to its space charge limit. PIC simulation results have shown good agreements with measurements on total emitted bunch charge for distinct experimental parameters. Further comparisons showed a general failure for the conventional Poisson solver based tracking algorithm to correctly predict the beam dynamics at the space charge limit. It is furthermore found, that fully EM PIC simulations are also consistent with a simple emission model based on the multidimensional Child-Langmuir law.

  5. Determination of uranium and thorium in complex matrices by two solvent extraction separation techniques and photon electron rejecting alpha liquid spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranov, M.; Wacker, L.; Kraehenbuehl, U.

    2001-01-01

    The separation of uranium and thorium from complex matrixes such as marine sediments using solvent extraction and determination by means of photon-electron rejecting liquid alpha spectrometry (PERALS trademark) has successfully been performed. Two extraction schemes, using TOPO and HDEHP, respectively, were compared for the separation of uranium and thorium from the matrix components. The results show recoveries between 73 and 92% for 234 U, 238 U, 232 Th, 230 Th and 238 Th with an accuracy of the methods ±12%. Minimum detectable activities for counting time up to 500 000 seconds for 0.5 g sample material were between 0.34-1.15 Bq/kg for uranium and 0.31-1.66 Bq/kg for thorium. (orig.)

  6. Polyurethanes irradiation by accelerated electrons: molecular and supramolecular evolution, incidence on the extractable and biomedical implications; Irradiation de polyurethannes par electrons acceleres: evolution moleculaire et supramoleculaire, incidence sur les extractibles et implications biomedicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, C

    2002-11-15

    Face to the development of radiosterilization and polymers medical devices it was wished to study the behavior of polyurethanes under accelerated electrons in oxidizing atmosphere. This study has been made to reveal the physico chemical and organisational modifications of polyurethanes for a medical use. (N.C.)

  7. Calibration of high-dynamic-range, finite-resolution x-ray pulse-height spectrometers for extracting electron energy distribution data from the PFRC-2 device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of the full x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) emitted from a plasma over a large dynamic range of energies can yield valuable insights about the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) of that plasma and the dynamic processes that create them. X-ray pulse height detectors such as Amptek's X-123 Fast SDD with Silicon Nitride window can detect x-rays in the range of 200eV to 100s of keV. However, extracting EEDF from this measurement requires precise knowledge of the detector's response function. This response function, including the energy scale calibration, the window transmission function, and the resolution function, can be measured directly. We describe measurements of this function from x-rays from a mono-energetic electron beam in a purpose-built gas-target x-ray tube. Large-Z effects such as line radiation, nuclear charge screening, and polarizational Bremsstrahlung are discussed.

  8. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  9. Evaluation of umami taste in mushroom extracts by chemical analysis, sensory evaluation, and an electronic tongue system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phat, Chanvorleak; Moon, BoKyung; Lee, Chan

    2016-02-01

    Seventeen edible mushrooms commercially available in Korea were analysed for their umami taste compounds (5'-nucleotides: AMP, GMP, IMP, UMP, XMP; free amino acids: aspartic, glutamic acid) and subjected to human sensory evaluation and electronic tongue measurements. Amanita virgineoides featured the highest total 5'-nucleotide content (36.9 ± 1.50 mg/g), while monosodium glutamate-like components (42.4 ± 6.90 mg/g) were highest in Agaricus bisporus. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) ranged from 1.51 ± 0.42 to 3890 ± 833 mg MSG/g dry weight; most mushrooms exhibited a high umami taste. Pleurotus ostreatus scored the highest in the human sensory evaluation, while Flammulina velutipes obtained the maximum score in the electronic tongue measurement. The EUC and the sensory score from the electronic tongue test were highly correlated, and also showed significant correlation with the human sensory evaluation score. These results suggest that the electronic tongue is suitable to determine the characteristic umami taste of mushrooms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  11. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  12. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  13. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  14. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  15. The use of extraction and electronic diffraction replicas for precipitates characterization in welded Cr-Mo Steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez de Saiz-Solabarria, S.; San Juan Nunez, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    The precipitates and phases found in the structure of welded joints of Heat Interchanges Tubes were studied and identified. The base material satisfied the requirements of ASME Sec II, SA 213 Gr T22 (2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo). Compositions of Filler Metals were: 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo and 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo 1/4 Nb. The chemical composition of base and weld materials were analyzed by atomic emission spectroscopy in high vacuum electric discharge and by inductive plasma coupled. For the constituents characterization extraction and diffraction microscopy replicas were used. (Author) 65 refs

  16. The freetext matching algorithm: a computer program to extract diagnoses and causes of death from unstructured text in electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Anoop D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic health records are invaluable for medical research, but much information is stored as free text rather than in a coded form. For example, in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD, causes of death and test results are sometimes recorded only in free text. Free text can be difficult to use for research if it requires time-consuming manual review. Our aim was to develop an automated method for extracting coded information from free text in electronic patient records. Methods We reviewed the electronic patient records in GPRD of a random sample of 3310 patients who died in 2001, to identify the cause of death. We developed a computer program called the Freetext Matching Algorithm (FMA to map diagnoses in text to the Read Clinical Terminology. The program uses lookup tables of synonyms and phrase patterns to identify diagnoses, dates and selected test results. We tested it on two random samples of free text from GPRD (1000 texts associated with death in 2001, and 1000 general texts from cases and controls in a coronary artery disease study, comparing the output to the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s MetaMap program and the gold standard of manual review. Results Among 3310 patients registered in the GPRD who died in 2001, the cause of death was recorded in coded form in 38.1% of patients, and in the free text alone in 19.4%. On the 1000 texts associated with death, FMA coded 683 of the 735 positive diagnoses, with precision (positive predictive value 98.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 97.2, 99.2 and recall (sensitivity 92.9% (95% CI 90.8, 94.7. On the general sample, FMA detected 346 of the 447 positive diagnoses, with precision 91.5% (95% CI 88.3, 94.1 and recall 77.4% (95% CI 73.2, 81.2, which was similar to MetaMap. Conclusions We have developed an algorithm to extract coded information from free text in GP records with good precision. It may facilitate research using free text in electronic patient

  17. Cardiac implantable electronic device lead extraction using the lead-locking device system: keeping it simple, safe, and inexpensive with mechanical tools and local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Georgiopoulos, Georgios; Metaxa, Sofia; Koulouris, Spyridon; Tsiachris, Dimitris

    2017-10-01

    We have previously reported our successful approach for percutaneous cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) lead extraction using inexpensive tools, which we have continued over the years. Herein we report the results of the systematic use of a unique stylet, the lead-locking device (LLD), which securely locks the entire lead lumen, aided with non-powered telescoping sheaths in 54 patients to extract 98 CIED leads. This prospective observational clinical study included 38 men and 16 women aged 68.9±13.1 years undergoing lead extraction for device infection (n=46), lead malfunction (n=5), or prior to defibrillator implant (n=3). Leads were in place for 6.7±4.3 years. Infections were more commonly due to Staphylococcus species (n=40). There were 78 pacing (31 ventricular, 37 atrial, 4 VDD, and 6 coronary sinus leads) and 20 defibrillating leads. Using simple traction (6 leads) and the LLD stylets (92 leads) aided with telescoping sheaths (15 patients), 96 (98%) leads in 52 (96.3%) patients were successfully removed, with all but one leads removed using a subclavian approach; in 1 patient, the right femoral approach was also required. In 2 patients, distal fragments from one ventricular pacing and one defibrillating lead could not be removed. Finally, lead removal was completely (52/54) (96.3%) or partially (2/54) (3.7%) successful in 54 patients for 96 of 98 leads (98%) without major complications. Percutaneous lead extraction can be successful with mechanical tools using the LLD locking stylet aided with non-powered telescoping sheaths through a simplified, safe, and inexpensive procedure using local anesthesia.

  18. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2009-03-11

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  19. The extraction of gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using sodium citrate and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armendariz, Veronica; Parsons, Jason G; Lopez, Martha L; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Gold (Au) nanoparticles can be produced through the interaction of Au(III) ions with oat and wheat biomasses. This paper describes a procedure to recover gold nanoparticles from oat and wheat biomasses using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or sodium citrate. Extracts were analyzed using UV-visible spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The HRTEM data demonstrated that smaller nanoparticles are extracted first, followed by larger nanoparticles. In the fourth extraction, coating of chelating agents is visible on the extracted nanoparticles.

  20. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  1. Superlattice Structures, Electronic Properties, and Spin Dynamics of the Partially Cu-Extracted Phase for the Composite Crystal System CuxV4O11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Masashige; Tamura, Asato

    2017-02-01

    The crystal structures, electronic properties, and spin dynamics of CuxV4O11 with 1.2 ≤ x electron paramagnetic resonance. This system has superlattice structures mainly ascribed to the partial ordering of Cu ions. Cu1.78V4O11 is triclinic with space group Pbar{1} and the double supercell of the V4O11 substructure of the composite crystal. The significantly Cu-extracted crystal Cu1.40V4O11 has a quadruple supercell with space group P1. The electron transport for V ions is nonmetallic owing to the polaronic nature and/or phonon softening and to the random potential of Cu ions. The Curie-Weiss-type paramagnetism basically originates from the Cu2+ chain coordinated octahedrally, and the EPR relaxation at low temperatures is understood through the exchange mechanism for the dipole-dipole and anisotropic exchange interactions. The near absence of paramagnetic behaviors of V4+ ions might be due to the spin-singlet ladder model or alternating-exchange chain model depending on the superlattice structure and valence distribution. The electrochemical performance of Li rechargeable batteries using this superlattice system is about 300 A h kg-1 at voltages above 2 V.

  2. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  3. A sublimate sorbent for stir-bar sorptive extraction of aqueous endocrine disruptor pesticides for gas chromatography-electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Wen; Lee, Hua Kwang; Shih, Hou-Kuang; Jen, Jen-Fon

    2018-06-06

    A dumbbell-shaped magnetic stir-bar with sublimate sorbent was prepared for the stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) of pesticides in an aqueous sample prior to gas chromatography-micro-electron capture detection (GC-μECD). Cyclododecane (CDD) was coated onto a magnetic stir-bar surface as a sublimate sorbent, and steel balls were placed on both ends to form a dumbbell-shaped magnetic stir-bar for SBSE. Four EDC pesticides including chlorpyrifos, ethion, bromopropylate, and λ-cyhalothrin in aqueous samples were selected as model species to examine the proposed SBSE and the following desorption. The parameters studied were those affecting the extraction efficiencies including the coating (solvent for CDD and thickness), extraction (sample pH, stirring rate, time, and salting out effect), dissolution solvent volume, and the loss of CDD sublimated in air. The maximum extraction efficiency was obtained under the following conditions. The stir bar (with CDD thickness of 5.2 μm) was added into a 10 mL sample solution (at pH 7) for a 20-min extraction at 600 rpm. Then, the stir bar was gently removed from the sample solution, disassembled, and immersed into a 0.2 mL insert tube consisting of 3 μL hexane to dissolve; 1 μL was used for GC-ECD analysis. The linear ranges were 0.005-5 μg L -1 with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.9950 - 0.9994. Detection limits (based on S/N = 3) of the four EDCs were 0.4-4.5 ngL -1 with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.4-6.3%, and quantitation limits (based on S/N = 5) were 1-15 ngL -1 . The relative recoveries of the spiked samples were in the range of 83.2-98.7% with RSDs of 2.1-8.4% in farm field waters. The proposed sublimation sorbent obtained excellent enrichment factors (101-834) and provided a simple, rapid, sensitive, and eco-friendly sample preparation method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enhancement of photocurrent extraction and electron injection in dual-functional CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite-based optoelectronic devices via interfacial engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Lung; Lu, Yi-Chen; Hsiung Chang, Sheng

    2018-07-01

    Photocurrent extraction and electron injection in CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) perovskite-based optoelectronic devices are both significantly increased by improving the contact at the PCBM/MAPbBr3 interface with an extended solvent annealing (ESA) process. Photoluminescence quenching and x-ray diffraction experiments show that the ESA not only improves the contact at the PCBM/MAPbBr3 interface but also increases the crystallinity of the MAPbBr3 thin films. The optimized dual-functional PCBM-MAPbBr3 heterojunction based optoelectronic device has a high power conversion efficiency of 4.08% and a bright visible luminescence of 1509 cd m‑2. In addition, the modulation speed of the MAPbBr3 based light-emitting diodes is larger than 14 MHz, which indicates that the defect density in the MAPbBr3 thin film can be effectively reduced by using the ESA process.

  5. Effect of the gas mixing technique on the production efficiency of ion beams extracted from an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Suominen, P.; Koivisto, H.

    2004-01-01

    In this work the effect of gas mixing on the production efficiency of ion beams extracted from an ECR ion source has been studied with the JYFL 6.4 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). It was found that the gas mixing affects strongly the confinement of ions in the plasma of the ECRIS. The information obtained can be used to minimize the consumption of expensive materials or isotopes and to reduce contamination of the plasma chamber. It was observed that the carbon contamination, which is built up when the MIVOC method is used could be decreased with the aid of the gas mixing technique. The best mixing gas for this purpose was found to be oxygen

  6. Spatial Atmospheric Pressure Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Oxide as an Impermeable Electron Extraction Layer for Perovskite Solar Cells with Enhanced Thermal Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Lukas; Brinkmann, Kai O; Malerczyk, Jessica; Rogalla, Detlef; Becker, Tim; Theirich, Detlef; Shutsko, Ivan; Görrn, Patrick; Riedl, Thomas

    2018-02-14

    Despite the notable success of hybrid halide perovskite-based solar cells, their long-term stability is still a key-issue. Aside from optimizing the photoactive perovskite, the cell design states a powerful lever to improve stability under various stress conditions. Dedicated electrically conductive diffusion barriers inside the cell stack, that counteract the ingress of moisture and prevent the migration of corrosive halogen species, can substantially improve ambient and thermal stability. Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) is excellently suited to prepare such functional layers, ALD suffers from the requirement of vacuum and only allows for a very limited throughput. Here, we demonstrate for the first time spatial ALD-grown SnO x at atmospheric pressure as impermeable electron extraction layers for perovskite solar cells. We achieve optical transmittance and electrical conductivity similar to those in SnO x grown by conventional vacuum-based ALD. A low deposition temperature of 80 °C and a high substrate speed of 2.4 m min -1 yield SnO x layers with a low water vapor transmission rate of ∼10 -4 gm -2 day -1 (at 60 °C/60% RH). Thereby, in perovskite solar cells, dense hybrid Al:ZnO/SnO x electron extraction layers are created that are the key for stable cell characteristics beyond 1000 h in ambient air and over 3000 h at 60 °C. Most notably, our work of introducing spatial ALD at atmospheric pressure paves the way to the future roll-to-roll manufacturing of stable perovskite solar cells.

  7. Dynamical observation of lithium insertion/extraction reaction during charge-discharge processes in Li-ion batteries by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyamada, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yoshida, Ryuji; Kato, Takehisa; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Hirayama, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries (LIBs) with solid electrolytes are expected to be the next generation devices to overcome serious issues facing conventional LIBs with liquid electrolytes. However, the large Li-ion transfer resistance at the electrode/solid-electrolyte interfaces causes low power density and prevents practical use. In-situ-formed negative electrodes prepared by decomposing the solid electrolyte Li(1+x+3z)Alx(Ti,Ge)(2-x)Si(3z)P(3-z)O12 (LASGTP) with an excess Li-ion insertion reaction are effective electrodes providing low Li-ion transfer resistance at the interfaces. Prior to our work, however, it had still been unclear how the negative electrodes were formed in the parent solid electrolytes. Here, we succeeded in dynamically visualizing the formation by in situ spatially resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope mode (SR-TEM-EELS). The Li-ions were gradually inserted into the solid electrolyte region around 400 nm from the negative current-collector/solid-electrolyte interface in the charge process. Some of the ions were then extracted in the discharge process, and the rest were diffused such that the distribution was almost flat, resulting in the negative electrodes. The redox reaction of Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) in the solid electrolyte was also observed in situ during the Li insertion/extraction processes. The in situ SR-TEM-EELS revealed the mechanism of the electrochemical reaction in solid-state batteries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  9. Comparative In Vitro Toxicity Profile of Electronic and Tobacco Cigarettes, Smokeless Tobacco and Nicotine Replacement Therapy Products: E-Liquids, Extracts and Collected Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Misra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs continues to increase worldwide in parallel with accumulating information on their potential toxicity and safety. In this study, an in vitro battery of established assays was used to examine the cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxicity and inflammatory responses of certain commercial e-cigs and compared to tobacco burning cigarettes, smokeless tobacco (SLT products and a nicotine replacement therapy (NRT product. The toxicity evaluation was performed on e-liquids and pad-collected aerosols of e-cigs, pad-collected smoke condensates of tobacco cigarettes and extracts of SLT and NRT products. In all assays, exposures with e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, at the doses tested, showed no significant activity when compared to tobacco burning cigarettes. Results for the e-cigs, with and without nicotine in two evaluated flavor variants, were very similar in all assays, indicating that the presence of nicotine and flavors, at the levels tested, did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or inflammatory effects. The present findings indicate that neither the e-cig liquids and collected aerosols, nor the extracts of the SLT and NRT products produce any meaningful toxic effects in four widely-applied in vitro test systems, in which the conventional cigarette smoke preparations, at comparable exposures, are markedly cytotoxic and genotoxic.

  10. Extraction of Electronic Evidence from VoIP: Forensic Analysis of A Virtual Hard Disk Vs RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    david irwin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of Voice over the Internet Protocol (VoIP is increasing as the cost savings and ease of use is realised by a wide range of home and corporate users. However, the technology is also attractive to criminals. This is because VoIP is a global telephony service, in which it is difficult to verify the user’s identification. The security of placing such calls may also be appealing to criminals, as many implementations use strong encryption to secure both the voice payload as well as to control messages making monitoring such VoIP calls difficult since conventional methods such as wire-tapping is not applicable to VoIP calls. Therefore, other methods of recovering electronic evidence and information from VoIP are required.  This research looks at what protocol evidence remains after a VoIP call has taken place examining both a virtual hard disk and the Random Access Memory (RAM. This paper proposes a set of identifiable credentials based on packet header information contained within the VoIP protocol stack. A series of controlled tests were undertaken whereby these credentials were forensically searched for on a virtual machine which was used to make the VoIP call. This experiment was then repeated by a search for the same protocol credentials within the RAM.

  11. Extraction of lead from waste CRT funnel glass by generating lead sulfide - An approach for electronic waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Biao; Hui, Wenlong

    2017-09-01

    Waste cathode ray tube (CRT) funnel glass is the key and difficult points in waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) disposal. In this paper, a novel and effective process for the detoxification and reutilization of waste CRT funnel glass was developed by generating lead sulfide precipitate via a high-temperature melting process. The central function in this process was the generation of lead sulfide, which gathered at the bottom of the crucible and was then separated from the slag. Sodium carbonate was used as a flux and reaction agent, and sodium sulfide was used as a precipitating agent. The experimental results revealed that the lead sulfide recovery rate initially increased with an increase in the amount of added sodium carbonate, the amount of sodium sulfide, the temperature, and the holding time and then reached an equilibrium value. The maximum lead sulfide recovery rate was approximately 93%, at the optimum sodium carbonate level, sodium sulfide level, temperature, and holding time of 25%, 8%, 1200°C, and 2h, respectively. The glass slag can be made into sodium and potassium silicate by hydrolysis in an environmental and economical process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Capture, Electron-Cooling and Compression of Antiprotons in a Large Penning-Trap for Physics Experiments with an Ultra-Low Energy Extracted Antiproton Beam

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % PS200 \\\\ \\\\The availability of ultra-low energy antiprotons is a crucial ingredient for the execution of the gravity measurements PS200. We have developed a method to provide such low energy antiprotons based on a large Penning trap (the PS200 catching trap). This system can accept a fast-extracted pulse from LEAR, reduce the energy of the antiprotons in the pulse from 5.9~MeV to several tens of kilovolts using a degrading foil, and then capture the antiprotons in a large Penning trap. These antiprotons are cooled by electrons previously admitted to the trap and are collected in a small region at the center of the trap. We have demonstrated our capability to capture up to 1~million antiprotons from LEAR in a single shot, electron cool these antiprotons, and transfer up to 95\\% of them into the inner, harmonic region. A storage time in excess of 1 hour was observed. These results have been obtained with the cryogenic trap vacuum coupled to a room temperature vacuum at about l0$ ^- ^{1} ^0 $ Torr, which is an...

  13. Helium ion microscopy and ultra-high-resolution scanning electron microscopy analysis of membrane-extracted cells reveals novel characteristics of the cytoskeleton of Giardia intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Ana Paula Rocha; Benchimol, Marlene; de Souza, Wanderley

    2015-06-01

    Giardia intestinalis presents a complex microtubular cytoskeleton formed by specialized structures, such as the adhesive disk, four pairs of flagella, the funis and the median body. The ultrastructural organization of the Giardia cytoskeleton has been analyzed using different microscopic techniques, including high-resolution scanning electron microscopy. Recent advances in scanning microscopy technology have opened a new venue for the characterization of cellular structures and include scanning probe microscopy techniques such as ultra-high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (UHRSEM) and helium ion microscopy (HIM). Here, we studied the organization of the cytoskeleton of G. intestinalis trophozoites using UHRSEM and HIM in membrane-extracted cells. The results revealed a number of new cytoskeletal elements associated with the lateral crest and the dorsal surface of the parasite. The fine structure of the banded collar was also observed. The marginal plates were seen linked to a network of filaments, which were continuous with filaments parallel to the main cell axis. Cytoplasmic filaments that supported the internal structures were seen by the first time. Using anti-actin antibody, we observed a labeling in these filamentous structures. Taken together, these data revealed new surface characteristics of the cytoskeleton of G. intestinalis and may contribute to an improved understanding of the structural organization of trophozoites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ADEPt, a semantically-enriched pipeline for extracting adverse drug events from free-text electronic health records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtesham Iqbal

    Full Text Available Adverse drug events (ADEs are unintended responses to medical treatment. They can greatly affect a patient's quality of life and present a substantial burden on healthcare. Although Electronic health records (EHRs document a wealth of information relating to ADEs, they are frequently stored in the unstructured or semi-structured free-text narrative requiring Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques to mine the relevant information. Here we present a rule-based ADE detection and classification pipeline built and tested on a large Psychiatric corpus comprising 264k patients using the de-identified EHRs of four UK-based psychiatric hospitals. The pipeline uses characteristics specific to Psychiatric EHRs to guide the annotation process, and distinguishes: a the temporal value associated with the ADE mention (whether it is historical or present, b the categorical value of the ADE (whether it is assertive, hypothetical, retrospective or a general discussion and c the implicit contextual value where the status of the ADE is deduced from surrounding indicators, rather than explicitly stated. We manually created the rulebase in collaboration with clinicians and pharmacists by studying ADE mentions in various types of clinical notes. We evaluated the open-source Adverse Drug Event annotation Pipeline (ADEPt using 19 ADEs specific to antipsychotics and antidepressants medication. The ADEs chosen vary in severity, regularity and persistence. The average F-measure and accuracy achieved by our tool across all tested ADEs were 0.83 and 0.83 respectively. In addition to annotation power, the ADEPT pipeline presents an improvement to the state of the art context-discerning algorithm, ConText.

  15. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  16. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  18. Efect of intercellular extracts from banana inoculated leaves with Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, on chloroplast electronic transport of Grande naine (AAA cv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Leiva-Mora

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Some foliar pathogens colonize intercellular spaces of damage tissues during infection process, mediated by toxins production and diffusion to kill adjacent healthy cells. Due to the absence of reliable bioassays, the physiologic effects of several phytotoxins are still ignored on cellular membranous systems of the affected cells. In the present work it was extracted the intercellular content from not inoculated and inoculated banana leaves with different Mycosphaerella fijiensis strains. Their effects on chloroplasts of Grande naine cv were evaluated by the absorbance evolution (595 nm of Hill reactive (DCPIP, mixture with 810 ì l of chloroplasts suspension and 99 ì l of the intercellular contents. The electronic exchange on chloroplasts suspension was inhibited by intercellular contents of inoculated leaves. The intercellular contents from leaves inoculated with I1 (high virulence strain had a major inhibiter effect respect to leaves inoculates with G1 strain (low virulence, showing a correspondence between the inhibiter effect of intercellular contents and the affection levels of affected tissues. The procedures used in this work will let to make studies concerned with Mycosphaerella fijiensis-Musa spp interactions and the future breeding programs. Key words: banana breeding, black Sigatoka, host pathogen interaction, physiological bioassays

  19. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  20. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  2. Improved extraction of two-photon exchange amplitudes from elastic electron-proton scattering cross section data up to Q2=5.20 (GeV/c ) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qattan, I. A.; Homouz, D.; Riahi, M. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we improve on and extend to low- and high-Q2 values the extractions of the two-photon-exchange (TPE) amplitudes and the ratio Pl/PlBorn(ɛ ,Q2) using world data on electron-proton elastic scattering cross section σR(ɛ ,Q2) with an emphasis on data covering the high-momentum region, up to Q2=5.20 (GeV/c ) 2 , to better constrain the TPE amplitudes in this region. We provide a new parametrization of the TPE amplitudes, along with an estimate of the fit uncertainties. We compare the results to several previous phenomenological extractions and hadronic TPE predictions. We use the new parametrization of the TPE amplitudes to extract the ratio Pl/PlBorn(ɛ ,Q2) , and then compare the results to previous extractions, several theoretical calculations, and direct measurements at Q2=2.50 (GeV/c ) 2 .

  3. THE EFFECT OF CIPLUKAN (Physalis angulata L. FRUIT EXTRACT ON SGPT AND SGOT LEVELS AGAINST WHITE MALE MICE (Mus musculus HYPERGLYCEMIA INDUCED BY ALLOXAN AS BIOLOGY LEARNING RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Lailatul Fitri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ciplukan (Physalis angulata L. used by the community as an antidiabetic drug. Antidiabetic effects caused ciplukan fruit of this plant contain chemicals flavonoids with the percentage of fruit extract 300 mg / ml was 84%. Flavonoids are antioxidant compounds one that works a treat or neutralize free radicals that are expected with the administration of these antioxidants can be inhibited damage to body cells and can prevent damage to the body and the onset of degenerative diseases. This type of research is True Experimental Research. The research design using The Posttest-Only Control Group Design. The research design used completely randomized design (CRD. This research data is data SGPT and SGOT levels. Analysis of data using one-way analysis of variance at significance level of 0.05 and Duncan 5%. The results showed that different doses of fruit extract ciplukan effect on SGPT and SGOT levels of mice. Duncan test showed that the treatment dose ciplukan fruit extract is the most effective dose of 2 ml / kg. The research results can be used by teachers as information of an alternative to utilize medical plants of hyperglicemia and antiocsidant on Biology subject for X Grade of Senior High School, especially on the concept Maintenance and Utilizing of Biological Diversity in Core Competence 4

  4. Integrated Resource Management and Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2014-01-01

    , depends on the quality of these resources and technological abilities to extract resources from mixed materials, e.g. mobile phones, solar cells, or mixed domestic waste. The "effort" invested in recovery of secondary resources should not be more than the "benefit" associated with the secondary resources...

  5. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  6. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  7. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  8. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  9. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha

    The purpose of this study included: preparing plant extracts and evaluating these extracts for total phenolics and antioxidant activities (AA); infusing extract/combination that demonstrates superior AA into chicken breast and irradiating at 3.0 kGy; evaluating the physicochemical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated raw and cooked chicken breast at 5°C for 12 days and -20°C for 9 months; and selecting the extracts that demonstrated desirable AA, infusing these extracts into chicken breast and evaluating head-space volatiles, and conducting sensory evaluation. The total phenolic content and AA of the plant extracts ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg/g dry material (conjugated diene of methyl linoleate) and 3.4 to 86.3%, respectively. The AA of plant extracts using oxidative stability instrument were 4.6 to 10.2 h (Induction time). Green tea and grape seed extracts had the highest AA within several plant extracts, and were selected to retard lipid oxidation in further studies. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: Green tea and grape seed extracts alone/in combination and tert-butylhydroquinone. The results showed that irradiation had no significant effect on pH, water holding capacity, but increased the redness and carbonyls in raw meats (p extracts into meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as hardness and shear force. Irradiation increased TBARS, hexanal, and pentanal values in raw and cooked meats. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS, hexanal, pentanal, and carbonyl values. Similar results were observed when the samples were stored at -20°C for 9 months. Descriptive sensory flavor results showed that irradiation did not affect the flavor attributes. Consumer, descriptive, and instrumental results showed that irradiation increased toughness, green tea improved the meat color, and the panel indicated that irradiation decreased the tenderness of the

  10. 30 CFR 947.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 947.702 Section 947.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  11. 30 CFR 933.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 933.702 Section 933.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  12. 30 CFR 939.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 939.702 Section 939.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  13. 30 CFR 903.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 903.702 Section 903.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  14. 30 CFR 912.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 912.702 Section 912.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  15. 30 CFR 937.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 937.702 Section 937.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  16. 30 CFR 921.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 921.702 Section 921.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of the chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  17. 30 CFR 905.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 905.702 Section 905.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  18. 30 CFR 942.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 942.702 Section 942.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  19. 30 CFR 910.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 910.702 Section 910.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  20. 30 CFR 922.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 922.702 Section 922.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of Other...

  1. 30 CFR 941.702 - Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption for coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals. 941.702 Section 941.702 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION... other minerals. Part 702 of this chapter, Exemption for Coal Extraction Incidental to the Extraction of...

  2. Oil extraction in extreme remoteness. The organization of work and long-distance commuting in Russia's northern resource peripheries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spies, M.

    2009-07-01

    The post-Soviet Russian North is characterised by very heterogeneous developments. In some northern peripheries, while the prominent resource industries create a substantial share of their revenues and generate local growth stimuli, other areas face post-Soviet decay. This thesis examines employee mobility in the form of long-distance commuting as an option for dealing with this challenge for regional and local development and analyses its offerings to stakeholders in the region under consideration of its historical legacies and present contingencies. The chosen approach to the research issue places individual employees at the centre of analysis and deals with stances and perceptions of labour. The applied relational understanding of social structures sees any economic processes as necessarily embedded in context and evolving due to past developments. Therefore, a concept of organisations and the management of work is developed that is sensitive to the particularities of long-distance commuting as used in northern Russia and the perceptions and preferences of the individuals involved. The data used in the analyses was acquired from a case study of a Russian oil company and a questionnaire survey. The respondents' views do not reveal any general rejection of long-distance commuting as an alternative employment pattern. Furthermore, its acceptance can be enhanced by listening to the voices of those directly involved. Long-distance commuting is therefore available as a tool for dealing with the limiting geographical characteristics of the Russian North, its Soviet legacies and for efficiently capitalising on its economic potentials. (orig.)

  3. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  4. FY1996 research cooperation for the development of the environmentally friendly technology for highly efficient mineral resources extraction and treatment; 1997 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The above-named project aims to jointly develop technologies to efficiently extract and recover valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metals, etc.) from slag, with caution fully exercised to conserve the environment, for effectively utilizing non-ferrous resources in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The effort covers a seven-year period beginning in fiscal 1994. The elements which are studied are technologies that involve leaching, solvent extraction, electroextraction, recovery of gold and silver, and waste water treatment. In this fiscal year, wet treatment, gold and silver treatment, and waste water treatment are studied in on-site joint researches and in domestic researches for specimens sampled at the Kazakhstan site. In addition, based on the results of the above-said basic researches, some parts of the pilot plant to be constructed is designed and manufactured. For propelling forward the project, equipment necessary for joint research is procured and forwarded to the site, and Kazakhstan scientists are invited to Japan for training. (NEDO)

  5. A study on prevention of an electric discharge at an extraction electrode of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source for cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishii, Y; Kawasaki, S; Kitagawa, A; Muramatsu, M; Uchida, T

    2014-02-01

    A compact ECR ion source has utilized for carbon radiotherapy. In order to increase beam intensity with higher electric field at the extraction electrode and be better ion supply stability for long periods, electric geometry and surface conditions of an extraction electrode have been studied. Focusing attention on black deposited substances on the extraction electrode, which were observed around the extraction electrode after long-term use, the relation between black deposited substances and the electrical insulation property is investigated. The black deposited substances were inspected for the thickness of deposit, surface roughness, structural arrangement examined using Raman spectroscopy, and characteristics of electric discharge in a test bench, which was set up to simulate the ECR ion source.

  6. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  7. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  8. Low-energy electron interaction with retusin extracted from Maackia amurensis: towards a molecular mechanism of the biological activity of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnyuk, Stanislav A; Elkin, Yury N; Kulesh, Nadezda I; Lazneva, Eleonora F; Komolov, Alexei S

    2015-07-14

    The antioxidant isoflavone retusin efficiently attaches low-energy electrons in vacuo, generating fragment species via dissociative electron attachment (DEA), as has been shown by DEA spectroscopy. According to in silico results obtained by means of density functional theory, retusin is able to attach solvated electrons and could be decomposed under reductive conditions in vivo, for instance, near the mitochondrial electron transport chain, analogous to gas-phase DEA. The most intense decay channels of retusin temporary negative ions were found to be associated with the elimination of H atoms and H2 molecules. Doubly dehydrogenated fragment anions were predicted to possess a quinone structure. It is thought that molecular hydrogen, known for its selective antioxidant properties, can be efficiently generated via electron attachment to retusin in mitochondria and may be responsible for its antioxidant activity. The second abundant species, i.e., quinone bearing an excess negative charge, can serve as an electron carrier and can return the captured electron back to the respiration cycle. The number of OH substituents and their relative positions are crucial for the present molecular mechanism, which can explain the radical scavenging activity of polyphenolic compounds.

  9. Ab initio and density functional theoretical design and screening of model crown ether based ligand (host) for extraction of lithium metal ion (guest): effect of donor and electronic induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Anil; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Rao, Hanmanth; Ghosh, Sandip K

    2012-08-01

    The structures, energetic and thermodynamic parameters of model crown ethers with different donor, cavity and electron donating/ withdrawing functional group have been determined with ab initio MP2 and density functional theory in gas and solvent phase. The calculated values of binding energy/ enthalpy for lithium ion complexation are marginally higher for hard donor based aza and oxa crown compared to soft donor based thia and phospha crown. The calculated values of binding enthalpy for lithium metal ion with 12C4 at MP2 level of theory is in good agreement with the available experimental result. The binding energy is altered due to the inductive effect imparted by the electron donating/ withdrawing group in crown ether, which is well correlated with the values of electron transfer. The role of entropy for extraction of hydrated lithium metal ion by different donor and functional group based ligand has been demonstrated. The HOMO-LUMO gap is decreased and dipole moment of the ligand is increased from gas phase to organic phase because of the dielectric constant of the solvent. The gas phase binding energy is reduced in solvent phase as the solvent molecules weaken the metal-ligand binding. The theoretical values of extraction energy for LiCl salt from aqueous solution in different organic solvent is validated by the experimental trend. The study presented here should contribute to the design of model host ligand and screening of solvent for metal ion recognition and thus can contribute in planning the experiments.

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  11. Momentum spectra of electrons rescattered from rare-gas targets following their extraction by one- and two-color femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, D.; Chen Zhangjin; De, S.; Cao, W.; Le, A. T.; Lin, C. D.; Cocke, C. L.; Litvinyuk, I. V.; Kling, M. F.

    2011-01-01

    We have used velocity-map imaging to measure the three-dimensional momenta of electrons rescattered from Xe and Ar following the liberation of the electrons from these atoms by 45 fs, 800 nm intense laser pulses. Strong structure in the rescattering region is observed in both angle and energy, and is interpreted in terms of quantitative rescattering (QRS) theory. Momentum images have also been taken with two-color (800 nm + 400 nm) pulses on Xe targets. A strong dependence of the spectra on the relative phase of the two colors is observed in the rescattering region. Interpretation of the phase dependence using both QRS theory and a full solution to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation shows that the rescattered electrons provide a much more robust method for determining the relative phase of the two colors than do the direct electrons.

  12. Clean-up of aqueous acetone vegetable extracts by solid-matrix partition for pyrethroid residue determination by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muccio, A; Barbini, D A; Generali, T; Pelosi, P; Ausili, A; Vergori, F; Camoni, I

    1997-03-21

    Disposable, ready-to-use cartridges filled with macroporous diatomaceous material are used to carry out a partition clean-up that, in a single step, is capable of transferring pesticide residues from aqueous acetone extracts into light petroleum-dichloromethane (75:25, v/v). This procedure takes the place of some functions (such as separatory-funnel partition, drying over anhydrous sodium sulphate and partial adsorption clean-up) usually performed by separate steps in classical schemes. Fourteen pyrethroid pesticides, including tefluthrin, tetramethrin, cyphenothrin, cyfluthrin, flucythrinate, tau-fluvalinate, deltamethrin, bioallethrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate and tralomethrin were determined using the described procedure with satisfactory recoveries for most of them, at spiking levels ranging from 0.08 to 0.82 mg/kg for the different compounds. Crops subjected to the described procedure included strawberry, apple, and orange gave extracts containing a mass of co-extractives that was between 5 and 30 mg. Compared with classical schemes, the described procedure is simple, less labour intensive, allows parallel handling of several extracts and does not require the preparation and maintenance of equipment. Troublesome emulsions such as those frequently observed in separation funnel partitioning do not occur.

  13. Rare earths as a future resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    The fourteen rare earth or lanthanide elements have recently emerged as an important natural resource because of the rapidly growing demand in the electronic, chemical and metallurgical industries. The Symposium on rare earth elements as a future resource presented a multidisciplinary review of rare earth chemistry, geology, beneficiation, industrial applications and marketing. Papers by experts in many fields were presented on the following topics: chemical properties of the rare earth elements; the analysis of rare earth elements and minerals; beneficiation and extraction of rare earth elements; economic geochemistry and mineralogy of rare earths; present industrial uses of rare earth elements; the role of rare earth elements in high-temperature superconductors; the technical application of high-temperature superconductors; supply and demand for rare earth products - now and in the future, and the geology of rare earth deposits

  14. Molecular effects in carbon K-shell Auger-electron production by 0.6-2.0 MeV protons and extraction of an atomic cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, F.D.; Lapicki, G.

    1987-01-01

    Carbon K-shell Auger-electron production cross sections are reported for 0.6-2.0 MeV protons incident on CH 4 (methane), C 2 H 2 (acetylene), C 2 H 4 (ethylene), C 2 H 6 (ethane), n-C 4 H 10 (normal butane), i-C 4 H 10 (isobutane), C 6 H 6 (benzene), CO (carbon monoxide), and CO 2 (carbon dioxide). A constant-energy mode 45 0 parallel-plate electrostatic analyzer was used for detection of Auger electrons. The carbon KLL Auger-electron cross sections for all molecules were found to be lower than that found for CH 4 by 9-23%. All carbon KLL Auger-electron data could be brought into agreement when corrected for the chemical shift of the carbon K-shell binding energy in molecules and for intramolecular scattering. KLL Auger-electron production cross sections are compared to first Born and ECPSSR theories and show good agreement with both after the chemical shift of the carbon K-shell binding energy in molecules and the effects of intramolecular scattering are considered. (orig.)

  15. Primary secondary amine as a sorbent material in dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up for the determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuanming; Hu, Hongmei; Li, Tiejun; Xue, Lijian; Zhang, Xiaoning; Zhong, Zhi; Zhang, Yurong; Jin, Yanjian

    2017-08-01

    A simple, rapid, and novel method has been developed and validated for determination of seven indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in water samples by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. 1 L of water samples containing 30 g of anhydrous sodium sulfate was first liquid-liquid extracted with an automated Jipad-6XB vertical oscillator using n-hexane/dichloromethane (1:1, v/v). The concentrated extract was cleaned up by dispersive solid-phase extraction with 100 mg of primary secondary amine as sorbent material. The linearity of this method ranged from 1.25 to 100 μg/L, with regression coefficients ranging between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The limits of detection were in the ng/L level, ranging between 0.2 and 0.3 ng/L. The recoveries of seven spiked polychlorinated biphenyls with external calibration method at different concentration levels in tap water, lake water, and sea water were in the ranges of 85-112, 76-116, and 72-108%, respectively, and with relative standard deviations of 3.3-4.5, 3.4-5.6, and 3.1-4.8% (n = 5), respectively. The performance of the proposed method was compared with traditional liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, and comparable efficiencies were obtained. It is concluded that this method can be successfully applied for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in different water samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Greece people have used grapes, grape leaves, and sap for health purposes. Grape seed extract was developed ... sharing research results, and educating the public. Its resources include publications (such as Dietary ... Department of Health & Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Center for ...

  17. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  18. translating the extractive resources to economic growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    continent's economies, and are central to its livelihood systems. They ...... Fund, built on earnings from the sale of diamonds, is one continental practice worth .... integration, as countries try to optimize their objective functions. 127 Paul ...

  19. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  20. determination of lipophilic extractives in ionic liquid extracts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Chem. 9: 63-69. Freire CSR, Pinto PCR, Santiago AS,. Silvestre AJD, Evtuquin DV and Neto. CP 2006a Comparative study of lipophilic extractives of hardwoods and corresponding ECF bleached kraft pulps. BioResources. 1: 3-17. Freire CSR, Silvestre AJD and Neto CP. 2005. Lipophilic extractives in. Eucalyptus globulus.

  1. Quantifying global exergy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermann, Weston A.

    2006-01-01

    Exergy is used as a common currency to assess and compare the reservoirs of theoretically extractable work we call energy resources. Resources consist of matter or energy with properties different from the predominant conditions in the environment. These differences can be classified as physical, chemical, or nuclear exergy. This paper identifies the primary exergy reservoirs that supply exergy to the biosphere and quantifies the intensive and extensive exergy of their derivative secondary reservoirs, or resources. The interconnecting accumulations and flows among these reservoirs are illustrated to show the path of exergy through the terrestrial system from input to its eventual natural or anthropogenic destruction. The results are intended to assist in evaluation of current resource utilization, help guide fundamental research to enable promising new energy technologies, and provide a basis for comparing the resource potential of future energy options that is independent of technology and cost

  2. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  3. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  4. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jun; Lin Youjian; Lu Jian; Wilson, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 o C for 2 h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 o C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most o C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 μg kg -1 ), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 μg kg -1 ), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 μg kg -1 ). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 μg kg -1 to 3.72 μg kg -1 . Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33 ± 41.71 μg kg -1 , lowest concentration 5.68 ± 0.38 μg kg -1 ), and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73 ± 0.53 to 7.53 ± 0.01 μg kg -1 . - Highlights: → A rapid extraction and copper-based clean-up method was developed. → Recoveries after storage at 4 o C for 21 d ranged from 79.2 to 120.0%. → Percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most -1 to 3.72 μg kg -1 .

  5. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  6. Theoretical and experimental studies on the improvement of the time structure of the extracted electron beam from the stretcher ring ELSA; Theoretische und experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Verbesserung der Zeitstruktur des extrahierten Elektronenstrahls aus dem Stretcherring ELSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neckenig, M.

    1993-03-01

    The Electron Stretcher Accelerator ELSA of Bonn University is the first electron-pulse-stretcher-ring in the GeV-range. It delivers an external electron beam in the energy range from 500 MeV to 3.5 GeV, with a current between 10 pA and 100 nA, depending on the demands of the experiments. A synchrotron is used to preaccelerate the electrons to energies between 500 MeV and 1.8 GeV. In this energy-range, ELSA is used in the pure stretcher-mode, whereas for higher energies it is used as a post accelerator. For beam extraction, a third-integer resonance, driven by sextupoles, is applied. The problems, delimiting the duty-factor of the extracted beam in the pure stretcher-mode, have been investigated and solved. In this mode, duty-factors - measured by coincidence methods - of up to 55% have been reached, which are of the order of the theoretical limit for the applied extraction method of about 60%. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, die Phaenomene, die das Tastverhaeltnis des aus ELSA extrahierten Strahles beeinflussen, zu verstehen. Aus dem gewonnenen Verstaendnis heraus sollten Massnahmen getroffen werden, um das Tastverhaeltnis zu verbessern. Die Effekte, die ein gutes Tastverhaeltnis in der Vergangenheit verhindert haben, waren in der Hauptsache ein Stromrippel in den Netzgeraeten der Hauptmagnete sowie die Extraktion aus dem Synchrotron, die nur eine schlechte Fuellung von ELSA erlaubte. Der Rippel wurde durch den Einbau von Filtern in die Netzgeraete behoben. Bei den gegenwaertigen Extraktionszeiten von 20 msec spielt der Rippel nur noch eine geringe Rolle. Die Extraktion aus dem Synchrotron wurde modifiziert, so dass ohne Beschaffung neuer Komponenten eine Verbesserung der ELSA-Fuellung von 40% auf maximal 75% moeglich wurde. Durch eine Reihe von Massnahmen konnte der Wert des Tastverhaeltnisses von 6%-7% kurz nach der Inbetriebnahme auf heute 50%-55% gesteigert werden. Die Extraktion kann durch ein einfaches Modell beschrieben werden, dass alle

  7. Study of surface reaction of spinel Li4Ti5O12 during the first lithium insertion and extraction processes using atomic force microscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Mitsunori; Akita, Tomoki; Maeda, Yasushi; Kohyama, Masanori

    2012-08-21

    Spinel lithium titanate (Li(4)Ti(5)O(12), LTO) is a promising anode material for a lithium ion battery because of its excellent properties such as high rate charge-discharge capability and life cycle stability, which were understood from the viewpoint of bulk properties such as small lattice volume changes by lithium insertion. However, the detailed surface reaction of lithium insertion and extraction has not yet been studied despite its importance to understand the mechanism of an electrochemical reaction. In this paper, we apply both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the changes in the atomic and electronic structures of the Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface during the charge-discharged (lithium insertion and extraction) processes. The AFM observation revealed that irreversible structural changes of an atomically flat Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) surface occurs at the early stage of the first lithium insertion process, which induces the reduction of charge transfer resistance at the electrolyte/Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) interface. The TEM observation clarified that cubic rock-salt crystal layers with a half lattice size of the original spinel structure are epitaxially formed after the first charge-discharge cycle. Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) observation revealed that the formed surface layer should be α-Li(2)TiO(3). Although the transformation of Li(4)Ti(5)O(12) to Li(7)Ti(5)O(12) is well-known as the lithium insertion reaction of the bulk phase, the generation of surface product layers should be inevitable in real charge-discharge processes and may play an effective role in the stable electrode performance as a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI).

  8. Fuel characteristics and pyrolysis studies of solvent extractables and residues from the evergreen shrub Calotropis procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Gregorski, K.S.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent extractables and residues from milkweed were evaluated as sources of liquid and solid fuels. Selected chemical, physical and pyrolytic determinations of the extractables and residues indicated that hexane extract is a potentially valuable, high density fuel resource. Methanol extract was shown to be a lower energy, highly toxic extract. Extracted residues were demonstrated to be valuable as solid fuel energy resources. 31 references.

  9. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  10. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  11. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. 30 CFR 750.21 - Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INDIAN LANDS PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS FOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS ON INDIAN LANDS § 750.21 Coal extraction incidental to the extraction of other minerals...

  13. Copper clean-up procedure for ultrasonic extraction and analysis of pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments by gas chromatography-electron capture detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jun; Lin Youjian; Lu Jian; Wilson, Chris, E-mail: pcwilson@ufl.edu

    2011-08-15

    A rapid ultrasonic extraction method coupled with a heated-copper clean-up procedure for removing interfering constituents was developed for analyzing pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides in sediments. Incubation of the 60 mL extract with 12 g copper granules at 60 {sup o}C for 2 h was determined to be the optimal conditions for removing the interfering constituents. Eleven pyrethroid and phenylpyrazole pesticides were spiked into sediment samples to determine the effectiveness of the ultrasonic extraction method. The average recoveries of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment at 4 {sup o}C storage on day 0, 1, 7, 14, and 21 ranged from 98.6 to 120.0%, 79.2 to 116.0%, 85.0 to 119.7%, 93.6 to 118.7%, and 92.1 to 118.2%, respectively, with all percent relative standard deviations less than 10% (most < 6%). This illustrated the stability of pyrethroids and phenylpyrazoles in sediment during sediment aging at 4 {sup o}C. Recoveries of the pesticides ranged from 98.6% to 120.0% for lowest fortification level (2-16 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), from 97.8% to 117.9% for middle fortification level (10-80 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and from 94.3% to 118.1% for highest fortification level (20-160 {mu}g kg{sup -1}). Relative standard deviations of pesticide recoveries were usually less than 7%. Method detection limits of target pesticides ranged from 0.22 {mu}g kg{sup -1} to 3.72 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. Furthermore, field sediment samples collected from four residential lakes during a three-month monitoring period were analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this method. Bifenthrin was detected in all of sediment samples (highest concentration 260.33 {+-} 41.71 {mu}g kg{sup -1}, lowest concentration 5.68 {+-} 0.38 {mu}g kg{sup -1}), and fipronil sulfone was detected at least once in sediment samples collected from three sites with concentrations ranging from 1.73 {+-} 0.53 to 7.53 {+-} 0.01 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. - Highlights: {yields} A rapid extraction and copper-based clean-up method was

  14. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  15. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  16. Recent trends in metals extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regel-Rosocka, M.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available After near 70 years of practical usage, solvent extraction is a perfectly mastered technique of separation, widely used on an industrial scale for the separation of metals mainly from raw materials. However, currently, in the era of depleting natural resources and increasingly less accessible deposits, environmental restrictions, etc., an increasing interest, both from social and economical constrains, is being directed at the extraction of metals from the secondary sources (such as batteries, electronic scrap. In many cases, solvent extraction, due to its operational characteristics, can be considered as the Best Available Technology for the purpose of separating multielemental metal solutions. This paper provides a brief overview of past achievements and present scenario of solvent extraction investigations and developments, describing some recently commissioned solvent extraction plants, whereas the Skorpion Zinc plant (Namibia for zinc extraction from raw materials and caesium removal from radioactive High Level Wastes (HLWs are told over in detail as case studies. The paper also presents some proposals for the use of liquid-liquid extraction to separate metal ions from secondary sources (e.g. cobalt from industrial waste streams. The review highlights the emerging use of ionic liquids as new extractants for metals, providing an insight into this exciting research field. Despite its detractors, solvent extraction has entered in force into XXI century as a leading separation technology for metals.Después de casi 70 años de uso práctico, la extracción líquido-líquido o extracción con disolventes es una técnica de separación muy evolucionada, utilizándose a escala industrial en el beneficio de metales obtenidos de diversas materias primas. Sin embargo, con el agotamiento de los recursos naturales y el aumento de depósitos minerales de más difícil acceso, restricciones medio ambientales, etc., ha aumentado el interés, tanto desde

  17. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  18. Using Poisson-regularized inversion of Bremsstrahlung emission to extract full electron energy distribution functions from x-ray pulse-height detector data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, C.; Jandovitz, P.; Cohen, S. A.

    2018-02-01

    We measured Electron Energy Distribution Functions (EEDFs) from below 200 eV to over 8 keV and spanning five orders-of-magnitude in intensity, produced in a low-power, RF-heated, tandem mirror discharge in the PFRC-II apparatus. The EEDF was obtained from the x-ray energy distribution function (XEDF) using a novel Poisson-regularized spectrum inversion algorithm applied to pulse-height spectra that included both Bremsstrahlung and line emissions. The XEDF was measured using a specially calibrated Amptek Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) pulse-height system with 125 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV. The algorithm is found to out-perform current leading x-ray inversion algorithms when the error due to counting statistics is high.

  19. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  20. Mass and energy-capital conservation equations to study the price evolution of non-renewable energy resources. Part II-Extension to resources sold to the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gori, F.

    2006-01-01

    The time evolution of the price of resources sold to the market and of the price difference, between sold and extracted resources, is investigated in case of no accumulation of the resources; i.e. when the resources are extracted and sold to the market at the same mass flow rate. The price evolution of sold resources varies with time according to the relation between the price increase factor, PIF, of sold and extracted resources. The price evolutions of sold resources and price difference are investigated according to the relation between extraction rate and interest rate of extracted and sold resources. The price of sold resources and the price difference increase with time if the PIF of sold resources is greater than the PIF of extracted resources and the initial price is greater than the critical price of sold resources, which depends on the initial price of extracted resources and the interest rate of non-extracted and extracted resources. The price of sold resources and the price difference decrease with time if the PIF of sold resources is greater than the PIF of extracted resources and the initial price is smaller than the critical price of sold resources. The other cases are discussed extensively in the paper. (author)

  1. Lithium recovery from shale gas produced water using solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Eunyoung; Jang, Yunjai; Chung, Eunhyea

    2017-01-01

    Shale gas produced water is hypersaline wastewater generated after hydraulic fracturing. Since the produced water is a mixture of shale formation water and fracturing fluid, it contains various organic and inorganic components, including lithium, a useful resource for such industries as automobile and electronics. The produced water in the Marcellus shale area contains about 95 mg/L lithium on average. This study suggests a two-stage solvent extraction technique for lithium recovery from shale gas produced water, and determines the extraction mechanism of ions in each stage. All experiments were conducted using synthetic shale gas produced water. In the first-stage, which was designed for the removal of divalent cations, more than 94.4% of Ca"2"+, Mg"2"+, Sr"2"+, and Ba"2"+ ions were removed by using 1.0 M di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) as an extractant. In the second-stage, for lithium recovery, we could obtain a lithium extraction efficiency of 41.2% by using 1.5 M D2EHPA and 0.3 M tributyl phosphate (TBP). Lithium loss in the first-stage was 25.1%, and therefore, the total amount of lithium recovered at the end of the two-step extraction procedure was 30.8%. Through this study, lithium, one of the useful mineral resources, could be selectively recovered from the shale gas produced water and it would also reduce the wastewater treatment cost during the development of shale gas. - Highlights: • Lithium was extracted from shale gas produced water using an organic solvent. • Two-stage solvent extraction technique was applied. • Divalent cations were removed in the first stage by D2EHPA. • Lithium was selectively recovered in the second stage by using TBP with D2EHPA.

  2. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  3. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  4. Renewability of geothermal resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, Michael; Yeh, Angus [Department of Engineering Science, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand); Mannington, Warren [Contact Energy Limited, Taupo (New Zealand)

    2010-12-15

    In almost all geothermal projects worldwide, the rate of extraction of heat energy exceeds the pre-exploitation rate of heat flow from depth. For example, current production of geothermal heat from the Wairakei-Tauhara system exceeds the natural recharge of heat by a factor of 4.75. Thus, the current rate of heat extraction from Wairakei-Tauhara is not sustainable on a continuous basis, and the same statement applies to most other geothermal projects. Nevertheless, geothermal energy resources are renewable in the long-term because they would fully recover to their pre-exploitation state after an extended shut-down period. The present paper considers the general issue of the renewability of geothermal resources and uses computer modeling to investigate the renewability of the Wairakei-Tauhara system. In particular, modeling is used to simulate the recovery of Wairakei-Tauhara after it is shut down in 2053 after a hundred years of production. (author)

  5. Determination of intensity and position of the extracted electron beam at ELSA by means of high-frequency resonators; Bestimmung von Intensitaet und Position des extrahierten Elektronenstrahls an ELSA mittels Hochfrequenzresonatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Thorsten

    2012-06-15

    The electron stretcher facility ELSA provides an electron beam of a few hundred pA used for the generation of bremsstrahlung photons probing the nucleon structure in a detector setup. For the correct interpretation of the events registered, the persistence of the beam position over time is crucial. Its continuous monitoring has been enabled by setting up a measurement system based on resonant cavities. Position signals at a frequency of 1.5 GHz and below one aW of power can be abstracted from the beam without degrading its quality. After frequency down-conversion to a few kHz, a narrow bandwidth detection performed by lock-in amplifiers separates them from noise. A maximum sample rate of 9 Hz and a resolution of one tenth of a millimeter could be achieved. The position signals have to be normalized to the beam current which is monitored by another dedicated resonator. The measurement precision down to a few pA allows for the accelerator extraction mechanism to be controlled by a feedback loop in order to obtain the respective requested current. (orig.)

  6. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based

  7. Optimal taxation of exhaustible resource under monopoly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jeong-Bin

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of using taxes (or subsidies) to correct the inefficient resource allocation under monopoly. In this paper, the question raised is 'what would be the optimal tax on resource extraction under monopoly?' Ultimately, it is shown that taxes may be devised to generate price and extraction paths under monopoly that are identical to those under the competitive equilibrium. Tax policy can thus be used as an instrument for changing the distortionary resource allocation generated by the monopolist

  8. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  9. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  10. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E. A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  11. Optimal utilization of energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.A.

    1977-10-15

    General principles that should guide the extraction of New Zealand's energy resources are presented. These principles are based on the objective of promoting the general economic and social benefit obtained from the use of the extracted fuel. For a single resource, the central question to be answered is, simply, what quantity of energy should be extracted in each year of the resource's lifetime. For the energy system as a whole the additional question must be answered of what mix of fuels should be used in any year. The analysis of optimal management of a single energy resource is specifically discussed. The general principles for optimal resource extraction are derived, and then applied to the examination of the characteristics of the optimal time paths of energy quantity and price; to the appraisal of the efficiency, in resource management, of various market structures; to the evaluation of various energy pricing policies; and to the examination of circumstances in which market organization is inefficient and the guidelines for corrective government policy in such cases.

  12. Nonambipolar electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmier, B.; Baalrud, S.; Hershkowitz, N.

    2006-01-01

    A radio frequency (rf) plasma-based electron source that does not rely on electron emission at a cathode surface has been constructed. All of the random electron flux incident on an exit aperture is extracted through an electron sheath resulting in total nonambipolar flow within the device when the ratio of the ion loss area to the electron loss area is approximately equal to the square root of the ratio of the ion mass to the electron mass, and the ion sheath potential drop at the chamber walls is much larger than T e /e. The nonambipolar electron source (NES) has an axisymmetric magnetic field of 100 G at the extraction aperture that results in a uniform plasma potential across the aperture, allowing the extraction of all the incident electron flux without the use of grids. A prototype NES has produced 15 A of continuous electron current, using 15 SCCM (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) Ar, 1200 W rf power at 13.56 MHz, and 6 times gas utilization. Alternatively 8 A of electron current can be produced, using 3 SCCM Ar at 1200 W rf and 20 times gas utilization. NES could replace hollow cathode electron sources in a wide variety of applications

  13. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  14. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  15. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    2014-01-01

    -compliance and exogenous constraints on fines and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit differentiation of inspection rates depending on compliance history. We use differentiated inspections to induce firms to self-report excess extraction....... This system increases the effectiveness of the quota by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an efficient allocation of extraction. In addition, inspection costs can be reduced without reductions in welfare.......Quotas are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about their basic effectiveness due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with significant non...

  16. Quota enforcement in resource industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Gårn; Jensen, Frank; Nøstbakken, Linda

    cant non-compliance and exogenous constraints on nes and enforcement budget. We propose a new enforcement system based on self-reporting of excess extraction and explicit di erentiation of inspection rates based on compliance history. In particular, we use state-dependent enforcement to induce rms...... to self-report excess extraction. We show that such system increases the e ectiveness of quota management by allowing the regulator to implement a wider range of aggregate extraction targets than under traditional enforcement, while ensuring an ecient allocation of aggregate extraction. In addition......Quotas or permits are frequently used in the management of renewable resources and emissions. However, in many industries there is concern about the basic e ectiveness of quotas due to non-compliance. We develop an enforcement model of a quota-regulated resource and focus on a situation with signi...

  17. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  18. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  19. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  20. Technology adoption in nonrenewable resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha-e-Sa, Maria A.; Balcao Reis, Ana; Roseta-Palma, Catarina

    2009-01-01

    Technological change has played an important role in models of nonrenewable resource management, since its presence mitigates the depletion effect on extraction costs over time. We formalize the problem of a competitive nonrenewable resource extracting firm faced with the possibility of technology adoption. Based on a quadratic extraction cost function, our results show that the expected net benefits from adoption increase both with the size of the resource stock and with prices. A boundary that separates the region where expected net benefits are positive from the one where they are negative is derived. (author)

  1. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  2. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  3. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  4. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  5. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  6. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  7. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  8. Sharing a common resource with concave benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Ambec, S.

    2006-01-01

    A group of agents enjoy concave and single-peak benefit functions from consuming a shared resource. They also value money (transfers). The resource is scarce in the sense that not everybody can consume its peak. The paper characterizes the unique (resource and money) allocation that is efficient, incentive compatible and equal-sharing individual rational. It can be implemented (i) by selling the resource or taxing extraction and redistributing the money collected equally, or (ii) by assigning...

  9. Efficient indium-tin-oxide free inverted organic solar cells based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide cathode and low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide electron extraction layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Dazheng; Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Zhizhe; Zhang, Jincheng; Tang, Shi; Wei, Wei; Sun, Li; Hao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) free inverted organic solar cells (IOSCs) based on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) cathode, low-temperature aqueous solution processed zinc oxide (ZnO) electron extraction layer, and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2, 5-diyl):[6, 6]-phenyl C 61 butyric acid methyl ester blend were realized in this work. The resulted IOSC with ZnO annealed at 150 °C shows the superior power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.01%, if decreasing the ZnO annealing temperature to 100 °C, the obtained IOSC also shows a PCE of 2.76%, and no light soaking issue is observed. It is found that this ZnO film not only acts as an effective buffer layer but also slightly improves the optical transmittance of AZO substrates. Further, despite the relatively inferior air-stability, these un-encapsulated AZO/ZnO IOSCs show comparable PCEs to the referenced ITO/ZnO IOSCs, which demonstrates that the AZO cathode is a potential alternative to ITO in IOSCs. Meanwhile, this simple ZnO process is compatible with large area deposition and plastic substrates, and is promising to be widely used in IOSCs and other relative fields.

  10. Quantitative data extraction from transmission electron micrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprague, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The discussion will cover an overview of quantitative TEM, the digital image analysis process, coherent optical processing, and finally a summary of the author's views on potentially useful advances in TEM image processing

  11. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  12. Automated Water Extraction Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feyisa, Gudina Legese; Meilby, Henrik; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    Classifying surface cover types and analyzing changes are among the most common applications of remote sensing. One of the most basic classification tasks is to distinguish water bodies from dry land surfaces. Landsat imagery is among the most widely used sources of data in remote sensing of water...... resources; and although several techniques of surface water extraction using Landsat data are described in the literature, their application is constrained by low accuracy in various situations. Besides, with the use of techniques such as single band thresholding and two-band indices, identifying...... an appropriate threshold yielding the highest possible accuracy is a challenging and time consuming task, as threshold values vary with location and time of image acquisition. The purpose of this study was therefore to devise an index that consistently improves water extraction accuracy in the presence...

  13. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  14. Lithium extractive metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.; Merino, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion National Program depends on lithium supplies. Extractive metallurgy development is subordinate to the localization and evaluation of ore resources. Nowadays lithium raw materials usable with present technology consist of pegmatite ore and brine. The Instituto Geologico y Minero Espanol (IGME) found lepidolite, ambligonite and spodrimene in pegmatite ores in different areas of Spain. However, an evaluation of resources has not been made. Different Spanish surface and underground brines are to be sampled and analyzed. If none of these contain significant levels of lithium, the Junta de Energia Nuclear (JEN) will try an agreement with IGME for ENUSA (Empresa Nacional del Uranio, S.A.) to explore pegmatite-ore bodies from different locations. Different work stages, laboratory tests, pilots plants tests and commercial plant, are foreseen, if the deposits are found. (author)

  15. Lithium Resources for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, S.; Gruber, P.; Medina, P.; Keolian, G.; Everson, M. P.; Wallington, T.

    2011-12-01

    Lithium is an important industrial compound and the principal component of high energy-density batteries. Because it is the lightest solid element, these batteries are widely used in consumer electronics and are expected to be the basis for battery electric vehicles (BEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) for the 21st century. In view of the large incremental demand for lithium that will result from expanded use of various types of EVs, long-term estimates of lithium demand and supply are advisable. For GDP growth rates of 2 to 3% and battery recycling rates of 90 to 100%, total demand for lithium for all markets is expected to be a maximum of 19.6 million tonnes through 2100. This includes 3.2 million tonnes for industrial compounds, 3.6 million tonnes for consumer electronics, and 12.8 million tonnes for EVs. Lithium-bearing mineral deposits that might supply this demand contain an estimated resource of approximately 39 million tonnes, although many of these deposits have not been adequately evaluated. These lithium-bearing mineral deposits are of two main types, non-marine playa-brine deposits and igneous deposits. Playa-brine deposits have the greatest immediate resource potential (estimated at 66% of global resources) and include the Salar de Atacama (Chile), the source of almost half of current world lithium production, as well as Zabuye (China/Tibet) and Hombre Muerto (Argentina). Additional important playa-brine lithium resources include Rincon (Argentina), Qaidam (China), Silver Peak (USA) and Uyuni (Bolivia), which together account for about 35% of the estimated global lithium resource. Information on the size and continuity of brine-bearing aquifers in many of these deposits is limited, and differences in chemical composition of brines from deposit to deposit require different extraction processes and yield different product mixes of lithium, boron, potassium and other elements. Numerous other brines in playas

  16. Smart Extraction and Analysis System for Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Khan, Wajahat Ali; Ali, Taqdir; Jamshed, Arif; Lee, Sungyoung

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing use of electronic health records (EHRs), there is a growing need to expand the utilization of EHR data to support clinical research. The key challenge in achieving this goal is the unavailability of smart systems and methods to overcome the issue of data preparation, structuring, and sharing for smooth clinical research. We developed a robust analysis system called the smart extraction and analysis system (SEAS) that consists of two subsystems: (1) the information extraction system (IES), for extracting information from clinical documents, and (2) the survival analysis system (SAS), for a descriptive and predictive analysis to compile the survival statistics and predict the future chance of survivability. The IES subsystem is based on a novel permutation-based pattern recognition method that extracts information from unstructured clinical documents. Similarly, the SAS subsystem is based on a classification and regression tree (CART)-based prediction model for survival analysis. SEAS is evaluated and validated on a real-world case study of head and neck cancer. The overall information extraction accuracy of the system for semistructured text is recorded at 99%, while that for unstructured text is 97%. Furthermore, the automated, unstructured information extraction has reduced the average time spent on manual data entry by 75%, without compromising the accuracy of the system. Moreover, around 88% of patients are found in a terminal or dead state for the highest clinical stage of disease (level IV). Similarly, there is an ∼36% probability of a patient being alive if at least one of the lifestyle risk factors was positive. We presented our work on the development of SEAS to replace costly and time-consuming manual methods with smart automatic extraction of information and survival prediction methods. SEAS has reduced the time and energy of human resources spent unnecessarily on manual tasks.

  17. Lunar In-Situ Volatile Extraction, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A method of extracting volatile resources from the Lunar regolith is proposed to reduce the launch mass and cost of bringing such resources from the Earth to enable...

  18. American Indian Systems for Natural Resource Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the philosophy and general principles of "primitive" indigenous production technologies and natural resource management systems in North and South America. Discusses indigenous practices that promote sustainable production in gathering, hunting and fishing, minerals extraction, and agriculture. (SV)

  19. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  20. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  1. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  2. Rules Extraction with an Immune Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqin Yan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method of extracting rules with immune algorithms from information systems is proposed. Designing an immune algorithm is based on a sharing mechanism to extract rules. The principle of sharing and competing resources in the sharing mechanism is consistent with the relationship of sharing and rivalry among rules. In order to extract rules efficiently, a new concept of flexible confidence and rule measurement is introduced. Experiments demonstrate that the proposed method is effective.

  3. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  4. Effective extractants for the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinkina, G.A.; Zanina, A.S.; Shergina, S.I.; Sokolov, I.E.; Kotlyarevskii, I.L.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction power of newly obtained pure methoxy-1,3-diketones in diluents and in their mixtures with electron-donating additives during the extraction of lithium from aqueous solutions containing sodium and potassium was investigated. High separation factors were obtained; no appreciable amounts of sodium and potassium were found in the extract after total extraction of the lithium. 9 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs

  5. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  6. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  7. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  9. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  10. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  11. FY 1996 report on the cooperative research on the development of environmentally friendly high efficiency mineral resource extraction/treatment technology; 1996 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This promotion project on the cooperative research aims at developing technology to efficiently extract and recover valuable metals including in large quantity in tailings of ores in the Republic of Kazakhstan in consideration of the environmental harmony. The support study in Japan was conducted as follows. As to the Nikolayevska low grade ore, high leaching speed and high leaching rate by grain refining were made possible. The coarse grain was also possible of leaching if leached for a long time. The sulfide froth is possible of leaching in fine grain and in the temperature range of 50 degrees C. The Zhezkent tailings were possible of leaching with sulfuric acid, by aeration, and in the range of medium temperature. The sulfide froth was possible of leaching in fine grain and at temperature of 50 degrees C. After filtration/washing and regrinding, high sampling rates of bulk concentrate and pyrite concentrate were obtained by sulfide flotation by zanthate. The Zhezkent copper concentrate was tested on various factors such as grain size, temperature, and washing/no washing, to confirm effects of bacteria. In the pre-observation test on Au and Ag leaching, cyanogen leaching test was conducted using Cu leaching residue. About Cu, studied were leaching (vat leaching, flotation froth machine agitation (temperature increase, bacteria)), solvent extraction, and electrowinning. About Au and Ag, studied were cyanogen leaching and process of adsorption of activated carbon. (NEDO)

  12. FY 1995 report on the cooperative research on the development of environmentally friendly high efficiency mineral resource extraction/treatment technology; 1995 nendo kankyo chowagata kokoritsu kobutsu shigen chushutsu shori gijutsu no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This promotion project on the cooperative research aims to efficiently extract and recover valuable metals (gold, silver, copper, rare metal, etc.) including in large quantity in tailings of ores in the Republic of Kazakhstan. In FY 1995, conducted were the field survey, support study in Japan, acceptance of researchers from Kazakhstan, conceptual design of pilot plant, etc. The ore/mineral for Cu is mainly an alteration ore of chalcopyrite. Au and Ag are low grade and unknown, and the main gangue mineral is pyrite. The low grade ore (waste/much) of the Nikolayevska mine has a tendency to leaching at normal temperature, but the ore of mostly chalcopyrite such as tailings from each place has difficulty in leaching. It gets leaching by increasing temperature. The more the temperature rises, the more conspicuous the reaction becomes. Further, chalcopyrite is leached with priority over pyrite. From the result, a technical potentiality was obtained of leaching of low grade chalcopyrite in tailings mostly of pyrite. The existence of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was confirmed. As to the recovery method for Au and Ag, CIC is studied. The process of waste/much is solvent extraction, electrowinning study and leaching, and that of tailings is bacteria leaching and leaching study. (NEDO)

  13. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  14. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  15. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  16. Analysis of geologic terrain models for determination of optimum SAR sensor configuration and optimum information extraction for exploration of global non-renewable resources. Pilot study: Arkansas Remote Sensing Laboratory, part 1, part 2, and part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaupp, V. H.; Macdonald, H. C.; Waite, W. P.; Stiles, J. A.; Frost, F. S.; Shanmugam, K. S.; Smith, S. A.; Narayanan, V.; Holtzman, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Computer-generated radar simulations and mathematical geologic terrain models were used to establish the optimum radar sensor operating parameters for geologic research. An initial set of mathematical geologic terrain models was created for three basic landforms and families of simulated radar images were prepared from these models for numerous interacting sensor, platform, and terrain variables. The tradeoffs between the various sensor parameters and the quantity and quality of the extractable geologic data were investigated as well as the development of automated techniques of digital SAR image analysis. Initial work on a texture analysis of SEASAT SAR imagery is reported. Computer-generated radar simulations are shown for combinations of two geologic models and three SAR angles of incidence.

  17. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  18. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  19. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  20. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.