WorldWideScience

Sample records for extracts attenuate hydrogen

  1. Ocimum sanctum extracts attenuate hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxic ultrastructural changes in human lens epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Nabanita; Joshi, Sujata; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Tandon, Radhika; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the major oxidant involved in cataract formation. The present study investigated the effect of an aqueous leaf extract of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) against H2O2 induced cytotoxic changes in human lens epithelial cells (HLEC). Donor eyes of the age range 20-40 years were procured within 5-8 h of death. After several washings with gentamicin (50 mL/L) and betadine (10 mL/L), clear transparent lenses (n=6 in each group) were incubated in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) alone (normal) or in DMEM containing 100 microm of H2O2 (control) or in DMEM containing both H2O2 (100 microm) and 150 microg/mL of Ocimum sanctum extract (treated) for 30 min at 37 degrees C with 5% CO2 and 95% air. Following incubation, the semi-hardened epithelium of each lens was carefully removed, fixed and processed for electron microscopic studies. Thin sections (60-70 mm) were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate and viewed under a transmission electron microscope. Normal epithelial cells showed intact, euchromatic nucleus with few small vacuoles (diameter 0.58+/-0.6 microm) in well-demarcated cytoplasm. After treatment with H2O2, they showed pyknotic nuclei with clumping of chromatin and ill-defined edges. The cytoplasm was full of vacuoles (diameter 1.61+/-0.7 microm). The overall cellular morphology was typical of dying cells. Treatment of cells with Ocimum sanctum extract protected the epithelial cells from H2O2 insult and maintained their normal architecture. The mean diameter of the vacuoles was 0.66+/-0.2 microm. The results indicate that extracts of O. sanctum have an important protective role against H2O2 injury in HLEC by maintaining the normal cellular architecture. The protection could be due to its ability to reduce H2O2 through its antioxidant property and thus reinforcing the concept that the extracts can penetrate the HLEC membrane. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Ethanol extract of Prunus mume fruit attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis involving Nrf2/HO-1 activation in C2C12 myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Sook Kang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fruit of the Prunus mume (Siebold Siebold & Zucc., Rosaceae (Korean name: Maesil has long been used as a health food or valuable medicinal material in traditional herb medicine in Southeast Asian countries. In this study, we determined the potential therapeutic efficacy of the ethanol extract of P. mume fruits (EEPM against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in the murine skeletal muscle myoblast cell line C2C12, and sought to understand the associated molecular mechanisms. The results indicated that exposure of C2C12 cells to H2O2 caused a reduction in cell viability by increasing the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and by disrupting mitochondrial membrane permeability, leading to DNA damage and apoptosis. However, pretreatment of the cells with EEPM before H2O2 exposure effectively attenuated these changes, suggesting that EEPM prevented H2O2-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, the increased ex-pression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a phase II antioxidant enzyme, were detected in EEPM-treated C2C12 cells. We also found that zinc protoporphyrin IX, an HO-1 inhibitor, attenuated the protective effects of EEPM against H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species accumulation and cytotoxicity. Therefore, these results indicate that the activation of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway might be involved in the protection of EEPM against H2O2-induced cellular oxidative damage. In conclusion, these results show that EEPM contributes to the prevention of oxidative damage and could be used as a nutritional agent for oxidative stress-related diseases.

  3. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress-induced Urinary Biochemical Changes and Improves Cognition in Scopolamineinduced Amnesic Rats. ... Conclusion: The aqueous extract of A. graveolens exhibited significant anti-stress, antioxidant and memory enhancing activities. The study provides a ...

  4. Molecular Hydrogen Attenuates Neuropathic Pain in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Masanori; Satoh, Yasushi; Otsubo, Yukiko; Kazama, Tomiei

    2014-01-01

    Neuropathic pain remains intractable and the development of new therapeutic strategies are urgently required. Accumulating evidence indicates that overproduction of oxidative stress is a key event in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, repeated intra-peritoneal or intrathecal injections of antioxidants are unsuitable for continuous use in therapy. Here we show a novel therapeutic method against neuropathic pain: drinking water containing molecular hydrogen (H2) as antioxidant. The effect of hydrogen on neuropathic pain was investigated using a partial sciatic nerve ligation model in mice. As indicators of neuropathic pain, temporal aspects of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were analysed for 3 weeks after ligation. Mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were measured using the von Frey test and the plantar test, respectively. When mice were allowed to drink water containing hydrogen at a saturated level ad libitum after ligation, both allodynia and hyperalgesia were alleviated. These symptoms were also alleviated when hydrogen was administered only for the induction phase (from day 0 to 4 after ligation). When hydrogen was administered only for the maintenance phase (from day 4 to 21 after ligation), hyperalgesia but not allodynia was alleviated. Immunohistochemical staining for the oxidative stress marker, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, showed that hydrogen administration suppressed oxidative stress induced by ligation in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglion. In conclusion, oral administration of hydrogen water may be useful for alleviating neuropathic pain in a clinical setting. PMID:24941001

  5. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  6. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract attenuates oxidant injury in cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zuo-Hui; Becker, Lance B; Vanden Hoek, Terry L; Schumacker, Paul T; Li, Chang-Qing; Zhao, Danhong; Wojcik, Kim; Anderson, Travis; Qin, Yimin; Dey, Lucy; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2003-06-01

    This study sought to test whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates exogenous and endogenous oxidant stress induced in chick cardiomyocytes and whether this cytoprotection is mediated by PKC activation, mito K(ATP) channel opening, NO production, oxidant scavenging, or iron chelating effects. Cells were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) (exogenous oxidant stress, 0.5mM) or antimycin A (endogenous oxidant stress, 100 micro M) for 2h following pretreatment with GSPE at various concentrations for 2h. Cells were also pretreated with GSPE or with inhibitors of PKC (chelerytherine), mito K(ATP) channel (5-hydroxydecanoate), nitric oxide synthase (nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) for 2h. Oxidant stress was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and cell viability was assessed using propidium iodide. Free radical scavenging and iron chelating ability was tested in vitro. GSPE dose-dependently attenuated oxidant formation and significantly improved cell survival and contractile function. However, inhibitors of PKC, mito K(ATP) channel or NO synthase failed to abolish the protective action of GSPE during H(2)O(2) or antimycin A exposure. In vitro studies suggested that GSPE scavenges H(2)O(2), hydroxyl radical and superoxide, and may chelate iron. These results indicate that GSPE confers cardioprotection against exogenous H(2)O(2)- or antimycin A-induced oxidant injury. Its effect does not require PKC, mito K(ATP) channel, or NO synthase, presumably because it acts by reactive oxygen species scavenging and iron chelating directly.

  7. STUDIES ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF FREE HYDROGEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    industries, metal plating, and extraction of gold and silver from low grade ores. Other sources include emission from municipal solid waste incinerators, biomass burning, fossil fuel combustion including fuel emission, fumigation operation, production of coke and in cigarette smoke. In air, it is present as gaseous hydrogen ...

  8. Ethyl acetate extract of germinated brown rice attenuates hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells: role of anti-apoptotic, pro-survival and antioxidant genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There are reports of improved metabolic outcomes due to consumption of germinated brown rice (GBR). Many of the functional effects of GBR can be linked to its high amounts of antioxidants. Interestingly, dietary components with high antioxidants have shown promise in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This effect of dietary components is mostly based on their ability to prevent apoptosis, which is believed to link oxidative damage to pathological changes in AD. In view of the rich antioxidant content of GBR, we studied its potential to modulate processes leading up to AD. Methods The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the ethyl acetate extract of GBR were compared to that of brown rice (BR), and the cytotoxicity of both extracts were determined on human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay. Based on its higher antioxidant potentials, the effect of the GBR extract on morphological changes due to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells was examined using inverted light microscope and fluorescence microscope by means of acridine orange-propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining. Also, evaluation of the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant and apoptotic genes was carried out using Multiplex Gene Expression System. Results The ethyl acetate extract of GBR had higher total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity compared to BR. The cytotoxicity results showed that GBR extract did not cause any damage to the human SH-SY5Y neuronal cells at concentrations of up to 20 ppm, and the morphological analyses showed that the GBR extract (up to 10 ppm) prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic changes in the cells. Furthermore, multiplex gene expression analyses showed that the protection of the cells by the GBR extract was linked to its ability to induce transcriptional changes in antioxidant (SOD 1, SOD 2 and

  9. Ixeris dentata (Thunb) Nakai Ethylacetate Extract Attenuates Sterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ixeris dentata (Thunb) Nakai Ethylacetate Extract Attenuates Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Proteins-1c via AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Activation. ... Methods: IDE extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was carried out by column chromatography. HepG-2 cells were pretreated with ...

  10. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    College of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Konkuk University, Chungju, ... anti-stress and cognition-improving effects of A. graveolens extract in a rat model. ..... was determined using Student's t-test, p < 0.05.

  11. Ginkgo Biloba Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse Cochlear Neural Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congpin; Wang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    In the organ or Corti, oxidative stress could result in damage to the hearing, and neural stem cells (NSCs) hold great therapeutic potential in treating hearing loss. Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) has been widely shown to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in treatments of neural damage and disorder. Using hydrogen peroxide to induced oxidative stress as a model, we investigated the anti-oxidative role of GBE in isolated mouse cochlear NSCs. GBE treatment was found to significantly promote viability of NSCs, by markedly attenuating hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress. In addition, this anti-oxidative function of GBE was also able to prevent mitochondrial depolarization and subsequent apoptosis. Moreover, the anti-apoptotic role of GBE was mediated by antagonizing the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, where GBE could reverse the changes in key intrinsic apoptosis pathway factors including Bcl-2, Bax, and Caspase-3. Our data provided the first report on the beneficial role of GBE in protecting cochlear NSCs, by attenuating oxidative stress triggered intrinsic apoptosis, therefore supporting the potential therapeutic value of GBE in preventing oxidative stress-related hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Diffusion mobility of the hydrogen atom with allowance for the anharmonic attenuation of migrating atom state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashlev, Y.A., E-mail: yakashlev@yandex.ru

    2017-04-15

    Evolution of vibration relaxation of hydrogen atoms in metals with the close-packed lattice at high and medium temperatures is investigated based on non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics, in that number on using the retarded two-time Green function method. In accordance with main kinetic equation – the generalized Fokker- Plank- Kolmogorov equation, anharmonism of hydrogen atoms vibration in potential wells does not make any contribution to collision effects. It influences the relaxation processes at the expense of interference of fourth order anharmonism with single-phonon scattering on impurity hydrogen atoms. Therefore, the total relaxation time of vibration energy of system metal-hydrogen is written as a product of two factors: relaxation time of system in harmonic approximation and dimensionless anharmonic attenuation of quantum hydrogen state.

  13. Immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline attenuates lung ischaemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Mamoru; Chen-Yoshikawa, Toyofumi F; Saito, Masao; Tanaka, Satona; Miyamoto, Ei; Ohata, Keiji; Kondo, Takeshi; Motoyama, Hideki; Hijiya, Kyoko; Aoyama, Akihiro; Date, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    Anti-oxidant effects of hydrogen have been reported in studies examining ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline on lung IRI. Lewis rats were divided into three groups: (i) sham, (ii) normal saline and (iii) hydrogen-rich saline. In the first experiment, the left thoracic cavity was filled with either normal saline or hydrogen-rich saline for 1 h. Then, we measured the hydrogen concentration in the left lung using a sensor gas chromatograph ( N = 3 per group). In the second experiment, lung IRI was induced by occlusion of the left pulmonary hilum for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 3 h. During the ischaemic period, the left thoracic cavity was filled with either normal saline or hydrogen-rich saline. After reperfusion, we assessed lung function, histological changes and cytokine production ( N = 5-7 per group). Immersing lungs in hydrogen-rich saline resulted in an elevated hydrogen concentration in the lung (6.9 ± 2.9 μmol/1 g lung). After IRI, pulmonary function (pulmonary compliance and oxygenation levels) was significantly higher in the hydrogen-rich saline group than in the normal saline group ( P  hydrogen-rich saline group than in the normal saline group ( P  hydrogen-rich saline delivered hydrogen into the lung and consequently attenuated lung IRI. Hydrogen-rich solution appears to be a promising approach to managing lung IRI.

  14. Hydrogen in drinking water attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Kashio, Akinori; Sakamoto, Takashi; Suzukawa, Keigo; Kakigi, Akinobu; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2011-01-03

    It has been shown that molecular hydrogen acts as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant by selectively reducing the hydroxyl radical, the most cytotoxic of the reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that acoustic damage in guinea pigs can be attenuated by the consumption of molecular hydrogen. Guinea pigs received normal water or hydrogen-rich water for 14 days before they were exposed to 115 dB SPL 4-kHz octave band noise for 3h. Animals in each group underwent measurements for auditory brainstem response (ABR) or distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) before the treatment (baseline) and immediately, 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after noise exposure. The ABR thresholds at 2 and 4 kHz were significantly better on post-noise days 1, 3, and 14 in hydrogen-treated animals when compared to the normal water-treated controls. Compared to the controls, the hydrogen-treated animals showed greater amplitude of DPOAE input/output growth functions during the recovery process, with statistical significance detected on post-noise days 3 and 7. These findings suggest that hydrogen can facilitate the recovery of hair cell function and attenuate noise-induced temporary hearing loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates hippocampus endoplasmic reticulum stress after cardiac arrest in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Gui, Qinfang; Jin, Li; Yu, Pan; Wu, Lin; Cao, Liangbin; Wang, Qiang; Duan, Manlin

    2017-02-15

    Hydrogen-rich saline can selectively scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protect brain against ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) has been implicated in the pathological process of cerebral ischemia. However, very little is known about the role of hydrogen-rich saline in mediating pathophysiological reactions to ERS after I/R injury caused by cardiac arrest. The rats were randomly divided into three groups, sham group (n=30), ischemia/reperfusion group (n=40) and hydrogen-rich saline group (n=40). The rats in experimental groups were subjected to 4min of cardiac arrest and followed by resuscitation. Then they were randomized to receive 5ml/kg of either hydrogen-rich saline or normal saline. Hydrogen-rich saline significantly improves survival rate and neurological function. The beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich saline were associated with decreased levels of oxidative products, as well as the increased levels of antioxidant enzymes. Furthermore, the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline were accompanied by the increased activity of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), the decreased activity of cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-12 (caspase-12) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates brain I/R injury may through inhibiting hippocampus ERS after cardiac arrest in rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In situ probing of surface hydrides on hydrogenated amorphous silicon using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kessels, W M M; Sanden, M C M; Aydil, E S

    2002-01-01

    An in situ method based on attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is presented for detecting surface silicon hydrides on plasma deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films and for determining their surface concentrations. Surface silicon hydrides are desorbed by exposing the a-Si:H films to low energy ions from a low density Ar plasma and by comparing the infrared spectrum before and after this low energy ion bombardment, the absorptions by surface hydrides can sensitively be separated from absorptions by bulk hydrides incorporated into the film. An experimental comparison with other methods that utilize isotope exchange of the surface hydrogen with deuterium showed good agreement and the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are discussed. Furthermore, the determination of the composition of the surface hydrogen bondings on the basis of the literature data on hydrogenated crystalline silicon surfaces is presented, and quantification of the h...

  17. STUDIES ON SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF FREE HYDROGEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NH3(g) + CH4(g) → HCN(g) + 3H2(g). (1). Cyanide is the primary toxic agent. It is found in the waste from metal finishing operation and mine of non-ferrous metals. It is released to the air through chemical manufacturing process industries, metal plating, and extraction of gold and silver from low grade ores. Other sources.

  18. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  19. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates anxiety-like behaviors in morphine-withdrawn mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Di; Zhao, Peng; Hui, Rongji; Wang, Jian; Shen, Qianchao; Gong, Miao; Guo, Hongyan; Cong, Bin; Ma, Chunling

    2017-05-15

    Hydrogen therapy is a new medical approach for a wide range of diseases. The effects of hydrogen on central nervous system-related diseases have recently become increasingly appreciated, but little is known about whether hydrogen affects the morphine withdrawal process. This study aims to investigate the potential effects of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) administration on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms and morphine withdrawal-induced anxiety-like behaviors. Mice received gradually increasing doses (25-100 mg/kg, i.p.) of morphine over 3 days. In the naloxone-precipitated withdrawal procedure, the mice were treated with three HRS (20 μg/kg, i.p.) injections, and naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.) was given 30 min after HRS administration. Body weight, jumping behavior and wet-dog shakes were immediately assessed. In the spontaneous withdrawal procedure, the mice were treated with HRS (20 μg/kg, i.p.) every 8-h. Mice underwent naloxone-precipitated or spontaneous withdrawal were tested for anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and light/dark box (L/D box) paradigm, respectively. In addition, the levels of plasma corticosterone were measured. We found that HRS administration significantly reduced body weight loss, jumping behavior and wet-dog shakes in mice underwent naloxone-precipitated withdrawal, and attenuated anxiety-like behaviors in the EPM and L/D box tests after naloxone-precipitated withdrawal or a 2-day spontaneous withdrawal period. Hypo-activity or motor impairment after HRS administration was not observed in the locomotion tests. Furthermore, HRS administration significantly decreased the levels of corticosterone in morphine-withdrawn mice. These are the first findings to indicate that hydrogen might ameliorate withdrawal symptoms and exert an anxiolytic-like effect in morphine-withdrawal mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Salidroside Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cell Damage Through a cAMP-Dependent Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuming Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Salidroside, a major component of Rhodiola rosea L., has shown various pharmacological functions, including antioxidant effects, but the signal transduction pathway of its antioxidant effects is not very clear. In this study, we found that salidroside could attenuate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced HL-7702 cell damage, inhibit H2O2-induced cytosolic free Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i elevation, scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS and increase 3’-5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP level in a dose-dependent manner, but it couldn’t influence 3’-5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP levels. Therefore, these results indicated that the antioxidant effects of salidroside were associated with down-regulation of [Ca2+]i, ROS occur via a cAMP-dependent pathway.

  1. [Study on the antitumor effects and synergism and attenuation effects of gecko alcohol extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-lan; Hao, Heng-you; Wang, Jian-gang; Li, Rui-fang

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the antitumor effects of Gecko alcohol extract and its synergism and attenuation effects on CTX. S180-bearing mice were given Gecko alcohol extract via intravenous injection,the tumor inhibitory rate and the levels of serum TNF-alpha of mice were detected. After inoculation of S180 tumor, the synergism and attenuation effects of Gecko alcohol extract on CTX were observed. After 12 days treatment, the tumor inhibitory rate, the count of peripheral white blood cells, index of thymus and spleen were calculated. Gecko alcohol extract in different dose (0.6, 1.2, 2.4 g/kg) inhibited the growth of S180 sarcoma in KM mice. The tumor inhibitory rates of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 g/kg Gecko alcohol extract were 44.88%, 63.94%, 69.53%, respectively. However, the levels of serum TNF-alpha of mice not changed. The tumor inhibitory rates of intravenous administration of 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 g/ kg Gecko alcohol extract combined with CTX (20 mg/kg) were 56.93%, 67.15%, 70.24%, which were higher than that of CTX administration alone (41.71%). Compared with those in CTX group, the count of WBC (P Gecko alcohol extract and CTX combination groups. Gecko alcohol extract has anti-tumor effects in vivo and attenuation effects on CTX.

  2. Ixeris dentata (Thunb) Nakai Ethylacetate Extract Attenuates Sterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    berries normalize lipid parameters in mice fed an obesogenic high fat diet Mol. Nutr Food Res 2009; 53: 1406–1418. 16. Takikawa M, Inoue S, Horio F, Tsuda, T. Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of. AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. J Nutr.

  3. Methanolic leaf extract of Ficus exasperata attenuates Arsenate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxidative toxicants which man is exposed to on daily basis, the study investigated the modulatory potential of Ficus exasperata leaf extract on arsenate-mediated hepatic and renal toxicity using rats as a model. Methodology: Twenty-eight rats were ...

  4. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  5. Cordyceps sinensis extracts attenuate aortic transplant arteriosclerosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yang, Mei; Gong, Shuwen; Yang, Yu; Chen, Bicheng; Cai, Yong; Zheng, Shaoling; Yang, Yirong; Xia, Peng

    2012-06-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis is a hallmark of chronic rejection and is still the major limiting factor affecting the success of long-term organ transplants. Development of transplant arteriosclerosis is refractory to conventional immunosuppressive drugs, and adequate therapy is not yet available. The aim of this study was to determine the role of Cordyceps sinensis extracts in reducing the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Lewis rat aortic allografts were transplanted into Brown-Norway recipient rats. Recipients received 0.5, 1, 2, and 5 mg/kg of Cordyceps sinensis extracts (or control saline) daily via intragastric injection for 60 d. Grafts were harvested 60 d post-transplantation and intimal thickness determined microscopically following hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and abdominal aorta protein profiles determined by Western blot analysis. Cellular localization was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry and the serum analyzed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). C. sinensis administration resulted in a significant reduction in neointimal formation (neointimal thickness 8.27 ± 1.95 μm [0.5 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg], 3.69 ± 1.43 μm [1 mg/kg] versus 11.42 ± 2.67 μm [control]) and in the proliferative activity of vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition, localized expression of TNF-α and ICAM-1 in transplant aortas was characterized by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analyses demonstrating that C. sinensis treatment significantly reduced TNF-α and ICAM-1 levels compared with levels observed in controls (P arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic transplant model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogen Gas Inhalation Attenuates Seawater Instillation-Induced Acute Lung Injury via the Nrf2 Pathway in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Mengyuan; Zhang, Sheng; Wu, Lifeng; Huan, Le; Huang, Fenglou; Cui, Yunliang; Lin, Zhaofen

    2016-12-01

    Seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury involves oxidative stress and apoptosis. Although hydrogen gas inhalation is reportedly protective in multiple types of lung injury, the effect of hydrogen gas inhalation on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of hydrogen gas on seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury and explored the mechanisms involved. Rabbits were randomly assigned to control, hydrogen (2 % hydrogen gas inhalation), seawater (3 mL/kg seawater instillation), and seawater + hydrogen (3 mL/kg seawater instillation + 2 % hydrogen gas inhalation) groups. Arterial partial oxygen pressure and lung wet/dry weight ratio were detected. Protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum as well as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels were determined. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used to monitor changes in lung specimens, and malondialdehyde (MDA) content and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. In addition, NF-E2-related factor (Nrf) 2 and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured, and apoptosis was assessed by measuring caspase-3 expression and using terminal deoxy-nucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. Hydrogen gas inhalation markedly improved lung endothelial permeability and decreased both MDA content and MPO activity in lung tissue; these changes were associated with decreases in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in BALF. Hydrogen gas also alleviated histopathological changes and cell apoptosis. Moreover, Nrf2 and HO-1 expressions were significantly activated and caspase-3 expression was inhibited. These results demonstrate that hydrogen gas inhalation attenuates seawater instillation-induced acute lung injury in rabbits and that the protective effects observed may be related to the activation of the Nrf2 pathway.

  7. Extracting the Green's function of attenuating heterogeneous acoustic media from uncorrelated waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieder, Roel

    2007-05-01

    The Green's function of acoustic or elastic wave propagation can, for loss-less media, be retrieved by correlating the wave field that is excited by random sources and is recorded at two locations. Here the generalization of this idea to attenuating acoustic waves in an inhomogeneous medium is addressed, and it is shown that the Green's function can be retrieved from waves that are excited throughout the volume by spatially uncorrelated injection sources with a power spectrum that is proportional to the local dissipation rate. For a finite volume, one needs both volume sources and sources at the bounding surface for the extraction of the Green's functions. For the special case of a homogeneous attenuating medium defined over a finite volume, the phase and geometrical spreading of the Green's function is correctly retrieved when the volume sources are ignored, but the attenuation is not.

  8. Effect of acetone extract of Rumex japonicas Houtt on hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the protective effect of the acetone extract of Rumex japonicas Houtt. (AER) on rat myocardial cells. Methods: R. japonicas was extracted with 75 % aqueous ethanol by reflux to afford total extract (TER). TER was suspended in water and then extracted with acetone to afford acetone fraction of R.

  9. Phenolic Rich Extract from Clinacanthus nutans Attenuates Hyperlipidemia-Associated Oxidative Stress in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarega, Nadarajan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der-Jiun; Chan, Kim Wei; Md Esa, Norhaizan; Zawawi, Norhasnida; Ismail, Maznah

    2016-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans is used as traditional medicine in Asia but there are limited scientific studies to support its use. In this study, the stem and leaf of C. nutans were extracted using solvents of differing polarities, and their antioxidant capacities were determined using multiple antioxidant assays. The water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were further fractionated and their antioxidant capacities and phenolic compositions were tested. Furthermore, the efficacies of the water and aqueous methanolic leaf extracts were tested against hyperlipidemia-induced oxidative stress in rats. Serum and hepatic antioxidant and oxidative stress markers were tested after feeding the rats with high fat diet together with the extracts or simvastatin for 7 weeks. The results indicated that both leaf extracts attenuated oxidative stress through increasing serum antioxidant enzymes activity and upregulating the expression of hepatic antioxidant genes. Multiple phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts and fractions of C. nutans, although protocatechuic acid was one of the most abundant and may have contributed significantly towards the bioactivities of the extracts. However, synergistic effects of different phenolics may have contributed to the overall bioactivities. C. nutans can be a good source of functional ingredients for the management of oxidative stress-related diseases.

  10. Conceptual design of an extraction system for cryogenic hydrogen isotopes distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Bornea, A.; Balteanu, O.; Bidica, N.

    2007-07-01

    One of the main problems of the hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation is represented by the extraction of the heavy fraction from a distillation column. This can be achieved by an optimal design of the cycle scheme. The main problem consist of the possibility to make an extraction from a distillation column when the mixture that feed the column is made from one prevalent isotope as hydrogen and small amounts of other two isotopes (deuterium and/or tritium). Another problem that affects the design of the extraction system is the relation between the hold-up of the cryogenic distillation column and the extraction flow rate. The present study is focused on the realization of the conceptual design for the extraction system from a cryogenic distillation column used in the hydrogen isotopes separation process. In the hydrogen distillation process by cryogenic distillation, the heavy fraction (DT,T{sub 2}) is separated and increase in the bottom of the distillation column. The extraction will be made in gas phase in the bottom of the column. The extraction system from a cryogenic column is used for the temporary extraction inside a vessel filled with adsorption material, and also the system has the possibility to provide samples to a gas chromatographer. The paper presents the conceptual design of the extraction system, and also the connection to all the process systems as automatization, gas analysis devices and storage. (orig.)

  11. Exposure of mice to chronic hypoxia attenuates pulmonary arterial contractile responses to acute hypoxia by increases in extracellular hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhara; Alhawaj, Raed; Wolin, Michael S

    2014-08-15

    Exposing mice to a chronic hypoxic treatment (10% oxygen, 21 days) that promotes pulmonary hypertension was observed to attenuate the pulmonary vasoconstriction response to acute hypoxia (HPV) both in vivo and in isolated pulmonary arteries. Since catalase restored the HPV response in isolated arteries, it appeared to be attenuated by extracellular hydrogen peroxide. Chronic hypoxia promoted the detection of elevated lung superoxide, extracellular peroxide, extracellular SOD expression, and protein kinase G (PKG) activation [based on PKG dimerization and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) phosphorylation], suggesting increased generation of extracellular peroxide and PKG activation may contribute to the suppression of HPV. Aorta from mice exposed to 21 days of hypoxia also showed evidence for extracellular hydrogen peroxide, suppressing the relaxation response to acute hypoxia. Peroxide appeared to partially suppress contractions to phenylephrine used in the study of in vitro hypoxic responses. Treatment of mice with the heme precursor δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA; 50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) during exposure to chronic hypoxia was examined as a pulmonary hypertension therapy because it could potentially activate beneficial cGMP-mediated effects through promoting a prolonged protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)-elicited activation of soluble guanylate cyclase. ALA attenuated pulmonary hypertension, increases in both superoxide and peroxide, and the suppression of in vitro and in vivo HPV responses. ALA generated prolonged detectible increases in PpIX and PKG-associated phosphorylation of VASP, suggesting PKG activation may contribute to suppression of pulmonary hypertension and prevention of alterations in extracellular peroxide that appear to be attenuating HPV responses caused by chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  13. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  14. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunen; Tan, Dehong; Shi, Lin; Liu, Xinwei; Zhang, Yubiao; Tong, Changci; Song, Dequn; Hou, Mingxiao

    2015-01-01

    We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE) on cyclophosphamide (CTX)-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  15. Melatonin attenuated brain death tissue extract-induced cardiac damage by suppressing DAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Pei-Hsun; Lee, Fan-Yen; Lin, Ling-Chun; Chen, Kuan-Hung; Lin, Hung-Sheng; Shao, Pei-Lin; Li, Yi-Chen; Chen, Yi-Ling; Lin, Kun-Chen; Yuen, Chun-Man; Chang, Hsueh-Wen; Lee, Mel S; Yip, Hon-Kan

    2018-01-09

    We tested the hypothesis that melatonin prevents brain death (BD) tissue extract (BDEX)-induced cardiac damage by suppressing inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in rats. Six hours after BD induction, levels of a DAMP component (HMGB1) and inflammatory markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, MYD88, IκB, NF-κB, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were higher in brain tissue from BD animals than controls. Levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were higher in BDEX-treated H9C2 cardiac myoblasts than in cells treated with healthy brain tissue extract. These increases were attenuated by melatonin but re-induced with luzindole (all P DAMP inflammatory axis.

  16. Aqueous extract of tomato seeds attenuates rotenone-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Gokul; Muralidhara

    2016-03-30

    Tomato seeds, a major by-product from the food processing industry, constitute a rich source of bioactives and a large population consumes tomato (either in raw or cooked form). In the present study, initially we assessed the antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of tomato seeds (TSE) in selected chemical systems and further explored the neuroprotective effects of TSE utilising the rotenone (ROT) model of neurotoxicity in Drosophila. Adult male flies (Oregon K) were fed TSE-enriched medium (0.1-0.2%) with or without ROT (500 µmol L(-1)) for 7 days. The propensity of TSE to protect flies against ROT-induced lethality, locomotor phenotype, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity was investigated. TSE offered marked protection against ROT-induced mortality, while survivors exhibited improved locomotor phenotype. TSE significantly attenuated ROT-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunctions, protein carbonyls content, restored the cholinergic function and dopamine levels. We hypothesise that the efficacy of tomato seed extract to attenuate ROT-mediated neurotoxicity may be largely related to the combined antioxidant activity of bioactives resulting in abrogation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. More importantly, our approach provides an experimental paradigm to rapidly assess the potential neuroprotective effects of common dietary components employing Drosophila, since it corroborates previous evidence in a mouse model. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (Ppapaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  18. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

    2012-12-18

    The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable.

  19. Attenuation of Cyclosporine-Induced Sperm Impairment and Embryotoxicity by Crataegus monogyna Fruit Aqueous Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, Armand; Gholamreza, Najafi; Farokhi, Farah; Shalizar Jalali, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Cyclosporine (Cs), a cyclic undecapeptide with potent immuno suppressive activity, causes several adverse effects including reproductive toxicity. This study aims to examine the ability of Crataegus monogyna aqueous fruit extract as an antioxidant to protect against Cs-induced reproductive toxicity. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 32 adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups of eight animals each. Rats in two groups received 40 mg/kg/day Cs for 45 days by oral gavage. In addition, one of the two groups received Crataegus monogyna aqueous extract at a dose of 20 mg/kg/day orally four hours after Cs administration. The remaining two groups consisted of a vehicle treated control (Cont) group and a Crataegus monogyna control (Cr) group. Differences between groups were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS software package for Windows. Results: Cs treatment caused a signiifcant decrease in sperm count and viability with an increase in DNA damage and protamine deifciency of the sperm cells. We observed signiifcant decreases in fertilization rate and embryonic development, in addition to an increased rate of embryo arrest in Cs-treated rats. Crataegus monogyna co-administration attenuated all Cs-induced negative changes in the above-mentioned parameters. Conclusion: Supplementation with Crataegus monogyna a queous fruit extract could be useful against reproductive toxicity during Cs treatment in a rat model PMID:24027659

  20. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  1. studies on solvent extraction of free hydrogen cyanide from river water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A method for free and strongly complexed cyanide measurement in river water was developed. Recovery tests from solution with and without river water, using various solvent combinations and background control were investigated to obtain an accurate and precise extraction method for the measurement of hydrogen ...

  2. Effect of substrate concentration on fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, G; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    The present study focuses on the influence of substrate concentration on the fermentative hydrogen production from the sugars of sweet sorghum extract, in a continuous stirred tank bioreactor. The reactor was operated at a Hydraulic Retention Time of 12 h and substrate concentrations ranging from...

  3. Acetylcholine Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Intracellular Calcium Dyshomeostasis Through Both Muscarinic and Nicotinic Receptors in Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Palee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Oxidative stress induced intracellular Ca2+ overload plays an important role in the pathophysiology of several heart diseases. Acetylcholine (ACh has been shown to suppress reactive oxygen species generation during oxidative stress. However, there is little information regarding the effects of ACh on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in the presence of oxidative stress. Therefore, we investigated the effects of ACh applied before or after hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 treatment on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation in isolated cardiomyocytes. Methods: Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from the male Wistar rats for the intracellular Ca2+ transient study by a fluorimetric ratio technique. Results: H2O2 significantly decreased both of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. ACh applied before, but not after, H2O2 treatment attenuated the reduction of intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Both atropine (a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor blocker and mecamylamine (a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker significantly decreased the protective effects of acetylcholine on the intracellular Ca2+ regulation. Moreover, the combination of atropine and mecamylamine completely abolished the protective effects of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca2+ transient amplitude and decay rate. Conclusion: ACh pretreatment attenuates H2O2-induced intracellular Ca2+ dyshomeostasis through both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.

  4. Synergistic extraction of europium and americium into nitrobenzene by using hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate and dodecaethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlík, Emanuel; Vaňura, Petr; Selucký, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of microamounts of europium and americium by a nitrobenzene solution of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H+B-) in the presence of dodecaethylene glycol (DDEG, L) has been investigated. The equilibrium data have been explained assuming that the species HL+, H2L2+, ML3+ and MH-1L2+ (M3+ = Eu3+, Am3+; L = DDEG) are extracted into the organic phase. The values of extraction and stability constants of the complex species in nitrobenzene saturated with water have been determined. It was found that in this nitrobenzene medium, the stability constant of the EuL3+ complex is comparable with that of AmL3+.

  5. Attenuation of hydrogen sulfide at construction and demolition debris landfills using alternative cover materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Townsend, Timothy; Reinhart, Debra

    2010-04-01

    The attenuation of H(2)S emissions by various landfill cover materials was evaluated using both laboratory and field experiments. The results demonstrated that cover materials consisting of selected waste products (compost and yard trash) and soils amended with quicklime and calcium carbonate effectively attenuated H(2)S emissions and detectable H(2)S emissions were only encountered in a testing plot using a sandy soil cover (average emission rate was 4.67x10(-6)mgm(-2)s(-1)). H(2)S concentration profiles in the cover materials indicated that H(2)S was removed as it migrated through the cover materials. At the same depth in the testing area, the H(2)S concentration in the sandy soil field plot was always higher than that of other testing plots because the sand (a) demonstrated less ability to remove H(2)S and (b) exhibited a higher H(2)S concentration at the base of the cover. Laboratory experiments confirmed these observations, with a combination of physical adsorption, chemical reactions, and biological oxidation, accounting for the enhanced removal. In addition to removal, the results suggest that some of the cover materials reduced H(2)S generation by creating less favorable conditions for sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., high pH and temperature). Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling of fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract based on modified ADM1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonopoulou, Georgia; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    of fermentative hydrogen production from the extractable sugars of sweet sorghum biomass. Kinetic parameters for sugars’ consumption and yield coefficients of acetic, propionic and butyric acid production were estimated using the experimental data obtained from the steady states of a CSTR. Batch experiments were...... used for kinetic parameter validation. Since the ADM1 does not account for metabolic products such as lactic acid and ethanol that are crucial during the fermentative hydrogen production process, the structure of the model was modified to include lactate and ethanol among the metabolites and to improve......The Anaerobic digestion model 1 (ADM1) framework can be used to predict fermentative hydrogen production, since the latter is directly related to the acidogenic stage of the anaerobic digestion process. In this study, the ADM1 model framework was used to simulate and predict the process...

  7. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-07-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as both a food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC), made by extracting fresh leaves with water, utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates into moringa isothiocyanates. Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, 4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate, and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate content were established (1:5 fresh leaf weight to water ratio at room temperature). The optimized MC contained 1.66% isothiocyanates and 3.82% total polyphenols. 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate exhibited 80% stability at 37°C for 30 days. MC, and both of the isothiocyanates described above significantly decreased gene expression and production of inflammatory markers in RAW macrophages. Specifically, both attenuated expression of iNOS and IL-1β and production of nitric oxide and TNFα at 1 and 5 μM. These results suggest a potential for stable and concentrated moringa isothiocyanates, delivered in MC as a food-grade product, to alleviate low-grade inflammation associated with chronic diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL; Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Hestekin', Jamie A [Fayetteville, AR; Henry, Michael P [Batavia, IL; Pujado, Peter [Kildeer, IL; Oroskar, Anil [Oak Brook, IL; Kulprathipanja, Santi [Inverness, IL; Randhava, Sarabjit [Evanston, IL

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  9. Nrf2-mediated mucoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of Artemisia extracts led to attenuate stress related mucosal damages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Han, Young-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biological actions between isopropanol and ethanol extracts of Artemisia including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective actions. Antioxidant activities were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and confocal microscopy on lipopolysaccharide-induced RGM1 cells, cytoprotection effects evaluated by detecting heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), Nf-E2 related factor2 (Nrf2) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and anti-inflammatory effects investigated by measuring inflammatory mediators. Water immersion restraint stress was imposed to provoke stress related mucosal damages (SRMD) in rats. Isopropanol extracts of Artemisia showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity and lesser LPS-induced reactive oxygen species productions and increased HO-1 expression through increased nuclear translocation of Nrf2 transcription factor compared to ethanol extracts. The increased expression of HSP70 and decreased expression of endothelin-1 were only increased with isopropanol extracts. A concentration-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced COX-2 and iNOS even at a rather lower concentration than ethanol extract was achieved with isopropanol extracts. Cytokine protein array revealed Artemisia extracts significantly attenuated the levels of CXCL-1, CXCL-16, and MCP-1. These orchestrated actions led to significant rescue from SRMD. Conclusively, Artemisia extracts imposed significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity against SRMD and isopropanol extracts were superior to ethanol extracts in these beneficiary actions of Artemisia. PMID:25759519

  10. Korean Red Ginseng Extract Attenuates 3-Nitropropionic Acid-Induced Huntington’s-Like Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Jang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean red ginseng (KRG possesses neuroprotective activity. However, the potential neuroprotective value of KRG for the striatal toxicity is largely unknown. We investigated whether KRG extract (KRGE could have a neuroprotective effect in a 3-nitropropionic acid- (3-NP induced (i.p. Huntington’s disease (HD model. KRGE (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg/day, p.o. was administrated 10 days before 3-NP injection (pre-administration, from the same time with 3-NP injection (co-administration, or from the peak point of neurological impairment by 3-NP injection (post-administration. Pre-administration of KRGE produced the greatest neuroprotective effect in this model. Pre-administration of KRGE significantly decreased 3-NP-induced neurological impairment, lethality, lesion area, and neuronal loss in the 3-NP-injected striatum. KRGE attenuated microglial activation and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB signal pathway. KRGE also reduced the level of mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin- (IL- 1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and OX-42. Interestingly, the intrathecal administration of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor or PD98059 (an inhibitor of MAPK Kinase, MEK increased the survival rate in the 3-NP-induced HD model. Pre-administration of KRGE may effectively inhibit 3-NP-induced striatal toxicity via the inhibition of the phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB pathways, indicating its therapeutic potential for suppressing Huntington’s-like symptoms.

  11. Hexane extract from Polygonum multiflorum attenuates glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cultured cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Ha Neui; Kim, Yu Ri; Choi, Young Whan; Choi, Yung Hyun; Lee, Jun Hyuk; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2013-01-09

    Polygonum multiflorum has traditionally had wide use as an anti-aging treatment in East Asian countries. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of Polygonum multiflorum against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity with a focus on the anti-apoptotic mechanism in primary cultured cortical neurons. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, morphological, flow cytometry, Western blot, and caspase activity assays were performed for examination of the neuroprotective effects of active hexane extract from Polygonum multiflorum (HEPM). Pretreatment with HEPM resulted in significantly decreased glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner and also resulted in drastically inhibited glutamate-induced apoptosis. Treatment with HEPM resulted in decreased expression of glutamate-induced death receptor (DR)4, and enhanced expression of glutamate-attenuated anti-apoptotic proteins, including Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1, and slightly reduced glutamate-induced cleavage of Bid. In addition, treatment with HEPM resulted in suppressed glutamate-induced activation of caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3, and, subsequently, decreased degradation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, β-catenin, and phospholipase Cγ1 protein, which are downstream targets of activated caspase-3. The results of this study demonstrated that HEPM exerts a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity via inhibition of apoptosis. This protection may be mediated through suppression of DR4 and up-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1, as well as inhibition of caspase activation, resulting in prevention of apoptosis of cortical neurons. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Linarin Enriched Extract Attenuates Liver Injury and Inflammation Induced by High-Fat High-Cholesterol Diet in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Jie Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the potential beneficial effects of linarin enriched Flos Chrysanthemi extract (Lin-extract on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH induced by high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet in rats. SD rats received normal diet, HFHC diet, or HFHC diet plus different doses of Lin-extract. The liver content of triglyceride and total cholesterol markedly increased in HFHC diet-fed model rats while middle and high dose of Lin-extract lowered liver cholesterol significantly. The expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1 was upregulated by HFHC diet and further elevated by high dose Lin-extract. High dose of Lin-extract also markedly lowered the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST and inhibited the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK induced by HFHC in livers. The HFHC-increased mRNA levels of hepatic inflammation cytokines, including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, and chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1, were suppressed by Lin-extract dose-dependently. Furthermore, pathology evaluation showed that high dose Lin-extract greatly improved lobular inflammation. Our results suggest that Lin-extract could attenuate liver injury and inflammation induced by HFHC diet in rats. Its modulatory effect on lipid metabolism may partially contribute to this protective effect.

  13. Hepatoprotective effect of Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced liver injury in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Saleh Muhammad; Taha, Ekhlass Muhi; Al-janabi, Muneef Saeb; Al-douri, Bushra Ismael; Simon, Kumar Das; Mazlan, Abd Gaffar

    2014-01-01

    Cymbopogon citratus (Poaceae) a tropical perennial herb plant that is widely cultivated to be eaten either fresh with food or dried in tea or soft drink has been reported to possess a number of medicinal and aromatic properties. This study aimed at evaluating the protective effects of C. citratus aqueous extract against liver injury induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in male rats. Twenty-five rats were randomly divided into five different groups of five animals in each group; (1) Control. (2) Received H2O2 (0.5%) with drinking water. (3), and (4) received H2O2 and C. citratus (100 mg·kg(-1) b wt), vitamin C (250 mg·kg(-1) b wt) respectively. (5), was given C. citratus alone. The treatments were administered for 30 days. Blood samples were collected and serum was used for biochemical assay including liver enzymes activities, total protein, total bilirubin and malonaldehyde, glutathione in serum and liver homogenates. Liver was excised and routinely processed for histological examinations. C. citratus attenuated liver damage due to H2O2 administration as indicated by the significant reduction (pcitratus could effectively ameliorate H2O2-induced oxidative stress and prevent liver injury in male rats.

  14. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Danshen) extract attenuates permanent cerebral ischemia through inhibiting platelet activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Si-Qi; Yang, Li-Jian; Qiu, Yan-Ying; Li, Yi-Ze; Liu, Wen-Yuan; Xi, Tao; Fang, Wei-Rong; Li, Yun-Man

    2017-07-31

    /PKC signaling pathway. SCED attenuates cerebral ischemic injury. The possible mechanism is that SCED inhibits thrombosis formation, platelet aggregation and activation of PLC/PKC pathway. On this basis, this new extract could be a promising agent to inhibit thrombosis formation and protect against cerebral ischemia injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Ethanol Extract Derived from Bonnemaisonia hamifera Scavenges Ultraviolet B (UVB Radiation-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species and Attenuates UVB-Induced Cell Damage in Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Ho Lee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera against ultraviolet B (UVB-induced cell damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. The Bonnemaisonia hamifera ethanol extract (BHE scavenged the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO4 + H2O2, both of which were detected by using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In addition, BHE exhibited scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS that were induced by either hydrogen peroxide or UVB radiation. BHE reduced UVB-induced apoptosis, as shown by decreased apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. BHE also attenuated DNA damage and the elevated levels of 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyls resulting from UVB-mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, BHE absorbed electromagnetic radiation in the UVB range (280–320 nm. These results suggest that BHE protects human HaCaT keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative damage by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB photons, thereby reducing injury to cellular components.

  16. Bio-Hydrogen Production from Pineapple Waste Extract by Anaerobic Mixed Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakkrit Sreela-or

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A statistical experimental design was employed to optimize factors that affect the production of hydrogen from the glucose contained in pineapple waste extract by anaerobic mixed cultures. Results from Plackett-Burman design indicated that substrate concentration, initial pH and FeSO4 concentration had a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05 influence on the hydrogen production potential (Ps and the specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR. The path of steepest ascent was undertaken to approach the optimal region of these three significant factors which was then optimized using response surface methodology (RSM with central composite design (CCD. The presence of a substrate concentration of 25.76 g-total sugar/L, initial pH of 5.56, and FeSO4 concentration of 0.81 g/L gave a maximum predicted Ps of 5489 mL H2/L, hydrogen yield of 1.83 mol H2/mol glucose, and SHPR of 77.31 mL H2/g-volatile suspended solid (VSS h. A verification experiment indicated highly reproducible results with the observed Ps and SHPR being only 1.13% and 1.14% different from the predicted values.

  17. Cinnamon polyphenols attenuate the hydrogen peroxide-induced down regulation of S100β secretion by regulating sirtuin 1 in C6 rat glioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bolin; Panickar, Kiran S; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-04-25

    It is well established that the brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage due to its high consumption of oxygen. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective effects of a water soluble polyphenol-rich extract of cinnamon and the possible mechanisms, under conditions of oxidative stress-induced by hydrogen peroxide, in rat C6 glioma cells. After 24h of H2O2 incubation, the secretion and intracellular expression of S100β were determined by immunoprecitation/immunoblotting and immunofluorescence imaging. Cinnamon polyphenols (CP) counteracted the oxidative effects of H2O2 on S100β secretion and expression. CP also enhanced the impaired protein levels of sirtuins 1, 2, and 3, which are deacetylases important in cell survival. H2O2 also induced the overexpression of the proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, phospho-NF-κB p65, as well as of Bcl-xl, Bax and Caspase-3, which are all the members of the Bcl-2 family. CP not only suppressed the expression of these proteins but also attenuated the phosphorylation induced by H2O2. CP also upregulated the decreased Bcl-2 protein levels in H2O2 treated C6 cells. The effects of CP on H2O2-induced downregulation of S100β secretion were blocked by SIRT1 siRNA demonstrating that SIRT1 plays a regulatory role in CP-mediated prevention by H2O2. These data demonstrate that Cinnamon polyphenols may exert neuroprotective effects in glial cells by the regulation of Bcl-2 family members and enhancing SIRT1 expression during oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of hydrogen peroxide and camellia sinensis extract on reduction of oxygen level in graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina Selvakumari, J.; Dhanalakshmi, J.; Pathinettam Padiyan, D.

    2016-10-01

    The intention of this work is to reduce the oxygen level in graphene oxide. The reduction process was initiated while preparing graphene oxide using modified Hummer’s method. In this new method, increase in hydrogen peroxide concentration during the preparation process results in the oxygen content reduction. Adding green tea (camellia sinensis) extract with increased hydrogen peroxide results in further reduction of oxygen content and changed the graphene oxide to reduced graphene oxide. The structural and optical properties of the new found reduced graphene oxide was analysed using XRD, FTIR, TEM, Raman and UV-vis spectra. The overall observation reflects that the sp3 carbon network of graphene oxide changed into sp2 carbon lattice of graphene which is very handful in supercapacitor and biosensor fields.

  19. Solvent Extraction and QSPR of Catecholamines with a Bis(2-ethlhexyl) Hydrogen Phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu.; Fujimoto, Yuko.; Ota, Keisuke.; Inoue, Katsutoshi. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    In order to develop an effective separation recess for catecholamine (CA), a basic investigation on solvent extraction of dopamine (DA), adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline (NA) from hydrochloric acid solution and their stripping is conducted at 30 degree C employing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) in chloroform, n-hexane and toluene as the organic diluents. From the dependencies of the distribution ratios on the concentrations of reactant species, i.e. CA, hydrogen ion and D2EHPA, it is elucidated that CA (RNH{sub 2}) is extracted with D2EHPA (HR`) according to the ion exchange mechanism, as the complex type, RNH{sub 3}R` (HR`){sub 3}, and the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex,CA}) for the extraction reactions are also evaluated. The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) of K{sub ex,CA} values for each organic diluent is discussed using molecular modeling with semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations considering the solvent effect. (author)

  20. Application of the method of optimum increase of Carboniferous gass exploitation for the determination of its extractable amount from the space of attenuated plant of the Paskov Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragon Vladimír

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A way of optimum extraction increase of Carboniferous gas which can be applied in any mine of the Ostrava-Karviná Mining District (OKMD during the current period of the restructuralisation and mining attenuation.

  1. Extraction of negative hydrogen ions from a compact 14 GHz microwave ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M. [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Kasuya, T.; Nishida, T. [School of Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Kenmotsu, T. [Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Maeno, S. [Novelion Systems Co. Ltd., D-egg Bldg. Kyoto 610-0332 (Japan); Nishiura, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Shinto, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Yamaoka, H. [Riken, Harima, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    A pair of permanent magnets has formed enough intensity to realize electron cyclotron resonance condition for a 14 GHz microwave in a 2 cm diameter 9 cm long alumina discharge chamber. A three-electrode extraction system assembled in a magnetic shielding has formed a stable beam of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup -}) in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. The measured H{sup -} current density was about 1 mA/cm{sup 2} with only 50 W of discharge power, but the beam intensity had shown saturation against further increase in microwave power. The beam current decreased monotonically against increasing pressure.

  2. The hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water; Die Wasserstoffkonzentration als Parameter zur Identifizierung des natuerlichen Abbaus von leichtfluechtigen Chlorkohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alter, M.D.

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons was investigated. The currently accepted and recommended bubble strip method for hydrogen sampling was optimized, and a storage method for hydrogen samples was developed. Furthermore batch experiments with a dechlorinating mixed culture and pure cultures were carried out to study H{sub 2}-concentrations of competing redox processes. The extraction of hydrogen from ground water was optimized by a reduced inlet diameter of the usually applied gas sampling bulbs, allowing a maximal turbulent ow and gas transfer. With a gas volume of 10 ml and flow rates of 50 to 140 ml/min, the course of extraction almost followed the theoretical course of equilibration. At flow rates > 100 ml/min a equilibrium of 98% was achieved within 20 min. Until recently it was generally accepted that hydrogen samples can be stored only for 2 hours and therefore have to be analyzed immediately in the eld. Here, it was shown that eld samples can be stored for 1-3 days until analysis. For the dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE), a hydrogen threshold concentration of 1-2 nM was found with the dechlorinating mixed culture as well as with a pure culture of Sulfurospirillum multivorans in combination with another pure culture Methanosarcina mazei. No dechlorination was detectable below this concentration. With the dechlorinating mixed culture, this finding is valid for all successive dechlorination steps until ethene. The hydrogen threshold concentration for denitrification were below the detection limit of 0,2 nM with the dechlorinating mixed culture. A threshold concentration of 3,1-3,5 nM was found for sulphate reduction and a threshold of 7-9 nM H{sub 2} for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. This implies that the natural dechlorination at contaminated sites is preferred to competing processes like sulphate reduction and methanogenesis. The threshold

  3. Extraction of optical scattering parameters and attenuation compensation in optical coherence tomography images of multi-layered tissue structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Tycho, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed analytical optical coherence tomography (OCT) model [Thrane et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17, 484 (2000)] allows the extraction of optical scattering parameters from OCT images, thereby permitting attenuation compensation in those images. By expanding this theoretical model, we...... have developed a new method for extracting optical scattering parameters from multilayered tissue structures in vivo. To verify this, we used a Monte Carlo (MC) OCT model as a numerical phantom to simulate the OCT signal for het-erogeneous multilayered tissue. Excellent agreement between the extracted...... values of the optical scattering properties of the different layers and the corresponding input reference values of the MC simulation was obtained, which demonstrates the feasibility of the method for in vivo applications. This is to our knowledge the first time such verification has been obtained...

  4. New Insights into an Ancient Antibrowning Agent: Formation of Sulfophenolics in Sodium Hydrogen Sulfite-Treated Potato Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Narvaez Cuenca, C.E.; Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Vincken, J.P.; Waard, de P.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium hydrogen sulfite (S), used as antibrowning agent, on the phenolic profile of potato extracts was investigated. This extract was compared to one obtained in the presence of ascorbic acid (A). In the presence of A, two major compounds were obtained, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA)

  5. Attenuation of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury by açaí extract preconditioning in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Morsy, Engy M; Ahmed, Maha A E; Ahmed, Amany A E

    2015-02-15

    Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is highly associated with morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis play pivotal roles in the development of renal dysfunction following renal I/R. Experimental studies have reported the effectiveness of many antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds against renal I/R injury. On the other hand, açaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart. Palmae, Arecaceae) has recently gained considerable appreciation as a natural source of antioxidants. However, the effect of açaí extract has not been studied before on renal I/R. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the possible mechanisms of renal injury attenuation by açaí extract in a rat renal I/R model. To achieve the aim of the study, rats were administered açaí extract at two dose levels (500 and 1000 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days before bilateral renal I/R induction. Serum and kidneys were isolated and used for subsequent biochemical analysis. The present data showed that açai extract significantly and dose-dependently attenuated I/R-induced renal damage. It suppressed the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine, and renal tissue content of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1). In addition, it inhibited serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity. Moreover, renal contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), caspase-3, collagen IV, and endothelin-1 were reduced, while renal interleukin-10 (IL-10) content was increased by açaí extract administration to rats before renal I/R induction. Açaí extract ameliorated bilateral I/R-induced renal injury in rats in a dose-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.

    1943-02-19

    A transcript is presented of a speech on the history of the development of hydrogenation of coal and tar. Apparently the talk had been accompanied by the showing of photographic slides, but none of the pictures were included with the report. In giving the history, Dr. Pier mentioned the dependence of much of the development of hydrogenation upon previous development in the related areas of ammonia and methanol syntheses, but he also pointed out several ways in which equipment appropriate for hydrogenation differed considerably from that used for ammonia and methanol. Dr. Pier discussed the difficulties encountered with residue processing, design of the reaction ovens, manufacture of ovens and preheaters, heating of reaction mixtures, development of steels, and development of compressor pumps. He described in some detail his own involvement in the development of the process. In addition, he discussed the development of methods of testing gasolines and other fuels. Also he listed some important byproducts of hydrogenation, such as phenols and polycyclic aromatics, and he discussed the formation of iso-octane fuel from the butanes arising from hydrogenation. In connection with several kinds of equipment used in hydrogenation (whose pictures were being shown), Dr. Pier gave some of the design and operating data.

  7. Hydrogen-Enhanced Lunar Oxygen Extraction and Storage Using Only Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, rodney; King, Darren

    2013-01-01

    The innovation consists of a thermodynamic system for extracting in situ oxygen vapor from lunar regolith using a solar photovoltaic power source in a reactor, a method for thermally insulating the reactor, a method for protecting the reactor internal components from oxidation by the extracted oxygen, a method for removing unwanted chemical species produced in the reactor from the oxygen vapor, a method for passively storing the oxygen, and a method for releasing high-purity oxygen from storage for lunar use. Lunar oxygen exists in various types of minerals, mostly silicates. The energy required to extract the oxygen from the minerals is 30 to 60 MJ/kg O. Using simple heating, the extraction rate depends on temperature. The minimum temperature is approximately 2,500 K, which is at the upper end of available oven temperatures. The oxygen is released from storage in a purified state, as needed, especially if for human consumption. This method extracts oxygen from regolith by treating the problem as a closed batch cycle system. The innovation works equally well in Earth or Lunar gravity fields, at low partial pressure of oxygen, and makes use of in situ regolith for system insulation. The innovation extracts oxygen from lunar regolith using a method similar to vacuum pyrolysis, but with hydrogen cover gas added stoichiometrically to react with the oxygen as it is produced by radiatively heating regolith to 2,500 K. The hydrogen flows over and through the heating element (HE), protecting it from released oxygen. The H2 O2 heat of reaction is regeneratively recovered to assist the heating process. Lunar regolith is loaded into a large-diameter, low-height pancake reactor powered by photovoltaic cells. The reactor lid contains a 2,500 K HE that radiates downward onto the regolith to heat it and extract oxygen, and is shielded above by a multi-layer tungsten radiation shield. Hydrogen cover gas percolates through the perforated tungsten shielding and HE, preventing

  8. Lignin isolation process from rice husk by alkaline hydrogen peroxide: Lignin and silica extracted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'ruf, Anwar; Pramudono, Bambang; Aryanti, Nita

    2017-03-01

    Biomass is one of abundance resources in the world. Biomass consists of three main materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can be referred to lignocellulosic material. Both the cellulose and hemicelluloses fractions are polymers of sugars, and thereby a potential source of fermentable sugars, or other processes that convert sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains of phenolic compounds. Rice husk is one of biomass, which has high contain of lignin. Rice husk has special characteristics because of silica content. The aim of this paper is to analyze lignin and silica extracted during lignin isolation process of rice husk using alkaline hydrogen peroxide. Three main variables such as solvent/solid ratio, concentration of hydrogen peroxide and pH of the mixture are studied. The optimum conditions for lignin isolation are at solvent/solid ratio 9:1 ml/gr, hydrogen peroxide concentration of 1.5%v and pH of the mixture of 11.

  9. Dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the electron-extraction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iñarrea, Manuel [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Lanchares, Víctor [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Palacián, Jesús [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo, E-mail: josepablo.salas@unirioja.es [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-01-23

    We study the classical dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the presence of a constant electric field in the electron-extraction situation [1], e.g., when the field attracts the electron to the vacuum. From a dynamical point of view, this field configuration provides a dynamics richer than in the usual ion-extraction scheme, because, depending on the values of field and the atom–surface distance, the atom can be ionized only towards the metal surface, only to the vacuum or to the both sides. The evolution of the phase space structure as a function of the atom–surface distance is explored in the bound regime of the atom. In the high energy regime, the ionization mechanism is also investigated. We find that the classical results of this work are in good agreement with the results obtained in the wave-packet propagation study carried out by So et al. [1]. - Highlights: • We study a classical hydrogen atom near a metal surface plus a electric field. • We explore the phase space structure as a function of the field strength. • We find most of the electronic orbits are oriented along the field direction. • We study the ionization of the atom for several atom–surface distances. • This classical study is in good agreement with the quantum results.

  10. Importance of electric field for H(-) extraction in a volume-type hydrogen negative ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y; Nishiura, M; Sasao, M; Yamaoka, H; Shinto, K; Wada, M

    2008-02-01

    The effect upon extraction of negative hydrogen ions (H(-)) due to electric field near the extractor hole of a H(-) source is studied experimentally and theoretically. Probe measurements show that the extraction electric field penetrates into the plasma in the region near the extractor hole. Based on this observation a three-dimensional H(-) trajectory calculation that takes into account the local electric field distribution near the plasma electrode has been carried out. The validity of the trajectory calculation was examined by comparing the results with experimentally measured changes in H(-) current detected by a Faraday cup due to irradiation of a pulse laser beam in the region close to the extractor hole. The calculation results qualitatively explain the changes in H(-) current observed in the experiment. The calculation results also predict that the amount of H(-) current passing through the extractor hole changes with the electric field: the penetration of the electric field substantially enhances the H(-) extraction current, because it produces an electric field to attract H(-) toward the extraction hole.

  11. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this ...

  12. Hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M

    2011-11-30

    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  13. Camellia sinensis (green tea) extract attenuate acrylamide induced testicular damage in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Refaiy, Abeer El Refaiy M; Moneim, Effat M Abdel

    2014-10-01

    Acrylamide is a proved toxin for testicular function, found in food when heated for long period of time. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) is a potent antioxidant; the aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of green tea extract against the toxic effects of acrylamide in rat testes. acrylamide was administered orally to rats in different doses and also the extract of green tea was administered orally to different groups of animals in combination with the acrylamide. The weight of animals, testosterone hormone level and histopathological effect upon testicles were evaluated. Testosterone hormone level in serum, and histopathological findings were significantly improved with the co-administration of green tea extract with the acrylamide. Green tea extract reversed all the toxic effects of acrylamide even in high dose for long period (90 days). Green tea extract is a potent antioxidant antidote for the acrylamide toxic effects upon testicular function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  14. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  15. H- beam extraction from a cesium seeded field effect transistor based radio frequency negative hydrogen ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Matsuno, T; Funaoi, T; Tanaka, N; Tsumori, K; Takeiri, Y

    2012-02-01

    H(-) beam was successfully extracted from a cesium seeded ion source operated using a field effect transistor inverter power supply as a radio frequency (RF) wave source. High density hydrogen plasma more than 10(19) m(-3) was obtained using an external type antenna with RF frequency of lower than 0.5 MHz. The source was isolated by an isolation transformer and H(-) ion beam was extracted from a single aperture. Acceleration current and extraction current increased with the increase of extraction voltage. Addition of a small amount of cesium vapor into the source enhanced the currents.

  16. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  17. Methanolic extract of onion (Allium cepa) attenuates ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes via antioxidant effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sok; Kim, Mi-Young; Lee, Dong Ha; Lee, Soo Hwan; Baik, Eun Joo; Moon, Chang-Hyun; Park, Se Won; Ko, Eun Young; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2009-06-01

    Although there is growing awareness of the beneficial potential of onion intake to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, there is little information about the effect of onion on ischemic heart injury, one of the most common cardiovascular diseases. This study investigates the effect of the methanol-soluble extract of onion on ischemic injury in heart-derived H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat hearts in vivo. The underlying mechanism is also investigated. To evaluate the effect of onion on ischemia-induced cell death, LDH release and TUNEL-positivity were assessed in H9c2 cells, and the infarct size was measured in a myocardial infarct model. To investigate the mechanism of the cardioprotection by onion, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) were measured using an imaging technique; the caspase-3 activity was assayed, and Western blotting was performed to examine cytochrome c release in H9c2 cells. The methanolic extract of onion had a preventive effect on ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptotic death in H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat heart in vivo. The onion extract (0.05 g/ml) inhibited the elevation of the ROS, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation during hypoxia in H9c2 cells. In the in vivo rat myocardial infarction model, onion extract (10 g/kg) significantly reduced the infarct size, the apoptotic cell death of the heart and the plasma MDA level. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that the methanolic extract of onion attenuates ischemia/hypoxia-induced apoptosis in heart-derived H9c2 cells in vitro and in rat hearts in vivo, through, at least in part, an antioxidant effect.

  18. Calf thymus extract attenuates severity of experimental encephalomyelitis in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta; Kocięba, Maciej; Kuryszko, Jan; Kaleta-Kuratewicz, Katarzyna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of Lewis rats with calf thymus extract (TFX®) and its six-peptide fraction on the course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). Interferon- ß served as a reference drug. We found that intramuscular administration of the thymus extract fraction significantly reduced clinical, immunological, histological, and ultrastructural alterations inherent in the disease. We suggest that TFX® or TFX®-derived fractions have potential as therapeutics in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  19. An iso-α-acid-rich extract from hops (Humulus lupulus) attenuates acute alcohol-induced liver steatosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hege, Marianne; Jung, Finn; Sellmann, Cathrin; Jin, Chengjun; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bergheim, Ina

    2018-01-01

    Results of in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that consumption of beer is less harmful for the liver than consumption of spirits. It also has been suggested that secondary plant compounds derived from hops such as xanthohumol or iso-α-acids may have beneficial effects on the development of liver diseases of various etiologies. The aim of this study was to determine whether iso-α-acids consumed in doses achieved by "normal" beer consumption have beneficial effects on health. Female C57 Bl/6 J mice, pretreated for 4 d with an iso-α-acid-rich extract (∼30% iso-α-acids from hops, 0.75 mg/kg body weight), were fed one bolus of ethanol (6 g/kg body weight intragastric) or an iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of liver damage, toll-like receptor-4 signaling, and lipid peroxidation were determined. Furthermore, the effect of isohumulone on the lipopolysaccharide-dependent activation of J774 A.1 macrophages, used as a model of Kupffer cells, was determined. In the liver, acute ethanol administration led to a significant accumulation of fat (∼10-fold), which was accompanied by significantly higher inducible nitric oxide synthase protein level, elevated nitric oxide production, and increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 protein concentration when compared to controls. In mice pretreated with iso-α-acids, these effects of alcohol were markedly attenuated. Pretreatment of J774 A.1 macrophages with isohumulone significantly attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-6 as well as the release of nitric oxide. Taken together, iso-α-acids markedly attenuated the development of acute alcohol-induced damage in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Coleus forskohlii extract attenuates the hypoglycemic effect of tolbutamide in vivo via a hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Kaori; Chiba, Tsuyoshi; Sato, Yoko; Umegaki, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    This in vivo study in rats evaluated whether Coleus forskohlii extract (CFE) taken orally interacted with tolbutamide, a hypoglycemic drug metabolized by CYP2C enzymes. Rats were fed 0%, 0.3%, 1% (w/w) CFE diet for 2 weeks, followed by 0% CFE diet for 1 day. They were then given 40 mg/kg tolbutamide by intragastric gavage. Blood glucose level was determined up to 6 h after tolbutamide administration. CFE treatment increased total CYP content and various CYP subtypes in the liver. In particular, increases in activity and protein expression were noted for the CYP2B, CYP2C, and CYP3A subtypes. CFE treatment dose-dependently attenuated both the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide at 6 h and the plasma concentration of tolbutamide. The activity of (S)-warfarin 7-hydroxylase, a CYP2C enzyme was negatively correlated with plasma tolbutamide level, which also showed a negative correlation with the reduction of blood glucose level. These results indicate that CFE induced hepatic CYPs in rats and attenuated the hypoglycemic action of tolbutamide via a hepatic CYP2C-mediated mechanism.

  1. Characterization of an attenuated total reflection-based sensor for integrated solid-phase extraction and infrared detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcudia-León, M Carmen; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2008-02-15

    A novel attenuated total reflection (ATR) sensor, which integrates solid-phase extraction (SPE) and infrared detection, is presented. The flow cell, which enables the on-line coupling with a sequential injection system, is the core of the proposed sensor since it allows the continuous delivery of different solutions through the ATR and also the continuous spectrum acquisition. A SPE sorbent material (LiChrolut EN) was located in the sensitive element of the ATR without using any external coating substance, increasing the versatility of the system. A marked sensitivity enhancement was obtained as the analyte was concentrated before detection. The new sensor was qualitatively and quantitatively validated using the determination of caffeine in soft drinks as the model analytical problem. Linearity, precision (RSD = 4%), and sensitivity (LOD = 7 microg/mL) levels have been established. Finally, the main advantages and limitations of the new proposal are presented and compared with existing alternatives.

  2. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA. PMID:23091357

  3. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atef M. Al-Attar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA.

  4. Polyphenol Rich Extract of Garcinia pedunculata Fruit Attenuates the Hyperlipidemia induced by High Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Sarma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatty foods, the most common diet today are the crux of many metabolic disorders which need urgent attention. Garcinia pedunculata Roxb. (GP, Clusiaceae is a plant found available in Northeast (NE region of India, is considered to have versatile therapeutic properties. The people of this region has been using dried pulp of GP fruit for the treatment of different stomach related diseases traditionally. This study aimed at evaluating the potential therapeutic action of the polyphenol-rich methanolic extract (ME of the fruit in experimental induced obese rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of GP extracts, i.e., fruit extract (GF and seed extract (GS were determined by using various methods viz., 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2′-Azinobis (3-ethyl benzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS•+, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT and α-glucosidase inhibition assay for detection of antihyperglycemic activity. In vivo antilipidemic and antiobesity activities were evaluated by administrating oral dose of GF for 60 days on a high-fat diet (HFD induced hyperlipidemia in the rat. GF showed higher antioxidant activity than GS by DPPH radical scavenging (IC50=4.01 µg/ml, ABTS•+ (IC50=0.82 µg/ml, NBT (IC50=0.07 µg/ml and also showed notable α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50=19.26 µg/ml. Furthermore, GF treated rat revealed a reduction in the body weight (~60%, serum total cholesterol (33%, triglycerides (32%, low-density lipoprotein (38% and liver biomarker enzymes after 60 days HFD fed animals. Simultaneously, GF supplementation significantly protected the HFD induced changes in hematological parameters. Histological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in liver of HFD and GF treated group. This novel dietary lipid adsorbing agent of GF exhibited prevention of hyperlipidemia induced by HFD in the rat.

  5. Stable, water extractable isothiocyanates from Moringa oleifera leaves attenuate inflammation in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Waterman, Carrie; Cheng, Diana M.; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Dreifus, Julia; Ann Lila, Mary; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) is an edible plant used as food and medicine throughout the tropics. A moringa concentrate (MC) made by extracting fresh leaves with water utilized naturally occurring myrosinase to convert four moringa glucosinolates (1–4) into moringa isothiocyanates (5–8). Optimum conditions maximizing MC yield, compound 5 (4-[(α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate), and compound 8 (4-[(4’-O-acetyl-α-L-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate) content were established (1:5 fresh ...

  6. Dragon's blood and its extracts attenuate radiation-induced oxidative stress in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Yuanyuan; Wang, Ran; Gao, Qian; Jia, Qiutian; Hasan, Murtaza; Awan, Muhammad Umer Farooq; Tang, Bo; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Yiming; Wang, Xiao; Li, Qiang; Ma, Hong; Deng, Yulin; Qing, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Dragon's blood (DB) possesses great medicinal values due to the presence of several phenolic compounds. This study was designed to investigate the effects of DB and its extracts (DBEs) on oxidative stress in mice exposed to whole body 60Co-γ irradiation (4 Gy). DB and DBEs were intragastrically administered to mice for 5 d prior to radiation. The antioxidant activities, including malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels in liver and spleen...

  7. Ginseng Extract G115 Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Depression in Mice by Increasing Brain BDNF Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerawan Boonlert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been reported in alcohol use disorder and major depression. The effective treatment of these comorbid diseases remains undiscovered. Nutraceutical products are therefore proposed as an alternative approach to overcome this challenge. Ginseng extract G115, the standardized extract of Panax ginseng, is a widely-used nutraceutical that is beneficial for various central nervous system disorders. This study aimed to determine the antidepressant effect of ginseng extract G115 in ethanol-treated mice models. Mice received either water, amitriptyline, or various doses of G115 (p.o. followed by water or ethanol (i.p. for 8 days. The antidepressant activity was evaluated using forced swimming test. BDNF levels were measured from hippocampal and prefrontal cortex tissues. The results demonstrated that the increase of immobility time in depressant mice induced by ethanol was reversed by both G115 and amitriptyline treatment. A significant increase of BDNF levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was observed in ethanol-treated mice receiving G115. Taken together, this study provides scientific information on the use of G115 as an antidepressant that could be further used as a dietary supplement in comorbid alcohol use and major depressive disorders.

  8. The Hydroalcoholic Extract Obtained from Mentha piperita L. Leaves Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Improves Survival in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Mariana Oliveira; Mendes, Saulo José Figueiredo; de Sousa Ribeiro, Maria Nilce; Galvão, Stanley de Sousa Lima; Muscará, Marcelo Nicolás; Fernandes, Elizabeth Soares

    2017-01-01

    Mentha piperita L. (peppermint) possesses antimicrobial properties, but little is known of its ability to modulate macrophages. Macrophages are essential in bacterial infection control due to their antimicrobial functions and ability to link the innate and adaptive immune responses. We evaluated the effects of the peppermint leaf hydroalcoholic extract (LHAE) on cultured murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Vehicle-treated cells were used as controls. The constituents of the extract were also identified. Epicatechin was the major compound detected in the LHAE. LPS-induced macrophage death was reversed by incubation with LHAE (1–30 μg/ml). Higher concentrations of the extract (≥100 μg/ml) decreased macrophage viability (49–57%) in the absence of LPS. LHAE (1–300 μg/ml) attenuated H2O2 (34.6–53.4%) but not nitric oxide production by these cells. At similar concentrations, the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (15.3–63.5-fold) and glutathione peroxidase (34.4–73.6-fold) in LPS-treated macrophages. Only LPS-unstimulated macrophages presented enhanced phagocytosis (3.6–6.6-fold increase) when incubated with LHAE (3–30 μg/ml). Overall, the LHAE obtained from peppermint modulates macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, by stimulating the antioxidant pathway in these cells. These effects may be beneficial when the excessive activation of macrophages contributes to tissue damage during infectious disease. PMID:29085843

  9. The Hydroalcoholic Extract Obtained from Mentha piperita L. Leaves Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Improves Survival in Lipopolysaccharide-Treated Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Oliveira Arruda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mentha piperita L. (peppermint possesses antimicrobial properties, but little is known of its ability to modulate macrophages. Macrophages are essential in bacterial infection control due to their antimicrobial functions and ability to link the innate and adaptive immune responses. We evaluated the effects of the peppermint leaf hydroalcoholic extract (LHAE on cultured murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated or not with lipopolysaccharide (LPS in vitro. Vehicle-treated cells were used as controls. The constituents of the extract were also identified. Epicatechin was the major compound detected in the LHAE. LPS-induced macrophage death was reversed by incubation with LHAE (1–30 μg/ml. Higher concentrations of the extract (≥100 μg/ml decreased macrophage viability (49–57% in the absence of LPS. LHAE (1–300 μg/ml attenuated H2O2 (34.6–53.4% but not nitric oxide production by these cells. At similar concentrations, the extract increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (15.3–63.5-fold and glutathione peroxidase (34.4–73.6-fold in LPS-treated macrophages. Only LPS-unstimulated macrophages presented enhanced phagocytosis (3.6–6.6-fold increase when incubated with LHAE (3–30 μg/ml. Overall, the LHAE obtained from peppermint modulates macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses, by stimulating the antioxidant pathway in these cells. These effects may be beneficial when the excessive activation of macrophages contributes to tissue damage during infectious disease.

  10. Protective effect of the ultra-filtration extract from Xin Mai Jia on human aortic smooth muscle cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAN, JIA; YIN, YALING; SUN, RUILI; PAN, GUOPIN; LI, PENG; JIA, YANLONG; WAN, GUANGRUI; LIU, ZHANG-SUO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore whether an ultra-filtration extract from Xin Mai Jia (XMJ), a Chinese medicinal formulation, has a protective effect on human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) injury models induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and to consider the mechanism and efficacy of the therapeutic action of XMJ on atherosclerosis. HASMCs were injured by H2O2 and then exposed to various concentrations of XMJ. The morphological changes, growth, proliferation, migration and cytokine release of HASMCs were detected using 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a scratch adhesion test. H2O2 significantly promoted the proliferation of HASMCs. The ultra-filtration extract from XMJ was observed to significantly attenuate the morphological changes of injured HASMCs, reduce the expression levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and increase the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP). XMJ has clear anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and significantly inhibits the proliferation and migration of HASMCs. PMID:24348756

  11. An ethanol extract of Origanum vulgare attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary injury and oxidative lung damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Amirhossein; Chabra, Aroona; Naghshvar, Farshad; Salehi, Fatemeh; Habibi, Emran; Haghi-Aminjan, Hamed

    2014-10-01

    Injury to normal tissues is the major limiting side effect of using cyclophosphamide (CP), an antineoplastic alkylating compound. This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of an extract of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae), an antioxidative medicinal plant, against CP-induced oxidative lung damage in mice. Mice were pre-treated with various doses of O. vulgare extract (50, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days followed by an injection with CP (200 mg/kg b.w.) One hour after the injection of O. vulgare on the last day, mice were injected with CP; 24 h later, they were euthanized, their lungs were immediately removed, and biochemical and histological studies were conducted. A single dose of CP markedly altered the levels of several biomarkers associated with oxidative stress in lung homogenates. Pretreatment with O. vulgare significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation and attenuated the alterations in glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity induced by CP in lung tissue. In addition, O. vulgare effectively alleviated CP-induced histopathological changes in lung tissue. Our results revealed that O. vulgare protects lung tissues from CP-induced pulmonary damage and suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of lung disease produced by CP. Because O. vulgare has been extensively used as an additive agent and is regarded as safe, it may be used concomitantly as a supplement for reducing lung damage in patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  12. Standardized Cannabis sativa extract attenuates tau and stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Vaseghi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Metastasis is the main cause of death in patients with melanoma. Cannabis-based medicines are effective adjunctive drugs in cancer patients. Tau and Stathmin proteins are the key proteins in cancer metastasis. Here we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract on cell migration and Tau and Stathmin gene expression in the melanoma cell line. Materials and Methods: In the treatment group, melanoma (B1617 was treated 48 hr with various concentrations of standardized C. sativa extract. Cells with no treatment were considered as the control group, then study was followed by Quantitative RT-Real Time PCR assay. Relative gene expression was calculated by the ΔΔct method. Migration assay was used to evaluate cancer metastasis. Results: Tau and stathmin gene expression was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Cell migration was also significantly reduced compared to controls.  Conclusion: C. sativa decreased tau and stathmin gene expression and cancer metastasis.  The results may have some clinical relevance for the use of cannabis-based medicines in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  13. Curcuma aromatica Water Extract Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Gastritis via Enhancement of Antioxidant Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Young Jeon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcuma aromatica is an herbal medicine and traditionally used for the treatment of various diseases in Asia. We investigated the effects of C. aromatica water extract (CAW in the stomach of rats with ethanol-induced gastritis. Gastritis was induced in rats by intragastric administration of 5 mL/kg body weight of absolute ethanol. The CAW groups were given 250 or 500 mg of extract/kg 2 h before administration of ethanol, respectively. To determine the antioxidant effects of CAW, we determined the level of lipid peroxidation, the level of reduced glutathione (GSH, the activities of catalase, degree of inflammation, and mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced ethanol-induced inflammation and loss of epithelial cells and increased the mucus production in the stomach. CAW reduced the increase in lipid peroxidation associated with ethanol-induced gastritis (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp. and increased mucosal GSH content (500 mg/kg, p<0.01 and the activity of catalase (250 and 500 mg/kg, p<0.01, resp.. CAW increased the production of prostaglandin E2. These findings suggest that CAW protects against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa injury by increasing antioxidant status. We suggest that CAW could be developed for the treatment of gastritis induced by alcohol.

  14. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sudhansu S; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Kollipara, Padmasree; Tetali, Sarada D

    2014-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum (OS), commonly known as Holy basil/Tulsi, has been traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and manage general cardiac health. The present study is designed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of O. sanctum and its phenolic compound and eugenol (EUG) in human monocytic (THP-1) cells and validate its traditional use for treating cardiovascular diseases. The phytochemical analysis of alcoholic and water extracts of OS-dry leaves (OSAE and OSWE) was done using LC-QTOF-MS. A phenolic compound, EUG was quantified in both OSAE and OSWE by an LC-MS technique using a mass hunter work station software quantitative analysis system. The effect of both OSAE, OSWE, pure compound EUG and positive control imatinib (IMT) was investigated in THP-1 cells by studying the following markers: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion by ELISA, gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α and MCP-1) by real time PCR and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by confocol microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts, EUG and IMT, was studied on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4. The LC-MS analysis of OSAE and OSWE revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds including eugenol. Quantitative analysis revealed that OSAE and OSWE had EUG of 12 ng/mgdwt and 19 ng/mgdwt respectively. OSAE, OSWE (1 mg dwt/mL) pure compound EUG (60 µg/mL) and positive control IMT (20 µg/mL) showed marked inhibition on LPS induced TNF-α secretion by THP-1 cells. At the selected concentration, the plant extracts, EUG and IMT inhibited gene expression of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1) and translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nuclei. In addition, they showed significant inhibition on PMA induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and the gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4

  15. Cinnamon extract improves the body composition and attenuates lipogenic processes in the liver and adipose tissue of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Bruna P; Gaique, Thaiane G; Souza, Luana L; Paula, Gabriela S M; Kluck, George E G; Atella, Georgia C; Gomes, Anne Caroline C; Simas, Naomi K; Kuster, Ricardo M; Ortiga-Carvalho, Tania M; Pazos-Moura, Carmen C; Oliveira, Karen J

    2015-10-01

    In models of metabolic disorders, cinnamon improves glucose and lipid metabolism. This study explores the effect of chronic supplementation with aqueous cinnamon extract (CE) on the lipid metabolism of rats. Male adult Wistar rats were separated into a control group (CTR) receiving water and a CE Group receiving aqueous cinnamon extract (400 mg of cinnamon per kg body mass per day) by gavage for 25 consecutive days. Cinnamon supplementation did not change the food intake or the serum lipid profile but promoted the following changes: lower body mass gain (P = 0.008), lower relative mass of white adipose tissue (WAT) compartments (P = 0.045) and higher protein content (percentage of the carcass) (P = 0.049). The CE group showed lower leptin mRNA expression in the WAT (P = 0.0017) and an important tendency for reduced serum leptin levels (P = 0.059). Cinnamon supplementation induced lower mRNA expression of SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) in the WAT (P = 0.001) and liver (P = 0.013) and lower mRNA expression of SREBP2 (P = 0.002), HMGCoA reductase (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase) (P = 0.0003), ACAT1 (acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 1) (P = 0.032) and DGAT2 (diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2) (P = 0.03) in the liver. These changes could be associated with the reduced esterified cholesterol and triacylglycerol content detected in this tissue. Our results suggest that chronic ingestion of aqueous cinnamon extract attenuates lipogenic processes, regulating the expression of key enzymes and transcriptional factors and their target genes, which are directly involved in lipogenesis. These molecular changes possibly promote adaptations that would prevent an increase in circulating cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels and prevent lipid accumulation in tissues, such as liver and WAT. Therefore, we speculate that cinnamon may also be useful for preventing or retarding the development of lipid disorders.

  16. Black grape extract supplementation attenuates blood oxidative stress in response to acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Skarpańska-Stejnborn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich active compound in grapes is claimed to be one of the most important natural products. Hence, the objective of our research was to study parameters of the prooxidative-antioxidative balance in athletes supplied with Panace-Vid 2000® preparation consisting of black wine grape extract (Vitis vinifera. The study was carried out on 22 male rowers. The subjects from the supplemented group (n=10 were given one gelatin capsule containing Panace-Vid 2000® three times a day, for six weeks, while the control group (n=12 was given placebo. Before and after the supplementation period, the athletes performed a physical exercise test on the rowing ergometer; varying between 40 and 90% of maximal aerobic power. Each 3-min exercise session was followed by thirty seconds of rest. Blood was sampled from the rowers before the exercise test, one minute after its completion, and after a 24-h recovery period. The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase was determined and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was measured in the hemolysate of red blood cells. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was determined in the blood plasma. The concentration of lactic acid was measured in the whole blood. An analysis of the results revealed that the supply of grape extract, in the form of Panace-Vid 2000® preparation, contributed to a significant increase in plasma antioxidative capacity and to an insignificant increase in superoxide dismutase, as well as a lower activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduced concentration of lipid peroxidation product levels.

  17. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Hitler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  18. Attenuation of diabetic nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by Punica granatum Linn. leaves extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Nitin Mestry

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With an objective to develop Complementary and Alternative Medicine for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, the present study investigated the protective effects of methanolic extract of Punica granatum leaves (MPGL in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy has become a leading cause of end stage renal failure worldwide. P. granatum, due to its anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities may retard the progression of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, diabetes was induced by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 45 mg/kg, i.p. in rats. STZ-diabetic rats were treated with oral doses of MPGL (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 8 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, body and kidney weight and blood glucose levels were determined. Serum and urine parameters were investigated. Antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxide levels were determined in the kidney along with histopathological examination of the same. MPGL significantly increased body weight, lowered blood glucose levels and ameliorated kidney hypertrophy index in the STZ-diabetic rats. The extract also decreased the levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total cholesterol, triglycerides, advanced glycation end products and albumin in serum and urine, respectively. MPGL significantly increased the antioxidant parameters in the kidney. Histological evaluation revealed that MPGL treated STZ-diabetic rats demonstrated reduced vacuolar degeneration of tubules; periodic acid Schiff base (PAS positivity staining intensity in glomeruli and basement membrane thickening. Present findings provide experimental evidence that MPGL has potential antioxidant, antihyperglycemic and anti-glycation activities which might be helpful in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Chondroitin Sulfate-Rich Extract of Skate Cartilage Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Damage in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yeong Ok; Kim, Mijeong; Woo, Minji; Baek, Jang-Mi; Kang, Keon-Hee; Kim, Sang-Ho; Roh, Seong-Soo; Park, Chan Hum; Jeong, Kap-Seop; Noh, Jeong-Sook

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of a chondroitin sulfate-rich extract (CSE) from skate cartilage against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic damage were investigated, and its mechanism of action was compared with that of chondroitin sulfate (CS) from shark cartilage. ICR mice were orally administrated 200 mg/kg body weight (BW) of CS or 400 mg/kg BW of CSE for 3 consecutive days, followed by a one-time intraperitoneal injection of LPS (20 mg/kg BW). The experimental groups were vehicle treatment without LPS injection (NC group), vehicle treatment with LPS injection (LPS group), CS pretreatment with LPS injection (CS group), and CSE pretreatment with LPS injection (CSE group). Hepatic antioxidant enzyme expression levels in the CS and CSE groups were increased relative to those in the LPS group. In LPS-insulted hepatic tissue, inflammatory factors were augmented relative to those in the NC group, but were significantly suppressed by pretreatment with CS or CSE. Moreover, CS and CSE alleviated the LPS-induced apoptotic factors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In addition, CS and CSE effectively decreased the serum lipid concentrations and downregulated hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding proteins expression. In conclusion, the skate CSE could protect against LPS-induced hepatic dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis, probably through the regulation of MAPK signaling. PMID:28617322

  20. Resveratrol Derivative-Rich Melinjo Seed Extract Attenuates Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative damages induced by a redox imbalance cause age-related changes in cells and tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes play a pivotal role in the antioxidant system and they also catalyze superoxide radicals. Since the loss of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1 resulted in aging-like phenotypes in several types of murine tissue, SOD1 is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon Linn seed extract (MSE contains trans-resveratrol (RSV and resveratrol derivatives, including gnetin C, gnemonoside A, and gnemonoside D. MSE intake also exerts no adverse events in human study. In the present studies, we investigated protective effects of MSE on age-related skin pathologies in mice. Orally MSE and RSV treatment reversed the skin thinning associated with increased oxidative damage in the Sod1−/− mice. Furthermore, MSE and RSV normalized gene expression of Col1a1 and p53 and upregulated gene expression of Sirt1 in skin tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that RSV significantly promoted the viability of Sod1−/− fibroblasts. These finding demonstrated that RSV in MSE stably suppressed an intrinsic superoxide generation in vivo and in vitro leading to protecting skin damages. RSV derivative-rich MSE may be a powerful food of treatment for age-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damages.

  1. Açai berry extract attenuates glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unis, Amina

    2015-03-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is one of the most common problems encountered in hospitalized critically ill patients. In recent years great effort has been focused on the introduction of herbal medicine as a novel therapeutic agent for prevention of ARF. Hence, the current study was designed to investigate the effect of Açai berry extract (ABE) on glycerol-induced ARF in rats. Results of the present study showed that rat groups that received oral ABE in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day for 7 days before or 7 days after induction of ARF by a single intramuscular glycerol injection reported a significant improvement in kidney functions tests [decrease in serum urea, serum creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN)] when compared to the ARF model groups. Moreover, there was significant amelioration in renal oxidative stress markers [renal catalase (CAT), renal reduced glutathione (GSH)] and renal histopathological changes in the ABE-treated groups when compared to ARF model groups. The most significant improvement was reported in the groups where ABE was administered in a dose 200 mg/kg/day. These results indicate that ABE has a potential role in ameliorating renal damage involved in ARF.

  2. Urtica dioica extract attenuates depressive like behavior and associative memory dysfunction in dexamethasone induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that glucocorticoids results in depression and is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Further diabetes induces oxidative stress and hippocampal dysfunction resulting in cognitive decline. Traditionally Urtica dioica has been used for diabetes mellitus and cognitive dysfunction. The present study investigated the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves (50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, i.m.) induced diabetes and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction. We observed that mice administered with chronic dexamethasone resulted in hypercortisolemia, oxidative stress, depressive like behavior, cognitive impairment, hyperglycemia with reduced body weight, increased water intake and decreased hippocampal glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) mRNA expression. Urtica dioica significantly reduced hyperglycemia, plasma corticosterone, oxidative stress and depressive like behavior as well as improved associative memory and hippocampal GLUT4 mRNA expression comparable to rosiglitazone (5 mg/kg, p.o.). Further, Urtica dioica insignificantly improved spatial memory and serum insulin. In conclusion, Urtica dioica reversed dexamethasone induced hyperglycemia and its associated complications such as depressive like behavior and cognitive dysfunction.

  3. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  4. Barley Sprouts Extract Attenuates Alcoholic Fatty Liver Injury in Mice by Reducing Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hee Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that barley leaves possess beneficial properties such as antioxidant, hypolipidemic, antidepressant, and antidiabetic. Interestingly, barley sprouts contain a high content of saponarin, which showed both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. In this study, we evaluated the effect of barley sprouts on alcohol-induced liver injury mediated by inflammation and oxidative stress. Raw barley sprouts were extracted, and quantitative and qualitative analyses of its components were performed. The mice were fed a liquid alcohol diet with or without barley sprouts for four weeks. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were used to study the effect of barley sprouts on inflammation. Alcohol intake for four weeks caused liver injury, evidenced by an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α levels. The accumulation of lipid in the liver was also significantly induced, whereas the glutathione (GSH level was reduced. Moreover, the inflammation-related gene expression was dramatically increased. All these alcohol-induced changes were effectively prevented by barley sprouts treatment. In particular, pretreatment with barley sprouts significantly blocked inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7. This study suggests that the protective effect of barley sprouts against alcohol-induced liver injury is potentially attributable to its inhibition of the inflammatory response induced by alcohol.

  5. On the Development of Hydrogen Isotope Extraction Technologies for a Full LiMIT-Style PFC Liquid Lithium Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Michael; Szott, Matthew; Stemmley, Steven; Mettler, Jeremy; Wendeborn, John; Moynihan, Cody; Ahn, Chisung; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David

    2017-10-01

    Lithium has proven over numerous studies to improve core confinement, allowing access to operational regimes previously unattainable when using solid, high-Z divertor and limiter modules in magnetic confinement devices. Lithium readily absorbs fuel species, and while this is advantageous, it is also detrimental with regards to tritium inventory and safety concerns. As such, extraction technologies for the recovery of hydrogenic isotopes captured by lithium require development and testing in the context of a larger lithium loop recycling system. Proposed reclamation technologies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) will take advantage of the thermophysical properties of the lithium-hydrogen-lithium hydride system as the driving force for recovery. Previous work done at UIUC indicates that hydrogen release from pure lithium hydride reaches a maximum of 7 x 1018 s-1 at 665 °C. While this recovery rate is appreciable, reactor-scale scenarios will require isotope recycling to happen on an even faster timescale. The ratio of isotope dissolution to hydride precipitate formation must therefore be determined, along with the energy needed to recoup trapped hydrogen isotopes. Extraction technologies for use with a LiMIT-style loop system will be discussed and results will be presented. DOE/ALPS DE-FG02-99ER54515.

  6. Oral administration of an ethanolic extract of Hypericum gentianoides attenuates spontaneous colitis in mdr1a -/- mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley M. K. Haarberg

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nutraceuticals (i.e., complementary and alternative medicines are gaining ground as therapeutic modalities for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, primarily due to their low toxicity and high patient compliance. Several species of Hypericum have been shown to possess immunomodulatory capabilities in many disease models. However, the therapeutic potential of the chemically unique Hypericum gentianoides (HG is largely untested. We investigated the efficacy of an orally administered ethanolic extract of HG (HGEE to prophylactically inhibit/ameliorate the spontaneous colitis that develops in mdr1a deficient (mdr1a -/- mice. Methods: Beginning at six weeks of age, vehicle (5% ethanol, HGEE (4.8 mg/day or metronidazole (0.75 mg/mL were orally administered daily to mdr1a -/- or FVB WT mice until they reached 20 weeks of age or had lost ≥ 15 % of their body weight. Macroscopic disease assessment included measurement of weight loss, colon shortening, and combined colonic/cecal macroscopic lesion scores. Colonic/cecal inflammation was also scored histologically. Inflammatory responses were assessed using myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and analysis of serum cytokines/chemokines. Results: Daily administration of HGEE significantly (p < 0.05 delayed the onset of clinical signs of disease, reduced the associated morbidity, and attenuated macroscopic and microscopic disease/inflammatory scores in mdr1a -/- mice. After 14 weeks of treatment, there were no adverse macroscopic or microscopic effects observed following the daily administration of HGEE to wild type FVB mice. Histological evaluation of colonic tissue revealed a decrease in neutrophil infiltration in HGEE treated mdr1a -/- mice, which was substantiated by a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05 in colonic MPO activity. Compared to vehicle treated mdr1a -/- mice, levels of G-CSF, KC, and TNFα were significantly lower in the serum of mdr1a -/- mice treated with HGEE. Conclusion: Oral

  7. Grape seed extract attenuates hyperglycaemia-induced in rats by streptozotocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A. El-Awdan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study aimed to investigate the possible beneficial effects of grape seed extract (GSE on some metabolic and biochemical changes associated with streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg; i.p.-induced hyperglycaemia in male rats. Blood samples were used to determine serum levels of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC and triglycerides (TG. Some biochemical markers for oxidative stress viz., serum lipid peroxides level (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA and total antioxidant capacity as well as serum nitric oxide (NO level were assessed. Hyperglycaemic animals received GSE (100 and 300 mg/kg/day orally on daily basis for 28 consecutive days and their effects were determined 24 h after the administration of the last dose. Results of the present study revealed that STZ-induced hyperglycaemia is associated with decreased serum insulin level with increased levels of TC and TG. Hyperglycaemia was also associated with increased level of serum MDA together with decreased total antioxidant capacity and level of serum NO. GSE succeeded to improve the serum glucose level in STZ-treated rats in a dose dependent manner. It also showed a restoration of the increased serum level of TC, TG and MDA and of the suppressed insulin and total antioxidant capacity as well as the decreased plasma level of NO. From our results it can be concluded that GSE has beneficial effects against the biochemical changes associated with STZ-induced hyperglycaemia. These beneficial effects might be related to the ability of GSE to improve hyperglycaemia in addition to its anti-oxidant property.

  8. Protective effect of Rhus coriaria fruit extracts against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in muscle progenitors and zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadia Najjar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose Oxidative stress is involved in normal and pathological functioning of skeletal muscle. Protection of myoblasts from oxidative stress may improve muscle contraction and delay aging. Here we studied the effect of R. coriaria sumac fruit extract on human myoblasts and zebrafish embryos in conditions of hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. Study Design and Methods Crude ethanolic 70% extract (CE and its fractions was obtained from sumac fruits. The composition of sumac ethyl acetate EtOAc fraction was studied by 1H NMR. The viability of human myoblasts treated with CE and the EtOAc fraction was determined by trypan blue exclusion test. Oxidative stress, cell cycle and adhesion were analyzed by flow cytometry and microscopy. Gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Results The EtOAc fraction (IC50 2.57 µg/mL had the highest antioxidant activity and exhibited the best protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress. It also restored cell adhesion. This effect was mediated by superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase. Pre-treatment of zebrafish embryos with low concentrations of the EtOAc fraction protected them from hydrogen peroxide-induced death in vivo. 1H NMR analysis revealed the presence of gallic acid in this fraction. Conclusion Rhus coriaria extracts inhibited or slowed down the progress of skeletal muscle atrophy by decreasing oxidative stress via superoxide dismutase 2 and catalase-dependent mechanisms.

  9. Hydrogen gas attenuates embryonic gene expression and prevents left ventricular remodeling induced by intermittent hypoxia in cardiomyopathic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Nomura, Atsuo; Sakamoto, Aiji; Yasuda, Yuki; Amatani, Koyuha; Nagai, Sayuri; Sen, Yoko; Ijiri, Yoshio; Okada, Yoshikatsu; Yamaguchi, Takehiro; Izumi, Yasukatsu; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Tetsuya

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of sleep apnea is very high in patients with heart failure (HF). The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of intermittent hypoxia (IH) on the failing heart and to evaluate the antioxidant effect of hydrogen gas. Normal male Syrian hamsters (n = 22) and cardiomyopathic (CM) hamsters (n = 33) were exposed to IH (repeated cycles of 1.5 min of 5% oxygen and 5 min of 21% oxygen for 8 h during the daytime) or normoxia for 14 days. Hydrogen gas (3.05 vol/100 vol) was inhaled by some CM hamsters during hypoxia. IH increased the ratio of early diastolic mitral inflow velocity to mitral annulus velocity (E/e', 21.8 vs. 16.9) but did not affect the LV ejection fraction (EF) in normal Syrian hamsters. However, IH increased E/e' (29.4 vs. 21.5) and significantly decreased the EF (37.2 vs. 47.2%) in CM hamsters. IH also increased the cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area (672 vs. 443 μm(2)) and interstitial fibrosis (29.9 vs. 9.6%), along with elevation of oxidative stress and superoxide production in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium. Furthermore, IH significantly increased the expression of brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, c-fos, and c-jun mRNA in CM hamsters. Hydrogen gas inhalation significantly decreased both oxidative stress and embryonic gene expression, thus preserving cardiac function in CM hamsters. In conclusion, IH accelerated LV remodeling in CM hamsters, at least partly by increasing oxidative stress in the failing heart. These findings might explain the poor prognosis of patients with HF and sleep apnea. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Hydrogen peroxide attenuates store-operated calcium entry and enhances calcium extrusion in thyroid FRTL-5 cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Törnquist, K; Vainio, P J; Björklund, S; Titievsky, A; Dugué, B; Tuominen, R K

    2000-01-01

    Redox modulation participates in the regulation of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in several cell types. In thyroid cells, including FRTL-5 cells, changes in [Ca(2+)](i) regulate several important functions, including the production of H(2)O(2) (hydrogen peroxide). As H(2)O(2) is of crucial importance for the production of thyroid hormones, we investigated the effects of H(2)O(2) on [Ca(2+)](i) in thyroid FRTL-5 cells. H(2)O(2) itself did not modulate basal [Ca(2+)](i)...

  11. Syneilesis palmata (Thunb.) Maxim. extract attenuates inflammatory responses via the regulation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Won; Shim, Do-Wan; Shim, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Myong-Ki; Shin, Yong-Kook; Kwak, Su-Bin; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, Tack-Joong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-05-26

    Syneilesis palmata (Thunb.) Maxim. (S. palmata, Asteraceae) is a traditional Korean therapeutic herb widely used to treat pain, arthritis, and other symptoms. This study provides the scientific basis for the anti-inflammatory effects of S. palmata extract (SP) in both in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages were used to study the regulatory effect of SP on the inflammatory mediators in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were used to study the effects of SP on inflammasome activation. Escherichia coli-induced sepsis mouse model and LPS-induced endotoxin shock model were employed to study the effect of SP on in vivo efficacy. SP inhibited the LPS-stimulated release of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide and interleukin (IL)-6 in RAW 264.7 cells. SP treatment also attenuated IL-1β secretion via the inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation induced by monosodium urate, ATP, and nigericin. Further, SP ameliorated the severity of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated symptoms in LPS-induced endotoxin and E. coli-induced sepsis mouse models. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibitory effects of SP were mediated through the regulation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation. This study was the first to reveal mechanistic-based evidence substantiating the traditional claims of SP in the treatment of inflammation-related disorders, such as pain and arthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Xavier

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO and hydrogen sulfide (H2S were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S.

  13. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Methods Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Results Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H2S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. Conclusion These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H2S. PMID:22931510

  14. Garlic extracts prevent oxidative stress, hypertrophy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes: a role for nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier Lieben; Murphy, Ryan; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Yu, Liping; Netticadan, Thomas

    2012-08-29

    In ancient times, plants were recognized for their medicinal properties. Later, the arrival of synthetic drugs pushed it to the backstage. However, from being merely used for food, plants are now been widely explored for their therapeutic value. The current study explores the potential of skin and flesh extracts from a hard-necked Rocambole variety of purple garlic in preventing cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Norepinephrine (NE) was used to induce hypertrophy in adult rat cardiomyocytes pretreated with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Cell death was measured as ratio of rod to round shaped cardiomyocytes. Fluorescent probes were used to measure apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes treated with and without extracts and NE. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) were used to elucidate the mechanism of action of garlic extracts. Garlic extract samples were also tested for alliin and allicin concentrations. Exposure of cardiomyocytes to NE induced an increase in cell size and cell death; this increase was significantly prevented upon treatment with garlic skin and flesh extracts. Norepinephrine increased apoptosis and oxidative stress in cardiomyocytes which was prevented upon pretreatment with skin and flesh extracts; NO, and H₂S blockers significantly inhibited this beneficial effect. Allicin and alliin concentration were significantly higher in garlic flesh extract when compared to the skin extract. These results suggest that both skin and flesh garlic extracts are effective in preventing NE induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. Reduction in oxidative stress may also play an important role in the anti-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic properties of garlic extracts. These beneficial effects may in part be mediated by NO and H₂S.

  15. Network analysis and percolation transition in hydrogen bonded clusters: nitric acid and water extracted by tributyl phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servis, Michael J; Wu, David T; Braley, Jenifer C

    2017-05-10

    Extraction of polar molecules by amphiphilic species results in a complex variety of clusters whose topologies and energetics control phase behavior and efficiency of liquid-liquid separations. A computational approach including quantum mechanical vibrational frequency calculations and molecular dynamics simulation with intermolecular network theory is used to provide a robust assessment of extractant and polar solute association through hydrogen bonding in the tributyl phosphate (TBP)/HNO3/H2O/dodecane system for the first time. The distribution of local topologies of the TBP/HNO3/H2O hydrogen bonded clusters is shown to be consistent with an equilibrium binding model. Mixed TBP/HNO3/H2O clusters are predicted that have not been previously observable in experiment due to limitations in scattering and spectroscopic resolution. Vibrational frequency calculations are compared with experimental data to validate the experimentally observed TBP-HNO3-HNO3 Chain structure. At high nitric acid and water loading, large hydrogen-bonded clusters of 20 to 80 polar solutes formed. The cluster sizes were found to be exponentially distributed, consistent with a constant average solute association free energy in that size range. Due to the deficit of hydrogen bond donors in the predominantly TBP/HNO3 organic phase, increased water concentrations lower the association free energy and enable growth of larger cluster sizes. For sufficiently high water concentrations, changes in the cluster size distribution are found to be consistent with the formation of a percolating cluster rather than reverse micelles, as has been commonly assumed for the occurrence of an extractant-rich third phase in metal-free solvent extraction systems. Moreover, the compositions of the large clusters leading to percolation agrees with the 1 : 3 TBP : HNO3 ratio reported in the experimental literature for TBP/HNO3/H2O third phases. More generally, the network analysis of cluster formation from atomic

  16. CMPO-calix[4]arenes with spacer containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding: effect of local rigidification on solvent extraction toward f-block elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongzhu; He, Lutao; Jiang, Qian; Fang, Yuyu; Jia, Yiming; Yuan, Xiangyang; Zou, Shuliang; Li, Xianghui; Feng, Wen; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Luo, Shunzhong; Yang, Yanqiu; Yang, Liang; Yuan, Lihua

    2014-01-15

    To understand intramolecular hydrogen bonding in effecting liquid-liquid extraction behavior of CMPO-calixarenes, three CMPO-modified calix[4]arenes (CMPO-CA) 5a-5c with hydrogen-bonded spacer were designed and synthesized. The impact of spacer rotation that is hindered by introduction of intramolecular hydrogen bonding upon extraction of La(3+), Eu(3+), Yb(3+), Th(4+), and UO2(2+) has been examined. The results show that 5b and 5c containing only one hydrogen bond with a less hindered rotation spacer extract La(3+) more efficiently than 5a containing two hydrogen bonds with a more hindered rotation spacer, demonstrating the importance of local rigidification of spacer in the design of extractants in influencing the coordination environment. The large difference in extractability between La(3+) and Yb(3+) (or Eu(3+)) by 5b (or 5c), and the small difference by 5a, suggests intramolecular hydrogen bonding do exert pronounced influence upon selective extraction of light and heavy lanthanides. Log-log plot analysis indicates a 1:1, 2:1 and 1:1 stoichiometry (ligand/metal) for the extracted complex formed between 5b and La(3+), Th(4+), UO2(2+), respectively. Additionally, their corresponding acyclic analogs 7a-7c exhibit negligible extraction toward these metal ions. These results reveal the possibility of selective extraction via tuning local chelating surroundings of CMPO-CA by aid of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Flavonoid-rich fraction of the Monodora tenuifolia seed extract attenuates behavioural alterations and oxidative damage in forced-swim stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2015-03-01

    The antidepressant effects of the flavonoid-rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed extract were examined by assessing the extent of attenuation of behavioural alterations and oxidative damage in the rats that were stressed by forced swim test. Compared with the model control group, the altered behavioural parameters were attenuated significantly (P flavonoid-rich fraction (100 and 200 mg·kg(-1)), comparable to the group treated with the standard drug, fluoxetine (10 mg·kg(-1)). The flavonoid-rich fraction and fluoxetine improved significantly (P flavonoid-rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed extract exerted the antidepressant-like effects which could be useful in the management of stress induced disease. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. An orally active Cannabis extract with high content in cannabidiol attenuates chemical induced intestinal inflammation and hypermotility in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Pagano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Anecdotal and scientific evidence suggests that Cannabis use may be beneficial in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients. Here, we have investigated the effect of a standardized Cannabis sativa extract with high content of cannabidiol (CBD, here named CBD BDS for CBD botanical drug substance, on mucosal inflammation and hypermotility in mouse models of intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS. Motility was evaluated in the experimental model of intestinal hypermotility induced by irritant croton oil. CBD BDS or pure CBD were given - either intraperitoneally or by oral gavage - after the inflammatory insult (curative protocol. The amounts of CBD in the colon, brain and liver after the oral treatments were measured by HPLC coupled to ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry. CBD BDS, both when given intraperitoneally and by oral gavage, decreased the extent of the damage (as revealed by the decrease in the colon weight/length ratio and myeloperoxidase activity in the DNBS model of colitis. It also reduced intestinal hypermotility (at doses lower than those required to affect transit in healthy mice in the croton oil model of intestinal hypermotility. Under the same experimental conditions, pure CBD did not ameliorate colitis while it normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility when given intraperitoneally (in a dose-related fashion or orally (only at one dose. In conclusion, CBD BDS, given after the inflammatory insult, attenuates injury and motility in intestinal models of inflammation. These findings sustain the rationale of combining CBD with other minor Cannabis constituents and support the clinical development of CBD BDS for IBD treatment.

  19. Attenuating effect of standardized lyophilized Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark extract against streptozotocin-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Jai; Munjal, Kavita; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2015-05-01

    The Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ; family Lauraceae) bark, an important spice, has also been used traditionally for nervous stress, as a nervine tonic, and as a stimulant. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effect of the standardized lyophilized aqueous extract of CZ bark (LCZE) on learning and memory in rodents at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o. dose levels against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impairment. LCZE was standardized based on the cinnamaldehyde content using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The effect on learning and memory was evaluated using two widely used behavioral models, the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the object recognition test (ORT). The effect of LCZE on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and oxidative stress parameters in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rat brain was also evaluated. LCZE significantly (p<0.05) and dose-dependently attenuated STZ-induced cognitive deficit in both models in comparison to only STZ-treated animals. In the MWM test, LCZE (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly decreased the transfer latency and increased the time spent by the animals in target quadrant. Similarly in the ORT, the LCZE-treated animals exhibited an improved discrimination between a familiar object and a novel object, indicating the reversal of STZ-induced memory impairment. LCZE also restored STZ-induced alteration in AChE activity and oxidative stress parameters in both brain parts. The results clearly indicate toward the memory-enhancing effect of LCZE, which could be due to the synergistic effect of anti-AChE and antioxidant activities.

  20. Red ginseng extracts attenuate skin inflammation in atopic dermatitis through p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Osada-Oka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory skin disease with increased immunoglobulin E (IgE levels. Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR/p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K signaling is known to occur in the inflammatory regions of AD skin. We previously demonstrated that red ginseng extract (RGE, as an anti-inflammatory agent, had potential for treating AD. However, it is still unclear whether RGE inhibits mTOR/p70S6K signaling. Thus, we examined the anti-inflammatory effects of RGE on IgE or interferon-γ (IFN-γ induced signaling pathways. In KU812 human basophils, activation of Fcε receptor type Iα (FCεRI, also known as the high affinity IgE receptor, induced phosphorylation of both mTOR and p70S6K. Moreover, levels of phosphorylated p70S6K (p-p70S6K, but not p-mTOR, were decreased by RGE. RGE also decreased p-p70S6K levels in IFN-γ-stimulated human keratinocytes, suppressing the IFN-γ induced increase in levels of C-C chemokine ligand 2 mRNA. Interestingly, the increased p70S6K phosphorylation in skin lesions of AD model mice was attenuated by RGE treatment. In conclusion, RGE is a potential therapy against inflammatory responses involving the p70S6K signaling pathway.

  1. A new model for the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Aluminium toxicity is exacerbated by hydrogen peroxide and attenuated by an amyloid protein fragment and melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rensburg, S J; Daniels, W M; Potocnik, F C; van Zyl, J M; Taljaard, J J; Emsley, R A

    1997-09-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia in developed countries, there is an as yet unexplained lower prevalence of the disease in parts of Africa. AD is characterised by a catastrophic loss of neurons; free radicals (oxidative toxins) have been implicated in the destruction of the cells through the process of lipid peroxidative damage of cell membranes. Previously aluminium (Al) and a fragment of beta amyloid (A beta 25-35) were shown to exacerbate free-radical damage, while melatonin reduced this effect. The aim of the present study was: (i) to investigate the conditions determining the toxicity of Al and A beta 25-35; and (ii) to assess whether melatonin could attenuate the damage done by both aluminium and the amyloid fragment, thus suggesting a pathway for the aetiology of AD. An in vitro model system was used in which free radicals were generated, causing lipid peroxidation of platelet membranes, thus simulating the disease process found in the brain. 1. Al and A beta 25-35 caused lipid peroxidation in the presence of the iron (II) ion (Pe2+), Al being more toxic than A beta 25-35. 2. A beta 25-35 attenuated the lipid peroxidation promoted by Al. 3. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) greatly exacerbated the toxicity of Al and A beta 25-35. 4. Melatonin prevented lipid peroxidation by Al and A beta 25-35 in the absence of H2O2, but only reduced the process when H2O2 was present. In the light of the results obtained from the present study, the following hypotheses are formulated. 1. In AD, excessive quantities of Al are taken up into the brain, where the Al exacerbates iron-induced lipid peroxidation in the lysosomes. 2. In response, the normal synthetic pathway of amyloid protein is altered to produce A beta fragments which attenuate the toxicity of Al. In the process of sequestering the Al and iron, immature plaques are formed in the brain. 3. Microglia are activated, in an attempt to destroy the plaques by secreting reactive oxygen species

  2. Brucea javanica Leaf Extract Induced Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HSC2 Cells by Attenuation of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britanto Dani Wicaksono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brucea javanica extract has been reported to have anti-proliferative and cell death induction activities. B. javanica extract was reported to induce apoptosis through caspase cascade. Most of investigated B. javanica extracts were derived from seeds and fruits, or commercially available oil emulsion. Therefore we conducted a study on B. javanica leaf extract (BJLE in oral cancer cells. METHODS: B. javanica leaves were collected, identified, minced, dried, extracted with distilled ethanol at room temperature for 24 hours, filtered and evaporated. Resulted BJLE was stored at 4°C. Human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2 cells were fasted for 12 hours and treated with BJLE in various concentrations for 24 hours. Cells were then quantified with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, demonstrated with 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI staining. To find out mitochondrial membrane permeability (MMP, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨM was analyzed. RESULTS: BJLE reduced percentage of viable HSC-2 cells in a concentration dependent manner. BJLE induced apoptosis in HSC-2 cells. With treatment of 50 μg/ml BJLE, fragmented nuclei were seen. ΔΨM of HSC-2 cells treated with 50 μg/ml BJLE were shifted to the left, meaning that BJLE induced reduction of ΔΨM and attenuation of MMP. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that BJLE could induce apoptosis by attenuating MMP. KEYWORDS: Brucea javanica, leaf, apoptosis, HSC-2, MTT, DAPI, mitochondria, permeability.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide in paraventricular nucleus attenuates blood pressure by regulating oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in high salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Dong; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Gao, Hong-Li; Liu, Kai-Li; Qi, Jie; Li, Hong-Bao; Yi, Qiu-Yue; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Cui, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Kang, Yu-Ming

    2017-03-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important gaseous signaling molecule in neuro-modulation, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-hypertensive effects. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a major integrative nucleus in regulating BP and SNA. The aim of this study is to explore whether endogenous or exogenous H2S changed by hydroxylamine hydrochloride (HA) or GYY4137 infused in the PVN affects RSNA and MAP by regulating oxidative stress or the balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and anti-inflammatory cytokines in high salt-induced hypertensive rats. Male Dahl rats were fed by high-salt or normal-salt diet. At the end of the 4th week, GYY4137, HA or vehicle was microinjected into bilateral PVN for 6 weeks. The levels of MAP, HR, plasma norepinephrine (NE), reactive oxygen species (ROS), NOX2, NOX4 and IL-1β were increased significantly in high salt-induced hypertensive rats. Higher levels of these parameters were detected in the group treated by HA, but lower levels in the GYY4137 group. The trends of H2S, CBS, IL-10 and Cu/Zn SOD were opposite to the parameters described above. These findings suggest that endogenous or exogenous H2S in the PVN attenuates sympathetic activity and hypertensive response, which are partly due to decrease of ROS and PICs within the PVN in high salt-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Transverse momentum asymmetry of the extracted electron in field ionization of a Hydrogen Atom with angular momentum

    CERN Document Server

    Artru, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    The tunneling ionization of a hydrogen atom excited in the presence of a static electric field is investigated for the case where, before being extracted, the electron has an orbital angular momentum L perpendicular to the field E. The escaping electron has a nonzero mean transverse velocity in the direction of E cross . This asymmetry is similar to the Collins effect in the fragmentation into hadrons of a transversely polarized quark. In addition, the linear Stark effect make and oscillate in time. The degree of asymmetry is calculated at leading order in E for an initial state of maximum transverse . The conditions for the observation of this asymmetry are discussed.

  5. Improved beam extraction for a negative hydrogen ion source for the LHC injector chain upgrade, Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Midttun, Øystein; Scrivens, Richard

    In the scope of an upgrade of the injector chain of CERN’s accelerator complex, a new linear accelerator, Linac4, is under construction. This accelerator will replace the existing 50 MeV proton linac, Linac2. By increasing the beam energy to 160 MeV, Linac4 makes it possible to double the brightness in the PSB, and ultimately increase the luminosity in the LHC. Linac4 will accelerate beams of negative hydrogen (H-) to be injected into the PSB by multi-turn, charge exchange injection. The ion source was initially based on the non-caesiated RF-volume source from DESY. However, the beam extraction from this source could not handle the 45 keV beam energy required by the RFQ. A new beam extraction system has therefore been designed, via IBSimu simulations [1], to extract and transport the H- ion beam respecting the Linac4 requirements. Key features of the extraction system is a tuneable puller voltage to adapt the extraction field to the ion and electron beam currents, and a magnetized Einzel lens to dump the co...

  6. An extract from medical leech improve the function of endothelial cells in vitro and attenuates atherosclerosis in ApoE null mice by reducing macrophages in the lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Yun-Shan; Song, Shu-Liang; Liang, Hao; Ji, Ai-Guo

    2014-12-05

    Medicinal leech has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine in cardiovascular diseases. However, its pharmaceutical effect is not fully revealed. The goal of this study was to determine whether a leech extract has the effect of anti-atherosclerosis in ApoE −/− mice and the mechanism of this effect. In vivo experiments: ApoE −/− mice fed on high-cholesterol diet were separated into 5 groups. Control group was administrated with normal water; leech extract of low dose treatment group was given a leech extract of 0.02 g/kg/d; leech extract of medium dose treatment group was given a leech extract of 0.1 g/kg/d; leech extract of high dose treatment group was given a leech extract of 0.5 g/kg/d; simvastatin group was given simvastatin of 10 mg/kg/d. Leech extract significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesions in aortic root compared with control group. And the number of macrophage in or around the atherosclerosis plaque is significantly reduced in the leech extract groups compared with control group. In vitro experiments: human endothelial cell line, EA.hy926, was induced with TNF-α to perform endothelial dysfunction. Control group: EA.hy926 cells with no special treatment; TNF-α group: EA.hy926 cells were induced by 10 ng/ml TNF-α for 6 h; leech extract only group: EA.hy926 cells were treated with 200 mg/ml leech extract only; leech extract and TNF-α group: 200 mg/ml leech extract was applied before TNF-α induction. Protein and mRNA level were detected in each group, leech extract can decrease the expression of intercellular adhesion factor (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1) compared with TNF-α group. Furthermore, it showed less adhesion and migration of THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 cells in the adhesion assay and transwell assay. The NF-κB translation to nucleus was blocked by leech extract in the NF-κB translocation assay. Leech extract could obviously attenuate the area of atherosclerosis lesion in ApoE −/− mice. And this

  7. Antioxidant activity of herbaceous plant extracts protect against hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbaceous plants containing antioxidants can protect against DNA damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant substances, antioxidant activity, and protection of DNA from oxidative damage in human lymphocytes induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our methods used acidic methanol and water extractions from six herbaceous plants, including Bidens alba (BA), Lycium chinense (LC), Mentha arvensis (MA), Plantago asiatica (PA), Houttuynia cordata (HC), and Centella asiatica (CA). Methods Antioxidant compounds such as flavonol and polyphenol were analyzed. Antioxidant activity was determined by the inhibition percentage of conjugated diene formation in a linoleic acid emulsion system and by trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. Their antioxidative capacities for protecting human lymphocyte DNA from H2O2-induced strand breaks was evaluated by comet assay. Results The studied plants were found to be rich in flavonols, especially myricetin in BA, morin in MA, quercetin in HC, and kaemperol in CA. In addition, polyphenol abounded in BA and CA. The best conjugated diene formation inhibition percentage was found in the acidic methanolic extract of PA. Regarding TEAC, the best antioxidant activity was generated from the acidic methanolic extract of HC. Water and acidic methanolic extracts of MA and HC both had better inhibition percentages of tail DNA% and tail moment as compared to the rest of the tested extracts, and significantly suppressed oxidative damage to lymphocyte DNA. Conclusion Quercetin and morin are important for preventing peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, and the leaves of MA and HC extracts may have excellent potential as functional ingredients representing potential sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:24279749

  8. Melandrii Herba Extract Attenuates H2O2-Induced Neurotoxicity in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells and Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Min Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the etiology of a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we found that Melandrii Herba extract (ME attenuated oxidative-induced damage in cells. Mechanistically, ME exhibited protection from H2O2-induced neurotoxicity via caspase-3 inactivation, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation, and MAPK activation (ERK 1/2, JNK 1/2, and p38 MAPK in vitro. Moreover, our in vivo data showed that ME was able to attenuate scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment. These results provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that ME exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress, which suggests that ME is worthy of further investigation as a complementary, or even as an alternative, product for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. S-Propargyl-cysteine (SPRC) attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cells involved in a hydrogen sulfide-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Li-Long; Liu, Xin-Hua; Gong, Qi-Hai; Zhu, Yi-Zhun

    2011-06-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the effects of S-propargyl-cysteine (SPRC), a sulfur-containing amino acid, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in H9c2 cardiac myocytes. We found that SPRC prevented nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation assessed by NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and IκBα degradation, suppressed LPS-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Furthermore, incubation of H9c2 cells with SPRC induced phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, SPRC attenuated LPS-induced mRNA and protein expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and mRNA expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The effects of SPRC were abolished by cystathionine γ-lyase [CSE-an enzyme that synthesizes hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S)] inhibitor, DL: -propargylglycine (PAG), SPRC-induced Akt phosphorylation and TNF-α release was also abolished by the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, SPRC also increased LPS-induced down-regulation expression of CSE and H(2)S level in H9c2 cells. PAG abolished SPRC-induced up-regulation of H(2)S level. Therefore, we concluded that SPRC produced an anti-inflammatory effect in LPS-stimulated H9c2 cells partly through the CSE/H(2)S pathway by impairing IκBα/NF-κB signaling and by activating PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  10. Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) mushroom extract protects against hydrogen peroxide induced cytotoxicity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, U R; Chong, Y L; Mahmood, A A; Indran, M; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Vikineswary, S

    2009-04-01

    Lentinula edodes (Berk) Pegler, commonly known as Shiitake mushroom has been used as medicinal food in Asian countries, especially in China and Japan and is believed to possess strong immunomodulatory property. In the present study, the methanolic extract of the fruit bodies of L. edodes was investigated for cytoprotective effect against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by measuring the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) . H2O2 at a concentration of 5 microM caused 50% inhibition of PBMCs viability. The extract improved the PBMC viability and exerted a dose-dependent protection against H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. At 100 microg/ml of extract concentration, the cell viability increased by 60% compared with the PBMCs incubated with H2O2 alone. The extract also inhibited XO activity in PBMC, while showing moderate stimulatory effect on GPx. However, in the presence of H2O2 alone, both the enzyme activities were increased significantly. The GPx activity increased, possibly in response to the increased availability of H2O2 in the cell. When the cells were pretreated with the extract and washed (to remove the extract) prior to the addition of H2O2, the GPx and XO activities as well as the cell viability were comparable to those when incubated with the extract alone. Thus, it is suggested that one of the possible mechanisms via which L. edodes methanolic extract confers protection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in PBMC is by inhibiting the superoxide-producing XO and increasing GPx activity which could rapidly inactivate H2O2.

  11. A hepatoprotective Lindera obtusiloba extract suppresses growth and attenuates insulin like growth factor-1 receptor signaling and NF-kappaB activity in human liver cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stroh Thorsten

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In traditional Chinese and Korean medicine, an aqueous extract derived from wood and bark of the Japanese spice bush Lindera obtusiloba (L.obtusiloba is applied to treat inflammations and chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma. We previously demonstrated anti-fibrotic effects of L.obtusiloba extract in hepatic stellate cells. Thus, we here consequently examine anti-neoplastic effects of L.obtusiloba extract on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cell lines and the signaling pathways involved. Methods Four human HCC cell lines representing diverse stages of differentiation were treated with L.obtusiloba extract, standardized according to its known suppressive effects on proliferation and TGF-β-expression. Beside measurement of proliferation, invasion and apoptosis, effects on signal transduction and NF-κB-activity were determined. Results L.obtusiloba extract inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in all HCC cell lines and provoked a reduced basal and IGF-1-induced activation of the IGF-1R signaling cascade and a reduced transcriptional NF-κB-activity, particularly in the poorly differentiated SK-Hep1 cells. Pointing to anti-angiogenic effects, L.obtusiloba extract attenuated the basal and IGF-1-induced expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions The traditional application of the extract is confirmed by our experimental data. Due to its potential to inhibit critical receptor tyrosine kinases involved in HCC progression via the IGF-1 signaling pathway and NF-κB, the standardized L.obtusiloba extract should be further analysed for its active compounds and explored as (complementary treatment option for HCC.

  12. Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha and Rosmarinus officinalis Attenuate Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Regulating the Production of Cardiac Vasoactive Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Enrique Cuevas-Durán

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha (Co and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a sham; (b vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI (MI-V; (c Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro; (d Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Co; or (e Ro+Co-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro+Co. Ro and Co treatments increased total antioxidant capacity, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD-Cu2+/Zn2+, SOD-Mn2+, and catalase, with the subsequent decline of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. The extracts diminished vasoconstrictor peptide levels (angiotensin II and endothelin-1, increased vasodilators agents (angiotensin 1–7 and bradikinin and improved nitric oxide metabolism. Polyphenol treatment restored the left intraventricular pressure and cardiac mechanical work. We conclude that Ro and Co treatment attenuate morphological and functional ischemic-related changes by both an oxidant load reduction and improvement of the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.

  13. Sensing cocaine in saliva with attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with a one-step extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Kerstin M.-C.; Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2012-03-01

    On-site drug tests have gained importance, e.g., for protecting the society from impaired drivers. Since today's drug tests are majorly only positive/negative, there is a great need for a reliable, portable and preferentially quantitative drug test. In the project IrSens we aim to bridge this gap with the development of an optical sensor platform based on infrared spectroscopy and focus on cocaine detection in saliva. We combine a one-step extraction method, a sample drying technique and infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy. As a first step we have developed an extraction technique that allows us to extract cocaine from saliva to an almost infrared-transparent solvent and to record ATR spectra with a commercially available Fourier Transform-infrared spectrometer. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that such a simple and easy-to-use one-step extraction method is used to transfer cocaine from saliva into an organic solvent and detect it quantitatively. With this new method we are able to reach a current limit of detection around 10 μg/ml. This new extraction method could also be applied to waste water monitoring and controlling caffeine content in beverages.

  14. Green Tea Extract Supplementation Induces the Lipolytic Pathway, Attenuates Obesity, and Reduces Low-Grade Inflammation in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio A. Cunha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of green tea Camellia sinensis extract on proinflammatory molecules and lipolytic protein levels in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. Animals were randomized into four groups: CW (chow diet and water; CG (chow diet and water + green tea extract; HW (high-fat diet and water; HG (high-fat diet and water + green tea extract. The mice were fed ad libitum with chow or high-fat diet and concomitantly supplemented (oral gavage with 400 mg/kg body weight/day of green tea extract (CG and HG, resp.. The treatments were performed for eight weeks. UPLC showed that in 10 mg/mL green tea extract, there were 15 μg/mg epigallocatechin, 95 μg/mg epigallocatechin gallate, 20.8 μg/mg epicatechin gallate, and 4.9 μg/mg gallocatechin gallate. Green tea administered concomitantly with a high-fat diet increased HSL, ABHD5, and perilipin in mesenteric adipose tissue, and this was associated with reduced body weight and adipose tissue gain. Further, we observed that green tea supplementation reduced inflammatory cytokine TNFα levels, as well as TLR4, MYD88, and TRAF6 proinflammatory signalling. Our results show that green tea increases the lipolytic pathway and reduces adipose tissue, and this may explain the attenuation of low-grade inflammation in obese mice.

  15. Optimized enzymatic colorimetric assay for determination of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Chamira Dilanka; Soysa, Preethi

    2015-01-01

    The classical method to determine hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity of plant extracts is evaluated by measuring the disappearance of H2O2 at a wavelength of 230 nm. Since this method suffers from the interference of phenolics having strong absorption in the UV region, a simple and rapid colorimetric assay was developed where plant extracts are introduced to H2O2, phenol and 4-aminoantipyrine reaction system in the presence of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). This reaction yields a quinoneimine chromogen which can be measured at 504 nm. Decrease in the colour intensity reflects the H2O2 scavenged by the plant material. •Optimum conditions determined for this assay were 30 min reaction time, 37 °C, pH 7, enzyme concentration of 1 U/ml and H2O2 concentration of 0.7 mM. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 136 μM and 411 μM, respectively.•Half maximal effective concentration required to scavenge 50% of H2O2 in the system (EC50 value) calculated for several plant extracts and standard antioxidants resulted in coefficient of variance (CV%) of the EC50 values less than 3.0% and correlation coefficient values (R (2)) > 0.95 for all dose response curves obtained.•This method is convenient and very precise which is suitable for the rapid quantification of H2O2 scavenging ability of standard antioxidants and natural antioxidants present in plant extracts.

  16. A procyanidin type A trimer from cinnamon extract attenuates glial cell swelling and the reduction in glutamate uptake following ischemia-like injury in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, K S; Polansky, M M; Graves, D J; Urban, J F; Anderson, R A

    2012-01-27

    Dietary polyphenols exert neuroprotective effects in ischemic injury. The protective effects of a procyanidin type A trimer (trimer 1) isolated from a water soluble cinnamon extract (CE) were investigated on key features of ischemic injury, including cell swelling, increased free radical production, increased intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)), mitochondrial dysfunction, and the reduction in glutamate uptake. Astrocyte (glial) swelling is a major component of cytotoxic brain edema in ischemia and, along with vasogenic edema, may contribute to increased intracranial pressure, brain herniation, and additional ischemic injuries. C6 glial cultures were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) for 5 h, and cell swelling was determined at 90 min after the end of OGD. OGD-induced increases in glial swelling were significantly blocked by trimer 1, but not by the major nonpolyphenol fractions of CE including cinnamaldehyde and coumarin. Increased free radical production, a contributing factor in cell swelling following ischemic injury, was also significantly reduced by trimer 1. Mitochondrial dysfunction, another key feature of ischemic injury, is hypothesized to contribute to glial swelling. Depolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) was assessed using a fluorescent dye (tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester [TMRE]), and was significantly attenuated by trimer 1 as was OGD-induced increased [Ca(2+)](i). Taken together with our previous observation that blockers of [Ca(2+)](i) reduce cell swelling, our results indicate that trimer 1 may attenuate cell swelling by regulating [Ca(2+)](i). Trimer 1 also significantly attenuated the OGD-induced decrease in glutamate uptake. In addition, cyclosporin A, a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability pore (mPT), but not FK506 (that does not block the mPT), reduced the OGD-induced decline in glutamate uptake indicating a role of the mPT in such effects. Thus, the effects of trimer 1 in attenuating the

  17. Compound Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Type II and III Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    The use of Hydrogen (H) isotopes in understanding oil and gas resource plays is in its infancy. Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from oil and gas shale-derived kerogen. Application of this technique will progress our understanding. This work complements that of Pernia et al. (2013, this meeting) by providing a novel method for the H isotope analysis of specific compounds in the characterization of kerogen extracted by analytically diverse techniques. Hydrogen isotope analyses were carried out entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make semi-quantitative compositional measurements of the extracted compounds. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and III) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight in vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C) which quantitatively forms H2, following a modified method of Burgoyne and Hayes, (1998, Anal. Chem., 70, 5136-5141). Samples ranging from approximately 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. Compounds were separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. Hydrogen isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight compounds. Water (H2O) average deltaD = -215.2 (V-SMOW), ranging from -271.8 for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 for the Polish Shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average deltaD of -89.7 0/00, ranging from -156.0 for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during formation within each basin. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes

  18. Soy Protein Isolate and Glycerol Hydrogen Bonding Using Two-Dimensional Correlation (2D-COS) Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR FT-IR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiwei; Li, Qian; Zhang, Pudun

    2017-11-01

    It is a trend to substitute bioplastics for petroleum-based plastics in food packaging. Glycerol-plasticized soy protein isolate (SPI) is promising as a replacement for traditional petroleum-based plastics. Hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) plays a key role in plasticization of SPI film. However, few publications are concerned with the interactions of SPI and glycerol at the molecular level. In this paper, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy was applied to investigate the effect of H-bonding on the secondary structures of glycerol-plasticized SPI films and thus on the plasticization. An "S" profile of the H-bonding between SPI and glycerol with an abrupt jump in the glycerol range of 10-30% was achieved. For more in-depth investigation of the H-bonding, two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) and perturbation-correlation moving-window two-dimensional (PCMW2D) analyses were applied to the amide I and II bands of SPI films spectra series. The conformation change sequences under the effect of H-bonding were revealed. When glycerol was involved, it entered into the β-sheet and the H-bonds of the SPI peptide backbone (C = O···H-N-) were replaced by the new H-bonds between SPI and glycerol (C = O···H-O-). The transformations of parallel β-sheet to β-turn in the range of 0-20% and anti-parallel β-sheet to β-turn in the range of 20-35% were obtained. In the 35-60% concentration range, the β-sheet was first changed to a transition state conformation, then together with the β-turn, to the random coil. The 2D-COS results clearly suggest that the conformations of SPI gradually change from the ordered to the less ordered and disordered, which significantly improve the plasticity of SPI film.

  19. Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract and 3% hydrogen peroxide as root canal irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erawati Wulandari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preparation of root canal is an important stage in endodontic treatment. During conducting preparation, it is always be followed with root canal irrigation that has aim to clean root canal from necrotic tissue remains, grind down dentin powder, micro organism, wet the root canal to make preparation process of root canal easier, and solute root canal content at area that can not be reached by equipment. Flesh of Tamarindus indica (pulpa tamarindorum is used as traditional medicine and it contains vitamin C (antioxidant, protein, fat, glucose, etc. Previous research shows that 5% tamarindus indica extract can clean smear layer but it is more cytotoxicity to cell line BHK–21 than sterilized aquabides. Purpose: This research is to compare cytotoxicity between 5% Tamarindus indica extract with 3% H2O2 as root canal irrigation material. Method: Four teen culture cell line BHK 21 divides into 2 groups. Group 1 is treated with 3% H2O2 and Group 2 is treated with 5% Tamarindus indica extract, for about 2.5 minutes in every group. Then, living and death cell percentage is measured. Data is analyzed with independent t test with significant level of 0.05%. Result: The research showed that death cell in group 1 was 29.3% and in group 2 was 21.1%. There was a significant different (p < 0.05 between group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: Cytotoxicity of 5% Tamarindus indica extract to the cell line BHK–21 is lower than 3% H2O2.

  20. Extract of the Bark of Bathysa cuspidataAttenuates the Development of Chemically-Induced Preneoplastic Colorectal Lesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Diniz Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the bark extractBathysa cuspidata on chemically induced preneoplastic colorectal lesions in Wistar rats. Forty male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 10 each: saline (control group, oral administration of saline solution 0.9%; dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, vehicle control, B200 (treated with 200 mg/kg bark extract ofB. cuspidata, and B400 (treated with 400 mg/kg bark extract ofB. cuspidata. Administration of treatments was carried out by the gavage. The animals received four subcutaneous injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg in the initial two weeks of the experiment to induce preneoplastic colorectal lesions. After 15 weeks, the animals were euthanized and the presence of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, body weight, biochemical analyses, and oxidative stress markers were measured. The extract ofB. cuspidata decreased the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, but did not influence the levels of catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide or protein carbonyl, compared with the saline group. The animals supplemented with a more concentratedB. cuspidata extract (B400 showed a significant reduction in the number of ACF in all the portions of the intestinal mucosa. The study demonstrated that the bark extract ofB. cuspidata at 400 mg/kg reduced the preneoplastic colorectal lesions in an animal model of colon cancer and that the effect could be dose-dependent.

  1. Rosemary Extract-Mediated Lifespan Extension and Attenuated Oxidative Damage in Drosophila melanogaster Fed on High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Li; Sun, Zhen-Ou; Rehman, Rizwan-Ur; Wang, Hong; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Hao

    2017-04-01

    Rosemary extract has a potent antioxidant activity and is widely used in the food industry. In this study, the lifespan prolonging and antioxidant activity of rosemary extract was evaluated by high-fat-induced oxidative damage in Drosophila melanogaster. The results revealed that the lifespan and climbing ability of fruit flies was enhanced significantly by feeding rosemary extract. Furthermore, feeding with rosemary extract significantly increased the enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and significantly decreased the level of malonaldehyde. The gene expression of SOD, CAT, and nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 was enhanced and that for methuselah was significantly reduced. The comet assay showed that high-fat diet-induced DNA lesion was significantly reduced in larvae treated with the rosemary extract. Our results suggest that feeding with rosemary extract is effective to the extended lifespan in fruit flies by strengthening of the resistance to high-fat-induced oxidative stress and by stimulating, at least in part, the endogenous antioxidant response. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ- induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC.

  3. Extracted beam and electrode currents in the inductively driven surface-plasma negative hydrogen ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2017-08-01

    The data on long-pulsed operation of RF surface-plasma source is presented. The source regularly produces the H- ion beam with current >1A, energy ≥90 keV and pulse duration ≥2 s. The total H- beam curent, transported to the distant Faraday cup and the currents in the circuits of ion-optical system elements were measured. The composition of accelerated and extracted grid currents was clarified. The relatively high level of acceleration grid current 0.4 A was observed. It consists mainly of secondary electrons, emitted from extraction grid apertures and stripped from H- ions and could be decreased by optimization of positive PG bias applied. The test stand experiments on beam transport through the LEBT were carried out. About 90% of the H- ion beam was transported from the source to the distant calorimeter plane. The full size of 93 keV beam, transported to the calorimeter plane, was larger, than the size of the calorimeter inlet window. As a result, ˜ 60% of the initial beam power was registered by the calorimeter with window 24×24 cm2.

  4. Attenuation of nonenzymatic glycation, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by chloroform leaf extract of Azadirachta indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Rosa Martha Pérez; Gómez, Yolanda Gómez Y.; Guzman, Mónica Damián

    2011-01-01

    Background: The hypoglycemic effects of hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of leaves of Azadirachta indica (AI) were evaluated by oral administration in streptozotocin-induced severe diabetic rats (SD). Materials and Methods: The effect of chronic oral administration of the extract for 28 days was evaluated in streptozotozin diabetic rats. Lipid peroxidation, glycogen content of liver and skeletal muscles, insulin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were determined. In addition, advanced glycation end product formation (AGEs) was evaluated. Results: The most active extracts were obtained with chloroform. Chloroform extract from AI shows increased levels of SOD, GSH, GSSG and CAT, hepatic glycogen content, glucose-6-phosphatase and insulin plasma levels, which also decreased the glucokinase (GK), lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. The chloroform extract exhibited significant inhibitory activity against advanced glycation end product formation with an IC50 average range of 79.1 mg/ml. Conclusion: Azadirachta indica can improve hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinema in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats and, therefore, AI can be potentially considered to be an antidiabetic-safe agent. PMID:21969798

  5. Fish oil induced hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in BioF1B hamsters is attenuated by elderberry extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Pratibha; Jayasooriya, Anura P; Cheema, Sukhinder K

    2012-06-01

    We have previously reported fish oil induced hyperlipidemia in BioF1B hamsters compared with Golden Syrian (GS) hamsters. Elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extract is abundant in anthocyanins and is believed to exert cardioprotective effects primarily by virtue of its hypolipidemic and antioxidant potential. In the current study, high-fat fish oil feeding increased oxidative stress in BioF1B hamsters compared with GS hamsters; this increase was associated with increased levels of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma and liver. We then investigated whether cosupplementation with anthocyanin-rich elderberry extract would reverse fish oil induced hyperlipidemia and reduce lipid peroxidation in BioF1B hamsters. Plasma and hepatic lipids decreased significantly when hamsters were fed diets containing elderberry extract along with fish oil. Both plasma and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances showed significant reductions upon cosupplementation with elderberry extract in fish oil fed BioF1B hamsters. Our findings demonstrate that cosupplementation with elderberry extract reverses hyperlipidemia and lipid peroxidation observed with dietary fish oil alone in BioF1B hamsters.

  6. Pomegranate peel extract attenuates oxidative stress by decreasing coronary angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in hypertensive female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Roger L; Dellacqua, Lais O; Delgado, Nathalie T B; Rouver, Wender N; Podratz, Priscila L; Lima, Leandro C F; Piccin, Mariela P C; Meyrelles, Silvana S; Mauad, Helder; Graceli, Jones B; Moyses, Margareth R

    2016-01-01

    Based on the antioxidant properties of pomegranate, this study was designed to investigate the effects of pomegranate peel extract on damage associated with hypertension and aging in a spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model. The influence of pomegranate consumption was examined on systolic blood pressure (SBP), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) coronary activity, oxidative stress, and vascular morphology. Four- or 28-wk-old SHR model rats were treated for 30 d, with terminal experimental animal age being 8 and 32 wk, respectively, with either pomegranate extract (SHR-PG) or filtered water (SHR). Data showed significant reduction in SBP and coronary ACE activity in both age groups. The levels of superoxide anion, a measure of oxidative stress, were significantly lower in animals in the SHR-PG group compared to SHR alone. Coronary morphology demonstrated total increases in vascular wall areas were in the SHR group, and pomegranate peel extract diminished this effect. Pomegranate peel extract consumption conferred protection against hypertension in the SHR model. This finding was demonstrated by marked reduction in coronary ACE activity, oxidative stress, and vascular remodelling. In addition, treatment was able to reduce SBP in both groups. Evidence indicates that the use of pomegranate peel extract may prove beneficial in alleviating coronary heart disease.

  7. Ginkgo biloba extracts attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury by inhibiting the COX-2 and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Chen, Nan; Ma, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jing; Bao, Jian-An; Zong-Qi, Cheng; Chen, Zu-Tao; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the role of Ginkgo biloba extract in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS. G. biloba extract (12 and 24 mg·kg(-1)) and dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)), as a positive control, were given by i.p. injection. The cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted. The degree of animal lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1b, and interleukin-6, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by H&E staining. The levels of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression were detected by Western blotting. Compared to the LPS group, the treatment with the G. biloba extract at 12 and 24 mg·kg(-1) markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression, and improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity. The histological changes of the lungs were also significantly improved. The results indicated that G. biloba extract has a protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The protective mechanism of G. biloba extract may be partly attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 activation. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyphenolic Extract of Euphorbia supina Attenuates Manganese-Induced Neurotoxicity by Enhancing Antioxidant Activity through Regulation of ER Stress and ER Stress-Mediated Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entaz Bahar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese (Mn is an important trace element present in human body, which acts as an enzyme co-factor or activator in various metabolic reactions. While essential in trace amounts, excess levels of Mn in human brain can produce neurotoxicity, including idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD-like extrapyramidal manganism symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the protective role of polyphenolic extract of Euphorbia supina (PPEES on Mn-induced neurotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human neuroblastoma SKNMC cells and Sprague-Dawley (SD male rat brain. PPEES possessed significant amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents. PPEES also showed significant antioxidant activity in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and reducing power capacity (RPC assays. Our results showed that Mn treatment significantly reduced cell viability and increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH level, which was attenuated by PPEES pretreatment at 100 and 200 µg/mL. Additionally, PPEES pretreatment markedly attenuated Mn-induced antioxidant status alteration by resolving the ROS, MDA and GSH levels and SOD and CAT activities. PPEES pretreatment also significantly attenuated Mn-induced mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm and apoptosis. Meanwhile, PPEES pretreatment significantly reversed the Mn-induced alteration in the GRP78, GADD34, XBP-1, CHOP, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3 activities. Furthermore, administration of PPEES (100 and 200 mg/kg to Mn exposed rats showed improvement of histopathological alteration in comparison to Mn-treated rats. Moreover, administration of PPEES to Mn exposed rats showed significant reduction of 8-OHdG and Bax immunoreactivity. The results suggest that PPEES treatment reduces Mn-induced oxidative stress and neuronal cell loss in SKNMC cells and in the rat brain. Therefore, PPEES may be considered as potential treat-ment in Mn-intoxicated patients.

  9. Attenuation of Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Indices of Alloxan Toxicity in Male Rats by Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis(Schweinf. Ex Hiern Stems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem at the doses of 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight on alloxan-induced toxicity was investigated in Wistar rats. Methods: In total, 35 rats of both sexes (132.80±7.22g were randomized into five groups (A-E: animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 15 days while the alloxanized rats in groups B, C, D and E also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and same volume of the extract corresponding to 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight, respectively after which levels of some biomolecules were determined and histological changes evaluated. Results: Administration of alloxan significantly (P0.05 with their respective non-alloxanized distilled water treated control animals in 78% of the parameters investigated. Conclusion: Overall, the aqueous extract of F. agrestis stem attenuated the alloxan treatment related biochemical, haematological and histological changes in the rats with the 72 mg/kg body weight achieving total reversal in 18 out of the 23 parameters investigated.

  10. Attenuation of Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Indices of Alloxan Toxicity in Male Rats by Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Toyin Yakubu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effects of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem at the doses of 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight on alloxan-induced toxicity was investigated in Wistar rats. Methods: In total, 35 rats of both sexes (132.80±7.22g were randomized into five groups (A-E: animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 15 days while the alloxanized rats in groups B, C, D and E also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and same volume of the extract corresponding to 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight, respectively after which levels of some biomolecules were determined. Results: Administration of alloxan significantly (P0.05 with their respective non-alloxanized distilled water treated control animals in 78% of the parameters investigated. Conclusion: Overall, the aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem attenuated the alloxan treatment related biochemical, haematological and histological changes in the rats with the 72 mg/kg body weight achieving total reversal in 18 out of the 23 parameters investigated.

  11. Aqueous extract of Allium sativum L bulbs offer nephroprotection by attenuating vascular endothelial growth factor and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 expression in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, T M; Rajkumar, R; Rajesh, N G; Viswanathan, Pragasam

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the nephroprotective effect of garlic and elucidate the mechanism by which it prevents the progression of diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats, diabetes was induced by a single ip injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight). Garlic extract (500 mg/kg body weight) and aminoguanidine (1 g/L) were supplemented in the treatment groups. Histopathological examination using H&E, PAS staining and the immunohistochemical analysis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 (ERK-1) expression were performed on kidney sections at the end of 12 weeks. Significant change in both, the urine and serum biochemistry confirmed kidney damage in diabetic animals which was further confirmed by the histological changes such as mesangial expansion, glomerular basement membrane thickening, glycosuria and proteinuria. However, the diabetic animals treated with garlic extract showed a significant change in urine and serum biochemical parameters such as albumin, urea nitrogen and creatinine compared to that of diabetic rats. Further, the garlic supplemented diabetic rats showed a significant decrease in the expression of VEGF and ERK-1 compared to diabetic rats, attenuating mesangial expansion and glomerulosclerosis. Thus, garlic extract rendered nephroprotection in diabetic rats.

  12. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varatharajan Rajavel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis leaves extract (OPLE has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN, we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg−1 for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg−1. Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, glutathione (GSH, and lipid peroxides (LPO were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1 was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  13. Chronic Administration of Oil Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Leaves Extract Attenuates Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress and Improves Renal Histopathology and Function in Experimental Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavel, Varatharajan; Abdul Sattar, Munavvar Zubaid; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Kassim, Normadiah M; Abdullah, Nor Azizan

    2012-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) leaves extract (OPLE) has antioxidant properties and because oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN), we tested the hypothesis that OPLE prevents diabetes renal oxidative stress, attenuating injury. Sprague-Dawley rats received OPLE (200 and 500 mg kg(-1)) for 4 and 12 weeks after diabetes induction (streptozotocin 60 mg kg(-1)). Blood glucose level, body and kidney weights, urine flow rate (UFR), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and proteinuria were assessed. Oxidative stress variables such as 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), glutathione (GSH), and lipid peroxides (LPO) were quantified. Renal morphology was analysed, and plasma transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) was measured. Diabetic rats demonstrated increase in blood glucose and decreased body and increased kidney weights. Renal dysfunction (proteinuria, elevations in UFR and GFR) was observed in association with increases in LPO, 8-OHdG, and TGF-β1 and a decrease in GSH. Histological evaluation of diabetic kidney demonstrated glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. OPLE attenuated renal dysfunction, improved oxidative stress markers, and reduced renal pathology in diabetic animals. These results suggest OPLE improves renal dysfunction and pathology in diabetes by reducing oxidative stress; furthermore, the protective effect of OPLE against renal damage in diabetes depends on the dose of OPLE as well as progression of DN.

  14. Attenuating effect of seeds of Adenanthera pavonina aqueous extract in neuropathic pain in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: an evidence of neuroprotective effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramdas B Pandhare

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigate the attenuating effects of Adenanthera pavonina L., Leguminosae-Mimosaceae seeds aqueous extract (APSAE, in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic neuropathy in rats. APSAE (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg per day was given to diabetic rats for twelve weeks. Cold and hot water tail immersion tests, photoactometer and Rota-rod tests were performed to assess degree of colder, thermal, spontaneous motor activity and motor co-ordination changes respectively at different time intervals i.e., week 0, 4, 8 and 12. Tissue superoxide anion and total calcium levels were determined after twelve weeks to assess biochemical alterations. Histopathological evaluations of sciatic nerve were also performed to assess nerve damage. APSAE treatment increased tail flick latency significantly in diabetic rats. APSAE also reduced superoxide anion and total calcium levels. These results suggested that APSAE has attenuated development of diabetic neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats when compared with pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o. and could be beneficial in preventing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  15. An Extract from the Plant Deschampsia antarctica Protects Fibroblasts from Senescence Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Espín, Ana; Morel, Esther; Juarranz, Ángeles; Guerrero, Antonio; Jiménez, Ana

    2017-01-01

    The Antarctic plant Deschampsia antarctica (DA) is able to survive in extreme conditions thanks to its special mechanism of protection against environmental aggressions. In this work, we investigated whether an aqueous extract of the plant (EDA) retains some of its defensive properties and is able to protect our skin against common external oxidants. We evaluated EDA over young human fibroblasts and exposed to H2O2, and we measured cell proliferation, viability, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal). We also tested the expression of several senescence-associated proteins including sirtuin1, lamin A/C, the replicative protein PCNA, and the redox protein thioredoxin 2. We found that EDA promoted per se cell proliferation and viability and increased the expression of anti-senescence-related markers. Then, we selected a dose of H2O2 as an inductor of senescence in human fibroblasts, and we found that an EDA treatment 24 h prior H2O2 exposure increased fibroblast proliferation. EDA significantly inhibited the increase in SA-β-Gal levels induced by H2O2 and promoted the expression of sirtuin 1 and lamin A/C proteins. Altogether, these results suggest that EDA protects human fibroblasts from cellular senescence induced by H2O2, pointing to this compound as a potential therapeutic agent to treat or prevent skin senescence. PMID:28894504

  16. An Extract from the Plant Deschampsia antarctica Protects Fibroblasts from Senescence Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ortiz-Espín

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Antarctic plant Deschampsia antarctica (DA is able to survive in extreme conditions thanks to its special mechanism of protection against environmental aggressions. In this work, we investigated whether an aqueous extract of the plant (EDA retains some of its defensive properties and is able to protect our skin against common external oxidants. We evaluated EDA over young human fibroblasts and exposed to H2O2, and we measured cell proliferation, viability, and senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal. We also tested the expression of several senescence-associated proteins including sirtuin1, lamin A/C, the replicative protein PCNA, and the redox protein thioredoxin 2. We found that EDA promoted per se cell proliferation and viability and increased the expression of anti-senescence-related markers. Then, we selected a dose of H2O2 as an inductor of senescence in human fibroblasts, and we found that an EDA treatment 24 h prior H2O2 exposure increased fibroblast proliferation. EDA significantly inhibited the increase in SA-β-Gal levels induced by H2O2 and promoted the expression of sirtuin 1 and lamin A/C proteins. Altogether, these results suggest that EDA protects human fibroblasts from cellular senescence induced by H2O2, pointing to this compound as a potential therapeutic agent to treat or prevent skin senescence.

  17. The ethanol extract of Osmanthus fragrans attenuates Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory effect through the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-mediated antioxidant signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Huang; Huangqin, Chen; Longquan, Shao

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we explored the effect of the ethanol extract of Osmanthus fragrans (EOF) on the growth and collagenase activity of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis). We also investigated the capacity of EOF to attenuate P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses and the possible signalling pathway. EOF was obtained by soaking the O. fragrans powder in the ethanol and concentrating the extracts under reduced pressure. Microplate dilution assays were used to determine the effect of EOF on P. gingivalis growth. Collagenase inhibition was detected using fluorometric and colorimetric assays. The effects of EOF on the production of the cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The oxidative stress biomarkers were assayed using commercial kits. The effects of EOF on the expression of cytoprotective enzymes and nucleoprotein nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) were tested by Western blot analysis. EOF significantly inhibited the growth of P. gingivalis, especially in the iron-limited culture medium. The inhibitory effect of EOF on P. gingivalis collagenase activity was time- and concentration-dependent. The P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated production of IL-6 and IL-8 was attenuated by EOF. LPS significantly induced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and decreased the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) while pretreatment with EOF alleviated these effects. The presence of EOF markedly upregulated the expression levels of the cytoprotective enzymes and nucleoprotein Nrf2. This study suggests that the potent Nrf2 activation capacity of O. fragrans may be useful in the adjunctive treatment of periodontal disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-fortified ginseng extract attenuates the development of atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Rhan; Choi, Jinhwan; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Heejeung; Kang, Heerim; Kim, Eun Hye; Chang, Jeong-Hwa; Kim, Yeong-Eun; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Hyong Joo

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng and ginsenosides are frequently used in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Recently, 20-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (GPD), the main metabolite of ginsenosides, was reported to have both anti-allergic and anti-pruritic effects. The immunomodulatory effects of GPD-fortified ginseng extract (GFGE) on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms in mice were investigated. This study was designed to investigate the preventive effect of GFGE on AD-like symptoms. The effects of orally administered GFGE on Dermatophagoides farinae body extract (DFE)-induced AD-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice were assessed by analyzing dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, skin histological changes, and serum level of macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). In addition, splenocytes were isolated from the mice and stimulated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies to produce cytokines. Oral administration of GFGE significantly attenuated DFE-induced increases in dermatitis score, ear thickness, scratching time, and severity of skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. GFGE treatment also reduced level of MDC in serum, infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells in skin, and production of cytokines in splenocytes. These results suggest that GFGE might ameliorate DFE-induced AD-like symptoms and be an alternative therapeutic agent for the prevention of AD. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Theobroma cacao extract attenuates the development of Dermatophagoides farinae-induced atopic dermatitis-like symptoms in NC/Nga mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Heerim; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong Rhan; Kwon, Jung Yeon; Son, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Jong-Eun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-02-01

    Cacao beans from Theobroma cacao are an abundant source of polyphenols, particularly flavonoids. Previous studies demonstrated that cacao flavanols decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines resulting in the alleviation of allergic symptoms. We sought to investigate the effects of cacao extract (CE) on Dermatophagoides farinae extract (DFE)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like symptoms. CE attenuated DFE-induced AD-like symptoms as assessed by skin lesion analyses, dermatitis score, and skin thickness. Histopathological analysis revealed that CE suppressed DFE-induced immune cell infiltration into the skin. These observations occurred concomitantly with the downregulation of inflammatory markers including serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E, chemokine; thymus and activation-regulated chemokine and macrophage-derived chemokine as well as the skin-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and interferon-γ. CE also significantly alleviated transepidermal water loss and increased skin hydration. These results suggest that CE, a natural phytochemical-rich food, has potential therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of AD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Attenuation of Thrombosis by Crude Rice (Oryza sativa Bran Policosanol Extract: Ex Vivo Platelet Aggregation and Serum Levels of Arachidonic Acid Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Teng Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Vascular occlusion or thrombosis was often attributed to uncontrolled platelet activation. Influence of sugarcane policosanol extract on platelet was reported but little was known of rice bran policosanol, particularly its mechanisms of actions on platelet activities. Objective. Antiplatelet mechanisms of rice bran policosanol extract (RBE were studied using hyperlipidemic Sprague Dawley rats. Ex vivo platelet aggregation, platelet count (PC, bleeding time (BT, and coagulation time were assayed. Serum eicosanoids and other aggregation-related metabolites levels were quantified. Design. Rats were divided into 6 groups for comparisons (vehicle control Tween 20/H2O, high dose policosanol 500 mg/kg, middle dose policosanol 250 mg/kg, low dose policosanol 100 mg/kg, and positive control aspirin 30 mg/kg. Results. Low dose 100 mg/kg of RBE inhibited aggregation by 42.32±4.31% and this was comparable with the effect of 30 mg/kg aspirin, 43.91±5.27%. Results showed that there were no significant differences in PC, BT, and coagulation time among various groups after RBE treatment. Serum thromboxane A2 was attenuated while prostacyclin level increased upon RBE treatment. Conclusions. RBE reduced ex vivo ADP-induced platelet aggregation without giving adverse effects. No changes in full blood count suggested that rice bran policosanol did not disturb biological blood cell production and destruction yet it reduced aggregation through different mechanisms.

  1. Ethanol extract of Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans attenuates dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced colitis by suppressing the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dong Ki; Park, Hye-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cordyceps militaris (CM) grown on germinated soybeans (GSC) in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model was studied. To demonstrate the preventive effect of GSC extract in a dextran-sodium-sulfate- (DSS-) induced acute colitis mouse model, GSC was administered 2 days before DSS coadministration. GSC significantly suppressed DSS-induced disease activity index (DAI) as well as histopathological scores, compared to control or CM-treated group. To elucidate the anti-IBD activity of GSC, we checked the level of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammatory mediators. GSC extract decreased the level of MMP-3 and -9 mRNAs and p53 proteins. The level and activity of LPS-induced MMP-9 were reduced in GSC-treated RAW264.7 cells. It also attenuated the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α mRNAs both in colon tissue and in macrophage cells. These results suggest that GSC can be applied as a protective agent against IBDs.

  2. Attenuation of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in high calorie fed/streptozotocin-treated rats by hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya S. Mohan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of defatted hydromethanolic extract of Padina tetrastromatica on carbohydrate metabolism and serum lipid profile were evaluated. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by feeding high calorie/energy diet for two months followed by a single intraperitoneal injecttion of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were administered with the extract intragastrically at doses of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg body weight daily for 45 days. Treatment with graded doses showed a dose dependent reduction in blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels. Treatment significantly increased the activity of hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycogen content while there was significant reduction in the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Serum lipid profile was also brought back to near normal levels in a dose dependent manner. The present study clearly indicates the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of P. tetrastromatica at an optimum dose of 450 mg/kg body weight.

  3. Cissus quadrangularis L. extract attenuates chronic ulcer by possible involvement of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jainu, Mallika; Vijaimohan, K.; Kannan, K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether Cissus quandrangularis extract (CQE) had healing effects on gastric ulcer, through modulation of polyamines and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in rats. Administration of acetic acid (AA) was accompanied by reduced PCNA which was determined by immunohistochemical staining, 3H-thymidine incorporation using liquid scintillation spectrometry, mitochondrial marker enzymes, polyamine contents and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) expression in gastric mucosa of rats. Administration of CQE after the application of AA to the stomach enhanced the reduction of ulcer area in a dose-dependent manner which was confirmed by histoarchitecture. Moreover, CQE significantly increased the 3H-thymidine incorporation and the levels of polyamines such as putrescine, spermine and spermidine in ulcerated rats. In addition, the extract offers gastroprotection in the ulcerated area by increased expression of TGF-α and also reversed the changes in the gastric mucosa of ulcerated rats with significant elevation in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and PCNA levels. Based on these results, the healing effect of CQE on AA induced gastric mucosal injury in rats may be attributed to its growth promoting and cytoprotective actions, possibly involving an increase in tissue polyamine contents and cell proliferation. PMID:20931084

  4. Ethanolic extract of Commiphora mukul gum resin attenuates streptozotocin-induced alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, B.; Karuna, R.; Sreenivasa Reddy, S.; Sudhakara, G.; Saralakumari, D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Commiphora mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEEt) administration against altered activities of key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism and changes in glycogen content (liver and muscle) and lipids (liver and heart) in streptozotocin (STZ) induced insulin deficient diabetic Wistar albino rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body wt) to male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: Control (C), control-treated (C+CM), diabetic (D) and diabetic-treated group (D+CM). Diabetic-treated and control-treated rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEEt) in 2 ml distilled water, orally (200 mg/kg body weight/day for 60 days). At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters related to carbohydrate and lipid metabolism were assayed. The significant enhancement in tissue lipids (heart and liver) total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids of diabetic rats were nearer to normalized in diabetic treated rats (D+CM). Alterations in the activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) and lipid metabolism (fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme and lipoprotein lipase) as observed in diabetic (D) rats were prevented with CMEEt administration. In conclusion, our findings indicate improvement of glucose and lipid metabolisms in STZ induced diabetic rats by treatment with Commiphora mukul and suggest that the plant can be used as an adjuvant for the prevention and/or management of insulin deficiency and disorder related to it. PMID:27004047

  5. Ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix attenuates nociceptive pain probably via inhibition of voltage-dependent Na⁺ channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Yuan, Lin; Li, Jun; Huang, Xian-Ju; Chen, Su; Zou, Da-Jiang; Liu, Xiangming; Yang, Xin-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Aconiti Brachypodi Radix, belonging to the genus of Aconitum (Family Ranunculaceae), are used clinically as anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive in traditional medicine of China. However, its mechanism and influence on nociceptive threshold are unknown and need further investigation. The analgesic effects of ethanolic extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix (EABR) were thus studied in vivo and in vitro. Three pain models in mice were used to assess the effect of EABR on nociceptive threshold. In vitro study was conducted to clarify the modulation of the extract on the tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium currents in rat's dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons using whole-cell patch clamp technique. The results showed that EABR (5-20 mg/kg, i.g.) could produce dose-dependent analgesic effect on hot-plate tests as well as writhing response induced by acetic acid. In addition, administration of 2.5-10 mg/kg EABR (i.g.) caused significant decrease in pain responses in the first and second phases of formalin test without altering the PGE₂ production in the hind paw of the mice. Moreover, EABR (10 µg/ml -1 mg/ml) could suppress TTX-S voltage-gated sodium currents in a dose-dependent way, indicating the underlying electrophysiological mechanism of the analgesic effect of the folk plant medicine. Collectively, our results indicated that EABR has analgesic property in three pain models and useful influence on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurons, suggesting that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of EABR on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurones may explain some of its analgesic effect.

  6. Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761 attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines and the SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifu; Xiong, Yunyi; Zhang, Huanxi; Li, Jun; Wang, Dong; Chen, Wenfang; Yuan, Xiaopeng; Su, Qiao; Li, Wenwen; Huang, Huiting; Bi, Zirong; Liu, Longshan; Wang, Changxi

    2017-03-23

    This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of EGb761, a Ginkgo Biloba extract, against brain death-induced kidney injury. Sixty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham, brain-death (BD), BD + EGb b48h (48 hours before BD), BD + EGb 2 h (2 hours after BD), BD + EGb 1 h, and BD + EGb 0.5 h. Six hours after BD, serum sample and kidney tissues were collected for analyses. The levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine significantly elevated in the BD group than in sham group. In all the EGb761-treated BD animals except for the BD + Gb 2 h group, the levels of BUN and serum creatinine significantly reduced (all P < 0.01). EGb761 attenuated tubular injury and lowered the histological score. In addition, the longer duration of drug treatment was, the better protective efficacy could be observed. EGb761 significantly reduced IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, MCP-1, IP-10 mRNA expression and macrophage infiltration in the kidney. EGb761 treatment at 48 hour before brain death significantly attenuate the levels of p-JNK-MAPK, p-p38-MAPK, and p-STAT3 proteins (all P < 0.05, compared to BD group). In summary, our data showed that EGb761 treatment protected donor kidney from BD-induced damages by blocking SAPK and JAK-STAT signalings. Early administration of EGb761 can provide better protective efficacy.

  7. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract inhibits in vitro intestinal glucose absorption and attenuates high fat diet-induced lipotoxicity and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Sakly, Mohsen; Marzouki, Lamjed; Sebai, Hichem

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of chamomile decoction extract (CDE) on intestinal glucose absorption as well as its protective role against high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and lipotoxicity in rats. We used the Ussing chamber system to investigate the effect of CDE on intestinal transport of glucose. Male Wistar rats were fed HFD for six weeks to provoke obesity. CDE (100mg/kg, b.w. p.o.) has been per orally administered to HFD fed rats. Ex vivo, we found that CDE significantly and dose-dependently increased intestinal absorption of glucose. In vivo, HFD increased the body, liver and kidney weights, while CDE treatment showed a significant protective effects. High fat diet induced also a lipid profiles disorder and a disturbances in kidney and liver function parameters. Moreover liver and kidney lipotoxicity is accompanied by an oxidative stress status characterized by increased lipoperoxidation, depletion of antioxidant enzymes activity and non-enzymatic antioxidant (-SH groups and GSH) levels as well as increased levels of free iron, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and calcium. However, treatment with CDE alleviated all the deleterious effects of HFD feed. These findings suggest that chamomile decoction extract can be used as functional beverage against obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethanol extract of Piper longum L. attenuates gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiao Fei; Song, Jae-Jun; Hong, Seungug; Kim, Jihye

    2012-06-01

    Piper longum L. (PL), also as known as long pepper, a well-known spice and traditional medicine in Asia and Pacific islands, has been reported to exhibit wide spectrum activity including antioxidant activity. However, little information is available on its protective effect on gentamicin (GM) induced ototoxicity which is commonly regarded as being mediated by reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of PL ethanol extract on gentamicin-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures. Cochlea cultures from postnatal day 2-3 mice were used for analysis of the protective effects of PL against gentamicin-induced hair cell loss by phalloidin staining. E. coil cultures were used to determine whether PL interferes with the antibiotic activity of GM. Nitric oxide (NO)-scavenging activity of PL was also measured in vitro. GM induced significant dose-dependent hair cell loss in cochlea cultures. However, without interfering with the antibiotic activity of GM, PL showed a significant and concentration-dependent protective effect against GM-induced hair cell loss, and hair cells retained their stereocilia well. In addition, PL expressed direct scavenging activity toward NO radical liberated within solution of sodium nitroprusside. These findings demonstrate the protective effect of PL on GM-induced hair cell loss in neonatal cochlea cultures, and suggest that it might be of therapeutic benefit for treatment of GM-induced ototoxicity.

  9. Ethanolic Extract of Taheebo Attenuates Increase in Body Weight and Fatty Liver in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Hee Choi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether intake of an ethanolic extract of Taheebo (TBE from Tabebuia avellanedae protects against body weight increase and fat accumulation in mice with high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity. Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a HFD (25% fat, w/w for 11 weeks. The diet of control (HFD mice was supplemented with vehicle (0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose by gavage; the diet of experimental (TBE mice was supplemented with TBE (150 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage. Mice administered TBE had significantly reduced body weight gain, fat accumulation in the liver, and fat pad weight, compared to HFD mice. Reduced hypertrophy of fat cells was also observed in TBE mice. Mice administered TBE also showed significantly lower serum levels of triglycerides, insulin, and leptin. Lipid profiles and levels of mRNAs and proteins related to lipid metabolism were determined in liver and white adipose tissue of the mice. Expression of mRNA and proteins related to lipogenesis were decreased in TBE-administered mice compared to mice fed HFD alone. These results suggest that TBE inhibits obesity and fat accumulation by regulation of gene expression related to lipid metabolism in HFD-induced obesity in mice.

  10. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN. In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Materials and Methods: Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent, diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ (200 mg/kg body wt, IP diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6. After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Results: Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO, protein carbonyl in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment.  Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Conclusion: Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  11. Methanol Extract of Artemisia apiacea Hance Attenuates the Expression of Inflammatory Mediators via NF-κB Inactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Choul Ryu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia apiacea Hance is one of the most widely used herbs for the treatment of malaria, jaundice, and dyspeptic complaint in oriental medicine. This study investigated the effects of methanol extracts of A. apiacea Hance (MEAH on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and proinflammatory mediators by lipopolysaccharide (LPS in Raw264.7 macrophage cells and also evaluated the in vivo effect of MEAH on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. MEAH treatment in Raw264.7 cells significantly decreased LPS-inducible nitric oxide production and the expression of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner, while MEAH (up to 100 μg/mL had no cytotoxic activity. Results from immunoblot analyses and ELISA revealed that MEAH significantly inhibited the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in LPS-activated cells. As a plausible molecular mechanism, increased degradation and phosphorylation of inhibitory-κBα and nuclear factor-κB accumulation in the nucleus by LPS were partly blocked by MEAH treatment. Finally, MEAH treatment decreased the carrageenan-induced formation of paw edema and infiltration of inflammatory cells in rats. These results demonstrate that MEAH has an anti-inflammatory therapeutic potential that may result from the inhibition of nuclear factor-κB activation, subsequently decreasing the expression of proinflammatory mediators.

  12. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Leaf Extract Attenuates Hyperglycemia and Skeletal Muscle Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinsmann Carolo dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hydroethanolic extract of Yacon leaves (HEYL on antioxidant, glycemic, and inflammatory biomarkers were tested in diabetic rats. Outcome parameters included glucose, insulin, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and hydrophilic antioxidant capacity (HAC in serum and IL-6, HAC, malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx in soleus. The rats (10/group were divided as follows: C, controls; C + Y, HEYL treated; DM, diabetic controls; and DM + Y, diabetic rats treated with HEYL. Diabetes mellitus was induced by administration of streptozotocin. C + Y and DM + Y groups received 100 mg/kg HEYL daily via gavage for 30 d. Hyperglycemia was improved in the DM + Y versus DM group. Insulin was reduced in DM versus C group. DM rats had higher IL-6 and MDA and lower HAC in the soleus muscle. HEYL treatment decreased IL-6 and MDA and increased HAC in DM rats. DM + Y rats had the highest CAT activity versus the other groups; GPx was higher in C + Y and DM + Y versus their respective controls. The apparent benefit of HEYL may be mediated via improving glucoregulation and ameliorating oxidative stress and inflammation, particularly in diabetic rats.

  13. Synergism effects of pioglitazone and Urtica dioica extract in streptozotocin-induced nephropathy via attenuation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Sadat-Hosseini, Sara; Fallah, Marjan; Shaki, Fatemeh

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress that plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Diabetic nephropathy (DN). In this study, we investigated the synergism effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica and pioglitazone (PIO) on the prevention of DN in streptozotocin induced-diabetic mice. Forty-two mice were divided into six groups as follows: non-diabetic control group, DMSO group (as solvent), diabetic group and four treatment groups which received U. dioica, pioglitazone, U. dioica plus pioglitazone and vitE. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg/kg body wt, IP) diluted in citrate buffer (pH= 4.6). After 4 weeks treatment, all animals were anaesthetized and blood was collected for serum urea and creatinine levels assessment in plasma and kidney tissue were excised for evaluation of oxidative stress markers. Treatment with U. dioica significantly inhibited increase in serum urea and creatinine in plasma that were observed in diabetic mice. Furthermore, the elevated level of oxidative stress markers (glutathione oxidation, lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl) in renal supernatant of diabetic mice was inhibited by U. dioica treatment. Interestingly, U. dioica promoted beneficial effects of PIO in reducing STZ-induced hyperglycemia, renal damage and oxidative stress markers. Our findings showed that PIO plus U. dioica have synergism protective effects against STZ-induced nephropathy that can be a candidate as a therapeutic approach in order to treatment of DN.

  14. Tinospora cordifolia extract attenuates cadmium-induced biochemical and histological alterations in the heart of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Lohanathan Bharathi; Baskaran, Rathinasamy; Elangovan, Pitchai; Dhivya, Velumani; Huang, Chih-Yang; Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya

    2017-03-01

    Persistence of cadmium (Cd) in the environment causes serious ecological problems. Tinospora cordifolia is a medicinal herb used in Ayurveda for treating various metabolic disorders and toxic conditions. The present study investigates the protective effect of T. cordifolia stem methanolic extract (TCME) on a heavy metal, Cd-induced cardiotoxicity in male Wistar rats. Male albino Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=6). The animals after treatment for 28days with Cd and TCME were analysed for biochemical and histological changes in the serum and heart tissues. Cd induced lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation was significantly reduced by TCME. TCME also reduced the histological alterations induced by Cd treatment in the heart tissues with diminished loss of myocardial fibers. Administration of TCME effectively prevented the altered levels of serum marker enzymes (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase, and glycoproteins contents such as hexose, hexoseamine, fucose, and sialic acid by Cd intoxication. TCME also offered protection against the change in levels of Na(+)K(+)ATPase, Mg(2+)ATPase and Ca(2+)ATPase activities against Cd toxicity. The study suggests TCME as a potent cardioprotective agent against Cd induced toxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Magnolia officinalis Extract Contains Potent Inhibitors against PTP1B and Attenuates Hyperglycemia in db/db Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B is an established therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Magnolia officinalis extract (ME on PTP1B and its anti-T2DM effects. Inhibition assays and inhibition kinetics of ME were performed in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with ME to explore its bioavailability in cell level. The in vivo studies were performed on db/db mice to probe its anti-T2DM effects. In the present study, ME inhibited PTP1B in a reversible competitive manner and displayed good selectivity against PTPs in vitro. Furthermore, ME enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cellular proteins, especially the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of insulin receptor β-subunit (IRβ and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Meanwhile, ME enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. More importantly, there was a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose level of db/db diabetic mice treated orally with 0.5 g/kg ME for 4 weeks. These findings indicated that improvement of insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic effects of ME may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B. Thereby, we pioneered the inhibitory potential of ME targeted on PTP1B as anti-T2DM drug discovery.

  16. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, In Sik; Lee, Mee Young; Lim, Hye Sun; Ha, Hyekyung; Seo, Chang Seob; Kim, Jong-Choon; Shin, Hyeun Kyoo

    2012-01-01

    Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn) has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE) on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced murine asthma model. Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility of CPEE as a therapeutic drug for allergic asthma.

  17. Methanolic Extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (Noni) Unripe Fruit Attenuates Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preferences in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Yasmin; Pandy, Vijayapandi

    2016-01-01

    Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC), on compulsive ethanol-seeking behavior using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP) test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2 g/kg, i.p.) in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM), on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg) and ACAM (300 mg/kg) 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction), during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg, p.o.) or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.). Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4 g/kg, i.p.) in the home cage (Reinstatement) was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5 g/kg, p.o.) and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  18. Methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni unripe fruit attenuates ethanol-induced conditioned place preferences in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytotherapy is an emerging field successfully utilized to treat various chronic diseases including alcohol dependence. In the present study, we examined the effect of the standardized methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. unripe fruit (MMC, on compulsive ethanol-seeking behaviour using the mouse conditioned place preference (CPP test. CPP was established by injections of ethanol (2g/kg, i.p. in a 12-day conditioning schedule in mice. The effect of MMC and the reference drug, acamprosate (ACAM, on the reinforcing properties of ethanol in mice was studied by the oral administration of MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg and ACAM (300 mg/kg 60 min prior to the final CPP test postconditioning. Furthermore, CPPs weakened with repeated testing in the absence of ethanol over the next 12 days (extinction, during which the treatment groups received MMC (1, 3 and 5g/kg, p.o. or ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o.. Finally, a priming injection of a low dose of ethanol (0.4g/kg, i.p. in the home cage (Reinstatement was sufficient to reinstate CPPs, an effect that was challenged by the administration of MMC or ACAM. MMC (3 and 5g/kg, p.o and ACAM (300 mg/kg, p.o. significantly reversed the establishment of ethanol-induced CPPs and effectively facilitated the extinction of ethanol CPP. In light of these findings, it has been suggested that M. citrifolia unripe fruit could be utilized for novel drug development to combat alcohol dependence.

  19. An extract of Crataegus pinnatifida fruit attenuates airway inflammation by modulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in ovalbumin induced asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In Sik Shin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crataegus pinnatifida (Chinese hawthorn has long been used as a herbal medicine in Asia and Europe. It has been used for the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial weakness, tachycardia, hypertension and arteriosclerosis. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Crataegus pinnatifida ethanolic extracts (CPEE on Th2-type cytokines, eosinophil infiltration, expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9, and other factors, using an ovalbumin (OVA-induced murine asthma model. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Airways of OVA-sensitized mice exposed to OVA challenge developed eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion and increased cytokine levels. CPEE was applied 1 h prior to OVA challenge. Mice were administered CPEE orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg once daily on days 18-23. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected 48 h after the final OVA challenge. Levels of interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5 in BALF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA assays. Lung tissue sections 4 µm in thickness were stained with Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin for assessment of cell infiltration and mucus production with PAS staining, in conjunction with ELISA, and Western blot analyses for the expression of MMP-9, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1 protein expression. CPEE significantly decreased the Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-5 levels, reduced the number of inflammatory cells in BALF and airway hyperresponsiveness, suppressed the infiltration of eosinophil-rich inflammatory cells and mucus hypersecretion and reduced the expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-9 and the activity of MMP-9 in lung tissue of OVA-challenged mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that CPEE can protect against allergic airway inflammation and can act as an MMP-9 modulator to induce a reduction in ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression. In conclusion, we strongly suggest the feasibility

  20. Peanut sprout extract attenuates cisplatin-induced ototoxicity by induction of the Akt/Nrf2-mediated redox pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Cha Kyung; Jo, Eu-Ri; Sim, Ju-Hwan; Cho, Sung Il

    2017-01-01

    Cisplatin is commonly used to treat solid tumors. However, permanent hearing loss is a major side effect of cisplatin chemotherapy and often results in dose reduction of the cisplatin chemotherapy. Peanut sprouts show cytoprotective properties owing to their antioxidant activities. This study was designed to investigate the effect of peanut sprout extract (PSE) on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in an auditory cell line, HEI-OC1 cells. Cells were exposed to cisplatin for 24 h, with or without pre-treatment with PSE, cell viability was examined using the MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by double staining with Hoechst 33258 and propidium iodide. Western blot analysis was performed to examine apoptotic proteins including C-PARP and C-caspase, anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, and Nrf2 redox system activation. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated to examine whether PSE could scavenge cisplatin-induced ROS. Real-time PCR analyses were performed to investigate the mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase. The cisplatin-treated group showed reduced cell viability, increased apoptotic properties and markers, and increased ROS levels. PSE pre-treatment before cisplatin exposure significantly increased cell viability and reduced apoptotic properties and ROS production. These effects resulted from the up-regulation of antioxidant genes, including NQO1, HO-1, GPx2, Gclc, and catalase through Akt phosphorylation and Nrf2 activation. Our results demonstrate that PSE protects from cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity by activating the antioxidant effects via the Akt/Nrf-2 pathway in this auditory cell line, and indicate that PSE may provide novel treatment to prevent cisplatin-induced ototoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of crude extract of lentil plant (Lens culinaris Medikus) in peroxidase-based analyses: fast kinetic determination of hydrogen peroxide and sarcosine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Galende, Patricia; Manzano Muñoz, Teresa; Roig, Manuel G; García de María, Cándido

    2012-11-01

    Peroxidase-catalysed reactions are used in a wide variety of analytical applications, most of them based on the final quantification of hydrogen peroxide. Clinical tests for glucose, cholesterol, creatine, creatinine or uric acid in blood or urine and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for pesticides, hepatitis or acquired immune deficiency syndrome are good examples of such applications. The most widely used and commercially available peroxidase for biotechnological processes and analytical applications is horseradish peroxidase followed, although in much lower proportion, by soybean peroxidase. The high commercial interest in peroxidases has led to the search for new sources of these enzymes. This work describes the analytical use of lentil plant peroxidase (LPP), which is a new peroxidase extracted from lentil plants (Lens culinaris Medikus); an abundant post-harvest agricultural waste in the area of Castilla y León (Spain). A procedure for the quantification of hydrogen peroxide in urine is first proposed using crude extract of lentil plant instead of the purified enzyme. This procedure is then applied to the determination of sarcosine; a natural amino acid that has attracted considerable interest in clinical diagnostics since urinary sarcosine was proposed and later questioned as a biomarker for prostate cancer. Under the action of sarcosine oxidase, sarcosine is oxidized by molecular oxygen to give glycine, formaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide that is quantified according to the previously proposed procedure. The limit of detection for both hydrogen peroxide and sarcosine is around 5 × 10(-7) M. In the determination of sarcosine, the high selectivity of the overall enzymatic reaction, the simple sample treatment and instrumentation, the high-sample throughput and the use of LPP in the plant extract instead of the purified enzyme provide a rapid and inexpensive procedure with characteristics very suitable for routine analysis in a clinical laboratory.

  2. Black tea extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-κB signaling and attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho Sung-Bum

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black tea has been shown to elicit anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic properties. In this study, we investigated the impact of black tea extract (BTE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in bone marrow derived-macrophages (BMM and determined the therapeutic efficacy of this extract on colon inflammation. Methods The effect of BTE on LPS-induced NF-κB signaling and pro-inflammatory gene expression was evaluated by RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA. The in vivo efficacy of BTE was assessed in mice with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. The severity of colitis was measured by weight loss, colon length and histologic scores. Results LPS-induced IL-12p40, IL-23p19, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions were inhibited by BTE. LPS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. BTE treatment blocked LPS-induced DNA-binding activity of NF-κB. BTE-fed, DSS-exposed mice showed the less weight loss, longer colon length and lower histologic score compared to control diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice. DSS-induced IκBα phosphorylation/degradation and phosphorylation of NF-κB/p65 were blocked by BTE. An increase of cleaved caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP in DSS-exposed mice was blocked by BTE. Conclusions These results indicate that BTE attenuates colon inflammation through the blockage of NF-κB signaling and apoptosis in DSS-induced experimental colitis model.

  3. The Extracts of Morinda officinalis and Its Hairy Roots Attenuate Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Chronic Ulcerative Colitis in Mice by Regulating Inflammation and Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Liang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Morinda officinalis is beneficial for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The hairy root with higher genetic and biochemical stability cultured from M. officinalis might have similar effects to treat IBD. In this study, the main chemical composition of the root extracts of M. officinalis (MORE native plant and the hairy root extract of M. officinalis (MOHRE was compared by quantitative HPLC. The difference of their therapeutic effects and potential mechanism was evaluated using 3% dextran sodium sulfate-induced chronic colitis in mice and T lymphocytes in vitro. The results found that MOHRE possesses many specific peaks unobserved in the chromatogram of native plant. The content of iridoids in the MORE (3.10% and MOHRE (3.01% is somewhat similar but quite different for their anthraquinones’s content (0.14 and 0.66%, respectively. Despite all this, treatment with both MORE and MOHRE significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis, including diarrhea, body weight loss, colon shortening, histological damage, and decreased inflammatory cytokine levels. In addition, they dose-dependently increased the apoptosis of T lymphocyte in vivo and in vitro. And, the differences for treatment effects on ulcerative colitis (UC between them both in this study were mostly insignificant. The results demonstrated that the effects of MORE and MOHRE for the treatment of UC are similar, although there are a few difference on their chemical composition, indicating the hairy root cultured from M. officinalis might be able to replace its native plant on treatment of UC. The successful derivation of a sustainable hairy root culture provides a model system to study the synthetic pathways for bioactive metabolites, which will make the use of bioreactors to largely produce traditional medicine become reality.

  4. Anti-Osteoclastic Activity of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. Extract Depends upon Attenuation of Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption-Associated Acidification Due to Chlorogenic Acid, Hyperoside, and Scoparone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Yun; Kwon, Young-In; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2017-02-04

    The present study attempts to elucidate the anti-osteoporotic activity of Artemisia capillaris Thunb. in the form of anti-osteoclastic effect and responsible bioactive compounds. The contents of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, isochlorogenic acid A, and scoparone in Artemisia capillaris hydroethanolic extract (ACHE) were 38.53, 0.52, 4.07, 3.03, 13.90, and 6.59 mg/g, respectively. ACHE diminished osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption due to chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and scoparone. In addition, ACHE attenuated acidification as well as reducing tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) expression and its association with vacuolar H⁺-adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase). Furthermore, chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, and scoparone from A. capillaris abrogated the association of V-ATPase with TRAF6, suggesting that the blockage of bone resorption by A. capillaris was partially mediated by reducing acidification through down-regulating interaction of V-ATPase with TRAF6 due to scoparone as well as chlorogenic acid and hyperoside. These results imply that the anti-osteoclastic effect of A. capillaris through down-regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption may contribute to its anti-osteoporotic effect.

  5. Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) fruit extract attenuates the rewarding effect of heroin in conditioned place preference but not withdrawal in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasingam, Megala; Pandy, Vijayapandi; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2016-05-20

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of a methanolic extract of Morinda citrifolia Linn. fruit (MMC) on the rewarding effect of heroin in the rat conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in mice. In the first experiment, following a baseline preference test (preconditioning score), the rats were subjected to conditioning trials with five counterbalanced escalating doses of heroin versus saline followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free conditions (post-conditioning score) using the CPP test. Meanwhile, in the second experiment, withdrawal jumping was precipitated by naloxone administration after heroin dependence was induced by escalating doses for 6 days (3×/ day). The CPP test results revealed that acute administration of MMC (1, 3, and 5 g/kg body weight (bw), p.o.), 1 h prior to the CPP test on the 12th day significantly reversed the heroin-seeking behavior in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to the results observed with a reference drug, methadone (3 mg/kg bw, p.o.). On the other hand, MMC (0.5, 1, and 3 g/kg bw, p.o.) did not attenuate the heroin withdrawal jumps precipitated by naloxone. These findings suggest that the mechanism by which MMC inhibits the rewarding effect of heroin is distinct from naloxone-precipitated heroin withdrawal.

  6. A major daidzin metabolite 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone found in the plasma of soybean extract-fed rats attenuates monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charles C; Dudonné, Stéphanie; Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Ji Seung; Dubé, Pascal; Kim, Jong-Eun; Desjardins, Yves; Park, Jung Han Yoon; Lee, Ki Won; Lee, Chang Yong

    2018-02-01

    Among many functional foods and their phytochemicals, ingestion of soybean (Glycine max) is highly correlated to reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. Validation of potential health benefits of functional foods requires information about the bioavailability and metabolism of bioactive compounds. In this context, several phase I and II metabolites of isoflavones were target-analyzed in the plasma of rats acutely supplemented with soybean embryo extract. A daidzein metabolite, 7,8,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (7,8,4'-THI), was found to have the highest average area under curve value (574.3±112.8). Therefore, its potential prevention effect on atherosclerosis was investigated using monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion assay. Different from its precursor daidzein or daidzin, 7,8,4'-THI attenuated adhesion of THP-1 monocytes to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In addition, 7,8,4'-THI significantly downregulated TNF-α stimulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and phosphorylation of IκB kinase and IκBα involved in the initiation of atherosclerosis in HUVECs. Therefore, 7,8,4'-THI, a highly bioavailable hydroxylated isoflavone metabolite, has potential anti-atherosclerotic effect via inhibiting monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Determination of diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr–2.5%Nb pressure tube material using hot vacuum extraction-quadrupole mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, Komal Chandra, E-mail: komal@barc.gov.in [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kulkarni, A.S.; Ramanjaneyulu, P.S. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sunil, Saurav [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Saxena, M.K. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.N. [Mechanical Metallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Tomar, B.S.; Ramakumar, K.L. [Radioanalytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The diffusion coefficients of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr–2.5%Nb alloy were measured in the temperature range 523 to 673 K, employing hot vacuum extraction-quadrupole mass spectrometry (HVE-QMS). One end of the Zr–2.5%Nb alloy specimens was charged electrolytically with the desired hydrogen isotope. After annealing at different temperatures for a predetermined time, the specimens were cut into thin slices, which were analyzed for their H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} content using the HVE-QMS technique. The depth profile data were fitted into the equation representing the solution of Fick’s second law of diffusion. The activation energy of hydrogen/deuterium diffusion was obtained from the Arrhenius relation between the diffusion coefficient and temperature. The temperature dependent diffusion coefficient can be represented as D{sub H} = 1.41 × 10{sup −7} exp(−36,000/RT) and D{sub D} = 6.16 × 10{sup −8} exp(−35,262/RT) for hydrogen and deuterium, respectively.

  8. Determination of trans Fat in Selected Fast Food Products and Hydrogenated Fats of India Using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Umar; Hassan, Mohammad Fahimul; Rauf, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the application of a simple and rapid method for the determination of trans fatty acid (TFA) content in some of the selected Indian fast food products and hydrogenated fats using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in conjunction with second derivative procedure. FTIR spectroscopy has been successfully applied to trans measurement using the absorbance bands at or near 966 cm-1 in the FTIR spectra. It was found from the analysis that TFA content of fast food product was ranging from 1.57% to 3.83% of the total fat while for hydrogenated fats, comparatively large quantity of TFA was detected in the range of 3.31% to 4.73%. Since GC-FID is most widely used method for the determination of fatty acid (FA) composition, this method was used for the sake of comparison. Value of regression coefficient was found very close to one (0.99503) with standard deviation of 0.10247 showing a good agreement between GC-FID and proposed ATR-FTIR method.

  9. Early and transient sodium-hydrogen exchanger isoform 1 inhibition attenuates subsequent cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure following coronary artery ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilić, Ana; Huang, Cathy X; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Madwed, Jeffrey B; Karmazyn, Morris

    2014-12-01

    Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE-1) inhibition attenuates the hypertrophic response and heart failure in various experimental models. As the hypertrophic program is rapidly initiated following insult, we investigated whether early and transient administration of a NHE-1 inhibitor will exert salutary effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy or heart failure using both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Neonatal cardiomyocytes were treated with the novel, potent, and highly specific NHE-1 inhibitor BIX (N-[4-(1-acetyl-piperidin-4-yl)-3-trifluoromethyl-benzoyl]-guanidine; 100 nM) for 1 hour in the presence of 10 µM phenylephrine, after which the cells were maintained for a further 23 hours in the absence of NHE-1 inhibition. One-hour treatment with the NHE-1 inhibitor prevented phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy, which was associated with prevention of activation of calcineurin, a key component of the hypertrophic process. Experiments were then performed in rats subjected to coronary artery ligation, in which the NHE-1 inhibitor was administered immediately after infarction for a 1-week period followed by a further 5 weeks of sustained coronary artery occlusion in the absence of drug treatment. This approach significantly attenuated left ventricular hypertrophy and improved both left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction, which was also associated with inhibition of calcineurin activation. Our findings indicate that early and transient administration of an NHE-1 inhibitor bestows subsequent inhibition of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in culture as well as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in vivo, suggesting a critical early NHE-1-dependent initiation of the hypertrophic program. The study also suggests a preconditioning-like phenomenon in preventing hypertrophy and heart failure by early and transient NHE-1 inhibition. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  10. A water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia attenuates the small intestinal injury induced by anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimoto, Naoki; Ishii, Satomi; Myojin, Yuki; Ushijima, Mitsuyasu; Hayama, Minoru; Watanabe, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a water-soluble extract from the culture medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) mycelia (MAK) is able to protect the small intestine against damage induced by anti-cancer drugs. Six-week-old male B6C3F1/Crlj mice were fed a basal diet (MF) alone or with various doses of MAK or Agarics blazei Murrill (AGA) beginning one week before treatment with the anti-cancer drugs. Mice were sacrificed 3.5 days after injection of the anti-cancer drug, the small intestine was removed and tissue specimens were examined for the regeneration of small intestinal crypts. In experiment 1, the number of regenerative crypts after the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) intravenously (250 mg/kg) or intraperitoneally (250 or 500 mg/kg) was compared after treatment with MAK or AGA. MAK protected against 5FU-induced small intestinal injury whereas AGA did not. In experiment 2, we investigated the protective effect of MAK against small intestinal injury induced by the anti-cancer drugs: UFT (tegafur with uracil; 1,000 mg/kg, orally), cisplatin (CDDP; 12.5 and 25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), cyclophosphamide (CPA; 250 mg/kg, orally) and gefitinib (Iressa; 2,000 and 4,000 mg/kg, orally). UFT and CDDP decreased the number of regenerative crypts, but treatment with MAK attenuated the extent of UFT- or CDDP-induced small intestinal injury. CPA or Iressa plus MAK up-regulated crypt regeneration. The present results indicate that MAK ameliorates the small intestinal injury caused by several anti-cancer drugs, suggesting that MAK is a potential preventive agent against this common adverse effect of chemotherapy.

  11. Attenuating properties of Agastache rugosa leaf extract against ultraviolet-B-induced photoaging via up-regulating glutathione and superoxide dismutase in a human keratinocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yuri; Lim, Hye-Won; Huang, Yu-Hua; Kwon, Hee-Souk; Jin, Chang Duck; Kim, Kyunghoon; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2016-10-01

    Agastache rugosa Kuntze, known as a Korean mint, is an herbal medicine that has been used for the treatment of diverse kinds of symptoms in traditional medicine. This work was undertaken to assess the protective properties of A. rugosa leaves against UV-B-induced photoaging in HaCaT keratinocytes. They were evaluated via analyzing reactive oxygen species (ROS), promatrix metalloproteinase-2 (proMMP-2) and -9 (proMMP-9), total glutathione (GSH), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), cellular viability, flavonoid content and in vitro radical scavenging activity. Total flavonoid content of ARE, a hot water extract of A. rugosa leaves, was 22.8±7.6mg of naringin equivalent/g ARE. ARE exhibited ABTS(+) radical scavenging activity with an SC50 of 836.9μg/mL. ARE attenuated the UV-B-induced ROS generation. It diminished the UV-B-induced elevation of proMMP-2 and -9 at both activity and protein levels. On the contrary, ARE was able to enhance the UV-B-reduced total GSH and total SOD activity levels. ARE, at the used concentrations, was unable to interfere with the cellular viabilities of HaCaT keratinocytes under UV-B irradiation. Taken together, ARE possesses a protective potential against UV-B-induced photoaging in HaCaT keratinocytes, possibly based upon up-regulating antioxidant components, including total GSH and SOD. These findings reasonably suggest the use of A. rugosa leaves as a photoprotective resource in manufacturing functional cosmetics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola attenuated angiotensin II- and lipopolyssacharide-inducedvascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeolu A. Adedapo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All over the world, cardiovascular diseases are a risk factor for poor health and early death with predisposing factors to include age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution. It is envisaged that herbal products that can stem this trend would be of great benefit. Garcinia kola (GK, also known as bitter kola is one of such plants. Generally used as a social snack and offered to guests in some cultural settings, bitter kola has been indicated in the treatment of laryngitis, general inflammation, bronchitis, viral infections and diabetes. In this study, the effects of methanol seed extract of Garcinia kola on the proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (VSMCs in cell culture by Angiotensin II (Ang II and LPS-induced NO production were carried out. Confluent VSMCs were exposed to GK (25, 50 and 100 μg/ml before or after treatment with lipopolyssacharide (100μg/ml, and Angiotensin II (10-8-10-6M. Cellular proliferation was determined by MTT assay and NO production by Griess assay. Treatment with Angiotensin II (10-8, 10-6 or LPS significantly enhanced proliferation of VSM cells while LPS significantly increased nitric oxide (NO production. Treatment with GK (25, 50 & 100 μg/ml attenuated VSM cell proliferation. The results indicate that GK has potential to inhibit mitogen activated vascular cell growth and possibly inhibit inflammatory responses to LPS. Thus GK may be useful in condition that is characterized by cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses.

  13. Myrciaria cauliflora extracts attenuate diabetic nephropathy involving the Ras signaling pathway in streptozotocin/nicotinamide mice on a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Chun Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is a major cause of end-stage renal disease and its mortality is continuously increasing worldwide. Previous studies indicate that reactive oxygen species play an important role in high glucose-induced renal injury. Myrciaria cauliflora has been reported as a functional food rich in anthocyanins possessing anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. This study examined whether M. cauliflora extracts (MCE can attenuate diabetic nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. First, the composition of the anthocyanins and polyphenols of MCE were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry. One hundred mg/kg of streptozotocin and 240 mg/kg nicotinamide were administered to C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet and varied concentrations of MCE. The plasma glucose concentration, body weight, oral glucose tolerance, blood pressure, renal ultrasound ultrasonic wave were monitored every 2 weeks. Following euthanasia, the kidneys of the mice were analyzed using hematoxylin–eosin, periodic acid Schiff, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemistry staining. The results showed that MCE stabilized the plasma glucose and indirectly improved insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. In addition, diabetes-caused glomerular atrophy, accumulation of saccharide, and formation of collagen IV were recovered or reduced under treatment with MCE in diabetic mice. Our results indicate that MCE has beneficial effects in DN and the mechanism has been confirmed to inhibit Ras/PI3K/Akt and kidney fibrosis related proteins. This work illustrates the potential of MCE rich in anthocyanins and polyphenols as a natural food to inhibit DN.

  14. Green tea extract attenuates muscle loss and improves muscle function during disuse, but fails to improve muscle recovery following unloading in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Brian T.; Wilson, Joseph C.; Sperringer, Justin; Mohamed, Junaith S.; Edens, Neile K.; Pereira, Suzette L.

    2014-01-01

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that green tea extract (GTE) would improve muscle recovery after reloading following disuse. Aged (32 mo) Fischer 344 Brown Norway rats were randomly assigned to receive either 14 days of hindlimb suspension (HLS) or 14 days of HLS followed by normal ambulatory function for 14 days (recovery). Additional animals served as cage controls. The rats were given GTE (50 mg/kg body wt) or water (vehicle) by gavage 7 days before and throughout the experimental periods. Compared with vehicle treatment, GTE significantly attenuated the loss of hindlimb plantaris muscle mass (−24.8% vs. −10.7%, P muscle function or mass compared with vehicle treatment, animals given green tea via gavage maintained the lower losses of muscle mass that were found during HLS (−25.2% vs. −16.0%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area loss in both plantaris (−39.9% vs. −23.9%, P muscles after HLS. This green tea-induced difference was not transient but was maintained over the reloading period for plantaris (−45.6% vs. −21.5%, P muscle fiber cross-sectional area (−38.7% vs. −10.9%, P muscles during recovery from HLS compared with vehicle-treated muscles and decreased oxidative stress and abundance of the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), yet this did not further improve muscle recovery in reloaded muscles. These data suggest that muscle recovery following disuse in aging is complex. Although satellite cell proliferation and differentiation are critical for muscle repair to occur, green tea-induced changes in satellite cell number is by itself insufficient to improve muscle recovery following a period of atrophy in old rats. PMID:25414242

  15. Cinnamon extract attenuates TNF-alpha-induced intestinal lipoprotein ApoB48 overproduction by regulating inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein pathways in enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, B; Dawson, H; Polansky, M M; Anderson, R A

    2009-07-01

    We have previously reported that the obesity-associated proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-alpha, stimulates the overproduction of intestinal apolipoprotein (apo) B48 containing lipoproteins. In the current study, we have evaluated whether a water-soluble cinnamon extract [CE (Cinnulin PF)] attenuates the dyslipidemia induced by TNF-alpha in Triton WR-1339 treated hamsters, and whether CE inhibits the oversecrection of apoB48-induced by TNF-alpha in enterocytes in a 35S labeling study. In vivo, oral treatment of Cinnulin PF (50 mg per kg BW), inhibited the postprandial overproduction of apoB48-containing lipoproteins and serum triglyceride levels. In ex vivo 35S labeling studies, CE (10 and 20 microg/ml) inhibited the oversecretion of apoB48 induced by TNF-alpha treated enterocytes into the media. To determine the molecular mechanisms, TNF-alpha treated primary enterocytes isolated from chow-fed hamsters, were incubated with CE (10 microg/ml), and the expression of the inflammatory factor genes, IL1-beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, insulin signaling pathway genes, insulin receptor (IR), IRS1, IRS2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), Akt1 and phosphatase and tensin homology (PTEN), as well as the key regulators of lipid metabolism, cluster of differentiation (CD)36, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c were evaluated. Quantitative real-time PCR assays showed that CE treatment decreased the mRNA expression of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha, improved the mRNA expression of IR, IRS1, IRS2, PI3K and Akt1, inhibited CD36, MTTP, and PTEN, and enhanced the impaired SREBP-1c expression in TNF-alpha treated enterocytes. These data suggest that a water extract of cinnamon reverses TNF-alpha-induced overproduction of intestinal apoB48 by regulating gene expression involving inflammatory, insulin, and lipoprotein signaling pathways. In conclusion, Cinulin PF improves inflammation related intestinal dyslipidemia.

  16. Protective Effects of Extracts and Flavonoids Isolated from Scutia buxifolia Reissek against Chromosome Damage in Human Lymphocytes Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mansur Machado

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids are claimed to protect against cardiovascular disease, certain forms of cancer and ageing, possibly by preventing initial DNA damage. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin and rutin isolated from the leaves from Scutia buxifolia against chromosome damage induced by H2O2 in human lymphocytes by analyzing cellular growth rate, cell viability, mitotic index and chromosomal instability. We found a differential response among the compounds tested, with the ethyl acetate fraction being more effective than the crude extract, a difference perhaps related to the presence of the antioxidants identified and quantified by HPLC/DAD. In general, quercetin, isoquercitrin and rutin recovered the mitotic index and chromosomal instability more than quercitrin after treatment with hydrogen peroxide.

  17. Extracts of Mauritian Carica papaya (var. solo) protect SW872 and HepG2 cells against hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2017-06-01

    In line with literature documenting the pluripotent activities of tropical fruits, this study evaluated the antioxidant effects of Carica papaya fruit extracts at cellular level. Investigations using cellular models of oxidative stress provided complementary evidence of the antioxidant activities of papaya fruit. At 2 mg dry weight ml-1, extracts of seed from ripe and unripe fruit significantly reduced oxidative stress levels within human pre-adipocytes (SW872) and hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Maintenance of mitochondrial viability, reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and mediation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretory levels (tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) were all indicative of its cytoprotective effects against oxidative-inflammation. This work demonstrates that the Mauritian Solo papaya is an important source of natural antioxidants that could be used for the dietary modulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  18. Chamomile decoction extract inhibits human neutrophils ROS production and attenuates alcohol-induced haematological parameters changes and erythrocytes oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, Mohamed-Amine; Sani, Mamane; Rtibi, Kais; Marzouki, Lamjed; El-Benna, Jamel; Sakly, Mohsen; Sebai, Hichem

    2016-03-31

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of subacute pre-treatment with chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) decoction extract (CDE) against stimulated neutrophils ROS production as well as ethanol (EtOH)-induced haematological changes and erythrocytes oxidative stress in rat. Neutrophils were isolated and ROS generation was measured by luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. Superoxide anion generation was detected by the cytochrome c reduction assay. Adult male wistar rats were used and divided into six groups of ten each: control, EtOH, EtOH + various doses of CDE (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, b.w.), and EtOH+ ascorbic acid (AA). Animals were pre-treated with CDE extract during 10 days. We found that CDE inhibited (P ≤ 0.0003) luminol-amplified chemiluminescence of resting neutrophils and N-formyl methionylleucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) or phorbolmyristate acetate (PMA) stimulated neutrophils, in a dose-dependent manner. CDE had no effect on superoxide anion, but it inhibited (P ≤ 0.0004) H2O2 production in cell free system. In vivo, CDE counteracted (P ≤ 0.0034) the effect of single EtOH administration which induced (P < 0.0001) an increase of white blood cells (WBC) and platelets (PLT) counts. Our results also demonstrated that alcohol administration significantly (P < 0.0001) induced erythrocytes lipoperoxidation increase and depletion of sulfhydryl groups (-SH) content as well as antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). More importantly, we found that acute alcohol administration increased (P < 0.0001) erythrocytes and plasma hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), free iron, and calcium levels while the CDE pre-treatment reversed increased (P ≤ 0.0051) all these intracellular disturbances. These findings suggest that CDE inhibits neutrophil ROS production and protects against EtOH-induced haematologiacal parameters changes and erythrocytes oxidative stress. The haematoprotection offered

  19. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  20. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This one year effort had four aspects; complete and document the calibrated spectral intensity of a hydrogen flame, understand the role of atmospheric attenuation on...

  1. DNA Protecting Activities of Nymphaea nouchali (Burm. f Flower Extract Attenuate t-BHP-Induced Oxidative Stress Cell Death through Nrf2-Mediated Induction of Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression by Activating MAP-Kinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Badrul Alam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the antioxidant activities of Nymphaea nouchali flower (NNF extract and the underlying mechanism using RAW 264.7 cells. The presence of gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, epicatechin gallate, caffeic acid, quercetin, and apigenin in the NNF was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The extract had a very potent capacity to scavenge numerous free radicals. NNF extract was also able to prevent DNA damage and quench cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation induced by tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP with no signs of toxicity. The NNF extract was able to augment the expression of both primary and phase II detoxifying enzyme, resulting in combat the oxidative stress. This is accomplished by phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase (p38 kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK followed by enhancing the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. This attenuates cellular ROS generation and confers protection from cell death. Altogether, the results of current study revealed that Nymphaea nouchali flower could be a source of natural phytochemicals that could lead to the development of new therapeutic agents for preventing oxidative stress associated diseases and attenuating disease progression.

  2. Supplementing with Opuntia ficus-indica Mill and Dioscorea nipponica Makino extracts synergistically attenuates menopausal symptoms in estrogen-deficient rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Byoung-Seob; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Da Sol; Kang, Suna; Ryuk, Jin Ah; Park, Sunmin

    2014-08-08

    Prickly pear cactus grown in Korea (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill, KC) and Buchema (Dioscorea nipponica Makino, B) have been traditionally used in East Asia and South America to treat various metabolic diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the extracts of KC, B, and KC+B can prevent the impairments of energy, glucose, lipid and bone homeostasis in estrogen-deficient ovariectomized (OVX) rats and to explore their mechanisms. OVX rats were divided into 4 groups and fed high fat diets supplemented with either 3% dextrin (control), 3% KC, 3% B or 1.5% KC+1.5% B. Sham rats were fed 3% dextrin. After 12 weeks of diet consumption, energy, lipid, glucose and bone metabolisms were analyzed and Wnt signaling in the femur and hepatic signaling were determined. OVX impaired energy, glucose and lipid metabolism and decreased uterine and bone masses. B and KC+B prevented the decrease in energy expenditure, especially from fat oxidation, in OVX rats, but did not affect food intake. KC+B and B reduced body weight and visceral fat levels, as compared to the OVX-control, by decreasing fat synthesis and inhibiting FAS and SREBP-1c expression. KC+B and B prevented the increases in serum lipid levels and insulin resistance by improving hepatic insulin signaling (pIRS→pAkt→pGSK-3β). KC and KC+B also prevented decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) in the femur and lumbar spine in OVX rats. This was related to decreased expressions of bone turnover markers such as serum osteocalcin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone-specific ALP levels, and increased serum P levels. KC and KC+B upregulated low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 and β-catenin in OVX rats, but suppressed the expression of dickkopf-related protein 1. B alone improved energy, lipid and glucose homeostasis, but not bone loss, whereas KC alone enhanced BMD, but not energy, lipid or glucose homeostasis. KC+B synergistically attenuated impairments of bone, energy, lipid and glucose

  3. Significant enhanced uranyl ions extraction efficiency with phosphoramidate-functionalized ionic liquids via synergistic effect of coordination and hydrogen bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiang; Qin, Zhen; He, Yao; Xiong, Penghui; Huang, Zeng; Mao, Yiwu; Wei, Hongyuan; Zhuo, Liangang

    2017-11-16

    The influence of the linking group between the phosphoryl and bridging moieties in phosphoryl-containing task-specific ionic liquids (TSILs) on the extraction of uranyl ions was experimentally and theoretically investigated. A novel phosphoramidate-based TSIL with an amine group as the linking moiety resulted in a higher uranyl ion extraction efficiency compared with that of other phosphoryl-based TSILs. A distribution ratio of 4999 ± 51 can be achieved for uranyl ions. The uranyl ions (76.7 ± 1.5%) were stripped from the loaded ionic liquid phase in a single stage using 0.05 M diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid in a 1.0 M guanidine carbonate solution. The extraction stoichiometry of the uranyl ions was determined by a slope analysis of the extraction data. Furthermore, the fundamental nature of the interaction between the phosphoramidate-based TSIL and uranyl ions was theoretically studied for the first time. The theoretical calculations demonstrated that the synergistic effect of the complexation interaction and H-bond formation between the phosphoramidate-functional ionic liquid and uranyl nitrate led to the higher extraction efficiency. These results provide a basis for rational design, synthesis and potential applications of novel TSILs for uranyl extraction.

  4. Hydrogen transport membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael V.

    2005-05-31

    Composite hydrogen transport membranes, which are used for extraction of hydrogen from gas mixtures are provided. Methods are described for supporting metals and metal alloys which have high hydrogen permeability, but which are either too thin to be self supporting, too weak to resist differential pressures across the membrane, or which become embrittled by hydrogen. Support materials are chosen to be lattice matched to the metals and metal alloys. Preferred metals with high permeability for hydrogen include vanadium, niobium, tantalum, zirconium, palladium, and alloys thereof. Hydrogen-permeable membranes include those in which the pores of a porous support matrix are blocked by hydrogen-permeable metals and metal alloys, those in which the pores of a porous metal matrix are blocked with materials which make the membrane impervious to gases other than hydrogen, and cermets fabricated by sintering powders of metals with powders of lattice-matched ceramic.

  5. Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  6. Brazilian Green Propolis Extract Synergizes with Protoporphyrin IX-mediated Photodynamic Therapy via Enhancement of Intracellular Accumulation of Protoporphyrin IX and Attenuation of NF-κB and COX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Cheng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian green propolis (BGP is noted for its impressive antitumor effects and has been used as a folk medicine in various cultures for many years. It has been demonstrated that BGP could enhance the cytotoxic effect of cytostatic drugs on tumor cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is a therapeutic approach used against malignant cells. To assess the synergistic effect of BGP extract on protoporphyrin IX (PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity, MTT assays were performed using A431 and HeLa cells. TUNEL assay and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining were performed to confirm the induction of apoptosis. Western blotting analysis was performed to examine the pro-apoptotic proteins, anti-apoptotic proteins and inflammation related proteins in A431 cells. Intracellular accumulation of PpIX was examined by flow cytometry. The synergistic effect of BGP extract in PpIX-PDT was also evaluated with a xenograft model. Our findings reveal that BGP extract increased PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity in A431 and HeLa cells. PpIX-PDT with BGP extract treatment resulted in a decrease in Bcl-xL and an increase in NOXA, Bax and caspase-3 cleavage. The protein expression levels of p-IKKα/β, NF-κB and COX-2 were upregulated by PpIX-PDT but significantly attenuated when in combination with BGP extract. BGP extract was also found to significantly enhance the intracellular accumulation of PpIX in A431 cells. BGP extract increased PpIX-mediated photocytotoxicity in a xenograft model as well. Our findings provide evidence for a synergistic effect of BGP extract in PpIX-PDT both in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Rhodiola rosea extract protects human cortical neurons against glutamate and hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death through reduction in the accumulation of intracellular calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Dora Rita; Occhiuto, Francesco; Spadaro, Federica; Circosta, Clara

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of a titolated extract from Rhodiola rosea L. (RrE) and of salidroside (Sa), one of the major biologically active compounds extracted from this medicinal plant, against oxidative stressor hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and glutamate (GLU)-induced cell apoptosis in a human cortical cell line (HCN 1-A) maintained in culture. The results obtained indicate that exposure of differentiated HCN 1-A neurons to GLU or H₂O₂ resulted in concentration-dependent cell death. A 24 h pre-treatment with RrE significantly increased cell survival and significantly prevented the plasma membrane damage and the morphological disruption caused by GLU or H₂O₂, indicating that neurons treated with RrE were protected from the neurotoxicity induced by the oxidative stressor used. In addition, RrE significantly reduced H₂O₂ or GLU-induced elevation of intracellular free Ca²⁺ concentration. The results obtained have also shown that Sa caused similar effects in all experimental models used; however, the potency of the action was lower than that of the extract containing corresponding quantities of Sa. These findings indicate that RrE has a neuroprotective effect in cortical neurons and suggest that the antioxidant activity of the RrE, due to the structural features of the synergic active principles they contain, may be responsible for its ability to stabilize cellular Ca²⁺ homeostasis. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Distribution of micro-amounts of europium in the two-phase water–HCl–nitrobenzene–N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-diphenyl-2,6-di-picolinamide–hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate extraction system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMANUEL MAKRLÍK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of micro-amounts of europium by a nitrobenzene solution of hydrogen dicarbollylcobaltate (H+B- in the presence of N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-diphenyl-2,6-dipicolinamide (MePhDPA, L was investigated. The equilibrium data were explained assuming that the species HL+, HL+2, HL3+2 and HL3+3 are extracted into the organic phase. The values of the extraction and stability constants of the species in nitrobenzene saturated with water were determined.

  9. Ulmus macrocarpa Hance Extracts Attenuated H₂O₂ and UVB-Induced Skin Photo-Aging by Activating Antioxidant Enzymes and Inhibiting MAPK Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sun-Il; Lee, Jin-Ha; Kim, Jae-Min; Jung, Tae-Dong; Cho, Bong-Yeon; Choi, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Dae-Won; Kim, Jinkyung; Kim, Jong-Yea; Lee, Ok-Hawn

    2017-06-05

    To protect from reactive oxygen species (ROS) damages, skin cells have evolved to have antioxidant enzymes, such as copper and zinc-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD1), mitochondrial manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (SOD2), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR), and suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, such as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38. Bioactive compounds analyses were performed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) system. The antioxidant activity of Ulmus macrocarpa Hance (UMH) extracts was estimated in vitro. The anti-aging activity of UMH extracts was estimated in vivo using the SKH-1 hairless mice. The UMH extracts reduced the H₂O₂-induced intracellular ROS production and the cell damages in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Moreover, the H₂O₂-induced phosphorylation of JNK and p38 was detected in HDF and UMH extracts blocked the phosphorylation. These results suggest that UMH extracts can reduce the expression of MMPs and the reduced MMPs lead to the inhibition of collagen degradation. In addition, oral administration of the UMH extracts decreased the depth, thickness, and length of wrinkles on UVB exposed hairless mice. Therefore, UMH extracts play an advantage of the functional materials in antioxidant and anti-aging of skin.

  10. Extract from Armoracia rusticana and its flavonoid components protect human lymphocytes against oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafrikova, Michala; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Imreova, Petronela; Mucaji, Pavel; Miadokova, Eva

    2014-03-14

    DNA damage prevention is an important mechanism involved in cancer prevention by dietary compounds. Armoracia rusticana is cultivated mainly for its roots that are used in the human diet as a pungent spice. The roots represent rich sources of biologically active phytocompounds, which are beneficial for humans. In this study we investigated the modulation of H₂O₂ genotoxicity using the A. rusticana root aqueous extract (AE) and two flavonoids (kaempferol or quercetin). Human lymphocytes pre-treated with AE, kaempferol and quercetin were challenged with H₂O₂ and the DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay. At first we assessed a non-genotoxic concentration of AE and flavonoids, respectively. In lymphocytes challenged with H₂O₂ we proved that the 0.0025 mg·mL⁻¹ concentration of AE protected human DNA. It significantly reduced H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage (from 78% to 35.75%). Similarly, a non-genotoxic concentration of kaempferol (5 μg·mL⁻¹) significantly diminished oxidative DNA damage (from 83.3% to 19.4%), and the same concentration of quercetin also reduced the genotoxic effect of H₂O₂ (from 83.3% to 16.2%). We conclude that AE, kaempferol and quercetin probably act as antimutagens. The molecular mechanisms underlying their antimutagenic activity might be explained by their antioxidant properties.

  11. Turkish Scorzonera Species Extracts Attenuate Cytokine Secretion via Inhibition of NF-κB Activation, Showing Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır Acikara, Özlem; Hošek, Jan; Babula, Petr; Cvačka, Josef; Budešínský, Miloš; Dračinský, Martin; Saltan İşcan, Gülçin; Kadlecová, Daniela; Ballová, Ludmila; Šmejkal, Karel

    2015-12-30

    Scorzonera species are used in different folk medicines to combat many diseases, including the illnesses connected with inflammation. Previous experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of Scorzonera extracts in vivo. S. latifolia, S. cana var. jacquiniana, S. tomentosa, S. mollis ssp. szowitsii, S. eriophora, S. incisa, S. cinerea, and S. parviflora extracts were, therefore, evaluated for their inhibitory activities of TNF-α and IL-1β production, and NF-κB nuclear translocation in THP-1 macrophages. The HPLC analysis was carried out to elucidate and to compare the composition of these extracts. Major compounds of the tested extracts have been isolated using different chromatographic techniques and further tested for their inhibitory activities on TNF-α and IL-1β production. Several extracts showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in these in vitro tests. Results of HPLC analysis revealed chlorogenic acid as a compound present in all tested extracts. Hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside and rutin were also present in varying amount in some Scorzonera species analyzed. Furthermore, eight phenolics which were identified as quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (1), hyperoside (2), hydrangenol-8-O-glucoside (3), swertisin (4), 7-methylisoorientin (5), 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid (6), 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid (7), and chlorogenic acid (8) have been isolated as major phenolic compounds of the tested extracts and, together with eight terpenoids (9-16) previously obtained from different Scorzonera species, have been tested for the inhibition of TNF-α production, unfortunately with no activity comparable with standard.

  12. Turkish Scorzonera Species Extracts Attenuate Cytokine Secretion via Inhibition of NF-κB Activation, Showing Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Bahadır Acikara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scorzonera species are used in different folk medicines to combat many diseases, including the illnesses connected with inflammation. Previous experiments showed anti-inflammatory activity of Scorzonera extracts in vivo. S. latifolia, S. cana var. jacquiniana, S. tomentosa, S. mollis ssp. szowitsii, S. eriophora, S. incisa, S. cinerea, and S. parviflora extracts were, therefore, evaluated for their inhibitory activities of TNF-α and IL-1β production, and NF-κB nuclear translocation in THP-1 macrophages. The HPLC analysis was carried out to elucidate and to compare the composition of these extracts. Major compounds of the tested extracts have been isolated using different chromatographic techniques and further tested for their inhibitory activities on TNF-α and IL-1β production. Several extracts showed promising anti-inflammatory activity in these in vitro tests. Results of HPLC analysis revealed chlorogenic acid as a compound present in all tested extracts. Hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside and rutin were also present in varying amount in some Scorzonera species analyzed. Furthermore, eight phenolics which were identified as quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (1, hyperoside (2, hydrangenol-8-O-glucoside (3, swertisin (4, 7-methylisoorientin (5, 4,5-O-dicaffeoyl-quinic acid (6, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl-quinic acid (7, and chlorogenic acid (8 have been isolated as major phenolic compounds of the tested extracts and, together with eight terpenoids (9–16 previously obtained from different Scorzonera species, have been tested for the inhibition of TNF-α production, unfortunately with no activity comparable with standard.

  13. Rhodium nanoparticle-modified screen-printed graphite electrodes for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in tea extracts in the presence of oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatselou, Vasiliki A; Giokas, Dimothenis L; Vlessidis, Athanasios G; Prodromidis, Mamas I

    2015-03-01

    In this work we describe the fabrication of nanostructured electrocatalytic surfaces based on polyethyleneimine (PEI)-supported rhodium nanoparticles (Rh-NP) over graphite screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in the presence of oxygen. Rh-NP, electrostatically stabilized by citrate anions, were immobilized over graphite SPEs, through coulombic attraction on a thin film of positively charged PEI. The functionalized sensors, polarized at 0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3 M KCl, exhibited a linear response to H2O2 over the concentration range from 5 to 600 μmol L(-1) H2O2 in the presence of oxygen. The 3σ limit of detection was 2 μmol L(-1) H2O2, while the reproducibility of the method at the concentration level of 10 μmol L(-1) H2O2 (n=10) and between different sensors (n=4) was lower than 3 and 5%, respectively. Most importantly, the sensors showed an excellent working and storage stability at ambient conditions and they were successfully applied to the determination of H2O2 produced by autooxidation of polylphenols in tea extracts with ageing. Recovery rates ranged between 97 and 104% suggesting that the as-prepared electrodes can be used for the development of small-scale, low-cost chemical sensors for use in on-site applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyphenol-rich apple (Malus domestica L.) peel extract attenuates arsenic trioxide induced cardiotoxicity in H9c2 cells via its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineetha, Vadavanath Prabhakaran; Girija, Seetharaman; Soumya, Rema Sreenivasan; Raghu, Kozhiparambil Gopalan

    2014-03-01

    Evidences suggest that apple peel has a wide range of polyphenols having antioxidant activity and its consumption has been linked with improved health benefits. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) is a very effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) but it leads to cardiotoxicity mediated through alterations in various cardiac ion channels and by increasing the intracellular calcium level and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of methanolic extract of apple peel (APME) and aqueous extract of apple peel (APAE) on ATO (5 μM) induced toxicity in the H9c2 cardiac myoblast cell line. We estimated the cellular status of innate antioxidant enzymes, level of ROS, mitochondrial superoxide, glutathione and intracellular calcium with ATO and apple peel extracts. Prior to the cell line based study, we had evaluated the antioxidant potential of apple peel extract by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), total reducing power (TRP), superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, in addition to quantifying total phenolic and flavonoid content. Both the extracts showed considerable antioxidant activity in cell-free chemical assays. In addition, both APME and APAE prevented the alteration in antioxidant status induced by ATO in H9c2 cells. Significant differential alterations had been observed in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, xanthine oxidase, calcium overload and caspase 3 activity with ATO. The overall result revealed the protective property of polyphenol-rich apple peel extract against ATO induced cardiac toxicity via its antioxidant activity.

  15. Attenuation of Biochemical, Haematological and Histological Indices of Alloxan Toxicity in Male Rats by Aqueous Extract of Fadogia agrestis (Schweinf. Ex Hiern) Stem

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Toyin Yakubu; Olalekan Bukunmi Ogunro; Oluwayemisi Beatrice Ojewuyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effects of aqueous extract of Fadogia agrestis stem at the doses of 18, 36, and 72 mg/kg body weight on alloxan-induced toxicity was investigated in Wistar rats. Methods: In total, 35 rats of both sexes (132.80±7.22g) were randomized into five groups (A-E): animals in group A received 0.5 ml of distilled water orally on daily basis for 15 days while the alloxanized rats in groups B, C, D and E also received orally 0.5 ml of distilled water and same volume of the extract cor...

  16. A procyanidin type A trimer from cinnamon extract attenuates glial cell swelling and the reduction in glutamate uptake following ischemic injury in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary polyphenols exert neuroprotective effects in ischemic injury. The protective effects of a procyanidin type A trimer (trimer 1) isolated from a water soluble cinnamon extract (CE) were investigated on key features of ischemic injury including cell swelling, increased free radical production, ...

  17. Attenuating effect of Acorus calamus extract in chronic constriction injury induced neuropathic pain in rats: an evidence of anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nirmal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acorus calamus (family: Araceae, is an indigenous plant, traditionally it is used as an ingredient of various cocktail preparations and for the management of severe inflammatory disorders in Indian system of medicine. Present study investigated the attenuating role of Acorus calamus plant extract in chronic constriction injury (CCI of sciatic nerve induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. Methods Hot plate, plantar, Randall Selitto, Von Frey Hair, pin prick, acetone drop, photoactometer and rota-rod tests were performed to assess degree of thermal, radiant, mechanical, chemical sensation, spontaneous motor activity and motor co-ordination changes respectively, at different time intervals i.e., day 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Tissue myeloperoxidase, superoxide anion and total calcium levels were determined after 21st day to assess biochemical alterations. Histopathological evaluations were also performed. Hydroalcoholic extract of Acorus calamus (HAE-AC, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. and pregabalin (10 mg/kg, p.o. were administered from the day of surgery for 14 days. Results CCI of sciatic nerve significantly induced thermal, radiant, mechanical hyperalgesia and thermal, chemical, tactile allodynia, along with increase in the levels of superoxide anion, total calcium and myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover significant histological changes were also observed. HAE-AC attenuated CCI induced development of painful behavioural, biochemical and histological changes in a dose dependent manner similar to that of pregabalin serving as positive control. Conclusions Acorus calamus prevented CCI induced neuropathy which may be attributed to its multiple actions including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and calcium inhibitory actions.

  18. Anti-quorum Sensing and Anti-biofilm Activity of Delftia tsuruhatensis Extract by Attenuating the Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay K. Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistance bacteria commonly use cell-to-cell communication that leads to biofilm formation as one of the mechanisms for developing resistance. Quorum sensing inhibition (QSI is an effective approach for the prevention of biofilm formation. A Gram-negative bacterium, Delftia tsuruhatensis SJ01, was isolated from the rhizosphere of a species of sedge (Cyperus laevigatus grown along the coastal-saline area. The isolate SJ01 culture and bacterial crude extract showed QSI activity in the biosensor plate containing the reference strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. A decrease in the violacein production of approximately 98% was detected with the reference strain C. violaceum CV026. The bacterial extract (strain SJ01 exhibited anti-quorum sensing activity and inhibited the biofilm formation of clinical isolates wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and P. aeruginosa PAH. A non-toxic effect of the bacterial extract (SJ01 was detected on the cell growth of the reference strains as P. aeruginosa viable cells were present within the biofilm. It is hypothesized that the extract (SJ01 may change the topography of the biofilm and thus prevent bacterial adherence on the biofilm surface. The extract also inhibits the motility, virulence factors (pyocyanin and rhamnolipid and activity (elastase and protease in P. aeruginosa treated with SJ01 extract. The potential active compound present was identified as 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. Microarray and transcript expression analysis unveiled differential expression of quorum sensing regulatory genes. The key regulatory genes, LasI, LasR, RhlI, and RhlR were down-regulated in the P. aeruginosa analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. A hypothetical model was generated of the transcriptional regulatory mechanism inferred in P. aeruginosa for quorum sensing, which will provide useful insight to develop preventive strategies against the biofilm formation. The potential active compound identified

  19. Hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  20. The beneficial effect of ginsenosides extracted by pulsed electric field against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HEK-293 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Liu

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the antioxidative effect of ginsenosides extracted by PEF in vitro. Furthermore, rather than SCSE, PEF may be more useful as an alternative extraction technique for the extraction of ginsenosides with enhanced antioxidant activity.

  1. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Raphanus sativus L. var niger attenuates bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing transforming growth factor β1 level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari, Mohammad Hossein; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Nazarizadeh, Ali; Mikaili, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of the lungs, which leads to death in human. It has been suggested that transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) together with oxidative stress play a central role in the pathogenesis of the ailment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible curative effects of black radish, Raphanus sativus L. var niger (RSN) on bleomycine (BLM) -induced pulmonary fibrosis in a rat model. In this study, thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into six groups, including: (I) positive (BLM) control group, (II) negative (normal saline) control group, (III) sham group (R. sativus extract 150 mg/kg), and (IV-VI) treatment groups. In order to induce pulmonary fibrosis, four groups were treated with a single dose of BLM sulfate (7.5 U/kg) through intratracheal instillation. Treatment groups (IV-VI) received RSN extract (75, 150, and 300 mg/kg) orally a week before and two weeks after the administration of BLM. At the end of the treatment course, blood and lung tissue samples were taken and the measurement of TGF-β1 and histopathological examination of the lung tissues performed. The results showed that RSN, at 300 mg/kg dose, could significantly decrease the serum level of TGF-β1 and severity of the histological lesions as compared to the positive control group. The results of the current study indicate that the components present in the extract can remarkably prevent the aggravation of pulmonary fibrosis via decreasing TGF-β1 level.

  2. Cuminum cyminum extract attenuates scopolamine-induced memory loss and stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in rats: a noninvasive biochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Sushruta; Choi, Dong Kug

    2011-07-01

    Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Apiaceae), cumin, is a popular spice with a long history of medicinal use to treat various symptoms such as diarrhea, flatulence, gynecological, and respiratory diseases. To date, no scientific investigation was reported regarding memory-enhancing and antistress activity of cumin fruits. The present study deals with the memory-enhancing and antistress activities and further the antioxidant status via lipid peroxidation inhibition. Antistress activity was evaluated by inducing stress via forced swimming and the urinary vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) and ascorbic acid were estimated as biomarkers. Memory-enhancing activity was studied by conditioned avoidance response using Cook's pole climbing apparatus in normal and scopolamine-induced amnestic rats. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay was used to evaluate the lipid peroxidation. Daily administration of cumin at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight 1 h prior to induction of stress inhibited the stress-induced urinary biochemical changes in a dose-dependent manner without altering the levels in normal control groups. The cognition, as determined by the acquisition, retention, and recovery in rats, was observed to be dose-dependent. The extract also produced significant lipid peroxidation inhibition in comparison with known antioxidant ascorbic acid in both rat liver and brain. This study provides scientific support for the antistress, antioxidant, and memory-enhancing activities of cumin extract and substantiates that its traditional use as a culinary spice in foods is beneficial and scientific in combating stress and related disorders.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit Leaf Extracts: Remarkable Attenuations of Hyperglycemia and Hyperlipidemia in Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidy S. Omar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit leaf extracts (JFEs. The 70% ethanol (JFEE, n-butanol (JFBE, water (JFWE, chloroform (JFCE, and ethyl acetate (JFEAE extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 μU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.91 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE and by +11% (JFBE. Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  4. Antioxidant activity of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Jack Fruit) leaf extracts: remarkable attenuations of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Haidy S; El-Beshbishy, Hesham A; Moussa, Ziad; Taha, Kamilia F; Singab, Abdel Nasser B

    2011-04-05

    The present study examines the antioxidative, hypoglycemic, and hypolipidemic activities of Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack fruit) leaf extracts (JFEs). The 70% ethanol (JFEE), n-butanol (JFBE), water (JFWE), chloroform (JFCE), and ethyl acetate (JFEAE) extracts were obtained. Both JFEE and JFBE markedly scavenge diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical and chelate Fe+2 in vitro. A compound was isolated from JFBE and identified using 1D and 2D 1H- and 13C-NMR. The administration of JFEE or JFBE to streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats significantly reduced fasting blood glucose (FBG) from 200 to 56 and 79 mg%, respectively; elevated insulin from 10.8 to 19.5 and 15.1 µU/ml, respectively; decreased lipid peroxides from 7.3 to 5.4 and 5.9 nmol/ml, respectively; decreased %glycosylated hemoglobin A1C (%HbA1C) from 6.8 to 4.5 and 5.0%, respectively; and increased total protein content from 2.5 to 6.3 and 5.7 mg%, respectively. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), VLDL-C, and LDL/HDL ratio significantly declined by -37, -19, -23, -37, and -39%, respectively, in the case of JFEE; and by -31, -14, -17, -31, and -25%, respectively, in the case of JFBE; as compared to diabetic rats. HDL-C increased by +37% (JFEE) and by +11% (JFBE). Both JFEE and JFBE have shown appreciable results in decreasing FBG, lipid peroxides, %HbA1C, TC, LDL-C, and TG levels, and increasing insulin, HDL-C, and protein content. The spectrometric analysis confirmed that the flavonoid isolated from JFBE was isoquercitrin. We can conclude from this study that JFEE and JFBE exert hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in STZ-diabetic rats through an antioxidative pathway that might be referred to their flavonoid contents.

  5. Flagella overexpression attenuates Salmonella pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghong Yang

    Full Text Available Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE, was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC's adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge.

  6. Flagella Overexpression Attenuates Salmonella Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Suo, Zhiyong; Jun, SangMu; Robison, Amanda; Li, Jinquan; Lim, Timothy; Cao, Ling; Hoyt, Teri; Avci, Recep; Pascual, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to discern whether flagella overexpression could induce similar attenuation. To test its feasibility, flagellar filament subunit FliC and flagellar regulon master regulator FlhDC were overexpressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium wild-type strain H71. The results show that the expression of either FliC or FlhDC alone, and co-expression of the two, significantly attenuates Salmonella. The flagellated bacilli were unable to replicate within macrophages and thus were not lethal to mice. In-depth investigation suggests that flagellum-mediated AGE was due to the disruptive effects of flagella on the bacterial membrane, resulting in heightened susceptibilities to hydrogen peroxide and bile. Furthermore, flagellum-attenuated Salmonella elicited elevated immune responses to Salmonella presumably via FliC’s adjuvant effect and conferred robust protection against wild-type Salmonella challenge. PMID:23056473

  7. Analysis of trace levels of impurities and hydrogen isotopes in helium purge gas using gas chromatography for tritium extraction system of an Indian lead lithium ceramic breeder test blanket module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V Gayathri; Sircar, Amit; Yadav, Deepak; Parmar, Jayraj

    2018-01-12

    In the fusion fuel cycle, the accurate analysis and understanding of the chemical composition of any gas mixture is of great importance for the efficient design of a tritium extraction and purification system or any tritium handling system. Methods like laser Raman spectroscopy and gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector have been considered for hydrogen isotopes analyses in fuel cycles. Gas chromatography with a cryogenic separation column has been used for the analysis of hydrogen isotopes gas mixtures in general due to its high reliability and ease of operation. Hydrogen isotopes gas mixture analysis with cryogenic columns has been reported earlier using different column materials for percentage level composition. In the present work, trace levels of hydrogen isotopes (∼100 ppm of H 2 and D 2 ) have been analyzed with a Zeolite 5A and a modified γ-Al 2 O 3 column. Impurities in He gas (∼10 ppm of H 2 , O 2 , and N 2 ) have been analyzed using a Zeolite 13-X column. Gas chromatography with discharge ionization detection has been utilized for this purpose. The results of these experiments suggest that the columns developed were able to separate ppm levels of the desired components with a small response time (<6 min) and good resolution in both cases. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The ethanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet Smith attenuates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in hamsters fed on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia Ju; Liou, Shorong-Shii; Tzeng, Thing-Fong; Liu, I-Min

    2014-03-01

    The beneficial effects of the ethanol extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome (EEZZR) for use in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. Syrian golden hamsters were fed a high-fat diet to induce NAFLD. EEZZR (100, 200, or 300mg/kg) were orally administered by gavage once daily for 8weeks. The higher plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, and hepatic lipids, as well as the degree of insulin resistance were lowered by EEZZR. Histological evaluation of liver specimens demonstrated that the hepatic steatosis of EEZZR-treated groups was improved. EEZZR decreased hepatic mRNA levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and its lipogenic target genes. The hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α, together with its target genes responsible for β-oxidation of fatty acids were also upregulated by EEZZR. In conclusion, these findings suggest that EEZZR has the promising potential to ameliorate NAFLD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ye Jin; Choi, Ji-Young; Ryu, Ri; Lee, Jeonghyeon; Cho, Su-Jung; Kwon, Eun-Young; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Rina, Yu; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Choi, Myung-Sook

    2016-08-30

    The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE), which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males) were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat), high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat), and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w) PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1), that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  10. Platycodon grandiflorus Root Extract Attenuates Body Fat Mass, Hepatic Steatosis and Insulin Resistance through the Interplay between the Liver and Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Jin Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Platycodon grandiflorus root, a Korean medicinal food, is well known to have beneficial effects on obesity and diabetes. In this study, we demonstrated the metabolic effects of P. grandiflorus root ethanol extract (PGE, which is rich in platycodins, on diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice (four-week-old males were fed a normal diet (16.58% of kilocalories from fat, high-fat diet (HFD, 60% of kilocalories from fat, and HFD supplemented with 5% (w/w PGE. In the HFD-fed mice, PGE markedly suppressed the body weight gain and white fat mass to normal control level, with simultaneous increase in the expression of thermogenic genes (such as SIRT1, PPARα, PGC1α, and UCP1, that accompanied changes in fatty acid oxidation (FAO and energy expenditure. In addition, PGE improved insulin sensitivity through activation of the PPARγ expression, which upregulates adiponectin while decreasing leptin gene expression in adipocytes. Furthermore, PGE improved hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic lipogenesis while increasing expression of FAO-associated genes such as PGC1α. PGE normalized body fat and body weight, which is likely associated with the increased energy expenditure and thermogenic gene expression. PGE can protect from HFD-induced insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis by controlling lipid and glucose metabolism.

  11. Olive Leaf Extract Attenuates Obesity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice by Modulating the Expression of Molecules Involved in Adipogenesis and Thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate whether olive leaf extract (OLE prevents high-fat diet (HFD-induced obesity in mice and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Mice were randomly divided into groups that received a chow diet (CD, HFD, or 0.15% OLE-supplemented diet (OLD for 8 weeks. OLD-fed mice showed significantly reduced body weight gain, visceral fat-pad weights, and plasma lipid levels as compared with HFD-fed mice. OLE significantly reversed the HFD-induced upregulation of WNT10b- and galanin-mediated signaling molecules and key adipogenic genes (PPARγ, C/EBPα, CD36, FAS, and leptin in the epididymal adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, the HFD-induced downregulation of thermogenic genes involved in uncoupled respiration (SIRT1, PGC1α, and UCP1 and mitochondrial biogenesis (TFAM, NRF-1, and COX2 was also significantly reversed by OLE. These results suggest that OLE exerts beneficial effects against obesity by regulating the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and thermogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of HFD-fed mice.

  12. A water extract of Samchulkunbi-tang attenuates airway inflammation by inhibiting inos and MMP-9 activities in an ovalbumin-induced murine asthma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Mee Young

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigated the effect of Samchulkunbi-tang water extract (SCTE in an established mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA-induced allergic asthma. The effects of SCTE on the production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, eotaxin, and total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E, inducible nitric oxide synthase expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity were measured. Methods Mice were sensitized on days 0 and 14 with an intraperitoneal injection of 20 μg ovalbumin (OVA emulsified in 2 mg aluminum hydroxide in 200 μL PBS buffer. On days 21, 22, and 23, mice received an airway exposure to OVA (1%, w/v, in PBS for 1 h. SCTE was administered orally to mice at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg per day from days 18 to 23. Results SCTE reduced the number of inflammatory cells, cytokines, and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids and iNOS expression and MMP-9 activity in mouse lung tissue. Histological studies using hematoxylin & eosin and periodic acid-schiff staining showed that SCTE substantially inhibited OVA-induced inflammatory cell infiltration in lung tissue and goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway. SCTE also reduced IL-4 and IL-13 expression in concanavalin-A-stimulated splenocytes. These results were similar to those obtained with montelukast as a positive control. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that SCTE may be an effective oral treatment for allergic airway inflammation by virtue of its anti-inflammatory activity.

  13. ESP-102, a Combined Herbal Extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, Changes Synaptic Plasticity and Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rat Hippocampus Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Bum; Hwang, Eun-Sang; Choi, Ga-Young; Lee, Seok; Park, Tae-Suk; Lee, Cheol-Won; Lee, Eun-Suk; Kim, Young-Choong; Kim, Sang Seong; Lee, Sung-Ok; Park, Ji-Ho

    2016-01-01

    ESP-102, an extract from Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, has been used as herbal medicine and dietary supplement in Korea. Despite the numerous bioactivities in vitro and in vivo studies, its effects on neuronal networks remain elusive. To address the neuronal effect, we examined synaptic plasticity in organotypic hippocampal slice culture with multielectrode array. Our results showed an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), indicating the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), in the presence of ESP-102. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of ESP-102 was also tested by application of scopolamine to the hippocampal slice. Interestingly, ESP-102 competitively antagonized the preventative LTP effect induced by scopolamine. The scopolamine-induced reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and GluR-2 expression was also rescued by ESP-102. In terms of mode of action, ESP-102 appears to act on the presynaptic region independent of AMPA/NMDA receptors. Based on these findings, ESP-102 can be suggested as a novel herbal ingredient with memory enhancing as well as neuroprotective effects.

  14. Chrysanthemum morifolium extract attenuates high-fat milk-induced fatty liver through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α-mediated mechanism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Wang, Xiaoli; Xue, Jie; Liu, Jiangyun; Xie, Meilin

    2014-03-01

    Some polyphenols derived from plants may ameliorate hyperlipidemic fatty livers; therefore, we hypothesized that polyphenol-rich Chrysanthemum morifolium extract (CME) may exert an inhibitory effect on the formation of hyperlipidemic fatty livers in mice. This study aimed to examine the effects of CME on lipids in blood and liver and on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α-mediated gene expression. Mice with hyperlipidemic fatty livers induced by orally administering high-fat milk via gavage and being simultaneously treated with 75 to 300 mg/kg CME for 6 weeks. After CME addition, the serum total cholesterol levels and hepatic weight coefficients decreased, but no significant reduction in the serum triacylglycerol levels were observed. It is important to note that CME might decrease hepatic lipid accumulation, sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, and fatty acid synthase expression and increase hepatic PPARα, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase expression. However, the expected reduction in hepatic diacylglycerol acyltransferase mRNA expression was not observed. These findings demonstrate that polyphenol-rich CME may prevent hyperlipidemic fatty liver in mice, and its mechanisms may be related to the modulation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, FAS, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 expression through the PPARα-mediated pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-01-09

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  16. Polyploidy Analysis and Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Hepatic Tissue of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats Treated with an Aqueous Extract of Vochysia rufa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Barbosa Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is characterized by hyperglycemia and alterations in the metabolism of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins. Due to its hypoglycemic effect Vochysia rufa is frequently used in Uberlandia, Brazil, to treat DM. Despite its popularity, there is little information about its effect on hepatic tissue. Therefore, we evaluated the histoarchitecture, oxidative stress parameters, and polyploidy of liver tissue from streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats treated with aqueous extract of Vochysia rufa (AEV. Histology was determined by fixing the livers, processing, and staining with HE. Oxidative stress was determined by evaluating CAT, GPx, and SOD activity in liver homogenates and hepatic mitochondria fraction and by measuring GST, GSH levels and lipid peroxidation (MDA. Polyploidy was determined by subjecting isolated hepatocyte nuclei to flow cytometry. In the diabetic group, GST activity and GSH rates decreased whereas liver homogenate analysis showed that GPx, SOD activity and MDA increased. AEV treatment restored all parameters to normal levels. The oxidative stress analysis of hepatic mitochondria fraction showed similar results. Lower polyploid cell populations were found in the diabetic rat livers, even after glibenclamide treatment. Thus, AEV treatment efficiently reduced hepatic oxidative stress caused by STZ-induced diabetes and produced no morphological changes in the histological analysis.

  17. An Extract of Antrodia camphorata Mycelia Attenuates the Progression of Nephritis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Prone NZB/W F1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Ming Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antrodia camphorata is used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation syndromes and liver-related diseases in Taiwan. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the mycelial extract of A. camphorata (ACE for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE in SLE-prone NZB/W F1 mice. After antibodies against double-stranded DNA appeared in NZB/W mice, the mice were orally administered varying dosages of ACE (100, 200 and 400 mg kg−1 for 5 consecutive days per week for 12 weeks via gavage. To assess the efficacy of ACE, we measured SLE-associated biochemical and histopathological biomarkers levels of blood urine nitrogen (BUN, blood creatinine, urine protein and urine creatinine and thickness of the kidney glomerular basement membrane by staining with periodic acid-Schiff. Antroquinonol, an active component of ACE, was investigated for anti-inflammation activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 267.4 cells. ACE at 400 mg kg−1 significantly suppressed urine protein and serum BUN levels and decreased the thickness of the kidney glomerular basement membrane. Antroquinonol significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β by 75 and 78%, respectively. In conclusion, ACE reduced urine protein and creatinine levels and suppressed the thickening of the kidney glomerular basement membrane, suggesting that ACE protects the kidney from immunological damage resulting from autoimmune disease.

  18. High doses of garlic extract significantly attenuated the ratio of serum LDL to HDL level in rat-fed with hypercholesterolemia diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Tahereh; Behdad, Behnoosh; Abbasi, Maryam Agha; Rabati, Rahman Ghaffarzadegan; Fayyaz, Amir Farshid; Behnod, Vahid; Asgari, Ali

    2015-06-20

    Hypercholesterolemia is associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In this study, we investigated the antihyperlipidemic effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) in rat models of hypercholesterolemic. Wistar male rats were randomly divided into 4 diet groups with garlic supplementation. Male Wistar rats were fed by standard pellet diet (group I), standard diet supplemented with 4% garlic (group II), lipogenic diet (containing sunflower oil, cholesterol and ethanol) equivalent to 200 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group III) and lipogenic diet equivalent to 400 mg raw garlic/kg body weight (raw) (group IV). Rats fed 400 g/kg garlic extract(GE), had a significantly lower concentration of serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) cholesterol and elevated HDL -C cholesterol at day 28 (P garlic supplementation (P garlic in reducing lateral side effects of hyperlipidemia. Our data demonstrate that GE has protective effects on HDL in rats with high LDL intake. Therefore, it could be used to remedy hypercholesterolemia with help reduce risk of coronary heart disease The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1834155749171141.

  19. Total Flavonoid Extract from Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic Flowers Attenuates d-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse Liver Through the Nrf2 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan; Ai, Peng-Fei; Song, Jian-Jun; Liu, Chang; Li, Zhi-Wei

    2017-06-01

    Abelmoschus manihot (L.) Medic is an edible hibiscus that is rich in flavonoids, and its use as Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of diseases and health maintenance dates back to ancient times. The chemical compositions of total flavonoid of A. manihot (L.) Medic flower extract (TFAE) were identified and determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The effects of TFAE on antioxidative activities in a d-galactose (d-gal)-induced mouse model and Nrf2-mediated antioxidant responses were evaluated. Male Kunming mice were randomly divided into normal control group, d-gal aging model group, d-gal+ascorbic acid group that served as a positive control, and d-gal+TFAE (40, 80, and 160 mg TFAE/kg) group. After 42 days, the antioxidant effects of these treatments were determined by biochemical studies, Western blotting, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and histological analysis. The results showed that the groups administered TFAE exhibited significant elevation in liver activities of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) production in a dose-dependent manner compared with the d-gal-induced model group. Expression of Nrf2 and its target antioxidants (HO-1 and NQO1) was manifestly increased by TFAE treatment. TFAE also increased mRNA expression of GPx, SOD, and CAT and decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Furthermore, the microstructure of livers in TFAE-administered mice was obviously improved as compared with the d-gal model group. These results suggest that TFAE protects mice against d-gal-induced oxidative stress, and the effect is related to the activation of Nrf2 signaling.

  20. Hexane extract of aged black garlic reduces cell proliferation and attenuates the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM‑1 in TNF-α-activated human endometrial stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Choi, Young-Whan; Kim, Youn-Han; Lee, Eun Na; Lee, Ja-Rang; Kim, Heui-Soo; Baek, Sun-Yong; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lee, Kyu-Sup; Yoon, Sik

    2013-07-01

    Increasing evidence indicates the potentially crucial roles of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the pathological process underlying endometriosis. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a hexane extract of aged black garlic (HEABG) on the proliferation and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-activated human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) isolated from patients with endometriosis. HESCs were isolated from endometriotic tissues obtained from women with advanced endometriosis who underwent laparoscopic surgery for ovarian endometrioma (n=18). Cell proliferation and cell cycle analysis were assessed by WST-1 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was measured by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence staining, immunoblotting and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. The secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6) was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was detected by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 MAPK was analyzed by immunoblotting. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were significantly suppressed by HEABG in the TNF-α-induced HESCs through the inhibition of the ERK and JNK signaling pathways. Remarkably, the treatment of the HESCs with HEABG potently suppressed the TNF-α-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 transcript and protein expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors. Our results suggest that HEABG may be effective in the prevention and treatment of endometriosis in humans.

  1. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  2. Cordyceps militaris fruit body extract ameliorates membranous glomerulonephritis by attenuating oxidative stress and renal inflammation via the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jingjing; Wang, Yingwu; Liu, Chungang; Huang, Yan; He, Liying; Cai, Xueying; Lu, Jiahui; Liu, Yan; Wang, Di

    2016-04-01

    Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN) is a common pathogenesis of nephritic syndrome in adult patients. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) serves as the main transcription factor for the inflammatory response mediated nephropathy. Cordyceps militaris, containing various pharmacological components, has been used as a kind of crude drug and folk tonic food for improving immunity and reducing inflammation. The current study aims to investigate the renoprotective activity of Cordyceps militaris aqueous extract (CM) in the cationic bovine serum albumin (C-BSA)-induced rat model of membranous glomerulonephritis. Significant renal dysfunction was observed in MGN rats; comparatively, 4-week CM administration strongly decreased the levels of 24 h urine protein, total cholesterol, triglyceride, blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, and increased the levels of serum albumin and total serum protein. Strikingly, recovery of the kidney histological architecture was noted in CM-treated MGN rats. A significant improvement in the glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels, and a reduced malondialdehyde concentration were observed in the serum and kidney of CM-treated rats. Altered levels of inflammatory cytokines including interleukins, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, vascular adhesion molecule 1, tumor necrosis factor-α, 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α, and nuclear transcriptional factor subunit NF-κB p65 reverted to normal levels upon treatment with CM. The present data suggest that CM protects rats against membranous glomerulonephritis via the normalization of NF-κB activity, thereby inhibiting oxidative damage and reducing inflammatory cytokine levels, which further provide experimental evidence in support of the clinical use of CM as an effective renoprotective agent.

  3. Flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response via blocking of NF-κB signalling pathway in Labeo rohita macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Shib Sankar; Sukumaran, V; Giri, Sib Sankar; Park, Se Chang

    2015-11-01

    Psidium guajava L. is a well-known traditional medicinal plant widely used in folk medicine. To explore the anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid fraction of guava leaf extract (FGLE), we investigated its ability to suppress the levels of inflammatory mediators elevated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in Labeo rohita head-kidney (HK) macrophages. HK macrophages of L. rohita were treated with LPS in the presence or absence of the FGLE. We examined the inhibitory effect of FGLE on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. The inhibitory effect of FGLE on nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were investigated by RT-PCR and western blot. The effect of FGLE on proinflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or interleukin-1β (IL-1β) was also investigated by ELISA and RT-PCR. The phosphorylation of three mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) molecules ERK, JNK and p38 was analysed by western blot analysis. FGLE inhibited LPS-induced NO and PGE2 production. It also effectively inhibited TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, iNOS, and COX-2 production in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, FGLE suppressed the mRNA expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that FGLE decreased both the mRNA and protein expression levels of LPS-induced iNOS and COX-2 in HK macrophages. FGLE suppresses the phosphorylation of MAPK molecules in LPS-stimulated HK macrophages. FGLE also significantly inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB transcriptional activity. The molecular mechanism by which FGLE suppresses the expression of inflammatory mediators appears to involve the inhibition of NF-κB activation, through the suppression of LPS-induced IκB-α degradation. Together these results suggest that FGLE contains potential therapeutic agent(s), which regulate NF-κB activation, for the treatment of inflammatory conditions in L. rohita macrophages. Copyright © 2015

  4. Antioxidant and drug detoxification potentials of Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Nasir A; Yakubu, Musa T; Oladiji, Adenike T; Akanji, Musbau A; Okogun, Joseph I

    2011-04-01

    The antioxidant and drug metabolizing potentials of Hibiscus anthocyanin extract in CCl(4)- induced oxidative damage of rat liver was investigated. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract effectively scavenge α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion, and hydrogen peroxide. It produced a 92% scavenging effect of DPPH radical at a concentration of 2.0 mg/mL. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a 69 and 90% scavenging effect on superoxide ion and hydrogen peroxide, respectively, at 1.0 mg/mL, which compared favorably with the synthetic antioxidant (butylated hydroanisole and α-tocopherol). A reducing power of this anthocyanin was examined using K(3)Fe(CN)(6). Hibiscus anthocyanin extract has reducing power that is approximately 2-fold that of the synthetic antioxidant, butylated hydroanisole. Hibiscus anthocyanin extract produced a significantly increase and completely attenuated the CCl(4)-mediated decrease in antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase). However, the level of nonenzymic antioxidant molecules (i.e., vitamins C and E) were significant preserved by Hibiscus anthocyanin extract. There was an induction of phase II drug-detoxifying enzymes: glutathione S-transferase, NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase, and uridyl diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase by 65, 45, and 57%, respectively. In view of these properties, Hibiscus sabdariffa anthocyanin extract can act as a prophylactic by intervening as a free radical scavenger both in vitro and in vivo as well as inducing the phase II drug detoxification enzymes.

  5. Hydrogen Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A unit for producing hydrogen on site is used by a New Jersey Electric Company. The hydrogen is used as a coolant for the station's large generator; on-site production eliminates the need for weekly hydrogen deliveries. High purity hydrogen is generated by water electrolysis. The electrolyte is solid plastic and the control system is electronic. The technology was originally developed for the Gemini spacecraft.

  6. Protective effect of Xin Mai Jia ultrafiltration extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury induced by hydrogen peroxide and the effect on the NO-cGMP signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    YIN, YALING; WAN, JIA; LI, PENG; JIA, YANLONG; SUN, RUILI; PAN, GUOPIN; WAN, GUANGRUI

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of the ultrafiltration extract of Xin Mai Jia (XMJ) on a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury model induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), by providing experimental data to investigate the mechanism and efficacy underlying the therapeutic effects on atherosclerosis. HUVECs were first injured by H2O2 and then varying final concentrations of the Chinese herb extract were added. Effects of the XMJ extract on morphology, activity, monolayer permeability, biochemical indicators, cytokines, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) protein content and eNOS gene expression in the HUVECs were analyzed. H2O2 significantly promoted HUVEC injury. The XMJ ultrafiltration extract significantly improved the morphological changes in the injured HUVECs. In addition, XMJ treatment increased cell activity and decreased monolayer permeability. The expression levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular adhesion molecule-1, interleukin-1 and -6 and nuclear factor-κB decreased, while the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 increased with XMJ administration. Increased levels of nitric oxide (NO), eNOS protein and eNOS gene expression were also observed. Therefore, the XMJ ultrafiltration extract exhibits marked anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant abilities. These properties significantly inhibited the H2O2-induced injury of HUVECs, which may be associated with the NO-cyclic guanosine monophosphate signaling pathway. PMID:24944594

  7. The beneficial effect of ginsenosides extracted by pulsed electric field against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress in HEK-293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Zhifei; Wang, Ying; Ma, Shuang; Liu, Jiyun; Liu, Jingbo

    2017-04-01

    Ginsenosides are the main pharmacological components of Panax ginseng root, which are thought to be primarily responsible for the suppressing effect on oxidative stress. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorption capacity were applied to evaluate the antioxidant activities of the ginsenosides. Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells were incubated with ginsenosides extracted by pulsed electric field (PEF) and solvent cold soak extraction (SCSE) for 24 h and then the injury was induced by 40μM H 2 O 2 . The cell viability and surface morphology of HEK-293 cells were studied using MTS assay and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe assay was used to measure the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species. The intracellular antioxidant activities of ginsenosides were evaluated by cellular antioxidant activity assay in HepG2 cells. The PEF extracts displayed the higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and stronger oxygen radical absorption capacity (with an oxygen radical absorption capacity value of 14.48 ± 4.04μM TE per μg/mL). The HEK-293 cell model also suggested that the protective effect of PEF extracts was dose-dependently greater than SCSE extracts. Dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay further proved that PEF extracts are more active (8% higher than SCSE extracts) in reducing intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation. In addition, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the HEK-293 cells, which were treated with PEF extracts, maintained more intact surface morphology. Cellular antioxidant activity values indicated that ginsenosides extracted by PEF had stronger cellular antioxidant activity than SCSE ginsenosides extracts. The present study demonstrated the antioxidative effect of ginsenosides extracted by PEF in vitro . Furthermore, rather than SCSE, PEF may be more useful as an alternative

  8. Pressure surge attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.

    1985-01-01

    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  9. Hydrogen-Trapping Mechanisms in Nanostructured Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szost, B. A.; Vegter, R. H.; Rivera-Díaz-del-Castillo, Pedro E. J.

    2013-10-01

    Nanoprecipitation-hardened martensitic bearing steels (100Cr6) and carbide-free nanobainitic steels (superbainite) are examined. The nature of the hydrogen traps present in both is determined via the melt extraction and thermal desorption analysis techniques. It is demonstrated that 100Cr6 can admit large amounts of hydrogen, which is loosely bound to dislocations around room temperature; however, with the precipitation of fine coherent vanadium carbide traps, hydrogen can be immobilized. In the case of carbide-free nanostructured bainite, retained austenite/bainite interfaces act as hydrogen traps, while concomitantly retained austenite limits hydrogen absorption. In nanostructured steels where active hydrogen traps are present, it is shown that the total hydrogen absorbed is proportional to the trapped hydrogen, indicating that melt extraction may be employed to quantify trapping capacity.

  10. Preparation of slightly hydrogenated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.

    1943-05-03

    Processes serving as producers of slightly hydrogenated coal are discussed. It was established that the working process of an extracting hydrogenation from coal alone did not present optimal conditions for production of slightly hydrogenated coal, and therefore led to unfavorably high costs. More favorable operating costs were expected with the use of larger amounts of gas or with simultaneous production of asphalt-free oils in larger quantity. The addition of coal into the hydrogenation of low temperature carbonization tars made it possible to produce additional briquetting material (slightly hydrogenated coal) in the same reaction space without impairment of the tar hydrogenation. This was to lower the cost still more. For reasons of heat exchange, the process with a cold separator was unfavorable, and consideration of the residue quality made it necessary to investigate how high the separator temperature could be raised. 3 tables.

  11. Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae) extract attenuates MPTP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  12. Anethum Graveolens Linn (Umbelliferae) Extract Attenuates Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Evaluation of antistress activity. Rats of both sexes weighing between 150 and 200 g were weight-matched and divided into four groups (I, II, III, and IV), each containing five animals in metabolic cages that were designed to facilitate the collection of urine. Twenty four hour urine samples from each group were collected into ...

  13. Ethanolic Extract of Aconiti Brachypodi Radix Attenuates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collectively, our results indicated that EABR has analgesic property in three pain models and useful influence on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurons, suggesting that the interference with pain messages caused by the modulation of EABR on TTX-S sodium currents in DRG neurones may explain some of its analgesic ...

  14. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Hydrogen Embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen; Lee, Jonathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen embrittlement (HE) is a process resulting in a decrease in the fracture toughness or ductility of a metal due to the presence of atomic hydrogen. In addition to pure hydrogen gas as a direct source for the absorption of atomic hydrogen, the damaging effect can manifest itself from other hydrogen-containing gas species such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrogen chloride (HCl), and hydrogen bromide (HBr) environments. It has been known that H2S environment may result in a much more severe condition of embrittlement than pure hydrogen gas (H2) for certain types of alloys at similar conditions of stress and gas pressure. The reduction of fracture loads can occur at levels well below the yield strength of the material. Hydrogen embrittlement is usually manifest in terms of singular sharp cracks, in contrast to the extensive branching observed for stress corrosion cracking. The initial crack openings and the local deformation associated with crack propagation may be so small that they are difficult to detect except in special nondestructive examinations. Cracks due to HE can grow rapidly with little macroscopic evidence of mechanical deformation in materials that are normally quite ductile. This Technical Memorandum presents a comprehensive review of experimental data for the effects of gaseous Hydrogen Environment Embrittlement (HEE) for several types of metallic materials. Common material screening methods are used to rate the hydrogen degradation of mechanical properties that occur while the material is under an applied stress and exposed to gaseous hydrogen as compared to air or helium, under slow strain rates (SSR) testing. Due to the simplicity and accelerated nature of these tests, the results expressed in terms of HEE index are not intended to necessarily represent true hydrogen service environment for long-term exposure, but rather to provide a practical approach for material screening, which is a useful concept to qualitatively evaluate the severity of

  16. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-01-01

    In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.

  17. Hydrogen Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    The Hydrogen Bibliography is a compilation of research reports that are the result of research funded over the last fifteen years. In addition, other documents have been added. All cited reports are contained in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Hydrogen Program Library.

  18. Kale Extract Increases Glutathione Levels in V79 Cells, but Does not Protect Them against Acute Toxicity Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula B. Andrade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant potential of extracts of Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC. (kale and several materials of Pieris brassicae L., a common pest of Brassica cultures using a cellular model with hamster lung fibroblast (V79 cells under quiescent conditions and subjected to H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and glutathione was determined by the 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-oxidized glutathione (GSSG reductase recycling assay. The phenolic composition of the extracts was also established by HPLC-DAD. They presented acylated and non acylated flavonoid glycosides, some of them sulfated, and hydroxycinnamic acyl gentiobiosides. All extracts were cytotoxic by themselves at high concentrations and failed to protect V79 cells against H2O2 acute toxicity. No relationship between phenolic composition and cytotoxicity of the extracts was found. Rather, a significant increase in glutathione was observed in cells exposed to kale extract, which contained the highest amount and variety of flavonoids. It can be concluded that although flavonoids-rich extracts have the ability to increase cellular antioxidant defenses, the use of extracts of kale and P. brassicae materials by pharmaceutical or food industries, may constitute an insult to health, especially to debilitated individuals, if high doses are consumed.

  19. Hydrogen exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Foged; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen exchange (HX) monitored by mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for investigation of protein conformation and dynamics. HX-MS monitors isotopic exchange of hydrogen in protein backbone amides and thus serves as a sensitive method for probing protein conformation...... and dynamics along the entire protein backbone. This chapter describes the exchange of backbone amide hydrogen which is highly quenchable as it is strongly dependent on the pH and temperature. The HX rates of backbone amide hydrogen are sensitive and very useful probes of protein conformation......, as they are distributed along the polypeptide backbone and form the fundamental hydrogen-bonding networks of basic secondary structure. The effect of pressure on HX in unstructured polypeptides (poly-dl-lysine and oxidatively unfolded ribonuclease A) and native folded proteins (lysozyme and ribonuclease A) was evaluated...

  20. Silymarin inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis via inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angkana Tantituvanont

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin mediated nephrotoxicity has been continuously reported and recognized as a major obstacle for cisplatinbased chemotherapy. The present study aimed to demonstrate the potential use of silymarin, an extract from the seed of Silybum marianum L., as a combination therapy with cisplatin. Previous studies indicated that cisplatin-mediated toxicity was primarily caused by cellular oxidative stress. This study found that pretreatment with silymarin significantly attenuated oxidative stress induced by cisplatin in human renal epithelial cells (HK2-cells and protected against cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, the present study demonstrated that silymarin could attenuate hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical generated by cisplatin while having minimal effect on superoxide anion level. In summary, these observation showed significant impact of silymarin in the inhibition of cisplatin-mediated renal cell death in vitro and could be beneficial for the development of this compound as a combination therapy in patients before receiving cisplatin.

  1. Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2015-0150 SURFACE WAVE ATTENUATION IN THE TIBETAN PLATEAU FROM AMBIENT NOISE University of Illinois at...DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 May 2012 to 31 Aug 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Surface Wave Attenuation in the Tibetan Plateau from Ambient Noise 5a...extract amplitude information from the empirical Green functions (EGF) derived from ambient noise correlations and to map the attenuation of the

  2. The relationship between visible light emission and species fraction of the hydrogen ion beams extracted from 2.45 GHz microwave discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Cortázar, O D; Tarvainen, O; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between Balmer-α and Fulcher-band emissions with extracted H +, H+2 , and H+3 ions is demonstrated for a 2.45 GHz microwave discharge. Ion mass spectra and optical measurements of Balmer-α and Fulcher-band emissions have been obtained with a Wien Filter having an optical view-port on the plasma chamber axis. The beam of approximately 1 mA is analyzed for different plasma conditions simultaneously with the measurement of light emissions both with temporal resolution. The use of visible light emissions as a valuable diagnostic tool for monitoring the species fraction of the extracted beams is proposed.

  3. Experiments of synchrotron injection using the direct fast chopped H{sup -} beam extracted from surface-plasma-type negative hydrogen ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinto, Katsuhiro; Takagi, Akira; Machida, Shinji; Mori, Yoshiharu; Yoshii, Masahito; Shirakata, Masashi; Koba, Kiyomi [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    An experiment of synchrotron injection using the direct fast chopped H{sup -} beam extracted from a surface-plasma-type H{sup -} ion source has been successfully achieved. The injection phase of the fast chopped beam from linac into the booster synchrotron is adjustable against the center of rf bucket by using this beam. It was obtained that the longitudinal emittance was controlled at the extraction of the booster synchrotron, and that the beam loss during the injection into main ring of the KEK-PS was reduced by this fast chopped beam. (author)

  4. Hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donath, E.

    1942-10-16

    This report mentioned that not very severe demands for purity were made on the hydrogen used in hydrogenation of coal or similar raw materials, because the catalysts were not very sensitive to poisoning. However, the hydrogenation plants tried to remove most impurities anyway by means of oil washes. The report included a table giving the amount of wash oil used up and the amount of hydrogen lost by dissolving into the wash oil used up and the amount of hydrogen lost by dissolving into the wash oil in order to remove 1% of various impurities from 1000 m/sup 3/ of the circulating gas. The amounts of wash oil used up were 1.1 m/sup 3/ for removing 1% nitrogen, 0.3 m/sup 3/ for 1% carbon monoxide, 0.03 m/sup 3/ for 1% methane. The amount of hydrogen lost was 28 m/sup 3/ for 1% nitrogen, 9 m/sup 3/ for 1% methane and ranged from 9 m/sup 3/ to 39 m/sup 3/ for 1% carbon monoxide and 1 m/sup 3/ to 41 m/sup 3/ for carbon dioxide depending on whether the removal was done in liquid phase or vapor phase and with or without reduction of the oxide to methane. Next the report listed and described the major processes used in German hydrogenation plants to produce hydrogen. Most of them produced water gas, which then had its carbon monoxide changed to carbon dioxide, and the carbon oxides washed out with water under pressure and copper hydroxide solution. The methods included the Winkler, Pintsch-Hillebrand, and Schmalfeldt-Wintershall processes, as well as roasting of coke in a rotating generator, splitting of gases formed during hydrogenation, and separation of cokery gas into its components by the Linde process.

  5. Application of mixed-mode, solid-phase extraction in environmental and clinical chemistry. Combining hydrogen-bonding, cation-exchange and Van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, M.S.; Thurman, E.M.; Pedersen, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Silica- and styrene-divinylbenzene-based mixed-mode resins that contain C8, C18 and sulphonated cation-exchange groups were compared for their efficiency in isolation of neutral triazine compounds from water and of the basic drug, benzoylecgonine, from urine. The triazine compounds were isolated by a combination of Van der Waals and hydrogen-bonding interactions, and benzoylecgonine was isolated by Van der Waals interactions and cation exchange. All analytes were eluted with a polar organic solvent contaning 2% ammonium hydroxide. Larger recoveries (95%) were achieved on copolymerized mixed-mode resins where C18 and sulfonic acid are in closer proximity than on 'blended' mixed-mode resins (60-70% recovery).

  6. Rydberg and π-π* transitions in film surfaces of various kinds of nylons studied by attenuated total reflection far-ultraviolet spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations: peak shifts in the spectra and their relation to nylon structure and hydrogen bondings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Yusuke; Yasunaga, Manaka; Sato, Harumi; Fukuda, Ryoichi; Ehara, Masahiro; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2014-10-09

    Attenuated total reflection far-ultraviolet (ATR-FUV) spectra in the 145-260 nm region were measured for surfaces (thickness 50-200 nm) of various kinds of nylons in cast films to explore their electronic transitions in the FUV region. ATR-FUV spectra show two major bands near 150 and 200 nm in the surface condensed phase of nylons. Transmittance (Tr) spectra were also observed in particular for the analysis of valence excitations. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT/CAM-B3LYP) calculations were carried out using the model systems to provide the definitive assignments of their absorption spectra and to elucidate their peak shifts in several nylons, in particular, focusing on their crystal alignment structures and intermolecular hydrogen bondings. Two major bands of nylon films near 150 and 200 nm are characterized as σ-Rydberg 3p and π-π* transitions of nylons, respectively. These assignments are also coherent with those of liquid n-alkanes (n = 5-14) and liquid amides observed previously. The Rydberg transitions are delocalized over the hydrocarbon chains, while the π-π* transitions are relatively localized at the amide group. Differences in the peak positions and intensity were found in both ATR- and Tr-FUV spectra for different nylons. A red-shift of the π-π* amide band in the FUV spectra of nylon-6 and nylon-6/6 models in α-form is attributed to the crystal structure pattern and the intermolecular hydrogen bondings, which result in the different delocalization character of the π-π* transitions and transition dipole coupling.

  7. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    halides. To enable a closed-loop cycle, our task was then to be able to hydrogenate the organotin halides back to their hydride form. In addition to this experimental work, a parallel project was carried out to develop a new model of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) that could be used to define the mechanisms of the electrochemical hydrogenation reactions. The EIS technique is capable of probing complex chemical and electrochemical reactions, and our model was written into a computer code that allowed the input of experimental EIS data and the extraction of kinetic parameters based on a best-fit analysis of theoretical reaction schemes. Finally, electrochemical methods for hydrogenating organic and metallo-organic materials have been explored.

  8. Protective Effects of Extracts and Flavonoids Isolated from Scutia buxifolia Reissek against Chromosome Damage in Human Lymphocytes Exposed to Hydrogen Peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Mansur Machado; Ivana Beatrice Manica da Cruz; Margareth Linde Athayde; Luiz Filipe Machado; Olmiro de Souza Filho; Michele Rorato Sagrillo; Aline Augusti Boligon

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are claimed to protect against cardiovascular disease, certain forms of cancer and ageing, possibly by preventing initial DNA damage. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of crude extract, ethyl acetate fraction and flavonoids (quercetin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin and rutin) isolated from the leaves from Scutia buxifolia against chromosome damage induced by H2O2 in human lymphocytes by analyzing cellula...

  9. Hydrogen as indicator for redox conditions and dechlorination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J. ter; Gerritse, J.; Mauro, C. di; Harkes, M.P.; Rijnaarts, H.H.M.

    2000-01-01

    The use of intrinsic degradation processes (natural attenuation) is becoming the basis for the restoration of many contaminated sites. Within this context, measuring concentrations of hydrogen in groundwater is important in two ways. Firstly, the hydrogen concentration can be used to characterize

  10. Oxidative Stress and Modulatory effects of the root extract of Phlogacanthus tubiflorus on the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase in Hydrogen Peroxide treated Lymphocyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramteke A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione-S-transferase is one of the important enzyme systems that plays vital role in decomposition of lipid hydro-peroxides formed due to oxidative stress. In the present study GST activity increased in the lymphocytes treated with increasing concentration of H2O2, and decrease in the levels of GSH was observed. For similar treatment conditions LDH activity and MDA levels increased significantly leading to decrease in the cell viability. Treatment of lymphocytes with the root extract of Phlogacanthus tubiflorus (PTE resulted in dose dependent decline in the GST activity and rise in GSH levels. LDH activity and MDA levels also declined that led to the increase of cell viability. Lymphocytes pre-treated with the PTE followed by H2O2 (0.1 and 1% treatment, decline in the activity of GST and increase in GSH levels was observed. Also we have observed decline in the activity of LDH and MDA levels in the lymphocytes for both 0.1 and 1% of H2O2 though the magnitude of change was higher in the lymphocytes pre-treated with the PTE followed with 1% of H2O2 treatment. Significant increase in the cell viability for similar conditions was also observed. These findings suggest protective function of the root extracts might be through modulation of GST activity and levels of GSH and might find application in Chemomodulation in future.

  11. Hydrogen program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronich, S. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Utility Technologies

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  12. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  13. Hydrogen usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-10-22

    This short tabular report listed the number of m/sup 3/ of hydrogen required for a (metric) ton of product for various combinations of raw material and product in a hydrogenation procedure. In producing auto gasoline, bituminous coal required 2800 m/sup 3/, brown coal required 2400 m/sup 3/, high-temperature-carbonization tar required 2100 m/sup 3/, bituminous coal distillation tar required 1300 m/sup 3/, brown-coal low-temperature-carbonization tar required 850 m/sup 3/, petroleum residues required 900 m/sup 3/, and gas oil required 500 m/sup 3/. In producing diesel oil, brown coal required 1900 m/sup 3/, whereas petroleum residues required 500 m/sup 3/. In producing diesel oil, lubricants, and paraffin by the TTH (low-temperature-hydrogenation) process, brown-coal low-temperature-carbonization tar required 550 m/sup 3/. 1 table.

  14. Nonaqueous catalytic fluorometric trace determination of vanadium based on the pyronine B-hydrogen peroxide reaction and flow injection after cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologos, E K; Koupparis, M A; Karayannis, M I; Veltsistas, P G

    2001-09-15

    The catalytic effect of vanadium on the pyronine B-H2O2 system is examined. Enhancement of the catalytic reaction rate along with the efficiency and selectivity against vanadium is achieved in a formic acid environment in the presence of a nonionic surfactant (Triton X-114). Elimination of drastic interference caused by inorganic acids and aqueous matrix along with a 50-fold preconcentration of vanadium are facilitated through cloud point extraction of its neutral complex with 8-quinolinol in an acidic solution. Subsequent flow injection analysis (FIA) with fluorometric detection renders the proposed method ideal for selective and cost-effective determination of as little as 0.020 microng L(-1) vanadium in environmental, biological, and food substrates. The preconcentration step can be applied simultaneously to multiple samples, allowing for massive preparation prior to analysis, compensating, thus, for the time-consuming procedure.

  15. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sam W.; Spencer, Larry S.; Phillips, Michael R.; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J.

    2017-06-20

    A method is provided for extracting hydrogen from lithium hydride. The method includes (a) heating lithium hydride to form liquid-phase lithium hydride; (b) extracting hydrogen from the liquid-phase lithium hydride, leaving residual liquid-phase lithium metal; (c) hydriding the residual liquid-phase lithium metal to form refined lithium hydride; and repeating steps (a) and (b) on the refined lithium hydride.

  16. Versatile Hydrogen

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hydrogen is probably the most intriguing ele- ment in the periodic table. Although it is only the seventh most abundant element on earth, it is the most abundant element in the uni- verse. It combines with almost all the ele- ments of the periodic table, except for a few transition elements, to form binary compounds of the type E.

  17. Protein kinase G-dependent heme oxygenase-1 induction by Agastache rugosa leaf extract protects RAW264.7 cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwa Min; Kang, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Park, Min Kyu; Kim, Sun Hee; Kim, Hye Jung; Seo, Han Geuk; Lee, Jae Heun; Chang, Ki Churl

    2006-01-16

    It has been proposed that the inducible isoform of heme oxygenase (HO) protects cells against oxidant-mediated injury. Although components of Agastache rugosa showed antioxidant effect, it is unclear this effect is related with HO-1 activity. Thus, we investigated the effects of Agastache rugosa leaf extract (ALE) on HO-1 protein expression and enzyme activity, and its protective effect against H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage was also investigated using RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Results showed that ALE concentration dependently increased HO-1 protein and enzyme activity, and protected cells from H(2)O(2)-induced cytotoxicity, with an IC(50) of 0.526 mg/ml. Hemin, a HO-1 inducer, also showed similar effect to ALE. Furthermore, the protective effect of both ALE and hemin was inhibited by a HO inhibitor, zinc protoporphyrin IX. The expression of HO-1 protein by ALE was reduced by pretreatment with LY83583 and ODQ, specific inhibitors of guanylate cyclase, but not by PKA inhibitors, H89 and KT5720, indicating that PKG signaling pathway regulates HO-1 induction by ALE. Taken together, it is concluded that PKG-dependent HO-1 induction is one of the important antioxidant mechanisms by which ALE protects RAW264.7 cells from H(2)O(2). Thus, ALE along with other actions may be beneficial for the treatment of oxidant-induced cellular injuries.

  18. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  19. Hydrogen in metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Carter, TJ

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hydrogen on various metals and the use of metal hydrides for hydrogen storage are discussed. The mechanisms of, and differences between, hydrogen embrittlement and hydrogen attack of ferritic steels are compared, common sources...

  20. Tricolor attenuation model for shadow detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiandong; Sun, Jing; Tang, Yandong

    2009-10-01

    Shadows, the common phenomena in most outdoor scenes, bring many problems in image processing and computer vision. In this paper, we present a novel method focusing on extracting shadows from a single outdoor image. The proposed tricolor attenuation model (TAM) that describe the attenuation relationship between shadow and its nonshadow background is derived based on image formation theory. The parameters of the TAM are fixed by using the spectral power distribution (SPD) of daylight and skylight, which are estimated according to Planck's blackbody irradiance law. Based on the TAM, a multistep shadow detection algorithm is proposed to extract shadows. Compared with previous methods, the algorithm can be applied to process single images gotten in real complex scenes without prior knowledge. The experimental results validate the performance of the model.

  1. Hydrogen (H) Isotope Composition of Type II Kerogen Extracted by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS: Terrestrial Shale Deposits as Martian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, Richard A.; Pernia, Denet; Evans, Michael; Fu, Qi; Bissada, Kadry K.; Curiale, Joseph A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2014-01-01

    Described here is a technique for H isotope analysis of organic compounds pyrolyzed from kerogens isolated from gas- and liquids-rich shales. Application of this technique will progress the understanding of the use of H isotopes not only in potential kerogen occurrences on Mars, but also in terrestrial oil and gas resource plays. H isotope extraction and analyses were carried out utilizing a CDS 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 IRMS. Also, a split of GC-separated products was sent to a DSQ II quadrupole MS to make qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of these products. Kerogen samples from five different basins (type II and II-S) were dehydrated (heated to 80 C overnight under vacuum) and analyzed for their H isotope compositions by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS. This technique takes pyrolysis products separated via GC and reacts them in a high temperature conversion furnace (1450 C), which quantitatively forms H2. Samples ranging from 0.5 to 1.0mg in size, were pyrolyzed at 800 C for 30s. and separated on a Poraplot Q GC column. H isotope data from all kerogen samples typically show enrichment in D from low to high molecular weight. H2O average delta D = -215.2 per mille (V-SMOW), ranging from - 271.8 per mille for the Marcellus Shale to -51.9 per mille for a Polish shale. Higher molecular weight compounds like toluene (C7H8) have an average delta D of -89.7 per mille, ranging from -156.0 per mille for the Barnett Shale to -50.0 per mille for the Monterey Shale. We interpret these data as representative of potential H isotope exchange between hydrocarbons and sediment pore water during basin formation. Since hydrocarbon H isotopes readily exchange with water, these data may provide some useful information on gas-water or oil-water interaction in resource plays, and further as a possible indicator of paleoenvironmental conditions. Alternatively, our data may be an indication of H isotope exchange with

  2. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  3. Phosphorylation in hydrogen bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, L

    1967-05-01

    The electron-transport system of cell-free extracts obtained from Hydrogenomonas H-20 has been studied with particular reference to phosphorylation associated with the oxyhydrogen reaction. Cell-free preparations of this organism exhibit oxidative phosphorylation with hydrogen and succinate as electron donors. This activity could be uncoupled with a number of agents. Ratios of phosphorylative activity to oxidative activity observed varied from 0.2 to 0.7. Factors affecting the efficiency of phosphorylation were examined. Inhibitor and spectrophotometric studies indicated that phosphorylation with hydrogen as electron donor occurs exclusively at a site in an abbreviated electron transport chain between H(2) and cytochrome b. The possible occurrence of a cytochrome b oxidase and the requirement for a quinone are discussed, as well as the correlation between the abbreviated pathway and the energy generation by the cell. Evidence is presented which indicates that nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide does not participate in the hydrogen oxidation path which is coupled to adenosine triphosphate formation.

  4. Effects of volatilization on carbon and hydrogen isotope ratios of MTBE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuder, Tomasz; Philp, Paul; Allen, Jon

    2009-03-15

    Contaminant attenuation studies utilizing CSIA (compound-specific isotope analysis) routinely assume that isotope effects (IEs) result only from degradation. Experimental results on MTBE behavior in diffusive volatilization and dynamic vapor extraction show measurable changes in the isotope ratios of the MTBE remaining in the aqueous or nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) matrix. A conceptual model for interpretation of those IEs is proposed, based on the physics of liquid-air partitioning. Normal or inverse IEs were observed for different volatilization scenarios. The range of carbon enrichment factors (epsilon) was from +0.7 per thousand (gasoline vapor extraction) to -1 per thousand (diffusive volatilization of MTBE from gasoline), the range of hydrogen epsilon was from +7 per thousand (gasoline vapor extraction) to -12 per thousand (air sparging of aqueous MTBE). The observed IEs are lower than those associated with MTBE degradation. However, under a realistic scenario for MTBE vapor removal, their magnitude is within the detection limits of CSIA. The potential for interference of those IEs is primarily in confusing the interpretation of samples with a small extent of fractionation and where only carbon CSIA data are available. The IEs resulting from volatilization and biodegradation, respectively, can be separated by combined carbon and hydrogen 2D-CSIA.

  5. Effects of climatic modalities on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) availability and attenuation in historically contaminated Technosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois, Robin; Schwartz, Christophe; Faure, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Since the decline of industrial activities in France, large areas of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs)-contaminated soils have remained derelict. Thus, the fate of PAHs in such soils through natural attenuation process needs to be assessed. On the long-term scale (10-100 years), climate will greatly contribute to the evolution of soil physico-chemical properties and by consequences PAHs availability. In our study, we examined the effect of three contrasted climatic conditions (freeze-thawing, wetting-drying and high temperature) on soil aging processes of 11 historically contaminated soils and consequences on the availability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (including the 16 priority pollutants PAHs). Batch experiments were set-up for each modality; freeze-dried soil underwent variation of humidity and/or temperature. In a first step, PACs availability was roughly evaluated, with a water-extraction method using a H2O2 + CaCl2 solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was measured in these extracts before and after applying the climatic modalities. Difference in DOC indicated an effect of the climatic modality on PACs availability. If an effect was noticed, available PACs was then accurately measured using (i) an hydrogen-peroxide oxidation on the soils followed (ii) a dichloromethane (DCM) extraction and a Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) quantification of the remaining PACs (i.e. unavailable). Variation of PACs availability will greatly help to understand the mechanisms associated between PACs desorption/sequestration and the abiotic influence of climate. Results of this work will further help understanding and predict the rate of natural attenuation of PACs in contaminated soils for the incoming decades.

  6. The hydrogen; L'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The hydrogen as an energy system represents nowadays a main challenge (in a scientific, economical and environmental point of view). The physical and chemical characteristics of hydrogen are at first given. Then, the challenges of an hydrogen economy are explained. The different possibilities of hydrogen production are described as well as the distribution systems and the different possibilities of hydrogen storage. Several fuel cells are at last presented: PEMFC, DMFC and SOFC. (O.M.)

  7. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  8. Studies on the antimutagenic activities of garlic extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knasmueller, S. (Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria)); Szakmary, A. (Austrian Research Center Seibersdorf (Austria)); Domjan, G. (State Sanatory Sopron (Hungary)); de Martin, R. (Sandoz Research Institute, Basle (Switzerland))

    1989-01-01

    Experiments with Salmonella tester strains indicated that aqueous garlic extract possesses antimutagenic properties toward ionizing radiation, peroxides, adriamycin, and N-methyl-N{prime}-nitro-nitrosoguanidine. The assumption that radical scavenging garlic constituents, i.e., molecules with sulfur moieties, might be responsible for the inhibitory effect of aqueous extract toward mutagenesis induced by radiation and radiomimetic compounds was confirmed by the results of subsequent experiments; (1) garlic extract attenuated the lethal effects of {gamma}-rays on repair-deficient E. coli strains; (2) the garlic constituent allicin (thio-2-propene-1-sulfinic acid S-allyl ester) is partly responsible for the reduced radiation-induced mutagenesis in Salmonella typhimurium TA 102. No such inhibitory effects were detected with alliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide) or cysteine; (3) aqueous garlic extract inhibited hydrogen-peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation. Results obtained in preliminary experiments with Chinese hamster ovary cells suggest that the antimutagenic properties of garlic extract are not restricted to procaryotic cells.

  9. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , 0.2. % sodium bicarbonate and antibiotic/antimycotic solution (100×, 1 mL/100 mL of medium). Cells were grown in 5 % CO2 at 37 °C in high humidity atmosphere. Before the experiments, cell viability was assessed as described by Siddiqui ...

  10. Portulaca oleracea Linn seed extract ameliorates hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After 24 h of exposure, MTT and NRU assays were used to evaluate cell viability, while morphological changes were assessed using phase contrast inverted microscopy. The effect of POA on reduced glutathione (GSH) level, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and ROS generation induced by H2O2 was also studied. Results: The ...

  11. Fluid dynamic bowtie attenuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Hermus, James

    2015-03-01

    Fluence field modulated CT allows for improvements in image quality and dose reduction. To date, only 1-D modulators have been proposed, the extension to 2-D modulation is difficult with solid-metal attenuation-based modulators. This work proposes to use liquids and gas to attenuate the x-ray beam which can be arrayed allowing for 2-D fluence modulation. The thickness of liquid and the pressure for a given path length of gas were determined that provided the same attenuation as 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Gaseous Xenon and liquid Iodine, Zinc Chloride, and Cerium Chloride were studied. Additionally, we performed some proof-of-concept experiments in which (1) a single cell of liquid was connected to a reservoir which allowed the liquid thickness to be modulated and (2) a 96 cell array was constructed in which the liquid thickness in each cell was adjusted manually. Liquid thickness varied as a function of kV and chemical composition, with Zinc Chloride allowing for the smallest thickness; 1.8, 2.25, 3, and 3.6 cm compensated for 30 cm of soft tissue at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV respectively. The 96 cell Iodine attenuator allowed for a reduction in both dynamic range to the detector and scatter to primary ratio. Successful modulation of a single cell was performed at 0, 90, and 130 degrees using a simple piston/actuator. The thickness of liquids and the Xenon gas pressure seem logistically implementable within the constraints of CBCT and diagnostic CT systems.

  12. The Attenuation of Swell Waves by Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleri, Luigi; Bertotti, Luciana

    2017-10-01

    Within the progressive improvement in wave modeling we focus on the attenuation of swell waves by rain. Till now ignored, the process is shown to be relevant, especially for the correct estimate of swell. Following the practical impossibility of devoted field experiments, we exploit the global model results over a period of more than four years to extract the tiny signal associated to the attenuation by rain. A direct comparison of the ratio model by altimeter significant wave heights versus the encountered rain amount hints to a marked related dependence. A proper quantification of the related physical effect requires a multiple step procedure that we describe in detail. We check the reliability of the results, and we provide the related source function ready for implementation in operational wave models.

  13. Characterization of solid hydrogen targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, M.C. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bailey, J.M.; Mulhauser, F. [Chester Technology (United Kingdom); Beer, G.A.; Douglas, J.L.; Knowles, P.E.; Maier, M.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Porcelli, T.A. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Beveridge, J.L.; Marshall, G.M. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility; Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus Coll., St. Peter, MN (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R. [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National Univ., Jeonju City (Korea, Republic of); Kunselman, A.R. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States); Martoff, C.J. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Petitjean, C. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zmeskal, J. [Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna (Austria)

    1996-10-01

    In experiments using the TRIUMF solid hydrogen target system, the knowledge of the target thickness and uniformity is often essential in order to extract physical parameters from the data. We have characterized the thickness and uniformity of frozen targets using the energy loss of alpha particles. An accuracy of {approx}5% was achieved, a limit imposed by the uncertainty in the stopping powers. The details of the method are described, and the thickness calibration of the target is presented. (orig.). 11 refs.

  14. Hydrogen: the future energy carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas; Remhof, Arndt; Borgschulte, Andreas; Friedrichs, Oliver

    2010-07-28

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century the limitations of the fossil age with regard to the continuing growth of energy demand, the peaking mining rate of oil, the growing impact of CO2 emissions on the environment and the dependency of the economy in the industrialized world on the availability of fossil fuels became very obvious. A major change in the energy economy from fossil energy carriers to renewable energy fluxes is necessary. The main challenge is to efficiently convert renewable energy into electricity and the storage of electricity or the production of a synthetic fuel. Hydrogen is produced from water by electricity through an electrolyser. The storage of hydrogen in its molecular or atomic form is a materials challenge. Some hydrides are known to exhibit a hydrogen density comparable to oil; however, these hydrides require a sophisticated storage system. The system energy density is significantly smaller than the energy density of fossil fuels. An interesting alternative to the direct storage of hydrogen are synthetic hydrocarbons produced from hydrogen and CO2 extracted from the atmosphere. They are CO2 neutral and stored like fossil fuels. Conventional combustion engines and turbines can be used in order to convert the stored energy into work and heat.

  15. Hydrogen Energy by Means of Proton Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf

    If we dare to take serious what we know today about climate issues the challenges to our energy systems are immense. If we really chose - also in practice - to phase out the fossil fuels major changes to the way we handle energy are required. The renewable energy resources are by far sufficient......, but matching supply and demand in time as well as in form calls for new engineering solutions. Hydrogen as energy carrier and energy storage medium has often been mentioned as an option for the future. A protons is an elementary particles, but at the same time the ion of hydrogen. When hydrogen (H2......) is extracted from water (H2O) it can happen via formation of protons (hydrogen ions, H+) which must be transported away by proton conducting materials to form molecular hydrogen (H2). This process is called electrolysis and converts electrical energy into the chemical energy of a fuel. The reverse process...

  16. Inversion of acoustic waveforms for velocity and attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinhua

    In this dissertation, I present some new schemes and techniques for processing of acoustic waveform data. New objective functions are developed for waveform inversion. I use synthetic acoustic borehole waveform data to demonstrate their novel features. These schemes require neither prior deconvolution nor knowledge of the source- receiver wavelet. The most powerful of them is the fourwise processor, which is applicable to data sets from multiple shots and receivers even when each shot has a different unknown signature and each receiver has a different unknown impulse response. I apply this scheme to inversion for shear wave velocity from the ODP sonic data measured by an LSS tool, containing two uncalibrated transmitters and receivers. A 3-D search of waveform inversion gives stable results of formation S-wave velocity inverted from the monopole sonic data in a slow formation. In addition, I develop new techniques to extract P- and S-wave attenuation from sonic logging data. The success of the techniques lies in the separation of attenuation-related wave attributes from other effects unrelated to attenuation. The wave attributes related to borehole diameter, formation density, and velocity changes are removed by use of synthetic sonograms. The novelty of the techniques is first to use a single receiver data set to extract a relative attenuation profile, then to correct it to absolute attenuation using multiple receiver data sets. The techniques are applicable to both monopole and dipole waveform log data for either P- or S-wave attenuation.

  17. A hydrogen ice cube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, C.J.; Schoonman, J.; Schrauwers, A.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is considered to be a highly promising energy carrier. Nonetheless, before hydrogen can become the fuel of choice for the future a number of slight problems will have to be overcome. For example, how can hydrogen be safely stored? Motor vehicles running on hydrogen may be clean in concept

  18. Gas sensor with attenuated drift characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ing-Shin [Danbury, CT; Chen, Philip S. H. [Bethel, CT; Neuner, Jeffrey W [Bethel, CT; Welch, James [Fairfield, CT; Hendrix, Bryan [Danbury, CT; Dimeo, Jr., Frank [Danbury, CT

    2008-05-13

    A sensor with an attenuated drift characteristic, including a layer structure in which a sensing layer has a layer of diffusional barrier material on at least one of its faces. The sensor may for example be constituted as a hydrogen gas sensor including a palladium/yttrium layer structure formed on a micro-hotplate base, with a chromium barrier layer between the yttrium layer and the micro-hotplate, and with a tantalum barrier layer between the yttrium layer and an overlying palladium protective layer. The gas sensor is useful for detection of a target gas in environments susceptible to generation or incursion of such gas, and achieves substantial (e.g., >90%) reduction of signal drift from the gas sensor in extended operation, relative to a corresponding gas sensor lacking the diffusional barrier structure of the invention

  19. Comparative attenuation spectra of liquid skin-like phantoms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Singh, A

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to extract and compare attenuation coefficients of different liquid skin-like phantoms representing Skin Types 1 to V1 with two methods, Spectrophotometric and Integrating Sphere methods. The correlation between the results of the 2...

  20. Revisiting Hydrogen Bond Thermodynamics in Molecular Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Liel; Harries, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    In processes involving aqueous solutions and in almost every biomolecular interaction, hydrogen bonds play important roles. Though weak compared to the covalent bond, hydrogen bonds modify the stability and conformation of numerous small and large molecules and modulate their intermolecular interactions. We propose a simple methodology for extracting hydrogen bond strength from atomistic level simulations. The free energy associated with hydrogen bond formation is conveniently calculated as the reversible work required to reshape a completely random pair probability distribution reference state into the one found in simulations where hydrogen bonds are formed. Requiring only the probability density distribution of donor-acceptor pairs in the first solvation shell of an electronegative atom, the method uniquely defines the free energy, entropy, and enthalpy of the hydrogen bond. The method can be easily extended to molecules other than water and to multiple component mixtures. We demonstrate and apply this methodology to hydrogen bonds that form in molecular dynamics simulations between water molecules in pure water, as well as to bonds formed between different molecules in a binary mixture of a sugar (trehalose) and water. Finally, we comment on how the method should be useful in assessing the role of hydrogen bonds in different molecular mechanisms.

  1. Attenuation compensation for optical coherence tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shoude; Flueraru, Costel; Mao, Youxin; Sherif, Sherif

    2009-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique that provides micrometer-scale imaging of tissue. As most biological tissues are considered turbid, it causes attenuation of the OCT signal and limits the depth penetration. Although a few algorithms had been developed to compensate the attenuation, almost all of them need to extract the scattering parameters before doing the compensation procedure. Because the real biological samples are anisotropic and multilayer-like structure, it is not time-efficient to model and solve these scattering parameters. This paper introduces a new method to compensate the OCT signal attenuation in depth. By analyzing the input signal, a compensation function is adaptively derived for each A-scan line, which can be used effectively to compensate the energy loss in the large sections and enhance the details in the deep, dark-like areas. Three bio-samples, a piece of onion, a Poecilia Wingei fish and a piece of rabbit abdominal aorta, were used to test our method. OCT images obtained by a swept-source OCT system were processed by the proposed method. Results show the visualization of structures in OCT images has been evidently improved, especially in deep region.

  2. Why hydrogen; Pourquoi l'hydrogene?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-02-01

    The energy consumption increase and the associated environmental risks, led to develop new energy sources. The authors present the potentialities of the hydrogen in this context of energy supply safety. They detail the today market and the perspectives, the energy sources for the hydrogen production (fossils, nuclear and renewable), the hydrogen transport, storage, distribution and conversion, the application domains, the associated risks. (A.L.B.)

  3. Hydrogen nanobubble at normal hydrogen electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, S.; Shinozaki, R.; Senda, Y.; Yoshikawa, H. Y.

    2013-05-01

    Electrochemically formed hydrogen nanobubbles at a platinum rotating disk electrode (RDE) were detected by re-oxidation charge. The dissolution time course of the hydrogen nanobubbles was measured by AFM tapping topography under open-circuit conditions at stationary platinum and gold single-crystal electrodes. The bubble dissolution at platinum was much faster than that at gold because two types of diffusion, bulk and surface diffusion, proceeded at the platinum surface, whereas surface diffusion was prohibited at the gold electrode. These findings indicated that the electrochemical reaction of normal hydrogen electrode partly proceeded heterogeneously on the three-phase boundary around the hydrogen nanobubble.

  4. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Kreutz, T.G.; Steinbugler, M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this report the authors describe results from technical and economic assessments carried out during the past year with support from the USDOE Hydrogen R&D Program. (1) Assessment of technologies for small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas. Because of the cost and logistics of transporting and storing hydrogen, it may be preferable to produce hydrogen at the point of use from more readily available energy carriers such as natural gas or electricity. In this task the authors assess near term technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas at small scale including steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming. (2) Case study of developing a hydrogen vehicle refueling infrastructure in Southern California. Many analysts suggest that the first widespread use of hydrogen energy is likely to be in zero emission vehicles in Southern California. Several hundred thousand zero emission automobiles are projected for the Los Angeles Basin alone by 2010, if mandated levels are implemented. Assuming that hydrogen vehicles capture a significant fraction of this market, a large demand for hydrogen fuel could evolve over the next few decades. Refueling a large number of hydrogen vehicles poses significant challenges. In this task the authors assess near term options for producing and delivering gaseous hydrogen transportation fuel to users in Southern California including: (1) hydrogen produced from natural gas in a large, centralized steam reforming plant, and delivered to refueling stations via liquid hydrogen truck or small scale hydrogen gas pipeline, (2) hydrogen produced at the refueling station via small scale steam reforming of natural gas, (3) hydrogen produced via small scale electrolysis at the refueling station, and (4) hydrogen from low cost chemical industry sources (e.g. excess capacity in refineries which have recently upgraded their hydrogen production capacity, etc.).

  5. Zanthoxylum avicennae extract enhances GSK-3β to attenuate β-catenin via phosphatase 2A to block metastatic effects of HA22T cells and hepatocellular carcinoma xenografted nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Chin; Lay, Ing-Shiow; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Cheng, Shiu-Min; Lin, Chih-Hao; Dung, Tran Duc; Jeng, Long-Bin; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2017-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis is often associated with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Zanthoxylum avicennae (Ying Bu Bo, YBB), a traditional herb with hepatoprotective effect, has been proven to inhibit human HCC in in vivo models however, the in vitro and in vivo effect of YBB on tumor metastasis is not clear yet. To determine whether YBB could inhibit HA22T human HCC cell by acting on β-catenin metastatic signaling in vitro and in vivo, HA22T cells were treated with different concentrations of YBB extracts (YBBE) and analyzed by Immunofluorescence staining assay, western blot analysis, siRNA mediated gene knock-down assays and co-immunoprecipitation assay. Additionally, the HA22T-implanted xenograft nude mice were used to confirm the assessed cellular effects. Mice treated with YBBEs showed a strong increasing trend in PP2Acα, GSK-3β, APC, and β-TrCP/HOS levels, however the expression of β-catenin, p-GSK-3β, TBX 3, and IL8 proteins showed a decreasing trend. YBBE significantly downregulated the nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin levels by facilitating the proteosomal degradation of β-catenin. Moreover, as observed by co-immunoprecipitation assay, YBBE directly promoted the protein interactions between GSK-3β, β-TrCP, APC, PP2A, and β-catenin. In conclusion, both in vitro and in vivo models clearly demonstrated that YBBE inhibits β-catenin involved metastatic signaling in highly metastatic HA22T cells through PP2A activation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Shenyuan, an extract of American Ginseng and Corydalis Tuber formula, attenuates cardiomyocyte apoptosis via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress in a porcine model of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Zi-Long; Li, Pei; Liang, Wen-Yi; Feng, Xue-Ru; Liu, Mei-Lin

    2013-11-25

    The decoction of American Ginseng and Corydalis Tuber has been widely used for treatment of cardiovascular diseases due to their anti-ischemic and anti-arrhythmic effects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-apoptotic effect of Shenyuan, which is composed of the bioactive components extracted from the mixture of American Ginseng and Corydalis Tuber, and to explore potential mechanisms involved in the regulation of apoptosis. A porcine model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was established by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Thirty-eight pigs were randomized into six groups: Group S, sham (n=6); Group C, AMI controls (n=8); Group L, AMI+low-dose Shenyuan (240 mg/kg·d, n=6); Group M, AMI+moderate-dose Shenyuan (320 mg/kg·d, n=6); Group H, AMI+high-dose Shenyuan (400 mg/kg·d, n=6); Group B, AMI+Metoprolol Tartrate (1 mg/kg·d, n=6). The treatment of Shenyuan or Metoprolol started one week before AMI and continued for another two weeks after AMI. Treatment with all doses of Shenyuan as well as Metoprolol produced a significant decrease of apoptotic index (P infarct size. In Group H, levels of MDA, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, GRP78/bip, calregulin, CHOP/GADD153, Bax, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3 and activity of caspase-3 were reduced, while GSH, SOD, Bcl-2 and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly increased (P infarct size. Shenyuan treatment inhibited apoptosis and may have a therapeutic role in improving the natural process of AMI. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Hydrogen in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Pankove, Jacques I

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen plays an important role in silicon technology, having a profound effect on a wide range of properties. Thus, the study of hydrogen in semiconductors has received much attention from an interdisciplinary assortment of researchers. This sixteen-chapter volume provides a comprehensive review of the field, including a discussion of hydrogenation methods, the use of hydrogen to passivate defects, the use of hydrogen to neutralize deep levels, shallow acceptors and shallow donors in silicon, vibrational spectroscopy, and hydrogen-induced defects in silicon. In addition to this detailed cove

  8. Interactions of chelating agents with Pb-goethite at the solid-liquid interface: Pb extraction and re-adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Theo C M; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lo, Irene M C

    2010-09-01

    The use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) for soil remediation is under concern due to its non-biodegradability and toxicity; thus, its biodegradable structural isomer, [S,S]-ethylenediamine disuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS), has been proposed as an emerging substitute. In this study, batch experiments were performed to quantify the Pb extraction from goethite by EDTA and EDDS, respectively, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR/FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to investigate the corresponding mechanisms at the solid-liquid interface at different pH and reaction times. The Pb extraction was pH-dependent for both chelating agents; mildly alkaline condition was favorable for EDDS, while mildly acidic condition for EDTA. The discrepancy between two structural isomers might be caused by their pH-dependent zwitterionic structures. The ATR/FT-IR results revealed that under acidic conditions, hydrogen-bonded carboxyl groups were present in both zwitterionic EDDS and EDTA. However, ring structure of zwitterionic EDDS formed with stable intramolecular hydrogen bond might limit the availability for EDDS to extract Pb from goethite. On the other hand, each protonated amine of zwitterionic EDTA could form hydrogen bonds with two neighbouring carboxyl groups, intensifying the negative charge of carboxyl groups and enhancing the Pb extraction efficiency. However, there was a higher amount of re-adsorption of PbEDTA than PbEDDS, because zwitterionic EDTA resulted in a greater Pb extraction and facilitated iron dissolution which significantly altered the goethite morphology, particle size, and surface area. These results suggested that, despite being structural isomers, EDDS and EDTA resulted in varying extents of Pb extraction and re-adsorption due to their different zwitterionic properties. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Water, Hydrogen Bonding and the Microwave Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available n this work, the properties of the water are briefly revisited. Though liquid water has a fleeting structure, it displays an astonishingly stable network of hydrogen bonds. Thus, even as a liquid, water possesses a local lattice with short range order. The presence of hydroxyl (O-H and hydrogen (H....OH2 bonds within water, indicate that it can simultaneously maintain two separate energy systems. These can be viewed as two very different temperatures. The analysis presented uses results from vibrational spec- troscopy, extracting the force constant for the hydrogen bonded dimer. By idealizing this species as a simple diatomic structure, it is shown that hydrogen bonds within wa- ter should be able to produce thermal spectra in the far infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This simple analysis reveals that the oceans have a physical mechanism at their disposal, which is capable of generating the microwave background.

  10. Quantum-electrodynamics corrections in pionic hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlesser, S.; Le Bigot, E. -O.; Indelicato, P.; Pachucki, K.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate all pure quantum-electrodynamics corrections to the np --> 1s, n = 2-4 transition energies of pionic hydrogen larger than 1 meV, which requires an accurate evaluation of all relevant contributions up to order alpha 5. These values are needed to extract an accurate strong interaction

  11. Scattering influences in quantitative fission neutron radiography for the in situ analysis of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börries, S.; Metz, O.; Pranzas, P. K.; Bücherl, T.; Söllradl, S.; Dornheim, M.; Klassen, T.; Schreyer, A.

    2015-10-01

    In situ neutron radiography allows for the time-resolved study of hydrogen distribution in metal hydrides. However, for a precise quantitative investigation of a time-dependent hydrogen content within a host material, an exact knowledge of the corresponding attenuation coefficient is necessary. Additionally, the effect of scattering has to be considered as it is known to violate Beer's law, which is used to determine the amount of hydrogen from a measured intensity distribution. Within this study, we used a metal hydride inside two different hydrogen storage tanks as host systems, consisting of steel and aluminum. The neutron beam attenuation by hydrogen was investigated in these two different setups during the hydrogen absorption process. A linear correlation to the amount of absorbed hydrogen was found, allowing for a readily quantitative investigation. Further, an analysis of scattering contributions on the measured intensity distributions was performed and is described in detail.

  12. Handbook of hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Sherif, SA; Stefanakos, EK; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    ""This book provides an excellent overview of the hydrogen economy and a thorough and comprehensive presentation of hydrogen production and storage methods.""-Scott E. Grasman, Rochester Institute of Technology, New York, USA

  13. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  14. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  15. Solar hydrogen generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Sabol, A. P. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus, using solar energy to manufacture hydrogen by dissociating water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen molecules is described. Solar energy is concentrated on a globe containing water thereby heating the water to its dissociation temperature. The globe is pervious to hydrogen molecules permitting them to pass through the globe while being essentially impervious to oxygen molecules. The hydrogen molecules are collected after passing through the globe and the oxygen molecules are removed from the globe.

  16. Hydrogen Technologies Safety Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide basic background information on hydrogen technologies. It is intended to provide project developers, code officials, and other interested parties the background information to be able to put hydrogen safety in context. For example, code officials reviewing permit applications for hydrogen projects will get an understanding of the industrial history of hydrogen, basic safety concerns, and safety requirements.

  17. Sphaeranthus indicus attenuates testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The present study reports the attenuating effect of Sphaeranthus indicus extracts (SI) on prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in albino rats. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the petroleum ether, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of SI. A biochemical marker, β-sitosterol, was isolated and extracts were characterized utilizing HPTLC. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts and isolated β-sitosterol for a period of 28 days. The weight of the rats, the urine output, serum testosterone concentrations and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were recorded. The prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) was calculated and histological studies were performed to observe the changes in the histoarchitecture of the prostate. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Sphaeranthus indicus extracts attenuated the increase in the P/BW ratio induced by testosterone in the treated groups. The petroleum ether extract exhibited the best activity, although the ethanol and aqueous extracts also exhibited significant activity. Urine output was also improved significantly, demonstrating the clinical implications of the study. Histological studies, testosterone levels which were measured weekly and PSA levels measured at the end of the study also support claims for the potential use of Sphaeranthus indicus in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...

  19. Biological hydrogen photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Y. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Following are the major accomplishments of the 6th year`s study of biological hydrogen photoproduction which were supported by DOE/NREL. (1) We have been characterizing a biological hydrogen production system using synchronously growing aerobically nitrogen-fixing unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG 043511. So far it was necessary to irradiate the cells to produce hydrogen. Under darkness they did not produce hydrogen. However, we found that, if the cells are incubated with oxygen, they produce hydrogen under the dark. Under 80% argon + 20% oxygen condition, the hydrogen production activity under the dark was about one third of that under the light + argon condition. (2) Also it was necessary so far to incubate the cells under argon atmosphere to produce hydrogen in this system. Argon treatment is very expensive and should be avoided in an actual hydrogen production system. We found that, if the cells are incubated at a high cell density and in a container with minimum headspace, it is not necessary to use argon for the hydrogen production. (3) Calcium ion was found to play an important role in the mechanisms of protection of nitrogenase from external oxygen. This will be a clue to understand the reason why the hydrogen production is so resistant to oxygen in this strain. (4) In this strain, sulfide can be used as electron donor for the hydrogen production. This result shows that waste water can be used for the hydrogen production system using this strain.

  20. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-04-01

    Wave-induced variations of pore pressure in a partially-saturated reservoir result in oscillatory liquid flow. The viscous losses during this flow are responsible for wave attenuation. The same viscous effects determine the changes in the dynamic bulk modulus of the system versus frequency. These changes are necessarily linked to attenuation via the causality condition. We analytically quantify the frequency dependence of the bulk modulus of a partially saturated rock by assuming that saturation is patchy and then link these changes to the inverse quality factor. As a result, the P-wave attenuation is quantitatively linked to saturation and thus can serve as a saturation indicator.

  1. Whole-body PET/MRI: The effect of bone attenuation during MR-based attenuation correction in oncology imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, M.C.; Sersar, Rachida; Saabye, J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In combined PET/MRI standard PET attenuation correction (AC) is based on tissue segmentation following dedicated MR sequencing and, typically, bone tissue is not represented. We evaluate PET quantification in whole-body (WB)-PET/MRI following MR-AC without considering bone attenuation...... and then investigate different strategies to account for bone tissue in clinical PET/MR imaging. To this purpose, bone tissue representation was extracted from separate CT images, and different bone representations were simulated from hypothetically derived MR-based bone classifications. Methods: Twenty oncology...

  2. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  3. Extraction of Water from Lunar Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2009-01-01

    Remote sensing indicates the presence of hydrogen rich regions associated with the lunar poles. The logical hypothesis is that there is cryogenically trapped water ice located in craters at the lunar poles. Some of the craters have been in permanent darkness for a billion years. The presence of water at the poles as well as other scientific advantages of a polar base, have influenced NASA plans for the lunar outpost. The lunar outpost has water and oxygen requirements on the order of 1 ton per year scaling up to as much as 5 tons per year. Microwave heating of the frozen permafrost has unique advantages for water extraction. Proof of principle experiments have successfully demonstrated that microwaves will couple to the cryogenic soil in a vacuum and the sublimed water vapor can be successfully captured on a cold trap. Dielectric property measurements of lunar soil simulant have been measured. Microwave absorption and attenuation in lunar soil simulant has been correlated with measured dielectric properties. Future work will be discussed.

  4. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  5. Safe venting of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, W.F.; Dewart, J.M.; Edeskuty, F.J.

    1990-01-01

    The disposal of hydrogen is often required in the operation of an experimental facility that contains hydrogen. Whether the vented hydrogen can be discharged to the atmosphere safely depends upon a number of factors such as the flow rate and atmospheric conditions. Calculations have been made that predict the distance a combustible mixture can extend from the point of release under some specified atmospheric conditions. Also the quantity of hydrogen in the combustible cloud is estimated. These results can be helpful in deciding of the hydrogen can be released directly to the atmosphere, or if it must be intentionally ignited. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Extraction procedure compared to attenuation model to assess heavy metals mobility in sediments from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro; Procedimento de fracionamento comparado a modelo de atenuacao para a avaliacao de mobilidade de metais pesados em sedimentos da Baia de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Andreza Portella

    2006-07-01

    Sepetiba bay, located about 60 km west of the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro city, has undergone notable development in the last decades, with the establishment of about 400 industrial plants in its basin, basically metallurgical, which release its industrial waste either straight into the bay or through local rivers. The Sepetiba harbor also brought up a lot of industrial investment in that area. This urban and industrial expansion caused several environmental impacts, mainly due to the presence of heavy metals and other potentially toxic substances present in the effluents discharged into the bay. This work aimed to assess heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn) contamination and mobility in sediments from Sepetiba bay. The acid-volatile sulfides (AVS) and the concentration of simultaneously extracted metals (SIGMA[SEM) were determined in 65 sediment samples from Sepetiba bay, representing the whole area. The results obtained showed that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn presented higher concentrations in the northeastern area (mainly in the mouth of Guandu and Canal de Sao Francisco rivers), while the highest concentration of Ni were observed in the western region of the bay. The comparison between SEM concentrations with the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (TEL and PEL) indicated that Cd and Zn presented values which may hazard to aquatic organisms (concentration levels above PEL); the elements Cu, Pb and Ni presented concentration levels below PEL, suggesting low probability of toxicological effects to the aquatic organisms. On the other hand, the ratio {sigma}[SEM]/[AVS] was below 1 in the northeastern region, indicating that, in spite of the high concentration of the analyzed metals in this area, they are trapped in the sediment, as sulfides. The total metal concentrations in the sediments were also determined and the same distribution pattern obtained for the SEM were observed, with high concentrations in the northeastern region of the bay, classifying the area as

  7. Phenolic extract of Dialium guineense pulp enhances reactive oxygen species detoxification in aflatoxin B₁ hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Abdulwasiu O; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Iliasu, Ganiyat A; Abdussalam, Folakemi A; Balogun, Abdulazeez; Ojewuyi, Oluwayemisi B; Yakubu, Musa T

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of Dialium guineense pulp phenolic extract on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging potentials of free and bound phenolic extract of D. guineense (0.2-1.0 mg/mL) were investigated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide ion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radical, and ferric ion reducing system. In the in vivo study, 35 animals were randomized into seven groups of five rats each. Free and bound phenolic extract (1 mg/mL) produced 66.42% and 93.08%, 57.1% and 86.0%, 62.0% and 90.05%, and 60.11% and 72.37% scavenging effect on DPPH radical, O2(-) radical, H2O2, and hydroxyl radical, while ferric ion was significantly reduced. An AFB1-mediated decrease in the activities of ROS detoxifying enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase) was significantly attenuated (P<.05). AFB1-mediated elevation in the concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers; malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and percentage DNA fragmentation were significantly lowered by D. guineense phenolic extract (P<.05). Overall, the in vitro and in vivo effects suggest that D. guineense phenolic extract elicited ROS scavenging and detoxification potentials, as well as the capability of preventing lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA fragmentation.

  8. Antibacterial and Antioxidant Capacities and Attenuation of Lipid Accumulation in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes by Low-Molecular-Weight Fucoidans Prepared from Compressional-Puffing-Pretreated Sargassum Crassifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yung Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we extracted fucoidan from compressional-puffing-pretreated Sargassum crassifolium by hot water. The crude extract of fucoidan (SC was degraded by various degradation reagents and four low-molecular-weight (LMW fucoidans, namely SCO (degradation by hydrogen peroxide, SCA (degradation by ascorbic acid, SCOA (degradation by hydrogen peroxide + ascorbic acid, and SCH (degradation by hydrogen chloride were obtained. The degradation reagents studied could effectively degrade fucoidan into LMW fucoidans, as revealed by intrinsic viscosity, agarose gel electrophoresis, and molecular weight analyses. These LMW fucoidans had higher uronic acid content and sulfate content than those of SC. It was found that SCOA exhibited antibacterial activity. All LMW fucoidans showed antioxidant activities as revealed by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt, and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power methods. Biological experiments showed that SC and SCOA had relatively high activity for the reversal of H2O2-induced cell death in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and SCOA showed the highest effect on attenuation of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Therefore, for the LMW fucoidans tested, SCOA showed antibacterial activity and had a high fucose content, high sulfate content, high activity for the reversal of H2O2-induced cell death, and a marked effect on attenuation of lipid accumulation. It can thus be recommended as a natural and safe antibacterial and anti-adipogenic agent for food, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications.

  9. Attenuation of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) inbioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Werner, Craig M.

    2015-04-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are two types of microbial bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) that use microorganisms to convert chemical energy in wastewaters into useful energy products such as (bio)electricity (MFC) or hydrogen gas (MEC). These two systems were evaluated for their capacity to attenuate trace organic compounds (TOrCs), commonly found in municipal wastewater, under closed circuit (current generation) and open circuit (no current generation) conditions, using acetate as the carbon source. A biocide was used to evaluate attenuation in terms of biotransformation versus sorption. The difference in attenuation observed before and after addition of the biocide represented biotransformation, while attenuation after addition of a biocide primarily indicated sorption. Attenuation of TOrCs was similar in MFCs and MECs for eight different TOrCs, except for caffeine and trimethoprim where slightly higher attenuation was observed in MECs. Electric current generation did not enhance attenuation of the TOrCs except for caffeine, which showed slightly higher attenuation under closed circuit conditions in both MFCs and MECs. Substantial sorption of the TOrCs occurred to the biofilm-covered electrodes, but no consistent trend could be identified regarding the physico-chemical properties of the TOrCs tested and the extent of sorption. The octanol-water distribution coefficient at pH 7.4 (log DpH 7.4) appeared to be a reasonable predictor for sorption of some of the compounds (carbamazepine, atrazine, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and diphenhydramine) but not for others (N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide). Atenolol also showed high levels of sorption despite being the most hydrophilic in the suite of compounds studied (log DpH 7.4=-1.99). Though BESs do not show any inherent advantages over conventional wastewater treatment, with respect to TOrC removal, overall removals in BESs are similar to that reported for conventional wastewater

  10. Hydrogen energy for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book highlights the outstanding role of hydrogen in energy processes, where it is the most functional element due to its unique peculiarities that are highlighted and emphasized in the book. The first half of the book covers the great natural hydrogen processes in biology, chemistry, and physics, showing that hydrogen is a trend that can unite all natural sciences. The second half of the book is devoted to the technological hydrogen processes that are under research and development with the aim to create the infrastructure for hydrogen energetics. The book describes the main features of hydrogen that make it inalienable player in processes such as fusion, photosynthesis, and metabolism. It also covers the methods of hydrogen production and storage, highlighting at the same time the exclusive importance of nanotechnologies in those processes.

  11. Cyclooctanaminium hydrogen succinate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaz Khorasani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated salt, C8H18N+·C4H5O4−·H2O, the cyclooctyl ring of the cation is disordered over two positions in a 0.833 (3:0.167 (3 ratio. The structure contains various O—H.·O and N—H...O interactions, forming a hydrogen-bonded layer of molecules perpendicular to the c axis. In each layer, the ammonium cation hydrogen bonds to two hydrogen succinate anions and one water molecule. Each hydrogen succinate anion hydrogen bonds to neighbouring anions, forming a chain of molecules along the b axis. In addition, each hydrogen succinate anion hydrogen bonds to two water molecules and the ammonium cation.

  12. Integrated Microfluidic Variable Optical Attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-28

    indices , the optical output power is gradually attenuated. We obtain a maximum attenuation of 28 dB when the fluid refractive index changes from 1.557 to...Electron. 23, pp. 1348-1354 (2005). 14. J. M. Ruano, V. Benoit, J. S. Aitchison , and J. M. Cooper, “Flame hydrolysis deposition of glass on silicon for...different refractive indices flowing in a microfluidic channel as the cladding for a segment of straight optical waveguide. Recently, the integration of

  13. Optical Attenuation in MoNA and LISA Detector Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Logan; Wong, Jonathan; MoNA Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The MoNA collaboration is a research group of students and faculty from 13 primarily undergraduate institutions, with detectors at the NSCL: MoNA (Modular Neutron Array) and the newly-built LISA (Large multi-Institutional Scintillating Array). These arrays each have 144 plastic scintillating bars. When a neutron collides with a hydrogen nucleus within the plastic, photomultiplier tubes at either end of the bar detect the scintillation photons. Their arrival times are used to determine the position of the event, but as the light travels through the detector it loses intensity exponentially. How dramatic this loss is can be described by a parameter called the attenuation length, with larger attenuation lengths corresponding to lower loss. Recently the MoNA collaboration conducted its LISA commissioning experiment investigating two-neutron decay states of 25O. As a part of LISA's commissioning, we measured the attenuation lengths of the individual detector bars that make up the LISA array and compared these lengths with those of the older MoNA array. We found that the LISA bars had a larger attenuation length on average with impacts on detector efficiency and effective threshold. The authors wish to acknowledge the contributions of the members of the MoNA Collaboration.

  14. Hydrogen storage methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züttel, Andreas

    Hydrogen exhibits the highest heating value per mass of all chemical fuels. Furthermore, hydrogen is regenerative and environmentally friendly. There are two reasons why hydrogen is not the major fuel of today's energy consumption. First of all, hydrogen is just an energy carrier. And, although it is the most abundant element in the universe, it has to be produced, since on earth it only occurs in the form of water and hydrocarbons. This implies that we have to pay for the energy, which results in a difficult economic dilemma because ever since the industrial revolution we have become used to consuming energy for free. The second difficulty with hydrogen as an energy carrier is its low critical temperature of 33 K (i.e. hydrogen is a gas at ambient temperature). For mobile and in many cases also for stationary applications the volumetric and gravimetric density of hydrogen in a storage material is crucial. Hydrogen can be stored using six different methods and phenomena: (1) high-pressure gas cylinders (up to 800 bar), (2) liquid hydrogen in cryogenic tanks (at 21 K), (3) adsorbed hydrogen on materials with a large specific surface area (at Tchemically bonded in covalent and ionic compounds (at ambient pressure), or (6) through oxidation of reactive metals, e.g. Li, Na, Mg, Al, Zn with water. The most common storage systems are high-pressure gas cylinders with a maximum pressure of 20 MPa (200 bar). New lightweight composite cylinders have been developed which are able to withstand pressures up to 80 MPa (800 bar) and therefore the hydrogen gas can reach a volumetric density of 36 kg.m-3, approximately half as much as in its liquid state. Liquid hydrogen is stored in cryogenic tanks at 21.2 K and ambient pressure. Due to the low critical temperature of hydrogen (33 K), liquid hydrogen can only be stored in open systems. The volumetric density of liquid hydrogen is 70.8 kg.m-3, and large volumes, where the thermal losses are small, can cause hydrogen to reach a

  15. Dynamics of hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bonding configuration due to hydrogen migration have been proposed as a mechanism of defect generation in a-Si:H [6,7]. Thus hydrogen plays a dual role in a-Si:H: (1) acting as a .... the sphere of radius R0 and allows to express. ∆F as a function of localization radius R0. Using eqs (10) and (11), the volume integration.

  16. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  17. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Center for Energy and Environmental Studies

    1998-08-01

    In this progress report (covering the period May 1997--May 1998), the authors summarize results from ongoing technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Generally, the goal of their research is to illuminate possible pathways leading from present hydrogen markets and technologies toward wide scale use of hydrogen as an energy carrier, highlighting important technologies for RD and D. Over the past year they worked on three projects. From May 1997--November 1997, the authors completed an assessment of hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles, as compared to methanol and gasoline. Two other studies were begun in November 1997 and are scheduled for completion in September 1998. The authors are carrying out an assessment of potential supplies and demands for hydrogen energy in the New York City/New Jersey area. The goal of this study is to provide useful data and suggest possible implementation strategies for the New York City/ New Jersey area, as the Hydrogen Program plans demonstrations of hydrogen vehicles and refueling infrastructure. The authors are assessing the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy systems. The goals of this work are (a) to understand the implications of CO{sub 2} sequestration for hydrogen energy system design; (b) to understand the conditions under which CO{sub 2} sequestration might become economically viable; and (c) to understand design issues for future low-CO{sub 2} emitting hydrogen energy systems based on fossil fuels.

  18. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Rubio-Escudero

    Full Text Available Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production.Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients.Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test.Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  19. Data Mining Techniques Applied to Hydrogen Lactose Breath Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Escudero, Cristina; Valverde-Fernández, Justo; Nepomuceno-Chamorro, Isabel; Pontes-Balanza, Beatriz; Hernández-Mendoza, Yoedusvany; Rodríguez-Herrera, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Analyze a set of data of hydrogen breath tests by use of data mining tools. Identify new patterns of H2 production. Hydrogen breath tests data sets as well as k-means clustering as the data mining technique to a dataset of 2571 patients. Six different patterns have been extracted upon analysis of the hydrogen breath test data. We have also shown the relevance of each of the samples taken throughout the test. Analysis of the hydrogen breath test data sets using data mining techniques has identified new patterns of hydrogen generation upon lactose absorption. We can see the potential of application of data mining techniques to clinical data sets. These results offer promising data for future research on the relations between gut microbiota produced hydrogen and its link to clinical symptoms.

  20. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    U,. Thawornchinsombut. S,. Pannangpetch P. Rice bran protein hydrolysates improve insulin resistance and decrease pro- inflammatory cytokine gene expression in rats fed a high carbohydrate-high fat diet. Nutrients 2015; 7(8): 6313-. 6329. 20. Kim SM, Rico CW, Lee SC, Kang MY. Modulatory effect of rice bran and phytic ...

  1. Methanolic leaf extract of Ficus exasperata attenuates Arsenate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  2. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the protective effects of Cuminum cyminum Linn (Apiaceae, CCY) against 1- methyl-4 phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced oxidative stress and behavioral impairments in mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Methods: MPTP-intoxicated mice model of PD was used for evaluating ...

  3. Rice bran water extract attenuates pancreatic abnormalities in high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histological examination of HFD-induced obese rats revealed fat droplets in acinar cells, but these alterations were ameliorated in RBE-treated rats. RBE treatment showed significantly (p < 0.05) decreased SREBP-1c expression, and also significantly (p < 0.05) increased IRS-2, GLUT-2 and GK expressions in pancreas.

  4. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received: 9 November 2015. Revised accepted: 17 March 2016. Abstract. Purpose: To evaluate ... ability to induce oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in ... On day 22, all the brain tissues were rinsed in ice-cold isotonic saline, homogenized with 1 mL of ice-cold 0.1 M ...

  5. Neuroprotective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human dopaminergic cell line, SH-SY5Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Seung; Sapkota, Kumar; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a major Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), which has been implicated in many neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) has been reported to have various pharmacological properties including anti-oxidant activity. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of R. officinalis extract on H2O2-induced apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells, SH-SY5Y. Our results showed that H2O2-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells was suppressed by treatment with R. officinalis. Moreover, R. officinalis was very effective in attenuating the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptotic cell death induced by H2O2. R. officinalis extract effectively suppressed the up-regulation of Bax, Bak, Caspase-3 and -9, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Pretreatment with R. officinalis significantly attenuated the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) gene in SH-SY5Y cells. These findings indicate that R. officinalis is able to protect the neuronal cells against H2O2-induced injury and suggest that R. officinalis might potentially serve as an agent for prevention of several human neurodegenerative diseases caused by oxidative stress and apoptosis.

  6. Allylammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błażej Dziuk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated molecular salt, C3H8N+·C2HO4−·0.5H2O, the water O atom lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. The C=C—C—N torsion angle in the cation is 2.8 (3° and the dihedral angle between the CO2 and CO2H planes in the anion is 1.0 (4°. In the crystal, the hydrogen oxalate ions are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating [010] chains. The allylammonium cations bond to the chains through N—H...O and N—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds. The water molecule accepts two N—H...O hydrogen bonds and makes two O—H...O hydrogen bonds. Together, the hydrogen bonds generate (100 sheets.

  7. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up....... A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling...

  8. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  9. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  10. Pathways to Metallic Hydrogen

    OpenAIRE

    Silvera, Isaac F.; Deemyad, Shanti

    2008-01-01

    The traditional pathway that researchers have used in the goal of producing atomic metallic hydrogen is to compress samples with megabar pressures at low temperature. A number of phases have been observed in solid hydrogen and its isotopes, but all are in the insulating phase. The results of experiment and theory for this pathway are reviewed. In recent years a new pathway has become the focus of this challenge of producing metallic hydrogen, namely a path along the melting line. It has bee...

  11. Hydrogen rich gas generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A process and apparatus is described for producing a hydrogen rich gas by introducing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel in the form of a spray into a partial oxidation region and mixing with a mixture of steam and air that is preheated by indirect heat exchange with the formed hydrogen rich gas, igniting the hydrocarbon fuel spray mixed with the preheated mixture of steam and air within the partial oxidation region to form a hydrogen rich gas.

  12. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Antioxidant Activity of Cassia fistula Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Irshad, Md.; Zafaryab, Md.; Singh, Man; Rizvi, M. Moshahid A.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant potential of various extracts of Cassia fistula was determined by the DPPH, FRAP, Fe3+ reducing power, and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Methanolic extracts of Cassia fistula showed the highest amount of phenolic and flavonoid content and reducing capacity, whereas hexane extracts exhibited the lowest level of reducing capacity. The order of antioxidant activity in Cassia fistula extracts displayed from higher to lower level as methanolic extracts of pulp, methanolic extract...

  14. Liquid hydrogen in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumi, S. [Iwatani Corp., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Overseas Business Development

    2009-07-01

    Japan's Iwatani Corporation has focused its attention on hydrogen as the ultimate energy source in future. Unlike the United States, hydrogen use and delivery in liquid form is extremely limited in the European Union and in Japan. Iwatani Corporation broke through industry stereotypes by creating and building Hydro Edge Co. Ltd., Japan's largest liquid hydrogen plant. It was established in 2006 as a joint venture between Iwatani and Kansai Electric Power Group in Osaka. Hydro Edge is Japan's first combined liquid hydrogen and ASU plant, and is fully operational. Liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and liquid argon are separated from air using the cryogenic energy of liquefied natural gas fuel that is used for power generation. Liquid hydrogen is produced efficiently and simultaneously using liquid nitrogen. Approximately 12 times as much hydrogen in liquid form can be transported and supplied as pressurized hydrogen gas. This technology is a significant step forward in the dissemination and expansion of hydrogen in a hydrogen-based economy.

  15. Protective effects of Arctium lappa L. roots against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell injury and potential mechanisms in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Guo, Li-Ping; Hu, Xiao-Long; Huang, Jin; Fan, Yan-Hua; Ren, Tian-Shu; Zhao, Qing-Chun

    2015-04-01

    Accumulated evidence has shown that excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in neuronal cell death related with various chronic neurodegenerative disorders. This study was designed to explore neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract of Arctium lappa L. roots (EAL) on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The cell viability was significantly decreased after exposure to 200 μM H2O2, whereas pretreatment with different concentrations of EAL attenuated the H2O2-induced cytotoxicity. Hoechst 33342 staining indicated that EAL reversed nuclear condensation in H2O2-treated cells. Meanwhile, TUNEL assay with DAPI staining showed that EAL attenuated apoptosis was induced by H2O2. Pretreatment with EAL also markedly elevated activities of antioxidant enzyme (GSH-Px and SOD), reduced lipid peroxidation (MDA) production, prevented ROS formation, and the decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, EAL showed strong radical scavenging ability in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays. Furthermore, EAL inhibited H2O2-induced apoptosis by increases in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, decreases in cytochrome c release, and attenuation of caspase-3, caspase-9 activities, and expressions. These findings suggest that EAL may be regarded as a potential antioxidant agent and possess potent neuroprotective activity against H2O2-induced injury.

  16. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T [Ann Arbor, MI; Li, Yingwel [Ann Arbor, MI; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J.

    2011-05-31

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonification as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  17. Enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ralph T; Li, Yingwei; Lachawiec, Jr., Anthony J

    2013-02-12

    Methods for enhancing hydrogen spillover and storage are disclosed. One embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the hydrogen receptor to ultrasonication as doping occurs. Another embodiment of the method includes doping a hydrogen receptor with metal particles, and exposing the doped hydrogen receptor to a plasma treatment.

  18. Attenuation in silica-based optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandel, Marie Emilie

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis on attenuation in silica based optical fibers results within three main topics are reported. Spectral attenuation measurements on transmission fibers are performed in the wide wavelength range 290 nm – 1700 nm. The measured spectral attenuation is analyzed with special emphasis...... on absorption peaks in order to investigate the cause of an unusual high attenuation in a series of transmission fibers. Strong indications point to Ni2+ in octahedral coordination as being the cause of the high attenuation. The attenuation of fibers having a high core refractive index is analyzed and the cause...... of the high attenuation measured in such fibers is described as being due to scattering of light on fluctuations of the core diameter. A novel semi-empirical model for predicting the attenuation of high index fibers is presented. The model is shown to be able to predict the attenuation of high index fibers...

  19. POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

  20. Hydrogen Storage Tank

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    This huge stainless steel reservoir,placed near an end of the East Hall, was part of the safety equipment connected to the 2 Metre liquid hydrogen Bubble Chamber. It could store all the hydrogen in case of an emergency. The picture shows the start of its demolition.

  1. Metastable ultracondensed hydrogenous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellis, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to stimulate theoretical predictions of how to retain metastably hydrogenous materials made at high pressure P on release to ambient. Ultracondensed metallic hydrogen has been made at high pressures in the fluid and reported made probably in the solid. Because the long quest for metallic hydrogen is likely to be concluded in the relatively near future, a logical question is whether another research direction, comparable in scale to the quest for metallic H, will arise in high pressure research. One possibility is retention of metastable solid metallic hydrogen and other hydrogenous materials on release of dynamic and static high pressures P to ambient. If hydrogenous materials could be retained metastably on release, those materials would be a new class of materials for scientific investigations and technological applications. This paper is a review of the current situation with the synthesis of metallic hydrogen, potential technological applications of metastable metallic H and other hydrogenous materials at ambient, and general background of published experimental and theoretical work on what has been accomplished with metastable phases in the past and thus what might be accomplished in the future.

  2. Hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ram; Stamenkovic, Vojislav; Markovic, Nenad; Tripkovic, Dusan

    2016-02-09

    Systems and methods for a hydrogen evolution reaction catalyst are provided. Electrode material includes a plurality of clusters. The electrode exhibits bifunctionality with respect to the hydrogen evolution reaction. The electrode with clusters exhibits improved performance with respect to the intrinsic material of the electrode absent the clusters.

  3. Dark hydrogen fermentations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The production of hydrogen is a ubiquitous, natural phenomenon under anoxic or anaerobic conditions. A wide variety of bacteria, in swamps, sewage, hot springs, the rumen of cattle etc. is able to convert organic matter to hydrogen, CO2 and metabolites like acetic acid, lactate, ethanol and alanine.

  4. Fuzzy clustering-based segmented attenuation correction in whole-body PET

    CERN Document Server

    Zaidi, H; Boudraa, A; Slosman, DO

    2001-01-01

    Segmented-based attenuation correction is now a widely accepted technique to reduce noise contribution of measured attenuation correction. In this paper, we present a new method for segmenting transmission images in positron emission tomography. This reduces the noise on the correction maps while still correcting for differing attenuation coefficients of specific tissues. Based on the Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) algorithm, the method segments the PET transmission images into a given number of clusters to extract specific areas of differing attenuation such as air, the lungs and soft tissue, preceded by a median filtering procedure. The reconstructed transmission image voxels are therefore segmented into populations of uniform attenuation based on the human anatomy. The clustering procedure starts with an over-specified number of clusters followed by a merging process to group clusters with similar properties and remove some undesired substructures using anatomical knowledge. The method is unsupervised, adaptive and a...

  5. Electrochemical Hydrogen Compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipp, Ludwig [FuelCell Energy, Inc., Torrington, CT (United States)

    2016-01-21

    Conventional compressors have not been able to meet DOE targets for hydrogen refueling stations. They suffer from high capital cost, poor reliability and pose a risk of fuel contamination from lubricant oils. This project has significantly advanced the development of solid state hydrogen compressor technology for multiple applications. The project has achieved all of its major objectives. It has demonstrated capability of Electrochemical Hydrogen Compression (EHC) technology to potentially meet the DOE targets for small compressors for refueling sites. It has quantified EHC cell performance and durability, including single stage hydrogen compression from near-atmospheric pressure to 12,800 psi and operation of EHC for more than 22,000 hours. Capital cost of EHC was reduced by 60%, enabling a path to meeting the DOE cost targets for hydrogen compression, storage and delivery ($2.00-2.15/gge by 2020).

  6. Chlorific efficiency of coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, H.

    1942-10-20

    In studies on the calorific efficiency of coal hydrogenation, the efficiency for H/sub 2/ production was calculated to be 26%, the efficiency for hydrogenation was calculated to be 49%, and the efficiency of hydrogenation including H/sub 2/ production was 27.2%. The efficiency of hydrogenation plus hydrogen production was almost equal to the efficiency of hydrogen production alone, even though this was not expected because of the total energy calculated in the efficiency of hydrogenation proper. It was entirely possible, but did not affect computations, that the efficiency of one or the other components of hydrogenation process differed somewhat from 49%. The average efficiency for all cases was 49%. However, when hydrogen was not bought, but was produced--(efficiency of hydrogen production was 26%, not 100%-- then the total energy changed and the efficiency of hydrogen production and combination was not 26%, but 13%. This lower value explained the drop of hydrogenation efficiency to 27.2%.

  7. Seismic attenuation imaging with causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, B.; Mulder, W.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seismic data enable imaging of the Earth, not only of velocity and density but also of attenuation contrasts. Unfortunately, the Born approximation of the constant-density visco-acoustic wave equation, which can serve as a forward modelling operator related to seismic migration, exhibits an

  8. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...

  9. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  10. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  11. The hydrogen highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigg, A. [Fuel Cells Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    'Full text:' The Hydrogen Highway in British Columbia, Canada, is a coordinated, large-scale demonstration and deployment program aimed at accelerating the commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies and products. It will be a showcase for fuel cell vehicles, refuelling stations and stationary power systems leading up to the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in Whistler, BC. The Hydrogen Highway is designed to help address many of the challenges to commercialization identified in the Canadian Fuel Cell Commercialization Roadmap. The project will create an early adopter network of hydrogen and fuel cell microenvironments where technology developers and users can learn about the technical, economic, environmental and social impacts of products. The Hydrogen Highway will give the public and potential purchasers an opportunity to feel, touch and see the new technology, as well as provide the industry with a venue in which to develop industry standards and supply chains of materials and components. While demonstration and deployment programs are a recognized and necessary component in the process to commercialize hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, there is no handbook describing how it should be done. This paper will describe the history, objectives, project details and some of the challenges associated with establishing Canada's Hydrogen Highway. (author)

  12. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.; Misra, A.; Miller, E. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A significant component of the US DOE Hydrogen Program is the development of a practical technology for the direct production of hydrogen using a renewable source of energy. High efficiency photoelectrochemical systems to produce hydrogen directly from water using sunlight as the energy source represent one of the technologies identified by DOE to meet this mission. Reactor modeling and experiments conducted at UH provide strong evidence that direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency greater than 10% can be expected using photoelectrodes fabricated from low-cost, multijunction (MJ) amorphous silicon solar cells. Solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8% have been achieved using a 10.3% efficient MJ amorphous silicon solar cell. Higher efficiency can be expected with the use of higher efficiency solar cells, further improvement of the thin film oxidation and reduction catalysts, and optimization of the solar cell for hydrogen production rather than electricity production. Hydrogen and oxygen catalysts developed under this project are very stable, exhibiting no measurable degradation in KOH after over 13,000 hours of operation. Additional research is needed to fully optimize the transparent, conducting coatings which will be needed for large area integrated arrays. To date, the best protection has been afforded by wide bandgap amorphous silicon carbide films.

  13. A green hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, W.W. II [Clark Communications, Beverly Hills, CA (United States). Green Hydrogen Scientific Advisory Committee; Rifkin, J. [The Foundation on Economic Trends (United States)

    2006-11-15

    This paper is the result of over a dozen scholars and practitioners who strongly felt that a hydrogen economy and hence the future is closer than some American politicians and bureaucrats state. Moreover, when seen internationally, there is strong evidence, the most recent and obvious ones are the proliferation of hybrid vehicles, that for any nation-state to be energy independent it must seek a renewable or green hydrogen future in the near term. The State of California has once again taken the lead in this effort for both an energy-independent future and one linked strongly to the hydrogen economy. Then why a hydrogen economy in the first instance? The fact is that hydrogen most likely will not be used for refueling of vehicles in the near term. The number of vehicles to make hydrogen commercially viable will not be in the mass market by almost all estimates until 2010. However, it is less than a decade away. The time frame is NOT 30-40 years as some argue. The hydrogen economy needs trained people, new ventures and public-private partnerships now. The paper points out how the concerns of today, including higher costs and technologies under development, can be turned into opportunities for both the public and private sectors. It was not too long ago that the size of a mobile phone was that of a briefcase, and then almost 10 years ago, the size of a shoe box. Today, they are not only the size of a man's wallet but also often given away free to consumers who subscribe or contract for wireless services. While hydrogen may not follow this technological commercialization exactly, it certainly will be on a parallel path. International events and local or regional security dictate that the time for a hydrogen must be close at hand. (author)

  14. Lung attenuation measurements in healthy young adults.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A

  15. Inner Core Anisotropy in Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, W.; Wen, L.

    2004-12-01

    It is now well established that the compressional velocity in the Earth's inner core varies in both direction and geographic location. The compressional waves travel faster along the polar directions than along the equatorial directions. Such polar-equatorial difference is interpreted as a result of inner core anisotropy in velocity (with a magnitude of about 3%) and such anisotropy appears to be stronger in the ``western hemisphere" (180oW -40oE) than in the ``eastern hemisphere" (40oE-180oE). Along the equatorial paths, the compressional velocity also exhibits a hemispheric pattern with the eastern hemisphere being about 1% higher than the western hemisphere. Possible explanations for the causes of the velocity in anisotropy and the hemispheric difference in velocity along the equatorial paths include different geometric inclusions of melt or different alignments of iron crystals which are known to be anisotropic in velocities. Here, we report an observation of ubiquitous correlation between small (large) amplitude and fast (slow) travel time of the PKIKP waves sampling the top 300 km of the inner core. We study this correlation by jointly analyzing the differential travel times and amplitude ratios of the PKiKP-PKIKP and the PKPbc-PKIKP phases recorded by the Global Seismographic Network (1990-2001), various regional seismic networks (BANJO, BLSP, FREESIA, GEOFON, GEOSCOPE, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz, MEDNET, and OHP), and several PASSCAL Networks deployed in Alaska and Antarctica (XE: 1999-2001, XF: 1995-1996, and YI: 1998-1999). Our dataset consists of 310 PKiKP-PKIKP and 240 PKPbc-PKIKP phases, selected from a total of more than 16,000 observations. PKIKP waves exhibit relatively smaller amplitudes for those sampling the eastern hemisphere along the equatorial paths and even smaller amplitudes for those sampling the polar paths in the western hemisphere. One simple explanation for the velocity-attenuation relation is that the inner core is anisotropic in attenuation

  16. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M; Lien, S; Weaver, P F

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  17. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M.; Lien, S.; Weaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  18. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  19. Chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Frederick T.

    1981-01-01

    Intermetallic compounds with the CaCu.sub.5 type of crystal structure, particularly LaNiCo.sub.4 and CaNi.sub.5, exhibit high separation factors and fast equilibrium times and therefore are useful for packing a chromatographic hydrogen isotope separation colum. The addition of an inert metal to dilute the hydride improves performance of the column. A large scale mutli-stage chromatographic separation process run as a secondary process off a hydrogen feedstream from an industrial plant which uses large volumes of hydrogen can produce large quantities of heavy water at an effective cost for use in heavy water reactors.

  20. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  1. National hydrogen energy roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-01

    This report was unveiled by Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham in November 2002 and provides a blueprint for the coordinated, long-term, public and private efforts required for hydrogen energy development. Based on the results of the government-industry National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap Workshop, held in Washington, DC on April 2-3, 2002, it displays the development of a roadmap for America's clean energy future and outlines the key barriers and needs to achieve the hydrogen vision goals defined in

  2. Biomimetic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krassen, Henning

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other

  3. A New Approach for Quantitative Evaluation of Ultrasonic Wave Attenuation in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Qing-Qing; Li, Ran; Xia, Hong

    2017-02-01

    When ultrasonic waves propagate in composite materials, the propagation behaviors result from the combination effects of various factors, such as material anisotropy and viscoelastic property, internal microstructure and defects, incident wave characteristics and interface condition between composite components. It is essential to make it clear how these factors affect the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation characteristics, and how they mutually interact on each other. In the present paper, based on a newly developed time-domain finite element analysis code, PZflex, a unique approach for clarifying the detailed influence mechanism of aforementioned factors is proposed, in which each attenuation component can be extracted from the overall attenuation and analyzed respectively. By taking into consideration the interrelation between each individual attenuation component, the variation behaviors of each component and internal dynamic stress distribution against material anisotropy and matrix viscosity are separately and quantitatively evaluated. From the detailed analysis results of each attenuation component, the energy dissipation at interface is a major component in ultrasonic wave attenuation characteristics, which can provide a maximum contribution rate of 68.2 % to the overall attenuation, and each attenuation component is closely related to the material anisotropy and viscoelasticity. The results clarify the correlation between ultrasonic wave propagation characteristics and material viscoelastic properties, which will be useful in the further development of ultrasonic technology in defect detection.

  4. First evaluation of the hydrogenation of primary bitumens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupfer; Leonhardt

    1942-10-27

    This report evaluated and compared primary bitumens to coal tar pitch in the hydrogenation process. Bituminous coal extract from extractive hydrogenation hydrogenated better than a coal tar pitch with similar content of high-molecular-weight fractions. Direct hydrogenation to produce gasoline and middle oil over an iron catalyst was more advantageous than the two-step method. In this experiment, primary bitumens from extractive hydrogenation of Silesian bituminous coal were converted either to gasoline and middle oil or to heavy-oil excess with this iron catalyst. The results were compared with those from high-asphalt-containing coal tar residue. The bitumens gave better results than the pitch for producing heavy oil. Larger amounts of gas were then required to produce sufficient splitting effect in the separators. Experimentation was not complete for high temperatures. No favorable results were obtained from the pitch for gasoline and middle oil. For hydrogenation of coal itself to gasoline and middle oil, the direct method seemed to have the advantges of lower losses to gas and better yields, as opposed to the two-step process. But for the production of heavy-oil excess, it seemed that the two-step method might have advantages, especially in terms of losses to gas, if a sufficient yield could be obtained in the second step. 3 tables.

  5. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  6. Measurement of dissolved hydrogen in Al alloys and calculation of hydrogen removal efficiency of a degassing system

    OpenAIRE

    *N. Akhtar; S. Javed; 1W. Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we reported the diminution pattern of hydrogen contents in molten aluminium alloys during casting on industrial scale, and estimated the efficiency of inline rotary degassing system. The degassing parameters were tried to set constant in nearly 150 heats, so that other factors which govern the degassing efficiency of inline unit could be in-sighted well. In this study we used Leco RHEN-602 hydrogen determinator based on the principle of hot extraction carrier gas method, for the...

  7. Heat Analysis of Liquid piston Compressor for Hydrogen Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    is developed based on the mass and energy balance of the hydrogen, liquid and the wall of the compression chamber at each time step and positional node with various compression ratios to calculate the temperature distribution of the system. The amount of heat extracted from hydrogen, directly at the interface......A new hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model...

  8. A fully integrated optofluidic attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Philipp; Kloss, Anton; Liebetraut, Peter; Mönch, Wolfgang; Zappe, Hans

    2011-12-01

    A fast and reliable, fully integrated optofluidic optical attenuator is demonstrated. The concept employs only liquid and thus has no mechanically moving parts. Transparent and opaque aqueous liquid droplets are displaced using an on-chip electrowetting actuator and, due to the flexibility in the choice of liquids, various transmission spectra can be defined. The microfluidic attenuator system is fabricated using wafer-level bonding and dry film resists resulting in an ultra-compact (11×23×1.6 mm3) device requiring no external components for operation. The measured dynamic range of optical transmission is up to 47 dB, while the response times are below 100 ms for a 2 mm input beam. Using a novel double-actuator configuration, actuation speeds of the liquids of up to 39 mm s-1 were measured.

  9. SOUND ATTENUATION IN FERROELECTRIC SOLIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Naithani, U.; Semwal, B.

    1981-01-01

    An expression for the sound-attenuation constant in doped displacive ferroelectrics, in the presence of an external electric field, is obtained by using the double-time thermal- Green's -functions technique. The mass and force constant changes between the impurity and the host lattice atoms are taken into account in the Silverman Hamiltonian augmented with higher -order anharmonic and electric-moment terms. The defect-dependent, electric- field-dependent, and anharmonic contributions to the a...

  10. Flagella Overexpression Attenuates Salmonella Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Xinghong Yang; Theresa Thornburg; Zhiyong Suo; SangMu Jun; Amanda Robison; Jinquan Li; Timothy Lim; Ling Cao; Teri Hoyt; Recep Avci; Pascual, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Flagella are cell surface appendages involved in a number of bacterial behaviors, such as motility, biofilm formation, and chemotaxis. Despite these important functions, flagella can pose a liability to a bacterium when serving as potent immunogens resulting in the stimulation of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Previous work showing appendage overexpression, referred to as attenuating gene expression (AGE), was found to enfeeble wild-type Salmonella. Thus, this approach was adapted to...

  11. Florida Hydrogen Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, David L

    2013-06-30

    The Florida Hydrogen Initiative (FHI) was a research, development and demonstration hydrogen and fuel cell program. The FHI program objectives were to develop Florida?s hydrogen and fuel cell infrastructure and to assist DOE in its hydrogen and fuel cell activities The FHI program funded 12 RD&D projects as follows: Hydrogen Refueling Infrastructure and Rental Car Strategies -- L. Lines, Rollins College This project analyzes strategies for Florida's early stage adaptation of hydrogen-powered public transportation. In particular, the report investigates urban and statewide network of refueling stations and the feasibility of establishing a hydrogen rental-car fleet based in Orlando. Methanol Fuel Cell Vehicle Charging Station at Florida Atlantic University ? M. Fuchs, EnerFuel, Inc. The project objectives were to design, and demonstrate a 10 kWnet proton exchange membrane fuel cell stationary power plant operating on methanol, to achieve an electrical energy efficiency of 32% and to demonstrate transient response time of less than 3 milliseconds. Assessment of Public Understanding of the Hydrogen Economy Through Science Center Exhibits, J. Newman, Orlando Science Center The project objective was to design and build an interactive Science Center exhibit called: ?H2Now: the Great Hydrogen Xchange?. On-site Reformation of Diesel Fuel for Hydrogen Fueling Station Applications ? A. Raissi, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed an on-demand forecourt hydrogen production technology by catalytically converting high-sulfur hydrocarbon fuels to an essentially sulfur-free gas. The removal of sulfur from reformate is critical since most catalysts used for the steam reformation have limited sulfur tolerance. Chemochromic Hydrogen Leak Detectors for Safety Monitoring ? N. Mohajeri and N. Muradov, Florida Solar Energy Center This project developed and demonstrated a cost-effective and highly selective chemochromic (visual) hydrogen leak detector for safety

  12. Hydrogen Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Liquid hydrogen is used extensively by NASA to support cryogenic rocket testing. In addition, there are many commercial applications in which delivery and use of...

  13. Hydrogen Recovery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rocket test operations at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) result in substantial quantities of hydrogen gas that is flared from the facility and helium gas that is...

  14. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  15. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    CERN Document Server

    Chaplin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  16. Thin film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauf, R.J.; Hoffheins, B.S.; Fleming, P.H.

    1994-11-22

    A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed. 6 figs.

  17. The hydrogen issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2011-01-17

    Hydrogen is often proposed as the fuel of the future, but the transformation from the present fossil fuel economy to a hydrogen economy will need the solution of numerous complex scientific and technological issues, which will require several decades to be accomplished. Hydrogen is not an alternative fuel, but an energy carrier that has to be produced by using energy, starting from hydrogen-rich compounds. Production from gasoline or natural gas does not offer any advantage over the direct use of such fuels. Production from coal by gasification techniques with capture and sequestration of CO₂ could be an interim solution. Water splitting by artificial photosynthesis, photobiological methods based on algae, and high temperatures obtained by nuclear or concentrated solar power plants are promising approaches, but still far from practical applications. In the next decades, the development of the hydrogen economy will most likely rely on water electrolysis by using enormous amounts of electric power, which in its turn has to be generated. Producing electricity by burning fossil fuels, of course, cannot be a rational solution. Hydroelectric power can give but a very modest contribution. Therefore, it will be necessary to generate large amounts of electric power by nuclear energy of by renewable energies. A hydrogen economy based on nuclear electricity would imply the construction of thousands of fission reactors, thereby magnifying all the problems related to the use of nuclear energy (e.g., safe disposal of radioactive waste, nuclear proliferation, plant decommissioning, uranium shortage). In principle, wind, photovoltaic, and concentrated solar power have the potential to produce enormous amounts of electric power, but, except for wind, such technologies are too underdeveloped and expensive to tackle such a big task in a short period of time. A full development of a hydrogen economy needs also improvement in hydrogen storage, transportation and distribution

  18. Acetazolamide Attenuates Lithium-Induced Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Theun; Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Alsady, Mohammad; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Loffing, Johannes; Wetzels, Jack F; Deen, Peter M T

    2016-07-01

    To reduce lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (lithium-NDI), patients with bipolar disorder are treated with thiazide and amiloride, which are thought to induce antidiuresis by a compensatory increase in prourine uptake in proximal tubules. However, thiazides induced antidiuresis and alkalinized the urine in lithium-NDI mice lacking the sodium-chloride cotransporter, suggesting that inhibition of carbonic anhydrases (CAs) confers the beneficial thiazide effect. Therefore, we tested the effect of the CA-specific blocker acetazolamide in lithium-NDI. In collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, acetazolamide reduced the cellular lithium content and attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 through a mechanism different from that of amiloride. Treatment of lithium-NDI mice with acetazolamide or thiazide/amiloride induced similar antidiuresis and increased urine osmolality and aquaporin-2 abundance. Thiazide/amiloride-treated mice showed hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased serum lithium concentrations, adverse effects previously observed in patients but not in acetazolamide-treated mice in this study. Furthermore, acetazolamide treatment reduced inulin clearance and cortical expression of sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 and attenuated the increased expression of urinary PGE2 observed in lithium-NDI mice. These results show that the antidiuresis with acetazolamide was partially caused by a tubular-glomerular feedback response and reduced GFR. The tubular-glomerular feedback response and/or direct effect on collecting duct principal or intercalated cells may underlie the reduced urinary PGE2 levels with acetazolamide, thereby contributing to the attenuation of lithium-NDI. In conclusion, CA activity contributes to lithium-NDI development, and acetazolamide attenuates lithium-NDI development in mice similar to thiazide/amiloride but with fewer adverse effects. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Cryogenic hydrogen release research.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFleur, Angela Christine [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this project was to devolop a plan for modifying the Turbulent Combustion Laboratory (TCL) with the necessary infrastructure to produce a cold (near liquid temperature) hydrogen jet. The necessary infrastructure has been specified and laboratory modifications are currently underway. Once complete, experiments from this platform will be used to develop and validate models that inform codes and standards which specify protection criteria for unintended releases from liquid hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery infrastructure.

  20. Purdue Hydrogen Systems Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jay P Gore; Robert Kramer; Timothee L Pourpoint; P. V. Ramachandran; Arvind Varma; Yuan Zheng

    2011-12-28

    The Hydrogen Systems Laboratory in a unique partnership between Purdue University's main campus in West Lafayette and the Calumet campus was established and its capabilities were enhanced towards technology demonstrators. The laboratory engaged in basic research in hydrogen production and storage and initiated engineering systems research with performance goals established as per the USDOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program. In the chemical storage and recycling part of the project, we worked towards maximum recycling yield via novel chemical selection and novel recycling pathways. With the basic potential of a large hydrogen yield from AB, we used it as an example chemical but have also discovered its limitations. Further, we discovered alternate storage chemicals that appear to have advantages over AB. We improved the slurry hydrolysis approach by using advanced slurry/solution mixing techniques. We demonstrated vehicle scale aqueous and non-aqueous slurry reactors to address various engineering issues in on-board chemical hydrogen storage systems. We measured the thermal properties of raw and spent AB. Further, we conducted experiments to determine reaction mechanisms and kinetics of hydrothermolysis in hydride-rich solutions and slurries. We also developed a continuous flow reactor and a laboratory scale fuel cell power generation system. The biological hydrogen production work summarized as Task 4.0 below, included investigating optimal hydrogen production cultures for different substrates, reducing the water content in the substrate, and integrating results from vacuum tube solar collector based pre and post processing tests into an enhanced energy system model. An automated testing device was used to finalize optimal hydrogen production conditions using statistical procedures. A 3 L commercial fermentor (New Brunswick, BioFlo 115) was used to finalize testing of larger samples and to consider issues related to scale up

  1. Cytosinium hydrogen selenite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhwane Takouachet

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title salt, C4H6N3O+·HSeO3−, systematic name 6-amino-2-methylidene-2,3-dihydropyrimidin-1-ium hydrogen selenite, the hydrogenselenite anions and the cytosinium cations are linked via N—H...O, N—H...Se, O—H...O, O—H··Se and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework.

  2. Ash removal by hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rank, V.; von Hartmann, G.B.

    1942-10-17

    This method for the production of high-quality electrode coke involved the hydrogenation of coal to a filterable bitumen product. The hydrogenation and splitting processes were carried out to end at high-molecular-weight bitumens with some lighter oils produced. Variations in temperature, pressure, and throughput determined the type and amount of bitumens. Proper conditions allowed sufficient middle oil for recirculation as pasting oil as well as for increasing filterability by dilution. This partial hydrogenation could be performed without the addition of hydrogen, if hydrogen-producing aromatic compounds, such as tetraline or cresol, were used as pasting oils. For 700-atm hydrogenation, it was found that the Upper Silesian coal was the best with respect to yield, filterability, and recovery of the recycle oils. The lower pressures gave a better filterability while sacrificing yield and recycle oil. The more severe the hydrogenating conditions, the lighter the bitumens and the lower the melting point. For the range of 300 to 600 atm, it was found that filterability improved with increased temperature and decreased with a pressure gain. Larger throughputs caused relatively moderate decreases in filterability. The use of iron catalysts decreased filterability while changing gas and pasting-oil content had little effect. The optimum conditions established a pasting-oil equilibrium with the best filterability. Greater degrees of hydrogenation or splitting produced more recycle middle oils but decreased filterability, thus only the necessary paste oil was produced. By selecting proper conditions, an ashfree bituminous binder could be produced, as used in the production of the Soederberg electrode. 2 tables, 2 graphs

  3. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  4. Hydrogen Sorption and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, C. J.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen is unique among aqueous ions, both in its importance for geochemical reactions, and in its complex transport behavior through reactive media. The structure of hydrogen reaction fronts can be analyzed in the advective limit of the transport equation. At local chemical equilibrium, sorption of hydrogen onto the media surface (sorption isotherm) controls reaction front morphology. Transport modeling thus necessitates accurate knowledge of surface chemistry. Though motivated by transport, sorption models are often parameterized against batch titration experiments. The validity of these parameterizations, in a transport setting, are seldom tested. The analytic solution to the transport equation gives an algebraic relationship between concentration velocity and equilibrium sorption behavior. In this study, we conduct a suite of column flow experiments through quartz sand. Hydrogen concentration breakthrough curves at the column outlet are used to infer the "transport sorption isotherm." These results are compared to the batch titration derived sorption isotherm. We find excellent agreement between the datasets. Our findings suggest that, for aqueous hydrogen, local chemical equilibrium is a valid assumption. With the goal of a predictive transport model, we parameterize various sorption models against this dataset. Models which incorporate electrostatic effects at the surface predict transport well. Nonelectrostatic models such as the Kd, Langmuir, and Freundlich models fail. These results are particularly compelling as nonelectrostatic models are often employed to predict hydrogen transport in many reactive transport code.

  5. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the extract was assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ability of the extract to reduce ferric ions to its ferrous form was also evaluated. The total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponin contents of the extract was ...

  7. Hydrogen supplies for SPFC vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, D.; Bauen, A.; Fouquet, R.; Leach, M.; Pearson, P.; Anderson, D.

    2000-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study investigating the potential of using hydrogen fuel for fuel cell-powered fleet vehicles based at a depot in a range of counties. An overview of current hydrogen supply and demand is presented, and research already carried out on potential hydrogen refuelling infrastructures, and the costs of producing hydrogen as a transportation fuel are examined. Hydrogen demand modelling, and supplying hydrogen to fleet vehicles, alternative hydrogen supply options, energy and emissions comparison with competing fuels, and health and safety standards are discussed.

  8. Physical characteristics and attenuation of foam earplugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R.; Broughton, R.M.; Wilmoth, J.N.; Borton, T.E.; Mozo, B.T.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (1) to determine the physical characteristics of five types of foam earplugs; and (2) to relate their physical characteristics to attenuation of noise. The results indicate that: (1) all commercial polymer foam earplugs have similar physical properties, (2) frequency is the single most important variable in determining attenuation of commercial foam earplugs, (3) all earplugs evaluated provided essentially the same attenuation at frequencies >500 Hz. One non-commercial earplug provided significantly more attenuation at 125 Hz than the other earplugs. This non-commercial experimental plug has significantly different physical and chemical properties. No other consistent effects of physical properties on attenuation were found.

  9. A simplified model of radiation attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, John F

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a model to predict mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients of the elements for photons of energy from 1keV to 20MeV. The Compton scattering component is modeled by the attenuation and energy absorption of hydrogen at photon energies above 10keV. Photoelectric attenuation and absorption is modeled as a simple power law of photon energy, modified by a simple function of the difference between the photon energy and the K shell binding energy of the absorber atoms. Attenuation and absorption by pair production above 1.022MeV is modeled as a quadratic function of the square root of the photon energy. The mass attenuation and mass energy absorption coefficients of compounds can be predicted by the mixture rule. The errors in the model are greatest at the lowest photon energies, in part due to a lack of experimental data for photon energies below 1keV. Worked examples are presented for the attenuation of photons at various energies in several elements and also in water over the whole range of photon energies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Method for Estimating Total Attenuation from a Spatial Map of Attenuation Slope for Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Pawlicki, Alexander D.; O'Brien, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating total ultrasound attenuation from backscatter data is essential in the field of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) because of the need to compensate for attenuation when estimating the backscatter coefficient and QUS parameters. This work uses a reference phantom method of attenuation estimation to create a spatial map of attenuation slope (AS) from backscatter radio-frequency (RF) data of three phantoms and a rat mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (MAT). The attenuation maps show changes in ...

  11. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  12. A Two‐Fluid model study of hydrogen production via water gas shift in fluidized bed membrane reactors

    OpenAIRE

    J.W. Voncken, Ramon; Roghair, Ivo; Van Sint Annaland, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Fluidized bed membrane reactors have been proposed as a promising reactor concept for the production of ultra-pure hydrogen via Water Gas Shift (WGS). High-flux thin-film dense palladium-based membranes are used to selectively extract hydrogen from the reaction medium, which shifts the thermodynamic equilibrium towards the products’ side, increasing the conversion. A Two-Fluid Model (TFM) has been used to investigate the effect of hydrogen extraction via perm-selective membranes on the WGS re...

  13. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  14. Hydrogen as an energy vector

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Ortega, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Study of the use of the Hydrogen to storage big amounts of energy. In this project there will be an study about the different energies that are profitable to use them to obtain hydrogen, the study of the different technologies to obtain hydrogen (electrolysis, gasification, etc.), the study of the technologies for storage the hydrogen and the study of the different ways to obtain final energy with the hydrogen. There will be also an overall analysis of the efficiency of the process a...

  15. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibits adipocyte differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Nicole; Galvis, Adriana; Marcano, Adriana; Priestap, Horacio A; Bennett, Bradley C; Barbieri, M Alejandro

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of saw palmetto have been used for the treatment of a variety of urinary and reproductive system problems. In this study we investigated whether the fruit extracts affect in vitro adipogenesis. Saw palmetto ethanol extract inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation by induction media in a dose-dependent manner, and it also attenuated the protein expressions of C-EBPα and PPARγ. Phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and Akt1 were also decreased by saw palmetto ethanol extract. This report suggests that saw palmetto extracts selectively affect the adipocyte differentiation through the modulation of several key factors that play a critical role during adipogenesis.

  16. Mesenchymal Dental Pulp Cells Attenuate Dentin Resorption in Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Chen, M.; He, L.; Marão, H.F.; Sun, D.M.; Zhou, J.; Kim, S.G.; Song, S.; Wang, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    Dentin in permanent teeth rarely undergoes resorption in development, homeostasis, or aging, in contrast to bone that undergoes periodic resorption/remodeling. The authors hypothesized that cells in the mesenchymal compartment of dental pulp attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Mononucleated and adherent cells from donor-matched rat dental pulp (dental pulp cells [DPCs]) and alveolar bone (alveolar bone cells [ABCs]) were isolated and separately cocultured with primary rat splenocytes. Primary splenocytes readily aggregated and formed osteoclast-like cells in chemically defined osteoclastogenesis medium with 20 ng/mL of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Strikingly, DPCs attenuated osteoclastogenesis when cocultured with primary splenocytes, whereas ABCs slightly but significantly promoted osteoclastogenesis. DPCs yielded ~20-fold lower RANKL expression but >2-fold higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression than donor-matched ABCs, yielding a RANKL/OPG ratio of 41:1 (ABCs:DPCs). Vitamin D3 significantly promoted RANKL expression in ABCs and OPG in DPCs. In vivo, rat maxillary incisors were atraumatically extracted (without any tooth fractures), followed by retrograde pulpectomy to remove DPCs and immediate replantation into the extraction sockets to allow repopulation of the surgically treated root canal with periodontal and alveolar bone–derived cells. After 8 wk, multiple dentin/root resorption lacunae were present in root dentin with robust RANKL and OPG expression. There were areas of dentin resoprtion alternating with areas of osteodentin formation in root dentin surface in the observed 8 wk. These findings suggest that DPCs of the mesenchymal compartment have an innate ability to attenuate osteoclastogenesis and that this innate ability may be responsible for the absence of dentin resorption in homeostasis. Mesenchymal attenuation of dentin resorption may have implications in internal

  17. Mesenchymal dental pulp cells attenuate dentin resorption in homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Chen, M; He, L; Marão, H F; Sun, D M; Zhou, J; Kim, S G; Song, S; Wang, S L; Mao, J J

    2015-06-01

    Dentin in permanent teeth rarely undergoes resorption in development, homeostasis, or aging, in contrast to bone that undergoes periodic resorption/remodeling. The authors hypothesized that cells in the mesenchymal compartment of dental pulp attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Mononucleated and adherent cells from donor-matched rat dental pulp (dental pulp cells [DPCs]) and alveolar bone (alveolar bone cells [ABCs]) were isolated and separately cocultured with primary rat splenocytes. Primary splenocytes readily aggregated and formed osteoclast-like cells in chemically defined osteoclastogenesis medium with 20 ng/mL of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Strikingly, DPCs attenuated osteoclastogenesis when cocultured with primary splenocytes, whereas ABCs slightly but significantly promoted osteoclastogenesis. DPCs yielded ~20-fold lower RANKL expression but >2-fold higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression than donor-matched ABCs, yielding a RANKL/OPG ratio of 41:1 (ABCs:DPCs). Vitamin D3 significantly promoted RANKL expression in ABCs and OPG in DPCs. In vivo, rat maxillary incisors were atraumatically extracted (without any tooth fractures), followed by retrograde pulpectomy to remove DPCs and immediate replantation into the extraction sockets to allow repopulation of the surgically treated root canal with periodontal and alveolar bone-derived cells. After 8 wk, multiple dentin/root resorption lacunae were present in root dentin with robust RANKL and OPG expression. There were areas of dentin resoprtion alternating with areas of osteodentin formation in root dentin surface in the observed 8 wk. These findings suggest that DPCs of the mesenchymal compartment have an innate ability to attenuate osteoclastogenesis and that this innate ability may be responsible for the absence of dentin resorption in homeostasis. Mesenchymal attenuation of dentin resorption may have implications in internal

  18. Hydrogen-rich water ameliorates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in newborn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Yukako; Ito, Mikako; Oshima, Takahiro; Kojima, Seiji; Ohno, Kinji

    2016-09-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by developmental arrest of the alveolar tissue. Oxidative stress is causally associated with development of BPD. The effects of hydrogen have been reported in a wide range of disease models and human diseases especially caused by oxidative stress. We made a rat model of BPD by injecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into the amniotic fluid at E16.5. The mother started drinking hydrogen-rich water from E9.5 and also while feeding milk. Hydrogen normalized LPS-induced abnormal enlargement of alveoli at P7 and P14. LPS increased staining for nitrotyrosine and 8-OHdG of the lungs, and hydrogen attenuated the staining. At P1, LPS treatment decreased expressions of genes for FGFR4, VEGFR2, and HO-1 in the lungs, and hydrogen increased expressions of these genes. In contrast, LPS treatment and hydrogen treatment had no essential effect on the expression of SOD1. Inflammatory marker proteins of TNFα and IL-6 were increased by LPS treatment, and hydrogen suppressed them. Treatment of A549 human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells with 10% hydrogen gas for 24 hr decreased production of reactive oxygen species in both LPS-treated and untreated cells. Lack of any known adverse effects of hydrogen makes hydrogen a promising therapeutic modality for BPD. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2016; 51:928-935. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  20. Assessment of feasible strategies for seasonal underground hydrogen storage in a saline aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáinz-García, Alvaro; Abarca, Elena; Rubí, Violeta; Grandia, Fidel

    2017-04-01

    Renewable energies are unsteady, which results in temporary mismatches between demand and supply. The conversion of surplus energy to hydrogen and its storage in geological formations is one option to balance this energy gap. This study evaluates the feasibility of seasonal storage of hydrogen produced from wind power in Castilla-León region (northern Spain). A 3D multiphase numerical model is used to test different extraction well configurations during three annual injection-production cycles in a saline aquifer. Results demonstrate that underground hydrogen storage in saline aquifers can be operated with reasonable recovery ratios. A maximum hydrogen recovery ratio of 78%, which represents a global energy efficiency of 30%, has been estimated. Hydrogen upconing emerges as the major risk on saline aquifer storage. However, shallow extraction wells can minimize its effects. Steeply dipping geological structures are key for an efficient hydrogen storage.

  1. Hydrogen Contractors Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Tim [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering

    2006-05-16

    This volume highlights the scientific content of the 2006 Hydrogen Contractors Meeting sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering (DMS&E) on behalf of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Hydrogen Contractors Meeting held from May 16-19, 2006 at the Crystal Gateway Marriott Hotel Arlington, Virginia. This meeting is the second in a series of research theme-based Contractors Meetings sponsored by DMS&E held in conjunction with our counterparts in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the first with the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The focus of this year’s meeting is BES funded fundamental research underpinning advancement of hydrogen storage. The major goals of these research efforts are the development of a fundamental scientific base in terms of new concepts, theories and computational tools; new characterization capabilities; and new materials that could be used or mimicked in advancing capabilities for hydrogen storage.

  2. Hot Hydrogen Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. David Swank

    2007-02-01

    The core in a nuclear thermal rocket will operate at high temperatures and in hydrogen. One of the important parameters in evaluating the performance of a nuclear thermal rocket is specific impulse, ISp. This quantity is proportional to the square root of the propellant’s absolute temperature and inversely proportional to square root of its molecular weight. Therefore, high temperature hydrogen is a favored propellant of nuclear thermal rocket designers. Previous work has shown that one of the life-limiting phenomena for thermal rocket nuclear cores is mass loss of fuel to flowing hydrogen at high temperatures. The hot hydrogen test facility located at the Idaho National Lab (INL) is designed to test suitability of different core materials in 2500°C hydrogen flowing at 1500 liters per minute. The facility is intended to test non-uranium containing materials and therefore is particularly suited for testing potential cladding and coating materials. In this first installment the facility is described. Automated Data acquisition, flow and temperature control, vessel compatibility with various core geometries and overall capabilities are discussed.

  3. The hydrogen laminar jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Sanz, M. [Departamento de Motopropulsion y Termofluidomecanica, ETSI Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Rosales, M. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain); Instituto de Innovacion en Mineria y Metalurgia, Avenida del Valle 738, Santiago (Chile); Sanchez, A.L. [Department Ingenieria Termica y de Fluidos, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911, Leganes (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Numerical and asymptotic methods are used to investigate the structure of the hydrogen jet discharging into a quiescent air atmosphere. The analysis accounts in particular for the variation of the density and transport properties with composition. The Reynolds number of the flow R{sub j}, based on the initial jet radius a, the density {rho}{sub j} and viscosity {mu}{sub j} of the jet and the characteristic jet velocity u{sub j}, is assumed to take moderately large values, so that the jet remains slender and stable, and can be correspondingly described by numerical integration of the continuity, momentum and species conservation equations written in the boundary-layer approximation. The solution for the velocity and composition in the jet development region of planar and round jets, corresponding to streamwise distances of order R{sub j}a, is computed numerically, along with the solutions that emerge both in the near field and in the far field. The small value of the hydrogen-to-air molecular weight ratio is used to simplify the solution by considering the asymptotic limit of vanishing jet density. The development provides at leading-order explicit analytical expressions for the far-field velocity and hydrogen mass fraction that describe accurately the hydrogen jet near the axis. The information provided can be useful in particular to characterize hydrogen discharge processes from holes and cracks. (author)

  4. Hydrogen in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hervig, R.; Irving, T.

    2017-01-01

    Most volatile studies of Mars have targeted its surface via spacecraft and rover data, and have evidenced surficial water in polar caps and the atmosphere, in the presence of river channels, and in the detection of water bearing minerals. The other focus of Martian volatile studies has been on Martian meteorites which are all from its crust. Most of these studies are on hydrous phases like apatite, a late-stage phase, i.e. crystallizing near the end of the differentiation sequence of Martian basalts and cumulates. Moreover, calculating the water content of the magma a phosphate crystallized from is not always possible, and yet is an essential step to estimate how much water was present in a parent magma and its source. Water, however, is primarily dissolved in the interiors of differentiated planets as hydrogen in lattice defects of nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) of the crust and mantle. This hydrogen has tremendous influence, even in trace quantities, on a planet's formation, geodynamics, cooling history and the origin of its volcanism and atmosphere as well as its potential for life. Studies of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous phases of Martian meteorites are rare. Measuring water contents and hydrogen isotopes in well-characterized nominally anhydrous minerals of Martian meteorites is the goal of our study. Our work aims at deciphering what influences the distribution and origin of hydrogen in Martian minerals, such as source, differentiation, degassing and shock.

  5. Microfabricated hydrogen sensitive membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, A.; Kraetz, L. [Lehrstuhl fuer Thermische Verfahrenstechnik, Technische Universitaet Kaiserslautern (Germany); Detemple, P.; Schmitt, S.; Hessel, V. [Institut fuer Mikrotechnik Mainz GmbH, Mainz (Germany); Faqir, N. [University of Jordan, Amman (Jordan); Bart, H.J.

    2009-01-15

    Thin, defect-free palladium, palladium/copper and palladium/silver hydrogen absorbing membranes were microfabricated. A dual sputtering technique was used to deposit the palladium alloy membranes of only 1 {mu}m thickness on a nonporous silicon substrate. Advanced silicon etching (ASE) was applied on the backside to create a mechanically stable support structure for the thin films. Performance evaluation was carried out for different gases in a temperature range of 20 C to 298 C at a constant differential pressure of 110 kPa at the two sides of the membrane. The composite membranes show an excellent permeation rate of hydrogen, which appears to be 0.05 Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} and 0.01.10{sup -3} Pa m{sup 3} s{sup -1} at 20 C for the microfabricated 23 % silver and the 53 % copper composite membranes, respectively. The selectivity to hydrogen over a gas mixture containing, in addition to hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen was measured. The mass spectrometer did not detect any CO{sub 2} or CO, showing that the membrane is completely hydrogen selective. The microfabricated membranes exhibit both high mechanical strength (they easily withstand pressures up to 4 bar) and high thermal stability (up to 650 C). (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Method for estimating total attenuation from a spatial map of attenuation slope for quantitative ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicki, Alexander D; O'Brien, William D

    2013-04-01

    Estimating total ultrasound attenuation from backscatter data is essential in the field of quantitative ultrasound (QUS) because of the need to compensate for attenuation when estimating the backscatter coefficient and QUS parameters. This work uses a reference phantom method of attenuation estimation to create a spatial map of attenuation slope (AS) from backscatter radio-frequency (RF) data of three phantoms and a rat mammary adenocarcinoma tumor (MAT). The attenuation maps show changes in attenuation between different regions of the phantoms and the MAT tumor. Analyses of the attenuation maps of the phantoms suggest that the AS estimates are in good quantitative agreement with the known values for the phantoms. Furthermore, estimates of total attenuation from the attenuation maps are likewise in good quantitative agreement with known values.

  7. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on depressive-like behavior in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Su, Wen-Jun; Chen, Ying; Wu, Teng-Yun; Gong, Hong; Shen, Xiao-Liang; Wang, Yun-Xia; Sun, Xue-Jun; Jiang, Chun-Lei

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that neuroinflammation and oxidative stress may be major contributors to major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients or animal models of depression show significant increase of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and oxidative stress biomarkers in the periphery or central nervous system (CNS). Recent studies show that hydrogen selectively reduces cytotoxic oxygen radicals, and hydrogen-rich saline potentially suppresses the production of several proinflammatory mediators. Since current depression medications are accompanied by a wide spectrum of side effects, novel preventative or therapeutic measures with fewer side effects might have a promising future. We investigated the effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on the depressive-like behavior in mice and its underlying mechanisms. Our study show that hydrogen-rich water treatment prevents chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) induced depressive-like behavior. CUMS induced elevation in IL-1β protein levels in the hippocampus, and the cortex was significantly attenuated after 4 weeks of feeding the mice hydrogen-rich water. Over-expression of caspase-1 (the IL-1β converting enzyme) and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) was successfully suppressed by hydrogen-rich water treatment. Our data suggest that the beneficial effects of hydrogen-rich water on depressive-like behavior may be mediated by suppression of the inflammasome activation resulting in attenuated protein IL-1β and ROS production. PMID:27026206

  8. Tetramethylammonium hydrogen terephthalate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dolatyari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C4H12N+·C8H5O4−, contains one half of a tetramethylammonium cation and one half of a hydrogen terephthalate monoanion. The N atom of the ammonium cation lies on a twofold rotation axis and the centre of mass of the terephthalate anion is on a centre of inversion. In the crystal, the centrosymmetric terephthalate ions are linked by a very short symmetric O—H...O hydrogen bond [O...O = 2.4610 (19 Å] into a one-dimensional polymeric chain along [1-12]. The tetramethylammonium cations and terephthalate anions are then connected through a pair of bifurcated acceptor C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional supramolecular network. The carboxylate groups at both ends of the terephthalate anion are charge-shared with an equal probability of 0.5.

  9. Hydrogen gas detector card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sánchez Niño

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A small card used for detecting hydrogen gas in a crystal growth system by the liquid phase epitaxy technique was designed and built. The small size of the card enables its portability to other laboratories where leakage detection of hydrogen or other flammable gas is required. Card dimensions are approximately 10 cm long and 5 cm wide enabling easy transportation. The design is based on a microcontroller which reads the signal from the hydrogen sensor and internally compares the read value with preset values. Depending on the signal voltage a red, yellow or green LED will light to indicate the levels of concentration of the flammable gas. The card is powered by a 9 V battery.

  10. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Allan Schrøder; Kjøller, John; Larsen, B.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast at tempe......A study of the hydrogenation characteristics of fine magnesium powder during repeated cycling has been performed using a high-pressure microbalance facility. No effect was found from the cycling regarding kinetics and storage capacity. The reaction rate of the absorption process was fast...... at temperatures around 600 K and above, but the reversed reaction showed somewhat slower kinetics around 600 K. At higher temperatures the opposite was found. The enthalpy and entropy change by the hydrogenation, derived from pressure-concentration isotherms, agree fairly well with those reported earlier....

  11. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  12. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  13. Rg propagation: Scatter versus Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, M.; Phillips, W. S.; MacCarthy, J.

    2016-12-01

    At near local distances, the Rg seismic phase is often the largest seismic arrival for shallow sources. While Rg is classically defined for the period range of 8-12 s, we use the term generically to refer to short-period observations of Rayleigh waves from shallow sources [e.g. Langston, 1987; Bonner and Russell, 2013]. There is significant interest in using Rg as a basis for seismic discrimination and magnitude (e.g. Bonner and Russell, 2013). However, the propagation of this phase is poorly understood. At Nevada National Security Site, while Rg is well observed near the source, it quickly disappears at greater distances. This observation raises the fundamental question of how much of the Rg energy is simply attenuating versus scattering into other seismic phases. Understanding this is critical to interpreting not only the observed Rg seismic energy, but also the possible enrichment of other seismic phases resulting from Rg scattering. In this study, we use waveform data from the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE) and Source Physics Experiment (SPE) to investigate Rg propagation, looking to identify how much energy from the phase attenuates with distance and how much scatters into other seismic phases.

  14. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  16. Polyhydride complexes for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, C.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Polyhydride metal complexes are being developed for application in hydrogen storage. Efforts have focused on developing complexes with improved available hydrogen weight percentages. We have explored the possibility that complexes containing aromatic hydrocarbon ligands could store hydrogen at both the metal center and in the ligands. We have synthesized novel indenyl hydride complexes and explored their reactivity with hydrogen. The reversible hydrogenation of [IrH{sub 3}(PPh{sub 3})({eta}{sup 5}-C{sub 10}H{sub 7})]{sup +} has been achieved. While attempting to prepare {eta}{sup 6}-tetrahydronaphthalene complexes, we discovered that certain polyhydride complexes catalyze both the hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of tetrahydronaphthalene.

  17. Electrocatalysts for hydrogen energy

    CERN Document Server

    Losiewicz, Bozena

    2015-01-01

    This special topic volume deals with the development of novel solid state electrocatalysts of a high performance to enhance the rates of the hydrogen or oxygen evolution. It contains a description of various types of metals, alloys and composites which have been obtained using electrodeposition in aqueous solutions that has been identified to be a technologically feasible and economically superior technique for the production of the porous electrodes. The goal was to produce papers that would be useful to both the novice and the expert in hydrogen technologies. This volume is intended to be us

  18. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhan-Ting

    2015-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date text covering topics in utilizing hydrogen bonding for constructing functional architectures and supramolecular materials. The first chapter addresses the control of photo-induced electron and energy transfer. The second chapter summarizes the formation of nano-porous materials. The following two chapters introduce self-assembled gels, many of which exhibit unique functions. Other chapters cover the advances in supramolecular liquid crystals and the versatility of hydrogen bonding in tuning/improving the properties and performance of materials. This book is designed

  19. Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, A.B.; Varela Gasque, Ana Sofia; Dionigi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is growing in significance as society begins to rely more on renewable energy sources such as wind and solar power. Thus, research on designing new, inexpensive, and abundant HER catalysts is important. Here, we describe how a simple experiment....... The curve visually shows students that the best HER catalysts are characterized by an optimal hydrogen binding energy (reactivity), as stated by the Sabatier principle. In addition, students may use this volcano curve to predict the activity of an untested catalyst solely from the catalyst reactivity...

  20. Hydrogen Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-07-27

    Schoeppei, R.J. and Gray, C.L., "The Hydrogen Engine in P^srectl^e", Proceedings 7th international Energy Conversion Encrineering C^ference.: San Dxego...Conversion Engineering Conference, San Diego, Sept. 19/^, pp. 1349-1354. 10. Hausz, W., Leeth, G., and Meyer, C., "Eco-Energy", ibid, pp. 1316-1322. II...75114, . 24. ^schütz, R.H., "Hydrogen Burning Engine Experience", presented at Symposium, see Ref. 8. 25. A. Presto filipo (Pnblio Service’Electric S

  1. A road to hydrogenating graphene by a reactive ion etching plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojtaszek, M.; Tombros, N.; Caretta, A.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; van Wees, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the hydrogenation of single and bilayer graphene by an argon-hydrogen plasma produced in a reactive ion etching (RIE) system. Electronic transport measurements in combination with Raman spectroscopy are used to link the electric mean free path to the optically extracted defect

  2. Breast imaging using waveform attenuation tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Sandhu, Gursharan Y.; Boone, Michael; Duric, Neb

    2017-03-01

    Ex vivo studies using our ultrasound waveform attenuation algorithm have shown promising results for detection and characterization of lesions of different types. Our preliminary in vivo study shows that the waveform attenuation image has much higher resolution and can better delineate breast lesions boundaries than the corresponding ray-based attenuation image. In this study, we preprocessed our time domain waveforms acquired with a ring array and explored the directional transducer beam pattern to better match calculated wave fields with respect to the acquired wave fields. We have applied waveform attenuation to in vivo data and compared the resulting waveform attenuation images with the ray-based counterparts to assess the resolution and accuracy of the waveform attenuation reconstruction.

  3. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short

  4. Characterization of the short Hydrogen Beam setup

    CERN Document Server

    Roelfs, Martin

    2015-01-01

    As part of the CERN summer student program I participated in building a short hydrogen beamline. After completion of the assembly my work consisted of characterization of the beamline. A so-called chopper is used for modulating the beam in order to distinguish the beam from the background hydrogen in the vacuum chambers. This modulation is also used to measure the velocity of the beam via a Time-of-Flight (TOF) measurement. It was found that the extracted velocity is dependent on the driving voltage of the chopper. Upstream of the chopper a pair of permanent sextupoles is used for polarizing the beam and velocity selection. The effect of the relative separation of these sextupoles on the velocity distribution was also investigated as part of this report.

  5. Negative ion beam extraction in ROBIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Gourab, E-mail: bansal@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Gahlaut, Agrajit; Soni, Jignesh; Pandya, Kaushal; Parmar, Kanu G.; Pandey, Ravi; Vuppugalla, Mahesh; Prajapati, Bhavesh; Patel, Amee; Mistery, Hiren [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Chakraborty, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak; Singh, Mahendrajit J.; Phukan, Arindam; Yadav, Ratnakar K.; Parmar, Deepak [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29, Sector 25, GIDC, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 380025 (India)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A RF based negative hydrogen ion beam test bed has been set up at IPR, India. ► Ion source has been successfully commissioned and three campaigns of plasma production have been carried out. ► Extraction system (35 kV) has been installed and commissioning has been initiated. Negative ion beam extraction is immediate milestone. -- Abstract: The RF based single driver −ve ion source experiment test bed ROBIN (Replica Of BATMAN like source in INDIA) has been set up at Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), India in a technical collaboration with IPP, Garching, Germany. A hydrogen plasma of density 5 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −3} is expected in driver region of ROBIN by launching 100 kW RF power into the driver by 1 MHz RF generator. The cesiated source is expected to deliver a hydrogen negative ion beam of 10 A at 35 kV with a current density of 35 mA/cm{sup 2} as observed in BATMAN. In first phase operation of the ROBIN ion source, a hydrogen plasma has been successfully generated (without extraction system) by coupling 80 kW RF input power through a matching network with high power factor (cos θ > 0.8) and different plasma parameters have been measured using Langmuir probes and emission spectroscopy. The plasma density of 2.5 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −3} has been measured in the extraction region of ROBIN. For negative hydrogen ion beam extraction in second phase operation, extraction system has been assembled and installed with ion source on the vacuum vessel. The source shall be first operated in volume mode for negative ion beam extraction. The commissioning of the source with high voltage power supply has been initiated.

  6. Wave attenuation charcteristics of tethered float system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.

    parameters. The effect of drag on wave attenuation is studied for varying drag coefficient values. Theoretical results are compared with experimental values and it is found that theory overestimates wave attenuation which may probably be due to various... 15 and 16, respectively. These figures show that theory overestimates the wave attenuation and this may probably be due to various linearisations involved in the theoretical formulation. Experimental results are also not very accurate because...

  7. Lung attenuation measurements in healthy young adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, H.J.M.; Golding, R.P.; Schramel, F.M.N.H.; Devillé, W.L.; Manoliu, R.A.; Postmus, P. E.

    2003-01-01

    Background: High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) attenuation measurements may be more sensitive in finding early emphysematous changes in relatively young subjects than lung function measurements. Objectives: To define lung attenuation parameters in smokers and never-smokers. Methods: A prospective comparative study in a university hospital setting was designed with 20 healthy smoking and 20 nonsmoking volunteers. Attenuation measurements on spirometrically controlled HRCT at three leve...

  8. Noiseless attenuation using an optical parametric amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, R. A.; Nodurft, I. C.; Pittman, T. B.; Franson, J. D.

    2017-10-01

    The process of heralded noiseless amplification, and the inverse process of heralded noiseless attenuation, have potential applications in the context of quantum communications. Although several different physical implementations of heralded noiseless amplifiers have now been demonstrated, the research on heralded noiseless attenuators has been largely confined to a beam-splitter based approach. Here we show that an optical parametric amplifier (OPA), combined with appropriate heralding, can also serve as a heralded noiseless attenuator. The counterintuitive use of an optical amplifier as an attenuator is only possible due to the probabilistic nature of the device.

  9. Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carriers (LOHCs): Toward a Hydrogen-free Hydrogen Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Papp, Christian; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-01-17

    The need to drastically reduce CO 2 emissions will lead to the transformation of our current, carbon-based energy system to a more sustainable, renewable-based one. In this process, hydrogen will gain increasing importance as secondary energy vector. Energy storage requirements on the TWh scale (to bridge extended times of low wind and sun harvest) and global logistics of renewable energy equivalents will create additional driving forces toward a future hydrogen economy. However, the nature of hydrogen requires dedicated infrastructures, and this has prevented so far the introduction of elemental hydrogen into the energy sector to a large extent. Recent scientific and technological progress in handling hydrogen in chemically bound form as liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) supports the technological vision that a future hydrogen economy may work without handling large amounts of elemental hydrogen. LOHC systems are composed of pairs of hydrogen-lean and hydrogen-rich organic compounds that store hydrogen by repeated catalytic hydrogenation and dehydrogenation cycles. While hydrogen handling in the form of LOHCs allows for using the existing infrastructure for fuels, it also builds on the existing public confidence in dealing with liquid energy carriers. In contrast to hydrogen storage by hydrogenation of gases, such as CO 2 or N 2 , hydrogen release from LOHC systems produces pure hydrogen after condensation of the high-boiling carrier compounds. This Account highlights the current state-of-the-art in hydrogen storage using LOHC systems. It first introduces fundamental aspects of a future hydrogen economy and derives therefrom requirements for suitable LOHC compounds. Molecular structures that have been successfully applied in the literature are presented, and their property profiles are discussed. Fundamental and applied aspects of the involved hydrogenation and dehydrogenation catalysis are discussed, characteristic differences for the catalytic conversion of

  10. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    temperature T, by an equation analogous to the ideal gas law: π V=iRT. (1). R is the gas .... vehicular applications. Nanomaterials are a ... development of materials for hydrogen storage are the low rate of bulk hydride sorption and the high temperatures required for gas release. 3.0. Bulk material. <100 nm. Nanoparticles.

  11. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 5. Nanomaterials for Hydrogen Storage - The van't Hoff Connection. C S Sunandana. General Article Volume 12 Issue 5 May 2007 pp 31-36. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  12. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  13. Hydrogen storage for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strickland, G.

    1979-01-01

    Results of an analysis of hydrogen-fueled automobiles are presented as a part of a continuing study conducted by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) on Energy Storage Systems for Automobile Propulsion. The hydrogen is stored either as a metal hydride at moderate pressure in TiFe/sub 0/ /sub 9/Mn/sub 0/ /sub 1/H/sub x/ and at low pressure in MgH/sub x/ catalyzed with 10 wt % Ni, or it is stored in hollow glass microspheres at pressures up to about 400 atm. Improved projections are given for the two hydrides, which are used in combination to take advantage of their complementary properties. In the dual-hydride case and in the microsphere case where Ti-based hydride is used for initial operation, hydrogen is consumed in an internal-combustion engine; whereas in the third case, hydrogen from Ti-based hydride is used with air in an alkaline fuel cell/Ni-Zn battery combination which powers an electric vehicle. Each system is briefly described; and the results of the vehicle analysis are compared with those for the conventional automobile and with electric vehicles powered by Pb-acid or Ni-Zn batteries. Comparisons are made on the basis of automobile weight, initial user cost, and life-cycle cost. In this report, the results are limited to those for the 5-passenger vehicle in the period 1985-1990, and are provided as probable and optimistic values.

  14. Economic data on hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1943-07-22

    General information is recorded about hydrogenation plants and their operation up to July 1943. For 12 German plants, there is a table indicating date of beginning construction, start of operation, and production capacity, including gas. Another chart gives the same data for foreign plants, in the United States, England, Italy, Iran and Holland. Domestic and foreign partners and agreements are also listed, as well as license returns from hydrogenation. Extent of I.G. Farben patent ownership is given in a short list. Development of production costs for liquid products is indicated for the years 1927-1941. Data on test costs are also given. Production figures for hydrogenation are shown, as well as the share of Farben synthetics in total German fuel production. The report gives a breakdown for requirements of raw materials, manpower, capital, and construction steels for production of four million metric tons of fuels from hydrogenation. Finally, the report lists the special areas in which Farben was carrying on work related to synthetic fuels. The data are given mostly in tabular form.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Ethanolic Leaf Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory action of the leaf extract is mediated both centrally and peripherally. The analgesic or anti-inflammatory effect of the extract was not attenuated by opioid antagonist, naloxone, thus ruling out the involvement of opioid receptors in the central ...

  16. Hydrogen Storage Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Storage Technical Team is to accelerate research and innovation that will lead to commercially viable hydrogen-storage technologies that meet the U.S. DRIVE Partnership goals.

  17. Onboard hydrogen generation for automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Problems concerning the use of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are related to the storage of the hydrogen onboard a vehicle. The feasibility is investigated to use an approach based on onboard hydrogen generation as a means to avoid these storage difficulties. Two major chemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from liquid hydrocarbons and methanol. In steam reforming, the fuel reacts with water on a catalytic surface to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In partial oxidation, the fuel reacts with air, either on a catalytic surface or in a flame front, to yield a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There are many trade-offs in onboard hydrogen generation, both in the choice of fuels as well as in the choice of a chemical process. Attention is given to these alternatives, the results of some experimental work in this area, and the combustion of various hydrogen-rich gases in an internal combustion engine.

  18. Biomimetic Production of Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gust, Devens

    2004-03-01

    The basic reaction for hydrogen generation is formation of molecular hydrogen from two electrons and two protons. Although there are many possible sources for the protons and electrons, and a variety of mechanisms for providing the requisite energy for hydrogen synthesis, the most abundant and readily available source of protons and electrons is water, and the most attractive source of energy for powering the process is sunlight. Not surprisingly, living systems have evolved to take advantage of these sources for materials and energy. Thus, biology provides paradigms for carrying out the reactions necessary for hydrogen production. Photosynthesis in green plants uses sunlight as the source of energy for the oxidation of water to give molecular oxygen, protons, and reduction potential. Some photosynthetic organisms are capable of using this reduction potential, in the form of the reduced redox protein ferredoxin, to reduce protons and produce molecular hydrogen via the action of an hydrogenase enzyme. A variety of other organisms metabolize the reduced carbon compounds that are ultimately the major products of photosynthesis to produce molecular hydrogen. These facts suggest that it might be possible to use light energy to make molecular hydrogen via biomimetic constructs that employ principles similar to those used by natural organisms, or perhaps with hybrid "bionic" systems that combine biomimetic materials with natural enzymes. It is now possible to construct artificial photosynthetic systems that mimic some of the major steps in the natural process.(1) Artificial antennas based on porphyrins, carotenoids and other chromophores absorb light at various wavelengths in the solar spectrum and transfer the harvested excitation energy to artificial photosynthetic reaction centers.(2) In these centers, photoinduced electron transfer uses the energy from light to move an electron from a donor to an acceptor moiety, generating a high-energy charge-separated state

  19. Detroit Commuter Hydrogen Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, Jerry; Prebo, Brendan

    2010-07-31

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate the viability of using hydrogen as a fuel in an internal combustion engine vehicle for use as a part of a mass transit system. The advantages of hydrogen as a fuel include renew-ability, minimal environmental impact on air quality and the environment, and potential to reduce dependence on foreign energy sources for the transportation sector. Recognizing the potential for the hydrogen fuel concept, the Southeast Michigan Congress of Governments (SEMCOG) determined to consider it in the study of a proposed regional mass transit rail system for southeast Michigan. SEMCOG wanted to evaluate the feasibility of using hydrogen fueled internal combustion engine (H2ICE) vehicles in shuttle buses to connect the Detroit Metro Airport to a proposed, nearby rail station. Shuttle buses are in current use on the airport for passenger parking and inter-terminal transport. This duty cycle is well suited to the application of hydrogen fuel at this time because of the ability to re-fuel vehicles at a single nearby facility, overcoming the challenge of restricted fuel availability in the undeveloped hydrogen fuel infrastructure. A cooperative agreement between SEMCOG and the DOE was initiated and two H2ICE buses were placed in regular passenger service on March 29, 2009 and operated for six months in regular passenger service. The buses were developed and built by the Ford Motor Company. Wayne County Airport Authority provided the location for the demonstration with the airport transportation contractor, Metro Cars Inc. operating the buses. The buses were built on Ford E450 chassis and incorporated a modified a 6.8L V-10 engine with specially designed supercharger, fuel rails and injectors among other sophisticated control systems. Up to 30 kg of on-board gaseous hydrogen were stored in a modular six tank, 350 bar (5000 psi) system to provide a 150 mile driving range. The bus chassis and body were configured to carry nine passengers with

  20. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  1. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...

  2. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  3. Task D: Hydrogen safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, M.R.; Sievert, B.G. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States); Swain, M.N. [Analytical Technologies, Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This report covers two topics. The first is a review of codes, standards, regulations, recommendations, certifications, and pamphlets which address safety of gaseous fuels. The second is an experimental investigation of hydrogen flame impingement. Four areas of concern in the conversion of natural gas safety publications to hydrogen safety publications are delineated. Two suggested design criteria for hydrogen vehicle fuel systems are proposed. It is concluded from the experimental work that light weight, low cost, firewalls to resist hydrogen flame impingement are feasible.

  4. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to the development, testing, and installation of hydrogen fire detectors based on ultraviolet, near-infrared, mid-infrared, andor far-infrared flame emission bands. Yet, there is no intensity calibrated hydrogen-air flame spectrum over this range in the literature and consequently, it can be difficult to compare the merits of different radiation-based hydrogen fire detectors.

  5. Magnetic levitation of condensed hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, C. G.; Seidel, G. M.

    1991-01-01

    Liquid and solid molecular hydrogen has been levitated using a pair of small superconducting solenoids. The hydrogen samples, up to 3 mm in dimension, were trapped in a magnetic potential having either a discrete minimum or a minimum in the form of a ring 1 cm in diameter. The hydrogen could be moved about in the magnetic trap by applying an electric field.

  6. HYDROGEN VACANCY INTERACTION IN MOLYBDENUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd El Keriem, M.S.; van der Werf, D.P.; Pleiter, F

    1993-01-01

    Vacancy-hydrogen interaction in molybdenum was investigated by means of the perturbed angular correlation technique, using the isotope In-111 as a probe. The complex InV2 turned out to trap up to two hydrogen atoms: trapping of a single hydrogen atom gives rise to a decrease of the quadrupole

  7. Muonic processes in solid hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, G.M.; Beveridge, J.L. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Bailey, J.M. [Chester Technology, Chester (United Kingdom); Beer, G.A.; Knowles, P.E.; Maier, M.; Mason, G.R.; Olin, A.; Porcelli, T.A. [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Fujiwara, M.C. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Huber, T.M. [Gustavus Adolphus College, St. Peter, Minnesota (United States); Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Mulhauser, F.; Schaller, L.A. [University of Fribourg, Fribourg (Switzerland); Kammel, P. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Kim, S.K. [Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju City, S. (Korea); Kunselman, A.R. [University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming (United States); Petitjean, C. [PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Zmeskal, J. [IMEP, Vienna (Austria)

    1998-08-01

    Muonic hydrogen participates in many different interactions, including muon induced fusion of hydrogen nuclei. Conventional experimental techniques cannot always unravel and separate the processes of interest. Some of the most important measurements may be more reliably accomplished with the use of a unique and versatile target consisting of layers of different solid hydrogen isotope mixtures. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Realizing a hydrogen future: Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel recommendations (brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, G.

    1999-08-01

    When generated from renewable sources, hydrogen production and use is part of a clean, cyclic process. Hydrogen can be used to generate electricity, heat homes and businesses, fuel vehicles, and produce commodities used every day. The Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel's (HTAP) primary functions are to advise the Secretary of Energy on the implementation of the U.S.DOE programs in hydrogen RD and D and to review and make recommendations on the economic, technical, and environmental consequences of deploying safe hydrogen energy systems.

  9. Relation between Hydrogen Evolution and Hydrodesulfurization Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Šaric, Manuel; Moses, Poul Georg; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2016-01-01

    A relation between hydrogen evolution and hydrodesulfurization catalysis was found by density functional theory calculations. The hydrogen evolution reaction and the hydrogenation reaction in hydrodesulfurization share hydrogen as a surface intermediate and, thus, have a common elementary step...

  10. Parametric imaging of the local attenuation coefficient in human axillary lymph nodes assessed using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolaro, Loretta; McLaughlin, Robert A.; Klyen, Blake R.; Wood, Benjamin A.; Robbins, Peter D.; Saunders, Christobel M.; Jacques, Steven L.; Sampson, David D.

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to determine spatially localized optical attenuation coefficients of human axillary lymph nodes and their use to generate parametric images of lymphoid tissue. 3D-OCT images were obtained from excised lymph nodes and optical attenuation coefficients were extracted assuming a single scattering model of OCT. We present the measured attenuation coefficients for several tissue regions in benign and reactive lymph nodes, as identified by histopathology. We show parametric images of the measured attenuation coefficients as well as segmented images of tissue type based on thresholding of the attenuation coefficient values. Comparison to histology demonstrates the enhancement of contrast in parametric images relative to OCT images. This enhancement is a step towards the use of OCT for in situ assessment of lymph nodes. PMID:22312589

  11. Hydrogen attack - Influence of hydrogen sulfide. [on carbon steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliezer, D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted on 12.5-mm-thick SAE 1020 steel (plain carbon steel) plate to assess hydrogen attack at room temperature after specimen exposure at 525 C to hydrogen and a blend of hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen at a pressure of 3.5 MN/sq m for exposure times up to 240 hr. The results are discussed in terms of tensile properties, fissure formation, and surface scales. It is shown that hydrogen attack from a high-purity hydrogen environment is severe, with the formation of numerous methane fissures and bubbles along with a significant reduction in the room-temperature tensile yield and ultimate strengths. However, no hydrogen attack is observed in the hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide blend environment, i.e. no fissure or bubble formation occurred and the room-temperature tensile properties remained unchanged. It is suggested that the observed porous discontinuous scale of FeS acts as a barrier to hydrogen entry, thus reducing its effective equilibrium solubility in the iron lattice. Therefore, hydrogen attack should not occur in pressure-vessel steels used in many coal gasification processes.

  12. Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennakoon, Charles L. K.; Singh, Waheguru; Anderson, Kelvin C.

    2010-01-01

    Two-electron reduction of oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide is a much researched topic. Most of the work has been done in the production of hydrogen peroxide in basic media, in order to address the needs of the pulp and paper industry. However, peroxides under alkaline conditions show poor stabilities and are not useful in disinfection applications. There is a need to design electrocatalysts that are stable and provide good current and energy efficiencies to produce hydrogen peroxide under acidic conditions. The innovation focuses on the in situ generation of hydrogen peroxide using an electrochemical cell having a gas diffusion electrode as the cathode (electrode connected to the negative pole of the power supply) and a platinized titanium anode. The cathode and anode compartments are separated by a readily available cation-exchange membrane (Nafion 117). The anode compartment is fed with deionized water. Generation of oxygen is the anode reaction. Protons from the anode compartment are transferred across the cation-exchange membrane to the cathode compartment by electrostatic attraction towards the negatively charged electrode. The cathode compartment is fed with oxygen. Here, hydrogen peroxide is generated by the reduction of oxygen. Water may also be generated in the cathode. A small amount of water is also transported across the membrane along with hydrated protons transported across the membrane. Generally, each proton is hydrated with 3-5 molecules. The process is unique because hydrogen peroxide is formed as a high-purity aqueous solution. Since there are no hazardous chemicals or liquids used in the process, the disinfection product can be applied directly to water, before entering a water filtration unit to disinfect the incoming water and to prevent the build up of heterotrophic bacteria, for example, in carbon based filters. The competitive advantages of this process are: 1. No consumable chemicals are needed in the process. The only raw materials

  13. Multiple attenuation using eigenvalue decomposition | Aigbedion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple reflections constitute one of the most troublesome forms of coherent noise in seismic exploration, especially in marine surveys. There are many approaches to attenuating or suppressing multiples, but none can remove all multiple reflections under all conditions. We have eveloped two new methods to attenuate ...

  14. ATTENUATION AND FLANKING TRANSMISSION IN LIGHTWEIGHT STRUCTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas; Lhomond, Alice; Ohlrich, Mogens

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the attenuation and flanking transmissions of impact noise in lightweight building structures is studied using a modal approach. The structural field is mainly analysed, putting the main attention to the parts being important in the modelling. The amount of attenuation produced...

  15. Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from...

  16. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

    2014-06-17

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio.

  17. Electron stripping processes of H⁻ ion beam in the 80 kV high voltage extraction column and low energy beam transport line at LANSCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganic, I N

    2016-02-01

    Basic vacuum calculations were performed for various operating conditions of the Los Alamos National Neutron Science H(-) Cockcroft-Walton (CW) injector and the Ion Source Test Stand (ISTS). The vacuum pressure was estimated for both the CW and ISTS at five different points: (1) inside the H(-) ion source, (2) in front of the Pierce electrode, (3) at the extraction electrode, (4) at the column electrode, and (5) at the ground electrode. A static vacuum analysis of residual gases and the working hydrogen gas was completed for the normal ion source working regime. Gas density and partial pressure were estimated for the injected hydrogen gas. The attenuation of H(-) beam current and generation of electron current in the high voltage acceleration columns and low energy beam transport lines were calculated. The interaction of H(-) ions on molecular hydrogen (H2) is discussed as a dominant collision process in describing electron stripping rates. These results are used to estimate the observed increase in the ratio of electrons to H(-) ion beam in the ISTS beam transport line.

  18. Attenuated geophysical signatures associated with ongoing remediation efforts at Wurtsmith Air Force Base, Oscoda, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sauck, W. A.; Nolan, J. T.; Slater, L. D.

    2007-12-01

    Previous geophysical investigations (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2004) conducted at the decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) showed a clearly defined high conductivity anomaly associated with hydrocarbon contaminants in the vadose zone and ground water near the source area. The source of the geophysical anomalies was attributed to biogeochemical modifications of the contaminated zone resulting from intrinsic bioremediation. During these previous surveys, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data showed a zone of attenuated GPR reflections extending from the vadose zone to below the water table. Self potential data (SP) data defined a positive anomaly coincident with the hydrochemically defined plume, while electrical resistivity data showed anomalously high conductivity within the zone of impact. In 2007, another integrated geophysical study of the site was conducted. GPR, SP, electrical resistivity, and induced polarization surveys were conducted with expectations of achieving similar results as the past surveys. However, preliminary assessment of the data shows a marked decrease in electrical conductivity and SP response over the plume. GPR data still showed the attenuated signals, but the zone of attenuation was only observed below the water table. We attribute the attenuation of the observed geophysical anomalies to ongoing soil vapor extraction initiated in 2003. Significant removal of the contaminant mass by the vapor extraction system has altered the subsurface biogeochemical conditions and these changes were documented by the 2007 geophysical and geochemical data. The results of this study show that the attenuation of the contaminant plume is detectable with geophysical methods.

  19. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...... it into a frequency dependent part and frequency independent part. The latter results in an attenuation factor that is multiplied onto the responses from the individual elements, and the frequency dependent part is handled by attenuating the basic one-dimensional pulse. The influence on ultrasound fields from......Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...

  20. Hydrogen adsorption on rhodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, M.E.; Michri, A.A.; Kalish, T.V.; Pshenichnikov, A.G.; Kazarinov, V.E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements of thermal desorption and electron work function were used to investigate the mechanism of hydrogen adsorption from the gas phase on rhodium single-crystal faces and on a polycrystalline rhodium sample at room temperatures over the pressure range from 1.3-10/sup -3/ to 1.3 x 10/sup -5/ Pa. It was found that dipoles oriented with their negative ends toward the gas phase (dipoles of type I) form more rapidly than dipoles having the opposite orientation (dipoles of type II). For formation of the latter, a mechanism is proposed according to which the rate-determining step of the overall process is the transition of reversibly adsorbed hydrogen to dipoles of type II (the spillover), which occurs at surface defects. It was shown that the kinetics of this process with respect to the individual defect obeys an equation which is zeroth order in theta/sub H/ and pressure.

  1. Reversible hydrogen storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, James A [Lexington, SC; Wang, Tao [Columbia, SC; Ebner, Armin D [Lexington, SC; Holland, Charles E [Cayce, SC

    2012-04-10

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a process for synthesis of a complex hydride material for hydrogen storage is provided. The process includes mixing a borohydride with at least one additive agent and at least one catalyst and heating the mixture at a temperature of less than about 600.degree. C. and a pressure of H.sub.2 gas to form a complex hydride material. The complex hydride material comprises MAl.sub.xB.sub.yH.sub.z, wherein M is an alkali metal or group IIA metal, Al is the element aluminum, x is any number from 0 to 1, B is the element boron, y is a number from 0 to 13, and z is a number from 4 to 57 with the additive agent and catalyst still being present. The complex hydride material is capable of cyclic dehydrogenation and rehydrogenation and has a hydrogen capacity of at least about 4 weight percent.

  2. Hydrogen from catalytic reforming of biomass-derived hydrocarbons in liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortright, R D; Davda, R R; Dumesic, J A

    2002-08-29

    Concerns about the depletion of fossil fuel reserves and the pollution caused by continuously increasing energy demands make hydrogen an attractive alternative energy source. Hydrogen is currently derived from nonrenewable natural gas and petroleum, but could in principle be generated from renewable resources such as biomass or water. However, efficient hydrogen production from water remains difficult and technologies for generating hydrogen from biomass, such as enzymatic decomposition of sugars, steam-reforming of bio-oils and gasification, suffer from low hydrogen production rates and/or complex processing requirements. Here we demonstrate that hydrogen can be produced from sugars and alcohols at temperatures near 500 K in a single-reactor aqueous-phase reforming process using a platinum-based catalyst. We are able to convert glucose -- which makes up the major energy reserves in plants and animals -- to hydrogen and gaseous alkanes, with hydrogen constituting 50% of the products. We find that the selectivity for hydrogen production increases when we use molecules that are more reduced than sugars, with ethylene glycol and methanol being almost completely converted into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. These findings suggest that catalytic aqueous-phase reforming might prove useful for the generation of hydrogen-rich fuel gas from carbohydrates extracted from renewable biomass and biomass waste streams.

  3. Background and methods for a reliable test for hydrogen cracking of super-martensitic stainless steel flow-lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroe, Mioara [Materials Science and Electrochemistry Dept., Free University of Brussels, U.L.B., Av. F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, Brussels (Belgium)]|[CEBELCOR, Av. Paul Heger, grille 2, 1000, Brussels (Belgium); Delplancke, Jean-Luc [Materials Science and Electrochemistry Dept., Free University of Brussels, U.L.B., Av. F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 194/03, Brussels (Belgium); Pourbaix, Antoine [CEBELCOR, Av. Paul Heger, grille 2, 1000, Brussels (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The most recent models proposed for hydrogen embrittlement (HE) suggest that there is a strong interaction between hydrogen in the material and dislocation's movement. Parameters like hydrogen content and hydrogen localisation in the material, load mode and plastic deformation are important for HE. A representative test to determine the susceptibility to should take into account these parameters. The solubility of hydrogen and its diffusion coefficient were determined by permeation tests. Extraction of hydrogen at different temperatures identified the types of hydrogen traps. Nano-indentation tests gave an insight of the modification of mechanical properties at the nano scale, in the presence of hydrogen. Constant load tests (CL) and slow strain rate tests (SSRT) were performed on samples under cathodic charging and on pre-charged samples. The results obtained until now by CL and SSRT suggest that dynamic deformation is very important for the susceptibility to HE. (authors)

  4. Offshore Facilities to Produce Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Blanco-Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of international agreements on the reduction of CO2 emissions, new technologies using hydrogen are being developed. Hydrogen, despite being the most abundant element in Nature, cannot be found in its pure state. Water is one of the most abundant sources of hydrogen on the planet. The proposal here is to use energy from the sea in order to obtain hydrogen from water. If plants to obtain hydrogen were to be placed in the ocean, the impact of long submarines piping to the coast will be reduced. Further, this will open the way for the development of ships propelled by hydrogen. This paper discusses the feasibility of an offshore installation to obtain hydrogen from the sea, using ocean wave energy.

  5. Molecular and Metallic Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-05-01

    Livermore Laboratory, Dr. J. C. Raich of the Colorado State University, and Dr. R. H. Wentorf, Jr., of the General Electric Company for their reviews...investigated by Raich and Etters [8], who have made ground-state energy calculations for hydrogen molecules retaining the orientation dependence of the...consistent with work of Raich and Etters [8], who have made similar calculations during the course of their work on the rotational transition in solid

  6. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Harvey D.

    1985-01-01

    The coal liquefaction process disclosed uses three stages. The first stage is a liquefaction. The second and third stages are hydrogenation stages at different temperatures and in parallel or in series. One stage is within 650.degree.-795.degree. F. and optimizes solvent production. The other stage is within 800.degree.-840.degree. F. and optimizes the C.sub.5 -850.degree. F. product.

  7. Mitigation of Hydrogen Gas Generation from the Reaction of Water with Uranium Metal in K Basins Sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2010-01-29

    Means to decrease the rate of hydrogen gas generation from the chemical reaction of uranium metal with water were identified by surveying the technical literature. The underlying chemistry and potential side reactions were explored by conducting 61 principal experiments. Several methods achieved significant hydrogen gas generation rate mitigation. Gas-generating side reactions from interactions of organics or sludge constituents with mitigating agents were observed. Further testing is recommended to develop deeper knowledge of the underlying chemistry and to advance the technology aturation level. Uranium metal reacts with water in K Basin sludge to form uranium hydride (UH3), uranium dioxide or uraninite (UO2), and diatomic hydrogen (H2). Mechanistic studies show that hydrogen radicals (H·) and UH3 serve as intermediates in the reaction of uranium metal with water to produce H2 and UO2. Because H2 is flammable, its release into the gas phase above K Basin sludge during sludge storage, processing, immobilization, shipment, and disposal is a concern to the safety of those operations. Findings from the technical literature and from experimental investigations with simple chemical systems (including uranium metal in water), in the presence of individual sludge simulant components, with complete sludge simulants, and with actual K Basin sludge are presented in this report. Based on the literature review and intermediate lab test results, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, Nochar Acid Bond N960, disodium hydrogen phosphate, and hexavalent uranium [U(VI)] were tested for their effects in decreasing the rate of hydrogen generation from the reaction of uranium metal with water. Nitrate and nitrite each were effective, decreasing hydrogen generation rates in actual sludge by factors of about 100 to 1000 when used at 0.5 molar (M) concentrations. Higher attenuation factors were achieved in tests with aqueous solutions alone. Nochar N960, a water sorbent, decreased hydrogen

  8. Biological hydrogen production from sucrose and sugar beet by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotopoulos, John [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece); Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Bakker, Robert; Vrieje, Truus de; Claassen, Pieternel [Wageningen UR Food and Biobased Research (Netherlands); Koukios, Emmanuel [National Technical Univ. of Athens (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen production needs to be based on renewable resources in order to be sustainable. Sugar beet is an ideal raw material for fermentative production of hydrogen in the EU and possibly in the USA due to its environmental profile and its potential availability in these areas. In this work, the fermentative production of hydrogen from sucrose of analytical grade and sugar beet extract by pure cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was investigated, under uncontrolled and controlled conditions. In the first case, growth of pure cultures of C. saccharolyticus on sucrose derived from sugar beet was compared to growth of the microorganism on sucrose of analytical grade. The production of hydrogen and organic acids (acetate and lactate) from sugar beet was largely equal to or slightly higher than the production of the control. In the second case, fermentation of sugar beet extract at sucrose concentration 10 g/l was comparable to the fermentation on pure sucrose except that the hydrogen yield was slightly higher on sugar beet extract. In particular, hydrogen yields of 2.9 and 3.0 mol/mol hexose were determined in fermentations of sucrose and sugar beet extract, respectively, corresponding to 73% and 75% of the theoretical value of 4 mol hydrogen/mol hexose. Acetic acid was the main product and very low production of lactic acid was observed. (orig.)

  9. The thermal structure of cratonic lithosphere from global Rayleigh wave attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Colleen A.; Bao, Xueyang; Ma, Zhitu

    2017-01-01

    The resolution of and level of agreement between different attenuation models have historically been limited by complexities associated with extracting attenuation from seismic-wave amplitudes, which are also affected by the source, the receiver, and propagation through velocity heterogeneities. For intermediate- and long-period Rayleigh waves, removing the amplitude signal due to focusing and defocusing effects is the greatest challenge. In this paper, three independent data sets of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave amplitude are analyzed to investigate how three factors contribute to discrepancies between the attenuation models: uncertainties in the amplitude measurements themselves, variable path coverage, and the treatment of focusing effects. Regionalized pure-path and fully two-dimensional attenuation models are derived and compared. The approach for determining attenuation models from real data is guided by an analysis of amplitudes measured from synthetic spectral-element waveforms, for which the input Earth model is perfectly known. The results show that differences in the amplitude measurements introduce only very minor differences between the attenuation models; path coverage and the removal of focusing effects are more important. The pure-path attenuation values exhibit a clear dependence on tectonic region at shorter periods that disappears at long periods, in agreement with pure-path phase-velocity results obtained by inverting Rayleigh wave phase delays. The 2-D attenuation maps are highly correlated with each other to spherical-harmonic degree 16 and can resolve smaller features than the previous generation of global attenuation models. Anomalously low attenuation is nearly perfectly associated with continental cratons. Variations in lithospheric thickness are determined by forward modeling the global attenuation variations as a thermal boundary layer of variable thickness. Temperature profiles that satisfy the attenuation values systematically

  10. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Zhang, Z. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Photoelectrochemical devices-direct photoconversion systems utilizing a photovoltaic-type structure coated with water-splitting catalysts-represent a promising option to meet this goal. Direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies greater than 7% and photoelectrode lifetimes of up to 30 hours in 1 molar KOH have been demonstrated in our laboratory using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Loss analysis models indicate that the DOE`s goal of 10% solar-to-chemical conversion can be met with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, we describe recent progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, improvements in photoelectrode efficiency and stability, and designs for higher efficiency and greater stability.

  11. Transport and attenuation of radiations

    CERN Document Server

    Nimal, J C

    2003-01-01

    This article treats of the calculation methods used for the dimensioning of the protections against radiations. The method consists in determining for a given point the flux of particles coming from a source at a given time. A strong attenuation (of about some few mu Sv.h sup - sup 1) is in general expected between the source and the areas accessible to the personnel or the public. The calculation has to take into account a huge number of radiation-matter interactions and to solve the integral-differential transport equation which links the particles flux to the source. Several methods exist from the simplified physical model with numerical developments to the more or less precise resolution of the transport equation. These methods allows also the calculation of the uncertainties of equivalent dose rates, heat sources, structure damages using the data covariances (efficient cross-sections, modeling, etc..): 1 - transport equation; 2 - Monte-Carlo method; 3 - semi-numerical methods S sub N; 4 - methods based o...

  12. A Finite Element Model of a MEMS-based Surface Acoustic Wave Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walied A. Moussa

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen plays a significant role in various industrial applications, but careful handling and continuous monitoring are crucial since it is explosive when mixed with air. Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW sensors provide desirable characteristics for hydrogen detection due to their small size, low fabrication cost, ease of integration and high sensitivity. In this paper a finite element model of a Surface Acoustic Wave sensor is developed using ANSYS12© and tested for hydrogen detection. The sensor consists of a YZ-lithium niobate substrate with interdigital electrodes (IDT patterned on the surface. A thin palladium (Pd film is added on the surface of the sensor due to its high affinity for hydrogen. With increased hydrogen absorption the palladium hydride structure undergoes a phase change due to the formation of the β-phase, which deteriorates the crystal structure. Therefore with increasing hydrogen concentration the stiffness and the density are significantly reduced. The values of the modulus of elasticity and the density at different hydrogen concentrations in palladium are utilized in the finite element model to determine the corresponding SAW sensor response. Results indicate that with increasing the hydrogen concentration the wave velocity decreases and the attenuation of the wave is reduced.

  13. The Neuro-Protective Effect of the Methanolic Extract of Perilla frutescens var. japonicaand Rosmarinic Acid against H₂O₂-Induced Oxidative Stress in C6 Glial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Young; Wu, Ting Ting; Hwang, Bo Ra; Lee, Jaemin; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Lee, Sanghyun; Cho, Eun Ju

    2016-05-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are often associated with oxidative damage in neuronal cells. This study was conducted to investigate the neuro-protective effect of methanolic (MeOH) extract of Perilla frutescens var. japonica and its one of the major compounds, rosmarinic acid, under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in C6 glial cells. Exposure of C6 glial cells to H₂O₂ enhanced oxidative damage as measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance assays. The MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid prevented oxidative stress by increasing cell viability and inhibiting cellular lipid peroxidation. In addition, the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid reduced H₂O₂-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcriptional level. Moreover, iNOS and COX-2 protein expression was down-regulated in H₂O₂-indcued C6 glial cells treated with the MeOH extract and rosmarinic acid. These findings suggest that P. frutescens var. japonica and rosmarinic acid could prevent the progression of neurodegenerative diseases through attenuation of neuronal oxidative stress.

  14. Handheld hydrogen - a new concept for hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Tue; Sørensen, Rasmus Zink

    2005-01-01

    A method of hydrogen storage using metal ammine complexes in combination with an ammonia decomposition catalyst is presented. This dense hydrogen storage material has high degree of safety compared to all the other available alternatives. This technology reduces the safety hazards of using liquid...... ammonia and benefits from the properties of ammonia as a fuel. The system can be used as a safe, reversible, low-cost hydrogen carrier....

  15. Simultaneous Extraction of Lithium and Hydrogen from Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    being produced today. They basically differ in the type of electrolyte that is used. The first type of electrolysers is characterised by the use of a...the charge carriers. The reactions that take place in the electrolysis cells. In the second type of electrolysers the electrolyte is an ion...exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysers . Figure 1 shows a configuration of the seawater electrolysis. Seawater and fresh water are introduced to the

  16. Effect of acetone extract of Rumex japonicas Houtt on hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of Polygonaceae, and are annual or perennial herbs distributed throughout the world [1,2]. In. Chinese folk medicine, plants in this genus have been used for treating various diseases from ancient times, and have medicinal functions of promoting blood circulation, removing blood stasis, detoxication, etc [2,3]. In addition, ...

  17. phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluko B. T.

    ABSTRACT. The antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the extract was assessed against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The ability of the extract to reduce ferric ions to its ferrous form was also evaluated. The total phenols, flavonoids, tannins and saponin contents of the ...

  18. antioxidant potential of habiscus cannabinus methanolic leaf extract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    power and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effect assays. The. Methanolic leaf extract ... The recent quest of natural plant product in altering human abnormal ... free radical scavenging activity: Free radical activity of Hibiscus cannabinus leaves extract was measured by following the decrease in the absorbance of methanolic ...

  19. A novel hydrogen oxidizer amidst the sulfur-oxidizing Thiomicrospira lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Moritz; Perner, Mirjam

    2015-01-01

    Thiomicrospira species are ubiquitously found in various marine environments and appear particularly common in hydrothermal vent systems. Members of this lineage are commonly classified as sulfur-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs. Although sequencing of Thiomicrospira crunogena's genome has revealed genes that encode enzymes for hydrogen uptake activity and for hydrogenase maturation and assembly, hydrogen uptake ability has so far not been reported for any Thiomicrospira species. We isolated a Thiomicrospira species (SP-41) from a deep sea hydrothermal vent and demonstrated that it can oxidize hydrogen. We show in vivo hydrogen consumption, hydrogen uptake activity in partially purified protein extracts and transcript abundance of hydrogenases during different growth stages. The ability of this strain to oxidize hydrogen opens up new perspectives with respect to the physiology of Thiomicrospira species that have been detected in hydrothermal vents and that have so far been exclusively associated with sulfur oxidation. PMID:25226028

  20. Attenuation caused by infrequently updated covariates in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Kragh; Liestøl, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates......Attenuation; Cox regression model; Measurement errors; Survival analysis; Time-dependent covariates...