WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraction unex process

  1. INTEC High-Level Waste Studies Universal Solvent Extraction Feasibility Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaee, J.; Barnes, C.M.; Battisti, T.; Herrmann, S.; Losinski, S.J.; McBride, S.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes a feasibility study that has been conducted on the Universal Solvent Extraction (UNEX) Process for treatment and disposal of 4.3 million liters of INEEL sodium-bearing waste located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. This feasibility study covers two scenarios of treatment. The first, the UNEX Process, partitions the Cs/Sr from the SBW and creates remote-handled LLW and contact-handled TRU waste forms. Phase one of this study, covered in the 30% review documents, dealt with defining the processes and defining the major unit operations. The second phase of the project, contained in the 60% review, expanded on the application of the UNEX processes and included facility requirements and definitions. Two facility options were investigated for the UNEX process, resulting in a 2 x 2 matrix of process/facility scenarios as follows: Option A, UNEX at Greenfield Facility, Option B, Modified UNEX at Greenfield Facility, Option C, UNEX at NWCF, th is document, covers life-cycle costs for all options presented along with results and conclusions determined from the study

  2. Plant extraction process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme.......A method for producing a plant extract comprises incubating a plant material with an enzyme composition comprising a lipolytic enzyme....

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  5. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  6. Extraction of uranium with emulsion membrane process use tributylphosphate extractant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basuki, K.T.; Sudibyo, R.; Bambang EHB; Muhadi, A.W.

    1996-01-01

    To increase the effectiveness of extraction process with so for to occur, it was tried the extraction with a couple of extraction and stripping process. This couple process was called liquid membrane emulsion. As membrane was used mix surfactant (Span-80), tributylphosphate in kerosene, natrium carbonate, while as a feeder was uranium solution with 500 concentration ppm in 0.5 - 3 M nitrate acid. In this experiment the variable investigated were % surfactant (1 - 5 %), rotary speed for membrane making (2,500 - 10.000 rpm). The optimal condition result of experiment were 5 % surfactant, 3 M nitrate acid, rotary speed 10.000 rpm and (Kd eksU ) 57 %, and (Kd strippU ) 87 %, Kd eksU at liquid-liquid extraction is 44 %. (author)

  7. Refractory metals extraction, processing and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, K.C.; Sadoway, D.R.; Bautista, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers the following topics regarding refractory metals: process flowsheet development; high temperature extraction processes; chemical and thermal processing; electrolytic processing; preparation of ceramic precursors and application of aqueous chemistry to metal recovery; processing and properties. Some of the metals covered include: hafnium, vanadium, niobium, zirconium, and tantalum

  8. Supercritical Extraction Process of Allspice Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasvet Y. Andrade-Avila

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Allspice essential oil was extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 in a static process at three different temperatures (308.15, 313.15, and 318.15 K and four levels of pressure (100, 200, 300, and 360 bar. The amount of oil extracted was measured at intervals of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h; the most extraction yield reached was of 68.47% at 318.15 K, 360 bar, and 6 h of contact time. In this supercritical extraction process, the distribution coefficient (KD, the mean effective diffusion coefficient (Def, the energy of activation (Ea, the thermodynamic properties (ΔG0, ΔH0, and ΔS0, and the apparent solubility (S expressed as mass fraction (w/w were evaluated for the first time. At the equilibrium the experimental apparent solubility data were successfully correlated with the modified Chrastil equation.

  9. Chemical engineering aspect of solvent extraction in mineral processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dara, S.S.; Jakkikar, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Solvent extraction process, types of solvents used, types of extraction, distribution isotherm and McCabe-Thiele diagram for process design, equipment for the process, operating parameters and applications are described. (M.G.B.)

  10. Feature extraction & image processing for computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This book is an essential guide to the implementation of image processing and computer vision techniques, with tutorial introductions and sample code in Matlab. Algorithms are presented and fully explained to enable complete understanding of the methods and techniques demonstrated. As one reviewer noted, ""The main strength of the proposed book is the exemplar code of the algorithms."" Fully updated with the latest developments in feature extraction, including expanded tutorials and new techniques, this new edition contains extensive new material on Haar wavelets, Viola-Jones, bilateral filt

  11. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP's off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described

  12. Effects of extraction process parameters on the quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extraction process parameters can influence the quality of oil obtained from seeds during extraction process. The effect of extraction process parameters on the quality of parinari seed oil, a potential renewable industrial raw material, is yet to be reported. This research was aimed at investigating the effects of some ...

  13. Study on extraction process and activity of plant polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaogen; Wang, Xiaojing; Fan, Shuangli; Chen, Jiezhong

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that plant polysaccharides have many pharmacological activities, such as hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory and tumor inhibition. The pharmacological activities of plant polysaccharides were summarized. The extraction methods of plant polysaccharides were discussed. Finally, the extraction process of Herba Taraxaci polysaccharides was optimized by ultrasonic assisted extraction. Through single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment to optimize the optimum extraction process from dandelion polysaccharide, optimum conditions of dandelion root polysaccharide by ultrasonic assisted extraction method for ultrasonic power 320W, temperature 80°C, extraction time 40min, can get higher dandelion polysaccharide extract.

  14. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat Teong, Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  15. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  16. Experimental Study On The Optimization Of Extraction Process Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. Materials and Methods: CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of ...

  17. Effects of Extraction Process Parameters on the Quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    2016-01-26

    potential scaling up of the parinari oil extraction process. KEYWORDS: Parinari seed oil, quality, acid value, iodine value, extraction, response surface methodology. [Received January 26, 2016; Revised October, 17, 2016; Accepted November 27, 2016]. I. INTRODUCTION. Vegetable oils are lipids that are extracted from ...

  18. Extracting Silicon From Sodium-Process Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, V.; Sanjurjo, A.; Sancier, K. M.; Nanis, L.

    1982-01-01

    New acid leaching process purifies silicon produced in reaction between silicon fluoride and sodium. Concentration of sodium fluoride and other impurities and byproducts remaining in silicon are within acceptable ranges for semi-conductor devices. Leaching process makes sodium reduction process more attractive for making large quantities of silicon for solar cells.

  19. A combined cesium-strontium extraction/recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.; Jensen, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    A new solvent extraction process for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from acidic nitrate media is described. This process uses a solvent formulation comprised of 0.05 M di-t-butylcyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6), 0.1 M Crown 100' (a proprietary, cesium-selective derivative of dibenzo-18-crown-6), 1.2 M tributyl phosphate (TBP), and 5% (v/v) lauryl nitrile in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. Distribution ratios for cesium and strontium from 4 M nitric acid are 4.13 and 3.46, respectively. A benchtop batch countercurrent extraction experiment indicates that >98% of the cesium and strontium initially present in the feed solution can be removed in only four extraction stages. Through proper choice of extraction and strip conditions, extracted cesium and strontium can be recovered either together or individually

  20. Glycerol extracting dealcoholization for the biodiesel separation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jianchu; Sha, Yong; Zhang, Yun; Yuan, Yunlong; Wu, Housheng

    2011-04-01

    By means of utilizing sunflower oil and Jatropha oil as raw oil respectively, the biodiesel transesterification production and the multi-stage extracting separation were carried out experimentally. Results indicate that dealcoholized crude glycerol can be utilized as the extracting agent to achieve effective separation of methanol from the methyl ester phase, and the glycerol content in the dealcoholized methyl esters is as low as 0.02 wt.%. For the biodiesel separation process utilizing glycerol extracting dealcoholization, its technical and equipment information were acquired through the rigorous process simulation in contrast to the traditional biodiesel distillation separation process, and results show that its energy consumption decrease about 35% in contrast to that of the distillation separation process. The glycerol extracting dealcoholization has sufficient feasibility and superiority for the biodiesel separation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Model-based Optimization of Pectin Extraction Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Boeun; André Fernandes Caroço, Ricardo; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2017-01-01

    of esterification (DE) and intrinsic viscosity (IV). However, since there is a trade-off between the pectin yield and quality, it becomes a challenge to decide the extraction condition using heuristic approaches. In this study, we propose a strategy for an operation optimization of the pectin extraction process...

  2. Optimization of aqueous extraction process to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the reduction in phytic acid after aqueous extraction of substrates was validated after high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) characterization study. The results suggest that aqueous extraction process can be used efficiently for reducing the endogenous anti-nutritional factors from substrates eventually ...

  3. Process modifications of obtaining Tc-99m by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Verdera, S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a modification in the process to obtaining Tc-99m by the extraction method of solvent from Mo-99 produced by irradiation. Tc-99m is considered an ideal radionuclide for medical and biological applications

  4. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses

  5. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  6. Process for separation of tungsten and molybdenum by extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelikman, A.N.; Voldman, G.M.; Rumyantsev, V.K.; Ziberov, G.N.; Kagermanian, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A process for the separation of tungsten and molybdenum by extraction involves the addition of HCl or HNO 3 to an aqueous solution containing tungsten and molybdenum to obtain a pH from 0.5 to 4.3, and introduction of a stabilizer comprising water-soluble phosphorus salts and a complexing agent, hydrogen peroxide, in an amount from 1.5 to 2 mole per 1 g-atom of the total content of tungsten and molybdenum. Then molybdenum is selectively extracted from the resulting aqueous solution with tri-n-butylphosphate with equal volumetric proportioning of the aqueous and organic solutions. Re-extraction of molybdenum and partially tungsten is carried out from the organic extracting agent with an alkali or soda solution. The process makes possible the preparation of tungsten solution containing no more than 0.001 g/l of molybdenum, and an increase in the degree of extraction of tungsten and molybdenum

  7. Optimal processes for probabilistic work extraction beyond the second law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavina, Vasco; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-07-05

    According to the second law of thermodynamics, for every transformation performed on a system which is in contact with an environment of fixed temperature, the average extracted work is bounded by the decrease of the free energy of the system. However, in a single realization of a generic process, the extracted work is subject to statistical fluctuations which may allow for probabilistic violations of the previous bound. We are interested in enhancing this effect, i.e. we look for thermodynamic processes that maximize the probability of extracting work above a given arbitrary threshold. For any process obeying the Jarzynski identity, we determine an upper bound for the work extraction probability that depends also on the minimum amount of work that we are willing to extract in case of failure, or on the average work we wish to extract from the system. Then we show that this bound can be saturated within the thermodynamic formalism of quantum discrete processes composed by sequences of unitary quenches and complete thermalizations. We explicitly determine the optimal protocol which is given by two quasi-static isothermal transformations separated by a finite unitary quench.

  8. Mathematical modeling of processes of nuclear fuel extraction reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozen, A.M.; Zel'venskij, M.Ya.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical model of extraction process in the mixer-settlers is given which describes both a simple step process and extraction complicated with chemical reactions. The extraction equilibrium is described on the basis of theoretical data on the extraction mechanism using the mass action law and contains one empirical constant. The equations for concentration extraction constants of uranium(6) and uranium(4), plutonium(3, 4, 6), neptunium(4, 6) and zirconium(4) depending on the solution ion strength are given, which are obtained by treatment of numerous experimental data. On the example of the reductive reextraction process it is shown that there is a good coincidence of the calculated results of the suggested model with the experimental ones by Mc-Kay. By the method of matematical modeling the uranium and plutonium separation processes without reducers are investigated. The purification improvement of uranium extract, for example, is followed by the deterioration of the data on the other end of cascade i.e. purification of plutonium reextract from uranium and vice versa. To obtain a high grade of separation is possible only in comparatively long cascades and, besides, the regime parameters should be precisely observed

  9. Design of a solvent extraction process for PAH-contaminated sediments : The WAU-acetone process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rulkens, W.H.; Bruning, H.; Hasselt, H.J. van; Rienks, J.; Veen, H.J. van; Terlingen, J.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    Solvent extraction is one of the possibilities to clean-up polluted sediments. It is especially attractive when the sediment mainly consists of clay particles polluted with contaminants which are not, or not easily, biodegradable. Using acetone as extracting agent the extraction process has been

  10. Image Processing and Features Extraction of Fingerprint Images ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several fingerprint matching algorithms have been developed for minutiae or template matching of fingerprint templates. The efficiency of these fingerprint matching algorithms depends on the success of the image processing and features extraction steps employed. Fingerprint image processing and analysis is hence an ...

  11. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  12. Improved extraction of prolamins for gluten detection in processed foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. KANERVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A problem in gluten analysis has been inconsistent extractability of prolamins, particularly from processed foods consisting of unknown portions of prolamins from wheat, barley, and rye. This study aimed at improving the extraction of prolamins for immunological analysis, regardless of the cereal species and the production process. The prolamins were extracted with varying concentrations of ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting were applied to study the protein composition of the extracts and the antibody recognition of the prolamin subgroups. We characterized the affinities of prolamin-specific antibodies that are used in gluten analysis against the prolamin groups that were soluble in 40% 1-propanol. The antibody R5 recognized more abundantly the medium-molecular weight groups, including polymeric proteins, and less the high-molecular weight groups than the anti-ù-gliadin antibody. In the present study, the prolamins were most efficiently extracted by 40% 1-propanol with 1% dithiothreitol at 50 °C . The prolamins were extracted from processed bread samples with efficiency similar to that from untreated meal samples.;

  13. Standard Operation Procedure of Gaharu Oil Extraction Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, C.S.; Mohd Fajri Osman; Norella Bahari; Rusli Zakaria

    2015-01-01

    Gaharu oil extraction system developed by Nuclear Malaysia is a hydro-distillation system innovated from the tradition method and improvised with science and technology to enhance the process efficiency and safety. The main component of gaharu oil extraction system included the extraction vessel, condenser and collection decanter. Apart from the extraction unit, the gaharu oil extraction process also incorporated two major supporting systems. These systems are the liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) system and the water cooling system. The LPG system is solely used for heating the vessel, which contains a mixture of treated and grind gaharu bark and fluid, to produce steam. Meanwhile the water cooling system is used to supply the necessary cool water into the condenser unit and facilitate in the transformation of the mentioned steam into gaharu oil and distilled water. The dissipate water from this process will be channeled back into the water cooling ponds to let excess heat to be removed and allow the cool water to reuse again by the process. (author)

  14. Valorization of Tomato Processing Waste for Lycopene Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Driouich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants and singlet oxygen quenching agents. It has been found to be of great medical importance with various anti cancer effects, cardiovascular diseases effective agent and with its ability to be an important carotenoid in preventive medicine. In Tunisia, we note a real consumption of tomato paste. With 28 production units for double and triple concentrated tomato, noting a significant production of waste (approximately 30000 Tonne/year consisting of skins pulp and seeds, which could be an important source of lycopene. Our study is concerned with three solid-phase extraction process: assisted by ultrasonic, by microwave and by homogenizer heating at moderate temperature. Their efficiency for the extraction of lycopene contained in the tomato waste was elaborated. The effect of the main process variables (including solvent polarity, solid-to-liquid ratio, temperature and time on lycopene recovery have been investigated. The yield of the isolated lycopene was determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and UPLC-DAD quantification methods. Lycopene-rich extract was obtained from the dried and milled tomatoes waste using ethanol as a food grade extraction solvent and employing microwave assisted extraction process. The optimum conditions were 30 min total extraction time at 50°C temperature and 1bar pressure. The degradation of extracted lycopene through air oxidation and day light effect were also tested. Lycopene is stable when mixed with olive oil as a natural antioxidant. Up to 80% of lycopene degradated when exposed for one month to day light at 25°C.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS EXTRACTION OF LUPINE CHEESE WHEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the job is showed. These words of the academician A.G. Khramtsov that breakthrough technology in the dairy industry is the use of whey as a solvent for the extraction of target components of plant raw materials and obtaining valu-able milk-plant extract. The problem of optimization to determine the input factors for the effective management of process of extraction. Optimization of parameters of the process was carried out experimental-statistical methods in several stages. At the first stage built regression model that adequately describes the dependence of the selected output parameter from the studied factors. A full factorial experiment (PFA type 23, composed planning matrix, decorated in a table. The experiments were conducted in a double-repetition. The number of experiments in the centre of the plan selected taking into account a possible transition to the planning of the second order. The plan PFA type 23 gives the possibility to calculate 8 regression coefficients and construct the equation of the first order. The results of calculation of confidence errors presented in the table. Statistical processing of experimental data allowed determining the regression coefficients, check their significance, to assess the reproducibility of experiments and to establish the adequacy of the obtained regression equations of the second order on three criteria. The second stage was to optimize the parameters of extraction. Statement of a problem of optimization recorded analytically. To solve this problem we use the method of the Lagrange multipliers. According to calculated by the algorithm is composed of a system of equations containing partial derivatives of the objective function for all independent variables and undetermined Lagrange multiplier. Optimal recognized the results obtained on the 10-step optimization, providing the maximum output of extractive substances. The obtained optimal conditions of extraction. The third stage was

  16. Particle Formation by Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Expansion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujuan Pan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction and expansion (SFEE patented technology combines the advantages of both supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and rapid expansion of supercritical solution (RESS with on-line coupling, which makes the nanoparticle formation feasible directly from matrix such as Chinese herbal medicine. Supercritical fluid extraction is a green separation technology, which has been developed for decades and widely applied in traditional Chinese medicines or natural active components. In this paper, a SFEE patented instrument was firstly built up and controlled by LABVIEW work stations. Stearic acid was used to verify the SFEE process at optimized condition; via adjusting the preexpansion pressure and temperature one can get different sizes of particles. Furthermore, stearic acid was purified during the SFEE process with HPLC-ELSD detecting device; purity of stearic acid increased by 19%, and the device can purify stearic acid.

  17. Gaharu oil processing: gaharu oil from conventional extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Fajri Osman; Mat Rasol Awang; Ahsanulkhaliqin Abd Wahab; Chow Saw Peng; Shyful Azizi Abd Rahman; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2006-01-01

    Gaharu oil is extracted through water or steam distillation of gaharu wood powder. Gaharu oil can fetch prices ranging from RM 25,000 to RM 50,000 per kg, depending on the quality or grade of gaharu wood used to produce the oil. The oil is commonly exported to the Middle East and customarily used as a perfume base. This paper describes gaharu oil extraction technique from traditional method which is commonly practiced by gaharu entrepreneurs in Malaysia. Gaharu woods are initially chopped, dried and ground into powder form. The gaharu wood powder is then soaked in water for a week. After the soaking process, the fermented powder is distilled with water using a special distiller for 4 to 10 days depending on the quality of gaharu wood used in the extraction process. (Author)

  18. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  19. The process chemistry of the extraction and electrowinning of silver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, J.E. [James E. Hoffmann and Associates Co., Houston, Texas (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Conventional processing of Ag-bearing materials containing Au and Pt group metals involves smelting the material to bullion and purification of the Ag by electrorefining (ER). Au and Pt-group metals are recovered from the slimes generated by the Ag ER process. An alternative process that allows extraction of Ag from such feed materials using a combination of sulfate and nitrate chemistry is presented. The AgNO{sub 3} solution produced is purified hydrolytically, and Ag is recovered as high purity crystals by electrowinning (EW). Advantages of the process include: production of high purity Ag, separation of precious metals from Ag at the head of the process, and elimination of the classical pyrometallurgical treatment processes with their attendant generation of recycle slags and challenging emission problems. This paper discusses the process chemistry and engineering of the process and provides information on its commercial application. (author)

  20. The process chemistry of the extraction and electrowinning of silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J.E.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional processing of Ag-bearing materials containing Au and Pt group metals involves smelting the material to bullion and purification of the Ag by electrorefining (ER). Au and Pt-group metals are recovered from the slimes generated by the Ag ER process. An alternative process that allows extraction of Ag from such feed materials using a combination of sulfate and nitrate chemistry is presented. The AgNO 3 solution produced is purified hydrolytically, and Ag is recovered as high purity crystals by electrowinning (EW). Advantages of the process include: production of high purity Ag, separation of precious metals from Ag at the head of the process, and elimination of the classical pyrometallurgical treatment processes with their attendant generation of recycle slags and challenging emission problems. This paper discusses the process chemistry and engineering of the process and provides information on its commercial application. (author)

  1. Uranium extraction process from phosphoric acid by alkyl pyrophosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreancig, A.

    1984-01-01

    In this process the phosphoric acid is contacted, under stirring with the organic phase containing the extracting agent to form an emulsion. The extraction unit comprises n stages in cascade, in each stage an emulsion is produced in a first step by an intense shearing action on the two phases during a time T 1 corresponding to a shear coefficient of at least 5000 s -1 aiming at the multiplication of contact surface between the two phases, in a second step the emulsion is rapidly broken in a time T 2 , the total time required by the 2 steps is no more than 20 minutes [fr

  2. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  3. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Seaweed Extracts as Edible Coatings for Minimally Processed Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the better performance by minimizing physical and chemical changes in RTE apples, namely: minor changes of moisture, total soluble solids and firmness values. In relation to the browning index, after 20 days of storage, RTE apples coated with EC containing Codium tomentosum seaweed extract showed the lowest values, also the results of peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase showed lower activity compared with the EC containing Fucus spirals, Bifurcaria bifurcate and Codium vermilara seaweed extracts, citric acid EC and the control. These results also allowed a pending patent application nº 107369 “Revestimento de origem marinha para aplicação em produtos minimamente processados ou de quarta gama” which is related with an edible coating with the incorporation of bioactive compounds from macroalgae for minimally processed products.

  5. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  6. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems

  7. Process intensification for biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds: Supercritical reactive extraction process parameters study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of supercritical reactive extraction process for biodiesel production. ► Focus is given on optimizing methyl esters yield for Jatropha curcas L. seeds. ► Influence of process parameters to the reaction are discussed thoroughly. ► Comparison between the novel reaction with conventional process are studied. ► High methyl esters yield can be obtained without pre-extraction and catalyst. -- Abstract: In a bid to increase the cost competitiveness of biodiesel production against mineral diesel, process intensification has been studied for numerous biodiesel processing technologies. Subsequently, reactive extraction or in situ transesterification is actively being explored in which the solid oil-bearing seeds are used as the reactant directly with short-chain alcohol. This eliminates separate oil extraction process and combines both extraction and transesterification in a single unit. Supercritical reactive extraction takes one step further by substituting the role of catalyst with supercritical conditions to achieve higher yield and shorter processing time. In this work, supercritical reactive extraction with methanol was carried out in a high-pressure batch reactor to produce fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from Jatropha curcas L. seeds. Material and process parameters including space loading, solvent to seed ratio, co-solvent (n-hexane) to seed ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and mixing intensity were varied one at a time and optimized based on two responses i.e. extraction efficiency, M extract and FAME yield, F y . The optimum responses for supercritical reactive extraction obtained were 104.17% w/w and 99.67% w/w (relative to 100% lipid extraction with n-hexane) for M extract and F y respectively under the following conditions: 54.0 ml/g space loading, 5.0 ml/g methanol to seeds ratio, 300 °C, 9.5 MPa (Mega Pascal), 30 min reaction time and without n-hexane as co-solvent or any agitation source. This proved that

  8. Forensic print extraction using 3D technology and its processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, Srijith; Shreyas, Kamath K. M.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos S.

    2017-05-01

    Biometric evidence plays a crucial role in criminal scene analysis. Forensic prints can be extracted from any solid surface such as firearms, doorknobs, carpets and mugs. Prints such as fingerprints, palm prints, footprints and lip-prints can be classified into patent, latent, and three-dimensional plastic prints. Traditionally, law enforcement officers capture these forensic traits using an electronic device or extract them manually, and save the data electronically using special scanners. The reliability and accuracy of the method depends on the ability of the officer or the electronic device to extract and analyze the data. Furthermore, the 2-D acquisition and processing system is laborious and cumbersome. This can lead to the increase in false positive and true negative rates in print matching. In this paper, a method and system to extract forensic prints from any surface, irrespective of its shape, is presented. First, a suitable 3-D camera is used to capture images of the forensic print, and then the 3-D image is processed and unwrapped to obtain 2-D equivalent biometric prints. Computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of using 3-D technology for biometric matching of fingerprints, palm prints, and lip-prints. This system can be further extended to other biometric and non-biometric modalities.

  9. Absorption and photochemical processes in oil extract, extracted from oil polluted soils from Surchany of Absheron peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasova, D.R.; Djafarova, R.A.; Kerimov, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, composition contents of oil extract, extracted from oil polluted soils of Surakxani of Absheron peninsula and hydrocarbons fraction were studied and mechanism of photochemical processes took part after UV interaction with the samples have given.

  10. Extraction of zirconium from zircon (A new process)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, K.A.; Saeed, D.; Jan, S.; Masood, A.; Akhtar, J.

    1985-10-01

    A new process has been used for the extraction of zirconium from zircon. Caustic fritting was done in the presence of magnesium hydroxide carbonate and magnesium oxide. These additives decrease the amount of nitric acid soluble silica less than 1000 ppm. Caustic fritting without any additions results in some nitric acid soluble silica, which is removed by dehydration with concentrated sulphuric acid. The present process eliminates the sulphuric acid dissolution and subsequent precipitation with ammonia which involves difficulty in washing of sulphate ions from the geletinous hydroxide cake and hence makes the direct nitric acid dissolution an attractive option. The effect of excess magnesium was studied and extraction does not seem to be effected by excess magnesium. How the reaction proceeds is not exactly understood but a probable mechanism has been postulated. (authors)

  11. Liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles in biotechnological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kilikian B. V.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In biotechnology there is a need for new purification and concentration processes for biologically active compounds such as proteins, enzymes, nucleic acids, or cells that combine a high selectivity and biocompatibility with an easy scale-up. A liquid-liquid extraction with a reversed micellar phase might serve these purposes owing to its capacity to solubilize specific biomolecules from dilute aqueous solutions such as fermentation and cell culture media. Reversed micelles are aggregates of surfactant molecules containing an inner core of water molecules, dispersed in a continuous organic solvent medium. These reversed micelles are capable of selectively solubilizing polar compounds in an apolar solvent. This review gives an overview of liquid-liquid extraction by reversed micelles for a better understanding of this process.

  12. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the

  13. A new hydrometallurgical process for extracting rare earths from apatite using solvent extraction with P35

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongfei; Guo Fuqiang; Zhang Zhifeng; Li Deqian; Wang Zhonghuai

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new process is proposed to recover rare earths from nitric acid leaching of apatite without interfering with the normal route for fertilizer production using solvent extraction with dimethyl heptyl methyl phosphonate CH 3 P(O)(OC 8 H 17 ) 2 (P 35 , B). In the present work, the leaching conditions are studied. In selected condition, apatite was dissolved in 20% (v/v) nitric acid solution at 60-70 deg. C while agitating. The most suitable acidity for extraction is 0.4 M HNO 3 . More than 98% of rare earths in apatite can be recovered using countercurrent extraction process with six stages when phase ratio = 0.5, and defluorination is unnecessary. The influences of phase ratio, stage number, acidity and salting-out agent on extractabilities of P 35 are studied. The results show that rare earths can be separated with P 35 from Ca, P, Fe and other impurities. Mixed rare earth oxides (REO) of which purity is more than 95% with yield over 98% can be obtained

  14. A process for extracting vanadylporphyrin compounds from oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakirova, S.F.; Abubakirov, S.A.; Ben' kovskii, V.G.; Fedorova, N.V.; Kotova, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The method for extracting vanadylporphyrin compounds from oil by treating the oil at 20 to 35 degrees with successive sorbent dosages to separate the product is improved by using the waste from titanium/aluminum production, which contains aluminum, iron, titanium and silicon oxides, in order to increase the degree of separation and to shorten the process. The compound ratios, by percentage are: A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 0.3-3.0; Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 0.3-1.0; TiO/sub 2/ 2.0-4.0; and SiO/sub 2/ for the remainder. Treatment takes place at a ratio of sorbent to oil of 1:10-12. The proposed process makes it possible to increase the degree of vanadylporphyrin compound extraction compared to the current process to 97.2-98.0% and to reduce the duration of the process from 7 to 4 hours; here, the number of treatments drops from 22 to 4.5. For example, 100 milliliters of oil from the Zhanazhol deposit with a concentration of 6.375 milligrams vanadylporphyrin compounds is exposed to 10 grams of the proposed sorbent for an hour at 20 degrees, at atmospheric pressure, with the component ratio, by percentage, of: SiO/sub 2/ 94.4; A1/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 2.3; Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 0.3; TiO/sub 2/ 3.0. Each time, following the hour long exposure, the content of vanadylporphyrin compounds in the oil filtered out is determined by spectrophotography. During exposure to four batches of solvent, up to 98% of the compounds are extracted; during exposure to the fifth batch of sorbent, the degree of extraction does not change.

  15. A Comparative Analysis of Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runtuwene, J. P. A.; Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Manoppo, C. T. M.; Salaki, R. J.

    2018-02-01

    The current growth of data and information occurs rapidly in varying amount and media. These types of development will eventually produce large number of data better known as the Big Data. Business Intelligence (BI) utilizes large number of data and information for analysis so that one can obtain important information. This type of information can be used to support decision-making process. In practice a process integrating existing data and information into data warehouse is needed. This data integration process is known as Extract, Transformation and Loading (ETL). In practice, many applications have been developed to carry out the ETL process, but selection which applications are more time, cost and power effective and efficient may become a challenge. Therefore, the objective of the study was to provide comparative analysis through comparison between the ETL process using Microsoft SQL Server Integration Service (SSIS) and one using Pentaho Data Integration (PDI).

  16. Crud in the solvent extraction process for spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing

    2004-01-01

    The crud occurred in Purex process is caused by the degradations of extractant and solvent and the existence of insoluble solid particle in the nuclear fuel reprocessing. The crud seriously affects the operation of the extraction column. The present paper reviews the study status on the crud in the Purex process. It is generally accepted that in the Purex process, particularly in the first cycle, the crud occurrence is related to the capillary chemistry phenomena resulting from the deposits of Zr with TBP degradation products HDBP, H 2 MBP, H 3 PO 4 and the insoluble particle RuO 2 and Pd. The occurrence of deposits and the type of crud are tightly related to the molar ratio of HDBP and Zr, and the aqueous pH. In addition, the effect of degradation products from the diluent, such as kerosene, is an unnegligible factor to cause the crud. The crud can be discharged from the extraction equipment with Na 2 CO 3 or oxalic acid. In the study on simulating the crud, the effects of the deposits of Zr with TBP degradation products HDBP, H 2 MBP and H 2 PO 4 , and the insoluble particle RuO 2 and Pd should be considered at the same time. (authors)

  17. TBP determination in nitric acid solutions from solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Carvalho, E.I. de; Araujo, I. da C.; Cohen, V.H.

    1988-07-01

    Heavy organic phases have been observed on some occasions during TBP extraction process. These products, described as red oils, were considered as the main cause for process failures, specially in evaporators and concentrators. In view of safety aspects it is necessary to control organic concentration in product and waste solutions. The proposed method involves the organic removal by chloroform as a first step, followed by purification onto a silica gel column. The results are given from analysing TBP and its degradation product (DBP) by gas chromatography. (author) [pt

  18. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  19. Processivity and collectivity of biomolecular motors extracting membrane nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenele Araujo, Francisco; Storm, Cornelis

    2012-07-01

    Biomolecular motors can pull and viscously drag membranes. The resulting elongations include cell protrusions, tether networks, and sensorial tentacles. Here we focus on the extraction of a single tube from a vesicle. Via a force balance coupled to binding kinetics, we analytically determine the phase diagram of tube formation as function of the motor processivity, the surface viscosity of the membrane ηm', and the density of motors on the vesicle ρ. Three tubulation mechanisms are identified: (i) tip pulling, due to the accumulation of motors at the leading edge of the membrane, (ii) viscous drag, emergent from the translation of motors along the tube, and (iii) hybrid extraction, such that tip pulling and viscous drag are equally important. For experimental values of ηm' and ρ, we find that the growth of bionanotubes tends to be driven by viscous forces, whereas artificial membranes are dominated by tip pulling.

  20. Reference Information Extraction and Processing Using Random Conditional Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Groza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fostering both the creation and the linking of data with the scope of supporting the growth of the Linked Data Web requires us to improve the acquisition and extraction mechanisms of the underlying semantic metadata. This is particularly important for the scientific publishing domain, where currently most of the datasets are being created in an author-driven, manual manner. In addition, such datasets capture only fragments of the complete metadata, omitting usually, important elements such as the references, although they represent valuable information. In this paper we present an approach that aims at dealing with this aspect of extraction and processing of reference information. The experimental evaluation shows that, currently, our solution handles very well diverse types of reference format, thus making it usable for, or adaptable to, any area of scientific publishing.

  1. Separation of Process Wastewater with Extractive Heterogeneous-Azeotropic Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tóth András József

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of vapour-liquid equilibria-based separation alternatives can be extraordinarily complicated for the treatment of process wastewaters containing heterogeneous-azeotropic. Despite dissimilar successfully tested methods for separation, there is possibility to get better distillation method by enabling the separation of more and more specific process wastewater. Extractive heterogeneous-azeotropic distillation (EHAD is a new advance in treatment of fine chemical wastewater showing special features to cope with the treatment of highly non-ideal mixtures. This method combines the worth of heterogeneous-azeotropic and extractive distillations in one apparatus without addition of any extra materials. The study of the separations of ternary component process wastewater from the fine chemical industry shows both in the modelled and experimental results that EHAD can be successfully applied. The measured and modelled compositions at extreme purities, that is, close to 0% or 100%, can be different because of the inaccuracies of the modelling. This highlights the paramount importance of the experiments if special extra-fine chemicals with almost no impurities, e.g. of pharmacopoeial quality are to be produced by special distillation technique. This study expands the application of EHAD technique, this new field is the separation of process wastewaters.

  2. Uranium, thorium and rare earth extraction and separation process by processing their chloride aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabot, J.L.; Leveque, A.

    1983-01-01

    The different steps of the process are the following: uranium and iron extraction by a neutral organic phosphorus compound and thorium and rare earth recovery in an aqueous solution, iron recovery in acid aqueous phase, concentration of the thorium and rare earth aqueous solution followed by thorium extraction with a organic phosphorus compound and rare earth recovery in the aqueous phase, thorium recovery in acid aqueous phase [fr

  3. An image-processing methodology for extracting bloodstain pattern features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Ravishka M; Humburg, Philomena J; Hoogenboom, Jerry; Baiker, Martin; Taylor, Michael C; de Bruin, Karla G

    2017-08-01

    There is a growing trend in forensic science to develop methods to make forensic pattern comparison tasks more objective. This has generally involved the application of suitable image-processing methods to provide numerical data for identification or comparison. This paper outlines a unique image-processing methodology that can be utilised by analysts to generate reliable pattern data that will assist them in forming objective conclusions about a pattern. A range of features were defined and extracted from a laboratory-generated impact spatter pattern. These features were based in part on bloodstain properties commonly used in the analysis of spatter bloodstain patterns. The values of these features were consistent with properties reported qualitatively for such patterns. The image-processing method developed shows considerable promise as a way to establish measurable discriminating pattern criteria that are lacking in current bloodstain pattern taxonomies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Extracting reflection with wavelet transform in vibroseis signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhongjin; Qiu, Xiaojun; Lin, Jun; Chen, Zubin

    2006-09-01

    In conventional vibroseis signal processing, algorithms including cross correlation and deconvolution are applied to convert the raw trace data into a seismic section. However, their performance deteriorates when the trace data are corrupted by the ambient noise, so the mathematical tool for time-frequency analysis and wavelet transform is applied in this paper to overcome the difficulty. A time-frequency cross correlation (TFCC) algorithm based on wavelet transform is proposed to extract the reflection from the trace data by detecting the reflected sweeps and estimating their time delay. The source signal and the trace data are transformed into time-frequency domain with respect to a same wavelet basis function; then time-frequency cross correlation is performed between the source signal and the trace data. The reflected sweeps are converted into time-frequency correlation wavelets in the result; meanwhile, the trace data are converted into seismic section. In wavelet decomposition, the high-frequency noise can be suppressed automatically. In the time-frequency representation of the trace data, the ambient noise and the reflected sweeps can be separated from each other. So in the TFCC algorithm, the interference of the ambient noise can be decreased considerably, and the weak reflections can be extracted clearly. Real vibroseis trace data were processed with the TFCC algorithm and the conventional cross correlation. The results showed the superiority of the proposed new algorithm in vibroseis signal processing.

  5. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana; Zamrin, D M; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  6. Development of the Chalmers Grouped Actinide Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halleröd Jenny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Several solvents for Grouped ActiNide EXtraction (GANEX processes have been investigated at Chalmers University of Technology in recent years. Four different GANEX solvents; cyclo-GANEX (CyMe4- -BTBP, 30 vol.% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanone, DEHBA-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 20 vol.% N,N-di-2(ethylhexyl butyramide (DEHBA and cyclohexanone, hexanol-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and hexanol and FS-13-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13 have been studied and the results are discussed and compared in this work. The cyclohexanone based solvents show fast and high extraction of the actinides but a somewhat poor diluent stability in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. FS-13-GANEX display high separation factors between the actinides and lanthanides and a good radiolytic and hydrolytic stability. However, the distribution ratios of the actinides are lower, compared to the cyclohexanone based solvents. The hexanol-GANEX is a cheap solvent system using a rather stable diluent but the actinide extraction is, however, comparatively low.

  7. Hemimorphite Ores: A Review of Processing Technologies for Zinc Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailiang; Li, Mengchun; Qian, Zhen; Ma, Yutian; Che, Jianyong; Ma, Yalin

    2016-10-01

    With the gradual depletion of zinc sulfide ores, exploration of zinc oxide ores is becoming more and more important. Hemimorphite is a major zinc oxide ore, attracting much attention in the field of zinc metallurgy although it is not the major zinc mineral. This paper presents a critical review of the treatment for extraction of zinc with emphasis on flotation, pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical methods based on the properties of hemimorphite. The three-dimensional framework structure of hemimorphite with complex linkage of its structural units lead to difficult desilicification before extracting zinc in the many metallurgical technologies. It is found that the flotation method is generally effective in enriching zinc minerals from hemimorphite ores into a high-grade concentrate for recovery of zinc. Pure zinc can be produced from hemimorphite or/and willemite with a reducing reagent, like methane or carbon. Leaching reagents, such as acid and alkali, can break the complex structure of hemimorphite to release zinc in the leached solution without generation of silica gel in the hydrometallurgical process. For optimal zinc extraction, combing flotation with pyrometallurgical or hydrometallurgical methods may be required.

  8. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be

  9. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yupo J [Naperville, IL; Snyder, Seth W [Lincolnwood, IL

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  10. Vanadium extraction by combined process of lixiviation and toasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coral, Aldo

    1992-01-01

    Combinated toasting and leaching processes were applied at laboratory level to vanadiferous ore from Puyango deposit in order to evaluate different rates. Before leaching, a pretreatment consisting in toasting at open atmosphere was given to the ore. Both raw and toasted ore were later washed in organic solvents. In reason of mineralogical and petrographic characteristics of the ore, only alcaline leaching was tested under different pressure temperature and pH conditions of leaching solution (pH=9.8) in order to optimize time and efficiency of each individual process. Four different unitary alcaline leaching processes were studied: MECHANICAL STIRRING, PNEUMATIC STIRRING, LEACHING IN AUTOCLAVE AND LEACHING IN COLUMNS. For these four processes were obtained recovery rates (in percentage) of 18.63 and 87.82; 17.03 and 82.57; 60.42 and 99.55; 2.5 and 30.10; respectively from raw and pre-toasted ore. After filtration, vanadium was extracted from enriched solutions by using liquid resin ALAMINE 336, selective for vanadium at pH=2.8. Vanadium was later discharged with a Sodium Carbonate solution (10 per cent) and finally precipitated as the commercial compound Ammonium Vanadate, NH4VO3. Nuclear techniques as X-ray fluorescence and Atomic Absorption spectroscopy were used for analysis all over the investigation

  11. Development of Systems Engineering Model for Spent Fuel Extraction Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lijian; Royyuru, Haritha; Hsieh, Hsuan-Tsung 'Sean'; Chen, Yitung; Clarksean, Randy; Vandegrift, George; Copple, Jackie; Laidler, James

    2004-01-01

    The mission of the Transmutation Research Program (TRP) at University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) is to establish a nuclear engineering test bed that can carry out effective transmutation and advanced reactor research and development effort. The Nevada Center for Advanced Computational Methods (NCACM) at UNLV is currently developing the systems engineering model, TRPSEMPro (Transmutation Research Program System Engineering Model Project, that provides process optimization through the automatic adjustment on input parameters, such as feed compositions, stages, flow rates, etc., based on the extraction efficiency of components and concerned output factors. An object-oriented programming (OOP) is considered. Such systems engineering model consists of task manager, task integration and solution monitor modules. A MS SQL server database is implemented for managing data flow from optimization processing. Task manager coordinates and interacts with other two modules. Task integration module works as a flowsheet constructor that builds task hierarchy, input parameter values and constrains. Task solution monitor component presents both in-progress and final outputs in tabulated and graphical formats. The system can monitor parameter justification outputs from optimization toolbox developed by Mathworks' MatLab commercial software. While initial parameter constraint identifications for using optimization process is tedious and time-consuming, the interface also provides a multiple-run process that executes a design matrix without invoking any optimization module. Experimental reports can be flexibly generated through database query and formatting. (authors)

  12. Simulation of the ingot extraction in the continuous casting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szajnar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cast ingot pulling speed is significantly affecting the nature of the resulting structure and the quality of the outer surface of the ingot. By introducing a variable algorithm for extraction of the ingot we may to some extent control the shape and location of the solid / liquid interface and temperature field in the cross-section of the ingot. The shape of the crystallization front, as well as its position relative to mold plays an important role in the process of continuous casting ingots of grey iron and affects the structure of the casting. In order to verify the impact of an algorithm on the shape and the location of solid / liquid interface, a number of simulations in ANSYS Fluent 12 were made, for determining the shape of crystallization front and temperature distribution on the cross-section of the ingot.

  13. 21 CFR 173.280 - Solvent extraction process for citric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Solvent extraction process for citric acid. 173.280... extraction process for citric acid. A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to produce food-grade citric acid in...

  14. Comparative analyses of diffusion coefficients for different extraction processes from thyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovic Slobodan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed to analyze kinetics and mass transfer phenomena for different extraction processes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. leaves. Different extraction processes with ethanol were studied: Soxhlet extraction and ultrasound-assisted batch extraction on the laboratory scale as well as pilot plant batch extraction with mixing. The extraction processes with ethanol were compared to the process of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction performed at 10 MPa and 40°C. Experimental data were analyzed by mathematical model derived from the Fick’s second law to determine and compare diffusion coefficients in the periods of constant and decreasing extraction rate. In the fast extraction period, values of diffusion coefficients were one to three orders of magnitude higher compared to those determined for the period of slow extraction. The highest diffusion coefficient was reported for the fast extraction period of supercritical fluid extraction. In the case of extraction processes with ethanol, ultrasound, stirring and extraction temperature increase enhanced mass transfer rate in the washing phase. On the other hand, ultrasound contributed the most to the increase of mass transfer rate in the period of slow extraction.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  16. Development of a Nucleic Acid Extraction Procedure for Simultaneous Recovery of DNA and RNA from Diverse Microbes in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent R. Hill

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking and environmental water samples contain a diverse array of constituents that can interfere with molecular testing techniques, especially when large volumes of water are concentrated to the small volumes needed for effective molecular analysis. In this study, a suite of enteric viruses, bacteria, and protozoan parasites were seeded into concentrated source water and finished drinking water samples, in order to investigate the relative performance of nucleic acid extraction techniques for molecular testing. Real-time PCR and reverse transcription-PCR crossing threshold (CT values were used as the metrics for evaluating relative performance. Experimental results were used to develop a guanidinium isothiocyanate-based lysis buffer (UNEX buffer that enabled effective simultaneous extraction and recovery of DNA and RNA from the suite of study microbes. Procedures for bead beating, nucleic acid purification, and PCR facilitation were also developed and integrated in the protocol. The final lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure was found to be effective for a panel of drinking water and source water concentrates when compared to commercial nucleic acid extraction kits. The UNEX buffer-based extraction protocol enabled PCR detection of six study microbes, in 100 L finished water samples from four drinking water treatment facilities, within three CT values (i.e., within 90% difference of the reagent-grade water control. The results from this study indicate that this newly formulated lysis buffer and sample preparation procedure can be useful for standardized molecular testing of drinking and environmental waters.

  17. Optimization of coffee oil extraction from spent coffee grounds using four solvents and prototype-scale extraction using circulation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krit Somnuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of two parameters—espresso coffee oil extraction time and the ratio of dried spent coffee grounds (DSCG-to-solvent—were conducted on DSCG employing four solvents. Extracted yields were investigated using response surface methodology. The two independent variables—ratio of DSCG-to-solvent (5.1–24.9 g/g and extraction time (0.2–39.8 min—were optimized in the batch mode. The predicted model was verified using actual experiments. The experimental yields achieved were 14.7 percent by weight (wt%; using hexane, 13.1 wt% (using anhydrous ethanol, 11.8 wt% (using hydrous ethanol, and 7.5 wt% (using methanol. Prototype extraction was tested using a circulation process. Approximately 11.8 wt% oil yield of prototype extraction could be obtained from DSCG under the optimal conditions of 30.4 min extraction time and 22.5 g/g ratio of DSCG-to-hexane from the laboratory-scale results. In this study, the miscella (the solution of coffee oil dissolved in the solvent from up to six successive extractions was investigated to determine the optimal oil extraction process. The repeated miscella from each successive extraction showed high efficiency and stability of coffee oil yield similar to that obtained using fresh hexane.

  18. Cleanex process: a versatile solvent extraction process for recovery and purification of lanthanides, americium, and curium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, J.E.; Collins, E.D.; King, L.J.

    1979-01-01

    At a concentration of 1 M in straight-chain hydrocarbon diluent, HDEHP will extract americium, curium, and other trivalent actinide and lanthanide elements from dilute acid or salt solutions. The solute is back-extracted with more concentrated acid, either nitric or hydrochloric. The process has been used in the continuous, countercurrent mode, but its greatest advantage arises in batch extractions where the excess acid can be titrated with NaOH to produce a final acidity of about 0.03 M. Under these conditions, 99% recovery can be achieved, usually in one stage. Cleanex was used on the 50-liter scale at the Transuranium Processing Plant at Oak Ridge for 12 years to provide a broad spectrum cleanup to transuranium elements before applying more sophisticated techniques for separating individual products. The process is also used routinely to recover excessive losses of curium and/or californium from plant waste streams. The solvent system is relatively resistant to radiation damage, being usable up to 200 W-h/liter

  19. Processing of Rosa rubiginosa: extraction of oil and antioxidant substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Daniel; Pinelo, Manuel; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María José

    2007-12-01

    In this work, a study about the effect of various operational conditions on the quantity of oil and soluble solids capable of being extracted from rosa mosqueta rosehip seeds is undertaken. Both the particle sizes assayed (0.6mm, 0.6-1mm, and 1-2mm) and the solvent-to-solid ratios (15:1, 25:1, and 50:1) showed a remarkable influence on the extraction efficiency. Extracted substances obtained by using the minor particle size or the maximum solvent-to-solid ratio doubled, at least, those attained by working under any other conditions. A major weight of kinetics upon equilibrium factors can be inferred from the short extraction times and high effective diffusivity values (being the lower one 1.97x10(-11)m(2)s(-1)) assessed for any condition. The antioxidant power of extracts was evaluated by ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. Results noteworthy depended on the solvent used to extract; whilst an approximately 80% DPPH inhibition percentage was reached in ethanol extracts, values of 52.2% or 41% were found in methanol and aqueous extracts, respectively. Even so, antioxidant capacity of Rosa rubiginosa extracts was much higher than that reported for other agricultural matrixes.

  20. Optimal process for the extraction and identification of flavonoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study has been carried out to investigate the effects of single factors such as temperature, extraction time, concentration of ethanol, material ratio and no. of extractions on the contents of flavonoids present in the leaves of Polyalthia longifolia. On this basis, an L16 orthogonal design of experiment was used to determine ...

  1. Process for extracting uranium from phosphoric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of a method for extracting uranium from phosphoric acid solutions whereby the previously oxided acid is treated with an organic solvent constituted by a mixture of dialkylphosphoric acid and trialkylphosphine oxide in solution in a non-reactive inert solvent so as to obtain de-uraniated phosphoric acid and an organic extract constituted by the solvent containing most of the uranium. The uranium is then separated from the extract as uranyl ammonium tricarbonate by reaction with ammonia and ammonium carbonate and the extract de-uraniated at the extraction stage is recycled. The extract is treated in a re-extraction apparatus comprising not less than two stages. The extract to be treated is injected at the top of the first stage. At the bottom of the first stage, ammonia is introduced counter current as gas or as an aqueous solution whilst controlling the pH of the first stage so as to keep it to 8.0 or 8.5 and at the bottom of the last stage an ammonium carbonate aqueous solution is injected in a quantity representing 50 to 80% of the stoichiometric quantity required to neutralize the dialkylphosphoric acid contained in the solvent and transform the uranium into uranyl ammonium tricarbonate [fr

  2. A study on the extraction and purification process of lily ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to extract and purify lily polysaccharide and to study its anti-H22 hepatoma effect in mice. Orthogonal experimental method was used to analyze the factors influencing the extraction and purification of lily polysaccharide, and the anti-tumor effect of lily polysaccharide was studied by acting it on ...

  3. Study on extraction process of tannins from Semen cuscutae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the extraction methods of tannin constituents from Semen Cuscutae and their anti-papilloma effects. Single factor test and orthogonal design methods were used to determine the optimal extraction method; the mouse skin papilloma model induced by DMBA/croton oil was established, ...

  4. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2013-01-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn...

  5. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  6. Bioactive phytochemicals in wheat: Extraction, analysis, processing, and functional properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole wheat provides a rich source of bioactive phytochemicals namely, phenolic acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, alkylresorcinols, arabinoxylans, benzoxazinoids, phytosterols, and lignans. This review provides information on the distribution, extractability, analysis, and nutraceutical properties of...

  7. ANTIOXIDANT PLANT EXTRACTS IN THE MEAT PROCESSING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The review highlights the role of antioxidants in minimizing oxidative changes that may adversely affect the quality of meat and meat products, cause changes in their testing and nutritional properties. This applies particularly to the use of natural antioxidants based on plant extracts, which can be a good alternative to traditional antioxidants, thanks to its high content of phenolic compounds. From the literature it can be concluded that extracts of broccoli, rosemary, mint, grape seed and green tea have a significant antioxidant effect in the meat products. Broccoli and grape seeds extracts have a pronounced antioxidant activity compared to synthetic antioxidants. Laminarin/fucoidan extracts have prooxidative effect on lipid perperoxidation. Essential oils of L. angustifolia and M. piperita effectively inhibit E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus in the chopped beef meat. The alcoholic extract of the dried leaves of oregano has the highest content of total phenols, however, does not exhibit antioxidant properties. The extracts of rosemary, orange, lemon, mint and curry have positive effect on the color of the meat products. When choosing natural antioxidants it is necessary to pay attention to their impact on testing and qualitative characteristics of these food products.

  8. A Monitoring system for the Copper Solvent Extraction-Electrowinning Process

    OpenAIRE

    Suontaka, Ville; Saloheimo, Kari; Marttila, Tom; Jämsä-Jounela, Sirkka-Liisa

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the current status of the modeling, simulation and control of the copper-leaching, solvent-extraction and electrowinning process (LX/SX/EW) is investigated. No implementations of advanced process control in the copper LX/SX/EW process have so far been reported. However, model-based control has been successfully applied to solvent extraction processes in the chemical industry, as well as to some other electrowinning processes. A prototype of a process monitoring application based...

  9. Measurement of the oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The present invention relates to processes for the recovery of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid and more particularly to the oxidation-extraction steps in the DEPA-TOPO process for such recovery. A more efficient use of oxidant is obtained by monitoring the redox potential during the extraction step

  10. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S; Ramkumar, Jayshree; Basu, M

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO2(2+)and Fe(3+) ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Real-time hypothesis driven feature extraction on parallel processing architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granmo, O.-C.; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2002-01-01

    Feature extraction in content-based indexing of media streams is often computational intensive. Typically, a parallel processing architecture is necessary for real-time performance when extracting features brute force. On the other hand, Bayesian network based systems for hypothesis driven feature...... extraction, which selectively extract relevant features one-by-one, have in some cases achieved real-time performance on single processing element architectures. In this paperwe propose a novel technique which combines the above two approaches. Features are selectively extracted in parallelizable sets...... parallelizable feature sets real-time in a goal oriented fashion, even when some features are pairwise highly correlated and causally complexly interacting....

  12. The influence of cooking process on the microwave-assisted extraction of cottonseed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, Mostafa; Jafari, Seid Mahdi; Nowrouzieh, Shahram; Alishah, Omran

    2015-02-01

    Cooking process is one of the most energy and time consuming steps in the edible oil extraction factories. The main goal of this study was cottonseed oil extraction by microwave radiation and elimination of any heat treatment of cottonseeds before extraction. The effect of cooking process on the physicochemical properties of extracted oil from two varieties of cottonseed (Pak and Sahel) was evaluated by free fatty acid content, melting point, smoke point and refractive index. Our results didn't show any significant differences between cooked and uncooked samples (P > 0.05) regarding physicochemical characteristics. From GC analysis of extracted oils, it was found there is no significant difference in fatty acid composition of cooked, uncooked and control (conventional extraction) samples. The thermal stability (Rancimat) analysis of oil samples showed the cooking process could cause a slight increase in the stability of oils for both varieties (about 40 min). The cooking process also increased total extracted phenolic compounds and considerably decreased total gossypol content of the cottonseed oil; but the extraction efficiency didn't change considerably after elimination of the cooking process. It can be concluded that microwave rays can destroy the structure of oil cells during process and facilitate the oil extraction without any heat treatment before extraction.

  13. Mathematical modelling of zirconium salicylate solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, N.S.; Evseev, A.M.; Fadeeva, V.I.; Kochetkova, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical modelling of equilibrium multicomponent physicochemical system at the extraction of zirconium salicylates by chloroform is carried out from HCl aqueous solutions at pH 0.5-4.7. Adequate models, comprising different molecular forms, corresponding to equilibrium phase composition are built

  14. Insight of solvent extraction process: Reassessment of trace level determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandramouleeswaran, S. [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India); Ramkumar, Jayshree, E-mail: jrk@barc.gov.in [Analytical Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India); Basu, M. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, 400094 (India)

    2016-09-28

    Solvent extraction is hoary yet modern technique with great scope of research due to the various intriguing phenomena in the system. Tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is a well known extractant which has been extensively used for separation of uranium matrix prior to elemental profiling. In this paper, one of the impurities namely Fe is being considered as it posed a challenge to the separation due to its co-extraction with TBP along with uranium. In these studies, for the first time, the existence of cation-cation inner sphere complexes between the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}and Fe{sup 3+} ions in both aqueous and organic phases have been establisted in addition to the selective separation of iron from uranium sample matrix using only TBP. The data from both spectrophotometric and thermophysical studies corroborated one another confirming the presence of cation-cation interactions (CCIs). The developed solvent extraction with only TBP showed almost no interferences on the iron extraction from matrix uranium and other co-ions like aluminum and copper. This has been the first time application of pure TBP for selective removal of iron from uranium samples. The procedure possessed excellent reproducibility and robustness. - Graphical abstract: Spectrophotometric studies indicate a possibility of cation-cation inner sphere complex formation between the ions (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) in aqueous phase to a great extent but it is reduced in the organic phase due to the solvation of ions by TBP molecules. These results are corroborated by those of thermophysical studies. Solvent extraction procedure suitably modified to ensure selective and complete removal of iron from uranium matrix prior to its analysis by ICP-OES. The developed methodology was applied to analysis of uranium samples. - Highlights: • The presence of cation – cation inner sphere complexes between UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} established. • A decreased tendency in organic layer due to TBP solvation.

  15. [Monitoring method of extraction process for Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus based on near infrared spectroscopy and multivariate statistical process control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Zhang, Lei; Yue, Hong-Shui; Pang, Hong-Wei; Ye, Zheng-Liang; Ding, Li

    2017-10-01

    To establish an on-line monitoring method for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, the formula medicinal material of Yiqi Fumai lyophilized injection by combining near infrared spectroscopy with multi-variable data analysis technology. The multivariate statistical process control (MSPC) model was established based on 5 normal batches in production and 2 test batches were monitored by PC scores, DModX and Hotelling T2 control charts. The results showed that MSPC model had a good monitoring ability for the extraction process. The application of the MSPC model to actual production process could effectively achieve on-line monitoring for extraction process of Schisandrae Chinensis Fructus, and can reflect the change of material properties in the production process in real time. This established process monitoring method could provide reference for the application of process analysis technology in the process quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  16. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  17. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  18. Optimization of aqueous extraction process to enhance the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kumar Sudhir

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... quadratic polynomial models for solving regression problems in process modeling. In the present study, .... Identification of significant process variables using PBD. The prerequisite for optimization of a process .... phytase production and phosphate released as a function of initial values of selected process ...

  19. Study on optimisation of extraction process of Tanshinone IIA and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the extraction process of tanshinone ‡UA and its mechanism of induction of gastric cancer SGC7901 cell apoptosis. Extraction process of tanshinone ‡UA was optimised by orthogonal experimental method, and its effect on gastric cancer SGC7901 cell apoptosis was observed ...

  20. Rare Earth Extraction from NdFeB Magnet Using a Closed-Loop Acid Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Jiro; Uemura, Ryohei

    2017-08-14

    There is considerable interest in extraction of rare earth elements from NdFeB magnets to enable recycling of these elements. In practical extraction methods using wet processes, the acid waste solution discharge is a problem that must be resolved to reduce the environmental impact of the process. Here, we present an encouraging demonstration of rare earth element extraction from a NdFeB magnet using a closed-loop hydrochloric acid (HCl)-based process. The extraction method is based on corrosion of the magnet in a pretreatment stage and a subsequent ionic liquid technique for Fe extraction from the HCl solution. The rare earth elements are then precipitated using oxalic acid. Triple extraction has been conducted and the recovery ratio of the rare earth elements from the solution is approximately 50% for each extraction process, as compared to almost 100% recovery when using a one-shot extraction process without the ionic liquid but with sufficient oxalic acid. Despite its reduced extraction efficiency, the proposed method with its small number of procedures at almost room temperature is still highly advantageous in terms of both cost and environmental friendliness. This study represents an initial step towards realization of a closed-loop acid process for recycling of rare earth elements.

  1. Image Processing for Planetary Limb/Terminator Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomkesmalee, S.; Zhu, D. Q.; Chu, C. -C.

    1995-01-01

    A novel image segmentation technique for extracting limb and terminator of planetary bodies is proposed. Conventional edge- based histogramming approaches are used to trace object boundaries. The limb and terminator bifurcation is achieved by locating the harmonized segment in the two equations representing the 2-D parameterized boundary curve. Real planetary images from Voyager 1 and 2 served as representative test cases to verify the proposed methodology.

  2. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, M.; Braatz, A.; Jackson, A.; Voa, Q.; Nguyen, H.; Zalupski, P.; Ellis, R.; Antonio, M.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced fuel cycles all over the world rely heavily on successful chemical separation of various elements in used nuclear fuel. Numerous solvent extraction processes have been developed for the treatment of this material. Under certain conditions the extraction systems may behave different from classical solvent extraction theory. One chemical interaction of interest is the formation of large aggregates that has been observed during solvent extraction. In our work, we are studying the effect and relationship of extensive aggregate formation with enhanced extraction of metal ions, i.e. synergistic extraction. Our studies so far have shown the importance of combining and comparing several different analytical techniques, such as metal ion extraction, physicochemical measurements, thermodynamics studies and structural investigations. Overall, the results do not disagree with classic understanding of extraction synergy although there appear to be additional chemical interactions that may affect the distribution of metal ions prompting further studies. (authors)

  3. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  4. [Tracking analysis of three extraction processes of Arenaria Polytrichoides by Fourier transform infrared spectrocopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Xian-Xue; Tai, Xi; Xu, Liu-Xian; Zhu, Jin-Lan; Qin, Yao; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-10-01

    In order to develop a process analysis method to guide extraction process of Arenaria polytrichoides (AP) based on tracking analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), IR spectra of petroleum ether extracts (PE-E), ethyl acetate extracts (EtOAc-E), n-butanol extracts (n-BuOH-E) and water extracts (H2O-E) of AP from three extraction methods were recorded. The FTIR and corresponding second derivative infrared (SDIR) spectra were analyzed comparatively from two aspects, namely, different extracts from a same extraction process and the same extracts from different methods. The spectral analysis results show that different extracts obtained from a same extraction process have distinctly different spectral absorbance character. Although the IR spectral absorption characteristics of the same extracts from different methods are rather similar in holistic, some explicit spectral differences still could be found among each other. In extraction process one (M1), main flavonoids and their glycosides of AP migrated to EtOAc-E and the rest part of them shift to n-BuOH-E according to FTIR peaks such as 1,603 and 1,123 cm(-1). However, the circumstances in method two (M2) and method three (M3) were just the reverse. Moreover, a few flavonoid glycosides got into H2O-E. The relative content of all kinds of aglycones and higher saturated alkyl are much higher in EtOAc-E of M2 than that of M1 and M3 according to the relative absorption intensive of peak at 2,850 cm(-1). Similarly, n-BuOH-E of M3 has relative rich contents of glycosides: and polysaccharides than those of M1 and M2 by peaks, such as 1,066 and 2,927 cm(-1). These results demonstrate that the migration rules of AP components are not always same in different extrac- tion process. The substance migration information during the extraction process could be recorded and disclosed in an intuitive way by FTIR tracking analysis of corresponding extracts. Consequently, FTIR tracking analysis is a fast, efficient, low-carbon and

  5. Optimization of TRPO process parameters for americium extraction from high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jing; Wang Jianchen; Song Chongli

    2001-01-01

    The numerical calculations for Am multistage fractional extraction by trialkyl phosphine oxide (TRPO) were verified by a hot test. 1750L/t-U high level waste (HLW) was used as the feed to the TRPO process. The analysis used the simple objective function to minimize the total waste content in the TRPO process streams. Some process parameters were optimized after other parameters were selected. The optimal process parameters for Am extraction by TRPO are: 10 stages for extraction and 2 stages for scrubbing; a flow rate ratio of 0.931 for extraction and 4.42 for scrubbing; nitric acid concentration of 1.35 mol/L for the feed and 0.5 mol/L for the scrubbing solution. Finally, the nitric acid and Am concentration profiles in the optimal TRPO extraction process are given

  6. Extraction of Data from a Hospital Information System to Perform Process Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Ricardo Alfredo Quintano; de Vries, Gert-Jan; Caffarel, Jennifer; Stretton, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work is to share our experience in relevant data extraction from a hospital information system in preparation for a research study using process mining techniques. The steps performed were: research definition, mapping the normative processes, identification of tables and fields names of the database, and extraction of data. We then offer lessons learned during data extraction phase. Any errors made in the extraction phase will propagate and have implications on subsequent analyses. Thus, it is essential to take the time needed and devote sufficient attention to detail to perform all activities with the goal of ensuring high quality of the extracted data. We hope this work will be informative for other researchers to plan and execute extraction of data for process mining research studies.

  7. Radiation-chemical transformations of hydrocarbon diluents in extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, G.F.; Afanas'ev, O.P.

    1983-01-01

    The composition of stable products of n-octane-, n-decane- and n-dodecance radiolysis ( 60 Co and 3.5 MeV electrons) in emulsions containing HNO 3 aqueous solutions is investigated. It has been found that the composition of hydrocarbon radiolysis products depends on the O 2 concentration, while the yield - on the hydrocarbon molecular weight and HNO 3 concentration. The properties of identified radiolysis products are studied. Among the products a number of strong ligands is revealed, binding plutonium and zirconium. The hydrocarbon radiolysis products breaking the extractant selectivity are shown to arise in secondary radiation-chemical reactions, nitrocompounds and olefins being their main precursors

  8. Experimental study on the optimization of extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yajie

    2014-01-01

    Garlic oil which is the main active constituent of garlic has a wide range of pharmacological activities, and a broad antibacterial spectrum. It also has a strong anti-cancer activity, and can significantly inhibit a variety of tumors such as liver cancer, gastric cancer and colon cancer. The objective is to study the extraction process of garlic oil and its antibacterial effects. CO2 Supercritical extraction was used to investigate the optimal processing conditions for garlic oil extraction; filter paper test and suspension dilution test were applied to determine the bacteriostatic action of garlic oil. In the CO2 supercritical extraction experiment, factors influencing the yield of garlic oil were: extraction pressure > extraction temperature > extraction time in descending order. Range analysis showed that the optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h. Different concentrations of garlic oil could all inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, suggesting that garlic oil has an antibacterial effect. The optimal experimental conditions for CO2 supercritical extraction of garlic oil were: extraction pressure of 15 Mpa, temperature of 40 °C, and duration of 1 h; garlic oil has an antibacterial effect.

  9. The Solvent Effectiveness on Extraction Process of Seaweed Pigment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warkoyo Warkoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Eucheuma cottonii seaweed is a species of seaweed cultured in Indonesian waters, because its cultivation is relatively easy and inexpensive. It has a wide variety of colors from green to yellow green, gray, red and brown, indicating photosynthetic pigments, such as chlorophyll and carotenoids. An important factor in the effectiveness of pigment extraction is the choice of solvent. The correct type of solvent in the extraction method of specific natural materials is important so that a pigment with optimum quality that is also benefical to the society can be produced. The target of this research is to obtain a high quality solvent type of carotenoid pigment. This research was conducted using a randomized block design with three (3 replications involving two factors namely solvent type (4 levels: aceton, ethanol, petroleum benzene, hexan & petroleum benzene and seaweed color (3 levels: brown, green and red. Research results indicated that each solvent reached a peak of maximal absorbance at  410-472 nm, namely carotenoids. The usage of acetone solvent gave the best pigment quality. Brown, green and red seaweed have pigment content of 1,28 mg/100 g; 0,98 mg/100 g; 1,35 mg/100 g and rendement of 6,24%; 4,85% and 6,65% respectively.

  10. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-12-12

    High melting temperature synthetic pitches (Synpitches) were created using coal derivatives produced from a solvent extraction technique. Solvent extraction is used to separate hydrocarbons from mineral matter as well as other insolubles. Mild hydrogenation can be used to chemically modify resultant material to produce a true pitch. There are three main techniques which can be used to tailor the softening point of the Synpitch. First, the softening point can be controlled by varying the conditions of hydrogenation, chiefly the temperature, pressure and residence time in a hydrogen overpressure. Second, by selectively distilling light hydrocarbons, the softening point of the remaining pitch can be raised. Third, the Synpitch can be blended with another mutually soluble pitch or hydrocarbon liquid. Through such techniques, spinnable isotropic Synpitches have been created from coal feedstocks. Characteristics of Synpitches include high cross-linking reactivity and high molecular weight, resulting in carbon fibers with excellent mechanical properties. To date, mechanical properties have been achieved which are comparable to the state of the art achievable with conventional coal tar pitch or petroleum pitch.

  11. Optimization of Enzymatic Process for Vanillin Extraction Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghuang Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin were evaluated. Extraction yield (mg/g was used as the response value. The results revealed that the increase in heating time and the increase in enzyme quantity (within certain ranges were associated with an enhancement of extraction yield, and that the optimal conditions for vanillin extraction were: Heating time 6 h, temperature 60 °C and enzyme quantity 33.5 mL. Calculated from the final polynomial functions, the optimal response of vanillin extraction yield was 7.62 mg/g. The predicted results for optimal reaction conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  12. Optimization of enzymatic process for vanillin extraction using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Chu, Zhong; Wang, Qinghuang

    2012-07-25

    Vanillin was extracted from vanilla beans using pretreatment with cellulase to produce enzymatic hydrolysis, and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the processing parameters of this extraction. The effects of heating time, enzyme quantity and temperature on enzymatic extraction of vanillin were evaluated. Extraction yield (mg/g) was used as the response value. The results revealed that the increase in heating time and the increase in enzyme quantity (within certain ranges) were associated with an enhancement of extraction yield, and that the optimal conditions for vanillin extraction were: Heating time 6 h, temperature 60 °C and enzyme quantity 33.5 mL. Calculated from the final polynomial functions, the optimal response of vanillin extraction yield was 7.62 mg/g. The predicted results for optimal reaction conditions were in good agreement with experimental values.

  13. Using hybrid neural models to describe supercritical fluid extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONSECA A. P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of a hybrid neural model (HNM technique as applied to modeling supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE curves obtained from two Brazilian vegetable matrices. The serial HNM employed uses a neural network to estimate parameters of a phenomenological model. A small set of SCFE data for each vegetable was used to generate a semi-empirical extended data set, large enough for efficient network training, using three different approaches. Afterwards, other sets of experimental data, not used during the training procedure, were used to validate each approach. The HNM correlates well withthe experimental data, and it is shown that the predictions accomplished with this technique may be promising for SCFE purposes.

  14. Radiation-chemical transformations of hydrocarbon diluents in extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, G.F.; Afanas' ev, O.P.

    1983-05-01

    The composition of stable products of n-octane-, n-decane- and n-dodecance radiolysis (/sup 60/Co and 3.5 MeV electrons) in emulsions containing HNO/sub 3/ aqueous solutions is investigated. It has been found that the composition of hydrocarbon radiolysis products depends on the O/sub 2/ concentration, while the yield depends on the hydrocarbon molecular weight and HNO/sub 3/ concentration. The properties of identified radiolysis products are studied. Among the products a number of strong ligands is revealed, binding plutonium and zirconium. The hydrocarbon radiolysis products breaking the extractant selectivity are shown to arise in secondary radiation-chemical reactions, nitrocompounds and olefins being their main precursors.

  15. The separation of extractants implemented in the DIAMEX-SANEX process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heres, Xavier; Baron, P.; Hill, C.; Ameil, E.; Martinez, I.; Rivalier, P.

    2008-01-01

    DIAMEX-SANEX is a process developed at the Cea to recover selectively the actinides(III) after a COEX TM or a PUREX process, in order to significantly decrease the radiotoxicity of the ultimate waste produced by the nuclear industry. This liquid-liquid extraction process is based on the DIAMEX process, using a malonamide supplemented by an acidic extractant. Besides an actinide extraction step and a lanthanide stripping step are implemented an actinide(III) stripping step and an extractant splitting step. The latter is carried out to avoid interactions between these two extractants during the first co-extraction step of the actinides and the lanthanides. This paper gives some results obtained with di-n-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDHP), which fulfills the required criteria for process development. Batch experiments or cold counter-current tests showed that it is possible to separate this extractant from DMDOHEMA. HDHP can moreover maintain the lanthanides(III) in the organic phase when the actinides(III) are back extracted from the organic phase. (authors)

  16. The separation of extractants implemented in the DIAMEX-SANEX process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heres, Xavier [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP/SCPS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Baron, P.; Hill, C.; Ameil, E.; Martinez, I. [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DRCP/SCPS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France); Rivalier, P. [CEA-Marcoule, DEN/MAR/DTEC/SGCS, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    DIAMEX-SANEX is a process developed at the Cea to recover selectively the actinides(III) after a COEX{sup TM} or a PUREX process, in order to significantly decrease the radiotoxicity of the ultimate waste produced by the nuclear industry. This liquid-liquid extraction process is based on the DIAMEX process, using a malonamide supplemented by an acidic extractant. Besides an actinide extraction step and a lanthanide stripping step are implemented an actinide(III) stripping step and an extractant splitting step. The latter is carried out to avoid interactions between these two extractants during the first co-extraction step of the actinides and the lanthanides. This paper gives some results obtained with di-n-hexyl phosphoric acid (HDHP), which fulfills the required criteria for process development. Batch experiments or cold counter-current tests showed that it is possible to separate this extractant from DMDOHEMA. HDHP can moreover maintain the lanthanides(III) in the organic phase when the actinides(III) are back extracted from the organic phase. (authors)

  17. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castrillejo, Y.; Fernandez, P.; Medina, J.; Hernandez, P.; Barrado, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) ↔ Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al 3 Sm and Al 2 Sm.

  18. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  19. MODELING AND SIMULATION PROCESS OF EXTRACTION ESSENTIAL OILS BY STEAM DISTILLATION

    OpenAIRE

    Armijo C., J.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Vicuña G., E.; Departamento Académico de Análisis y Diseño de P., FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Romero y Otiniano, P.; Departamento Académico de Análisis y Diseño de P., FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Condorhuamán C., C.; Departamento Académico de Operaciones Unitarias, FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú; Hilario R., B.; Departamento Académico de Química Inorgánica, FQIQ, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos Lima, Perú

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the extraction of essential oils by steam distillation. The process is analyzed and a model is developed for the extraction of essential oil of eucalyptus in pilot scale with a steam flow of 5.73 g / min. According to the model Dunckhorst-Houghton, which considers the effect of axial dispersion, and the use of optimization procedures to establish the model parameters, excellent agreement was obtained between the amount of oil extracted theoretical and e...

  20. Influence of process parameters on the extraction of soluble substances from OFMSW and methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campuzano, Rosalinda; González-Martínez, Simón

    2017-04-01

    Microorganisms involved in anaerobic digestion require dissolved substrates to transport them through the cell wall to different processing units and finally to be disposed as waste, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In order to increase methane production, this work proposes to separate the soluble substances from OFMSW and analyse methane production from extracts and OFMSW. Using water as solvent, four extraction parameters were proposed: (1) Number of consecutive extractions, (2) Duration of mixing for every consecutive extraction, (3) OFMSW to water mass ratios 1:1, 1:2, and 1:3 and, (4) The influence of temperature on the extraction process. Results indicated that is possible to separate 40% of VS from OFMSW with only three consecutive extraction with mixing of 30min in every extraction using ambient temperature water. For every OFMSW to water combination, the first three consecutive extracts were analysed for biochemical methane potential test during 21days at 35°C; OFMSW was also tested as reference. Methane production from all substrates is highest during the first day and then it slowly decreases to increase again during a second stage. This was identified as diauxic behaviour. Specific methane production at day 21 increased with increasing water content of the extracts where OFMSW methane production was the lowest of all with 535NL/kgVS. These results indicate that it is feasible to rapidly produce methane from extracted substances. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of extractables in processed and unprocessed polymer materials used for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, Cheryl L M; Ansell, Jennifer M; Shaw, Arthur J; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing.

  2. Study on optimization of extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii by response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui ZHAO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the optimal extraction process of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii, with fresh fruiting of Pleurotus eryngii as raw material, the influence of extraction time, solid-liquid ratio, and temperature, etc. on the extraction efficiency is analyzed using the hot water extraction method. Box-behnken design(BBD is used for response surface analysis, and the optimal condition is as follows: extraction temperature of 47 ℃, extraction time of 4.9 h and solid-liquid ratio of 1∶19 (g/mL. Among the factors,the heating temperature has the greatest influence on the extraction rate, then the material liquid ratio, and at last the extraction time. Under this condition, the extraction rate of crude polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii reaches the maximum of 5.66% which is close to the actual verification value. Therefore, the optimization of the extraction condition of crude polysaccharides from Pleurotus eryngii by using response surface method is reasonable and feasible, and it provides a theoretical basis for the industrial application of crude polysaccharide extraction from Pleurotus eryngii using hot water.

  3. Recovery of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurst, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The OPPA process offers three potential advantages over the DEPA-TOPO process. The OPPA extractant is much less expensive and has a higher extraction power for uranium than the DEPA-TOPO solvent. In addition it extracts U(IV), the prevailing oxidation state of uranium in wet-process phosphoric acid and this eliminates the liquor oxidation step required in the DEPA-TOPO process. However, the DEPA-TOPO solvent is known to be extremely stable and this process has been successfully demonstrated on a pilot-plant scale at phosphate plants. It is understood that several companies are planning to commercialize this process in the near future. On the other hand, the potentially more attractive OPPA process has not been proven in a pilot plant operation and some questions about the solubility and stability of the OPPA need to be answered. Because of the wide spread interest in this process, a program was started in cooperation with Mobil and Allied Chemical companies to study this extractant, to identify and isolate the material that solubilizes the mono- and diacids, and to determine the optimum concentration and ratios for uranium extraction. In addition, a long-term cyclic test is planned to better define solubility losses and stability of the extractant. Consideration will also be given to improving the recovery of uranium lost to the gypsum during calcination. 12 figures

  4. Operation of a full cycle of solvent extraction under IMPUREX process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andaur, C.; Falcon, Marcelo F.; Granatelli, Fernado; Russo Analia; Vaccaro, Jorge O.; Gauna, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    This work describes a series of experiences performed at the Solvent Extraction Laboratory of the Nuclear Materials and Fuel Unity in Ezeiza Atomic Center. The experiences were mainly focused on the setup and operation of a full cycle of uranium solvent extraction, using IMPUREX process. (author)

  5. Extracting Process and Mapping Management for Heterogennous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagara, Igor; Tanuška, Pavol; Duchovičová, Soňa

    2013-12-01

    A lot of papers describe three common methods of data selection from primary systems. This paper defines how to select the correct method or combinations of methods for minimizing the impact of production system and common operation. Before using any method, it is necessary to know the primary system and its databases structures for the optimal use of the actual data structure setup and the best design for ETL process. Databases structures are usually categorized into groups, which characterize their quality. The classification helps to find the ideal method for each group and thus design a solution of ETL process with the minimal impact on the data warehouse and production system.

  6. Evaluation of a sequential extraction process used for determining mercury binding mechanisms to coal combustion byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, James D; Biswas, Pratim; Giammar, Daniel E

    2007-07-01

    Leaching of mercury from coal combustion byproducts is a concern because of the toxicity of mercury. Leachability of mercury can be assessed by using sequential extraction procedures. Sequential extraction procedures are commonly used to determine the speciation and mobility of trace metals in solid samples and are designed to differentiate among metals bound by different mechanisms and to different solid phases. This study evaluated the selectivity and effectiveness of a sequential extraction process used to determine mercury binding mechanisms to various materials. A six-step sequential extraction process was applied to laboratory-synthesized materials with known mercury concentrations and binding mechanisms. These materials were calcite, hematite, goethite, and titanium dioxide. Fly ash from a full-scale power plant was also investigated. The concentrations of mercury were measured using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry, whereas the major elements were measured by ICP atomic emission spectrometry. The materials were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The sequential extraction procedure provided information about the solid phases with which mercury was associated in the solid sample. The procedure effectively extracted mercury from the target phases. The procedure was generally selective in extracting mercury. However, some steps in the procedure extracted mercury from nontarget phases, and others resulted in mercury redistribution. Iron from hematite and goethite was only leached in the reducible and residual extraction steps. Some mercury associated with goethite was extracted in the ion exchangeable step, whereas mercury associated with hematite was extracted almost entirely in the residual step. Calcium in calcite and mercury associated with calcite were primarily removed in the acid-soluble extraction step. Titanium in titanium dioxide and mercury adsorbed onto

  7. Extracting Coherent Information from Noise Based Correlation Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Correlation Processing W. A. Kuperman Marine Physical Laboratory of the Scripps Institution of Ocenaography Univeritiy of California, San Diego La...plotted using the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC). R: Radial, Z: Vertical, T: Transverse. (top) Blue lines represent the DGN hydroacoustic data, (middle...green lines represent the DGS hydroacoustic data, and (bottom) red lines represent the DGAR seismic data. The x-axis corresponds to the time after

  8. Flaking process increases the NF-κB inhibition activity and melanoidin extractability of coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Chu, Yi-Fang; Hu, Kang; Hatzold, Thomas; Black, Richard M; Chen, Don

    2012-01-01

    Research on the health impacts of coffee has escalated. However, few studies were devoted to understanding the potential impact of mechanical processing on coffee's chemistry and subsequent health implications. Coffee flaking is a commonly used process to improve extractability and aroma characteristics. In this study, we studied the biochemical activity, chemical composition, and microstructure of coffee before and after flaking. We found that flaked coffee extract had 3.3-fold higher activi...

  9. Oxidation-extraction of uranium from wet-process phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawes, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    The invention involves an improvement to the reductive stripping process for recovering uranium values from wet-process phosphoric acid solution, where uranium in the solution is oxidized to uranium (VI) oxidation state and then extracted from the solution by contact with a water immiscible organic solvent, by adding sufficient oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, to obtain greater than 90 percent conversion of the uranium to the uranium (VI) oxidation state to the phosphoric acid solution and simultaneously extracting the uranium (VI)

  10. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2001-06-30

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. The partitioning behaviors of silica in the polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran (Dex) and dextran/Triton X-100 (TX100) systems have been investigated, and the effects of sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) on solid partition have been studied. In both biphase systems, silica particles stayed in the top PEG-rich phase at low pH. With increase in pH, the particles moved from the top phase to the interface, then to the bottom phase. At very high pH, the solids preferred the top phase again. These trends are attributable to variations in the polymer/solid and nonionic surfactant/solid interactions. Addition of ionic surfactants into these two systems introduces a weakly charged environment, since ionic surfactants concentrate into one phase, either the top phase or the bottom phase. Therefore, coulombic forces also play a key role in the partition of silica particles because electrostatic attractive or repulsive forces are produced between the solid surface and the ionic-surfactant-concentrated phase. For the PEG/dextran system in the presence of SDS, SiO{sub 2} preferred the bottom dextran-rich phase above its pH{sub PZC}. However, addition of DTAB moved the oxide particles from the top phase to the interface, and then to the bottom phase, with increase in pH. These different behaviors are attributable to the fact that SDS and DTAB concentrated into the opposite phase of the PEG/dextran system. On the other hand, in the dextran/Triton X-100 system, both ionic surfactants concentrated in the top surfactant-rich phase and formed mixed micelles with TX100. Therefore, addition of the anionic surfactant, SDS, moved the silica particles from top phase to the

  11. Optimization of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process regarding the antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidović Senka S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of input variables (temperature and extraction solvent that optimize a particular response (total phenols content, total flavonoids content and antioxidant activity of the Ocimum basilicum L. extraction process were determined by the response surface methodology (RSM. The influence of theextraction temperature on extraction process was investigated in the range from 33.8ºC to 76.2ºC, as well as of extraction solvent ethanol, in the range of concentrations from 21.7% to 78.3%. For the preparation of basil dry extract, characterized with minimal IC50 value, the calculated optimal values of temperature and ethanol concentration were: 75.33ºC and 73.66% (w/w. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31013

  12. Diamex process: hydrolytic and radiolytic degradation of the diamide extractant DMDOHEMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthon, L.; Cames, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the hydrolysis and radiolysis of a diamide (malonamide) which is the extractant of the DIAMEX process for the extraction of minor actinides from high level liquid radioactive waste. The semi-developed formula of the malonamides investigated is RR'NCO(CHR'')CONRR' (where R, R' and R'' are alkyl or oxy-alkyl groups). The formula of the extractant molecule has been optimized and has led to DMDOHEMA (NN'-dimethyl N,N'-di-octyl hexyl-oxy-ethyl malonamide: (C 8 H 17 (CH 3 )NCO) 2 CH(C 2 H 4 OC 6 H 13 )) which is the present reference extractant for the DIAMEX process. The aim of this study was to: -identify and quantify the main DMDOHEMA degradation products; - identify the potential degradation pathways for diamides; -correlate the concentration of the identified degradation products with the extracting properties of the spent solvents to identify the most disturbing degradation products. (authors)

  13. The time course of processing difficulties with non-WH extraction in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    clause, both presupposing processing of the dependent clause for judgment of the acceptability of the extraction. Thus assuming that detection of unacceptability causes processing difficulties, these theories predict reading time increases for unacceptable extractions at the earliest late within...... if unintegrated constituents are present at a clause boundary. Thus this theory predicts longer reading times at ‘if’ in (2) compared to ‘that’ in (1). Thus with regard to time course, this account is similar in spirit to work on island constraints in English indicating that extraction constraints work...... of the experimental manipulations to theories about acceptability of extraction in Danish was confirmed in a separate acceptability judgment experiment with the same stimuli. The intransitive extraction condition was rated significantly lower than the other conditions. Together, the results of the two experiments...

  14. Process design and economic evaluation of green extraction methods for recovery of astaxanthin from shrimp waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; Errico, Massimiliano; El-Houri, Rime Bahij

    2017-01-01

    (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The feasibility of commercial use of the green solvents under plausible process conditions is compared to extraction with a mixture of hexane: isopropanol (Hex:IPA). The process flowsheets describing these processes were modelled by means of SuperPro Designer...... processes with SF or the methyl ester of SF (ME-SF) was 2.5 and 153 ppm with a production cost of 0.06 and 0.16 $/mg of ASX, respectively. In addition, shrimp feed production was considered as a feasible application of the low concentration ASX obtained by SF extraction. A combination of ASX extracted...... with SF and synthetic ASX yielded a shrimp feed production cost comparable to the current market price. The calculated feed price based on the ASX production cost of the other green processes, ME-SF and SCFE, resulted in a significantly higher production cost....

  15. A review of lipid extraction from fish processing by-product for use as a biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeoti, Ibraheem A.; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Fish processing facilities generate a significant amount of fish by-products that could be an important source of energy, food, or industrial feedstock. While fish oil is a natural source of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (mostly eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) used in nutritional supplements, the ability to extract, refine, and get to market of these oils may be challenging at processing facilities where there is limited infrastructure and plants are remotely located. Under these conditions, extraction of oil from fish by-product for use as an in-house or regional fuel may be both economically and environmentally be a more sustainable approach. Processes to extract and refine fish oil for fuel are less energy intensive than the processes for nutritional quality oils and do not require the stringent product specifications and approval process as in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Unlike food crops, extraction of oil from fish residue does not negatively impact food production. This paper presents an overview of developments made in fish oil extraction methodologies including physical, chemical and biological processes. - Highlights: • We have reviewed various lipid extraction methods from fish residue. • Low grade fish oils for fuel applications can be beneficial to facility and region. • The environmental impacts and safety issues can be reduced using SFE method

  16. Processing to pure aromatics of phenosolvan extract and ''15%-residue Me'' from phenosolvan extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonnenmacher, H.

    1943-08-12

    These extracts contained very large concentrations of phenolic compounds. The experiments was meant to produce from them toluene (for explosives) and other aromatics. The actual starting material was a redistillate of the extracts mentioned above. The runs were carried out in a 1,000-cubic cm DHD oven over DHD catalyst on Tonerde Lu catalyst (a form of alumina), at hydrogen partial pressures of 10 to 50 atm and temperatures from 426/sup 0/C to 527/sup 0/C, with throughputs from 0.2 to 0.5 kg/liter/hr and gas ratios from 1.0 to 2.5 cubic meters per kg of oil, and in cycles ranging from 3 1/2 hours to a week or more. Also a one-stage process was compared to a two-stage process. The experiment established that the two-stage process was successful, but still left open the question of whether the one-stage process was effective enough. The successful two-stage process consisted of (1) refining at 50 atm hydrogen pressure, 420/sup 0/C, throughput of 0.2 kg/liter/hr, and cycle time of at least a week, and then (2) dehydrogenation (of the resulting fraction boiling from 85/sup 0/C to 120/sup 0/C) at 10 atm hydrogen pressure, 510/sup 0/C, the same throughput, and cycle time of at least 16 hours. The residue Me seemed to produce more operating difficulties than the whole extract. A typical run of the two-stage process operating on 1,000 kg of phenosolvan extract yielded 139 kg pure toluene, 353 kg of a light gasoline containing about 50% aromatics by volume (and with about 90% of it boiling at up to 100/sup 0/C), 256 kg of a product boiling from 120/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/ and having about 30% phenols and 50% aromatics, and 50 kg of distillation residue which could be used in the liquid-phase hydrogenation. The 120/sup 0/ to 300/sup 0/ product could be processed further by dehydrogenating splitting to give pure xylenes and pure toluene. 7 tables.

  17. Association of solvent extraction and liquid-liquid flotation processes for metal recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia P.; Mendonca, Luciano A. de; Massarani, Giulio

    2000-01-01

    From the batch solvent extraction process, in this work it has been carried out a preliminary study aiming the determination of the optimal operating conditions for zirconium recovery (10 ppm) using alamine 336 (tricaprylylamine) as extractor. The results have shown that the extraction takes place instantaneously (5s of manual agitation) and that at pH around 2.0 the extraction efficiency is up to 98-99% for an aqueous/organic phase volumetric ratio of 10. Based on these results, it is proposed to evaluate the possibility of using of a pioneering technology for metal recovery at low concentrations, using a experimental set-up that associates standard solvent extraction process with liquid-liquid flotation process. (author)

  18. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-05-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compressor and then exchanged heat with feed and bottom stream in the distillation column. Energy and mass balance of the intensified process is investigated and compared with the conventional microalgae drying-extraction process. The simulation results indicated that the total energy consumption of the intensified process can be saved by 52.4% of the conventional route. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Accelerating Biomedical Signal Processing Using GPU: A Case Study of Snore Sound Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Qian, Kun; Zhang, Gongxuan; Xu, Huijie; Schuller, Björn

    2017-12-01

    The advent of 'Big Data' and 'Deep Learning' offers both, a great challenge and a huge opportunity for personalised health-care. In machine learning-based biomedical data analysis, feature extraction is a key step for 'feeding' the subsequent classifiers. With increasing numbers of biomedical data, extracting features from these 'big' data is an intensive and time-consuming task. In this case study, we employ a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) via Python to extract features from a large corpus of snore sound data. Those features can subsequently be imported into many well-known deep learning training frameworks without any format processing. The snore sound data were collected from several hospitals (20 subjects, with 770-990 MB per subject - in total 17.20 GB). Experimental results show that our GPU-based processing significantly speeds up the feature extraction phase, by up to seven times, as compared to the previous CPU system.

  20. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  1. Estimation of multiply digital process control system extractive distillation stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Kudryashov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach to stability analysis of digital control systems associated non-stationary object on the example of the rectification process. Object modeling with cross-connections and the control scheme of the described system, discrete transfer functions in the shift operators. The equations of connection for each output of the closed-loop system. To solve this problem developed an algorithm for estimating the margin of stability of multivariable digital control systems based on the discrete root criterion, comprising the following main stages: obtaining of the characteristic polynomial of the closed-loop system for each output; computation of eigenvalues of the system matrix in the state space to determine roots of the characteristic equation and the stability of the system; determination of the stability and margin of stability by the deviation of maximum module of the root from the boundary of the high variability. To obtain the characteristic polynomial of a as discrete models of controllers and channels of IP object-use the transfer function of the first order with transport delay. The simulation was performed at different parameters of the control object, which is characterized by a stable and an unstable state of the system. VA-den analysis of the numerical values of the roots and character of their location on the complex plane, which to you-water that the system is stable or unstable. To confirm the obtained results were calculated and presented dynamic characteristics of the closed-loop system under different conditions, which confirm the initial assessment, the root criterion. To determine the factor stability of multivariable digital systems is proposed to use the deviation of the maximum root of the characteristic equation from the stability boundary. The obtained results apply to the class of symmetric multivariable control objects. The approach to assessing the sustainability of multivariable system regulation can be effectively

  2. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwan Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein as well as increasing the extraction yield.

  3. Stable Isolation of Phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis Associated with High-Pressure Extraction Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Chang; Choi, Woo Seok; Park, Jong Ho; Park, Jin Oh; Jung, Kyung-Hwan; Lee, Hyeon Yong

    2013-01-01

    A method for stably purifying a functional dye, phycocyanin from Spirulina platensis was developed by a hexane extraction process combined with high pressure. This was necessary because this dye is known to be very unstable during normal extraction processes. The purification yield of this method was estimated as 10.2%, whose value is 3%–5% higher than is the case from another conventional separation method using phosphate buffer. The isolated phycocyanin from this process also showed the highest purity of 0.909 based on absorbance of 2.104 at 280 nm and 1.912 at 620 nm. Two subunits of phycocyanin namely α-phycocyanin (18.4 kDa) and β-phycocyanin (21.3 kDa) were found to remain from the original mixtures after being extracted, based on SDS-PAGE analysis, clearly demonstrating that this process can stably extract phycocyanin and is not affected by extraction solvent, temperature, etc. The stability of the extracted phycocyanin was also confirmed by comparing its DPPH (α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, showing 83% removal of oxygen free radicals. This activity was about 15% higher than that of commercially available standard phycocyanin, which implies that the combined extraction method can yield relatively intact chromoprotein through absence of degradation. The results were achieved because the low temperature and high pressure extraction effectively disrupted the cell membrane of Spirulina platensis and degraded less the polypeptide subunits of phycocyanin (which is a temperature/pH-sensitive chromoprotein) as well as increasing the extraction yield. PMID:23325046

  4. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchu Gong

    Full Text Available A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs. Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs. Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  5. Design space development for the extraction process of Danhong injection using a Monte Carlo simulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xingchu; Li, Yao; Chen, Huali; Qu, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    A design space approach was applied to optimize the extraction process of Danhong injection. Dry matter yield and the yields of five active ingredients were selected as process critical quality attributes (CQAs). Extraction number, extraction time, and the mass ratio of water and material (W/M ratio) were selected as critical process parameters (CPPs). Quadratic models between CPPs and CQAs were developed with determination coefficients higher than 0.94. Active ingredient yields and dry matter yield increased as the extraction number increased. Monte-Carlo simulation with models established using a stepwise regression method was applied to calculate the probability-based design space. Step length showed little effect on the calculation results. Higher simulation number led to results with lower dispersion. Data generated in a Monte Carlo simulation following a normal distribution led to a design space with a smaller size. An optimized calculation condition was obtained with 10,000 simulation times, 0.01 calculation step length, a significance level value of 0.35 for adding or removing terms in a stepwise regression, and a normal distribution for data generation. The design space with a probability higher than 0.95 to attain the CQA criteria was calculated and verified successfully. Normal operating ranges of 8.2-10 g/g of W/M ratio, 1.25-1.63 h of extraction time, and two extractions were recommended. The optimized calculation conditions can conveniently be used in design space development for other pharmaceutical processes.

  6. A new conceptual reprocessing process based on the diamide derivate extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Wang, Shuwei

    2005-01-01

    Several diamide derivates were synthesized in our laboratory. The extraction of actinides and some fission products by these compounds were studied. N,N,N'N'-tetra-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-oxa-pentanediamide (TEHOPDA) was proven to be a suitable extractant for actinides removal from nitric acid solution. The actinides can be stripped from the loaded solvent by the dilute nitric acid. TEHOPDA showed a high loading capacity to actinides and lanthanides with a mixture of n-octanol and kerosene as the diluent. Considering the effective-extraction and easy-stripping of actinides, 0.25mol/L TEHOPDA - 30% n-octanol + 70% kerosene was selected as the solvent. A cascade extraction experiment was carried out with the simulated dissolver solution of spend fuel as feed. 99.99% U and 99.999% Am, Pu, and Np were extracted in a 4-stage test. Based on the experimental results, a conceptual reprocessing process was proposed. (author)

  7. New conceptual process for the extraction of actinides based on oxapentane-diamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Chen; Shuwei Wang

    2007-01-01

    Several diamide derivates were synthesized in our laboratory. The extraction of actinides and some fission products by these compounds were studied. N,N,N',N'-tetra-(2-ethylhexyl)-3-oxa pentanediamide (TEHOPDA) was proven to be a suitable extractant for the removal of actinides from nitric acid solution. The actinides can be stripped from the loaded solvent by the dilute nitric acid. TEHOPDA showed a high loading capacity to actinides and lanthanides with a mixture of n-octanol and kerosene as the diluent. Considering the effective-extraction and easy-stripping of actinides, 0.25 mol/l TEHOPDA - 30% n-octanol + 70% kerosene was selected as the solvent. A cascade extraction experiment was carried out with the simulated dissolver solution of spend fuel as feed. 99.99% U and 99.999% Am, Pu, and Np were extracted in a 4-stage test. Based on the experimental results, a conceptual reprocessing process was proposed. (author)

  8. Optimization of castor seed oil extraction process using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Mosquera-Artamonov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the study of the oil extraction yield from castor seed using three different seed conditions: whole, minced and bare endosperm. Taguchi design was used to determine the contribution of the following parameters: seed condition, seed load in the extractor, temperature, and pressure. It was proved that it is necessary to introduce the whole seed and that the presence of the pericarp increases the extraction yield. The contribution of the control factors has an extraction yield limit. After determining which factors contributed to the process, these were left at their optimum levels aiming to reduce the control factors to only two. The complete analysis was done using a surface response methodology giving the best parameter for temperature and pressure that allows a better yielding mechanical extraction. The oil extraction yield can be kept up to 35% of the seed.

  9. Techno-economic assessment of hybrid extraction and distillation processes for furfural production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhien, Le Cao; Long, Nguyen Van Duc; Kim, Sangyong; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-01-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the most promising alternatives for replacing mineral resources to overcome global warming, which has become the most important environmental issue in recent years. Furfural was listed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory as one of the top 30 potential chemicals arising from biomass. However, the current production of furfural is energy intensive and uses inefficient technology. Thus, a hybrid purification process that combines extraction and distillation to produce furfural from lignocellulosic biomass was considered and investigated in detail to improve the process efficiency. This effective hybrid process depends on the extracting solvent, which was selected based on a comprehensive procedure that ranged from solvent screening to complete process design. Various solvents were first evaluated in terms of their extraction ability. Then, the most promising solvents were selected to study the separation feasibility. Eventually, processes that used the three best solvents (toluene, benzene, and butyl chloride) were designed and optimized in detail using Aspen Plus. Sustainability analysis was performed to evaluate these processes in terms of their energy requirements, total annual costs (TAC), and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. The results showed that butyl chloride was the most suitable solvent for the hybrid furfural process because it could save 44.7% of the TAC while reducing the CO 2 emissions by 45.5% compared to the toluene process. In comparison with the traditional purification process using distillation, this suggested hybrid extraction/distillation process can save up to 19.2% of the TAC and reduce 58.3% total annual CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis of the feed composition and its effect on the performance of the proposed hybrid system was conducted. Butyl chloride was found to be the most suitable solvent for the hybrid extraction/distillation process of furfural production. The proposed

  10. Advanced hybrid process with solvent extraction and pyro-chemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Reiko; Mizuguchi, Koji; Fuse, Kouki; Saso, Michitaka; Utsunomiya, Kazuhiro; Arie, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    Toshiba has been proposing a new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR. The new fuel cycle concept has better economical process of the LWR spent fuel reprocessing than the present Purex Process and the proliferation resistance for FBR cycle of plutonium with minor actinides after 2040. Toshiba has been developing a new Advanced Hybrid Process with Solvent Extraction and Pyrochemical process of spent fuel reprocessing for LWR to FBR. The Advanced Hybrid Process combines the solvent extraction process of the LWR spent fuel in nitric acid with the recovery of high pure uranium for LWR fuel and the pyro-chemical process in molten salts of impure plutonium recovery with minor actinides for metallic FBR fuel, which is the FBR spent fuel recycle system after FBR age based on the electrorefining process in molten salts since 1988. The new Advanced Hybrid Process enables the decrease of the high-level waste and the secondary waste from the spent fuel reprocessing plants. The R and D costs in the new Advanced Hybrid Process might be reduced because of the mutual Pyro-chemical process in molten salts. This paper describes the new fuel cycle concept of a transition from LWR to FBR and the feasibility of the new Advanced Hybrid Process by fundamental experiments. (author)

  11. Extraction metallurgy for coarse particle ore and acid-curing and ferric-trickle leaching process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Suoqing

    1993-02-01

    Based on the viewpoint that only if the ground fine ore leaching method is replaced by the extraction from coarse particle ore, the face of uranium ore processing can be changed, the article presents the summary of the studying of thin-layer leaching (TLL) and of the developing a new process, acid-curing and ferric-trickle leaching (AFL) process (It is called NGJ process in China.). The operation of AFL process is similar to TLL method, but the water or acidified water is replaced by ferric solution for leaching-rising for cured ore. Ferric-trickle leaching can effectively complete the leaching reaction for uranium mineral in 'remaining leaching reaction' that is hardly to be finished in the course of curing. For the most uranium ores in China the AFL-process is competitive with the conventional leaching process. According to this analysis the AFL-process and other extractive processes for coarse particle should become basic extraction process for uranium ore in China. In other words the ore grinding is no more as an essential operation in uranium ore processing in China. Thus, many serious problems caused by ore grinding method in uranium ore processing can be solved and the uranium ore hydrometallurgy will be significantly changed

  12. Uranium extraction process in a sulfuric medium by means of liquid emulsified membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteillet, A.

    1985-02-01

    Uranium ore processing, after leaching by sulfuric acid, by liquid-liquid extraction is a rather heavy process, not suitable for small deposits. Extraction by emulsions was suggested. In this process the leachate is contacted with an oil in water type emulsion, a liquid organic membrane is formed by the continuous phase. Uranium complexes diffuse through the liquid membrane towards the dispersed aqueous phase of the emulsion (stripping solution). Uranium is recovered by breaking the emulsion. Are successively studied: development of stable emulsions, influence of emulsion composition on uranium transfer kinetics, transfer mechanisms through the membrane and modelling of kinetics data obtained in the experimental study [fr

  13. Cogeneration of biodiesel and nontoxic cottonseed meal from cottonseed processed by two-phase solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Junfeng; Yun Zhi; Shi Haixian

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, the preparation of biodiesel from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction (TSE) was studied. The experimental results of TSE process of cottonseed showed that the optimal extraction conditions were 30 g samples, 240 mL extraction solvent mixture and methanol/petroleum ether volume ratio 60:40, extraction temperature 30 deg. C, extraction time 30 min. Under the extraction conditions, the extraction rate of cottonseed oil could achieve 98.3%, the free fatty acid (FFA) and water contents of cottonseed oil were reduced to 0.20% and 0.037%, respectively, which met the requirement of alkali-catalyzed transesterification. The free gossypol (FG) content in cottonseed meal produced from two-phase solvent extraction could reduce to 0.014% which was far below the FAO standard. And the nontoxic cottonseed meal could be used as animal protein feed resources. After the TSE process of cottonseed, the investigations were carried out on transesterification of methanol with oil-petroleum ether solution coming from TSE process in the presence of sodium hydroxide (CaO) as the solid base catalyst. The influences of weight ratio of petroleum ether to cottonseed oil, reaction temperature, molar ratio of methanol to oil, alkali catalyst amount and reaction time on cottonseed oil conversion were respectively investigated by mono-factor experiments. The conversion of cottonseed oil into fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) could achieve 98.6% with 3:1 petroleum ether/oil weight ratio, 65 deg. C reaction temperature, 9:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 4% (catalyst/oil weight ratio, w/w) solid base catalyst amount and 3 h reaction time. The properties of FAME product prepared from cottonseed oil produced by two-phase solvent extraction met the ASTM specifications for biodiesel.

  14. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  15. The extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid using a liquid surfactant membrane system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, N.; Davies, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid membrane extraction process is examined for the extraction of uranium from wet process phosphoric acid. Uranium is present in the acid in concentrations up to 100 ppm which in principle makes it ideal for treatment with a membrane process. The membrane system studied is based on extraction using DEHPA-TOPO reagents which are contained within the organic phase of a water in oil emulsion. Formulations of the emulsion membrane system have been studied, the limitations of acid temperature, P 2 O 5 concentration and solid dispersed impurities in the acid have been studied in laboratory batch experiments and in a continuous pilot plant unit capable of treating 5l of concentrated acid per minute. Data from the pilot plant work has been used to develop a flowsheet for a commercial unit based on this process. (author)

  16. A method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1997-12-01

    The present invention relates to a method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction. In particular, the method includes extracting the organic species into a polymer-rich phase of an aqueous biphase system in which the process stream comprises the salt-rich phase, and, next, separating the polymer from the extracted organic species by contacting the loaded, polymer-rich phase with a water-immiscible organic phase. Alternatively, the polymer can be separated from the extracted organic species by raising the temperature of the loaded, polymer-rich phase above the cloud point, such that the polymer and the water-soluble organic species separate into two distinct aqueous phases. In either case, a substantially salt-free, concentrated aqueous solution containing the organic species is recovered.

  17. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  18. Enhancement of Chlorophyll a Production from Marine Spirulina maxima by an Optimized Ultrasonic Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Yong Choi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Under the optimal ultrasonification extraction conditions of 20.52 kHz for the frequency, 32.59 °C for the temperature, and 4.91 h for the process time, 17.98 mg/g of chlorophyll a was obtained. It was much higher than 13.81 mg/g from conventional 70% ethanol extraction and even higher than other data from Spirulina. This yield was close to the predicted value of 18.21 mg/g from the second-order polynomial model with a regression coefficient of 0.969. This model showed the greatest significance with the ultrasonic frequency and process time and the least significance with the temperature. The extracts also showed high α,α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activities as 69.38%, compared to 58.25% for the extracts from the 70% ethanol extraction. It was first shown that the optimal extraction was effective at enhancing the neuroprotective activities possibly due to the synergistic effects of higher amounts of chlorophyll a and other bioactive substances in the extract, revealing a 90% protection of the growth of mouse neuronal cells and a great reduction in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS production.

  19. Study on process of uranium extraction from a high chloride uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Pingru; Wang Desheng; Chen Xiangbiao

    1995-01-01

    The technology of uranium extraction from a high chloride uranium ore was studied by heap leaching. According to the source of water and water quality, the extraction technology of scrubbing-heap leaching-ion exchange-neutralization and precipitation can be used, if fresh water is available; and the process of leaching by leaching agent prepared with sea water-carbonate purification-thermal decomposition and precipitation can be used, if fresh water is unavailable

  20. Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction of Polyphenols Using a Microchannel System – Process Optimization and Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rukavina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are one of the most numerous and widespread groups of compounds in the plant world. Nowadays, organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, acetone, dimethylformamide, ethyl acetate and diethylether are mainly used for the extraction of polyphenols. These solvents require special process conditions and special care in the disposal of the used solvents. In this paper, the extraction of polyphenols from the model solution was performed using the aqueous two-phase system which contains 80.90 % water and represents low burden on the environment. The aqueous solution of gallic acid (GA was used as a model solution of polyphenols. The extraction was performed in the aqueous two-phase system containing PEG6000/H2O/(NH42SO4 in a macroextractor (V=10 mL and microextractor (V=14 ƒμL. The influence of the process parameters, the concentration of gallic acid, pH and composition of the aqueous two-phase system was investigated in order to maximize the partition coefficient. The method of multifactor experimental planning was used to optimize the extraction process and the results were statistically analysed using the evolutionary operation method (EVOP. Optimal operating conditions of the extraction process were pH=6.50, γGA=4.50 g/L, the mass fraction of polyethylene glycol (PEG wPEG=0.1037 g/g and the mass fraction of ammonium sulphate (AMS wAMS=0.0925 g/g. Under these conditions the maximal partition coefficient of K=5.54 and the extraction efficiency of E=89.11 % were achieved and successfully applied for total phenol extraction from white wine in the macro- and microextractor. Approximately the same partition coefficients and extraction efficiency were achieved in the microextractor within a 60-fold shorter residence time.

  1. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    Uno, Kazuaki; Higashioto, Yoshifumi; Chaweepack, Tidaporn; Ruangpan, Lila

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  2. Combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous extraction process on soy oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pare, Akash; Nema, Anurag; Singh, V K; Mandhyan, B L

    2014-08-01

    This research describes a new technological process for soybean oil extraction. The process deals with the combined effect of ohmic heating and enzyme assisted aqueous oil extraction process (EAEP) on enhancement of oil recovery from soybean seed. The experimental process consisted of following basic steps, namely, dehulling, wet grinding, enzymatic treatment, ohmic heating, aqueous extraction and centrifugation. The effect of ohmic heating parameters namely electric field strength (EFS), end point temperature (EPT) and holding time (HT) on aqueous oil extraction process were investigated. Three levels of electric field strength (i.e. OH600V, OH750V and OH900V), 3 levels of end point temperature (i.e. 70, 80 and 90 °C) and 3 levels of holding time (i.e. 0, 5 and 10 min.) were taken as independent variables using full factorial design. Percentage oil recovery from soybean by EAEP alone and EAEP coupled with ohmic heating were 53.12 % and 56.86 % to 73 % respectively. The maximum oil recovery (73 %) was obtained when the sample was heated and maintained at 90 °C using electric field strength of OH600V for a holding time of 10 min. The free fatty acid (FFA) of the extracted oil (i.e. in range of 0.97 to 1.29 %) was within the acceptable limit of 3 % (oleic acid) and 0.5-3 % prescribed respectively by PFA and BIS.

  3. Process optimization for the preparation of antioxidant rich ginger candy using beetroot pomace extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Kushwaha, Rinku; Goyal, Ankit; Tanwar, Beenu; Kaur, Jaspreet

    2018-04-15

    Now-a-days, there is an increased interest in fruits and vegetables processing by-products due to potential source of phytochemicals and pigments. Beetroot (Beta vulgaris) pomace extract is a rich source of betalain, phenolics and other bioactive components, which possess significant antioxidant activities. In the present study, process optimization was performed for developing ginger (Zingiber officinale) candy enriched with beetroot pomace extract using response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of two process variables: blanching time (0-10 min) and beetroot pomace extract (0-10%) was evaluated on physicochemical characteristics and phytochemicals content of the developed product. Maximum phytochemicals' activities were obtained under optimum conditions of 7.81 min blanching time and 9.24% beetroot pomace extract. FTIR analysis also confirmed the significant effect of beetroot pomace extract and it's blanching on the phytochemical potential of ginger candy. The study would be useful for developing similar novel and antioxidants rich food products supplemented with beetroot pomace extract. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ionic-Liquid-Mediated Extraction and Separation Processes for Bioactive Compounds: Past, Present, and Future Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been proposed as promising media for the extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from the most diverse origins. This critical review offers a compilation on the main results achieved by the use of ionic-liquid-based processes in the extraction and separation/purification of a large range of bioactive compounds (including small organic extractable compounds from biomass, lipids, and other hydrophobic compounds, proteins, amino acids, nucleic acids, and pharmaceuticals). ILs have been studied as solvents, cosolvents, cosurfactants, electrolytes, and adjuvants, as well as used in the creation of IL-supported materials for separation purposes. The IL-based processes hitherto reported, such as IL-based solid–liquid extractions, IL-based liquid–liquid extractions, IL-modified materials, and IL-based crystallization approaches, are here reviewed and compared in terms of extraction and separation performance. The key accomplishments and future challenges to the field are discussed, with particular emphasis on the major lacunas found within the IL community dedicated to separation processes and by suggesting some steps to overcome the current limitations. PMID:28151648

  5. Developing novel one-step processes for obtaining food-grade O/W emulsions from pressurized fluid extracts: processes description, state of the art and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tresinari SANTOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this work, a novel on-line process for production of food-grade emulsions containing oily extracts, i.e. oil-in-water (O/W emulsions, in only one step is presented. This process has been called ESFE, Emulsions from Supercritical Fluid Extraction. With this process, emulsions containing supercritical fluid extracts can be obtained directly from plant materials. The aim in the conception of this process is to propose a new rapid way to obtain emulsions from supercritical fluid extracts. Nowadays the conventional emulsion formulation method is a two-step procedure, i.e. first supercritical fluid extraction for obtaining an extract; secondly emulsion formulation using another device. Other variation of the process was tested and successfully validated originating a new acronymed process: EPFE (Emulsions from Pressurized Fluid Extractions. Both processes exploit the supercritical CO2-essential oils miscibility, in addition, EPFE process exploits the emulsification properties of saponin-rich pressurized aqueous plant extracts. The feasibility of this latter process was demonstrated using Pfaffia glomerata roots as source of saponin-rich extract, water as extracting solvent and clove essential oil, directly extracted using supercritical CO2, as a model dispersed phase. In addition, examples of pressurized fluid-based coupled processes applied for adding value to food bioactive compounds developed in the past five years are reviewed.

  6. Conservation of minimally processed apples using edible coatings made of turnip extract and xanthan gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Dellinghausen Borges

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of turnip extract and xanthan gum in the conservation of minimally processed apples. The apples were washed, sanitized with sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm for 15 minutes, peeled, and cut into eight pieces prior to being subjected to one of the following treatments in aqueous solution: A – water (control; B – turnip extract; C – turnip extract and CaCl2; D – xanthan gum, CaCl2 and glycerol; E – turnip extract, xanthan gum, CaCl2, and glycerol. Subsequently, the freshly cut apples were dried under ventilation on nylon screens to ensure drying of the coatings, and then packed in polystyrene trays, covered with polyvinylchloride films and stored at 4 ± 1 ° C for 13 days. The following parameters were evaluated: mass loss, firmness, colouration, pH value, soluble solids, and peroxidase/polyphenoloxidase activities. The edible coatings were found to be ineffective with respect to controlling mass loss, but the minimally processed apples coated with turnip extract maintained their initial levels of colouration, firmness and pH value. A considerable increase in peroxidase activity was registered for apples treated with turnip extract, suggesting that this effect may also be responsible for the reduction in browning. No advantage could be observed for the simultaneous presence of turnip extract and xanthan gum or calcium chloride. The turnip extract may represent an interesting alternative for applications to minimally processed apples, especially as it is a natural product, easily obtained, cost effective and contributes to the nutritional quality (e.g. as a source of calcium ions.

  7. Application of analytic hierarchy process to extract the user's purpose of expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Wakabayashi, Jiro; Morimoto, Takashi.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an application of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to extract the user's purpose which must be input to expert systems. In the AHP, the process to obtain the weights for criteria by pairwise comparisons is interpreted as the extraction of the decision marker's idea about the importance of each criterion. With this interpretation, the analytic hierarchy process is applied to extract the analyst's idea of the weights of several factors to select constitutive equations suitable for a target analysis in a model selection support expert system under development for numerical simulation of nuclear thermal-hydraulics; the constitutive equations are ordinary introduced in a liquid-vapor two-phase flow analysis. Furthermore, an algorithm by applying the graph theory is shown to evaluate covering condition to obtain the weights from incomplete pairwise comparisons. (author)

  8. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  9. Influence of the Siberian larch extract on the processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids in experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateyuk Andrey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions wood processing is one of the primary branches of production in Transbaikal region. In connection with big squares of logging the question of processing and utilizing waste products directly on the spot is particularly acute. We researched the activity of water extract from sawdust of Siberian larch "Ekstrapinus" on the power exchange and processes of peroxide oxidation of lipids against immobilized stress in experiment. The data provided in the article prove that the use of Ekstrapinus extract reduces the pathological violations arising under stress. So, Ekstrapinus extract restores energy potential of cages when modeling stress, restores energy potential of cells, normalizes balance in the system "peroxide oxidation of lipids – antioxidant protection" and supports the balance of tiol in an animal organism in the state of stress. Considering absence of toxicity in the recommended doses, it is possible to recommend their application under stress.

  10. Optimization of oil extraction process by the method of mathematical modeling

    OpenAIRE

    М. V. Kopylov; E. A. Tatarenkov; O. A. Tkachev; A. V. Gorbatova

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of the experimental study of all processes is the analysis, study and generalization of all available results. In accordance with the idea of indexing search experiment was carried out in several stages. The number of stages and steps on each of which depended on the results of the previous stage and the ultimate goal of research. The ultimate goal of the study is to determine the optimum process conditions. Studies vegetable oil extraction process was conducted in a pilot ...

  11. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis López-Padilla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids. The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry. In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3 and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa and temperatures (313 and 343 K were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3 was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments.

  12. Vaccinium meridionale Swartz Supercritical CO2 Extraction: Effect of Process Conditions and Scaling Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Padilla, Alexis; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Alejandro; Restrepo Flórez, Claudia Estela; Rivero Barrios, Diana Marsela; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinium meridionale Swartz (Mortiño or Colombian blueberry) is one of the Vaccinium species abundantly found across the Colombian mountains, which are characterized by high contents of polyphenolic compounds (anthocyanins and flavonoids). The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of Vaccinium species has mainly focused on the study of V. myrtillus L. (blueberry). In this work, the SFE of Mortiño fruit from Colombia was studied in a small-scale extraction cell (273 cm3) and different extraction pressures (20 and 30 MPa) and temperatures (313 and 343 K) were investigated. Then, process scaling-up to a larger extraction cell (1350 cm3) was analyzed using well-known semi-empirical engineering approaches. The Broken and Intact Cell (BIC) model was adjusted to represent the kinetic behavior of the low-scale extraction and to simulate the large-scale conditions. Extraction yields obtained were in the range 0.1%–3.2%. Most of the Mortiño solutes are readily accessible and, thus, 92% of the extractable material was recovered in around 30 min. The constant CO2 residence time criterion produced excellent results regarding the small-scale kinetic curve according to the BIC model, and this conclusion was experimentally validated in large-scale kinetic experiments. PMID:28773640

  13. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  14. Extraction of alumina and sodium oxide from red mud by a mild hydro-chemical process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Li; Zhang, Yifei; Zhang, Yi

    2009-12-30

    A mild hydro-chemical process to extract Al(2)O(3) in red mud to produce sodium aluminate hydrate was investigated, and the optimum conditions of Al(2)O(3) extraction were verified by experiments as leaching in 45% NaOH solution with CaO-to-red mud mass ratio of 0.25 and liquid-to-solid ratio of 0.9, under 0.8 MPa at 200 degrees C for 3.5h. Subsequent process of extracting Na(2)O from the residue of Al(2)O(3) extraction was carried out in 7% NaOH solution with liquid-to-solid ratio of 3.8 under 0.9 MPa at 170 degrees C for 2h. Overall, 87.8% of Al(2)O(3) and 96.4% of Na(2)O were extracted from red mud. The final residues with less than 1% Na(2)O could be utilized as feedstock in construction materials. The chemical reactions taking place in both Al(2)O(3) and Na(2)O extractions from red mud are proposed.

  15. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  17. Uranium Rirang ore processing: extraction of uranium from Rirang ore digestion solution with tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arief, E. R.; Zahardi; Susilaningtyas

    1998-01-01

    Uranium is extracted from Rirang ore acid digestion solution containing rare earths. A mixture of tributyl phosphate solvent and kerosene diluent is employed. Several parameters of solvent extraction have been studied included aqueous to organic phase ratio, H 2 O 2 reductor concentration and Tbp concentration in the solvent mixture, as well as the aqueous to organic phase ratio in the stripping process. The optimum conditions for the extraction step include the use of 25% H 2 O 2 (v/v), one to one aqueous to organic ratio, and 40% Tbp in kerosene. The extraction recovery for U, RE, Th, and PO 4 3 - are 99%, 4%, 70%, and 30%, respectively. The stripping step optimum conditions include the use of one to five organic to aqueous phase ratio 0.24 N HNO 3 . and the stripping recovery for U, RE, Th, and PO 4 3 - are 84%, 80%, 72%, and 83%, respectively

  18. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Mikael [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2016-05-04

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  19. Microemulsions and Aggregation Formation in Extraction Processes for Used Nuclear Fuel: Thermodynamic and Structural Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    Advanced nuclear fuel cycles rely on successful chemical separation of various elements in the used fuel. Numerous solvent extraction (SX) processes have been developed for the recovery and purification of metal ions from this used material. However, the predictability of process operations has been challenged by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the chemical interactions in several of these separation systems. For example, gaps in the thermodynamic description of the mechanism and the complexes formed will make predictions very challenging. Recent studies of certain extraction systems under development and a number of more established SX processes have suggested that aggregate formation in the organic phase results in a transformation of its selectivity and efficiency. Aggregation phenomena have consistently been interfering in SX process development, and have, over the years, become synonymous with an undesirable effect that must be prevented. This multiyear, multicollaborative research effort was carried out to study solvation and self-organization in non-aqueous solutions at conditions promoting aggregation phenomena. Our approach to this challenging topic was to investigate extraction systems comprising more than one extraction reagent where synergy of the metal ion could be observed. These systems were probed for the existence of stable microemulsions in the organic phase, and a number of high-end characterization tools were employed to elucidate the role of the aggregates in metal ion extraction. The ultimate goal was to find connections between synergy of metal ion extraction and reverse micellar formation. Our main accomplishment for this project was the expansion of the understanding of metal ion complexation in the extraction system combining tributyl phosphate (TBP) and dibutyl phosphoric acid (HDBP). We have found that for this system no direct correlation exists for the metal ion extraction and the formation of aggregates, meaning that the

  20. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg -1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g -1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g -1 , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg -1 , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O 2 kg -1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Tara E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scherman, Carl [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Martin, David [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Suggs, Patricia [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  2. Effect of DNA extraction in the Rosa canina L. identification under different processing temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Žiarovská

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosa canina, L. is widely used for medicinal purposes as well as in food industry where it is a valuable source, bioactive compounds and natural colorants. Actually, no specific method is recommended as suitable one for DNA extraction from rose hips. The aim of the study was to compare three commercial and three non-commercial methods to extract total genomic DNA from rose hips hyphanthium. Four methods are based on the precipitation in principle and two methods are based on resin-binding. Extracted DNA was proved for the effectivity in following PCR. In total, six different DNA isolations was performed for differently heat processes rose hips - fresh hyphanthium, 2-weeks frozen hyphanthium, dried hyphanthium (50 °C and boiled hyphanthium (100 °C. The amplification parameters of 500 bp chloroplast gene amplicon were evaluated. Obtained amounts of extracted DNA was very variable not only for every individual method used but for individual treatment of samples, too. In general, non-commercial method provided higher amount of extracted DNA, but the A260/280 ratio was lower. When regarding the processing treatment of the samples, high differences were found among the samples untreated by heat and those that were dried or boiled for three of the used extraction methods. All the samples were positive for amplification, but different amounts of amplified product were obtained. The comparison of data for concentrations of extracted DNA and concentrations of amplified product showed large differences when regarding the achieved purity of DNA in extraction.

  3. Optimization Extraction Process of Polysaccharides from Suillus granulatus and Their Antioxidant and Immunological Activities In vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Yan, Song; Chen, Shuang; Gong, Liying; Su, Tingting; Wang, Zhanyong

    2016-05-01

    Suillus granulatus is an edible and medicinal fungus in China. S. granulatus polysaccharide (SGP) was considered as the main bioactivity compounds in S. granulatus. Therefore, the extraction of SGP and their antioxidant activities were studied in this work. Fruiting bodies of S. granulatus were purchased from a local market (Fushun, China). Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions of SGP. The antioxidant and immunological activities in vitro were also assayed. The extraction of SGP was optimized by a Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions for the extraction of polysaccharides were as follows: Pre-extraction time, 2 h; extraction temperature, 94°C; ratio of water to raw material, 25; and extraction frequency, 2. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 5.38% ±0.15%, which agreed with the predicted yield. The antioxidant assay in vitro showed that SGPs had relatively high scavenging ability for hydroxyl radicals and higher scavenging ability for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. However, the scavenging ability of SGPs for superoxide anion radical and reducing power was relatively low. The polysaccharides also significantly increased splenocyte proliferation in vitro. SGP possessed good antioxidant and immunological activities in vitro and explored as a novel natural antioxidant or functional food. The predictive model of Suillus granulatus polysaccharide (SGP) extraction is adequate for the extraction processSGP possessed a good antioxidant activity in vitroLymphocyte proliferation in vitro was significantly increased by SGPPictorial abstract (in MS Powerpoint Format) is submitted as a separated file in the online submission system. Abbreviation used: SGP: Suillus granulatus polysaccharides, RSM: Response surface methodology, BBD: Box-Behnken design, Vc: Ascorbic acid, DPPH: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, MTT: 3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, ConA: Concanavalin

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction, Centrifugation and Ultrafiltration: Multistage Process for Polyphenol Recovery from Purple Sweet Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhou Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an evaluation of an ultrasound-assisted, combined extraction, centrifugation and ultrafiltration process for the optimal recovery of polyphenols. A purple sweet potato (PSP extract has been obtained using ultrasonic circulating extraction equipment at a power of 840 W, a frequency of 59 kHz and using water as solvent. Extract ultrafiltration, using polyethersulfone (PES, was carried out for the recovery of polyphenol, protein and anthocyanin. Pre-treatment, via the centrifugation of purple sweet potato extract at 2500 rpm over 6 min, led to better polyphenol recovery, with satisfactory protein removal (reused for future purposes, than PSP extract filtration without centrifugation. Results showed that anthocyanin was efficiently recovered (99% from permeate. The exponential model fit well with the experimental ultrafiltration data and led to the calculation of the membrane’s fouling coefficient. The optimization of centrifugation conditions showed that, at a centrifugation speed of 4000 rpm (1195× g and duration of 7.74 min, the optimized polyphenol recovery and fouling coefficient were 34.5% and 29.5 m−1, respectively. The removal of proteins in the centrifugation process means that most of the anthocyanin content (90% remained after filtration. No significant differences in the intensities of the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS2 peaks were found in the samples taken before and after centrifugation for the main anthocyanins; peonidin-3-feruloylsophoroside-5-glucoside, peonidin-3-caffeoyl-p-hydroxybenzoylsophoroside-5-glucoside, and peonidin-3-caffeoyl-feruloyl sophoroside-5-glucoside. This proves that centrifugation is an efficient method for protein removal without anthocyanin loss. This study considers this process an ultrasound-assisted extraction-centrifugation-ultrafiltration for purple sweet potato valorization in “green” technology.

  5. The time course of processing difficulties with non-WH extraction in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    clause, both presupposing processing of the dependent clause for judgment of the acceptability of the extraction. Thus assuming that detection of unacceptability causes processing difficulties, these theories predict reading time increases for unacceptable extractions at the earliest late within......-verbs), the parser doesn’t expect to have linked all mentioned arguments with the main verb at the clause boundary. For clauses with intransitive verbs, on the other hand, the parser expects to be able to find a role for all constituents within the clause, i.e. the parser should experience difficulties...... if unintegrated constituents are present at a clause boundary. Thus this theory predicts longer reading times at ‘if’ in (2) compared to ‘that’ in (1). Thus with regard to time course, this account is similar in spirit to work on island constraints in English indicating that extraction constraints work...

  6. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R.; Carson, S.D.; Peterson, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term

  7. Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

    1997-11-30

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

  8. Improving the extraction-and-loading process in the open mining operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheban A. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using the explosions is the main way to prepare solid rocks for the excavation, and that results in the formation of a rock mass of uneven granulometric composition, which makes it impossible to use a conveyor quarry transport without the preliminary large crushing of the rock mass obtained during the explosion. A way to achieve the greatest technical and economic effect is the full conveyorization of quarry transport, what, in this case, ensures the sequenced-flow of transport operations, automation of management and high labor productivity. The extraction-and-loading machines are the determining factor in the performance of mining and transport machines in the technological flow of the quarry. When extracting a blasted rock mass with single-bucket excavators or loaders working in combination with bottom-hole conveyors, one uses self-propelled crushing and reloading units of various designs to grind large individual parts to fractions of conditioning size. The presence of a crushing and reloading unit in the pit-face along with the excavator requires an additional space for its placement, complicates the maneuvering of the equipment in the pit-face, and increases the number of personnel and the cost of maintaining the extraction-and-reloading operations. The article proposes an improved method for carrying out the extraction-and-loading process, as well as the design of extraction-and-grinding unit based on a quarry hydraulic excavator. The design of the proposed unit makes it possible to convert the cyclic process of scooping the rock mass into the continuous process of its loading on the bottom-hole conveyor. Using the extraction-and-grinding unit allows one to combine the processes of excavation, preliminary crushing and loading of the rock mass, which ensures an increase in the efficiency of mining operations.

  9. The TRUEX [TRansUranium EXtraction] process and the management of liquid TRU [transuranic] waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1987-01-01

    The TRUEX process is a new generic liquid-liquid extraction process for removal of all actinides from acidic nitrate or chloride nuclear waste solutions. Because of its high efficiency and great flexibility, the TRUEX process appears destined to be widely used in the US and possibly in other countries for cost-effective management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) wastes. In the US, TRU wastes are those that contain ≥3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg) of TRU elements with half-lives greater than 20 y. This paper gives a brief review of the relevant chemistry and summarizes the current status of development and deployment of the TRUEX (TRansUranium EXtraction) process flowsheets to treat specific acidic waste solutions at several US Department of Energy sites. 19 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  10. MODELING AND SIMULATION OF A BENZENE RECOVERY PROCESS BY EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Brondani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Extractive distillation processes with N-formylmorpholine (NFM are used industrially to separate benzene from six carbon non-aromatics. In the process studied in this work, the stream of interest consists of nearly 20 different hydrocarbons. A new set of NRTL parameters was correlated based on literature experimental data. Both vapor-liquid equilibrium as well as infinite dilution activity coefficient data were taken into account; missing parameters were estimated with the UNIFAC group contribution model. The extractive distillation process was simulated using ASPEN Plus®. Very good agreement with plant data was obtained. The influences of the main operational parameters, solvent to feed ratio and solvent temperature, were studied. Theoretical optimum operating values were obtained and can be implemented to improve the industrial process. Extreme static sensitivity with respect to reboiler heat was observed, indicating that this can be the source of instabilities.

  11. OPTIMISATION OF PROCESS PARAMETER CONDITIONS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF JATROPHA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD DANI SUPARDAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.

  12. Integrated extraction and anaerobic digestion process for recovery of nutraceuticals and biogas from pomegranate marcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomegranate marc (PM), a by-product from pomegranate juice processing, has not been effectively utilized. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the yields and properties of antioxidants (henceforth referring to total phenolics in terms of tannic acid equivalent) and oil extracted from v...

  13. Visualization of health information with predications extracted using natural language processing and filtered using the UMLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Trudi; Leroy, Gondy

    2008-11-06

    Increased availability of and reliance on written health information can tax the abilities of unskilled readers. We are developing a system that uses natural language processing to extract phrases, identify medical terms using the UMLS, and visualize the propositions. This system substantially reduces the amount of information a consumer must read, while providing an alternative to traditional prose based text.

  14. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  15. Process identification through modular neural networks and rule extraction (extended abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, B.J.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Spaanenburg, L.; Blockeel, Hendrik; Denecker, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Monolithic neural networks may be trained from measured data to establish knowledge about the process. Unfortunately, this knowledge is not guaranteed to be found and – if at all – hard to extract. Modular neural networks are better suited for this purpose. Domain-ordered by topology, rule

  16. Study on fermentation kinetics and extraction process of rhamnolipid production by papermaking wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keer

    2018-01-01

    Paper mill wastewater (PMW) is the outlet water generated during pulp and papermaking process in the paper industry. Fermentation by wastewater can lower the cost of production as well as alleviate the pressure of wastewater treatment. Rhamnolipids find broad placations as natural surfactants. This paper studied the rhamnolipids fermentation by employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated by the laboratory, and determined to use wastewater which filtered by medium speed filter paper and strain Z2, the culture conditions were optimized, based on the flask shaking fermentation. On the basis of 5L tank fermentation, batch fermentation was carried out, the yield of fermentation reached 7.067g/L and the fermentation kinetics model of cell growth, product formation and substrate consumption was established by using origin software, and the fermentation process could be simulated well. And studied on the extraction process of rhamnolipids, through fermentation dynamic equation analysis can predict the in fill material yield can be further improved. Research on the extraction process of rhamnolipid simplifies the operation of extraction, and lays the foundation for the industrial extraction.

  17. EPA SITE DEMONSTRATION OF THE TERRA VAC IN SITU VACUUM EXTRACTION PROCESS IN GROVELAND, MASSACHUSETTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents an EPA evaluation of the patented Terra Vac, Inc.'s in situ vacuum extraction process that was field-demonstrated on a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil in Groveland, MA, under the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. he Terra...

  18. Influence of green solvent extraction on carotenoid yield from shrimp (Pandalus borealis) processing waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razi Parjikolaei, Behnaz; El-Houri, Rime Bahij; Fretté, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In this work, sunflower oil (SF) and methyl ester of sunflower oil (ME-SF) were introduced as two green solvents for extracting astaxanthin (ASX) from shrimp processing waste. The effects of temperature (25, 45, 70 °C), solvent to waste ratio (3, 6, 9), waste particle size (0.6 and 2.5 mm) and mo...

  19. A computer aided solvent extraction process design in nuclear fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, S.E.; Purandare, H.D.; Lawande, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    A rigorous and conceptual design is attempted of the first step of flowsheet formulation for solvent extraction process for fuel reprocessing plant. The design incorporates three cycles of extraction contractors; the first optimised to maximise Pu recovery while the second and third cycles to maximise fission product decontaminations. There are three basic types of extraction steps in these different cycles requiring painstaking design, namely, extraction-scrub, Pu strip-scrub and simple strip. The extraction system to start with is: U nitrate - Pu nitrate - fission product nitrates - nitric acid - tri-butyl phosphate/diluent. With suitable simplifying assumptions and adopting the concept of discrete equilibrium stagewise operation, simple X-Y operating diagrams could be used. The calculations could therefore be done using McCabe Thiele graphical method. The procedure adopted was to consider the macro-component of U to obtain initial optimum flow sheet details and the number of theoretical stages for each contactor and later to incorporate the behaviour of Pu and fission products. A computer program was written to calculate, for different combinations of nitric acid salting strengths, (1) the U concentration profiles along the contractors and (2) the number of stages needed for various different solvent and aqueous phase flow ratios, using experimentally obtained equilibrium data. The method used is indicated and some samples of results obtained for three types of extraction-scrub operation studied are given. These simplified calculations provided the necessary insight into these difficult operations. (auth.)

  20. Processing of copper anodic-slimes for extraction of valuable metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, A M

    2003-01-01

    This work focuses on processing of anodic slimes obtained from an Egyptian copper electrorefining plant. The anodic slimes are characterized by high concentrations of copper, lead, tin and silver. The proposed hydrometallurgical process consists of two leaching stages for the extraction of copper (H(2)SO(4)-O(2)) and silver (thiourea-Fe3+), and pyrometallurgical treatment of the remaining slimes for production of Pb-Sn soldering alloy. Factors affecting both the leaching and smelting stages were studied.

  1. Correction in the efficiency of uranium purification process by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca Junior, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    An uranium solvent extraction, of high purification, with full advantage of absorbed uranium in the begining of process, is described. Including a pulsed column, called correction column, the efficiency of whole process is increased, dispensing the recycling of uranium losses from leaching column. With the correction column the uranium losses go in continuity, for reextraction column, increasing the efficiency of process. The purified uranium is removed in the reextraction column in aqueous phase. The correction process can be carried out with full efficiency using pulsed columns or chemical mixer-settlers. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Development of Separation Process for Minor Actinides Using TDdDGA and New Extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, T.; Tsubata, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Separation process for minor actinides (MA = Am, Cm and Np) has been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency using new innovative extractants to improve the partitioning process from the viewpoints of the economy and the reduction of secondary wastes. Phosphorus-free compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (CHON principle) were applied to the separation steps for MA. At the first step, MA and lanthanide elements (Ln) are recovered from high-level liquid waste by solvent extraction with N,N,N',N'-tetra-dodecyl-diglycolamide (TDdDGA). Trivalent actinides Am and Cm, are separated from RE at the next step by solvent extraction using podand type soft-donor extractant such as N,N,N',N'- tetrakis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)- decane-1,2-diamine (TPDN) or hybrid type extractant such as N-octyl-N-(ptolyl)- 1,10-phenanthroline-2-carboxamide (OctTolPTA). This paper presents the current status of the research and development programme. This study is carried out under the Innovative Nuclear Research and Development Programme by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (authors)

  3. Process for vanadium extraction from waste resulted from fuel oil burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulimaga, Constantin; Balasa, Angela

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to processes for metal extraction from waste, in particular to vanadium extraction from waste resulted from fuel oil burning. The process includes extraction of vanadium in the form of NaVO 3 by waste leaching at heating with a NaOH solution in the presence of oxidant, decantation of the NaVO 3 extract from the insoluble residue, repeated washing of the residue, with subsequent filtration of the combined NaVO 3 extract and treatment thereof with ammonium inorganic salts, for example NH 4 Cl, NH 4 NO 3 or (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 for vanadium sedimentation in the form of NH 4 VO 3 , separation of the sediment, washing, dying and calcination with V 2 O 5 obtaining. At the same time, as oxidant is used (NH 4 )2 S2 O 8 or Na 2 O 2 in NaOH solution with the concentration of 500 g/dm 3 , in the molar ratio oxidant:NaOH of (1-2):10. The leaching is carried out at the temperature of 100-120 degrees Celsius, during 20 minutes, the ratio solution:residue being of 10:(6-6,5).

  4. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from medicinal caterpillar fungus, Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Sun, Junde; Lian, Tiantian; Wang, Wenzhao; Dong, Cai-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Natural carotenoids have attracted great attention for their important beneficial effects on human health and food coloring function. Cordyceps militaris, a well-known edible and medicinal fungus, is a potential source of natural carotenoids. The present study aimed to optimize the process parameters for carotenoid extraction from this mushroom. The effects of different methods of breaking the fungal cell wall and organic solvents were studied by the one-factor-at-a-time method. Subsequently, the process parameters including the duration of the extraction time, the number of extractions, and the solvent to solid ratio were optimized by using the Box-Behnken design. The optimal extraction conditions included using an acid-heating method to break the cell wall and later extracting three times, each for a 1 h duration, with a 4:1 mixture of acetone: petroleum ether and a solvent: solid ratio of 24:1. The carotenoid content varied from 2122.50 to 3847.50 µg/g dry weights in different commercially obtained fruit bodies of C. militaris. The results demonstrated that the C. militaris contained more carotenoid content in its fruit bodies than other known mushrooms. Stability monitoring by HPLC demonstrated that the carotenoids could be stored at 4°C for 40 d. It is suggested that the carotenoid content should be considered as the quality standard of commercial products of this valued mushroom. These findings will facilitate the exploration of carotenoids from C. militaris.

  5. Morphological studies on the healing process of extraction wound in irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iizuka, Tadashi

    1984-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the extraction wound in irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone formation and resorption. 282 Wistar rats of about 100g body weight were used. The region of the left upper molars of experimental rats was exposed to 1000 rad or 2000 rad of 60 Co. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of from 1 day to 28 days after extraction. Control rats were sacrificed at same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was examined histologically, histometrically, histochemically and ultrastructurally. In irradiated rats, the healing process of extraction wound was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue and periosteal new bone formation was interfered. Histochemical examination revealed that the osteoblasts of irradiated rats reduced enzymatic activity compared with control rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblasts of irradiated rats and osteoid formation was reduced. In irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were more numerous and increased more rapidly as compared with control rats, whereas, histometrically, there was no significant difference in the amount of bone loss between control and irradiated rats. Histochemically, there was no distinct difference in the enzymatic activity in osteoclasts between control and irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of irradiated rats. The findings suggest that irradiation induced cytological changes in not only oseoblasts but also osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author)

  6. Transuranic decontamination of nitric acid solutions by the TRUEX solvent extraction process: preliminary development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandegrift, G.F.; Leonard, R.A.; Steindler, M.J.; Horwitz, E.P.; Basile, L.J.; Diamond, H.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.

    1984-07-01

    This report summarizes the work that has been performed to date at Argonne National Laboratory on the development of the TRUEX process, a solvent extraction process employing a bifunctional organophosphorous reagent in a PUREX process solvent (tributyl phosphate-normal paraffinic hydrocarbons). The purpose of this extraction process is to separate and concentrate transuranic (TRU) elements from nuclear waste. Assessments were made of the use of two TRUEX solvents: one incorporating the well-studied dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate (DHDECMP) and a second incorporating an extractant with superior properties for a 1M HNO 3 acid feed, octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO). In this report, conceptual flowsheets for the removal of soluble TRUs from high-level nuclear wastes using these two TRUEX proces solvents are presented, and flowsheet features are discussed in detail. The conceptual flowsheet for TRU-element removal from a PUREX waste by the O/sub phi/D[IB]CMPO-TRUEX process solvent was tested in a bench-scale countercurrent experiment, and results of that experiment are presented and discussed. The conclusion of this study is that the TRUEX process is able to separate TRUs from high-level wastes so that the major portion of the solid waste (approx. 99%) can be classified as non-TRU. Areas where more experimentation is needed are listed at the end of the report. 45 references, 17 figures, 56 tables

  7. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have...

  8. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro

    1991-01-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs

  9. Morphological studies on the healing process of tooth extraction wounds in whole body irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Yoichiro (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1991-06-01

    The present studies were performed to investigate the healing process of the tooth extraction wound in whole body irradiated rats and to clarify the effect of irradiation on bone metabolism. One hundred and seven Wistar rats of about 100 g body weight were used and divided into 3 groups. Whole body irradiated rats were given single exposure with a dose of 8 Gy. The region of the left upper molars of local irradiated rats as controls, was exposed to 8 Gy. On the 7th day after irradiation, the left upper first molar of each rat was extracted. The rats were sacrificed at intervals of 1 to 14 days after extraction. Non-irradiated rats were sacrificed at the same intervals after extraction. The maxillary bone including the extraction wound was evaluated, histologically, histometrically and ultrastructurally. From the histological and histometrical findings, the difference of the healing process between non-irradiated rats and locally irradiated rats is not significant. In whole body irradiated rats, the healing process especially in the socket was disturbed. The osteoblastic new bone formation following production of granulation tissue was interfered with. Ultrastructurally, the cytoplasmic organellae were poorly developed in the osteoblast and osteoid formation was reduced in the socket. But periosteal new bone formation was the same as that of the locally irradiated rats. In whole body irradiated rats, the osteoclasts in the interradicular alveolar bone were decreased and have smaller nuclei, compared with non-irradiated and locally irradiated rats. Histometrically, the amount of bone loss was decreased in whole body irradiated rats. Ultrastructurally, the cyoplasmic organellae and ruffled border were poorly developed in the osteoclasts of whole body irradiated rats. The findings suggested that irradiation induced cytological changes not only in osteoblasts but in osteoclasts and these changes resulted in the delayed healing of extraction wound. (author) 106 refs.

  10. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords.

  11. Selected bibliography for the extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, S.E.; Polkinghorne, S.T.; Jante, R.R.; Rodman, M.R.; Chen, A.C.T.; Gordon, L.I.

    1979-02-01

    A selected annotated bibliography of 521 references was prepared as a part of a feasibility study of the extraction of uranium from seawater. For the most part, these references are related to the chemical processes whereby the uranium is removed from the seawater. A companion docment contains a similar bibliography of 471 references related to oceanographic and uranium extraction plant siting considerations, although some of the references are in common. The bibliography was prepared by computer retrieval from Chemical Abstracts, Nuclear Science Abstracts, Energy Data Base, NTIS, and Oceanic Abstracts. References are listed by author, country of author, and selected keywords

  12. Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy as a process analytical technology tool in Ginkgo biloba extract qualification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sílvia S; Barata, Pedro A; Martins, José M; Menezes, José C

    2008-06-09

    Here, we describe the use of near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for qualification of Ginkgo biloba extract as raw material for use in pharmaceutical products. G. biloba extract shows unpredicted and uncontrolled variability in some of its quality specifications, intrinsic to its natural origin, which have influence on the manufacturing process of solid dosage forms (viz. granulation and compression). Some of these properties could not be determined by conventional quality control tests, so we investigated the use of NIR to qualify the batches of Ginkgo extract accordingly to its different features and establish a relationship with some of the manufacturing steps behaviour based on their qualification. Several approaches were evaluated, and the NIR method developed demonstrated to be sensitive to changes in important quality specifications and therefore adequate to qualify incoming batches of G. biloba extract. This could be considered a process analytical technology (PAT) application since it: (1) establishes the source of variability in a qualitative way, (2) explains its propagation to the final product quality attributes and (3) lays the basis for a control strategy to be applied in the manufacturing process.

  13. Effect of HEH[EHP] impurities on the ALSEP solvent extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holfeltz, Vanessa E. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; Campbell, Emily L. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Peterman, Dean R. [Aqueous Separations and Radiochemistry Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID, USA; Standaert, Robert F. [Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Department of Biochemistry & amp, Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; Biology & amp, Soft Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Shull Wollan Center — a Joint Institute for Neutron Sciences, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA; Paulenova, Alena [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA; Lumetta, Gregg J. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Nuclear Chemistry and Engineering Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA, USA

    2017-12-20

    In solvent extraction processes, organic phase impurities can negatively impact separation factors, hydrolytic performance, and overall system robustness. This affects the process-level viability of a separation concept and necessitates knowledge of the behavior and mechanisms to control impurities in the solvent. The most widespread way through which impurities are introduced into a system is through impure extractants and/or diluents used to prepare the solvent, and often development of new purification schemes to achieve the desired level of purity is needed. In this work, the acidic extractant, 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP])—proposed for application in extractive processes aimed at separating trivalent minor actinides from lanthanides and other fission products—is characterized with respect to its common impurities and their impact on Am(III) stripping in the Actinide Lanthanide SEParation (ALSEP) system. To control impurities in HEH[EHP], existing purification technologies commonly applied for the acidic organophosphorus reagents are reviewed, and a new method specific to HEH[EHP] purification is presented.

  14. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  15. An integrated process for the extraction of fuel and chemicals from marine macroalgal biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Nitin; Baghel, Ravi S.; Bothwell, John; Gupta, Vishal; Reddy, C. R. K.; Lali, Arvind M.; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-07-01

    We describe an integrated process that can be applied to biomass of the green seaweed, Ulva fasciata, to allow the sequential recovery of four economically important fractions; mineral rich liquid extract (MRLE), lipid, ulvan, and cellulose. The main benefits of our process are: a) its simplicity and b) the consistent yields obtained from the residual biomass after each successive extraction step. For example, dry Ulva biomass yields ~26% of its starting mass as MRLE, ~3% as lipid, ~25% as ulvan, and ~11% as cellulose, with the enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of the final cellulose fraction under optimized conditions producing ethanol at a competitive 0.45 g/g reducing sugar. These yields are comparable to those obtained by direct processing of the individual components from primary biomass. We propose that this integration of ethanol production and chemical feedstock recovery from macroalgal biomass could substantially enhance the sustainability of marine biomass use.

  16. Thermochemical conversion of Phellinus pomaceus via supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durak, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phellinus pomaceus were converted to liquid and gas products. • Supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis processes were used in this research. • 60, 72 and 90 different types of compounds were identified by GC–MS. - Abstract: Thermochemical conversion processes such as supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis are used for producing biofuel from biomass. Supercritical fluid extraction process under supercritical conditions is the thermally disruption process of the lignocellulose or other organic materials at 250–400 °C temperature range under high pressure (4–5 MPa). Pyrolysis method is the process of decomposition of the organic materials with heat in the inert atmosphere or vacuum nature between high temperatures (350–800 °C). Two thermochemical processes, supercritical fluid extraction and slow pyrolysis, were used to produce bio-oils and biochars from Phellinus pomaceus. Supercritical fluid extraction trials were performed in a cylindrical reactor (75 mL) in organic solvents (acetone, ethanol) under supercritical conditions with (calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate) and without catalyst at the temperatures of 250, 270 and 290 °C. Pyrolysis experiments were performed in a fixed-bed tubular reactor without and with same catalysts used in liquefaction at the temperatures of 400, 500 and 600 °C with constant heating rate (40 °C/min). The effects of process variables including temperature and catalyst on product yields were investigated. Product yields and composition of bio-oils were evaluated and compared for supercritical fluid extraction and pyrolysis. The produced liquids at 290 °C in supercritical liquefaction and at 500 °C in pyrolysis were analyzed and characterized by elemental, GC–MS and FT-IR. 60 and 72 different types of compounds that were identified by GC–MS obtained in acetone and ethanol respectively whereas pyrolysis liquids had 90 different types of compounds. Bio-oils from supercritical liquefaction

  17. Developing an Intelligent Automatic Appendix Extraction Method from Ultrasonography Based on Fuzzy ART and Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Baek Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound examination (US does a key role in the diagnosis and management of the patients with clinically suspected appendicitis which is the most common abdominal surgical emergency. Among the various sonographic findings of appendicitis, outer diameter of the appendix is most important. Therefore, clear delineation of the appendix on US images is essential. In this paper, we propose a new intelligent method to extract appendix automatically from abdominal sonographic images as a basic building block of developing such an intelligent tool for medical practitioners. Knowing that the appendix is located at the lower organ area below the bottom fascia line, we conduct a series of image processing techniques to find the fascia line correctly. And then we apply fuzzy ART learning algorithm to the organ area in order to extract appendix accurately. The experiment verifies that the proposed method is highly accurate (successful in 38 out of 40 cases in extracting appendix.

  18. Simulations to investigate the eect of circuit imperfections on the slow extraction process

    CERN Document Server

    Van De Pontseele, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a 400 GeV proton accelerator at CERN. Its main purpose is the last step in pre-acceleration of particles before injecting them into the Large Hadron Collider. Besides that, it is used for experiments directly connected to the SPS. For these xed target experiments, a steady slow extraction of the SPS beam is necessary over thousands of turns. The SPS slow extraction process makes use of the third-integer resonance in combination with an electrostatic septum. The stability of the extracted intensity and the losses at the septum are in uenced by the imperfections of the current circuit that drives the SPS quadrupoles. This report summarizes the studies that were carried out with MAD-X to simulate these imperfections.

  19. Knowledge Extraction from MEDLINE by Combining Clustering with Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñarro-Giménez, Jose A; Kreuzthaler, Markus; Schulz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The identification of relevant predicates between co-occurring concepts in scientific literature databases like MEDLINE is crucial for using these sources for knowledge extraction, in order to obtain meaningful biomedical predications as subject-predicate-object triples. We consider the manually assigned MeSH indexing terms (main headings and subheadings) in MEDLINE records as a rich resource for extracting a broad range of domain knowledge. In this paper, we explore the combination of a clustering method for co-occurring concepts based on their related MeSH subheadings in MEDLINE with the use of SemRep, a natural language processing engine, which extracts predications from free text documents. As a result, we generated sets of clusters of co-occurring concepts and identified the most significant predicates for each cluster. The association of such predicates with the co-occurrences of the resulting clusters produces the list of predications, which were checked for relevance.

  20. Sensitivity of process design to uncertainties in property estimates applied to extractive distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Mark Nicholas; Hukkerikar, Amol; Sin, Gürkan

    During the design of a chemical process engineers typically switch from simple (shortcut) calculations to more detailed rigorous models to perform mass and energy balances around unit operations and to design process equipment involved in that process. The choice of the most appropriate thermodyn......During the design of a chemical process engineers typically switch from simple (shortcut) calculations to more detailed rigorous models to perform mass and energy balances around unit operations and to design process equipment involved in that process. The choice of the most appropriate...... of the methodology is illustrated using a case study of extractive distillation in which acetone is separated from methanol using water as a solvent. Among others, the vapour pressure of acetone and water was found to be the most critical and even small uncertainties from -0.25 % to +0.75 % in vapour pressure data...... have shown a significant impact on the reflux ratio of the extractive distillation process. In general, systematic sensitivity analysis should be part of process design efforts and expected to contribute to better-informed and reliable design solutions in chemical industries....

  1. Robustness of advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing processes. Study on solvent extraction processes adjusted to advanced reprocessing process. Document on collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Ichiro; Enokida, Youichi; Kobayashi, Noboru; Takanashi, Mitsuhiro; Aoshima, Atsushi; Nomura, Kazunori; Shibata, Atsuhiro

    2002-05-01

    The advanced nuclear fuel reprocessing process with crystallization uranium recovery has been proposed to enhance economical incentive and to reduce amount of discharged waste. Because a solvent extraction process following the crystallization uranium recovery will be operated with new process parameters due to different parameters of loading of heavy metals, decontamination factors, flow rates etc, fundamental studies on chemical flowsheet of the process are required to verify robustness of the process and to understand influence of process variation upon process performance. In this study, theoretical and computational studies were performed from this kind of aspect. Firstly, separation characteristics with the chemical flowsheet were studied for the steady-state, and recovery yields of uranium and plutonium, decontamination factor, process waste amount were computated for the normal process condition. Secondary, transient behaviors were computated with some variations in flow rates, heavy metal loading and so on from the normal process condition. Finally, influence of small fluctuation of the process condition was analyzed and the robustness of the new solvent extraction process was verified. This work was performed by Nagoya University and Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute under the JNC Cooperative Research Scheme on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. (author)

  2. Rirang uranium ore processing: continuous solvent extraction of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riza, F.; Nuri, H. L.; Waluya, S.; Subijanto, A.; Sarono, B.

    1998-01-01

    Separation of uranium from Rirang ore acid digestion solution by means of continuous solvent extraction using mixer-settlers has been studied and a mixture of 0.3 M D2EHPA and 0.075 M TOPO extracting agent and kerosene diluent is employed to recover and separate uranium from Th, RE, phosphate containing solution. The experiments have been conducted batch-wise and several parameters have been studied including the aqueous to organic phase ratio, A/O, the extraction and the stripping times, and the operation temperature. The optimum conditions for extraction have been found to be A/O = 2 ratio, five minute extraction time per stage at room temperature. The uranium recovery of 99.07% has been achieved at those conditions whilst U can be stripped from the organic phase by 85% H 3 PO 4 solution with an O/A = 1 for 5 minutes stripping time per stage, and in a there stage operation at room temperature yielding a 100% uranium recovery from the stripping process

  3. Storage stability of traditional Tunisian butter enriched with antioxidant extract from tomato processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Yousra; Azabou, Samia; Jridi, Mourad; Khemakhem, Ibtihel; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Attia, Hamadi

    2017-10-15

    Traditional Tunisian butter (TTB) is one of the most appreciated dairy products in Tunisia. Herein, the storage stability of TTB enriched with antioxidants from tomato processing by-products (TPB) was evaluated during 60days of storage at 4°C. TPB extract contains significant amounts of lycopene and phenolics. TTB enriched with 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB revealed the lowest peroxide values at all the determination intervals. Adding 400mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB did not exhibit any undesired effect on lactic bacteria which are necessary for development of aroma and chemical properties of TTB. However, raw TTB and highly enriched TTB (800mg of TPB extract/kg of TTB) displayed higher lipid peroxidation. The detrimental effect of high antioxidant amounts on TTB stability could be due to a possible pro-oxidant character. Thus, appropriate supplementation of TPB extract could be used in TTB as a protective agent against lipid peroxidation to extend its shelf-life up to two months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Processing of Rosmarinus officinalis linne extract on spray and spouted bed dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. F. Souza

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the potential of spray and spouted bed technology for the production of dried extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis Linné, popularly known as rosemary. The extractive solution was characterized by loss on drying, extractable matter and total phenolic and flavonoid compounds (chemical markers. The product was characterized by determination of loss on drying, size distribution, morphology, flow properties and thermal degradation and thermal behavior. The spray and spouted bed dryer performance were assessed through estimation of thermal efficiency, product accumulation and product recovery. The parameters studied were the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150ºC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 75%. The atomizing air flow rate was maintained at 20 l/min with a pressure of 196.1 kPa. The spouting gas flow rate used in the drying runs was 40% higher than the gas flow under the condition of minimum spouting. The spray drying gas flow rate was fixed at 0.0118 kg/s. Under the conditions studied, performance in the spray and spouted bed drying of rosemary extract was poor, causing high degradation of the marker compounds (mainly the phenolic compounds. Thus, process improvements are required before use on an industrial scale.

  5. Extraction of green tea and drying with a high pressure spray process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meterc Darja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea is a beverage widely consumed throughout the world and is produced from non-fermented leaves of Camellia Sinensis. Traditionally, green tea leaves are extracted with water. To form solid products, these aqueous products have to be dried. The main focus of the investigation is how to avoid antioxidant degradation during solvent removal. The work was separated in two major sections, firstly investigation of the extraction process secondly, optimizing of the drying process. In the first experiments extractions with different solvents (H2O, EtOH and MeOH, at different temperatures (20, 40, 60 and 80 °C and extraction times (15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min were preformed to obtain optimum conditions for further processing. For further work extracts obtained with water extraction at 80°C for 15 min were used. In the PGSS (Particles from Gas Saturated Solutions drying process, extracts with up to 98 wt % water are mixed with preheated carbon dioxide in a static mixer in order to obtain a homogenous mixture. The mixture is led via a single path nozzle into a spray tower. Driven by the expansion of the gas, fine droplets are formed and the heated gas evaporates the solvent, which is exhausted together with CO^ by a blower. Fine powder is formed and collected in the spray tower. The amount of solvent which is to be removed and the residual humidity obtained in the product depend strongly on flow rate and temperature of the gas. From obtained results it can be seen, that high pre-expansion temperatures Tp (145 °C cause degradation of polyphenols (1.05 wt %. Maintaining Tp at approximately 130 °C and lower gave satisfying results; total amount of polyphenols in the obtained powders was between 4.97 and 8.77 wt %. Temperature in spray tower ranging from 33 to 65 °C has no significant effect on the amount of total polyphenols, but higher temperature results in lower water residue in the sample.

  6. Hot ethanol extraction: economic feasibility of a new and green process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carré Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A new extraction process using ethanol at a temperature above boiling point is assessed from an economic point of view. The study was based on an assessment of the main operating costs adjusted by Lang’s factor. Operating costs were assessed based on energy consumption calculated using a model of the process developed from experimental results, and for a hypothetical unit with a 160 000 t/year rapeseed crushing capacity. The processing cost was estimated at 47.4 € per ton of processed seed. Amortization represented 35% of this cost, energy 32% and manpower 10%. Uncertainty about investment is the main factor that could lead to significant error in this cost, but this uncertainty could be offset by an adjustment of the amortization duration, most of the equipment being durable. Profit generated by the process relies principally on a better valuation of the meal: higher value comes from higher protein content and quality on the market for GM-free high protein feedstuffs. Oil quality is also improved by a lower oleic acidity, low phospholipid content and pigment concentration. This gain was estimated at 2.5% of the crude oil value. Unlike the conventional hexane process, hot ethanol extraction produces molasses in small proportions. Molasses value was set at 70% of corn price. The process profitability appears sufficiently positive to justify further research to test the hypothesis underlying our model. The main uncertainty lies in the performance of the process in real conditions of counter-flow extraction and solvent regeneration.

  7. Effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surin, Siriluck; Thakeow, Prodpran; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Angeli, Sergio; Phimolsiripol, Yuthana

    2014-09-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) syrup is a novel liquid sweetener produced from longan, one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In this research, the effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup was investigated. There were two extraction methods (juice extractor and hydraulic press) and three concentration methods (direct heating, steam heating and vacuum evaporation). Results overall showed that the extraction method had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on longan syrup properties, while concentration resulted in the quality changes of longan syrup. Concentration using direct heating of longan juice caused reduction of sucrose content, and longan syrup dark in color. The headspace volatile compounds of longan syrup were sampled using direct headspace technique and further characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified volatile compounds could be divided into two groups of aroma characteristics which were (1) floral aroma: 3-methybutyl acetate, (β)-ocimene and 2-phenylethyl alcohol and (2) caramel aroma: butyraldehyde, furfural and benzaldehyde. 2-Phenylethyl alcohol, contributing to floral odor, was retained using vacuum evaporation as a concentration method. Result revealed that the optimal concentration process for longan syrup production was vacuum evaporation, providing the highest floral volatile and lowest caramel volatile. Sensory tests confirmed that longan flavor of the syrup produced from the vacuum evaporation process had significantly higher hedonic scores than other processes.

  8. Validation evaluation of the technological process of leonurus turkestanicus liquid extract production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олеся Владимировна Сермухамедова

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The transfer of Leonurus turkestanicus liquid extract production technology and its validation at LLC «FitOleum» (GMP compliance report conclusion CT PK 1617-2006 «Good Manufacturing Practice. Remedies production. Basic provisions» № 18, Nov. 21, 2014..Methods. Different known statistical methods have been used to evaluate and to interpret both technological parameters and indicators that were determined during quality control of herbal material, intermediate product, and final product. A Statistical process control (SPC concept is applied as a basis for all accepted international instruments ICH Q8 «Pharmaceutical Development», ICH Q10 «Pharmaceutical Quality System», PAT Concept, and FDA Guidance for Process Validation.Results. As a result of research normative documents that regulate manufacturing process in the test conditions have been developed. A comparable data across technological parameters of three consistently manufactured test production series have been obtained, as well as validity of the extract production technological process has been proved.Conclusion. On the basis of research, the experimental-industrial procedure for Leonurus turkestanicus herb liquid extract production at the LLC «FitOleum» has been developed

  9. [Evaluation of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) extract on the healing process of gastroraphy in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Orlando José dos; Ribas Filho, Jurandir Marcondes; Czeczko, Nicolau Gregori; Castelo Branco Neto, Manoel Lages; Naufel, Carlos; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; Campos, Rodrigo Peixoto; Moreira, Hamilton; Porcides, Rafael Dib; Dobrowolski, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the healing process of gastric suture in rats using hydroalcoholic aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) extract. Forty adult male rats, divided into two groups of 20 animals were operated and named as follows: aroeira group (Ga), and the control group (Gc). Each group was divided into two subgroups (SG) of 10 animals (SGa and SGc) according to the time of provoked death (three and seven days). The same surgical procedure was performed in all animals consisting in incision and simple suture of the stomach (Prolene(R) 6-0). The only difference was on the type of medical treatment. The aroeira group received a single 100 mg/kg of aroeira extract in an intraperitoneal dose and the animals from the control group received the same quantity in milliliters (ml) of the isotonic saline solution. The evaluated parameters were: macroscopic alterations, microscopic healing process and toleration to atmospheric air insufflation. All animals had good healing process of abdominal wall with no clinical evidence of infection, dehiscence, abscesses and peritonitis. Both groups presented adherences to gastric suture line area with surrounding organs, mainly the liver, lower intestines and the abdominal wall. Microscopic analysis showed only chronic inflammation significant difference between the aroeira and control groups on the third day of observation. Resistance tests did not present significant statistical differences in the studied groups. The use of aroeira (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) hydro-alcoholic extract did not alter the stomach healing process, considered on macroscopic, tensiometric and microscopic assessment.

  10. [Recovery of copper from sewage sludge by bioleaching-solvent extraction-electrodeposition process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hai-Ping; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Liang, Jian-Ru

    2009-11-01

    Sewage sludge contains not only a lot of organic matter and plant nutrients, but also some harmful metals. Recovery of sludge-born metals for sewage sludge of high metal content is very important for safe reutilization of sewage sludge and for economic consideration. Here, we reported a recovery technique for sludge-born copper using bioleaching-solvent extraction-electrodeposition (L-SX-EW) process through batch experiments. The tested sludge containing 7 432 mg/kg Cu was collected from Suzhou Wastewater Treatment Plant located in industrial zone of Suzhou City, Jiangsu, China. The results showed that more than 90% of sludge-born Cu could be solubilized into aqueous phase within 72 h through bioleaching process. Furthermore, soluble Cu in the form of Cu2+ in bioleached sludge filtrate could be concentrated into organic phase through the extracting operation using 2% solvent extractant M5640 under the optimized condition of 1/3 phase ratio (O/A) and pH 2.0, in which Cu2+ extraction efficiency reached more than 95%, whereas the co-existing soluble iron extraction efficiency was less than 10%. Stripping results showed that the Stripping rate of Cu was 80.07% when the phase ratio (O/A) was 2/1 using 1.5 mol/L H2SO4 as stripping solvent. After the concentrated Cu2+ in acidic aqueous phase was electrolyzed for 6 h at 2.1 V bath voltage and 55 degrees C, more than 90% of the Cu2+ recovery efficiency was achieved in the form of elemental Cu powder. There wasn't any wastewater generation in this process. Therefore, this L-SX-EW technique exhibited a potential application for the recovery of metal for heavy metal-loaded sludge.

  11. Enumeration and rapid identification of yeasts during extraction processes of extra virgin olive oil in Tuscany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.

  12. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  13. Synthesis of pincer-type extractants for selective extraction of palladium from PGMs: An improved liquid-liquid extraction approach to current refining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajiv Gandhi, Muniyappan; Yamada, Manabu; Haga, Kazutoshi; Shibayama, Atsushi

    2017-08-18

    SCS pincer ligands 1-4 were synthesised, and their ability to extract Pd(II) from HCl and HNO 3 media was studied. The Pd(II) extraction properties of 1-4 were compared with those of commercial extractants (DOS and LIX ® 84-I) in kerosene. 1 and 2 showed superior Pd(II) extractability (E% = 99.9) relative to DOS and LIX ® 84-I from 0.1-8.0 M HCl and to DOS from 0.1-8.0 M HNO 3 and mixed HCl + HNO 3 media. The Pd(II) extraction rate, acid durability, the most suitable organic/aqueous (O/A) phase ratio, and Pd(II) loading capacity of extractants 1, 2, and DOS were evaluated. 1 and 2 exhibited a greater Pd(II) extraction rate and Pd(II) loading capacity than DOS. 1 was very stable in acid media (HCl and HCl + HNO 3 ), whereas 2 and DOS deteriorated in HCl + HNO 3 . Selective extraction of Pd(II) by 1 and 2 was achieved from a mixed solution containing Pd, Pt, Rh, rare metals, and base metal ions that simulated the leach liquors of automotive catalysts. The back extraction of Pd(II) and reusability of extractants 1 and 2 were studied. The Pd(II) extraction mechanism of 1-4 was investigated using FT-IR, UV-visible, and NMR spectroscopy.

  14. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  16. Escape from the island. Processing constraints on wh-extraction in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Kizach, Johannes; Nyvad, Anne Mette

    2012-01-01

    In the formal syntax literature, it is commonly assumed that there is a constraint on linguistic competence that blocks extraction of WH-expressions (e.g. what or which book) from embedded questions, referred to as WH-islands. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is an argument/adjunct asymmetry...... reveal that WH-island violations, though degraded, are grammatical in Danish. Since the standard assumptions cannot account for the range of results, we argue in favor of a processing account referring to Locality (processing domains) and Working Memory.......In the formal syntax literature, it is commonly assumed that there is a constraint on linguistic competence that blocks extraction of WH-expressions (e.g. what or which book) from embedded questions, referred to as WH-islands. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is an argument/adjunct asymmetry...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Quentin C. Berg; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Jason C. Hissam; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Abha Saddawi; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-07

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of carbon electrodes for Direct Carbon Fuel Cells (DCFC), and on carbon foam composites used in ballistic armor, as well as the hydrotreatment of solvents used in the basic solvent extraction process. A major goal is the production of 1500 pounds of binder pitch, corresponding to about 3000 pounds of hydrotreated solvent.

  18. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel.

  19. Application of ion-exchange unit in uranium extraction process in China (to be continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chuanwen

    2004-01-01

    The application conditions of five different ion exchange units in uranium milling plant and wastewater treatment plant of uranium mine in China are introduced, including working parameters, existing problems and improvements. The advantages and disadvantages of these units are reviewed briefly. The procedure points to be followed in selecting ion exchange unit are recommended in the engineering design. The primary views are presented upon the application prospects of some ion exchange units in uranium extraction process in China

  20. A zero-liquid-discharge scheme for vanadium extraction process by electrodialysis-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Meng; Xing, Hong-bo; Jia, Yu-xiang; Ren, Qing-chun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A zero discharge scheme for vanadiumextraction process is proposed. • The water transport in the electrodialysis process is analyzed quantitatively. • The influence of concentration ratio in the electrodialysis process is explored. - Abstract: The sharp increase of demand for vanadium makes the treatment of the wastewater generated from its extraction process become an urgent problem. In this study, a hybrid process coupling the electrodialysis with the cooling crystallization is put forward for upgrading the conventional vanadium extraction process to zero discharge. Accordingly, the objective of this work lies in evaluating the feasibility of the proposed scheme on the basis of a systematic study on the influences of membrane types and operating parameters on the electrodilysis performance. The results indicate that the relative importance of osmosis and electro-osmosis to overall water transport is closely related to the applied current density. The increase in the applied current density and the decrease in the mole ratio of water and salt flux will contribute to the concentration degree. Moreover, it is worth noting that a relatively large concentration ratio can result in the remarkable decrease of current efficiency and increase of energy consumption. In general, the reclamation scheme can easily achieve the recovered water with relatively low salt content and the highly concentrated Na 2 SO 4 solution (e.g., 300 g/L) for producing high-purity sodium sulphate crystals.

  1. Extraction of astaxanthin from microalgae: process design and economic feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgheib, Nancy; Saade, Roxana; Khallouf, Rindala; Takache, Hosni

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the process design and the economic feasibility of natural astaxanthin extraction fromHaematococcus pluvialisspecies have been reported. Complete process drawing of the process was first performed, and then the process was designed including five main steps being the harvesting process, the cell disruption, the spray drying, the supercritical CO2extraction and the anaerobic digestion. The major components of the facility would include sedimentation tanks, a disk stack centrifuge, a bed miller, a spray dryer, a multistage compressor, an extractor, a pasteurizer and a digester. All units have been sized assuming a 10 kg/h of dried biomass as a feedstock to produce nearly 2592 kg of astaxanthin per year. The investment payback time and the return on investment were all estimated for different market prices of astaxanthin. Based on the results the production process was found to become economically feasible for a market price higher than 1500/Kg. Also, a payback period of 1 year and an ROI equal to 113% was estimated for an astaxanthin market price equal to 6000/Kg.

  2. Integrating Log-Ratio position processing for the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring extraction line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardek, T.W.; Band, A.

    1993-01-01

    The Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) compressor ring intended to accept 1-msec-long p macropulses from the LAMPF linear accelerator and compress these pulses to 250 nsec in length. Beam position monitor sensors of the terminated strip-line design centered at 200 nsec are provided in the transport line from LAMPF, the PSR injection line, the PSR ring, and the extracted beam line. Strip-line sensors used in conjunction with phase processing are a good match for linac transport lines and PSR injection lines where there exists a strong 200-MHz frequency component but lead to difficulties in the ring and extracted beam line where this component tends to wash out. This paper describes the development of Integrating Log-Ratio processing techniques, which utilize the original strip line sensors to achieve a major improvement in position monitoring for the extracted beam line. The design concepts are discussed and the present hardware is described in detail. Operational difficulties encountered during the development process are discussed and actual beam-related results are provided

  3. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p -Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardhyanti, D S; Tyaningsih, D S; Afifah, S N

    2017-01-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such as p -cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p -Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p -Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted in the baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p -Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p -Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p -Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10 -6 kg/m 2 s. (paper)

  4. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p-Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, D. S.; Tyaningsih, D. S.; Afifah, S. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such asp-cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p-Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p-Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted inthe baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p-Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p-Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p-Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10-6kg/m2s.

  5. Simulation and optimization of a supercritical extraction process for recovering provitamin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Elenise Bannwart; Alvarez, Mario Eusebio Torres; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a simulation procedure of a supercritical extraction process was developed through the use of the commercial simulator HYSYS (Hyprotech Ltd.), adapting the existing units to the operating conditions typical of the supercritical extraction process. The objective is to recover provitamin A (beta-carotene) from palm oil (esterified) using carbon dioxide/ethanol as the supercritical mixed solvent. This example characterizes the problem for recovering high added value product from natural sources, as the palm oil, which is desired by the market. Owing to the fact that esterified palm oil is a complex mixture, made by several components, in order to characterize this system in the simulator, it was necessary to create hypothetical components using the UNIFAC (universal function-group activity coefficients model) group contribution, because they are not present in a conventional database and, then, their physical properties must be estimated and/or predicted before the simulation. The optimization was carried out in each simulation for each equipment, in terms of operating conditions (temperature and pressure), in order to obtain the maximum recovery of carotenes. According to the results, it was possible to concentrate carotenes through two cycles of supercritical extraction with high yield. Furthermore, ethyl esters (biodiesel) were also obtained, as a byproduct of the proposed process, which can also be used as an alternative fuel, with the important characteristic that it is renewable.

  6. Extraction of Iron and Manganese from Pyrolusite Absorption Residue by Ammonium Sulphate Roasting–Leaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue from desulfurization and denitrification of exhaust gas treatment process with pyrolusite ore as absorbent is regarded as a potential source of iron and manganese. In this study, an extraction process is proposed for recovery of iron and manganese with ammonium sulphate roasting followed by sulphuric acid leaching. Firstly, the conversion mechanism was analyzed through mineral phase analysis of roasting products at different roasting temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD technology. Then, the parameters of the roasting procedure such as roasting temperature and time, ammonium sulphate dosage, leaching temperature, leaching time, and sulphuric acid concentration are examined. The results implicate that the iron oxide and manganese dioxide in the residue are firstly converted into the water-soluble ( NH 4 3 Fe ( SO 4 3 and ( NH 4 2 Mn 2 ( SO 4 3 at 200–350 °C, and then the more stable NH 4 Fe ( SO 4 2 and MnSO 4 are formed, at temperature higher than 350 °C. Under optimum conditions, 95.2% Fe and 97.0% Mn can be extracted. Reactant diffusion through inert layer of silicon dioxide was considered as the rate-limiting step for iron extraction with an activation energy of 20.56 kJ/mol, while, the recovery process of Mn was controlled by both reactant diffusion and chemical reaction with an activation energy of 29.52 kJ/mol.

  7. Effect of coffee reduction on constituent concentration in an energy-efficient process of ultrasonic extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coffee is one of the popular beverage; its constituents include caffeine, oxidation resistant aromatic constituents, protein, tannin, and fat. It is indicated in literatures that a proper amount of coffee stimulates the brain and enhances memory, but excessive coffee causes negative results, such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, heart disease and kidney disease. This study used high-performance ultrasonic process to discuss the effect of pulverized coffee reduction on the constituent concentration. It further compared the constituent concentrations obtained in different extraction periods. The experimental results show that the coffee aroma constituents can be extracted effectively by ultrasonic process without any organic solvent, and the constituent concentration does not decrease with the addition of pulverized coffee. Therefore, the consumption of pulverized coffee can be reduced greatly by using the proposed. The time of extraction process can be shortened, so as to save energy. The most important point is to reduce the enterprises manufacturing cost and to increase the profit.

  8. Integrated silicon grid ion extraction system for O sub 2 processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzec, D.; Engemann, J.; Bansky, J.; Keller, H.M. (University of Wuppertal, Department of Electrical Engineering, 5600 Wuppertal 1, West Germany (DE))

    1990-11-01

    A novel multibeamlet very low energy ion extraction optic technology avoiding cumbersome grid readjustment and thermal degradation of beam properties during a reactive process has been developed. In this approach anisotropically etched silicon grids ((100)-oriented Si wafers) are permanently integrated into a holder made of layered ceramics or micromachined AlN. The performance of such extraction systems having 300, 600, and 900 {mu}m grid separation was tested in a 3 cm capacitively coupled rf-ion source. Stable system operation with use of oxygen has been achieved for an extended period of time ({gt}100 h) for a total extraction voltage of 140 V which represents the maximum voltage to be applied for a grid separation of 0.3 mm. Additionally detailed Faraday-cup measurements of the extracted ion beam have been carried out for a total voltage range of 0--600 V, a vacuum chamber pressure of 1{times}10{sup {minus}4}--1{times}10{sup {minus}3} mbar, rf-power levels of 10--170 W, a net-to-total voltage ratio of 0.5--1.0 and an axial magnetic field of up to 22 mT. For O{sub 2} an ion current density of 1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} could be extracted with ions having a mean energy of 60 eV. Even for energies as low as 50-eV current densities of 0.8 mA/cm{sup 2} could be achieved. In combination with the filamentless capacitively coupled rf source used, this approach has promise in various fields of materials research and processing such as ion beam assisted deposition of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} YBaCuO layers and etching/modification of diamondlike, diamond and polymer thin films.

  9. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  10. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  11. Process engineering challenges of uranium extraction from phosphoric acid on industrial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouriya, Govind; Singh, Dhirendra; Nath, A.K.; Majumdar, D.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy Water Board (HWB) is a constituent unit of the Department of Atomic Energy. One of the diversified activities undertaken by HWB is pursuing exploitation of non-conventional resources for recovery of uranium from wet phosphoric acid being the most prominent one. Amongst the feasible processes for recovery of uranium from phosphoric acid is solvent extraction. Use of in-house solvent produced by HWB, is another key driver. To garner necessary information for developing the industrial scale facilities, the process has been studied in the laboratory scale, mini scale, bench scale at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher. The process was subsequently scaled up to an industrial prototype scale unit and was set up as a Technology Demonstration Plant coupled with a commercial phosphoric acid plant. The plant has successfully processed more than 2 lakh m 3 of wet phosphoric acid and all the parameters including the product, Yellow Cake have been qualified. No adverse effect has been observed in the fertilizer produced. The main characteristics of the process and subsequent process innovations are discussed in this paper. These innovations have been carried out to overcome hurdles faced during commissioning and subsequent operations of the Plant. The innovations include improved pretreatment of the wet phosphoric acid for feeding to the extraction cycle, improved control of the first cycle chemical environment, reducing the strength of the phosphoric acid used for stripping, reducing the number of equipment and machineries, alteration in solvent composition used in the first and second cycle in the solvent extraction units of the plant. (author)

  12. Wet process of phosphoric acid purification by solvent extraction using tri-n-butyl phosphate and cyclohexanol mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solvent extraction is an efficient, economical and widely-used technology for the purification of wet process phosphoric acid (WPA. This present work focused on the development of a solvent extraction system, TC, representing tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanol mixtures. The equilibrium phase diagram of the system H3PO4−H2O−TC at 298.2 K and atmospheric pressure was obtained. The effects of extraction time, phosphoric acid concentration, extractant concentration, temperature and phase volume ratio on extraction efficiency were studied. The extracted complexes were estimated to be 1.8H3PO4 2TC. The extraction process of H3PO4 was exothermic and the enthalpy change, ΔH, was obtained. The solvent mixtures had a high efficiency for phosphoric acid purification via multi-stage counter-current extraction from the industrial WPA in a reciprocating plate extraction column with an H3PO4 extraction yield of 85.08 % at 313.2 K. The stability, extraction efficiency and recycling capability of TC for H3PO4 extraction were also estimated.

  13. A Multi-Agent Approach for the Extract-Transform-Load Process Support in Data Warehouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Betancur-Calderón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide an adequate solution in terms of robustness and automation in the process of Extract-Transform-Load (ETL in data warehouses, in this article a multi-agent model that gathers the strengths of other approaches like wrappers and ad-hoc solutions is presented. Such a model considers the heterogeneity and availability of the data sources as well as their distributed nature. For its validation an experiment was performed using simulated and real data, which demonstrated not only its technical feasibility but also its effectiveness in terms of the percentage of processed data and the time to accomplish it.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-08

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Madhavi Nallani-Chakravartula; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2006-03-27

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the development of continuous processes for hydrogenation as well as continuous production of carbon foam and coke.

  16. Investigation of single-cycle separation process based on forward and backward extractions of actinides and fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yuji; Tsubata, Yasuhiro; Shirasu, Noriko; Morita, Keisuke; Suzuki, Tomoya

    2015-01-01

    We have been developing a new partitioning method of high-level radioactive waste by the single-cycle extraction process. This process is composed of the extraction of actinides (An) and fission products (FP, e.g., Pd, Ru, Mo and Tc), and mutual separation by reverse extraction. The extractant employed in this process is required to extract soft, hard acid metals and oxonium anions simultaneously. The NTAamide (N,N,N',N',N”,N”,-hexaoctyl-nitrilotriacetamide) is one of the candidate extractants. After the extraction of An and FP, the mutual separation by reverse-extraction should be set up. Distribution ratios of Pd and Ru, which are obtained by NTAamide extraction, can be suppressed by masking agents, thiourea, systeine, diethylenetriamine, and trisaminoethylamine. The masking of Mo can be performed using methylimino-N,N'-diethylacetamide (MIDEA), NTAamide(C2) and iminodimethylphosphoric acid, and Re can be stripped using an aqueous phase with high pH. The information on extraction and masking for these metals will be utilized in the development of the single-cycle process. (author)

  17. Concentration of antioxidant polyphenols from Thymus capitatus extracts by membrane process technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Sami; Khelifi, Eltaief; Attia, Yesmine; Ferjani, Ezzeddine; Noureddine Hellal, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Thymus capitatus is a Mediterranean plant characterized by its antioxidant polyphenols of which the most known are the carnosic and rosmarinic acids. In this way, this study aims to concentrate these acids by membrane processes. The thyme essential oil composition was established by capillary GC-MS and 27 components were identified representing 98.93%± 1.97% of total oils. The antioxidant test for permeate and retentate of methanolic and aqueous extract were determined using 3 types of membranes. The results showed that the synthetic NF membrane is able to trap and concentrate phenolic compounds in the retentate much better than the NF commercial and UF synthetic membrane. The results of the total phenolic content (TPC) showed a significant value of the polyphenol content present in the aqueous extract with 175.53 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/g of extract. The spectrum of the aqueous extract of Thymus capitatus showed the presence of 3 visible peaks, the 1st one at 217 nm corresponding to the carnosic acid, the 2nd one at 277 nm for essential oils, and the last one at 326 nm attributed to the rosmarinic acid. The commercial membrane NF-DK succeeded to concentrate rosmarinic acid and can be considered as a stage towards the concentration of this product with a high added value. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Optimization of squalene extraction from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) in multistage process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuyo, Leah; Widiputri, Diah; Legowo, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a compound widely known as one of the natural antioxidants used in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. As the main source of squalene, which is shark liver oil, is becoming more limited in its availability, attempts have been made to extract squalene from other sources, e.g. from vegetable oils. Research has found that one of the wastes produced by palm oil industry, namely the palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), contains squalene among other useful compounds. Since Indonesia is one of the largest producers of palm oil, the abundant amount of PFAD becomes very interesting to be a solution in coping with today demand of natural squalene. In this research, the extraction of squalene from PFAD is optimized through a multiple-stage extraction process, where results show a significant increase of squalene yield. Furthermore, the liquid-liquid phase equilibrium data for an extraction using dichloromethane (DCM) were plotted to develop a ternary-phase-diagram between squalene, DCM and free-fatty acids.

  19. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The reprocessing of irradiated fuels improvement and extension of the solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.; Chesne, A.

    1964-01-01

    Improvements made in the conventional tri-butylphosphate process are described, in particular. the concentration and the purification of plutonium by one extraction cycle using tri-butyl-phosphate with reflux; and the use of an apparatus working continuously for precipitating plutonium oxalate, for calcining the oxalate, and for fluorinating the oxide. The modifications proposed for the treatment of irradiated uranium - molybdenum alloys are described, in particular, the dissolution of the fuel, and the concentration of the fission product solutions. The solvent extraction treatment is used also for the plutonium fuels utilized for the fast breeder reactor (Rapsodie) An outline of the process is presented and discussed, as well as the first experimental results and the plans for a pilot plant having a capacity of 1 kg/day. The possible use of tn-lauryl-amine in the plutonium purification cycle is now under consideration for the processing plant at La Hague. The flowsheet for this process and its performance are presented. The possibility of vitrification is considered for the final treatment of the concentrated radioactive wastes from the Marcoule (irradiated uranium) and La Hague (irradiated uranium-molybdenum) Centers. Three possible processes are described and discussed, as well as the results obtained from the operation of the corresponding experimental units using tracers. (authors) [fr

  1. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-chun; Pandey, Banshi Dhar

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review focuses on bio-extraction of metals from solid wastes of industries and consumer goods. ► Bio-processing of certain effluents/wastewaters with metals is also included in brief. ► Quantity/composition of wastes are assessed, and microbes used and leaching conditions included. ► Bio-recovery using bacteria, fungi and archaea is highlighted for resource recycling. ► Process methodology/mechanism, R and D direction and scope of large scale use are briefly included. - Abstract: Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bio-processing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted.

  2. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  3. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  4. Feature Extraction of Electronic Nose Signals Using QPSO-Based Multiple KFDA Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Tailai; Yan, Jia; Huang, Daoyu; Lu, Kun; Deng, Changjian; Zeng, Tanyue; Yu, Song; He, Zhiyi

    2018-01-29

    The aim of this research was to enhance the classification accuracy of an electronic nose (E-nose) in different detecting applications. During the learning process of the E-nose to predict the types of different odors, the prediction accuracy was not quite satisfying because the raw features extracted from sensors' responses were regarded as the input of a classifier without any feature extraction processing. Therefore, in order to obtain more useful information and improve the E-nose's classification accuracy, in this paper, a Weighted Kernels Fisher Discriminant Analysis (WKFDA) combined with Quantum-behaved Particle Swarm Optimization (QPSO), i.e., QWKFDA, was presented to reprocess the original feature matrix. In addition, we have also compared the proposed method with quite a few previously existing ones including Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Locality Preserving Projections (LPP), Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA) and Kernels Fisher Discriminant Analysis (KFDA). Experimental results proved that QWKFDA is an effective feature extraction method for E-nose in predicting the types of wound infection and inflammable gases, which shared much higher classification accuracy than those of the contrast methods.

  5. Multichannel processing for dispersion curves extraction of ultrasonic axial-transmission signals: Comparisons and case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Cassereau, Didier; Hu, Bo; Wang, Weiqi; Laugier, Pascal; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel

    2016-09-01

    Some pioneering studies have shown the clinical feasibility of long bones evaluation using ultrasonic guided waves. Such a strategy is typically designed to determine the dispersion information of the guided modes to infer the elastic and structural characteristics of cortical bone. However, there are still some challenges to extract multimode dispersion curves due to many practical limitations, e.g., high spectral density of modes, limited spectral resolution and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Recently, two representative signal processing methods have been proposed to improve the dispersion curves extraction. The first method is based on singular value decomposition (SVD) with advantages of multi-emitter and multi-receiver configuration for enhanced mode extraction; the second one uses linear Radon transform (LRT) with high-resolution imaging of the dispersion curves. To clarify the pros and cons, a face to face comparison was performed between the two methods. The results suggest that the LRT method is suitable to separate the guided modes at low frequency-thickness-product ( fh) range; for multimode signals in broadband fh range, the SVD-based method shows more robust performances for weak mode enhancement and noise filtering. Different methods are valuable to cover the entire fh range for processing ultrasonic axial transmission signals measured in long cortical bones.

  6. Extraction-wet oxidation process using sulphuric acid for treatment of TBP-dodecane wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshingkar, D.S.; Kartha, P.K.S.

    1998-03-01

    In the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, 30% n-tributyl phosphate in hydrocarbon diluent is used for extraction of uranium and plutonium from the spent fuel by Purex process. When TBP-dodecane can no longer be purified from its degradation products, it is discarded as alpha bearing, intermediate level wastes containing plutonium and ruthenium-106. To overcome shortcomings of extraction-pyrolysis and saponification processes, studies were undertaken to find the suitability of H 2 SO 4 as an alternative extractant for TBP. Oxidation of TBP to H 3 PO 4 using H 2 O 2 was also explored as H 3 PO 4 can be treated by known procedures for removal of plutonium and ruthenium-106. The experiments were conducted with aged spent solvent wastes discharged from reprocessing plant at Trombay using H 2 SO 4 and H 2 SO 4 - H 3 PO 4 mixture. The decontamination factors (DFs) for alpha activity were found to be satisfactory. The DFs for ruthenium were lower as compared to those obtained in experiments with simulated degraded waste. The gas chromatographic analysis of separated diluent revealed high branched alkane content and low n-dodecane content of separated diluent. It is very much different from that of diluent currently in use. Hence incineration of separated diluent is recommended. (author)

  7. Radiologic study of the healing process of the extracted socket of beagle dogs using cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Won; Lee, Won; Lee, Byung Do [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, De Sok [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To longitudinally observe the healing process of extracted socket and the alterations of the residual ridge in healthy adult dogs using cone beam CT (CBCT). The mandibular premolars of two beagle dogs were removed and the extraction sites were covered with the gingival tissue. CBCTs (3D X-ray CT scanner, Alphard vega, Asahi Co.) were taken at baseline and at 1 week interval for 12 weeks. Radiographic density of extracted wounds was measured on normalized images with a custom-made image analysis program. The amount of alveolar crestal resorption after the teeth extraction was measured with a reformatted three-dimensional image using CBCT. Bony healing pattern of extracted wound of each group was also longitudinally observed and analyzed. Dimensional changes occurred during the first 6 weeks following the extraction of dogs' mandibular premolars. The reduction of the height of residual ridge was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. Radiographic density of extracted wounds increased by week 4, but the change in density stabilized after week 6. New bone formation was observed at the floor and the peripheral side of extracted socket from week 1. The entrance of extracted socket was sealed by a hard-tissue bridge at week 5. The healing process of extracted wound involved a series of events including new bone formation and residual ridge resorption.

  8. Radiologic study of the healing process of the extracted socket of beagle dogs using cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Won; Lee, Won; Lee, Byung Do; Kim, De Sok

    2009-01-01

    To longitudinally observe the healing process of extracted socket and the alterations of the residual ridge in healthy adult dogs using cone beam CT (CBCT). The mandibular premolars of two beagle dogs were removed and the extraction sites were covered with the gingival tissue. CBCTs (3D X-ray CT scanner, Alphard vega, Asahi Co.) were taken at baseline and at 1 week interval for 12 weeks. Radiographic density of extracted wounds was measured on normalized images with a custom-made image analysis program. The amount of alveolar crestal resorption after the teeth extraction was measured with a reformatted three-dimensional image using CBCT. Bony healing pattern of extracted wound of each group was also longitudinally observed and analyzed. Dimensional changes occurred during the first 6 weeks following the extraction of dogs' mandibular premolars. The reduction of the height of residual ridge was more pronounced at the buccal than at the lingual aspect of the extraction socket. Radiographic density of extracted wounds increased by week 4, but the change in density stabilized after week 6. New bone formation was observed at the floor and the peripheral side of extracted socket from week 1. The entrance of extracted socket was sealed by a hard-tissue bridge at week 5. The healing process of extracted wound involved a series of events including new bone formation and residual ridge resorption.

  9. Optimal protocol for maximum work extraction in a feedback process with a time-varying potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chulan

    2017-12-01

    The nonequilibrium nature of information thermodynamics is characterized by the inequality or non-negativity of the total entropy change of the system, memory, and reservoir. Mutual information change plays a crucial role in the inequality, in particular if work is extracted and the paradox of Maxwell's demon is raised. We consider the Brownian information engine where the protocol set of the harmonic potential is initially chosen by the measurement and varies in time. We confirm the inequality of the total entropy change by calculating, in detail, the entropic terms including the mutual information change. We rigorously find the optimal values of the time-dependent protocol for maximum extraction of work both for the finite-time and the quasi-static process.

  10. A novel acoustic catheter stethoscope based acquisition and signal processing framework to extract multiple bio signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adithya, Prashanth Chetlur; Sankar, Ravi; Moreno, Wilfrido A; Hart, Stuart

    2017-07-01

    In this study, a novel acoustic stethoscope based on an intravenous catheter was introduced to measure vascular pressures from a Yorkshire pig. Our hypothesis is that by means of this single device (measurement system) and by applying signal analysis and processing framework, multiple vital bio signals can be extracted. In contrast, current conventional state-of-the-art technologies use multiple devices to provide the same information. The framework used to extract these bio signals consisted of a noise cancellation technique and wavelet based source separation. The preliminary results obtained from the acquired pressure data revealed the presence of acoustic heart and respiratory pulses. Finally, the computed heart and respiratory rates were benchmarked with actual values measured using conventional devices to validate our hypothesis.

  11. Fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers and process for cesium solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Sachleben, Richard A.

    2003-05-20

    The invention relates to a class of phenoxy fluoro-alcohols, their preparation, and their use as phase modifiers and solvating agents in a solvent composition for the extraction of cesium from alkaline solutions. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohols comply with the formula: ##STR1## in which n=2 to 4; X represents a hydrogen or a fluorine atom, and R.sup.2 -R.sup.6 are hydrogen or alkyl substituents. These phenoxy fluoro-alcohol phase modifiers are a necessary component to a robust solvent composition and process useful for the removal of radioactive cesium from alkaline nuclear waste streams. The fluoro-alcohols can also be used in solvents designed to extract other cesium from acidic or neutral solutions.

  12. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa P. Marques

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas using the osmotic evaporation (OE process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m2. The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl2 5 M was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m2·m−3, it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% (w/w in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas.

  13. Concentration of Tea Extracts by Osmotic Evaporation: Optimisation of Process Parameters and Effect on Antioxidant Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marisa P; Alves, Vítor D; Coelhoso, Isabel M

    2016-12-28

    In this work, the concentration process of three different tea extracts (medicinal Rosil No. 6, Black, and Forest Fruit teas) using the osmotic evaporation (OE) process, was studied. The effect of the OE process on the content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was evaluated. The concentration process was carried out in a hollow-fibre membrane contactor with an effective surface area of 0.54 m². The tea extract was circulated through the shell side of the contactor, while a concentrated osmotic solution (CaCl₂ 5 M) was circulated inside the fibres. The flux, the driving force, and the mass transfer coefficient were evaluated. A decrease of the water flux over time was observed and was attributed only to the decrease of the driving force, caused by the dilution of the osmotic solution. Using a surface area/feed volume ratio of 774 m²·m -3 , it is possible to reach a tea concentration of 40% ( w / w ) in 5 h, with a constant water flux and without losing the phenolic content and antioxidant potential in most teas.

  14. [Performance optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with butanol extractive fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping

    2008-11-01

    The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.

  15. An image processing based paradigm for the extraction of tonal sounds in cetacean communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershenbaum, Arik; Roch, Marie A

    2013-12-01

    Dolphins and whales use tonal whistles for communication, and it is known that frequency modulation encodes contextual information. An automated mathematical algorithm could characterize the frequency modulation of tonal calls for use with clustering and classification. Most automatic cetacean whistle processing techniques are based on peak or edge detection or require analyst assistance in verifying detections. An alternative paradigm is introduced using techniques of image processing. Frequency information is extracted as ridges in whistle spectrograms. Spectral ridges are the fundamental structure of tonal vocalizations, and ridge detection is a well-established image processing technique, easily applied to vocalization spectrograms. This paradigm is implemented as freely available matlab scripts, coined IPRiT (image processing ridge tracker). Its fidelity in the reconstruction of synthesized whistles is compared to another published whistle detection software package, silbido. Both algorithms are also applied to real-world recordings of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops trunactus) signature whistles and tested for the ability to identify whistles belonging to different individuals. IPRiT gave higher fidelity and lower false detection than silbido with synthesized whistles, and reconstructed dolphin identity groups from signature whistles, whereas silbido could not. IPRiT appears to be superior to silbido for the extraction of the precise frequency variation of the whistle.

  16. Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, M.H.; Frame, J.M.; Dudey, N.D.; Kiel, G.R.; Mesec, V.; Woodfield, F.W.; Binney, S.E.; Jante, M.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Clark, G.T.

    1979-02-01

    A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc.

  17. Extraction of uranium from seawater: chemical process and plant design feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, M.H.; Frame, J.M.; Dudey, N.D.; Kiel, G.R.; Mesec, V.; Woodfield, F.W.; Binney, S.E.; Jante, M.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Clark, G.T.

    1979-02-01

    A major assessment was made of the uranium resources in seawater. Several concepts for moving seawater to recover the uranium were investigated, including pumping the seawater and using natural ocean currents or tides directly. The optimal site chosen was on the southeastern Puerto Rico coast, with the south U.S. Atlantic coast as an alternate. The various processes for extracting uranium from seawater were reviewed, with the adsorption process being the most promising at the present time. Of the possible adsorbents, hydrous titanium oxide was found to have the best properties. A uranium extraction plant was conceptually designed. Of the possible methods for contacting the seawater with the adsorbent, a continuous fluidized bed concept was chosen as most practical for a pumped system. A plant recovering 500 tonnes of U 3 O 8 per year requires 5900 cubic meters per second of seawater to be pumped through the adsorbent beds for a 70% overall recovery efficiency. Total cost of the plant was estimated to be about $6.2 billion. A computer model for the process was used for parametric sensitivity studies and economic projections. Several design case variations were developed. Other topics addressed were the impact of co-product recovery, environmental considerations, etc

  18. Effect of radiation process on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron during processing and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, ElShazali Ahmed [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North 13314 Shambat (Sudan); Abdelraheem Ali, Nahid [Department of Food Science, Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Juba (Sudan); Ahmed, Salma Hashim [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North 13314 Shambat (Sudan); Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A. [United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Tottori University, Tottori (Japan); Babiker, Elfadil E., E-mail: elfadilbabiker@yahoo.co [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Khartoum, Khartoum North 13314 Shambat (Sudan)

    2010-07-15

    Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly (P<=0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly (P<=0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly (P<=0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly (P<=0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant (P<=0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars.

  19. Effect of radiation process on antinutrients and HCl extractability of calcium, phosphorus and iron during processing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, ElShazali Ahmed; Abdelraheem Ali, Nahid; Ahmed, Salma Hashim; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A.; Babiker, Elfadil E.

    2010-01-01

    Whole and dehulled flours of millet cultivars Ashana and Dembi were stored for 30 and 60 days before and after radiation and/or cooking. Phytic acid and polyphenols contents were assayed for all treatments. The results revealed that the storage period was found to have no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents. Moreover, dehulling of the grains reduced more than 50% of phytate and polyphenols of both cultivars. Cooking of the raw whole and dehulled flour significantly (P≤0.05) reduced phytate and polyphenols contents for both cultivars. Radiation process alone had no effect on phytate and polyphenols contents but when followed by cooking significantly (P≤0.05) reduced the level of such antinutrients for the whole and dehulled flour of both cultivars. Dehulling alone significantly (P≤0.05) decreased Ca and P content but slightly decreased Fe content. Radiation alone or in combination with cooking was found to have slight effect on minerals content of the whole and dehulled raw flour for both cultivars. Cooking alone or in combination with radiation of whole or dehulled raw flour significantly (P≤0.05) improved the extractable Ca but had no significant (P≤0.05) effect on extractable P and Fe for both cultivars.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-08-11

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, efforts have focused on the facility modifications for continuous hydrotreating, as well as developing improved protocols for producing synthetic pitches.

  1. Co-processing Plant Extracts for Improvement of Their Pharmacotechnic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Gustmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The herbal Espinheira Santa (Maytenus ilicifolia can ingested in capsules for treatment of injuries from digestive tract, such as gastritis. However, the large amount of drug administered dose medication adherence difficult, so this study sought an alternative by formulating effervescent granules facilitating drug intake. The obtained granules made by wet and effervescent mixture of citric acid, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate at different concentrations, totaling eight formulations, in addition to lactose as diluent and disintegrant in the composition. The granules were produced in sizes from 1 and 2mm. Rheological tests were compared against the dry extract, analyzed the average particle sizes of beads, mapped its surface by scanning electron microscopy and evaluated their behavior effervescent. The flow properties of the granules showed better values than the dry extract. The co-processed formulations showed average particle sizes distributed closed, where 1mm time effervescence had smaller, respecting all formulations, pharmacopeial limits of maximum 5 minutes. The preparation of effervescent granules Espinheira Santa proved to be a good alternativel, once that have easy preparation, low cost, excellent flow and rapid disintegration.Keywords: Espinheira Santa, effervescent granules, dry extract.

  2. Techno-Economic Analysis of Magnesium Extraction from Seawater via a Catalyzed Organo-Metathetical Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bearden, Mark D.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Koech, Philip K.; McGrail, B. Pete

    2018-01-16

    Magnesium (Mg) has many useful applications especially in various Mg alloys which can decrease weight while increasing strength. To increase the affordability and minimize environment consequence, a novel catalyzed organo-metathetical (COMET) process was proposed to extract Mg from seawater aiming to achieve significant reduction in total energy and production cost comparing with the melting salt electrolysis method currently adopted by US Mg LLC. A process flowsheet for a reference COMET process was set-up using Aspen Plus which included five key steps, anhydrous MgCl2 production, transmetallation, dibutyl Mg decomposition, n-BuLi regeneration, and LiCL electrolysis. The energy and production cost and CO2 emission were estimated based on the Aspen modeling using Aspen economic analyzer. Our results showed that it is possible to produce Mg from seawater with a production cost of $2.0/kg-Mg while consuming about 35.3 kWh/kg-Mg and releasing 7.0 kg CO2/kg-Mg. A simplified US Mg manufacturing process was also generated using Aspen and the cost and emission results were estimated for comparison purpose. Under our simulation conditions, the reference COMET process maintain a comparable CO2 emission rate and can save about 40% in production cost and save about 15% energy compared to the simplified US Mg process.

  3. Preliminary design and analysis of a process for the extraction of lithium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, M.; Dang, V.D.

    1975-09-01

    The U.S. demand for lithium by the industrial sector and by a fusion power economy in the future is discussed. For a one million MW(e) CTR (D-T fuel cycle) economy, growing into the beginning of the next century (the years 2000 to 2030), the cumulative demand for lithium is estimated to range from (0.55 to 4.7) x 10 7 to 1.0 x 10 9 kg. Present estimates of the available U.S. supply are 6.9 x 10 8 kg of lithium from mineral resources and 4.0 x 10 9 kg of lithium from concentrated natural brines. There is, however, a vast supply of lithium in seawater: 2.5 x 10 14 kg. A preliminary process design for the extraction of lithium from seawater is presented: seawater is first evaporated by solar energy to increase the concentration of lithium and to decrease the concentration of other cations in the bittern which then passes into a Dowex-50 ion exchange bed for cation adsorption. Lithium ions are then eluted with dilute hydrochloric acid forming an aqueous lithium chloride which is subsequently concentrated and electrolyzed. The energy requirement for lithium extraction varies between 0.08 and 2.46 kWh(e)/gm for a range of production rates varying between 10 4 and 10 8 kg/y; this is small compared to the energy produced from the use of lithium in a CTR having a value of 3400 kWh(e)/g Li. Production cost of the process is estimated to be in the range of 2.2 to 3.2 cents/g Li. As a basis for the process design, it is recommended that a phase equilibria study of the solid--liquid crystallization processes of seawater be conducted. Uncertainties exist in the operation of large solar ponds for concentrating large quantities of seawater. A search for a highly selective adsorbent or extractant for Li from low concentration aqueous solutions should be made. Other physical separation processes such as using membranes should be investigated. 9 tables

  4. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren

    2009-04-14

    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The n.sup.th level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  5. Aroma extract dilution analysis of a beeflike process flavor from extruded enzyme-hydrolyzed soybean protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, H H; Kim, C J; Ahn, B H; Nam, H S; Cadwallader, K R

    2001-02-01

    Aroma-active compounds from a beeflike process flavor, produced by extrusion of enzyme-hydrolyzed vegetable protein (E-HVP), were analyzed using aroma extract dilution analysis. The number of aroma-active compounds and the aroma intensity were increased by the addition of aroma precursors prior to extrusion. The most intense compound was 2-methyl-3-furanthiol having a cooked rice/vitamin-like/meaty aroma note. Several sulfur-containing furans, such as 2-methyl-3-(methylthio)furan, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan, and bis(2-methylfuryl)disulfide, were detected with high flavor dilution (FD) factors. Some pyrazines, such as 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,6-diethylpyrazine, and 3,5-diethyl-2-methylpyrazine, also had high FD factors. It is hypothesized that sulfur-containing amino acids and thiamin were important precursors in aroma formation in process flavor from E-HVP.

  6. Kinetics and mechanism of hemicelluloses removal from cellulosic fibers during the cold caustic extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Hu, Huichao; Li, Hailong; Huang, Liulian; Chen, Lihui; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-06-01

    The effective separation of hemicelluloses and cellulose is desirable for the production of high-purity cellulose, which is a sustainable raw material for many value-added applications. For this purpose, the kinetics and mechanism of hemicelluloses removal from the cold caustic extraction (CCE) were investigated in the present study. The hemicelluloses removal process consists of: 1) the bulk phase, characteristic of significant hemicelluloses removal; 2) the transition phase, hemicelluloses transferring from the inner to the outer region of the fiber wall, with negligible overall hemicelluloses removal; 3) the residual phase, presenting a weak but continuing hemicelluloses removal. Furthermore, the enzymatic peeling method was adopted to study the fundamentals of hemicelluloses removal. The results showed that the molecular weight of hemicelluloses is the main parameter governing their diffusion/dissolution processes, and that the low molecular weight hemicelluloses are preferentially removed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing a Process Model for the Forensic Extraction of Information from Desktop Search Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Pavlic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Desktop search applications can contain cached copies of files that were deleted from the file system. Forensic investigators see this as a potential source of evidence, as documents deleted by suspects may still exist in the cache. Whilst there have been attempts at recovering data collected by desktop search applications, there is no methodology governing the process, nor discussion on the most appropriate means to do so. This article seeks to address this issue by developing a process model that can be applied when developing an information extraction application for desktop search applications, discussing preferred methods and the limitations of each. This work represents a more structured approach than other forms of current research.

  8. Analysis of a reactive extraction process for biodiesel production using a lipase immobilized on magnetic nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussan, K J; Cardona, C A; Giraldo, O H; Gutiérrez, L F; Pérez, V H

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by coprecipitating Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) ions in a sodium hydroxide solution and used as support for lipase. The lipase-coated particles were applied in a reactive extraction process that allowed separation of the products formed during transesterification. Kinetics data for triolein and ethanol consumption during biodiesel (ethyl oleate) synthesis together with a thermodynamic phase equilibrium model (liquid-liquid) were used for simulation of batch and continuous processes. The analysis demonstrated the possibility of applying this biocatalytic system in the reactive zone using external magnetic fields. This approach implies new advantages in efficient location and use of lipases in column reactors for producing biodiesel. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  10. PRODUCTION OF FOAMS, FIBERS AND PITCHES USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong Chen; Elliot B. Kennel; Liviu Magean; Pete G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-06-20

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed processes for converting coal feedstocks to carbon products, including coal-derived pitch, coke foams and fibers based on solvent extraction processes. A key technology is the use of hydrogenation accomplished at elevated temperatures and pressures to obtain a synthetic coal pitch. Hydrogenation, or partial direct liquefaction of coal, is used to modify the properties of raw coal such that a molten synthetic pitch can be obtained. The amount of hydrogen required to produce a synthetic pitch is about an order of magnitude less than the amount required to produce synthetic crude oil. Hence the conditions for synthetic pitch production consume very little hydrogen and can be accomplished at substantially lower pressure. In the molten state, hot filtration or centrifugation can be used to separate dissolved coal chemicals from mineral matter and insolubles (inertinite), resulting in the production of a purified hydrocarbon pitch. Alternatively, if hydrogenation is not used, aromatic hydrocarbon liquids appropriate for use as precursors to carbon products can obtained by dissolving coal in a solvent. As in the case for partial direct liquefaction pitches, undissolved coal is removed via hot filtration or centrifugation. Excess solvent is boiled off and recovered. The resultant solid material, referred to as Solvent Extracted Carbon Ore or SECO, has been used successfully to produce artificial graphite and carbon foam.

  11. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes For Coal Derived Carbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Dady B. Dadyburjor; Gregory W. Hackett; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; Robert C. Svensson; John W. Zondlo

    2006-09-30

    In this reporting period, tonnage quantities of coal extract were produced but solid separation was not accomplished in a timely manner. It became clear that the originally selected filtration process would not be effective enough for a serious commercial process. Accordingly, centrifugation was investigated as a superior means for removing solids from the extract. Results show acceptable performance. Petrographic analysis of filtered solids was carried out by R and D Carbon Petrography under the auspices of Koppers and consultant Ken Krupinski. The general conclusion is that the material appears to be amenable to centrifugation. Filtered solids shows a substantial pitch component as well as some mesophase, resulting in increased viscosity. This is likely a contributing reason for the difficulty in filtering the material. Cost estimates were made for the hydotreatment and digestion reactors that would be needed for a 20,000 ton per year demonstration plants, with the aid of ChemTech Inc. The estimates show that the costs of scaling up the existing tank reactors are acceptable. However, a strong recommendation was made to consider pipe reactors, which are thought to be more cost effective and potentially higher performance in large scale systems. The alternate feedstocks for coke and carbon products were used to fabricate carbon electrodes as described in the last quarterly report. Gregory Hackett successfully defended his MS Thesis on the use of these electrodes in Direct Carbon Fuel Cell (DCFC), which is excerpted in Section 2.4 of this quarterly report.

  12. Mercury extraction by the TRUEX process solvent. II. Selective partitioning of mercury from co-extracted actinides in a simulated acidic ICPP waste stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The TRUEX process is being evaluated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) as a means to partition the actinides from acidic sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The mercury content of this waste averages 1 g/l. Because the chemistry of mercury has not been extensively evaluated in the TRUEX process, mercury was singled out as an element of interest. Radioactive mercury, 203 Hg, was spiked into a simulated solution of SBW containing 1 g/l mercury. Successive extraction batch contacts with the mercury spiked waste and successive scrubbing and stripping batch contacts of the mercury loaded TRUEX solvent (0.2 M CMPO-1.4 M TBP in dodecane) show that mercury will extract into and strip from the solvent. The extraction distribution coefficient for mercury, as HgCl 2 , from SBW having a nitric acid concentration of 1.4 M and a chloride concentration of 0.035 M was found to be 3. The stripping distribution coefficient was found to be 0.5 with 5 M HNO 3 and 0.077 with 0.25 M Na 2 CO 3 . Because experiments described here show that mercury can be extracted from SBW and stripped from the solvent, a process has been developed to partition mercury from the actinides in SBW. 10 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Techno-Economic Analysis of Magnesium Extraction from Seawater via a Catalyzed Organo-Metathetical Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Bearden, Mark D.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Koech, Philip K.; McGrail, B. Pete

    2018-03-01

    Magnesium (Mg) has many useful applications especially in the form of various Mg alloys that can decrease weight while increasing strength compared with common steels. To increase the affordability and minimize environment consequence, a novel catalyzed organo-metathetical (COMET) process was proposed to extract Mg from seawater aiming to achieve a significant reduction in total energy and production cost compared with the melting salt electrolysis method currently adapted by US Mg LLC. A process flow sheet for a reference COMET process was set up using Aspen Plus. The energy consumption, production cost, and CO2 emissions were estimated using the Aspen economic analyzer. Our results showed that it is possible to produce Mg from seawater with a production cost of 2.0/kg-Mg while consuming about 35.6 kWh/kg-Mg and releasing 7.7 kg CO2/kg-Mg. Under the simulated conditions, the reference COMET process maintains a comparable CO2 emission rate, saves about 40% in production cost, and saves about 15% in energy consumption compared with a simplified US Mg process.

  14. Probing free radical processes during storage of extracts from whole roasted coffee beans: impact of O2 exposure during extraction and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeretzian, Chahan; Pascual, Ederlinda C; Goodman, Bernard A

    2013-04-03

    Development of liquid coffee products of good quality with extended shelf lives is hampered by their rapid quality degradation as a result of both physical and flavor instability. One approach that is being considered for extending the shelf lives of liquid coffees is that of supplementing the beverage with a very mild and slow continuous extraction from intact roasted beans that are held within an aluminum can. This paper reports the use of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the effects of key parameters that affect the stability of liquid coffee prepared from aqueous extracts from whole roasted coffee beans, namely, the O2 content of the water and headspace during extraction and the temperature during storage. It was found that the magnitude of the free radical signal was sensitive to the O2 content of the water used for extraction and storage time and temperature, whereas the intensity of the Fe(III) (g = 4.3) signal was affected only by the O2 content of the water and the Mn signal was insensitive to the experimental parameters. The most critical factor was the O2 content of the water used for extraction, and careful control of O2 exposure at the extraction stage could be a crucial factor for generating products with resistance to oxidative processes during storage.

  15. Radionuclide concentrations in oil extraction and production processes in Northeast Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, Maria Helena Paranhos

    2005-06-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) was detected in the water and oil extracted from wells both onshore and offshore. The oil is extracted together with water and sediments which contain radionuclides of the uranium and thorium series. Among the radionuclides present, especial attention should be given to 226 Ra and 228 Ra, due to its long half-life and importance, from the radiological point of view. The objective of this work was to identify the natural radionuclides in the oil industry, to determine their activity concentration, and from these results, to evaluate the risks the employees of the oil industry are exposed to. Samples of sludge, scale and produced water extracted with the oil were collected from three oil processing stations in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. The activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined in the solid samples before and after the extraction of the oil. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the samples without oil was evaluated. Water samples, on the other hand, were analyzed for their contents of radionuclides and barium concentration. It was observed that the activity concentrations of the analyzed radionuclides ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb) in sludge and scales were very high when compared with the literature, particularly much higher than the values for 226 Ra and 228 Ra obtained for sludge and scales from the oil platforms near the city of Campos, state of Rio de Janeiro. The maximum concentration values for 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th and 210 Pb (3,500, 2,195, 2,248.6 and 201 kBq kg -1 , respectively) were obtained for the scales after the extraction of the oil. The analysis of the samples showed that barium sulphate (barite) and strontium sulphate (celestite) are the main constituents of the scales, while carbonates and silicates, together with other compounds are the components of sludge. A correlation between barium, 226 Ra and

  16. Extraction of water and solutes from argillaceous rocks for geochemical characterisation: Methods, processes and current understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Elisa; Michelot, Jean-Luc; Pitsch, Helmut; Lalieux, Philippe; Aranyossy, Jean-François

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarises the results of a comprehensive critical review, initiated by the OECD/NEA "Clay Club," of the extraction techniques available to obtain water and solutes from argillaceous rocks. The paper focuses on the mechanisms involved in the extraction processes, the consequences on the isotopic and chemical composition of the extracted pore water and the attempts made to reconstruct its original composition. Finally, it provides some examples of reliable techniques and information, as a function of the purpose of the geochemical study. Résumé. Cet article résume les résultats d'une synthèse critique d'ensemble, lancée par le OECD/NEA "Clay Club", sur les techniques d'extraction disponibles pour obtenir l'eau et les solutés de roches argileuses. L'article est consacré aux mécanismes impliqués dans les processus d'extraction, aux conséquences sur la composition isotopique et chimique de l'eau porale extraite et aux tentatives faites pour reconstituer sa composition originelle. Finalement, il donne quelques exemples de techniques fiables et d'informations, en fonction du but de l'étude géochimique. Resúmen. Este artículo resume los resultados de una revisión crítica exhaustiva (iniciada por el "Clay Club" OECD/NEA) de las técnicas de extracción disponibles para obtener agua y solutos en rocas arcillosas. El artículo se centra en los mecanismos involucrados en los procesos extractivos, las consecuencias en la composición isotópica y química del agua intersticial extraída, y en los intentos realizados para reconstruir su composición original. Finalmente, se presentan algunos ejemplos de técnicas fiables e información, en función del propósito del estudio geoquímico.

  17. [Optimization of ultrasonic extraction process for Xiaoqinglong granules by Box-Behnken in condition of medium scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Kuan; Shi, Xiao-Meng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Qing-Fen; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper is to investigate the optimization conditions of ultrasonic technique for extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules in medium scale. First of all, single factor experiment was used to determine the overall impact tendency and range of each factor; secondly, Box-Behnken method was used for optimization and detecting the content of paeoniflorin, ephedrine hydrochloride, glycyrrhizic acid of the liquid medicine. Their respective extraction rate was calculated and the comprehensive evaluation was carried out. The results were used as the evaluation basis for the efficacy of Xiaoqinglong granules ultrasonic extraction. The test results showed that the optimum extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules by ultrasonic extraction was under the following conditions: ultrasonic power 600 W, liquid-solid ratio 10∶1, extraction for 31 min. Under this condition, the predicted value of extraction rate for Xiaoqinglong granules was 85.90%, and the test value was 85.87%. The mathematical model(P<0.01) established in this paper was significant, and can be used for the analysis and prediction of the ultrasonic extraction process of Xiaoqinglong granules. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. A comparison of volatile fractions obtained fromLonicera macranthoidesvia different extraction processes: ultrasound, microwave, Soxhlet extraction, hydrodistillation, and cold maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chun; Wang, Feng; Liu, Jiang; Zou, Yuanfeng; Chen, Xingfu

    2015-09-01

    Hydrodistillation has been traditionally used to extract volatile fraction in traditional Chinese medicine. However, with the development of Soxhlet extraction (SE), microwave (MW), ultrasound (US), and cold maceration (CM), hydrodistillation (HD) is being replaced to meet some practical requirements. In this study, we investigated the effect of the five methods on the volatile fraction extract of Lonicera macranthoides. Volatile fraction from the flower buds of Lonicera macranthoides was obtained by using different extraction methods, HD, SE, MW, US, and CM. The compositions of volatile fraction were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric and further compared among extraction methods. Extracts obtained by the five methods reveal the qualitative and quantitative diversity in their compositions, especially for the low-content compositions. According to the results, SE shows the great value in the research where the high molecular-mass compound is of primary interest, and MW offers a way for the isolation of specific compound like octadecadienoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. HD, US, and CM have the advantage over SE and MW for the integrity of the constituents, whereas the phenomenon of compound degradation seems not so serious in solvent extraction methods such as US or CM as HD. Additionally, US and CM show superiority over time or material saving and diversity of the constituent. HD is still the best choice for the pure volatile fraction without organic solvent pollution. However, when it comes to some specifically actual demands, it can be replaced by the four methods for the volatile fraction extraction process, especially for production of certain compound groups.

  19. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Kumar Dubey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM, three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w. To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques.

  20. Evaluation and Optimization of Downstream Process Parameters for Extraction of Betulinic Acid from the Bark of Ziziphus jujubae L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Kashyap Kumar; Goel, Nitika

    2013-01-01

    Present work investigated an apposite and efficient method for extraction of betulinic acid (BA) from the bark of Ziziphus jujubae. Various extraction methods like stirring extraction, soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and microwave assisted extraction (MAE) were evaluated for increasing recovery percentage of BA. From the raffinate so obtained, BA was isolated. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to analyze the extract and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for quantification. The results revealed that the percentage extraction of BA from Z. jujubae by MAE was more proficient. As recovery percentage of BA by MAE technique turned out to be maximum, by using response surface methodology (RSM), three process parameters (pH, temperature, and time) were optimized by MAE and it was observed that the optimum parameters (pH 6.5, temp. 70.23°C, and time 3.5 min) gave the maximum recovery of BA (0.44% w/w). To validate the RSM model, experiments were performed and the highest recovery of BA was found to be 0.4% w/w which is ±0.04% to the predicted value. Henceforth the extraction efficiency and the substantial saving of time by MAE was more capable than the other extraction techniques. PMID:24324374

  1. Evaluation of the extraction process of the essential oil from Cymbopogon schoenanthus with pressurized carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maria Bittencourt Dutra de Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the essential oil extraction process of Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreg with pressured CO2, and to compare the results with a conventional extraction process. The experiment was conducted at 15°C, 66.7 bar and a medium flow rate of 1.23 g CO2/min, in a fixed bed extractor and a dynamic method was adopted for the solubility calculation. The solvent extraction was realized with ethanol in an incubator, followed by a vacuum filtration and solvent evaporation. The composition of the oil was analyzed by a gas chromatography connected to a mass spectrometer. The extraction with CO2 showed a yield of 2.78%, and solubility of 1.48 x 10-2 g oil/ g CO2.O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um estudo do processo de extração do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreg com CO2 pressurizado, e comparar os resultados obtidos com um processo convencional de extração. Os experimentos foram realizados numa temperatura de extração de 15ºC, pressão de 66,7 bar e vazão média de 1,23 gCO2/min. O processo ocorreu num extrator em leito fixo e foi adotado o método dinâmico para o cálculo da solubilidade. A extração com solvente orgânico foi realizada com etanol através de uma incubadora a 15ºC, seguida de filtração a vácuo e posterior evaporação do solvente. A composição do óleo foi analisada por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massa. A extração com CO2 apresentou um rendimento de 2,78% e solubilidade de 1,51.10-2 g óleo/g CO2.

  2. Pseudo-biphasic extraction and liquid membrane transport of ionic solutes using micelle-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondre, Ch.

    1995-01-01

    Different aspects between micellar extraction and solvent extraction were discussed. One way of using micellar systems to perform metal ion extraction consists in solubilizing lipophilic complexing agents in the hydrophobic core of the micelles, similarly to their solubilization in the organic phase in classical biphasic extraction. Metal ions dissolved in the continuous phase will be complexed or not, depending on their affinity for the micelle-solubilized extractant, the microscopic micelle/water interface playing a part analogous to the macroscopic organic/water interface in biphasic extraction. The yields of extraction (after ultrafiltration of the micellar pseudo-phase) when parameters such as the extractant/metal ratio or the extractant hydrophobicity are changed, show similar trends as those reported in the case of solvent extraction, but only diluted solutions can be treated that way. 14 refs

  3. Understanding the effects of pre-processing on extracted signal features from gait accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millecamps, Alexandre; Lowry, Kristin A; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-07-01

    Gait accelerometry is an important approach for gait assessment. Previous contributions have adopted various pre-processing approaches for gait accelerometry signals, but none have thoroughly investigated the effects of such pre-processing operations on the obtained results. Therefore, this paper investigated the influence of pre-processing operations on signal features extracted from gait accelerometry signals. These signals were collected from 35 participants aged over 65years: 14 of them were healthy controls (HC), 10 had Parkinson׳s disease (PD) and 11 had peripheral neuropathy (PN). The participants walked on a treadmill at preferred speed. Signal features in time, frequency and time-frequency domains were computed for both raw and pre-processed signals. The pre-processing stage consisted of applying tilt correction and denoising operations to acquired signals. We first examined the effects of these operations separately, followed by the investigation of their joint effects. Several important observations were made based on the obtained results. First, the denoising operation alone had almost no effects in comparison to the trends observed in the raw data. Second, the tilt correction affected the reported results to a certain degree, which could lead to a better discrimination between groups. Third, the combination of the two pre-processing operations yielded similar trends as the tilt correction alone. These results indicated that while gait accelerometry is a valuable approach for the gait assessment, one has to carefully adopt any pre-processing steps as they alter the observed findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphology study of nanofibers produced by extraction from polymer blend fibers using image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Neda; Tavanaie, Mohammad Ali; Payvandy, Pedram

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of nanofibers extracted from the industrial-scale produced polypropylene/polybutylene terephthalate (PP/PBT) blend fibers was studied. To study the morphology and diameter measurements of the nanofibers, image processing method was used, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional visual method. Comparing these two methods indicated the good performance of image processing methods for the measuring of nanofiber diameter. Among the various applied image processing methods, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) method was determined as the best for image thresholding. Additionally, the distance transform method was determined as the best way for measuring nanofiber diameter. According to high regression coefficient (R=0.98) resulting between the draw ratio and nanofibers diameter, the high effectiveness of draw ratio to nanofiber diameter is concluded. The spherical (drop) shapes of the PBT dispersed phase particles were eventually deformed into very thin fibrils during the drawing process. The results of measuring the nanofiber diameters showed that the diameter means of nanofibers varied from 420 nm to 175 nm with the highest draw ratio. Good uniformity for diameter of nanofibers was observed, which had not been observed in previous works.

  5. Morphology study of nanofibers produced by extraction from polymer blend fibers using image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehghan, Neda; Tavanaie, Mohammad Ali; Payvandy, Pedram [University of Yazd, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    The morphology of nanofibers extracted from the industrial-scale produced polypropylene/polybutylene terephthalate (PP/PBT) blend fibers was studied. To study the morphology and diameter measurements of the nanofibers, image processing method was used, and the results were compared with the results of a conventional visual method. Comparing these two methods indicated the good performance of image processing methods for the measuring of nanofiber diameter. Among the various applied image processing methods, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) method was determined as the best for image thresholding. Additionally, the distance transform method was determined as the best way for measuring nanofiber diameter. According to high regression coefficient (R=0.98) resulting between the draw ratio and nanofibers diameter, the high effectiveness of draw ratio to nanofiber diameter is concluded. The spherical (drop) shapes of the PBT dispersed phase particles were eventually deformed into very thin fibrils during the drawing process. The results of measuring the nanofiber diameters showed that the diameter means of nanofibers varied from 420 nm to 175 nm with the highest draw ratio. Good uniformity for diameter of nanofibers was observed, which had not been observed in previous works.

  6. Producing fuel alcohol by extractive distillation: Simulating the process with glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Uyazán

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Downstream separation processes in biotechnology form part of the stages having most impact on a product’s final cost. The tendency throughout the world today is to replace fossil fuels with those having a renewable origin such as ethanol; this, in turn, produces a demand for the same and the need for optimising fermentation, treating vinazas and dehydration processes. The present work approaches the problem of dehydration through simulating azeotropic ethanol extractive distillation using glycerol as separation agent. Simulations were done on an Aspen Plus process simulator (Aspen Tech version 11.1. The simulated process involves two distillation columns, a dehydrator and a glycerol recuperation column. Simulation restrictions were ethanol’s molar composition in dehydrator column distillate and the process’s energy consumption. The effect of molar reflux ratio, solvent-feed ratio, solvent entry and feed stage and solvent entry temperature were evaluated on the chosen restrictions. The results showed that the ethanol-water mixture dehydration with glycerol as separation agent is efficient from the energy point of view.

  7. A natural language processing program effectively extracts key pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Brian J; Merchant, Madhur; Zheng, Chengyi; Thomas, Anil A; Contreras, Richard; Jacobsen, Steven J; Chien, Gary W

    2014-12-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) software programs have been widely developed to transform complex free text into simplified organized data. Potential applications in the field of medicine include automated report summaries, physician alerts, patient repositories, electronic medical record (EMR) billing, and quality metric reports. Despite these prospects and the recent widespread adoption of EMR, NLP has been relatively underutilized. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of an internally developed NLP program in extracting select pathologic findings from radical prostatectomy specimen reports in the EMR. An NLP program was generated by a software engineer to extract key variables from prostatectomy reports in the EMR within our healthcare system, which included the TNM stage, Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, histologic subtype, size of dominant tumor nodule, seminal vesicle invasion (SVI), perineural invasion (PNI), angiolymphatic invasion (ALI), extracapsular extension (ECE), and surgical margin status (SMS). The program was validated by comparing NLP results to a gold standard compiled by two blinded manual reviewers for 100 random pathology reports. NLP demonstrated 100% accuracy for identifying the Gleason grade, presence of a tertiary Gleason pattern, SVI, ALI, and ECE. It also demonstrated near-perfect accuracy for extracting histologic subtype (99.0%), PNI (98.9%), TNM stage (98.0%), SMS (97.0%), and dominant tumor size (95.7%). The overall accuracy of NLP was 98.7%. NLP generated a result in report. This novel program demonstrated high accuracy and efficiency identifying key pathologic details from the prostatectomy report within an EMR system. NLP has the potential to assist urologists by summarizing and highlighting relevant information from verbose pathology reports. It may also facilitate future urologic research through the rapid and automated creation of large databases.

  8. Using Natural Language Processing to Extract Abnormal Results From Cancer Screening Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carlton R; Farrag, Ashraf; Ashkin, Evan

    2017-09-01

    Numerous studies show that follow-up of abnormal cancer screening results, such as mammography and Papanicolaou (Pap) smears, is frequently not performed in a timely manner. A contributing factor is that abnormal results may go unrecognized because they are buried in free-text documents in electronic medical records (EMRs), and, as a result, patients are lost to follow-up. By identifying abnormal results from free-text reports in EMRs and generating alerts to clinicians, natural language processing (NLP) technology has the potential for improving patient care. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the performance of NLP software for extracting abnormal results from free-text mammography and Pap smear reports stored in an EMR. A sample of 421 and 500 free-text mammography and Pap reports, respectively, were manually reviewed by a physician, and the results were categorized for each report. We tested the performance of NLP to extract results from the reports. The 2 assessments (criterion standard versus NLP) were compared to determine the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP. When NLP was compared with manual review for mammography reports, the results were as follows: precision, 98% (96%-99%); recall, 100% (98%-100%); and accuracy, 98% (96%-99%). For Pap smear reports, the precision, recall, and accuracy of NLP were all 100%. Our study developed NLP models that accurately extract abnormal results from mammography and Pap smear reports. Plans include using NLP technology to generate real-time alerts and reminders for providers to facilitate timely follow-up of abnormal results.

  9. Radiocaesium concentration of the first crop of processed tea and it's extracts, and the second crop of processed tea manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraki, Yoshiya; Takeda, Hajime; Okamoto, Tamotsu; Funahashi, Hideto; Kita, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    We conducted this study to understand the relation of 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of its extracts manufactured in Kanagawa Prefecture in 2012. In the case of the first crop, processed tea was brewed in 30 times its volume in hot water (at 90℃) for 1 minute, the 137 Cs concentration of processed tea extracts was diluted to 1/68.9 that of processed tea on average and extraction efficiency of 137 Cs from processed tea was 46.2% on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first crop of processed tea and that of extracts was 0.799(p 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crops of processed tea was analyzed. The 137 Cs concentration of the second crop of processed tea was 0.69 compared with that of the first crop of processed tea on average. The correlation coefficient between 137 Cs concentration of the first and second crop of processed tea was 0.803(p<0.01). (author)

  10. Effect of thermal and high pressure processing on stability of betalain extracted from red beet stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Cláudia Destro; Ismail, Marliya; Cassini, Aline Schilling; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Tessaro, Isabel Cristina; Farid, Mohammed

    2018-02-01

    Red beet stalks are a potential source of betalain, but their pigments are not widely used because of their instability. In the present work, the applicability of high pressure processing (HPP) and high temperature short time (HTST) thermal treatment was investigated to improve betalain stability in extracts with low and high concentrations. The HPP was applied at 6000 bar for 10, 20 and 30 min and HTST treatment was applied at 75.7 °C for 80 s, 81.1 °C for 100 s and 85.7 °C for 120 s, HPP treatment did not show any improvement in the betalain stability. In turn, the degradation rate of the control and the HTST thermal treatment at 85.7 °C for 120 s of the sample with high initial betalain concentration were 1.2 and 0.4 mg of betanin/100 ml of extract per day respectively. Among the treatments studied, HTST was considered the most suitable to maintain betalain stability from red beet stalks.

  11. Counter-current extraction studies for the recovery of neptunium by the purex process (Part III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.V.; Nadkarni, M.N.; Kartha, P.K.S.; Gudi, N.M.; Ramaniah, M.V.; Patil, S.K.

    1979-01-01

    Counter-current extraction experiments were carried out using the simulated purex process conditions to study the extraction behaviour of neptunium. Using low feed acidity ( 3 ) and high uranium loading of the organic phase (approximately 85 g/1), Np present in the feed as Np(IV) can be forced to the aqueous raffinate in uranium purification cycle conditions. If the feed activity is high (approximately 1.5M HNO 3 ), the same could be achieved by using either formic or acetic acid which selectively complexes Np(IV) as the scrub in 2D cycle. Alternately Np present in the feed as Np(V) can be diverted to aqueous raffinate even when the feed acidity is relatively high, if the reducing agent U(IV), required to be added to achieve the decontamination of U from residual Pu, is added in the scrub rather than in the feed. Based on these data suitable conditions can be chosen to force Np to aqueous in the uranium purification cycle. (auth.)

  12. Natural language processing to extract medical problems from electronic clinical documents: performance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Stéphane; Haug, Peter J

    2006-12-01

    In this study, we evaluate the performance of a Natural Language Processing (NLP) application designed to extract medical problems from narrative text clinical documents. The documents come from a patient's electronic medical record and medical problems are proposed for inclusion in the patient's electronic problem list. This application has been developed to help maintain the problem list and make it more accurate, complete, and up-to-date. The NLP part of this system-analyzed in this study-uses the UMLS MetaMap Transfer (MMTx) application and a negation detection algorithm called NegEx to extract 80 different medical problems selected for their frequency of use in our institution. When using MMTx with its default data set, we measured a recall of 0.74 and a precision of 0.756. A custom data subset for MMTx was created, making it faster and significantly improving the recall to 0.896 with a non-significant reduction in precision.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; R. Michael Bergen; Stephen P. Carpenter; Dady Dadyburjor; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; Alfred H. Stiller; W. Morgan Summers; John W. Zondlo

    2006-05-12

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, coking and composite fabrication continued using coal-derived samples. These samples were tested in direct carbon fuel cells. Methodology was refined for determining the aromatic character of hydro treated liquid, based on Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). Tests at GrafTech International showed that binder pitches produced using the WVU solvent extraction protocol can result in acceptable graphite electrodes for use in arc furnaces. These tests were made at the pilot scale.

  14. Optimization of oil extraction process by the method of mathematical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Kopylov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the experimental study of all processes is the analysis, study and generalization of all available results. In accordance with the idea of indexing search experiment was carried out in several stages. The number of stages and steps on each of which depended on the results of the previous stage and the ultimate goal of research. The ultimate goal of the study is to determine the optimum process conditions. Studies vegetable oil extraction process was conducted in a pilot plant set up on the basis of a single-screw Oil-presses. To ensure maximum efficiency Oil-presses without loss of quality of the finished necessary to ensure continuity and uniformity of oilseeds admission hopper. To process the experimental studies, the software complex STATISTICA 10 was applied. To obtain the regression equation, the matrix data was processed using the MS Excel software package. It is found that in order to provide the required performance Oil-presses need to set the angular speed of the screw in the range of 5.5–6.4 s-1, the value of the annular gap between the screw and curb chamber is 0.7–0.9 mm, the quantity gap curb camera of 0.16–0.18 mm. To optimize the process, the output values of the parameters converted into a dimensionless scale desirability d. In the course of the research found that the desirability of the D function, which characterizes the adequacy of the obtained values, has an extreme experience in the 8 and equal to 0.8. On the basis of the following parameters should be considered optimal obtained data: the angular speed of the screw of 6.6 to 1, the value of the annular gap between the screw and camera curb 0.92 mm, the magnitude of the gap.

  15. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, Loree Joanne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); King, C. Judson [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO2 and H2S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The

  16. Improvement of the flocculation process in water treatment by using moringa oleifera seeds extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sánchez-Martín

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity encourages researchers to keep working on natural coagulant agents such as Moringa oleifera seed extract, that could be used even in developing countries. With this scope, this investigation is focused on the optimization of certain parameters affecting the use of this coagulant product in the clarification of real surface water. Acidic pH levels seem to enhance the coagulation performance and the turbidity removal increases as the stirring period becomes longer (up to 95% with 40 min. The optimum stirring rate is identified as 80 rpm. Water clarified with this optimum coagulation and flocculation process is turbidity-competitive with other well known coagulants and flocculants and its quality is inside standard ranges for clarified water. No microbial growth is observed within the first 72 hours after the coagulant trials.

  17. Ionic state of uranium in extraction process of uranium from seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Noboru

    1984-01-01

    The ionic state of uranium in the extraction process of uranium from seawater was estimated from the equilibrium relations. Uranium existed mainly in the cationic state such as UO 2 2+ or UO 2 Cl 2 + in hydrochloric acid solution and in the anionic state such as UO 2 (SO 4 ) 3 4- in sulfuric acid solution. In carbonate solution or sodium chloride solution containing carbonate, uranium existed in the anionic state such as UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 4- . In the carbonate-free solution of sodium chloride, however, UO 2 OH 3 - was predominant. The ionic state in the mixture of hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid was complex. In this case, such cationic ions as UO 2 2+ or UO 2 SO 4 0 was predominant in 0.1 N solution, and such ion as UO 2 (SO 4 ) 3 4- was predominant in 1.0 N solution. (author)

  18. Ventilator Data Extraction with a Video Display Image Capture and Processing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, David B; Hill, Bryan; Levin, Matthew A

    2017-06-01

    Medical hardware and software device interoperability standards are not uniform. The result of this lack of standardization is that information available on clinical devices may not be readily or freely available for import into other systems for research, decision support, or other purposes. We developed a novel system to import discrete data from an anesthesia machine ventilator by capturing images of the graphical display screen and using image processing to extract the data with off-the-shelf hardware and open-source software. We were able to successfully capture and verify live ventilator data from anesthesia machines in multiple operating rooms and store the discrete data in a relational database at a substantially lower cost than vendor-sourced solutions.

  19. Nutritional and mineral contents of honey extracted by centrifugation and pressed processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Samir Moura; Zaluski, Rodrigo; Orsi, Ricardo de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    In this study, wild honey samples extracted by two different methods (centrifugation and pressed processing) were characterized and compared based on their physicochemical, and nutritional properties, macro- and micro-mineral contents, and pollen counts. Twelve colonies of Africanized Apis mellifera were used; six honey samples were obtained by centrifugation and six by honeycomb press. All physicochemical parameters of honey samples (moisture, pH, total acidity, ash, dry matter, and qualitative absence of hydroxymethylfurfural) were within the limits established by EU legislation, and all parameters in pressed honey were superior (pcentrifuged samples. Pressed honey, can be marked as a differentiated product with a higher mineral content and several nutritional properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dady B. Dadyburjor; Mark E. Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; J. Joshua Maybury; Alfred H. Stiller; Joseph M. Stoffa; John W. Zondlo

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. The largest applications are those which support metals smelting, such as anodes for aluminum smelting and electrodes for arc furnaces. Other carbon products include materials used in creating fuels for the Direct Carbon Fuel Cell, and porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. During this reporting period, hydrotreatment of solvent was completed in preparation for pitch fabrication for graphite electrodes. Coal digestion has lagged but is expected to be complete by next quarter. Studies are reported on coal dissolution, pitch production, foam synthesis using physical blowing agents, and alternate coking techniques.

  1. Extraction Factor Of Tungsten Sources From Tungsten Scraps By Zinc Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pee J.-H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decomposition promoting factors and extraction process of tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders in the zinc decomposition process of tungsten scraps which are composed mostly of tungsten carbide and cobalt were evaluated. Zinc volatility was suppressed by the enclosed graphite crucible and zinc volatilization pressure was produced in the reaction graphite crucible inside an electric furnace for ZDP (Zinc Decomposition Process. Decomposition reaction was done for 2hours at 650°, which 100% decomposed the tungsten scraps that were over 30 mm thick. Decomposed scraps were pulverized under 75μm and were composed of tungsten carbide and cobalt identified by the XRD (X-ray Diffraction. To produce the WC(Tungsten Carbide powder directly from decomposed scraps, pulverized powders were reacted with hydrochloric acid to remove the cobalt binder. Also to produce the tungstic acid, pulverized powders were reacted with aqua regia to remove the cobalt binder and oxidize the tungsten carbide. Tungsten carbide and tungstic acid powders were identified by XRD and chemical composition analysis.

  2. Metal Extraction Processes for Electronic Waste and Existing Industrial Routes: A Review and Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaliq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful life of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE has been shortened as a consequence of the advancement in technology and change in consumer patterns. This has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste that needs to be managed. The handling of e-waste including combustion in incinerators, disposing in landfill or exporting overseas is no longer permitted due to environmental pollution and global legislations. Additionally, the presence of precious metals (PMs makes e-waste recycling attractive economically. In this paper, current metallurgical processes for the extraction of metals from e-waste, including existing industrial routes, are reviewed. In the first part of this paper, the definition, composition and classifications of e-wastes are described. In the second part, separation of metals from e-waste using mechanical processing, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are critically analyzed. Pyrometallurgical routes are comparatively economical and eco-efficient if the hazardous emissions are controlled. Currently, pyrometallurgical routes are used initially for the segregation and upgrading of PMs (gold and silver into base metals (BMs (copper, lead and nickel and followed by hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical processing for the recovery of pure base and PMs. For the recycling of e-waste in Australia, challenges such as collection, transportation, liberation of metal fractions, and installation of integrated smelting and refining facilities are identified.

  3. [A microbiological study of an underground gas storage in the process of gas extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, A E; Borzenkov, I A; Tarasov, A L; Milekhina, E I; Beliaev, S S

    2007-01-01

    The numbers of microorganisms belonging to ecologically significant groups and the rates of terminal microbial processes of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis were determined in the liquid phase of an underground gas storage (UGS) in the period of gas extraction. The total number of microorganisms in water samples from the operation and injection wells reached 2.1 x 10(6) cells/ml. Aerobic organotrophs (including hydrocarbon- and oil-oxidizing ones) and various anaerobic microorganisms (fermenting bacteria, methanogens, acetogens, sulfate-, nitrate-, and iron-reducing bacteria) were constituent parts of the community. The radioisotopic method showed that, in all the UGS units, the terminal stages of organic matter decomposition included sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, with the maximal rate of these processes recorded in the aqueous phase of above-ground technological equipment which the gas enters from the operation wells. A comparative analysis by these parameters of different anaerobic ecotopes, including natural hydrocarbon fields, allows us to assess the rate of these processes in the UGS as high throughout the annual cycle of its operation. The data obtained indicate the existence in the UGS of a bacterial community that is unique in its diversity and metabolic capacities and able to make a certain contribution to the geochemistry of organic and inorganic compounds in the natural and technogenic ecosystem of the UGS and thus influence the industrial gas composition.

  4. Process variables in biomimetic synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India); Raichur, Ashok M. [Indian Institute of Science, Department of Materials Engineering (India); Chandrasekaran, N.; Prathna, T. C.; Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.co [VIT University, School of Biotechnology, Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (India)

    2010-01-15

    Owing to widespread applications, synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles is recently attracting considerable attention. Increasing environmental concerns over chemical synthesis routes have resulted in attempts to develop biomimetic approaches. One of them is synthesis using plant parts, which eliminates the elaborate process of maintaining the microbial culture and often found to be kinetically favourable than other bioprocesses. The present study deals with investigating the effect of process variables like reductant concentrations, reaction pH, mixing ratio of the reactants and interaction time on the morphology and size of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aqueous extract of Azadirachta indica (Neem) leaves. The formation of crystalline silver nanoparticles was confirmed using X-ray diffraction analysis. By means of UV spectroscopy, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopy techniques, it was observed that the morphology and size of the nanoparticles were strongly dependent on the process parameters. Within 4 h interaction period, nanoparticles below 20-nm-size with nearly spherical shape were produced. On increasing interaction time (ageing) to 66 days, both aggregation and shape anisotropy (ellipsoidal, polyhedral and capsular) of the particles increased. In alkaline pH range, the stability of cluster distribution increased with a declined tendency for aggregation of the particles. It can be inferred from the study that fine tuning the bioprocess parameters will enhance possibilities of desired nano-product tailor made for particular applications.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. Table 1 provides an overview of the major markets for carbon products. Current sources of materials for these processes generally rely on petroleum distillation products or coal tar distillates obtained as a byproduct of metcoke production facilities. In the former case, the American materials industry, just as the energy industry, is dependent upon foreign sources of petroleum. In the latter case, metcoke production is decreasing every year due to the combined difficulties associated with poor economics and a significant environmental burden. Thus, a significant need exists for an environmentally clean process which can used domestically obtained raw materials and which can still be very competitive economically.

  6. Evaluation of the pressing process during oil extraction from grape seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the physical properties and oil extraction from grape seeds from three white (Welschriesling, Green Veltliner, Hibernal and two red (Zweigelt and Saint Laurent must varieties of grapevine by cold screw pressing as the appropriate extraction process. Pressing was carried out by a screw press UNO FM 3F by Farmet Company, Czech Republic. The pressing device consists of a matrix, 220 mm screw, head, heating mantle, nozzle holder, and a nozzle of 10 mm in diameter. The minimal and maximal screw rotation speeds were chosen within the press characteristics in order to achieve a correct expression and to avoid press overload. For successful pressing of the seeds and their storage, their initial moisture content was lowered from 40 to 45% to about 5 to 8% in a chamber dryer. The temperature in the chamber dryer did not exceeded 40 °C. Seeds of all varieties were pressed at the same speeds of 20, 40, 60, and 80 rpm. The characteristics of the grape seeds are as follows: The density ranges from 602.7 to 606.3 kg.m-3, thousand seeds weigh is between 21.9 - 26.6 g, humidity between 5.6 - 7.1% of dry matter and seed oil content, determined by extraction and depending on the variety, ranges from 15.3 to 17.5% in dry basis. The results have confirmed that when the screw rotation speed is changed from 20 to 80 rpm, the press capacity increases on average from 0.84 kg.h-1 to 1.75 kg.h-1, but simultaneously the oil yield reduces from 9.85 to 6.75%. This means that one kilogram of seed may produce 67.5 to 98.5 g of oil. The quantity of the pressed oil ranges from 67.5 to 98.5 g.kg-1 and thus depends on the variety. The measured results can be used in commercial practice for optimizing the pressing process for pressing of oil from grape seeds.

  7. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni as a natural antioxidant/antimicrobial for high pressure processed fruit extract: processing parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, Francisco José; Criado, María Nieves; Belda-Galbis, Clara Miracle; Esteve, María José; Rodrigo, Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Response surface methodology was used to evaluate the optimal high pressure processing treatment (300-500 MPa, 5-15 min) combined with Stevia rebaudiana (Stevia) addition (0-2.5% (w/v)) to guarantee food safety while maintaining maximum retention of nutritional properties. A fruit extract matrix was selected and Listeria monocytogenes inactivation was followed from the food safety point of view while polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activities, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (TEAC and ORAC) were studied from the food quality point of view. A combination of treatments achieved higher levels of inactivation of L. monocytogenes and of the oxidative enzymes, succeeding in completely inactivating POD and also increasing the levels of TPC, TEAC and ORAC. A treatment of 453 MPa for 5 min with a 2.5% (w/v) of Stevia succeeded in inactivating over 5 log cycles of L. monocytogenes and maximizing inactivation of PPO and POD, with the greatest retention of bioactive components. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Process optimization for the extraction of polyphenol from Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Norra; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    The optimum extraction parameters of Malaysian brown seaweed, Sargassum sp. were determined by using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Central Composite Face-centered Design (CCFD) was used to study the influence of extraction temperature (40-60°C), extraction time (60-180 minute) and liquid to solid ratio (20-40 mL/g) on total phenolic content (TPC) of Sargassum sp. dried extracts. The statistical analysis of the experiment indicated that extraction temperatue and time had significant effect on Sargassum sp. total phenolic contents (TPC). The CCFD showed that quadratic regression models were in good agreement with the experimental results with the coefficients of determination (R2) of 0.8066 for Sargassum sp. TPC. The extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 180 minute and liquid-solid ratio of 40 mL/g were the most efficient for the extraction of polyphenols from Sargassum sp. dried powder.

  9. Avocado oil extraction processes: method for cold-pressed high-quality edible oil production versus traditional production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Costagli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. is widely regarded as an important fruit for its nutritional values, as it is rich in vital human nutrients. The avocado fruit is mainly sold fresh on the market, which however trades also a relevant quantity of second-grade fruits with a relatively high oil content. Traditionally, this oil is extracted from dried fruits by means of organic solvents, but a mechanical method is also used in general in locations where drying systems and/or solvent extraction units cannot be installed. These traditional processes yield a grade of oil that needs subsequent refining and is mainly used in the cosmetic industry. In the late 1990s, in New Zeland, a processing company with the collaboration of Alfa Laval began producing cold-pressed avocado oil (CPAO to be sold as edible oil for salads and cooking. Over the last fifteen years, CPAO production has increased in many other countries and has led to an expansion of the market which is set to continue, given the growing interest in highquality and healthy food. Avocado oil like olive oil is extracted from the fruit pulp and in particular shares many principles of the extraction process with extra-vergin olive oil. We conducted a review of traditional and modern extraction methods with particular focus on extraction processes and technology for CPAO production.

  10. Optimization of extraction process for ustiloxins A and B from rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimization of four factors, namely methanol concentration (A), extraction pH value (B), material-to-solvent ratio (C) and extraction times (D), for extraction of ustiloxins A and B from rice false smut balls was achieved by using an L18 orthogonal array design with three levels and four factors. The results show that the ...

  11. Supramolecular organization of organic phases for DIAMEX solvent extraction process; Organisation supramoleculaire des phases organiques de malonamides du procede d'extraction DIAMEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinet, L

    2005-04-15

    In the frame of nuclear waste cycle, supramolecular organization of organic phases has been studied for DIAMEX solvent extraction process. A general methodology has been developed in order to determine surfactant properties of an extractant at high concentration. An illustration is given by a malonamide (DMDBTDMA) at 0.7 mol/L, in dodecane and contacted with water, at 23 deg C. The concentrations of monomers (0.3 mol/L) and aggregates (0.4 mol/L), c.m.c. (0.25 mol/L), aggregation number (4,4), aggregation constant (7.7) and finally aggregates interactions (U/kT = -1.6) are quantified. The method is based on simultaneous utilization of four experimental techniques (small X-ray and neutron scattering, vapour pressure osmometry and tensiometry) added to the model of Baxter. The structure of malonamide organic phase is depending on extractant concentration. (i) Below 0.2 mol/L, it is a quasi-molecular liquid fluid, extracting few amount of solutes. (ii) From 0.2 to 1 mol/L, it is a complex liquid fluid, containing small spherical aggregates of 5 extractant molecules in coexistence with monomers. This phase behaves like typical microemulsions with reverse micelles, through its stabilizing effect of penetrating oil and steric repulsion between extractants. (iii) Above 1 mol/L, the organic phase is able to extract huge amount of solutes. When HNO{sub 3} or Nd(NO{sub 3} ){sub 3} are extracted, a gel with a pseudo-lamellar structure is observed. With UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} a solid crystal with a ratio DMDBTDMA/UO{sub 2} (NO{sub 3} ){sub 2} equal to 1/1 is characteristic of the organic phase. The 'third phase' due to attractive interactions between aggregates has exactly the same supramolecular structure than an 'unsplitted organic phase' of the same composition. Aggregates interactions are independent on the chemical affinity of the extractant for solutes. (author)

  12. Influence of enzymes on the oil extraction processes in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricochon Guillaume

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The methods of oil aqueous extraction process (AEP assisted by enzymes are, over the last 50 years, an alternative designed to replace traditional methods of extraction using organic solvents. To extract the oil using an AEP, the use of specific enzymes, able to hydrolyze some or all components of seeds, can significantly increase the yields of extraction. Hydrolyzing the different constituents of cell walls (cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, proteins, etc., enzymes are able to enhance the liberation of the oil. A number of physico-chemical parameters must also be considered for the better expression of the enzymatic mixture, while maintaining the quality of oils and meals. This article presents the various factors influencing the release of oil in aqueous media and the main results obtained by this process on various substrates.

  13. Effect of extraction method on quality of orange juice: hand-squeezed, commercial-fresh squeezed and processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresh orange juice is perceived to be more wholesome than processed juice. Fresh juice may have flavor and nutrients that differ from pasteurized or processed juice. In this study, ‘Hamlin’ and ‘Valencia’ oranges were extracted using a commercial food service juicer, pasteurized or not, resulting in...

  14. Liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and repartition of actinides from nuclear aqueous acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a process for the recovery and distribution of actinides compounds from residual aqueous acid solutions in nuclear plants, and a separation process of AmIII, CmIII, PuIV, NpIV and UVI. Organophosphorous compounds are used as extracting agents [fr

  15. Demonstration Plant Equipment Design and Scale-Up from Pilot Plant of a Leaching and Solvent Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Arroyo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Germanium recovery from coal fly ash by hydrometallurgical procedures was studied at the pilot scale (5 kg of fly ash/h. Results were used to design the equipment of a demonstration-sized plant (200 kg of fly ash/h. The process is based on hydrometallurgical operations: firstly a germanium extraction from fly ash by leaching and a consequent Ge separation from the other elements present in the solution by solvent extraction procedures. Based on the experimental results, mass balances and McCabe-Thiele diagrams were applied to determine the number of steps of the solvent extraction stage. Different arrangements have been studied and a countercurrent process with three steps in extraction and six steps in elution was defined. A residence time of 5 min was fixed in both the extraction and elution stages. Volumetric ratios in extraction and stripping were: aqueous phase/organic phase = 5 and organic phase/stripping phase = 5, so a concentration factor of 25 is achieved. Mixers and decanters were completely defined. The maximum extracted and eluted germanium was estimated and a global efficiency of 94% was achieved. The cost-effectiveness of the equipment was estimated using the Lang factors.

  16. Recovery of gallium from coal fly ash by a dual reactive extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J. [University of Oviedo, Oviedo (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the extraction of gallium from coal fly ash by leaching and extraction with commercial extractants Amerlite LA-2 and LIX-54N dissolved in kerosene. Leaching of gallium and other metals from the fly ash was carried out with 6 M hydrochloric acid. The leaching liquor is first contacted with Amerlite LA-2 which extracts the gallium and iron. The iron is then precipitated with sodium hydroxide, while gallium remains in solution. Gallium is extracted selectively from the base solution with LIX 54; the resulting stripped solution contains 83% of the gallium present in the leaching liquor.

  17. The EED [Emergencies Engineering Division] solvent extraction process for the removal of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastien, C.Y.

    1994-03-01

    Research was conducted to investigate the ability of hexane and natural gas condensate (NGC) to extract three different types of hydrocarbon contaminant (light crude oil, diesel fuel, and bunker C oil) from three types of soil (sand, peat, and clay). A separate but related study determined the efficiency of solvent extraction (using hexane and five other solvents but not NGC) for removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from contaminated soil. The process developed for this research includes stages of mixing, extraction, separation, and solvent recovery, for eventual implementation as a mobile solvent extraction unit. In experiments on samples created in the laboratory, extraction efficiencies of hydrocarbons often rose above 95%. On samples from a petroleum contaminated site, average extraction efficiency was ca 82%. Sandy soils contaminated in the laboratory were effectively cleaned of all hydrocarbons tested but only diesel fuel was successfully extracted from peat soils. No significant differences were observed in the effectiveness of hexane and NGC for contamination levels above 3%. Below this number, NGC seems more effective at removing oil from peat while hexane is slightly more effective on clay soils. Sand is equally cleaned by both solvents at all contamination levels. Safety considerations, odor, extra care needed to deal with light ends and aromatics, and the fact that only 26% of the solvent is actually usable make NGC an unfeasible option in spite of its significantly lower cost compared to hexane. For extracting PCBs, a hexane/acetone mixture proved to have the best removal efficiency. 14 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Literature Review: Crud Formation at the Liquid/Liquid Interface of TBP-Based Solvent-Extraction Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Casella, Amanda J.

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes the literature reviewed on crud formation at the liquid:liquid interface of solvent extraction processes. The review is focused both on classic PUREX extraction for industrial reprocessing, especially as practiced at the Hanford Site, and for those steps specific to plutonium purification that were used at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) within the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) at the Hanford Site.

  19. Fractionation of hydro-ethanolic extracts from grape pomace through membrane processing: the effect of membrane and extracting media on process performance

    OpenAIRE

    Taqui, Syed Usman

    2014-01-01

    The EM3E Master is an Education Programme supported by the European Commission, the European Membrane Society (EMS), the European Membrane House (EMH), and a large international network of industrial companies, research centers and universities Grape pomace are generated as waste in juice and winemaking industry in huge quantities. Studies have shown that nutrient extracts from these particular plant matrices garner myriad of benefits in health and nutraceuticals sector. Moreover,...

  20. Partnew - New solvent extraction processes for minor actinides - final report; Partnew - Nouveaux procedes d'extraction par solvant pour les actinides mineurs - rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madic, C.; Testard, F.; Hudson, M.J.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Christiansen, B.; Ferrando, M.; Facchini, A.; Geist, A.; Modolo, G.; Gonzalez-Espartero, A.; Mendoza, J. de

    2004-07-01

    The objectives of the European project PARTNEW were to define solvent extraction processes for the partitioning of the minor actinides, Am and Cm, from the aqueous high active raffinate or high active concentrate issuing the reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels by the PUREX process. Eleven laboratories participated to the research: 1/ CEA-DEN (Marcoule), 2/ CEA-DSM (Saclay), 3/ UREAD (U.K.), 4/ CTU (Sweden), 5/ ITU (Germany), 6/ ENEA (Italy), 7/ PoliMi (Italy), 8/ FZK-INE (Germany), 9/ FZJ-ISR (Germany), 10/ CIEMAT (Spain) and 11/ UAM (Spain). The research was organised into eight work packages (WP): Basic and applied DIAMEX studies, using diamide extractants for the co-extraction of actinides(III) (An(III)) and lanthanides(III) (Ln(III)) nitrates (WP1 and WP2), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of polydentate N-ligands for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation (WP3 and WP4), Basic and applied SANEX studies based on the use of synergistic mixtures made of bis-(chloro-phenyl)-di-thio-phosphinic acid + neutral O-bearing ligand, (WP5 and WP6), Basic SANEX studies for the An(III)/Ln(III) separation, based on the use of new S-bearing ligands, Basic and applied studies for the Am(III)/Cm(III) separation. The work done in the fundamental and applied domains was very fruitful. Several processes have been successfully tested with genuine high active raffinates and concentrate. (authors)

  1. Monitoring of Extraction Efficiency by a Sample Process Control Virus Added Immediately Upon Sample Receipt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhanya, Vurayai; Diez-Valcarce, Marta; D'Agostino, Martin; Cook, Nigel; Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    2015-12-01

    When analysing food samples for enteric viruses, a sample process control virus (SPCV) must be added at the commencement of the analytical procedure, to verify that the analysis has been performed correctly. Samples can on occasion arrive at the laboratory late in the working day or week. The analyst may consequently have insufficient time to commence and complete the complex procedure, and the samples must consequently be stored. To maintain the validity of the analytical result, it will be necessary to consider storage as part of the process, and the analytical procedure as commencing on sample receipt. The aim of this study was to verify that an SPCV can be recovered after sample storage, and thus indicate the effective recovery of enteric viruses. Two types of samples (fresh and frozen raspberries) and two types of storage (refrigerated and frozen) were studied using Mengovirus vMC0 as SPCV. SPCV recovery was not significantly different (P > 0.5) regardless of sample type or duration of storage (up to 14 days at -20 °C). Accordingly, samples can be stored without a significant effect on the performance of the analysis. The results of this study should assist the analyst by demonstrating that they can verify that viruses can be extracted from food samples even if samples have been stored.

  2. A Study of Parameters Affecting the Solvent Extraction-Flocculation Process of Used Lubricating Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Qasim Hussein

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of operating variables on, the percentage of removed sludge (PSR obtained during re-refining of 15W-40 Al-Durra spent lubricant by solvent extraction-flocculation treatment method. Binary solvents were used such as, Heavy Naphtha (H.N.: MEK (N:MEK, H.N. : n-Butanol (N:n-But, and H.N. : Iso-Butanol (N:Iso:But. The studied variables were mixing speed (300-900, rpm, mixing time (15-60, min, and operating temperature (2540, oC. This study showed that the studied operating variables have effects where, increasing the mixing time up to 45 min for H.N.: MEK, H.N.: n-Butanol and 30 min for H.N.: Iso-Butanol increased the PSR, after that percentage was decreased; increasing the mixing speed for all the studied solvents up to 700 rpm increased the PSR, after that the percentage was decreased, while increasing the operating temperature decreased the PSR for all the solvents. This study has resulted in reasonably accurate multivariate process correlation that relates the removed sludge percentage to the process variables. The determination coefficients (

  3. Contribution to the study of the process of purification of plutonium by extraction with trilaurylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saey, Jean-Claude

    1966-01-01

    This work addresses the process of plutonium purification which uses trilaurylamine nitrate. In order to use this nitrate in its solid state and at ordinary temperature, a secondary solvent must be added which must have some properties: low volume mass and viscosity, high boiling and ignition temperatures, rather low miscibility with water, high stability in front of joint actions of nitric acid and radiations, and no reaction with the alkylammonium nitrate and the complex. Thus, the author addresses phenomena of immiscibility and identifies some important molecular characteristics which could lead to the selection of another secondary solvent than dodecane. The decalin seem interesting and its behaviour is studied. A mixing of dodecane and decalin is used as extraction mixing. The obtained results are discussed. Finally, the author notices that using this mixing in the plutonium purification process results in a large increase of metal concentrations and a decrease of risks of crystallisation, without any major drawback, in a continuously operating micro-industrial installation

  4. EXTRACTING SPATIOTEMPORAL OBJECTS FROM RASTER DATA TO REPRESENT PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ANALYZE RELATED PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Zollweg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don’t see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm ‘object’. Temporally, we don’t see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain’s perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2 data stream.

  5. Extracting Spatiotemporal Objects from Raster Data to Represent Physical Features and Analyze Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollweg, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    Numerous ground-based, airborne, and orbiting platforms provide remotely-sensed data of remarkable spatial resolution at short time intervals. However, this spatiotemporal data is most valuable if it can be processed into information, thereby creating meaning. We live in a world of objects: cars, buildings, farms, etc. On a stormy day, we don't see millions of cubes of atmosphere; we see a thunderstorm `object'. Temporally, we don't see the properties of those individual cubes changing, we see the thunderstorm as a whole evolving and moving. There is a need to represent the bulky, raw spatiotemporal data from remote sensors as a small number of relevant spatiotemporal objects, thereby matching the human brain's perception of the world. This presentation reveals an efficient algorithm and system to extract the objects/features from raster-formatted remotely-sensed data. The system makes use of the Python object-oriented programming language, SciPy/NumPy for matrix manipulation and scientific computation, and export/import to the GeoJSON standard geographic object data format. The example presented will show how thunderstorms can be identified and characterized in a spatiotemporal continuum using a Python program to process raster data from NOAA's High-Resolution Rapid Refresh v2 (HRRRv2) data stream.

  6. Thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis mill wood before and after extraction processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren Terzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extractives on the thermal behavior of Liquidambar orientalis Mill. (storax wood is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. To evaluate the effects of polar and apolar extractives on the thermal behavior of wood, sawdust samples from the heartwood of L. orientalis are extracted with either cold water (48 h, hot water (48 h, or ethanol/toluene (1:2 v/v (6 h prior to thermal analysis. Thermogravimetry (TG curves show that polar and apolar extractives promote char formation, increase the amount of residue, and improve the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood. In addition, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG curves demonstrate that thermal degradation of un-extracted and cold water-extracted wood samples occurs in a single step, while a two-step degradation pattern is seen for hot water- and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples. It is also observed that first degradation reactions in hot water and ethanol/toluene-extracted wood samples occur faster than those in unextracted and cold water-extracted wood samples. Although there are approximately half the number of extracted apolar compounds compared to polar compounds, the removal of both types of compounds affect the thermal properties of L. orientalis wood to the same degree. It is thus deduced that apolar extractives significantly affect the thermal behavior of L. orientalis wood.

  7. Extraction of alginate from Sargassum muticum: process optimization and study of its functional activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazumder, Anupriya; Holdt, Susan Løvstad; De Francisci, Davide

    2016-01-01

    extraction were evaluated for total polyphenols and its antioxidant capacity. The extracted alginate was further characterized using fluorescence spectrophotometer and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The 1H NMR data revealed that extracted alginate has an M/G ratio of 1.08 and η ...In the present study, alginate extraction from the brown seaweed Sargassum muticum was studied using single factor analysis. Response Surface Methodology-Central Composite Rotatary design (RSM-CCRD) was performed to reduce and optimize extraction temperature, alkali concentration, and consumption...... of solvent. Different interaction effect of three extraction factors of temperature (60–100 °C), alkali (1–5 %), and aqueous ethanol (70–100 %) were studied to reduce residual waste. The result showed that the optimum extraction yield (13.57 %) was obtained with 86 °C temperature, 3 % alkali, and 93...

  8. Study on Process Parameters of Extraction of γ-aminobutyric Acid Instant Moringa oleifera Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiaokun, Fu; Suhui, Zhang; Neng, Liu; Jihua, Li; Shaodan, Peng; Changqing, Guo; Wei, Zhou

    2017-12-01

    To preliminary optimize the extraction of γ-aminobutyric acid instant tea powder from Moringa oleifera leaves,taking γ-aminobutyric acid Moringa oleifera leaves as raw material and pure water as extraction solvent and GABA content as the main evaluation index,the effects of extraction temperature, ratio of liquid to material and extraction time on biochemical components and sensory qualities of Moringa oleifera leaves extractor was studied by using one-factor-at-a-time experiment.The results showed shat the optimal extraction conditions for γ-aminobutyric acid instant tea powder were extraction temperature of 60 °C, material-to-water ration of 1:10 and extraction time of 40 min.

  9. New improved counter - current multi-stage centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, Ionita; Mirica, Dumitru; Croitoru, Cornelia; Stefanescu, Ioan; Retegan, Teodora; Kitamoto, Asashi

    2003-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and selective partitioning of actinide from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilization in many other applications of recovered elements involves an extraction process usually by means of mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. The latter, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and performed. A similar apparatus was not found from in other published papers as yet. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor was a cylinder made of stainless steel with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, working in a horizontal position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor consisting of nine cells (units), five rotation units, two mixing units, two propelling units and two final plates, ensures the counter-current running of the two phases.The central shaft having the rotation cells fixed on it is coupled by an intermediary connection to a electric motor of high rotation speed. The conceptual layout of the advanced counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor is presented. The newly designed extractor has been tested at 500-2800 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase =1 to examine the mechanical behavior and the hydrodynamics of the two phases in countercurrent. The results showed that the performances have been generally good and the design requirements were fulfilled. The newly designed counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor appears to be a promising way to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (authors)

  10. Mechanical and hydrodynamic behaviour of new improved centrifugal extractor for solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retegan, T.; Ionita, Gh.; Kitamoto, A.; Mirica, D.; Croitoru, C.; Stefanescu, I. . E-mail address of corresponding author: office@icsi.ro; Romania)

    2005-01-01

    Total actinide recovery, lanthanide/actinide separation and the selective partitioning of actinides from high level waste (HLW) are nowadays of a major interest. Actinide partitioning with a view to safe disposing of HLW or utilisation in many other applications of recovered elements involves an extraction process usually by means mixer-settler, pulse column or centrifugal contactor. This one, presents some doubtless advantages and responds to the above mentioned goals. A new type of counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor has been designed and performed. Similar apparatus still not found from other published paper yet. The counter-current multi-stage centrifugal extractor was a cylinder made of stainless steel with an effective length of 346 mm, the effective diameter of 100 mm and a volume of 1.5 liters, having horizontal position as working position. The new internal structure and geometry of the new advanced centrifugal extractor (Fig.1) consists in nine cells (units): five rotation units(R), two mixing units (M), two propelling units (P) and two final plates (S) assures the counter-current running of the two phases. The central shaft (CS) having the rotation cells fixed on it is connected by an intermediary connection to an electric motor of high rotation speed. The new designed extractor has been tested at 500-2800 rot/min for a ratio of the aqueous/organic phase =1. The results showed that the performances have been generally good and the design demand was reached. New designed counter-current multistage centrifugal extractor may be a promising idea to increase extraction rate of radionuclides and metals from liquid effluents. (author)

  11. A brief understanding of process optimisation in microwave-assisted extraction of botanical materials: options and opportunities with chemometric tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anup Kumar; Mandal, Vivekananda; Mandal, Subhash C

    2014-01-01

    Extraction forms the very basic step in research on natural products for drug discovery. A poorly optimised and planned extraction methodology can jeopardise the entire mission. To provide a vivid picture of different chemometric tools and planning for process optimisation and method development in extraction of botanical material, with emphasis on microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of botanical material. A review of studies involving the application of chemometric tools in combination with MAE of botanical materials was undertaken in order to discover what the significant extraction factors were. Optimising a response by fine-tuning those factors, experimental design or statistical design of experiment (DoE), which is a core area of study in chemometrics, was then used for statistical analysis and interpretations. In this review a brief explanation of the different aspects and methodologies related to MAE of botanical materials that were subjected to experimental design, along with some general chemometric tools and the steps involved in the practice of MAE, are presented. A detailed study on various factors and responses involved in the optimisation is also presented. This article will assist in obtaining a better insight into the chemometric strategies of process optimisation and method development, which will in turn improve the decision-making process in selecting influential extraction parameters. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Optimization of LiCoO2 powder extraction process from cathodes of lithium-ion batteries by chemical dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Evangelista Sita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A chemical process has been applied to extract LiCoO2 powder from cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries by dissolution of the binder that agglutinate the powder particle each other as well to the Al collector surface. As solvents dimethylformamide (DMF and N-methyilpirrolidone (NMP were employed and the variables, cathode area, solution temperature, ultrasound bath power and solution stirring were chosen to optimize the extraction process. NMP solutions presented best results for powder extraction than DMF solutions. At 100 oC and under mechanical stirring or low power ultrasound bath NMP solution optimizes the binder dissolution. Powder extractions under DMF solutions are slow and an increase in the powder extraction efficiency was observed for crushed cathodes on solutions under ultrasound bath, at medium power. Filtration processes can separate the decanted LiCoO2 powder extracted upon DMF dissolution while the powder in suspension in the NMP solutions is separated by centrifugation techniques.

  13. Obtaining bixin from semi-defatted annatto seeds by a mechanical method and solvent extraction: Process integration and economic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar-Alay, Sylvia C; Osorio-Tobón, J Felipe; Forster-Carneiro, Tânia; Meireles, M Angela A

    2017-09-01

    This work involves the application of physical separation methods to concentrate the pigment of semi-defatted annatto seeds, a noble vegetal biomass rich in bixin pigments. Semi-defatted annatto seeds are the residue produced after the extraction of the lipid fraction from annatto seeds using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Semi-defatted annatto seeds are use in this work due to three important reasons: i) previous lipid extraction is necessary to recovery the tocotrienol-rich oil present in the annatto seeds, ii) an initial removal of the oil via SFE process favors bixin separation and iii) the cost of raw material is null. Physical methods including i) the mechanical fractionation method and ii) an integrated process of mechanical fractionation method and low-pressure solvent extraction (LPSE) were studied. The integrated process was proposed for processing two different semi-defatted annatto materials denoted Batches 1 and 2. The cost of manufacture (COM) was calculated for two different production scales (5 and 50L) considering the integrated process vs. only the mechanical fractionation method. The integrated process showed a significantly higher COM than mechanical fractionation method. This work suggests that mechanical fractionation method is an adequate and low-cost process to obtain a rich-pigment product from semi-defatted annatto seeds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Calorie Restriction Effect of Heat-Processed Onion Extract (ONI Using In Vitro and In Vivo Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ri Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Onion (Allium cepa L. is widely consumed as food or medicinal plant due to its well-defined health benefits. The antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic effects of onion and its extracts have been reported well. However, very limited information on anti-hyperglycemic effect is available in processed onion extracts. In our previous study, we reported that Amadori rearrangement compounds (ARCs produced by heat-processing in Korean ginseng can reduce carbohydrate absorption by inhibiting intestinal carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes in both in vitro and in vivo animal models. To prove the enhancement of anti-hyperglycemic effect and ARCs content by heat-processing in onion extract, a correlation between the anti-hyperglycemic activity and the total content of ARCs of heat-processed onion extract (ONI was investigated. ONI has a high content of ARCs and had high rat small intestinal sucrase inhibitory activity (0.34 ± 0.03 mg/mL, IC50 relevant for the potential management of postprandial hyperglycemia. The effect of ONI on the postprandial blood glucose increase was investigated in Sprague Dawley (SD rats fed on sucrose or starch meals. The maximum blood glucose levels (Cmax of heat-processed onion extract were significantly decreased by about 8.7% (from 188.60 ± 5.37 to 172.27 ± 3.96, p < 0.001 and 14.2% (from 204.04 ± 8.73 to 175.13 ± 14.09, p < 0.01 in sucrose and starch loading tests, respectively. These results indicate that ARCs in onion extract produced by heat-processing have anti-diabetic effect by suppressing carbohydrate absorption via inhibition of intestinal sucrase, thereby reducing the postprandial increase of blood glucose. Therefore, enhancement of ARCs in onion by heat-processing might be a good strategy for the development of the new product on the management of hyperglycemia.

  15. Effect of extraction process on composition, oxidative stability and rheological properties of purslane seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfan-Hosseini, Sasan; Nayebzadeh, Kooshan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Kavosi, Maryam; Hosseini, Seyede Marzieh

    2017-05-01

    Purslane seed oil could be considered as potential nutritious oil due to its desirable fatty acid composition and other biological active compounds. In this study the effect of three extraction procedure including solvent extraction, cold pressing and microwave pretreatment (MW) followed by cold pressing on oil yield, physicochemical properties, oxidative stability and rheological behaviors of oil was investigated. Solvent extracted oil had the highest extraction yield (72.31%). Pretreatment by microwave before cold press extraction resulted in an increase in extraction yield, total phenolic compound (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Cold press extracted oil had the lowest oxidative stability (4.64h). This property was greatly enhanced by microwave irradiation, so that the longest oxidative stability was found in MW-cold press extracted oil with 9.67h. Furthermore, all extracted oils demonstrated Newtonian flow behaviors. MW-cold press extracted oil had the greatest apparent viscosity and highest sensitivity to temperature changes (E a =29.18kJ/mol -1 ). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Bioluminescence inhibition assays for toxicity screening of wood extractives and biocides in paper mill process waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigol, Anna; Latorre, Anna; Lacorte, Sílvia; Barceló, Damià

    2004-02-01

    The risk associated with wood extractives, biocides, and other additives in pulp and paper mill effluents was evaluated by performing a characterization of process waters and effluents in terms of toxicity and chemical analysis. The individual toxicity of 10 resin acids, two unsaturated fatty acids, and three biocides was estimated by measuring the bioluminescence inhibition with a ToxAlert 100 system. Median effective concentration values (EC50) of 4.3 to 17.9, 1.2 to 1.5, and 0.022 to 0.50 mg/L were obtained, respectively. Mixtures of these three families of compounds showed antagonistic effects. Chemical analysis of process waters was performed by liquid chromatography- and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biocides such as 2-(thiocyanomethylthio)-benzotiazole (TCMTB) (EC50 = 0.022 mg/L) and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilpropionamide (DBNPA) (EC50 = 0.50 mg/L) were the most toxic compounds tested and were detected at concentrations of 16 and 59 microg/L, respectively, in a closed-circuit recycling paper mill. Process waters from kraft pulp mills, printing paper mills, and packing board paper mills showed the highest concentration of resin acids (up to 400 microg/L) and accounted for inhibition percentages up to 100%. Detergent degradation products such as nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) and the plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) were also detected in the waters at levels of 0.6 to 10.6, 0.3 to 1.4, and 0.7 to 187 microg/L, respectively. However, once these waters were biologically treated, the concentration of detected organic compounds diminished and the toxicity decreased in most cases to values of inhibition lower than 20%.

  17. Extraction process of palm kernel cake as a source of mannan for feed additive on poultry diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yusraini, E.

    2017-05-01

    Palm Kernel Cake (PKC) is a by-product of palm kernel oil extraction and found in large quantity in Indonesia. The inclusion of PKC on poultry diet are limited due to some nutritional problems such as anti-nutritional properties (mannan). On the other hand, mannan containing polysaccharides play in various biological functions particularly in enhancing the immune response and to control pathogen in poultry. The research objective to find out the extraction process of PKC and conducted at animal nutrition and Feed Science Laboratory, Agricultural Faculty, University of Sumatera Utara. Various extraction methode were used in this experiment, including fraction analysis used 7 number sieves, and followed by water and acetic acid extraction. The result indicated that PKC had different particle size according to sieve size and dominated by particle size 850 um. The analysis of sugar content indicated that each particle size had different characteristic on treatment by hot water extraction. The particle size 180—850 um had higher sugar content than coarse PKC (2000—3000 um). The total sugar content were recovered vary between 0.9—3,2% from PKC were extracted. Treatment grinding method followed by hot water extraction (100—120 °C, 1 h) increased total sugar content than previous treatments and reach 8% from PKC were extracted. Utilisation acetic acid decreased the total amount of total sugar from PKC were extracted. It is concluded that treatment by hot temperature (110—120 °C) for 1 h show highest yield to extract sugar from PKC.

  18. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of grape seed oil to enhance process yield and minimize free radical formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böger, Bruna R; Salviato, Aroldo; Valezi, Daniel F; Di Mauro, Eduardo; Georgetti, Sandra R; Kurozawa, Louise E

    2018-03-30

    Grape seeds are a relatively abundant source of oil and bioactive compounds. In order to use this by-product, the current work aimed to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction of grape seed oil to obtain greater process yield and minimize free radicals formation in the oil. The optimal condition was 15°C and amplitude of ultrasonic wave of 42 μm, leading to a process yield of 82.9% and content of free radicals of 14.7×10 17 kg -1 and 3.4×10 18 kg -1 for samples stored for 7 and 30 days, respectively. No significant differences in fatty acid composition and acidity and iodine values were observed between samples. The oil obtained by ultrasound had greater phenolic compound content and antioxidant activity by ferric reduction than the control sample (without ultrasound application). However, higher content of free radicals and peroxide value was observed. Sonication improved extraction yield when compared to the process without ultrasound application. Moreover, UAE favored phenolic compounds extraction. Since the proposed condition extraction enhanced process yield with the minimum formation of free radicals, UAE is a promising oil extraction technology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction process of U from its ores using solutions of alkaline earth carbonates and bicarbonates in presence of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floreancig, Antoine; Schuffenecker, Robert.

    1976-01-01

    A process is described for extracting uranium from its ores, either directly in the ore deposit or after such ore bodies have been taken from the ground, comprising an oxidation-leaching stage followed by a recovery stage. The characteristic of this process is that in the leaching process, carbonate and bicarbonate solutions of an alkaline-earth metal are used under a pressure of carbon dioxide between zero and 60 bars and at a temperature of zero to 100 0 C [fr

  20. Enzymatic process development for the extraction of ferulic from wheat bran [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blecker, C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The agro-industries generate thousands of tons of by-products, such as cereal bran or sugar beet pulps, each year. For instance, in the Walloon Region, wheat transformation industry produces about 200,000 t of bran annually. Most of those by-products are, at best, used for cattle feeding. Through biocracking, this biomass may however constitute a renewable source for various value-added molecules of interest. These include dietary fiber, proteins, antioxidants, etc. The Feruzyme project focuses on ferulic acid, a major example of the hydroxycinnamic acids. These phenolic compounds show excellent antioxidant ability, and are found in relative abundance in cereal bran (about 6.6 mg.g-1, dry basis, in wheat bran. Ferulic acid (along with other hydroxycinnamic acids is in majority (usually about 80% ester-linked to other constitutive elements of the cell wall, namely arabinoxylans. Its enzymatic release depends mainly on the breaking of its ester linkage by Ferulic Acid Esterases (FAE, EC 3.1.1.73, which works in synergy with arabinoxylan-degrading enzymes (hemicellulase, including xylanase. Cellulase and even protease may also help by "unweaving" further the complex, cross-linked structure of bran cell-wall. The aim of our project is to design a process, starting from raw wheat bran to obtain purified ferulic acid, either crystallized or in concentrated solution. Furthermore, this process should be feasible at pilot scale, as it is meant to commercial application. Bran pre-treatment may impact the efficiency of the enzymatic action, by facilitating the access of the enzymes to their substrate (grinding, micronisation, or by modifying cell-wall structure (extrusion, steam-explosion, etc. processes involving non-enzymatic hydrolysis. The composition of the bran may also be altered, for instance by destarching, but also by pearling, this process being able to separate richer layers within the bran. Simpler process, like fine sieving of ground bran, is

  1. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeancarlos Moreno; Gabriel López; Raúl Siche

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, t...

  2. Detection of uranium extraction zone by axial temperature profiles in a pulsed column for Purex process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, T.; Takahashi, K.

    1991-01-01

    A new method was presented for detecting uranium extraction zone in a pulsed column by means of measuring axial temperature profile originated from reaction heat during uranium extraction. Key parameters of the temperature profiles were estimated with a code developed for calculating temperature profiles in a direct-contact heat exchanger such as a pulsed column, and were verified using data from a small pulsed column simulating reaction heat with injecting hot water. Finally, the results were compared with those from an actual uranium extraction tests, indicating that the method presented was promising for detecting uranium extraction zone in a pulsed column. (author)

  3. Filter Cake Oil-Wax as Raw Material for the Production of Biodiesel: Analysis of the Extraction Process and the Transesterification Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    L. Casas; Y. Hernández; C. Mantell; N. Casdelo; E. Martinez de la Ossa

    2015-01-01

    The viability of using the waste obtained in the manufacture of sugar from sugarcane for the production of biodiesel has been analyzed. Two fundamental stages are necessary to obtain biodiesel; the first stage is the extraction process from the waste oil materials and the second is the transesterification reaction. Four techniques, Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, have been analyzed. For Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction,...

  4. PUBG; purex solvent extraction process model. [IBM3033; CDC CYBER175; FORTRAN IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geldard, J.F.; Beyerlein, A.L.

    PUBG is a chemical model of the Purex solvent extraction system, by which plutonium and uranium are recovered from spent nuclear fuel rods. The system comprises a number of mixer-settler banks. This discrete stage structure is the basis of the algorithms used in PUBG. The stages are connected to provide for countercurrent flow of the aqueous and organic phases. PUBG uses the common convention that has the aqueous phase enter at the lowest numbered stage and exit at the highest one; the organic phase flows oppositely. The volumes of the mixers are smaller than those of the settlers. The mixers generate a fine dispersion of one phase in the other. The high interfacial area is intended to provide for rapid mass transfer of the plutonium and uranium from one phase to the other. The separation of this dispersion back into the two phases occurs in the settlers. The species considered by PUBG are Hydrogen (1+), Plutonium (4+), Uranyl Oxide (2+), Plutonium (3+), Nitrate Anion, and reductant in the aqueous phase and Hydrogen (1+), Uranyl Oxide (2+), Plutonium (4+), and TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) in the organic phase. The reductant used in the Purex process is either Uranium (4+) or HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate).IBM3033;CDC CYBER175; FORTRAN IV; OS/MVS or OS/MVT (IBM3033), NOS 1.3 (CDC CYBER175); The IBM3033 version requires 150K bytes of memory for execution; 62,000 (octal) words are required by the CDC CYBER175 version..

  5. Gaussian Process Kalman Filter for Focal Plane Wavefront Correction and Exoplanet Signal Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, He; Kasdin, N. Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the ultimate limitation of space-based coronagraphy is the ability to subtract the residual PSF after wavefront correction to reveal the planet. Called reference difference imaging (RDI), the technique consists of conducting wavefront control to collect the reference point spread function (PSF) by observing a bright star, and then extracting target planet signals by subtracting a weighted sum of reference PSFs. Unfortunately, this technique is inherently inefficient because it spends a significant fraction of the observing time on the reference star rather than the target star with the planet. Recent progress in model based wavefront estimation suggests an alternative approach. A Kalman filter can be used to estimate the stellar PSF for correction by the wavefront control system while simultaneously estimating the planet signal. Without observing the reference star, the (extended) Kalman filter directly utilizes the wavefront correction data and combines the time series observations and model predictions to estimate the stellar PSF and planet signals. Because wavefront correction is used during the entire observation with no slewing, the system has inherently better stability. In this poster we show our results aimed at further improving our Kalman filter estimation accuracy by including not only temporal correlations but also spatial correlations among neighboring pixels in the images. This technique is known as a Gaussian process Kalman filter (GPKF). We also demonstrate the advantages of using a Kalman filter rather than RDI by simulating a real space exoplanet detection mission.

  6. Thermally Stable Solution Processed Vanadium Oxide as a Hole Extraction Layer in Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulami, Abdullah; Griffin, Jonathan; Alqurashi, Rania; Yi, Hunan; Iraqi, Ahmed; Lidzey, David; Buckley, Alastair

    2016-03-25

    Low-temperature solution-processable vanadium oxide (V₂O x ) thin films have been employed as hole extraction layers (HELs) in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. V₂O x films were fabricated in air by spin-coating vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide (s-V₂O x ) at room temperature without the need for further thermal annealing. The deposited vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide film undergoes hydrolysis in air, converting to V₂O x with optical and electronic properties comparable to vacuum-deposited V₂O₅. When s-V₂O x thin films were annealed in air at temperatures of 100 °C and 200 °C, OPV devices showed similar results with good thermal stability and better light transparency. Annealing at 300 °C and 400 °C resulted in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5% with a decrement approximately 15% lower than that of unannealed films; this is due to the relative decrease in the shunt resistance (R sh ) and an increase in the series resistance (R s ) related to changes in the oxidation state of vanadium.

  7. Date seed characterisation, substrate extraction and process modelling for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, R G; Winterburn, J B

    2016-12-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer synthesised via bacterial fermentation as a means of storing carbon and energy under unbalanced growth conditions. The production cost of petroleum-based plastics is currently lower than that for biopolymers, and the carbon source is the most significant contributor to biopolymer production cost. A feasibility study to assess the suitability of using a date seed derived media as an alternative for PHB production under various stress conditions was investigated. Results include fructose extraction from date seeds and a mass transfer model to describe the process, demonstrating that the high nutrient content of date seeds makes them a promising raw material for microbial growth and that a meaningful amount of PHB can be produced without supplementation. Maximum dry cell weight and PHB concentrations were 6.3g/l and 4.6g/l respectively, giving a PHB content of 73%, when an initial fructose concentration of 10.8g/l was used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-06-23

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. There are a number of parameters which are important for the production of acceptable cokes, including purity, structure, density, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity etc. From the standpoint of a manufacturer of graphite electrodes such as GrafTech, one of the most important parameters is coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Because GrafTech material is usually fully graphitized (i.e., heat treated at 3100 C), very high purity is automatically achieved. The degree of graphitization controls properties such as CTE, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, and density. Thus it is usually possible to correlate these properties using a single parameter. CTE has proven to be a useful index for the quality of coke. Pure graphite actually has a slightly negative coefficient of thermal expansion, whereas more disordered carbon has a positive coefficient.

  9. Taggiasca extra virgin olive oil colonization by yeasts during the extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A

    2017-04-01

    The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of Preclinical Assays to Investigate an Anthroposophic Pharmaceutical Process Applied to Mistletoe (Viscum album L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Baumgartner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from European mistletoe (Viscum album L. developed in anthroposophic medicine are based on specific pharmaceutical procedures to enhance remedy efficacy. One such anthroposophic pharmaceutical process was evaluated regarding effects on cancer cell toxicity in vitro and on colchicine tumor formation in Lepidium sativum. Anthroposophically processed Viscum album extract (APVAE was produced by mixing winter and summer mistletoe extracts in the edge of a high-speed rotating disk and was compared with manually mixed Viscum album extract (VAE. The antiproliferative effect of VAE/APVAE was determined in five cell lines (NCI-H460, DU-145, HCC1143, MV3, and PA-TU-8902 by WST-1 assay in vitro; no difference was found between VAE and APVAE in any cell line tested (P>0.14. Incidence of colchicine tumor formation was assessed by measurement of the root/shoot-ratio of seedlings of Lepidium sativum treated with colchicine as well as VAE, APVAE, or water. Colchicine tumor formation decreased after application of VAE (−5.4% compared to water, P<0.001 and was even stronger by APVAE (−8.8% compared to water, P<0.001. The high-speed mistletoe extract mixing process investigated thus did not influence toxicity against cancer cells but seemed to sustain morphostasis and to enhance resistance against external noxious influences leading to phenomenological malformations.

  11. A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by ...

  12. Change of Monascus pigment metabolism and secretion in different extractive fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaofei; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    Monascus pigments that were generally produced intracellularly from Monascus spp. are important natural colorants in food industry. In this study, change of pigment metabolism and secretion was investigated through fed-batch extractive fermentation and continuous extractive fermentation. The biomass, secreting rate of pigment and total pigment yield closely correlated with the activated time of extractive fermentation as well as the composition of feeding nutrients. Metal ions played a key role in both the cell growth and pigment metabolism. Nitrogen source was necessary for a high productivity of biomass but not for high pigment yield. Furthermore, fermentation period for the fed-batch extractive fermentation could be reduced by 18.75% with a nitrogen source free feeding medium. Through a 30-day continuous extractive fermentation, the average daily productivity for total pigments reached 74.9 AU day -1 with an increase by 32.6 and 296.3% compared to that in a 6-day conventional batch fermentation and a 16-day fed-batch extractive fermentation, respectively. At the meantime, proportions of extracellular pigments increased gradually from 2.7 to 71.3%, and yellow pigments gradually became dominated in both intracellular and extracellular pigments in the end of continuous extractive fermentation. This findings showed that either fed-batch or continuous extractive fermentation acted as a promising method in the efficient production of Monascus pigments.

  13. The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed proteins: sequential extraction processing and fraction characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Leila; Chibani, Farhat; Chouaibi, Moncef; Dalgalarrondo, Michèle; Hessini, Kamel; Guéguen, Jacques; Hamdi, Salem

    2013-08-14

    Seed proteins extracted from Tunisian pumpkin seeds ( Cucurbita maxima ) were investigated for their solubility properties and sequentially extracted according to the Osborne procedure. The solubility of pumpkin proteins from seed flour was greatly influenced by pH changes and ionic strength, with higher values in the alkaline pH regions. It also depends on the seed defatting solvent. Protein solubility was decreased by using chloroform/methanol (CM) for lipid extraction instead of pentane (P). On the basis of differential solubility fractionation and depending on the defatting method, the alkali extract (AE) was the major fraction (42.1 (P), 22.3% (CM)) compared to the salt extract (8.6 (P), 7.5% (CM)). In salt, alkali, and isopropanol extracts, all essential amino acids with the exceptions of threonine and lysine met the minimum requirements for preschool children (FAO/WHO/UNU). The denaturation temperatures were 96.6 and 93.4 °C for salt and alkali extracts, respectively. Pumpkin protein extracts with unique protein profiles and higher denaturation temperatures could impart novel characteristics when used as food ingredients.

  15. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  16. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  17. Modeling and optimization of extraction process of eucalyptus essential oil (Eucalyptus globulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeancarlos Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have studied the effect of the moisture from the eucalyptus leaf and the time of extraction on the yield of essential oil and the production cost. We took into account parameters such as steam temperature, pressure extraction, porous bed, steam flow and temperature of condensation. A Central Composite Rotational Design was used to evaluate optimum extraction areas and the cost that would follow, searching always to increase yields and reduce costs. According to this design, the extraction with the lowest production costs (0.57 Nuevos Soles by mL of essential oil is reached when the leaves have moisture between 25 and 30% and are extracted with times between 98 and 126 min

  18. Process and remote device for unscrewing and extracting an assembly screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagarrigue, F.

    1990-01-01

    The device comprises a C-shaped frame, with two parallel arms and a joining section fixed at one end of a long support, an extraction screw engaged in a hole through one arm and having one end made of a centre punch directed towards the inside of the frame and a remote mean for screwed or unscrewed the extraction screw. A supporting and centering piece can also be fixed to the second branch of the frame. The screw is extracted by exerting a moment about the axis of the screw through the support and frame after tightening the extraction screw. This device can be used particularly for the unscrewing and the extraction of the screw of the springs of a nuclear fuel assembly [fr

  19. Starch extraction process coupled to protein recovery from leguminous tuberous roots (Pachyrhizus ahipa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Andrea; Dini, Cecilia; Viña, Sonia Z; García, María A

    2016-11-05

    The objective of this work was to fit together the starch extraction from Pachyrhizus ahipa roots and the recovery of the proteins present in these storage organs, making an improved use of this novel raw material. The replacement of water by buffer PO4(-3)/NaCl as solvent in the first extraction steps improved protein extraction without lowering the starch yield. The starches obtained from the traditional and the proposed methods exhibited some differences in appearance and technological and thermal properties, which were endorsed to the adjustment in the methodology of extraction rather than to the use of buffer as solvent. Thus, P. ahipa starch obtaining procedure could be coupled to protein extraction with a minimum change in the methodology. This innovation did not significantly shift the characteristics of the starch obtained and allowed to obtain a protein yield of 135.7mg BSA equivalent protein/100g of fresh roots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uranium extraction from phosphates: Background, opportunities, process overview and way forward for commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldar, T.K.; Hilton, J.; Tulsidas, H.

    2014-01-01

    Socio-economic up-gradation for major part of global population, particularly in developing countries will call for large growth of electricity demand. The fact that 2 billion of world’s 7 billion population do not have access to electricity justifies this growth projection. Environmental concern along with increasing demand for other essential ingredients for improved standard of living like affordable food, water, healthcare etc. will encourage large growth in nuclear technology utilisation. While conventional uranium resources will continue to be the major source for meeting the resultant surge in uranium demand, there is a need to look forward beyond this. Inherent advantage of uranium extraction from phosphate (UxP) is that it is the by-product of phosphate fertilizer industry. There is no need for separate mine development, ore processing or tailing disposal. Feed phosphoric acid is available from phosphate industry in ready to use condition. UxP thus enables recovery of energy resource otherwise lost for ever besides making the fertiliser cleaner. UxP has also potential to make phosphate industry economically more viable and socially more acceptable. Phosphate industry also benefits from cleaner return acid making operation of downstream plant simpler and cleaner besides possible value addition of the product basket Due to low uranium concentration in source material, normally in the range of 80 – 150 ppm, and several process and engineering issues inherent to this relatively difficult separation process, large scale commercial deployment will depend on development of commercially viable technology. Though the process has been utilised for production of uranium in the past, before setting up a new commercial facility, it is imperative that its techno-economic feasibility be established considering all related aspects of the proposed facility. This will address the difficulties encountered in earlier plants, problems related to wide variation in physical

  1. Study on process development of solvent extraction of montan wax from lignite particles in a continuous fluidised bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Tiejun; Zhao Lianzhong; Di Weiquan; Huang Zhe; Chen Dabao; Zhang Ruiying; Yuan Huiru; Yang Guilin

    1985-12-01

    A new process of continuous solvent extraction for production of montan wax based on particulate fluidization technology was developed. Experimental results obtained in the pilot plant show that the fluidised bed extraction process is successful. The extraction rate is about 65-70% and benzene consumption is 0.46 t per ton of wax. Xun Dian lignite with particle size of 0.2-3 mm was used, which gave the following analysis data: wax content 7.15%, water content about 23%, ash content 12%. The quality of the montan wax product is specified as follows: water content 1.12%., insolubles (in benzene) 0.61%, ash content 0.3%, melting point 84 C, resin 21.16%, asphalts content 11.54%, acid value 35-50, saponification value 102.25.

  2. Identification, quantification, and sensory characterization of steviol glycosides from differently processed Stevia rebaudiana commercial extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, María Inés; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Sanders, Mark; Castro, Cristian; Stieger, Markus; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-12-10

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different technologies, was characterized using UHPLC-ESI-MS(n). The composition of one of the ethanol-crystallized extracts (EC2) was entirely rebaudioside A, whereas the enzymatically modified (EM) extract contained the lowest concentration of this compound (2.7 mg/100 mg). The membrane-purified (MP) extract had the highest content of minor natural steviol glycosides (23.7 mg/100 mg total extract) versus an average of 2.4 mg/100 mg total extract for the EC samples. Thirteen trained panelists evaluated sweetness, bitterness, licorice, and metallic attributes of all four extracts. The highest licorice intensity (p ≤ 0.05) was found for MP. Both samples EC1 and EC2, despite their different chemical compositions, showed no significant differences in sensory perception.

  3. Green dyeing process of modified cotton fibres using natural dyes extracted from Tamarix aphylla (L.) Karst. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaka, Noureddine; Mahfoudhi, Adel; Haddar, Wafa; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk; Mighri, Zine

    2017-01-01

    This research work involves an eco-friendly dyeing process of modified cotton with the aqueous extract of Tamarix aphylla leaves. During this process, the dyeing step was carried out on modified cotton by several cationising agents in order to improve its dyeability. The influence of the main dyeing conditions (dye bath pH, dyeing time, dyeing temperature, salt addition) on the performances of this dyeing process were studied. The dyeing performances of this process were appreciated by measuring the colour yield (K/S) and the fastness properties of the dyed samples. The effect of mordant type with different mordanting methods on dyeing quality was also studied. The results showed that mordanting gave deeper shades and enhanced fastness properties. In addition, environmental indicators (BOD 5 , COD and COD/BOD 5 ) were used to describe potential improvements in the biodegradability of the dyebath wastewater. Further, HPLC was used to identify the major phenolic compounds in the extracted dye.

  4. Causal knowledge extraction by natural language processing in material science: a case study in chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Kajikawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications written in natural language still play a central role as our knowledge source. However, due to the flood of publications, the literature survey process has become a highly time-consuming and tangled process, especially for novices of the discipline. Therefore, tools supporting the literature-survey process may help the individual scientist to explore new useful domains. Natural language processing (NLP is expected as one of the promising techniques to retrieve, abstract, and extract knowledge. In this contribution, NLP is firstly applied to the literature of chemical vapor deposition (CVD, which is a sub-discipline of materials science and is a complex and interdisciplinary field of research involving chemists, physicists, engineers, and materials scientists. Causal knowledge extraction from the literature is demonstrated using NLP.

  5. Improvements mineral dressing and extraction processes of gold-silver ores from San Pedro Frio Mining District, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez Traslavina, J. J.; Vargas Avila, M. A.; Garcia Paez, I. H.; Pedraza Rosas, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region production gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient. In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtained fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination. (Author)

  6. The influence of the extraction process and spinning conditions on morphology and ultimate properties of gel-spun polyethylene fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, W.; Brinke, G. ten; Pennings, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    The morphology of gel-spun polyethylene fibres prior to hot-drawing, depends on the spinning conditions and the extraction process. Paraffin oil containing fibres spun at relatively low spin temperatures and high take-up speeds show a c-axis orientation parallel to the fibre axis due to shish-kebab

  7. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  8. C-C1-02: Data Extraction From Text, Step 1: Preparing Test for Machine Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, David

    2010-01-01

    Background: Natural language processing (NLP) uses software to assist in the extraction of information from clinical text, a process usually performed entirely by chart abstractors. Before NLP can be applied the text in question must be prepared for machine processing. In research settings this pre- processing work often involves several successive and related tasks, requiring substantial amounts of time and attention from people representing various types of clinical, scientific and technical expertise. Appreciating the tasks and participants involved in pre-processing clinical text can make the work more manageable, efficient, and effective. Methods: The information presented here comes from case study analyses of three small-scale projects involving preparation of clinical text (pathology reports, radiology reports, and progress notes) for processing by the Cancer Text Information Extraction System. Supplementing these experiences is information from anecdotal conversations with natural language processing experts. Results: Ten separate pre-processing tasks were identified: obtaining source feeds, assessing completeness, de-duplication, universe description, cleaning and formatting, de-identification, database loading, sampling, preparation of the NLP system input feed, and quality assurance. Nine types of expertise or task participants required for preprocessing were identified: IRB representative, source-system manager, network/dbase administrator, programmer, statistician, investigator, informaticist, clinical domain expert, and manual chart abstractor. Conclusions: Pre-processing clinical text is an important phase and potentially challenging aspect of extracting information from clinical text using NLP. Because researchers require accurate information about the larger universe of documents or patients represented by the sampled and processed text, pre-processing can present numerous challenges, the solutions to which draw on many areas of expertise in a

  9. Vegetable-origin foam employed in dye extraction in tanning and leather processing facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cangemi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the use of conventional and vegetable origin polyurethane foams to extract C. I. Acid Orange 61 dye. The quantitative determination of the residual dye was carried out with an UV/Vis absorption spectrophotometer. The extraction of the dye was found to depend on various factors such as pH of the solution, foam cell structure, contact time and dye and foam interactions. After 45 days, better results were obtained for conventional foam when compared to vegetable foam. Despite presenting a lower percentage of extraction, vegetable foam is advantageous as it is considered a polymer with biodegradable characteristics.

  10. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  11. Cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) extract from by-product of juice processing: a focus on carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Fernando Pinto; Dornier, Manuel; Dionisio, Ana Paula; Carail, Michel; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Dhuique-Mayer, Claudie

    2013-05-01

    Cashew apple fibrous residue is a by-product of the cashew juice industry. After pressing using a helical type continuous press followed by crossflow microfiltration, an aqueous extract was obtained from these cashew apple fibres. It was characterised by an intense yellow colour due to carotenoid pigments. Carotenoids were identified and quantified in the cashew apple before extraction, in its aqueous extract and in the concentrate obtained by microfiltration. Cashew apple aqueous extract and its concentrate presented a carotenoid profile with 11 carotenoids, most of them were tentatively identified by HPLC-DAD-MS and are xanthophylls present under an esterified form. Auroxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin represented around 50% of total carotenoids. Concentration of the extract by microfiltration led to epoxy-furanoxy rearrangement of violaxanthin and antheraxanthin. The process allowed an increase of 10 times total carotenoid content compared with initial cashew apple. Total carotenoid content of the final concentrated extract reached 54 mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction of Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum L.) Seed Oil Using Subcritical Butane: Characterization and Process Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Liu, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Hua-Min; Pang, Hui-Li; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-02-02

    In this study, the subcritical butane extraction process of fenugreek seed oil was optimized using response surface methodology with a Box-Behnken design. The optimum conditions for extracted oil from fenugreek seed was as follows: extraction temperature of 43.24 °C , extraction time of 32.80 min, and particle size of 0.26 mm. No significant differences were found between the experimental and predicted values. The physical and chemical properties of the oil showed that the oil could be used as edible oil. Fatty acid composition of oils obtained by subcritical butane under the optimum conditions and by accelerated solvent extraction showed negligible difference. The oils were rich in linoleic acid (42.71%-42.80%), linolenic acid (26.03%-26.15%), and oleic acid (14.24%-14.40%). The results revealed that the proposed method was feasible, and this essay shows the way to exploit fenugreek seeds by subcritical butane extraction under the scope of edible oils.

  13. Radiological impact during the extraction, processing and use of phosphate minerals in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, Juan T.; Prendes Alonso, Miguel; Ramos Biltres, Odalys

    2008-01-01

    The use of phosphates for the production of fertilisers is a practice broadly diffused in the world. Their wide use is associated to the contribution of this material to formulation of Nk fertilisers. It is known in turn that phosphates have in their composition appreciable quantities of radioactive elements of natural origin. For this reason the use of phosphates in the composition of fertilizers can cause a radiological impact to both workers and public during all the phases of extraction and processing of phosphates, as well as during the production and application of these fertilizers. Finally the transfer of radionuclides contained in the fertilizers to the products of human consumption (vegetables, milk, meat) can produce an additional radiological impact on population. In Cuba there exist six locations of phosphoric rocks, located in the counties of Pinar del Rio, Havana, Matanzas, Sancti-Spiritus and Holguin. From these deposits there were studied the two ones which are in exploitation: 'La Pimienta' deposit, located in the West part of the country and 'Trinidad de Guedes' deposit, located in the Centre-West of Cuba. Paper shows the results obtained by the Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene (CPHR) in the determination of radionuclides concentrations in collected in the sites samples. Based on these results and taking into account both the features of routine works carried out in the sites and the later use of collected mineral as fertilizer, doses to mining workers and to members of the public were estimated. Estimated doses are in the range 0.3 - 2.70 mSv per year for workers and in the range 1.3 - 17 μSv per year. (author)

  14. Development of a surfactant liquid membrane extraction process for the cleansing of industrial aqueous effluents containing metallic cation traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaumbya Akaye, Guy-Roland

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a process of surfactant liquid membrane extraction to purify industrial waste solution containing Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) (about 0,1 g/L). The extractant is the ammonium salt of Cyanex 306 and Aliquat 336. The first part of this work deals with the study of the liquid-liquid extraction of the metals. The efficiency of the extractant has been shown for the extraction of each metal alone and for Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the case of a mixture of the three metals. During this study we have observed that Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) (which is not extracted by the salt of Cyanex 301) in presence of Cu(II) and the quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat 336). The optimisation of the experimental conditions for the discontinuous surfactant liquid membrane process led us to choose the following composition of the emulsion: 1,5 % of Cyanex 301 salt, 2,5 % of ECA 4360, dodecan. The internal phase is an aqueous solution containing 3,5 mol/L of NaOH and 0,5 mol/L tri-ethanolamin The residual concentration of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the external phase is very low. In the case of iron, only 60 % are extracted because of the reduction phenomenon (10 % in liquid-liquid extraction). The realisation of the continuous process in pulsed column, after optimisation of hydrodynamics conditions, leads to similar results. In stationary conditions, we obtain a raffinate containing less than 0,5 mg/L of Cu(II) and Zn(II) and 36 mg/L of iron. The internal phase contains about 2 g/L of Cu(II) an Zn(II). We tried and minimize the reduction of Fe(III) in surfactant liquid membrane process. Less than 16 % of iron cannot be reduced. This leads to a purification of only 84 % In the basis of these results, processes of purification have been proposed for effluents of various composition. They enable to purify the effluent and besides to concentrate the pollutants about twenty times. (author) [fr

  15. Application of a Box-Behnken design for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Girón, Emmanuel; Salazar-Montoya, Juan Alfredo; Ramos-Ramírez, Emma Gloria

    2016-08-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul) is an industrially important crop in México since it is the only raw material appropriate to produce tequila, an alcoholic beverage. Nowadays, however, these plants have also a nutritional interest as a source of functional food ingredients, owing to the prebiotic potential of agave fructans. In this study, a Box-Behnken design was employed to determine the influence of temperature, liquid:solid ratio and time in a maceration process for agave fructan extraction and optimization. The developed regression model indicates that the selected study variables were statistical determinants for the extraction yield, and the optimal conditions for maximum extraction were a temperature of 60 °C, a liquid:solid ratio of 10:1 (v/w) and a time of 26.7 min, corresponding to a predicted extraction yield of 37.84%. Through selective separation via precipitation with ethanol, fructans with a degree of polymerization of 29.1 were obtained. Box-Behnken designs are useful statistical methods for optimizing the extraction process of agave fructans. A mixture of carbohydrates was obtained from agave powder. This optimized method can be used to obtain fructans for use as prebiotics or as raw material for obtaining functional oligosaccharides. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-07-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  17. The Process of Risk Management for a Project to Extract Shale Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, A.; Eguilior, S.; Recreo, F.

    2014-01-01

    There is no human activity without risk. Accordingly, so neither is the extraction of shale gas. In fact this technology has a risk level similar to any other type of industrial activity and particularly those related to oil and gas industry. It is important to highlight the need to properly address these risks, among other reasons, for its influence on public acceptance of this technology, a key element for the commercial scale implementation. At present, risk management is a generally accepted tool for decision making and control of the risks that come from a wide variety of both industrial and not industrial human activities. It is an important element for the implementation of a large number of safety regulations, corporate policies and good industry practice . Thus, for example, chemical and petroleum, nuclear industries, aviation and aerospace or waste management make use of risk management as a central tool to identification the risks, to establish the importance and ranking of the estimated risks, to estimate the cost/benefit ratio in reducing these risks, and to carry out political and institutional processes to manage them. Risk management provides a broad framework to aid decision-making through the identification, analysis, and evaluation and control of risks, including, of course, those for health and safety. A key aspect is the need to ensure the identification of all significant risks, from which it may take appropriate measures (risk analysis). An unidentified risk allows or evaluation or its monitoring, reduction, acceptance or cancellation. After the analysis stage it may be considered for assessment, that is, the risk quantification, to classify them (acceptable, unacceptable, etc. risk). These actions are determined based on a balance between risk control strategies, their effectiveness and cost, and the needs, problems and concerns of those who may be affected, or stake holders, an essential element in the strategic planning of any activity or

  18. The aqueous extracts of Passiflora alata and Passiflora edulis reduce anxiety-related behaviors without affecting memory process in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo R; Valvassori, Samira S; Bordignon, Celso L; Kappel, Virginia D; Martins, Márcio R; Gavioli, Elaine C; Quevedo, João; Reginatto, Flávio H

    2008-06-01

    Several species of Passiflora have been employed widely as a folk medicine because of sedative and tranquillizer activities. In this study, we evaluate the effects on anxiety and memory process of two popularly used Passiflora species. To this aim, male Wistar rats (weighing 250-300 g) were intraperitoneally injected with the aqueous extract of Passiflora alata or Passiflora edulis (25, 50, 100, or 150 mg/kg; single injection) 30 minutes prior to the elevated plus-maze test, inhibitory avoidance test, or habituation to an open-field apparatus. The effects of both species of Passiflora were compared with that of diazepam (1 mg/kg), a standard anxiolytic drug. Our findings revealed that, similar to diazepam, the treatment with P. alata (100 and 150 mg/kg) and P. edulis (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg) induced anxiolytic-like effects in rats. Memory was not affected by the treatment with any dose of P. alata or P. edulis, but diazepam disrupted memory process in rats. Phytochemical analysis showed that the content of flavonoids of the aqueous extract of P. edulis is almost twice that of P. alata. These differences in contents of flavonoids could explain the lower active doses of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in inducing anxiolytic-like effects compared to P. alata. In conclusion, our findings suggest that, distinct from diazepam, the aqueous extract of both species of Passiflora induced anxiolytic-like effects in rats without disrupting memory process.

  19. Synthesis of volatile compounds of virgin olive oil is limited by the lipoxygenase activity load during the oil extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2012-01-25

    The aim of this work was to determine whether the lipoxygenase (LOX) activity is a limiting factor for the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil (VOO) volatile compounds during the oil extraction process. For this purpose, LOX activity load was modified during this process using exogenous LOX activity and specific LOX inhibitors on olive cultivars producing oils with different volatile profiles (Arbequina and Picual). Experimental data suggest that LOX activity is a limiting factor for the synthesis of the oil volatile fraction, this limitation being significantly higher in Picual cultivar than in Arbequina, in line with the lowest content of volatile compounds in the oils obtained from the former. Moreover, there is evidence that this limitation of LOX activity takes place mostly during the milling step in the process of olive oil extraction.

  20. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Ensinas, Adriano; Modesto, Marcelo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  1. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile for purification of polygalacturonase enzyme from Durio zibethinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Manap, Yazid; Azmira, Farhana; Hussin, Muhaini; Sarker, Zaidul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Polygalacturonase is one of the important enzymes used in various industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical, textile, pulp and paper. A novel liquid/liquid extraction process composed of surfactant and acetonitrile was employed for the first time to purify polygalacturonase from Durio zibethinus. The influences of different parameters such as type and concentration of surfactants, concentrations of acetonitrile and composition of surfactant/acetonitrile on partitioning behavior and recovery of polygalacturonase was investigated. Moreover, the effect of pH of system and crude load on purification fold and yield of purified polygalacturonase were studied. The results of the experiment indicated the polygalacturonase was partitioned into surfactant top rich phase with impurities being partitioned into acetonitrile bottom rich phase in the novel method of liquid/liquid process composed of 23% (w/w) Triton X-100 and 19% (w/w) acetonitrile, at 55.6% of TLL (tie line length) crude load of 25% (w/w) at pH 6.0. Recovery and recycling of components also was measured in each successive step of liquid/liquid extraction process. The enzyme was successfully recovered by the method with a high purification factor of 14.3 and yield of 97.3% while phase components were also recovered and recycled above 95%. This study demonstrated that the novel method of liquid/liquid extraction process can be used as an efficient and economical extraction method rather than the traditional methods of extraction for the purification and recovery of the valuable enzyme. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Scale-up of the mixer of a mixer-settler model used in a uranium solvent extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, A.O. de; Dantas, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Scale-up relations were obtained for the mixer of a box type mixer-settler used in an uranium extraction process from chloridric leaches. Three box type mixers of different sizes and with the same geometry were used for batch and continuous-flow experiments. The correlations between the extraction rate and he specific power input, D/T ratio(=turbine diameter/mixer width) and residence time were experimentally determined. The results showed that the extraction rate increases with the power input at a constant D/T ratio equal to 1/3, remaining however, independent from the mixer size for a specific value of the power input. This behaviour was observed for power input values ranging from 100 to 750 W/m 3 . (author) 8 refs.; 8 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. The Extraction Process of Trimethyl Xanthina in Vitro Culture of Callus Camellia Sinensis with ethyl Acetate Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trimethyl xanthina is one of the compounds contained bioactive culture in vitro Cammelia sinensis callus which is widely used in the field of food, beverage, agriculture and health industries. The presence of trimethyl xanthina on food, beverages and health is needed in a certain amount depending on the use which is achieved by the user. To get a certain amount of trimethyl xanthina from callus culture of Cammelia sinensis, the extraction process is performed on the water solvent, as well as non-solvent water / organic solvent such as ethyl acetate. The purpose of this study was to obtain profile of trimethyl xanthina in the extraction of Cammelia sinensis callus. The experimental methods used consisted of dissolution, filtration, extraction with water solvent and ethyl acetate, then followed by identification of trimethyl xanthina using HPLC. The results shows the profile form of trimethyl xanthina of Cammelia sinensis callus have similarities with the standard form of trimethyl xanthina.

  4. [Technological process of cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by acid method under autoclave conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Baoju; Xiao, Anfeng; Lil, Lijun; Ni, Hui; Cai, Huinong; Su, Wenjin

    2008-07-01

    Phaffia rhodozyma is one of the organisms for production of astaxanthin, and the key process for extracting intracellular astaxanthin is cell disruption. In this work, cell disruption for extracting astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma was studied with autoclave method at low acid concentration. The optimum disrupting conditions were: autoclave pressure 0.1 MPa, 121 degrees C; hydrochloric acid concentration 0.5 mol/L; liquid to material ratio (V/W) 30 mL/g dry cell weight and disruption time 2 min. Under the optimum conditions, medium scale experiment showed that astaxanthin and total carotenoids recovery from Phaffia rhodozyma were (84.8 +/- 3.2)% and (93.3 +/- 2)%, respectively. This new method can lead to no poisonous residues and get high extraction yield, which have good prospects to be put into industrial production.

  5. The four types of supramolecular organisation of extractant molecules used in separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testard, F.; Martinet, L.; Berthon, L.; Nave, S.; Abecassis, B.; Madic, C.; Zemb, Th.

    2004-01-01

    We present a comprehensive comparison of four microstructures present in oil phases of extractant - considered as weak surfactant - used for nuclear fuel reprocessing and minor actinides partitioning. Due to their surface active properties, some extractants (TBP, TODGA, diamide, etc) are organised into reverse micelles interacting through an attractive potential. The Van der Waals attractions between the cores of reverse micelles were found to be the key for the understanding and modelling of the formation of the 'third phase', analogue to a liquid-gas phase separation known in the field of microemulsions. In some cases, micelles are transformed into a regular molecular solution by modest heating. Apart from micellar and regular solutions, two new modes of association of extractant molecules have been identified. Networks of H-bounds are obtained when 'modifiers' such as octanol are added by formulators in order to improve stability range. Micro-phase separation in a more crystalline phase can be obtained with increasing extractant and ion concentrations. The metal ion distribution coefficient depends on the associated or disassociated state of the extracting molecules. (authors)

  6. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, W.S.; Middelberg, A.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving W chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection...... was achieved very rapidly ( 100 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer. The influence of feedstock complexity on Ll adsorption to the Cu2+-charged type II magnetic chelators was studied using various dilutions of four crude chemical E. coli cell extracts containing denatured L I protein. Undiminished Ll...... adsorption to these adsorbents (relative to the 8 M urea-phosphate buffer case) was observed with the least complex of these feed materials, i.e., a partially clarified (12 g dry weight L-1) and spermine-treated chemical cell extract (feedstock B). Efficient recovery of Ll from feed B was demonstrated...

  7. Purification of wet process phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstroem, S.

    1986-09-01

    Purification of phosphoric acid by solvent extraction with long-chain aliphatic amines is investigated. Extraction of cadmium is extensively examined regarding the importance of the aqueous phase, the diluent and the amine. The solubility of tri-n-octyl-amine is determined in water and phosphoric acid solutions. Properties of valuable constituent such as uranium and yttrium are screened. Modelling of the system is performed by adapting Bromley's model for electrolytes to the different dissociation/association equilibria in the aqueous phase. In the organic phase simple expressions are used for the non-ideal behaviour. Amine-acid equilibria are investigated for all acids present in industrial phosphoric acid. New extraction constants are calculated for phosphoric and hydro- fluosilic acid. Calculations are compared with experiments both from binary and multicomponent acid mixtures

  8. Efficient inclusion body processing using chemical extraction and high gradient magnetic fishing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Nielsen, Anders; Choe, W.S.; Middelberg, A.P.J.

    2003-01-01

    was achieved very rapidly ( 100 mM imidazole in the equilibration buffer. The influence of feedstock complexity on Ll adsorption to the Cu2+-charged type II magnetic chelators was studied using various dilutions of four crude chemical E. coli cell extracts containing denatured L I protein. Undiminished Ll......In this study we introduce a radical new approach for the recovery of proteins expressed in the form of inclusion bodies, involving W chemical extraction from the host cells, (ii) adsorptive capture of the target protein onto small magnetic adsorbents, and (iii) subsequent rapid collection...... adsorption to these adsorbents (relative to the 8 M urea-phosphate buffer case) was observed with the least complex of these feed materials, i.e., a partially clarified (12 g dry weight L-1) and spermine-treated chemical cell extract (feedstock B). Efficient recovery of Ll from feed B was demonstrated...

  9. Regularities of selenium and chromium behavior in redox processes during hydrometallurgic treatment of solid phase products of rhenium extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г. В. Петров

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The main source of selenium is copper anode slime. But during the pyrometallurgical treatment of sulphide polymetallic ores significant amount of selenium along with radiogenic osmium and rhenium is concentrated in the solid-phase products of acid wash extraction and cannot be extracted, as gets lost with discharged chromium-containing solutions of osmium stage. The paper presents results of research into selenium reduction in the chromium-containing sulfuric acid medium by sulfurous gas and sodium sulphite. The use of the above reducers in optimum conditions leads to almost complete recovery of selenium (VI while selenium (IV extraction rate is not exceeding 60 %. The chrome (III present in solutions has no impact on the selenium extraction rate. Chrome (VI is almost completely reduced to a trivalent state, thus its negative impact on subsequent rhenium sorption from solutions purified from selenium is excluded. In view of a high rate of selenium extraction from chromium-containing sulfuric acid solutions formed in the process of radiogenic osmium production using sulfurous gas and sodium sulphite, choice of a method for selenium reduction is to a great extent dependent on the company’s profile.

  10. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulenova, Alena [Principal Investigator; Vandegrift, III, George F. [Collaborator

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  11. Alumina Extraction from a Pennsylvania Diaspore Clay by an Ammonium Sulfate Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, J. W.; Sun, Shou-Chuan

    A method is proposed for the extraction of alumina from the minerals diaspore, kaolinite and boehmite, the major alumina usinerais in Pennsylvania diaspore clay. The conditions required for optimum alumina extraction and minimum ammonium sulfate loss as determined for the alumina minerals are applied to a naturally occurring diaspore clay. The proposed flowsheet thus obtained is examined in its parts and such variables as particle size, ammonium sulfate to alumina mole ratio, roasting temperature, roasting time, heating rate, leaching cohditions, and purification methods are discussed.

  12. Parameter extraction using global particle swarm optimization approach and the influence of polymer processing temperature on the solar cell parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S.; Singh, A.; Dhar, A.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate estimation of the photovoltaic parameters is fundamental to gain an insight of the physical processes occurring inside a photovoltaic device and thereby to optimize its design, fabrication processes, and quality. A simulative approach of accurately determining the device parameters is crucial for cell array and module simulation when applied in practical on-field applications. In this work, we have developed a global particle swarm optimization (GPSO) approach to estimate the different solar cell parameters viz., ideality factor (η), short circuit current (Isc), open circuit voltage (Voc), shunt resistant (Rsh), and series resistance (Rs) with wide a search range of over ±100 % for each model parameter. After validating the accurateness and global search power of the proposed approach with synthetic and noisy data, we applied the technique to the extract the PV parameters of ZnO/PCDTBT based hybrid solar cells (HSCs) prepared under different annealing conditions. Further, we examine the variation of extracted model parameters to unveil the physical processes occurring when different annealing temperatures are employed during the device fabrication and establish the role of improved charge transport in polymer films from independent FET measurements. The evolution of surface morphology, optical absorption, and chemical compositional behaviour of PCDTBT co-polymer films as a function of processing temperature has also been captured in the study and correlated with the findings from the PV parameters extracted using GPSO approach.

  13. Using bacterial extract along with differential gene expression in Acropora millepora larvae to decouple the processes of attachment and metamorphosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachshon Siboni

    Full Text Available Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP, isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100% with little or no attachment (0-2%. To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI, selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05 in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05 following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that

  14. Development of a normalized extraction to further aid in fast, high-throughput processing of forensic DNA reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Catherine C; LeFebvre, Aaron K; Benjamin, Robert C

    2016-11-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a "normalized" extraction procedure to be used in conjunction with previously validated 3μL fast PCR reactions (42-51min utilizing KAPA2G™ Fast Multiplex PCR Kit) and alternative capillary electrophoresis (24-28min injection using POP-6™ Polymer and a 22cm array). This was the final phase of a workflow overhaul for the database unit at Cellmark Forensics to achieve a substantial reduction in processing time for forensic DNA database samples without incurring significant added costs and/or the need for new instrumentation, while still generating high quality STR profiles. Extraction normalization aimed to consistently yield a small range of DNA concentrations, thereby eliminating the need for sample quantification and dilution. This was specifically achieved using the ChargeSwitch ® Forensic DNA Purification Kit and a reduction in extraction bead quantity, thereby forcing an increase in bead binding efficiency. Following development of this extraction procedure, an evaluation ensued to assess the combination of normalized extraction, 3μL fast PCR (with PowerPlex 16 HS, Identifiler Plus and Identifiler primer sets), and alternative CE detection - further referred to as new "first pass" procedures. These modifications resulted in a 37% reduction in processing time and were evaluated via an in depth validation, from which nearly 2000 STR profiles were generated, of which 554 profiles from 77 swab donors and 210 profiles from 35 buccal collector donors specifically arose from the new first pass procedures. This validation demonstrates the robustness of these processes for buccal swabs and Buccal DNA Collectors™ using the three primer sets evaluated and their ability to generate high quality STR profiles with 95-99% and 88-91% pass rates, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Near infrared spectroscopy based monitoring of extraction processes of raw material with the help of dynamic predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Suo, Tongchuan; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Heshui; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    The control of batch-to-batch quality variations remains a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries, e.g., traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing. One difficult problem is to produce pharmaceutical products with consistent quality from raw material of large quality variations. In this paper, an integrated methodology combining the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and dynamic predictive modeling is developed for the monitoring and control of the batch extraction process of licorice. With the spectra data in hand, the initial state of the process is firstly estimated with a state-space model to construct a process monitoring strategy for the early detection of variations induced by the initial process inputs such as raw materials. Secondly, the quality property of the end product is predicted at the mid-course during the extraction process with a partial least squares (PLS) model. The batch-end-time (BET) is then adjusted accordingly to minimize the quality variations. In conclusion, our study shows that with the help of the dynamic predictive modeling, NIRS can offer the past and future information of the process, which enables more accurate monitoring and control of process performance and product quality.

  16. Near infrared spectroscopy based monitoring of extraction processes of raw material with the help of dynamic predictive modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Suo, Tongchuan; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Heshui; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-05

    The control of batch-to-batch quality variations remains a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries, e.g., traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing. One difficult problem is to produce pharmaceutical products with consistent quality from raw material of large quality variations. In this paper, an integrated methodology combining the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and dynamic predictive modeling is developed for the monitoring and control of the batch extraction process of licorice. With the spectra data in hand, the initial state of the process is firstly estimated with a state-space model to construct a process monitoring strategy for the early detection of variations induced by the initial process inputs such as raw materials. Secondly, the quality property of the end product is predicted at the mid-course during the extraction process with a partial least squares (PLS) model. The batch-end-time (BET) is then adjusted accordingly to minimize the quality variations. In conclusion, our study shows that with the help of the dynamic predictive modeling, NIRS can offer the past and future information of the process, which enables more accurate monitoring and control of process performance and product quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of cellulase-assisted extraction process and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Tricholoma mongolicum Imai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Ming; Song, Jin-Hui; Wang, Jin; Yang, Jian-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Bao; Liu, Ying-Hui

    2016-10-01

    Tricholoma mongolicum Imai is a well-known edible and medicinal mushroom which in recent years has attracted increasing attention because of its bioactivities. In this study, water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from T. mongolicum Imai by cellulase-assisted extraction and their antioxidant activities were investigated. In order to improve the yield of polysaccharides, four variables, cellulase amount (X1 ), pH (X2 ), temperature (X3 ) and extraction time (X4 ), were investigated with a Box-Behnken design. The optimal conditions were predicted to be cellulase amount of 20 g kg(-1) , pH of 4.0, temperature of 50 °C and extraction time of 127 min, with a predicted polysaccharide yield of 190.1 g kg(-1) . The actual yield of polysaccharides under these conditions was 189.6 g kg(-1) , which matched the predicted value well. The crude polysaccharides were purified to obtain four fractions, and characterization of each was carried out. In addition, antioxidant properties of four polysaccharides assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical-scavenging assays indicated that polysaccharides from T. mongolicum Imai (TMIPs) possessed antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. TMIPs show moderate antioxidant activities in vitro. Therefore it is suggested that TMIPs are potential natural antioxidants for use in functional foods. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Fucoxanthin and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Co-Extraction by a Green Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Delbrut

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available By their autotrophic nature and their molecular richness, microalgae are serious assets in the context of current environmental and societal challenges. Some species produce both omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and xanthophylls, two molecular families widely studied for their bioactivities in the fields of nutrition and cosmetics. Whereas most studies separately deal with the two families, synergies could be exploited with extracts containing both PUFAs and xanthophylls. The purpose of our work was to determine cost effective and eco-friendly parameters for their co-extraction. The effect of several parameters (solvent, solvent/biomass ratio, temperature, duration were studied, using two microalgal species, the non-calcifying Haptophyta Tisochrysis lutea, and the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, that presents a silicified frustule. Analyses of PUFAs and fucoxanthin (Fx, the main xanthophyll, allowed to compare kinetics and extraction yields between experimental protocols. Co-extraction yields achieved using 96% ethanol as solvent were 100% for Fx and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in one hour from T. lutea biomass, and respectively 95% and 89% for Fx and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA in eight hours from P. tricornutum. These conditions are compatible with industrial applications.

  19. Nano-structural analysis of fish collagen extracts for new process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nano and micro imaging were used to evaluate effects of pretreatment solution on gelatin. Four types of pretreatment solution were used during fish gelatin extraction in this study. They are acetic acid (A), acetic acid-NaCl (SA), acetic acid-NaOH (BA) and acetic acid-NaOH-NaCl (SBA). Different patterns were observed for ...

  20. PRELIMINARY COMPARATIVE STUDY OF METHODS TO EXTRACT VIRUS FROM RAW AND PROCESSED SEWAGE SLUDGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two simple virus extraction techniques were compared to an EPA standard method for detection of human enteric viruses in raw sewage sludge and class A biosolids. The techniques were used to detect both indigenous and seeded virus from a plant that distributes class A material pr...

  1. Identification, Quantification, and Sensory Characterization of Steviol Glycosides from Differently Processed Stevia rebaudiana Commercial Extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinoza, M.I.; Vincken, J.P.; Sanders, M.G.; Castro, C.; Stieger, M.A.; Agosin, E.

    2014-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana is known for its sweet-tasting ent-kaurene diterpenoid glycosides. Several manufacturing strategies are currently employed to obtain Stevia sweeteners with the lowest possible off-flavors. The chemical composition of four commercial S. rebaudiana extracts, obtained by different

  2. Aloe vera extract as a promising treatment for the quality maintenance of minimally-processed table grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Rosaria Antonella Alberio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an edible film obtained from a commercial Aloe vera extract, on the quality maintenance of minimally processed grapes belonging to three different cultivars (Sugar One, Victoria and Black Magic was evaluated by enzymatic (PPO, PME, β-GAL, physicochemical (pH, acidity, °Brix, and sensorial methods. All the analyzed parameters were measured in extracts obtained from minimally processed grapes packaged in ordinary atmosphere and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. Samples dipped into Aloe vera showed significant differences (p≤0.05 compared to untreated ones. The determination of such parameters and the evaluation of consumer acceptability were helpful to determine the effectiveness of the post-harvest treatment with Aloe vera for a storage period of 15 days.

  3. Mutagenic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Jatropha Curcas L Seed Solid Waste Obtained From Residual Fuel Vegetable Processing (Biofuel)

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Wirasutisna, Komar Ruslan; Elfahmi, Elfahmi; Wibowo, Marlia Singgih

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed contains viscous oil that can be used for soap making, cosmetic and as biofuel. It contains phorbol ester that was toxic. Biofuel production of Jatropha curcas seed left seedcake from mechanical press process. For safety evaluation, mutagenicity test was carried out. The seedcake was extracted by maceration method at room temperature with methanol and the mutagenic effect was evaluated by Ames test against Salmonella typhimurium TA 1535 with or without S9 metabolic activa...

  4. Comparison between ammonia/ammonium sulphate system and sodium chloride in the uranium re-extraction in hydrometallurgic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, J. de; Bruno, J.B.; Conceicao, E.L.H.

    1984-01-01

    The solution systems of ammonia/ammonium sulphate and sodium chloride are compared in the uranium re-extraction. The uranium is presented in organic solvents and the liquid/liquid separation process is used. The results of sulphuric ore lixivium are presented and 0,55g of U 3 O 8 /l are analysed in bench scale and pilot standard, to obtain uranium concentrate. (M.A.C.) [pt

  5. Massively parallel signal processing using the graphics processing unit for real-time brain-computer interface feature extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam Wilson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The clock speeds of modern computer processors have nearly plateaued in the past five years. Consequently, neural prosthetic systems that rely on processing large quantities of data in a short period of time face a bottleneck, in that it may not be possible to process all of the data recorded from an electrode array with high channel counts and bandwidth, such as electrocorticographic grids or other implantable systems. Therefore, in this study a method of using the processing capabilities of a graphics card (GPU was developed for real-time neural signal processing of a brain-computer interface (BCI. The NVIDIA CUDA system was used to offload processing to the GPU, which is capable of running many operations in parallel, potentially greatly increasing the speed of existing algorithms. The BCI system records many channels of data, which are processed and translated into a control signal, such as the movement of a computer cursor. This signal processing chain involves computing a matrix-matrix multiplication (i.e., a spatial filter, followed by calculating the power spectral density on every channel using an auto-regressive method, and finally classifying appropriate features for control. In this study, the first two computationally-intensive steps were implemented on the GPU, and the speed was compared to both the current implementation and a CPU-based implementation that uses multi-threading. Significant performance gains were obtained with GPU processing: the current implementation processed 1000 channels in 933 ms, while the new GPU method took only 27 ms, an improvement of nearly 35 times.

  6. Simplified recovery process of Ralstonia solanacearum-synthesized polyhydroxyalkanoates via chemical extraction complemented by liquid-liquid phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine L. Macagnan

    Full Text Available Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB is the most studied thermoplastic biopolymer belonging to the polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA family, the main features of which include rapid biodegradability and biocompatibility. The bioplastic recovery process is an important step during production and can directly influence the characteristics of PHAs. However, more efficient methods for the production of P(3HB are necessary to make it economically viable. The aim of the present study was to improve the standard, chloroform-based, extraction step for the recovery of P(3HB. The polymer was produced using a Ralstonia solanacearum strain. The following parameters were improved in the recovery process: heating time, separation method (filtration or liquid-liquid phase separation, biomass state (fresh or dry cell concentrate and the solvent:biomass ratio. By improving the chemical extraction of P(3HB we recovered 98% of the cumulative polymer and reduced the heating time by 75%. Furthermore, we improved the separation process and developed an extraction solution that was faster and more economical.

  7. The uranium waste fluid processing examination by liquid and liquid extraction method using the emulsion flow method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Nobuhiro; Daiten, Masaki; Endo, Yuji; Yoshida, Hideaki; Mita, Yutaka; Naganawa, Hirochika; Nagano, Tetsushi; Yanase, Nobuyuki

    2015-03-01

    Spent centrifuges which had used for the development of the uranium enrichment technology are stored in the uranium enrichment facility located in Ningyo-toge Environmental Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Our technology of the centrifugal machine processing are supposed to separate the radioactive material adhered on surface of inner parts of centrifuges by the wet way decontamination method using the ultrasonic bath filled dilute sulfuric acid and water, and it is generated the neutralization sediment (sludge) by the processing of the radioactive waste fluid with the decontamination. JAEA had been considering the applicability of a streamlining and reduction of the processing of the sludge by decreases radioactive concentration including the sludge through the removes uranium from the radioactive waste fluid. As part of considerations, JAEA have been promoting technological developments of the uranium extraction separation using The Emulsion Flow Extraction Method (a theory propounded by JAEA-Nuclear Science and Engineering Center) in close coordination and cooperation between with JAEA-Nuclear Science and Engineering Center and Ningyo-toge Environmental Center from 2007 fiscal year. This report describes the outline of the application test using actual waste fluid of dilute sulfuric acid and water by developed the examination system introducing the emulsion flow extraction method. (author)

  8. Feasibility of lead extraction from waste Cathode-Ray-Tubes (CRT) funnel glass through a lead smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianfang; Yang, Hongying; Jin, Zhenan; Ma, Zhiyuan; Song, Yan

    2016-11-01

    A novel and effective process for extracting lead from the hazardous waste Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) funnel glass is presented. The technological breakthrough of this process is introducing the discarded CRT funnel glass to traditional lead smelting. In this study, the influences of amount of carbon addition, calcium-silicate ratio, temperature, holding time and funnel glass addition on lead extraction efficiency were investigated to determine the optimal operational parameters. With a glass addition of less than 30wt%, a high extraction yield of 97.5% of lead from the mixture of funnel glass and lead slag was successfully obtained by controlling the C/PbO molar ratio, CaO/SiO 2 ratio, temperature, treatment time at 0.9, 0.8, 1200°C, 60min, respectively. The main crystalline phases of the residues were calcium silicate slag, and an amorphous glass phase appears at a glass addition more than 30wt%. Thermodynamic calculation shows that the proportion of liquid phase in the slag first increased and then decreased, when the addition of glass is increased, while the viscosity of the slag exhibited a continuous decrease. Thus, based on all the results, it is concluded that the process proposed in this paper is an effective and promising approach for reutilization of obsolete CRT funnel glass. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A simple rapid process for semi-automated brain extraction from magnetic resonance images of the whole mouse head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delora, Adam; Gonzales, Aaron; Medina, Christopher S; Mitchell, Adam; Mohed, Abdul Faheem; Jacobs, Russell E; Bearer, Elaine L

    2016-01-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-developed technique in neuroscience. Limitations in applying MRI to rodent models of neuropsychiatric disorders include the large number of animals required to achieve statistical significance, and the paucity of automation tools for the critical early step in processing, brain extraction, which prepares brain images for alignment and voxel-wise statistics. This novel timesaving automation of template-based brain extraction ("skull-stripping") is capable of quickly and reliably extracting the brain from large numbers of whole head images in a single step. The method is simple to install and requires minimal user interaction. This method is equally applicable to different types of MR images. Results were evaluated with Dice and Jacquard similarity indices and compared in 3D surface projections with other stripping approaches. Statistical comparisons demonstrate that individual variation of brain volumes are preserved. A downloadable software package not otherwise available for extraction of brains from whole head images is included here. This software tool increases speed, can be used with an atlas or a template from within the dataset, and produces masks that need little further refinement. Our new automation can be applied to any MR dataset, since the starting point is a template mask generated specifically for that dataset. The method reliably and rapidly extracts brain images from whole head images, rendering them useable for subsequent analytical processing. This software tool will accelerate the exploitation of mouse models for the investigation of human brain disorders by MRI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aqueous enzymatic process for cell wall degradation and lipid extraction from Nannochloropsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongchong; Xiao, Ye; Lin, Weiguo; Li, Jiaquan; Zhang, Saisai; Zhu, Junying; Rong, Junfeng

    2017-01-01

    An effective cell disruption method, including alkaline pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic treatment, was established to break cell walls and extract lipid from Nannochloropsis sp. A synergistic effect was found between alkaline pretreatment and enzymatic treatment. The combination of commercialize enzymes (cellulase, protease, lysozyme, and pectinase) achieved higher lipid yield compared with a single enzyme application. With the compromise between economic feasibility and lipid yield, the optimum reaction conditions were obtained with alkaline pretreatment at pH 10.5 at 110°C for 4h, and subsequent enzymatic treatment at pH 4 at 50°C for 30min with the dosage of each enzyme at 200IU/g. As high as 90.0% of lipid was extracted under optimal conditions from Nannochloropsis sp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of fast solvent extraction processes to studies of exotic nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierczinski, B.; Malmbeck, R.; Skarnemark, G.; Alstad, J.; Omtvedt, J.P.; Eberhardt, K.; Kratz, J.V.; Mendel, M.; Naehler, A.; Trautmann, N.; Wiehl, N.

    1998-01-01

    Fast solvent extraction is a chemical separation method, which can be applied to study exotic nuclides. Since about 1970 the SISAK technique, which is an on-line method based on multi-stage solvent extraction separations, has been successfully used to investigate the nuclear properties of β-decaying nuclides with half-lives down to about one second. During the last decade it has become possible to produce transactinide elements in high enough yields to investigate their chemical properties on a one-atom-at-a-time scale. For this purpose it was necessary to improve and change the detection part of the SISAK system in order to be capable to detect spontaneously fissioning and α-decaying nuclides in a flowing organic solution. This technique is based on liquid scintillation counting with pulse-shape discrimination and pile-up rejection. (author)

  12. Exploring the effects of pulsed electric field processing parameters on polyacetylene extraction from carrot slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Abreu, Corina; Hossain, Mohammad B; Altisent, Rosa; Brunton, Nigel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Rai, Dilip K

    2015-03-02

    The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF) parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1-4 kV/cm), number of pulses (100-1500), pulse frequency (10-200 Hz) and pulse width (10-30 μs) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM) to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH), falcarindiol (FaDOH) and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc) from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E%) ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  13. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general.

  14. Chemically extracted nanocellulose from sisal fibres by a simple and industrially relevant process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifol Guzman, Jon; Sillard, Cecile; Plackett, D.

    2017-01-01

    A novel type of acetylated cellulose nanofibre (CNF) was extracted successfully from sisal fibres using chemical methods. Initially, a strong alkali treatment was used to swell the fibres, followed by a bleaching step to remove the residual lignin and finally an acetylation step to reduce...... product with a high solids content. An aqueous dispersion of CNF could be obtained directly from this intermediate pulp by simple magnetic stirring. As a proof of concept, the dispersion was used directly for preparing a highly translucent CNF film, illustrating that there are no large aggregates...... in the prepared CNF dispersion. Finally, CNF films with alkali extracts were also prepared, resulting in flatter films with an increased mass yield and improved mechanical strength....

  15. Enhanced extraction of heavy metals in the two-step process with the mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, DuBok; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2012-01-01

    For biological extraction of heavy metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood, different bacteria were investigated. The extraction rates of heavy metals using Lactobacillusbulgaricus and Streptococcusthermophilus were highest. The chemical extraction rates were depended on the amounts of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. Especially, the extraction rates using mixed pyruvic acid and lactic acid were increased compared to those of sole one. They were also enhanced in the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. To improve the extraction of CCA, a two-step processing procedure with the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus was conducted. A maximum of 93% of copper, 86.5% of chromium, and 97.8% of arsenic were extracted after 4 days. These results suggest that a two-step process with the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus is most effective to extract heavy metals from CCA treated wood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of different encapsulation agents and drying process on stability of betalains extract

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran, Kavitha; Palaniraj, Ravichandran; Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Gabr, Ahmed M. M.; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R.; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    Red beet plants are rich in betalains that can be used as food natural colorants. Betalains were extracted from red beet and encapsulated with different carrier agents and freeze or spray dried. Effect of different encapsulating agents as maltodextrin, guar gum, gum Arabic, pectin and xanthan gum with different concentration (as encapsulating agents) were studied on the betalain stability. Encapsulated betalains with xanthan gum with maltodextrin showed about 65 % more recovery than the contr...

  17. Uranium Extraction from Phosphates: - Background, Opportunities, Process Overview & Way Forward for Commercialisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulsidas, Harikrishnan; Hilton, Julian; Kumar Haldar, Tapan

    2014-01-01

    Uranium Extraction from Phosphate - an attractive proposition: • Uranium is co-product of phosphate Industry and makes phosphate Industry economically viable & socially more acceptable; • Enable utilisation of mineral deposits having low Phosphate value through economic co-production of Phosphatic fertiliser & Uranium; • Bring new countries in global map of Uranium resources; • Enables socio-economic up-gradation of major part of global population by achieving Energy, food & Environmental security - so important in today’s scenario

  18. Acid Extraction - Ion Exchange Recovery of Cinchona Alkaloids Process and Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1945-06-08

    ILLUSTRATIONS - cont. ITo. Title Paee FIG. 21 Extraction-Time Curves 97 FIG. 22 Map, Colombian Cinohona Regions 101 FIG. 23 Map, Peruvian Cinohona... exported at the time, were wholly inadequate even so far as normal demands were concerned. At the same time, the demands for antimalarials had...resistance, it was felt that sufficient data to standardise on this material was not yet avail- able, so No. 3 cotton duck was adopted. Experience has

  19. Extraction process technology for the new reprocessing plants in France and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boullis, B.; Drain, F.; Hugelman, D.

    1991-01-01

    The new reprocessing plants UP3 and UP2-800 in France and Rokkasho in Japan use or will use an improved technology for their extraction cycles. The equipment selected are pulse columns (cylindrical and annular) and mixer-settlers (normal type and extra-flat type). This paper presents the equipment selected for each plant and the extensive R and D performed especially for pulsed columns by CEA and also the results of first active runs in UP3

  20. Localized Segment Based Processing for Automatic Building Extraction from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, G.; Rajan, K. S.

    2017-05-01

    The current methods of object segmentation and extraction and classification of aerial LiDAR data is manual and tedious task. This work proposes a technique for object segmentation out of LiDAR data. A bottom-up geometric rule based approach was used initially to devise a way to segment buildings out of the LiDAR datasets. For curved wall surfaces, comparison of localized surface normals was done to segment buildings. The algorithm has been applied to both synthetic datasets as well as real world dataset of Vaihingen, Germany. Preliminary results show successful segmentation of the buildings objects from a given scene in case of synthetic datasets and promissory results in case of real world data. The advantages of the proposed work is non-dependence on any other form of data required except LiDAR. It is an unsupervised method of building segmentation, thus requires no model training as seen in supervised techniques. It focuses on extracting the walls of the buildings to construct the footprint, rather than focussing on roof. The focus on extracting the wall to reconstruct the buildings from a LiDAR scene is crux of the method proposed. The current segmentation approach can be used to get 2D footprints of the buildings, with further scope to generate 3D models. Thus, the proposed method can be used as a tool to get footprints of buildings in urban landscapes, helping in urban planning and the smart cities endeavour.

  1. Effects of thermal processing on physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of Balanities aegyptiaca kernels and extracted oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M.A. Elbadawi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of roasting and boiling on the proximate composition of the kernels as well as the physicochemical properties and oxidative stabilities of the extracted oils of Balanites aegyptiaca were investigated. Roasting was performed at 180 ˚C for 15 minutes, whereas boiling of the kernels was carried out in tap water for one hour. The oils from raw and thermally processed samples were extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus and characterized. The roasting significantly (p < 0.05 influenced the peroxide value and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil in a positive way; whereas boiling had the opposite effect. The oils were composed of linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids as the major fatty acids (96% and contained predominantly α- and γ-tocopherols (ca. 400mg/kg. The study suggests that the oil from roasted kernels could be used as a natural antioxidant for enhancing the characteristics of other edible oils via blending.

  2. Effects of thermal processing on physicochemical properties and oxidative stability of Balanities aegyptiaca kernels and extracted oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbadawi, S.M.A.; Ahmad, E.E.M.; Mariod, A.A.; Mathäus, B.

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of roasting and boiling on the proximate composition of the kernels as well as the physicochemical properties and oxidative stabilities of the extracted oils of Balanites aegyptiaca were investigated. Roasting was performed at 180 °C for 15 minutes, whereas boiling of the kernels was carried out in tap water for one hour. The oils from raw and thermally processed samples were extracted using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus and characterized. The roasting significantly (p < 0.05) influenced the peroxide value and the oxidative stability of the extracted oil in a positive way; whereas boiling had the opposite effect. The oils were composed of linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids as the major fatty acids (96%) and contained predominantly α- and γ-tocopherols (ca. 400mg/kg). The study suggests that the oil from roasted kernels could be used as a natural antioxidant for enhancing the characteristics of other edible oils via blending. [es

  3. Increasing viability, numbers, and motility of sperm in men with normal spermatogenesis exposed to saffron extract after freezing- thawing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Khazaei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sperm freezing method is used frequently in assisted reproductive techniques, on the other hand in different studies negative effect of freezing have been shown on different sperm parameters. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of saffron extract as an antioxidant, on the different sperm parameters in men with normal spermatogenesis after freezing-thawing process. Methods: In this case-control study, collecting of samples was done in 2015 year from the Infertility Treatment Center, ACECR Branch of Qazvin, Qazvin, Iran. These men had normal spermatogenesis and their spouse had infertility problem. Semen samples was divided in two groups, control without saffron extract, and case with 50 mg/ml saffron extract. Then, samples freezed with snap freezing method. After two weeks, they were thawed and different sperm parameters were assessed. Data were analyzed by two-tail T test. Findings: Our results showed, mean percent of viability (72±0.99, motility (87±0.43, and the number of sperm cells (62.5±3.8 in treaded group was elevated significantly (P0.05. Conclusion: Our results showed that possibly antioxidant agents of saffron extract could scavenge free radicals and thus, optimize different sperm parameters (viability, motility, and number after freezing and thawing.

  4. PALM KERNEL OIL SOLUBITY EXAMINATION AND ITS MODELING IN EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Bahari Setianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of  supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 to vegetable oil extraction became an attractive technique due to its high solubility, short extraction time and simple purification. The method is considered as earth friendly technology due to the absence of chemical usage. Solubility of solute-SC-CO2 is an important data for application of the SC-CO2 extraction. In this work, the equilibrium solubility of the palm kernel oil (PKO in SC-CO2 has been examined using extraction curve analysis. The examinations were performed at temperature and pressure ranges of  323.15 K to 353.15 K and 20.7 to 34.5 MPa respectively. It was obtained that the experimental solubility were from 0.0160 to 0.0503 g oil/g CO2 depend on the extraction condition. The experimental solubility data was well correlated with a solvent density based model with absolute percent deviation of 0.96. PENENTUAN KELARUTAN MINYAK INTI KELAPA SAWIT DAN PEMODELAN EKSTRAKSI DENGAN KARBON DIOKSIDA SUPERKRITIK. Sehubungan dengan kelarutan yang tinggi, waktu ekstraksi yang pendek dan pemurnian hasil yang mudah, aplikasi karbon dioksida superkritis (SC-CO2 pada ekstraksi minyak nabati menjadi sebuah teknik ekstraksi yang menarik. Karena tanpa penggunaan bahan kimia, metode ekstraksi ini dianggap sebagai teknologi yang ramah lingkungan. Kelarutan zat terlarut pada SC-CO2 merupakan data yang penting dalam aplikasi SC-CO2 pada proses ekstraksi.  Pada penelitian ini,  kelarutan kesetimbangan dari minyak biji sawit (PKO dalam SC-CO2 telah diuji dengan mengunakan analisa kurva proses ekstraksi. Pengujian kelarutan tersebut dilakukan pada rentang suhu 323,15 K sampai 353,15 K dan rentang tekanan 20,7 MPa sampai 34,5 MPa. Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  PKO pada SC-CO2 adalah 0.0160 g minyak/g CO2 sampai 0,0503 g minyak/g CO2 tergantung pada kondisi ekstraksi. Data kelarutan kesetimbangan hasil percobaan  telah dikorelasaikan dengan baik menggunakan

  5. A novel process for the aqueous extraction of oil from Camellia oleifera seed and its antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu, X.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extraction is a promising green alternative to hexane extraction. This study used a salt effect-aided aqueous extraction process (AEP-SE for extracting Camellia oleifera seed oil (COSO to improve oil extractability and avoid emulsification in the aqueous system. The highest oil extractability rate of 88.8% was obtained under 1.48 mol L–1 sodium carbonate, a solution-to-flour ratio of 3.85, and 3.23h of extraction time with the quality of the aqueous system-extracted oil being similar to those of a commercial sample of COSO and hexane-extracted oil in terms of color, iodine value and saponifcation value, although its moisture content was higher. Furthermore, the free fatty acid content of the aqueous system-extracted oil was lower than that of the solvent-extracted oil. The values of the inibihitory concentration at 50% of oil obtained by AEP-SE and organic solvent extraction as measured by DPPH scavenging activity essay, were 2.27 mg/mL and 3.31 mg/mL. AEP-SE is therefore a promising environmentally friendly method for the large-scale preparation of COSO.La extracción acuosa es una alternativa verde muy prometedora a la extracción con hexano. En este estudio se utilizó como ayuda en el proceso de extracción acuosa (AEP-SE el efecto de una sal para la extracción de aceite de semilla de Camellia oleifera (COSO para mejorar la extractabilidad y evitar la formación de emulsiones en el sistema acuoso. La mayor velocidad de extracción de aceite, 88,8%, se obtuvo con una concentración de carbonato de sodio de 1,48 mol L–1, una relación de solución a la harina de 3,85, y 3.23h de tiempo de extracción, con una calidad del aceite extraído con el sistema acuoso similares a los de una muestra comercial de COSO extraida con hexano, en términos de índice de yodo, de color, y de índice de saponificación, aunque su contenido en humedad fue mayor. Además, el contenido de acidez libre del aceite extraido con el sistema acuoso fu

  6. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H 2 O 2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of Extractant TOA, Stirring Time on the Extraction ProcessLiquid-liquid, and Liquid Membrane on the Liquid Wastes Containing Cd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prayitno; Djoko-Sardjono; Nurimaniwati; Adhe-Helmayani

    2000-01-01

    The influence of extractant and stirring time on the reduction componentcadmium on liquid wastes has been investigated. The method of experimentalused the extraction with liquid membrane emulsion. The parameters to beinvestigated were extractant amount tri-n octylamine (TOA), duration ofstirring time. In this investigated, extractant amount was varied from 5 to25 % (v/v) TOA, duration of stirring time varied from 5 to minutes. Theresult of experimental can be concluded that the best condition obtained forreducing cadmium component was on extractant amount 20 % (v/v) TOA, stirringtime 25 minutes. The best condition for reducing the cadmium component wasefficiency factor 98.35%. (author)

  8. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, M. L.; Bordón, M.G.; Bodoira, R. M.; Penci, M.C.; Ribotta, P.D.; Maestri, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC), and restriction die (RD) as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY), fine solid content (FC) in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 %) at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5%) was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO) standards for virgin (non-refined) oils. [es

  9. Walnut and almond oil screw-press extraction at industrial scale: Effects of process parameters on oil yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Martínez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Walnut and almond kernels are highly nutritious mainly due to their high oil contents. In this study, 32 factorial experimental designs were used to optimize processes for oil extraction by screw-pressing at industrial scale. Experimental designs included seed moisture content (SMC, and restriction die (RD as the main processing parameters. Theoretical models were scanned against experimental data in order to optimize oil extraction conditions. The response variables analyzed were oil yield (OY, fine solid content (FC in oil, and oil quality parameters. Fitted models for OY indicated maximum predicted values similar to the highest experimental values. Walnut oil extractions showed a maximum OY (84.5 ± 2.3 % at 7.21% SMC, and 10 mm RD. For almond kernels, maximum OY (71.9 ± 3.5% was obtained at 9.42% SMC, and 12 mm RD. Chemical quality parameters from both oils were in the ranges stated in Codex (FAO/WHO standards for virgin (non-refined oils.

  10. Steam distillation extraction of ginger essential oil: Study of the effect of steam flow rate and time process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Sulaswatty, Anny; Agustian, Egi; Salahuddin, Aditama, Deska Prayoga Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    In Indonesia ginger was usually used as a seasoning for dishes, an ingredient for beverage and a source of herbal medicines. Beside raw usage, ginger can be processed to obtain the essential oil which has many advantages such as proven to be an active antimicrobial and having an antioxidant ability. There are a lot of methods to extract essential oil from ginger, one of which is steam distillation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of variation of time process and steam flow rate in the yield on ginger essential oil steam distillation extraction process. It was found that the best operation condition was 0.35 ml/s as the steam flow rate which yields 2.43% oil. The optimum time process was predicted at 7.5 hours. The composition of the oil was varied depend on the flow rate and every flow rate has its own major component contained in the oil. Curcumene composition in the oil was increased as increased steam flow rate applied, but the composition of camphene was decreased along with the increasing steam flow rate.

  11. An advanced study on the hydrometallurgical processing of waste computer printed circuit boards to extract their valuable content of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birloaga, Ionela; Coman, Vasile; Kopacek, Bernd; Vegliò, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    This study refers to two chemical leaching systems for the base and precious metals extraction from waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs); sulfuric acid with hydrogen peroxide have been used for the first group of metals, meantime thiourea with the ferric ion in sulfuric acid medium were employed for the second one. The cementation process with zinc, copper and iron metal powders was attempted for solutions purification. The effects of hydrogen peroxide volume in rapport with sulfuric acid concentration and temperature were evaluated for oxidative leaching process. 2M H2SO4 (98% w/v), 5% H2O2, 25 °C, 1/10 S/L ratio and 200 rpm were founded as optimal conditions for Cu extraction. Thiourea acid leaching process, performed on the solid filtrate obtained after three oxidative leaching steps, was carried out with 20 g/L of CS(NH2)2, 6g/L of Fe(3+), 0.5M H2SO4, The cross-leaching method was applied by reusing of thiourea liquid suspension and immersing 5 g/L of this reagent for each other experiment material of leaching. This procedure has lead to the doubling and, respectively, tripling, of gold and silver concentrations into solution. These results reveal a very efficient, promising and environmental friendly method for WPCBs processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Early healing of the alveolar process after tooth extraction: an experimental study in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discepoli, Nicola; Vignoletti, Fabio; Laino, Luigi; de Sanctis, Massimo; Muñoz, Fernando; Sanz, Mariano

    2013-06-01

    To describe the early healing events in the alveolar socket during the first 8 weeks of spontaneous healing after tooth extraction. 16 adult beagle dogs were selected and five healing periods were analysed (4 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks). Mandibular premolars were extracted and each socket corresponding to the mesial root was left to heal undisturbed. In each healing period, three animals were euthanatized, each providing four study sites. Healing was assessed by descriptive histology and by histometric analysis using as landmarks: the vertical distance between buccal and lingual crest (B'L') and the width of buccal and lingual walls at three different levels. Differences between means for each variable for each healing period were compared (ANOVA; p healing period to a final value of 0.18 (0.08) mm. The lingual width (Lw) remains almost unchanged while the buccal width (Bw) at 1 (Bw1) and 2 (Bw2) mm was reduced in about 40% of its initial value. Minor vertical bone reduction in both the buccal and lingual socket walls were observed. A marked horizontal reduction of the buccal bone wall was observed mostly in its coronal aspect. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Exploring the Effects of Pulsed Electric Field Processing Parameters on Polyacetylene Extraction from Carrot Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Aguiló-Aguayo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various pulsed electric field (PEF parameters on the extraction of polyacetylenes from carrot slices were investigated. Optimised conditions with regard to electric field strength (1–4 kV/cm, number of pulses (100–1500, pulse frequency (10–200 Hz and pulse width (10–30 μs were identified using response surface methodology (RSM to maximise the extraction of falcarinol (FaOH, falcarindiol (FaDOH and falcarindiol-3-acetate (FaDOAc from carrot slices. Data obtained from RSM and experiments fitted significantly (p < 0.0001 the proposed second-order response functions with high regression coefficients (R2 ranging from 0.82 to 0.75. Maximal FaOH (188%, FaDOH (164.9% and FaDOAc (166.8% levels relative to untreated samples were obtained from carrot slices after applying PEF treatments at 4 kV/cm with 100 number of pulses of 10 μs at 10 Hz. The predicted values from the developed quadratic polynomial equation were in close agreement with the actual experimental values with low average mean deviations (E% ranging from 0.68% to 3.58%.

  14. Potential anti-tumor effects of Mugil cephalus processed roe extracts on colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Antonella; Scano, Paola; Atzeri, Angela; Deiana, Monica; Falchi, Angela Maria

    2013-10-01

    The salted-semidried mullet ovary product, bottarga, is a Mediterranean food rich in n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA. We studied and compared the effects on cell viability, sensitivity to the anti-tumor drug 5-fluorouracil, and lipid composition, in colon cancer Caco-2 cells after 24 h incubation with oils and hydrophilic extracts obtained from two bottarga samples stored at different conditions. The cellular absorption of bottarga lipids was assessed in cancer cells by the evaluation of lipid accumulation in cytoplasmic lipid droplets by fluorescence microscopy. Bottarga oil showed a significant in vitro inhibitory effect on the growth of cancer Caco-2 cells and the ability to potentiate, at non-toxic concentration, the growth inhibitory effect of 5-fluorouracil. Moreover, bottarga oil induced in cancer Caco-2 cells marked changes in fatty acid composition, with a significant accumulation of the n-3 PUFA EPA and DHA, and cytoplasmic lipid droplet formation. Also bottarga hydrophilic extract, characterized by means of ¹H NMR spectroscopy, exhibited a reduction in cancer cell viability, without affecting cell lipid profile. Cell cholesterol levels were unmodified by all treatments. The results showed interesting anti-tumor properties of bottarga lipids, and qualify this fish product as a food with nutraceutical properties and potential benefits in colon cancer prevention. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of various process treatment conditions on the allyl isothiocyanate extraction rate from mustard meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Harish K; Ingle, Sandeep; Singh, Charanjiv; Sarkar, Bhavesh C; Upadhyay, Ashutosh

    2012-06-01

    Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which has the potential to be used as flavoring, antibacterial, antifungal, antifermentative and antibrowning agent in food industry, was extracted from the pretreated MM by distillation technique. The mustard meal was analyzed for the proximate composition and the metals Fe, Mg and Zn. At the optimum pretreatment conditions of temperature 60 °C, time 120 min and pH 4.5, the effect of fractional distillation, mesh size and different additives was studied. Considerable effect of mesh size was observed, as the mesh size was decreased from 1,690 to 400 μm, the allyl isothiocyanate content was increased from 99.15 to 337.11 mg/100 ml. Addition of magnesium chloride (0.05 g/l to 0.2 g/l) and L-ascorbic acid (1 g/l to 5 g/l) increased allyl isothiocyanate from 257.79 to 317.28 mg/100 ml and 316.77 to 396.60 mg/100 ml respectively whereas the addition of the magnesium chloride and L-ascorbic acid in combination did not affect the AITC extraction rate as compare to their addition in single effect.

  16. New CNN based algorithms for the full penetration hole extraction in laser welding processes

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolosi, L.; Tetzlaff, R.; Abt, F.; Höfler, H.; Blug, A.; Carl, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper new CNN based visual algorithms for the control of welding processes are proposed. The high dynamics of laser welding in several manufacturing processes ranging from automobile production to precision mechanics requires the introduction of new fast real time controls. In the last few years, analogic circuits like cellular neural networks (CNN) have obtained a primary place in the development of efficient electronic devices because of their real-time signal processing properties....

  17. Simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in teas and mate using RP-HPLC/UV detection: method development and optimization of extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, In Kyung; Ham, Hyeon Mi; Jeong, Min Hee; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Ho Jin

    2015-04-01

    A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic coupled to ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC/UV) method was developed for simultaneous determination of 15 phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS (green tea, oolong tea, black tea and mate). Furthermore, the extraction process of total phenolic contents (TPC) from TEAS were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design (CCD) and then applied to extraction of TEAS. The best conditions obtained using the model were as follow: green tea--extraction time of 123 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 75%, oolong tea--extraction time of 98 min, extraction temperature of 70 °C and ethanol concentration of 69%, black tea--extraction time of 105 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 63%, and mate--extraction time of 103 min, extraction temperature of 71 °C and ethanol concentration of 61%. Among the extraction methods used in this study, heat-reflux extraction was found to result in the highest values of TPC. The chromatographic peaks of the 16 studied compounds were successfully identified by comparing their retention time and UV spectra with the reference standards. Method validation was performed by means of linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision. The developed method was found to be simple, specific and reliable and is suited for routine analysis of phenolic compounds and caffeine in TEAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemical and biological processes for multi-metal extraction from waste printed circuit boards of computers and mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monal B; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2014-11-01

    E-waste printed circuit boards (PCB) of computers, mobile-phones, televisions, LX (LongXiang) PCB in LED lights and bulbs, and tube-lights were crushed to ≥250 µm particle size and 16 different metals were analysed. A comparative study has been carried out to evaluate the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni from computer printed circuit boards (c-PCB) and mobile-phone printed circuit boards (m-PCB) by chemical and biological methods. Chemical process showed the extraction of Cu-Zn-Ni by ferric sulphate was best among the studied chemical lixiviants. Bioleaching experiments were carried out with the iron oxidising consortium, which showed that when E-waste and inoculum were added simultaneously in the medium (one-step process); 60.33% and 87.50% Cu, 75.67% and 85.67% Zn and 71.09% and 81.87% Ni were extracted from 10 g L(-1) of c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, within 10-15 days of reaction time. Whereas, E-waste added after the complete oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+) iron containing medium (two-step process) showed 85.26% and 99.99% Cu, 96.75% and 99.49% Zn and 93.23% and 84.21% Ni extraction from c-PCB and m-PCB, respectively, only in 6-8 days. Influence of varying biogenerated Fe(3+) and c-PCB concentrations showed that 16.5 g L(-1) of Fe(3+) iron was optimum up to 100 g L(-1) of c-PCB. Changes in pH, acid consumed and redox potential during the process were also studied. The present study shows the ability of an eco-friendly process for the recovery of multi-metals from E-waste even at 100 g L(-1) printed circuit boards concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. The effect of different processing stages of olive fruit on the extracted olive oil polyphenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koutsaftakis, A.

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the distribution of olive fruit polyphenolic fraction through the phases of olive oil extraction by a classical and a centrifugal system has been investigated. Olives of two Cretan origin varieties were used. Consequently, samples from different stages of oil extraction with and without their polyphenols were stored for a month under 64 ºC by periodical testing their peroxide value. In olive oils extracted by the centrifugal factory a large reduction of polyphenols content was noticed during their elaboration that reached to the half amount compared with that of classical type. During oven test the control sample of olive oil obtained from the separation phase of centrifugal system was oxidized easier than that of classic one. The variation of polyphenol content as well as of the main olive oil quality characteristics with the temperature and the mixing time was also studied for a period of time.En el presente estudio se ha investigado la distribución de la fracción fenólica de aceitunas a través de las fases de extracción del aceite de oliva mediante los sistemas clásico y por centrifugación. Se han utilizado dos variedades de aceitunas cuya procedencia es la isla de Creta. Por otra parte, se han estudiado los aceites obtenidos en las diferentes etapas con y sin sus polifenoles, conservadolos durante un mes a 64 ºC y evaluándoles durante este tiempo el índice de peróxidos. En los aceites de oliva extraídos mediante centrífuga se ha observado una gran reducción en el contenido de polifenoles, reducción que alcanzó el 50 % comparado con el sistema clásico. Durante las pruebas en horno los aceites obtenidos mediante el sistema de centrifugación se oxidaron mas fácilmente que los obtenidos mediante el sistema clásico. La variación en el contenido de polifenoles así como los principales parámetros de calidad han sido estudiados en función de la temperatura y del tiempo.

  20. Aqueous enzymatic process assisted by microwave extraction of oil from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed kernels and its quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ji; Zu, Yuan-Gang; Luo, Meng; Gu, Cheng-Bo; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Efferth, Thomas; Fu, Yu-Jie

    2013-06-15

    In this study, aqueous enzymatic process (AEP) assisted by microwave extraction (ME) of oil from yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.) seed kernel was investigated. Central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimise an enzyme cocktail (cellulase, hemicellulase, pectinase) for AEP. The main factors of ME were also studied. A maximal oil extraction yield of 55.8% was achieved under optimal conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscope (SEM) was applied to characterise the extraction process. Analysing chemical composition of the extracted oil by GC-MS showed that the content of unsaturated fatty acids by this emerging method (91.18%) was similar to that by conventional organic solvent extraction (88.76%). In addition, the main physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of yellow horn oil were measured to evaluate its quality. The present research supported necessary data for the green extraction method of edible oil in food industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of different encapsulation agents and drying process on stability of betalains extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Kavitha; Palaniraj, Ravichandran; Saw, Nay Min Min Thaw; Gabr, Ahmed M M; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Knorr, Dietrich; Smetanska, Iryna

    2014-09-01

    Red beet plants are rich in betalains that can be used as food natural colorants. Betalains were extracted from red beet and encapsulated with different carrier agents and freeze or spray dried. Effect of different encapsulating agents as maltodextrin, guar gum, gum Arabic, pectin and xanthan gum with different concentration (as encapsulating agents) were studied on the betalain stability. Encapsulated betalains with xanthan gum with maltodextrin showed about 65 % more recovery than the control. Encapsulation showed a higher recovery of betalains during freeze drying by 1.3 times than during spray drying. Spray dried samples has L* (lightness) higher than the freeze dried samples. The variations of maltodextrin with xanthan and guar gum freeze dried have highest chroma value of 21. The stabilization of pure betalain pigments may boost the use of these colouring molecules in the food industry and promote their application.

  2. Extraction of Greenhouse Areas with Image Processing Methods in Karabuk Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirima, M. Z.; Ozcan, C.

    2017-11-01

    Greenhouses provide the environmental conditions to be controlled and regulated as desired while allowing agricultural products to be produced without being affected by external environmental conditions. High quality and a wide variety of agricultural products can be produced throughout the year. In addition, mapping and detection of these areas has great importance in terms of factors such as yield analysis, natural resource management and environmental impact. Various remote sensing techniques are currently available for extraction of greenhouse areas. These techniques are based on the automatic detection and interpretation of objects on remotely sensed images. In this study, greenhouse areas were determined from optical images obtained from Landsat. The study was carried out in the greenhouse areas in Karabuk province. The obtained results are presented with figures and tables.

  3. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The status of simulation codes for extraction process using mixer-settler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byeon, Kee Hoh; Lee, Eil Hee; Kwon, Seong Gil; Kim, Kwang Wook; Yang, Han Beom; Chung, Dong Yong; Lim, Jae Kwan; Shin, Hyun Kyoo; Kim, Soo Ho

    1999-10-01

    We have studied and analyzed the mixer-settler simulation codes such as three kinds of SEPHIS series, PUBG, and EXTRA.M, which is the most recently developed code. All of these are sufficiently satisfactory codes in the fields of process/device modeling, but it is necessary to formulate the accurate distribution data and chemical reaction mechanism for the aspect of accuracy and reliability. In the aspect of application to be the group separation process, the mixer-settler model of these codes have no problems, but the accumulation and formulation of partitioning and reaction equilibrium data of chemical elements used in group separation process is very important. (author)

  5. Influence of culinary processing on the 90Sr extraction from the animal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, E.; Petkov, T.; Shopov, N.

    1990-01-01

    The beta-radioactivity of femur of young animals having consummed contaminated food after Chernobyl is measured - fresh, after boiling in the course of 1.5 hrs, and the broth from cookery processing. Before the analysis each sample has been ashed and homogenized. The radioactivity of the samples is registered by a beta-radiometer (with an efficiency for 90 Y - 60%). No statistically significant differences have been established in the 90 Sr content between the processed and unprocessed bones; the radionuclide content in the broth is negligible. In the light of these results the requirements for removing the bones before the culinary processing prove senseless. 1 tab

  6. Curcuma longa L. extract improves the cortical neural connectivity during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo

    2017-06-01

    Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. At the brain level, the aging process alters the synaptic intercommunication by a reduction in the dendritic arbor as well as the number of the dendritic spine in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, consequently reducing the size of these regions. The present review discusses the synaptic changes caused by the aging process and the neuroprotective role the Curcuma has through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions.

  7. Effect of Wells’ Connectivity Enhancement on the Performance of Vapor Extraction (VAPEX) Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadpoor Mehdi; Torabi Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Drawbacks of the thermal recovery techniques such as excessive heat loss to the surrounding formations and carbon dioxide emissions during these processes have directed the interests of researchers towards more viable alternatives such as solvent-based recovery techniques (e.g. VAPEX). One of the key parameters to implement a successful VAPEX process is to control the profiles of vapour chamber and consequently improve the areal sweep efficiency. In this regard, an optimum well configuration ...

  8. Effect of Wells’ Connectivity Enhancement on the Performance of Vapor Extraction (VAPEX) Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadpoor , Mehdi; Torabi , Farshid

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Drawbacks of the thermal recovery techniques such as excessive heat loss to the surrounding formations and carbon dioxide emissions during these processes have directed the interests of researchers towards more viable alternatives such as solvent-based recovery techniques (e.g. VAPEX). One of the key parameters to implement a successful VAPEX process is to control the profiles of vapour chamber and consequently improve the areal sweep efficiency. In this regard, an opt...

  9. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, Victor A.; von Winbush, Samuel

    1988-01-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  10. Raspberry Extract as Both a Stabilizer and a Reducing Agent in Environmentally Friendly Process of Receiving Colloidal Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pulit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecofriendly method of nanosilver obtaining has been studied. The process involves the chemical reduction method carried out in aqueous environment. Silver nitrate (V was applied as a silver ions source. Raspberry extract was used as a natural source of both reducing and stabilizing agents. The total amount of phenolic compounds was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Obtained nanoparticles were analyzed by the dynamic light scattering technique so as to determine the particles size and suspension stability which was characterized by an electrokinetic potential. The results confirmed that the size of some nanoparticles was under 100 nm.

  11. Effects of pyrite and sphalerite on population compositions, dynamics and copper extraction efficiency in chalcopyrite bioleaching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunhua; Liu, Xueduan; Dong, Weiling; Liang, Yili; Niu, Jiaojiao; Gu, Yabing; Ma, Liyuan; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xian; Xu, Zhen; Yin, Huaqun

    2017-07-01

    This study used an artificial microbial community with four known moderately thermophilic acidophiles (three bacteria including Acidithiobacillus caldus S1, Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans ST and Leptospirillum ferriphilum YSK, and one archaea, Ferroplasma thermophilum L1) to explore the variation of microbial community structure, composition, dynamics and function (e.g., copper extraction efficiency) in chalcopyrite bioleaching (C) systems with additions of pyrite (CP) or sphalerite (CS). The community compositions and dynamics in the solution and on the ore surface were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that the addition of pyrite or sphalerite changed the microbial community composition and dynamics dramatically during the chalcopyrite bioleaching process. For example, A. caldus (above 60%) was the dominant species at the initial stage in three groups, and at the middle stage, still dominated C group (above 70%), but it was replaced by L. ferriphilum (above 60%) in CP and CS groups; at the final stage, L. ferriphilum dominated C group, while F. thermophilum dominated CP group on the ore surface. Furthermore, the additions of pyrite or sphalerite both made the increase of redox potential (ORP) and the concentrations of Fe 3+ and H + , which would affect the microbial community compositions and copper extraction efficiency. Additionally, pyrite could enhance copper extraction efficiency (e.g., improving around 13.2% on day 6) during chalcopyrite bioleaching; on the contrary, sphalerite restrained it.

  12. Dissolved organic compounds in reused process water for steam-assisted gravity drainage oil sands extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Hideo; Li, Zhengguo; Masuda, Yoshihiro; Sato, Kozo; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    The in situ oil sands production method called steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) reuses process wastewater following treatment. However, the treatment and reuse processes concentrate contaminants in the process water. To determine the concentration and dynamics of inorganic and organic contaminants, makeup water and process water from six process steps were sampled at a facility employing the SAGD process in Alberta, Canada. In the groundwater used for the makeup water, the total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was 4 mg/L. This significantly increased to 508 mg/L in the produced water, followed by a gradual increase with successive steps in subsequent water treatments. The concentrations and dynamics of DOC constituents in the process water determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that in the produced water, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as acetone (33.1 mg/L) and 2-butanone (13.4 mg/L) predominated, and there were significant amounts of phenolic compounds (total 9.8 mg/L) and organic acids including naphthenic acids (NAs) corresponding to the formula C(n)H(2n+Z)O(X) for combinations of n = 4 to 18, Z = 0 and -2, and X = 2 to 4 (53 mg/L) with trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene and phenanthrene. No organic contaminants, except for saturated fatty acids, were detected in the groundwater. The concentration of DOC in the recycled water was 4.4-fold higher than that in the produced water. Likewise, the total concentrations of phenols and organic acids in the recycled water were 1.7- and 4.5-fold higher than in the produced water, whereas the total concentrations of VOCs and PAHs in the recycled water were reduced by over 80%, suggesting that phenols and organic acids are selectively concentrated in the process water treatment. This comprehensive chemical analysis thus identified organic constituents that were concentrated in the process water and which interfere with subsequent

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot Kennel; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Mark Heavner; Manoj Katakdaunde; Liviu Magean; James Mayberry; Alfred Stiller; Joseph Stoffa; Christopher Yurchick; John Zondlo

    2009-12-31

    This NETL sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous technologies for the production of carbon products, which may be thought of as the heavier products currently produced from refining of crude petroleum and coal tars obtained from metallurgical grade coke ovens. This effort took binder grade pitch, produced from liquefaction of West Virginia bituminous grade coal, all the way to commercial demonstration in a state of the art arc furnace. Other products, such as crude oil, anode grade coke and metallurgical grade coke were demonstrated successfully at the bench scale. The technology developed herein diverged from the previous state of the art in direct liquefaction (also referred to as the Bergius process), in two major respects. First, direct liquefaction was accomplished with less than a percent of hydrogen per unit mass of product, or about 3 pound per barrel or less. By contrast, other variants of the Bergius process require the use of 15 pounds or more of hydrogen per barrel, resulting in an inherent materials cost. Second, the conventional Bergius process requires high pressure, in the range of 1500 psig to 3000 psig. The WVU process variant has been carried out at pressures below 400 psig, a significant difference. Thanks mainly to DOE sponsorship, the WVU process has been licensed to a Canadian Company, Quantex Energy Inc, with a commercial demonstration unit plant scheduled to be erected in 2011.

  14. Abarema cochliacarpos Extract Decreases the Inflammatory Process and Skeletal Muscle Injury Induced by Bothrops leucurus Venom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino-Oliveira, Jeison; Santos, Daiana Do Carmo; Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Santos Dias, Antônio; Tomaz, Marcelo Amorim; Monteiro-Machado, Marcos; Estevam, Charles Santos; Lucca Júnior, Waldecy De; Maria, Durvanei Augusto; Melo, Paulo A.; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Oliveira, Rita de Cássia Meneses; Pereira de Oliveira, Aldeidia; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2014-01-01

    Snakebites are a public health problem, especially in tropical countries. However, treatment with antivenom has limited effectiveness against venoms' local effects. Here, we investigated the ability of Abarema cochliacarpos hydroethanolic extract (EAc) to protect mice against injection of Bothrops leucurus venom. Swiss mice received perimuscular venom injection and were subsequently treated orally with EAc in different doses. Treatment with EAc 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg reduced the edema induced by B. leucurus in 1%, 13%, and 39%, respectively. Although lower doses showed no antihypernociceptive effect in the Von Frey test, the higher dose significantly reduced hyperalgesia induced by the venom. Antimyotoxic activity of EAc was also observed by microscopy assessment, with treated muscles presenting preserved structures, decreased edema, and inflammatory infiltrate as compared to untreated ones. Finally, on the rotarod test, the treated mice showed better motor function, once muscle fibers were preserved and there were less edema and pain. Treated mice could stand four times more time on the rotating rod than untreated ones. Our results have shown that EAc presented relevant activities against injection of B. leucurus venom in mice, suggesting that it can be considered as an adjuvant in the treatment of envenomation. PMID:25136627

  15. Structural and photoluminescence properties of silicon nanowires extracted by means of a centrifugation process from plasma torch synthesized silicon nanopowder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Borgne, Vincent; Agati, Marta; Boninelli, Simona; Castrucci, Paola; De Crescenzi, Maurizio; Dolbec, Richard; El Khakani, My Ali

    2017-07-14

    We report on a method for the extraction of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) from the by-product of a plasma torch based spheroidization process of silicon. This by-product is a nanopowder which consists of a mixture of SiNWs and silicon particles. By optimizing a centrifugation based process, we were able to extract substantial amounts of highly pure Si nanomaterials (mainly SiNWs and Si nanospheres (SiNSs)). While the purified SiNWs were found to have typical outer diameters in the 10-15 nm range and lengths of up to several μm, the SiNSs have external diameters in the 10-100 nm range. Interestingly, the SiNWs are found to have a thinner Si core (2-5 nm diam.) and an outer silicon oxide shell (with a typical thickness of ∼5-10 nm). High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) observations revealed that many SiNWs have a continuous cylindrical core, whereas others feature a discontinuous core consisting of a chain of Si nanocrystals forming a sort of 'chaplet-like' structures. These plasma-torch-produced SiNWs are highly pure with no trace of any metal catalyst, suggesting that they mostly form through SiO-catalyzed growth scheme rather than from metal-catalyzed path. The extracted Si nanostructures are shown to exhibit a strong photoluminescence (PL) which is found to blue-shift from 950 to 680 nm as the core size of the Si nanostructures decreases from ∼5 to ∼3 nm. This near IR-visible PL is shown to originate from quantum confinement (QC) in Si nanostructures. Consistently, the sizes of the Si nanocrystals directly determined from HRTEM images corroborate well with those expected by QC theory.

  16. Fundamental studies of the plasma extraction and ion beam formation processes in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Hongsen.

    1995-01-01

    The fundamental and practical aspects are described for extracting ions from atmospheric pressure plasma sources into an analytical mass spectrometer. Methodologies and basic concepts of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are emphasized in the discussion, including ion source, sampling interface, supersonic expansion, slumming process, ion optics and beam focusing, and vacuum considerations. Some new developments and innovative designs are introduced. The plasma extraction process in ICP-MS was investigated by Langmuir measurements in the region between the skimmer and first ion lens. Electron temperature (T e ) is in the range 2000--11000 K and changes with probe position inside an aerosol gas flow. Electron density (n e ) is in the range 10 8 --10 10 -cm at the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10 6 --10 8 cm -3 near the skimmer tip and drops abruptly to 10 6 --10 8 cm -3 downstream further behind the skimmer. Electron density in the beam leaving the skimmer also depends on water loading and on the presence and mass of matrix elements. Axially resolved distributions of electron number-density and electron temperature were obtained to characterize the ion beam at a variety of plasma operating conditions. The electron density dropped by a factor of 101 along the centerline between the sampler and skimmer cones in the first stage and continued to drop by factors of 10 4 --10 5 downstream of skimmer to the entrance of ion lens. The electron density in the beam expansion behind sampler cone exhibited a 1/z 2 intensity fall-off (z is the axial position). An second beam expansion originated from the skimmer entrance, and the beam flow underwent with another 1/z 2 fall-off behind the skimmer. Skimmer interactions play an important role in plasma extraction in the ICP-MS instrument

  17. Effect of Wells’ Connectivity Enhancement on the Performance of Vapor Extraction (VAPEX Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadpoor Mehdi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawbacks of the thermal recovery techniques such as excessive heat loss to the surrounding formations and carbon dioxide emissions during these processes have directed the interests of researchers towards more viable alternatives such as solvent-based recovery techniques (e.g. VAPEX. One of the key parameters to implement a successful VAPEX process is to control the profiles of vapour chamber and consequently improve the areal sweep efficiency. In this regard, an optimum well configuration and well connectivity establishment between the injection and production wells are desirable. The main focus of this research is to extensively conduct series of experiments to investigate the effect of injection/production wells connectivity on the performance of VAPEX process. For this purpose, two large-scale physical models were employed. Propane and propane/carbon dioxide mixtures were selected as the injection solvents in the visual sand-packed physical models saturated with heavy oil sample from Saskatchewan (Canada heavy oil. Various injection/production scenarios were followed and it was found that the initial connection path between the injector and producer had a significant impact on the vapour chamber profiles and consequently on the ultimate recovery performance of the VAPEX process.

  18. Curcuma longa L. extract improves the cortical neural connectivity during the aging process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Flores

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. At the brain level, the aging process alters the synaptic intercommunication by a reduction in the dendritic arbor as well as the number of the dendritic spine in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, consequently reducing the size of these regions. The present review discusses the synaptic changes caused by the aging process and the neuroprotective role the Curcuma has through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions

  19. Principles of Stagewise Separation Process Calculations: A Simple Algebraic Approach Using Solvent Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Barry D.

    1991-01-01

    A simple liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) system involving a constant partition coefficient based on solute ratios is used to develop an algebraic understanding of multistage contacting in a first-year separation processes course. This algebraic approach to the LLE system is shown to be operable for the introduction of graphical techniques…

  20. Curcuma longa L. extract improves the cortical neural connectivity during the aging process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Turmeric or Curcuma is a natural product that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic pharmacological properties. It can be used in the control of the aging process that involves oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. Aging is a physiological process that affects higher cortical and cognitive functions with a reduction in learning and memory, limited judgment and deficits in emotional control and social behavior. Moreover, aging is a major risk factor for the appearance of several disorders such as cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. At the brain level, the aging process alters the synaptic intercommunication by a reduction in the dendritic arbor as well as the number of the dendritic spine in the pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and basolateral amygdala, consequently reducing the size of these regions. The present review discusses the synaptic changes caused by the aging process and the neuroprotective role the Curcuma has through its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptotic actions PMID:28761413

  1. Temporal analysis model extraction for optimizing modal multi-rate stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Modern real-time stream processing applications, such as Software Defined Radio (SDR) applications, typically have multiple modes and multi-rate behavior. Modes are often described using while-loops whereas multi-rate behavior is frequently described using arrays with pseudo-random indexing

  2. Automatic dataflow model extraction from modal real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Many real-time stream processing applications are initially described as a sequential application containing while-loops, which execute for an unknown number of iterations. These modal applications have to be executed in parallel on an MPSoC system in order to meet their real-time throughput

  3. Effect of quaternary ammonium salts in the process of extracting oil filled rubber from latex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, much attention is paid to the improvement of production technology of synthetic rubber. Much attention is given to rubber is produced by emulsion polymerization. This is due to the fact that rubbers produced by emulsion polymerization have a number of positive characteristics, and are widely used in the tire and rubber industry, in composite formulations for various purposes. In recent years, the technology of production of synthetic rubbers are widely used quaternary ammonium salts which are produced on an industrial scale. Application low and high molecular weight quaternary ammonium salts to reduce pollution of environ-mental protection, exclude the use of mineral salts without significant changes in the process flowsheet. It is found that quaternary ammonium salts react with the components of the emulsion system to form insoluble complexes, which are captured produced rubber crumb. However, Applications, quaternary salts in the manufacture of oil-filled rubber in the literature sources have not been given due attention. The study presents the results of research on the effect of the concentration of a coagulating agent, tempera tours and concentration of the dispersed phase in the process of coagulation of latex in the preparation of oil-filled rubber stamps SCS-30 ARKM-15. The concentration of the coagulating agent does not significantly affect the process of separation of the rubber from the latex. The process of isolation rubber latex is advantageously carried out at a reduced temperature. The concentration of the dispersed phase also provides material effect on the coagulation process. The lead researches mouthestablished that produced rubber, rubber compounds and vulcanizates based on these indicators correspond to their requirements.

  4. Impact of extraction and processing conditions on betalains and comparison of properties with anthocyanins - A current review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Giovana Bonat; Brooks, Marianne Su-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The search for natural pigments has been driven by growing evidence indicating that synthetic colorants can cause deleterious health effects. Betalains, in addition to anthocyanins, have been proposed as an alternative to address this need. However, the incorporation of natural pigments poses some challenges to the food industry, such as reduced stability in comparison to their synthetic counterparts. Moreover, betalains are not well studied in comparison to anthocyanins and information about the effects of processing on their physicochemical properties and stability is scattered. Thus, this review will provide an overview of the recent research on the extraction and processing of betalains from natural sources, and comparison of their colorant and physicochemical properties with anthocyanins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Design and construction of a prototype for the continuous extraction of Sacha Inchi seed oil with a cold pressing process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ramiro Gutiérrez Suquillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the design of an oil extractor from the Sacha Inchi seed with an extruder screw mechanism allows a maximum yield of 34% through a continuous cold extraction process at working temperatures below 45 ° C. The temperature is a critical parameter because when it exceeds 50 ° C, the oil decreases its nutritional value by the loss of its most important properties such as: Omega 3 (48%, Omega 6 (36%, Omega 9 (8%, digestibility (96%, vitamin A and E. The methodology used for the development of the work was the concurrent and simultaneous design according to the recommendations of National Instruments. The prototype consists of the extruder screw, pressure chamber, feed chamber, sieve and filter. The advantage of modular design is the flexibility it offers, so that when changing certain components it is possible to use the prototype to extract oil of different types and sizes of seeds. The products obtained from this mechanism are: 33.34% of oil and the solid residue known as Cake in 66.66% which has many applications in the field of human food and pets. Due to the processing of a food product, the requirements of ISO 22005 were applied for the design and implementation of the prototype.

  6. Co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum based on a hydrothermal hydrolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qiang; Tan, Xuesong; Zhuang, Xinshu; Wang, Qiong; Wang, Wen; Qi, Wei; Zhou, Guixiong; Luo, Yu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-12-01

    A process for co-extraction of soluble and insoluble sugars from energy sorghum (ES) was developed based on hydrothermal hydrolysis (HH). Two series of ES were investigated: one (N) with a high biomass yield displayed a higher recalcitrance to sugar release, whereas the second (T) series was characterized by high sugar extraction. The highest total xylose recoveries of 87.2% and 98.7% were obtained for N-11 and T-106 under hydrolysis conditions of 180°C for 50min and 180°C for 30min, respectively. Moreover, the T series displayed higher enzymatic digestibility (ED) than the N series. The high degree of branching (arabinose/xylose ratio) and acetyl groups in the hemicellulose chains of T-106 would be expected to accelerate sugar release during the HH process. In addition, negative correlations between ED and the lignin content, crystallinity index (CrI) and syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) lignin ratio were observed. Furthermore, finding ways to overcome the thickness of the cell wall and heterogeneity of its chemical composition distribution would make cellulose more accessible to the enzyme. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Online NIR Sensor for the Pilot-Scale Extraction Process in Fructus Aurantii Coupled with Single and Ensemble Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Pan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Model performance of the partial least squares method (PLS alone and bagging-PLS was investigated in online near-infrared (NIR sensor monitoring of pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used as a reference method to identify the active pharmaceutical ingredients: naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. Several preprocessing methods and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS and moving window partial least squares (MWPLS variable selection methods were compared. Single quantification models (PLS and ensemble methods combined with partial least squares (bagging-PLS were developed for quantitative analysis of naringin, hesperidin and neohesperidin. SiPLS was compared to SiPLS combined with bagging-PLS. Final results showed the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP of bagging-PLS to be lower than that of PLS regression alone. For this reason, an ensemble method of online NIR sensor is here proposed as a means of monitoring the pilot-scale extraction process in Fructus aurantii, which may also constitute a suitable strategy for online NIR monitoring of CHM.

  8. Direct uranium extraction from dihydrate and hemi-dihydrate wet process phosphoric acids by liquid emulsion membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hazek, N.T.; El Sayed, M.S.

    2003-01-01

    A new liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) process for uranium extraction from either dihydrate 28-30% P 2 O 5 (DH) or hemi-dihydrate 42-45% P 2 O 5 (HDH) wet process phosphoric acid is proposed. In this process, the organic component of the LEM is composed of a synergistic mixture of 0.1M di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid (DEHPA) and 0.025M trioctyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) with 4% Span 80. The internal or the strip acid phase is composed of 0.5M citric acid. The prepared LEM was proved to be stable in 42-45% P 2 O 5 acid concentration range and can, therefore, be applied to the phosphoric acid produced by the hemi-dihydrate process. After breakdown of the loaded emulsion, the uranyl citrate in the internal strip phase is separated by adding methanol followed by its calcination to the orange oxide. Most of the reagents used are recycled. The proposed process is characterized by simplicity, practically closed operation cycle in addition to lower capital and operating costs. (author)

  9. Wavelet analysis of molecular dynamics: Efficient extraction of time-frequency information in ultrafast optical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Javier; Castro, Enrique; Chin, Alex W.; Almeida, Javier; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    New experimental techniques based on nonlinear ultrafast spectroscopies have been developed over the last few years, and have been demonstrated to provide powerful probes of quantum dynamics in different types of molecular aggregates, including both natural and artificial light harvesting complexes. Fourier transform-based spectroscopies have been particularly successful, yet “complete” spectral information normally necessitates the loss of all information on the temporal sequence of events in a signal. This information though is particularly important in transient or multi-stage processes, in which the spectral decomposition of the data evolves in time. By going through several examples of ultrafast quantum dynamics, we demonstrate that the use of wavelets provide an efficient and accurate way to simultaneously acquire both temporal and frequency information about a signal, and argue that this greatly aids the elucidation and interpretation of physical process responsible for non-stationary spectroscopic features, such as those encountered in coherent excitonic energy transport

  10. Vanadium Transitions during Roasting-Leaching Process of Vanadium Extraction from Stone Coal

    OpenAIRE

    Yunliang Zhao; Licai Chen; Hao Yi; Yimin Zhang; Shaoxian Song; Shenxu Bao

    2018-01-01

    The vanadium occurrence in stone coal, water leaching, and acid leaching residue was investigated by energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) mapping and point analysis, and the vanadium transitions during roasting-leaching of stone coal were revealed. In the roasting process, vanadium-bearing muscovite is converted to K-Na-feldspar, accompanying the liberation of vanadium. Most liberated vanadium reacts with sodium salt to generate water-soluble sodium vanadate, some reacts with calcite in stone...

  11. The Effect of Chromium on the Roasting Process of Vanadium Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We simulated the roasting process of chromium by mixing Cr2O3 and Na2CO3 to analyze the influence of chromium on roasting vanadium slag. Samples were characterized by XRD, thermal analysis and SEM at different temperatures: Cr2O3 and Na2CO3 began to react at 500 °C. When the chromium oxide content was about 3.2%, the conversion rate of V reached the maximum value of 95%.

  12. Elastic properties of silica aerogels from a new rapid supercritical extraction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, J.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.; Hrubesh, L.W.

    1997-08-11

    Silica aerogels were produced by a new process from Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) with ammonia as base catalyst. the process involves pouring the liquid sol in a stainless steel mold and immediately heating it to supercritical conditions. Gelation and aging occurs during heating and reaction rates are high die to high average temperatures. the gel fills the container completely, which enables relatively fast venting of the supercritical fluid by providing a constraint for swelling and failure of the gel monolith. The whole process can be completed in 6 h or less. Longitudinal and shear moduli were measured in the dried aerogels by ultrasonic velocity measurements both as a function of chemical composition of the original sol and of position in the aerogel. It was found that the sound velocity exhibits marked maxima on the surface of the cylindrical specimens and specifically close to the ends, where the fluid left during venting. Specimens with high catalyst concentration and high water:TMOS ratio exhibited higher average moduli.

  13. Novel BCD Process Platform with Integrated Self-Extracted JTE Trench Technology for EL Drivers ICs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A low cost silicon BCD technology in place of high cost SOI BCD technology for monolithic integrated EL driver ICs application is put forward. Several key technologies are presented. An advanced SEJTET termination technology was designed instead of the conventional PIOS isolation to obtain smaller chip area and protect HVICs from the occurrence of di/dt effect under PWM operation. Novel VDMOS/Resurf LDPMOS devices were developed compatibly to obtain the lowest Ron,sp, improve silicon utilization, and simplify key process steps.

  14. Near-infrared for on-line determination of quality parameter of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles): From lab investigation to pilot-scale extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles.

  15. Comparison of filtering methods, filter processing and DNA extraction kits for detection of mycobacteria in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Kaevska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. Mycobacteria have been isolated from almost all types of natural waters, as well as from man-made water distribution systems. Detection of mycobacteria using PCR has been described in different types of water; however, currently, there is no standardised protocol for the processing of large volumes of water. Material and Methods. In the present study, different filtering methods are tested and optimised for tap or river water filtration up to 10 L, as well as filter processing and DNA isolation using four commercially available kits. Results. The PowerWater DNA isolation kit (MoBio, USA, together with a kit used for soil and other environmental samples (PowerSoil DNA isolation kit, MoBio, had the highest efficiency. Filtration of 10 L of water and elution of the filter in PBS with the addition of 0.05% of Tween 80 is suggested. Conclusions. The described protocol for filter elution is recommended, and the use of the PowerWater DNA isolation kit for the highest mycobacterial DNA yield from water samples. The described protocol is suitable for parallel detection of mycobacteria using cultivation.

  16. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents.

  17. Integration of Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction as Cell Harvest and Capture Operation in the Manufacturing Process of Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Schmidt

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial improvements have been made to cell culturing processes (e.g., higher product titer in recent years by raising cell densities and optimizing cultivation time. However, this has been accompanied by an increase in product-related impurities and therefore greater challenges in subsequent clarification and capture operations. Considering the paradigm shift towards the design of continuously operating dedicated plants at smaller scales—with or without disposable technology—for treating smaller patient populations due to new indications or personalized medicine approaches, the rising need for new, innovative strategies for both clarification and capture technology becomes evident. Aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE is now considered to be a feasible unit operation, e.g., for the capture of monoclonal antibodies or recombinant proteins. However, most of the published work so far investigates the applicability of ATPE in antibody-manufacturing processes at the lab-scale and for the most part, only during the capture step. This work shows the integration of ATPE as a combined harvest and capture step into a downstream process. Additionally, a model is applied that allows early prediction of settler dimensions with high prediction accuracy. Finally, a reliable process development concept, which guides through the necessary steps, starting from the definition of the separation task to the final stages of integration and scale-up, is presented.

  18. Stability of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Process Solvent: Effect of High Nitrite on Solvent Nitration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnesen, P.V.

    2002-06-26

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether nitrated organic compounds could be formed during operation of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process, and whether such compounds would present a safety concern. The CSSX process was developed to remove cesium from alkaline high-level salt waste stored at the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site (SRS). The solvent is composed of the cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis-(4-tert-octylbenzo-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6), a fluorinated alcohol phase modifier, tri-n-octylamine (TOA), and an isoparaffinic diluent (Iospar{reg_sign}). During the CSSX process, the solvent is expected to be exposed to high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite dissolved in the alkaline waste feed. The solvent will also be exposed to dilute (50 mM) nitric acid solutions containing low concentrations of nitrite during scrubbing, followed by stripping with 1 mM nitric acid. The solvent is expected to last for one year of plant operation, and the temperatures the solvent may experience during the process could range from as low as 15 C to as high as 35 C. Excursions from standard process conditions could result in the solvent experiencing higher temperatures, as well as concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, and most importantly nitric acid, that exceed normal operating conditions. Accordingly, conditions may exist where nitration reactions involving the solvent components, possibly leading to other chemical reactions stemming from nitration reactions, could occur. To model such nitration reactions, the solvent was exposed to the types of nitrate- and nitrite-containing solutions that might be expected to be encountered during the process (even under off-normal conditions), as a function of time, temperature, and concentration of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric acid. The experiments conducted as part of this report were designed to examine the more specific effect that high nitrite concentrations could have on forming nitrated

  19. Surface functionalization of nanofibrillated cellulose extracted from wheat straw: Effect of process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mandeep; Kaushik, Anupama; Ahuja, Dheeraj

    2016-10-05

    Aggregates of microfibrillated cellulose isolated from wheat straw fibers were subjected to propionylation under different processing conditions of time, temperature and concentration. The treated fibers were then homogenized to obtain surface modified nanofibrillated cellulose. For varying parameters, progress of propionylation and its effects on various characteristics was investigated by FTIR, degree of substitution, elemental analysis, SEM, EDX, TEM, X-ray diffraction, static and dynamic contact angle measurements. Thermal stability of the nanofibrils was also investigated using thermogravimetric technique. FTIR analysis confirmed the propionylation of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose fibers. The variations in reaction conditions such as time and temperature had shown considerable effect on degree of substitution (DS) and surface contact angle (CA). These characterization results represent the optimizing conditions under which cellulose nanofibrils with hydrophobic characteristics up to contact angle of 120° can be obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Method for improving dissolution efficiency in gas-absorption and liquid extraction processes. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanak, B.E.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1980-01-11

    A method is described for improving dissolution efficiency in processes in which a feed fluid is introduced to a zone where it is contacted with a liquid solvent for preferentially removing a component of the feed and where part of the solvent so contacted undergoes transfer into the feed fluid to saturate the same. It has been found that such transfer significantly impairs dissolution efficiency. In accordance with the invention, an amount of the above-mentioned solvent is added to the feed fluid being introduced to the contact zone, the solvent being added in an amount sufficient to effect reduction or elimination of the above-mentioned transfer. Preferably, the solvent is added to the feed fluid in an amount saturating or supersaturating the feed fluid under the conditions prevailing in the contact zone.