WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraction tool bet

  1. Optimizing parameter choice for FSL-Brain Extraction Tool (BET) on 3D T1 images in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popescu, Valeriu; Battaglini, M; Hoogstrate, W S;

    2012-01-01

    Brain atrophy studies often use FSL-BET (Brain Extraction Tool) as the first step of image processing. Default BET does not always give satisfactory results on 3DT1 MR images, which negatively impacts atrophy measurements. Finding the right alternative BET settings can be a difficult and time...

  2. The Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET): A GIS tool for delineating valley bottoms across entire drainage networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jordan T.; Macfarlane, William W.; Wheaton, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The shape, size and extent of a valley bottom dictates the form and function of the associated river or stream. Consequently, accurate, watershed-wide delineation of valley bottoms is increasingly recognized as a necessary component of watershed management. While many valley bottom delineation approaches exist, methods that can be effectively applied across entire drainage networks to produce reasonably accurate results are lacking. Most existing tools are designed to work using high resolution topography data (i.e. > 2 m resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM)) and can only be applied over relatively short reach lengths due to computational or data availability limitations. When these precise mapping approaches are applied throughout drainage networks (i.e. 102-104 km), the computational techniques often either do not scale, or the algorithms perform inconsistently. Other tools that produce outputs at broader scale extents generally utilize coarser input topographic data to produce more poorly resolved valley bottom approximations. To fill this methodology gap and produce relatively accurate valley bottoms over large areas, we developed an algorithm that accepts terrain data from one to 10 m with slope and valley width parameters that scale based on drainage area, allowing for watershed-scale valley bottom delineation. We packaged this algorithm in the Valley Bottom Extraction Tool (V-BET) as an open-source ArcGIS toolbox for ease of use. To illustrate V-BET's scalability and test the tool's robustness across different physiographic settings, we delineated valley bottoms for the entire perennial drainage network of Utah as well as twelve watersheds across the interior Columbia River Basin (totaling 55,400 km) using 10 m DEMs. We found that even when driven with relatively coarse data (10 m DEMs), V-BET produced a relatively accurate approximation of valley bottoms across the entire watersheds of these diverse physiographic regions.

  3. Extracting local information from crowds through betting markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Steven

    2015-04-01

    In this research, a set-up is considered in which users can bet against a forecasting agency to challenge their probabilistic forecasts. From an information theory standpoint, a reward structure is considered that either provides the forecasting agency with better information, paying the successful providers of information for their winning bets, or funds excellent forecasting agencies through users that think they know better. Especially for local forecasts, the approach may help to diagnose model biases and to identify local predictive information that can be incorporated in the models. The challenges and opportunities for implementing such a system in practice are also discussed.

  4. BET-VH: A Probabilistic Tool for Long- and Short-Term Volcanic Hazard Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzocchi, W.; Selva, J.; Sandri, L.

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to present the probabilistic code BET-VH (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Hazard) for long- and short-term volcanic hazard assessment. BET-VH follows the probabilistic scheme recently published by Marzocchi et al. (2004; Quantifying probabilities of volcanic events: the example of volcanic hazard at Mt. Vesuvius, J. Geophys. Res., vol. 109, B11201, doi:10.1029/2004JB003155), and it includes the fuzzy logic to minimize the effects of the choice of some particular thresholds of the model. In brief, BET-VH is based on a Bayesian approach applied to an Event Tree scheme that produces the probability estimation of any possible event in which we are interested, using all available information including theoretical models, historical and geological data, and monitoring observations. The general sequence is to estimate an a priori probability distribution based upon theoretical knowledge, to modify that using data. The procedure deals with epistemic and aleatory uncertainties in a formal way, through the estimation of probability distributions at each node of the Event Tree. In order to illustrate the potentiality of BET-VH in managing emergencies and in land use planning, we present applications of the code to some explosive volcanoes.

  5. TSCA Inventory Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data extraction tool contains the non confidential identities of chemical substances submitted under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). TSCA was enacted...

  6. PyBetVH: A Python tool for probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment and for generation of Bayesian hazard curves and maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Anne Thompson, Mary

    2015-06-01

    PyBetVH is a completely new, free, open-source and cross-platform software implementation of the Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Hazard (BET_VH), a tool for estimating the probability of any magmatic hazardous phenomenon occurring in a selected time frame, accounting for all the uncertainties. New capabilities of this implementation include the ability to calculate hazard curves which describe the distribution of the exceedance probability as a function of intensity (e.g., tephra load) on a grid of points covering the target area. The computed hazard curves are (i) absolute (accounting for the probability of eruption in a given time frame, and for all the possible vent locations and eruptive sizes) and (ii) Bayesian (computed at different percentiles, in order to quantify the epistemic uncertainty). Such curves allow representation of the full information contained in the probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment (PVHA) and are well suited to become a main input to quantitative risk analyses. PyBetVH allows for interactive visualization of both the computed hazard curves, and the corresponding Bayesian hazard/probability maps. PyBetVH is designed to minimize the efforts of end users, making PVHA results accessible to people who may be less experienced in probabilistic methodologies, e.g. decision makers. The broad compatibility of Python language has also allowed PyBetVH to be installed on the VHub cyber-infrastructure, where it can be run online or downloaded at no cost. PyBetVH can be used to assess any type of magmatic hazard from any volcano. Here we illustrate how to perform a PVHA through PyBetVH using the example of analyzing tephra fallout from the Okataina Volcanic Centre (OVC), New Zealand, and highlight the range of outputs that the tool can generate.

  7. The multi-dimensional talent support tool (mBET – a systemic approach towards individualized support of the gifted and talented in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Stahl

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Providing gifted students with personalized talent development programs is a challenge for teachers and educators alike. The multi-dimensional talent development tool (mBET guides teachers on their way to individualized gifted programs. Within a holistic and systemic concept of giftedness, the mBET brings together the perspectives of teachers, parents and the individual student in assessing talents as well as relevant personality characteristics and environment factors. By facilitating support-oriented round-table talks, the mBET helps teachers, parents and students to develop individually tailored talent development programs, taking into consideration both talents and other factors relevant for successful gifted education (i.e. non-cognitive personality characteristics and environmental factors.

  8. Betting exchanges : the future of sports betting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.; Velzen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Sports betting and sports have always been strongly connected. Traditionally, these betting markets have been cleared by bookmakers, who accept bets on certain events. These bookmakers carry the risk of paying the amount wagered if the event occurs. Recently, a new type of betting market has appeare

  9. Betting exchanges : the future of sports betting?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.; Velzen, B. van

    Sports betting and sports have always been strongly connected. Traditionally, these betting markets have been cleared by bookmakers, who accept bets on certain events. These bookmakers carry the risk of paying the amount wagered if the event occurs. Recently, a new type of betting market has

  10. Rattleback bet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Steve

    2011-05-01

    A neat twist to the "rattleback" or "celt" demonstration was revealed to me after a "bet" with one of my AP® Physics students.2 I asked the class to try to explain what is responsible for the spinning piece of plastic to suddenly reverse its direction of spin. Some thought about air friction, others discussed the offset center of gravity. There are many online sources with detailed explanations, as well as in TPT,3 so I will not try to explain it here, but I felt that friction between the rattleback and the table definitely played a major role in the explanation. My student disagreed. The next day my student showed up to class with a small container of Vaseline and declared, "We will settle this right now. Let's grease up a lab table and spin the rattleback and see what happens." (I wish all my students were this curious!) First, we spun the rattleback several times on a clean table to see the interesting spin reversal. Then after applying a thin layer of Vaseline to the table, we spun the rattleback. Try it yourself (or email me) to see who won the bet!

  11. Green Vehicle Guide Data Extraction Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Green Vehicle Guide provides vehicle ratings based on emissions and fuel economy. This data extraction tool allows...

  12. Using bets to reveal people's opinions on climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowsky, S.; Risbey, J.; Boslough, M.

    2016-12-01

    A long-standing means of revealing people's actual preferences, for example regarding economic and political issues, involves gambles and bets. People tend to place bets when they are confident of their opinions, and they tend to avoid them when they are not confident of their opinions. We survey the reluctance of climate contrarians to engage in bets with scientists, and we review the historical and likely future fate of various bets on climate change. We show that for the last few decades, most bets placed on the climate would have been lost by contrarians and would have been won by people who endorse the mainstream scientific position. We relate bets and gambles to actuarial information on climate change and propose ways in which the scientific community can use markets of bets as a tool to resolve ambiguities and to communicate scientific facts with an appropriate level of certainty to the public.

  13. Parimutuel Betting on Permutations

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Shipra; Ye, Yinyu

    2008-01-01

    We focus on a permutation betting market under parimutuel call auction model where traders bet on the final ranking of n candidates. We present a Proportional Betting mechanism for this market. Our mechanism allows the traders to bet on any subset of the n x n 'candidate-rank' pairs, and rewards them proportionally to the number of pairs that appear in the final outcome. We show that market organizer's decision problem for this mechanism can be formulated as a convex program of polynomial size. More importantly, the formulation yields a set of n x n unique marginal prices that are sufficient to price the bets in this mechanism, and are computable in polynomial-time. The marginal prices reflect the traders' beliefs about the marginal distributions over outcomes. We also propose techniques to compute the joint distribution over n! permutations from these marginal distributions. We show that using a maximum entropy criterion, we can obtain a concise parametric form (with only n x n parameters) for the joint dist...

  14. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    .S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  15. Betting against health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, C

    1996-06-20

    Health care firms of all types helped fuel the biggest short-selling frenzy in the New York Stock Exchange's history, recently hitting a record 2.2 billion shares. While some analysts say this means nothing, the fact is that many investors are "shorting" the stock; in other words, they're betting against it. What appears as a lack of confidence may be nothing more than a simple quirk of Wall Street. Good, bad or indifferent, selling short is no tall tale.

  16. Betting against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model's five central predictions: (1) Because constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for......, the return of the BAB factor is low. (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one. (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets....... for US equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures. (2) A betting against beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low-beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns. (3) When funding constraints tighten...

  17. Betting Against Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a model with leverage and margin constraints that vary across investors and time. We find evidence consistent with each of the model’s five central predictions: (1) Since constrained investors bid up high-beta assets, high beta is associated with low alpha, as we find empirically for U...... of the BAB factor is low; (4) Increased funding liquidity risk compresses betas toward one; (5) More constrained investors hold riskier assets........S. equities, 20 international equity markets, Treasury bonds, corporate bonds, and futures; (2) A betting-against-beta (BAB) factor, which is long leveraged low beta assets and short high-beta assets, produces significant positive risk-adjusted returns; (3) When funding constraints tighten, the return...

  18. ACME, a GIS tool for Automated Cirque Metric Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Matteo; Pellitero, Ramon; Barr, Iestyn D.; Ely, Jeremy C.; Pellicer, Xavier M.; Rea, Brice R.

    2017-02-01

    Regional scale studies of glacial cirque metrics provide key insights on the (palaeo) environment related to the formation of these erosional landforms. The growing availability of high resolution terrain models means that more glacial cirques can be identified and mapped in the future. However, the extraction of their metrics still largely relies on time consuming manual techniques or the combination of, more or less obsolete, GIS tools. In this paper, a newly coded toolbox is provided for the automated, and comparatively quick, extraction of 16 key glacial cirque metrics; including length, width, circularity, planar and 3D area, elevation, slope, aspect, plan closure and hypsometry. The set of tools, named ACME (Automated Cirque Metric Extraction), is coded in Python, runs in one of the most commonly used GIS packages (ArcGIS) and has a user friendly interface. A polygon layer of mapped cirques is required for all metrics, while a Digital Terrain Model and a point layer of cirque threshold midpoints are needed to run some of the tools. Results from ACME are comparable to those from other techniques and can be obtained rapidly, allowing large cirque datasets to be analysed and potentially important regional trends highlighted.

  19. DATA MINING IN SPORTS BETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Georgescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available n this paper, we have made a brief analysis on how to make decisions in betting on European football with the help of data mining techniques. Whether you refer to betting a few days in advance of the sporting event or live betting, both options have been taken into consideration. By using a clustering algorithm for analyzing both the database containing events from football matches and the odds given by bookmakers, we have obtained graphs indicating the probabilities associated with analyzed events. Given the purely informative aspect of the current paper, we have only analyzed the number of corners from a match.

  20. Dpaper: An Authoring Tool for Extractable Digital Papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Le

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To develop a structured, rich media digital paper authoring tool with an objectbased model that enables interactive, playable, and convertible functions. Design/methodology/approach: We propose Dpaper to organize the content (text, data, rich media, etc. of dissertation papers as XML and HTML5 files by means of digital objects and digital templates. Findings: Dpaper provides a structured-paper editorial platform for the authors of PhDs to organize research materials and to generate various digital paper objects that are playable and reusable. The PhD papers are represented as Web pages and structured XML files, which are marked with semantic tags. Research limitations: The proposed tool only provides access to a limited number of digital objects. For instance, the tool cannot create equations and graphs, and typesetting is not yet flexible compared to MS Word. Practical implications: The Dpaper tool is designed to break through the patterns of unstructured content organization of traditional papers, and makes the paper accessible for not only reading but for exploitation as data, where the document can be extractable and reusable. As a result, Dpaper can make the digital publishing of dissertation texts more flexible and efficient, and their data more assessable. Originality/value: The Dpaper tool solves the challenge of making a paper structured and object-based in the stage of authoring, and has practical values for semantic publishing.

  1. Experimental evolution of bet hedging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Hubertus J E; Gallie, Jenna; Kost, Christian; Ferguson, Gayle C; Rainey, Paul B

    2009-11-05

    Bet hedging-stochastic switching between phenotypic states-is a canonical example of an evolutionary adaptation that facilitates persistence in the face of fluctuating environmental conditions. Although bet hedging is found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans, direct evidence for an adaptive origin of this behaviour is lacking. Here we report the de novo evolution of bet hedging in experimental bacterial populations. Bacteria were subjected to an environment that continually favoured new phenotypic states. Initially, our regime drove the successive evolution of novel phenotypes by mutation and selection; however, in two (of 12) replicates this trend was broken by the evolution of bet-hedging genotypes that persisted because of rapid stochastic phenotype switching. Genome re-sequencing of one of these switching types revealed nine mutations that distinguished it from the ancestor. The final mutation was both necessary and sufficient for rapid phenotype switching; nonetheless, the evolution of bet hedging was contingent upon earlier mutations that altered the relative fitness effect of the final mutation. These findings capture the adaptive evolution of bet hedging in the simplest of organisms, and suggest that risk-spreading strategies may have been among the earliest evolutionary solutions to life in fluctuating environments.

  2. BengaSaVex: A new computational genetic sequence extraction tool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BengaSaVex : A new computational genetic sequence extraction tool for DNA repeats. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... This research aimed to develop new tools for extracting DNA repeats from the ...

  3. Fast, accurate, robust and Open Source Brain Extraction Tool (OSBET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namias, R.; Donnelly Kehoe, P.; D'Amato, J. P.; Nagel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The removal of non-brain regions in neuroimaging is a critical task to perform a favorable preprocessing. The skull-stripping depends on different factors including the noise level in the image, the anatomy of the subject being scanned and the acquisition sequence. For these and other reasons, an ideal brain extraction method should be fast, accurate, user friendly, open-source and knowledge based (to allow for the interaction with the algorithm in case the expected outcome is not being obtained), producing stable results and making it possible to automate the process for large datasets. There are already a large number of validated tools to perform this task but none of them meets the desired characteristics. In this paper we introduced an open source brain extraction tool (OSBET), composed of four steps using simple well-known operations such as: optimal thresholding, binary morphology, labeling and geometrical analysis that aims to assemble all the desired features. We present an experiment comparing OSBET with other six state-of-the-art techniques against a publicly available dataset consisting of 40 T1-weighted 3D scans and their corresponding manually segmented images. OSBET gave both: a short duration with an excellent accuracy, getting the best Dice Coefficient metric. Further validation should be performed, for instance, in unhealthy population, to generalize its usage for clinical purposes.

  4. National Sports Betting in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budzinski, Oliver; Feddersen, Arne; Satzer, Janina;

    Liga" . National legislation of EU member states can still restrict the freedom to provide gambling services by a monopoly system but only under rather restrictive conditions (necessity, proportionality, non-discrimination). Consequently, a new Danish Gaming Act was proposed. It includes, among other...... political aims, and (ii) offer a comparison to a regulated, competitive betting market. Differing from the (few) existing literature, our analysis systematically accounts for the effects from the loss of sports betting revenues as a means to finance elite, amateur and youth sports. Eventually, policy...

  5. Reaction Decoder Tool (RDT): extracting features from chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Torrance, Gilliean; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Martínez Cuesta, Sergio; Fenninger, Franz; Gopal, Nimish; Choudhary, Saket; May, John W.; Holliday, Gemma L.; Steinbeck, Christoph; Thornton, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Extracting chemical features like Atom–Atom Mapping (AAM), Bond Changes (BCs) and Reaction Centres from biochemical reactions helps us understand the chemical composition of enzymatic reactions. Reaction Decoder is a robust command line tool, which performs this task with high accuracy. It supports standard chemical input/output exchange formats i.e. RXN/SMILES, computes AAM, highlights BCs and creates images of the mapped reaction. This aids in the analysis of metabolic pathways and the ability to perform comparative studies of chemical reactions based on these features. Availability and implementation: This software is implemented in Java, supported on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX, and freely available at https://github.com/asad/ReactionDecoder Contact: asad@ebi.ac.uk or s9asad@gmail.com PMID:27153692

  6. Reaction Decoder Tool (RDT): extracting features from chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Syed Asad; Torrance, Gilliean; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Martínez Cuesta, Sergio; Fenninger, Franz; Gopal, Nimish; Choudhary, Saket; May, John W; Holliday, Gemma L; Steinbeck, Christoph; Thornton, Janet M

    2016-07-01

    Extracting chemical features like Atom-Atom Mapping (AAM), Bond Changes (BCs) and Reaction Centres from biochemical reactions helps us understand the chemical composition of enzymatic reactions. Reaction Decoder is a robust command line tool, which performs this task with high accuracy. It supports standard chemical input/output exchange formats i.e. RXN/SMILES, computes AAM, highlights BCs and creates images of the mapped reaction. This aids in the analysis of metabolic pathways and the ability to perform comparative studies of chemical reactions based on these features. This software is implemented in Java, supported on Windows, Linux and Mac OSX, and freely available at https://github.com/asad/ReactionDecoder : asad@ebi.ac.uk or s9asad@gmail.com. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. Betting on dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    A physical system in game-theoretic terms is represented in this work. We first consider an abstract game between a classical and a quantum player, whose results represent the two different kinds of non-linear dynamics that the system exhibits. The existence of winning strategies shows that the dynamics can be fully determined through a game theory analysis. Moreover by considering a second game, we show that different games can be defined to focus on different aspects of the physics of a system. Different winning strategies and Nash equilibrium points, emerge in each game. These games theory tools are related to physical properties, so distinct physical information is obtained for each game. In this work, special emphasis is made on Nash points, which add a new conceptual perspective, to analyze a physical system.

  8. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    the protohistoric and historic period were found. The former include a seal, inscriptions and pottery, while the latter consist of coins and pottery. The earliest settlement at Bet Dwarka may be dated to the late phase of the Indus Civilization, i.e. c. 1400 B...

  9. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to an extract from rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis latex and recombinant pollen allergens (Phl P 1, Phl P 2, Phl P 5, Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 in the sera of Italian atopic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato E. Rossi

    2001-01-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the present study may support the concept that a high proportion of sera containing IgE to rBet v 2, rPhl p 1 and rPhl p 5 simultaneously contain antilatex IgE. Therefore, patients with specific IgE to these recombinant allergens with no history of current latex exposure may need additional evaluation.

  10. Targeting BET bromodomain proteins in solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Vaibhav; Redig, Amanda J; Collier, Katharine A; Eckerdt, Frank D; Munshi, Hidayatullah G

    2016-08-16

    There is increasing interest in inhibitors targeting BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) proteins because of the association between this family of proteins and cancer progression. BET inhibitors were initially shown to have efficacy in hematologic malignancies; however, a number of studies have now shown that BET inhibitors can also block progression of non-hematologic malignancies. In this Review, we summarize the efficacy of BET inhibitors in select solid tumors; evaluate the role of BET proteins in mediating resistance to current targeted therapies; and consider potential toxicities of BET inhibitors. We also evaluate recently characterized mechanisms of resistance to BET inhibitors; summarize ongoing clinical trials with these inhibitors; and discuss potential future roles of BET inhibitors in patients with solid tumors.

  11. BET measurements: Outgassing of minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    Outgassing minerals at elevated temperatures prior to BET measurements can lead to phase changes, especially in the case of amorphous and poorly crystalline materials. In order to evaluate the applicability of the BET method when low outgassing temperatures are required, selected aquifer minerals...... were outgassed at different temperatures and for different times. The studied minerals are 2-line ferrihydrite, goethite, lepidocrocite, quartz, calcite, ®-alumina, and kaolinite. The results demonstrate that measured specific surface areas of iron oxides are strongly dependent on outgassing conditions...... because the surface area increased by 170% with increasing temperature. In the poorly crystalline minerals, phase changes caused by heating were observed at temperatures lower than 100±C. Therefore low outgassing temperatures are preferable for minimizing phase changes. As demonstrated in this study...

  12. Characterization of wild-type recombinant Bet v 1a as a candidate vaccine against birch pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batard, Thierry; Didierlaurent, Alain; Chabre, Henri; Mothes, Nadine; Bussières, Laetitia; Bohle, Barbara; Couret, Marie-Noëlle; Ball, Tanja; Lemoine, Pierrick; Focks Tejkl, Margarete; Chenal, Alexandre; Clément, Gilles; Dupont, Francis; Valent, Peter; Krauth, Marie-Theres; André, Claude; Valenta, Rudolf; Moingeon, Philippe

    2005-03-01

    We describe the production in Escherichia coli as a recombinant protein of clinical grade wild-type Bet v 1a (rBet v 1a), to be used as a candidate vaccine against birch pollen allergy. This recombinant protein was purified by hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE, immunoprint and circular dichroism in parallel with natural Bet v 1 (nBet v 1) purified from a birch pollen extract. We also compared rBet v 1 and nBet v 1 for their capacity to induce histamine release from basophils and to stimulate T lymphocyte proliferation. rBet v 1a appears in SDS-PAGE as an 18-kDa monomeric protein, whereas purified nBet v 1 comprises a mixture of isoforms (resolving as three distinct bands and six spots after 1-dimensional and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, respectively). Both recombinant and natural purified Bet v 1 molecules are recognized by IgE from birch pollen-allergic patients as well as anti-Bet v 1 murine monoclonal antibodies, suggesting that the recombinant protein is correctly folded in a native configuration. Circular dichroism analysis confirmed that the two Bet v 1 molecules exhibit similar 3-dimensional structures, even if rBet v 1a appears more compact and stable in thermodenaturation/renaturation experiments. Both rBet v 1 and nBet v 1 induce the degranulation of sensitized basophils and proliferation of Bet v 1-specific T lymphocytes in a similar manner. On the basis of these structural and biological properties, rBet v 1a is a valid candidate vaccine against birch pollen allergy, currently evaluated in humans. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Tools for Extracting Actionable Medical Knowledge from Genomic Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Theodore Charles

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is an ideal target for personal genomics-based medicine that uses high-throughput genome assays such as DNA sequencing, RNA sequencing, and expression analysis (collectively called omics); however, researchers and physicians are overwhelmed by the quantities of big data from these assays and cannot interpret this information accurately without specialized tools. To address this problem, I have created software methods and tools called OCCAM (OmiC data Cancer Analytic Model) and DIPSC (...

  14. Gripping tool for the ITER upper port plug RH extraction/insertion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Elena V., E-mail: elena.rosa@ciemat.es; Ríos, Luis, E-mail: luis.rios@ciemat.es

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •The gripping tool is based on only one gripping point centred at the plug bottom. •The gripping tool should allow the relative displacement in the gripping point to absorb the misalignment between plug and tractor. •The gripping tool needs to withstand around 100/30 kN during the plug extraction/insertion. •The gripping tool should rely on visual control and it has to avoid force feed-back. •The comparison between the features of several gripping tool concepts is assessed. -- Abstract: The conceptual design of several gripping tools and their mechanical interfaces is being carried out for the ITER ECH UPP within the WP10-GOTRH programme. EFDA finances the GOT RH (Goal Oriented Training Programme for Remote Handling). The purpose of this paper is to introduce new concepts of gripping tools for the plug extraction/insertion in the upper port of ITER. All these gripping tools are designed according to IO input data and geometrical constraints. The gripping tools have to be able to extract/insert the plug in the scenario of maximum misalignment between the plug and the tractor. The paper also defines the functional requirements the gripping tools need to comply with. The requirements and input data are verified and validated through 3D simulation with Catia mock-ups of the gripping tools. The strengths and weaknesses of each gripping tool model are compared.

  15. Biggest bets in the universe unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    Jamieson, Valerie

    2004-01-01

    Betting on the greatest unsolved problems in the universe is no longer the preserve of academic superstars such as Stephen Hawking. From Thursday, anyone will be able to place bets on whether the biggest physics experiments in the world will come good before 2010

  16. Bookmaker and pari-mutuel betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Shing, Hui-Fai

    2008-01-01

    A widely documented empirical regularity in gambling markets is that bets on high probability events (a race won by a "favourite") have higher expected returns than bets on low probability events (a "longshot" wins). Such favourite-longshot (FL) biases however appear to be more severe and persist...

  17. Design and characterization of bivalent BET inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Roberts, Justin M; Seo, Hyuk-Soo; Souza, Amanda; Paulk, Joshiawa; Scott, Thomas G; DeAngelo, Stephen L; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Bradner, James E

    2016-12-01

    Cellular signaling is often propagated by multivalent interactions. Multivalency creates avidity, allowing stable biophysical recognition. Multivalency is an attractive strategy for achieving potent binding to protein targets, as the affinity of bivalent ligands is often greater than the sum of monovalent affinities. The bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) family of transcriptional coactivators features tandem bromodomains through which BET proteins bind acetylated histones and transcription factors. All reported antagonists of the BET protein BRD4 bind in a monovalent fashion. Here we describe, to our knowledge for the first time, a bivalent BET bromodomain inhibitor-MT1-which has unprecedented potency. Biophysical and biochemical studies suggest MT1 is an intramolecular bivalent BRD4 binder that is more than 100-fold more potent, in cellular assays, than the corresponding monovalent antagonist, JQ1. MT1 significantly (P BET bromodomains and a rationale for further development of multidomain inhibitors of epigenetic reader proteins.

  18. Electroanalytical tools for antioxidant evaluation of red fruits dry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Macêdo, Isaac Yves Lopes; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Oliveira Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; de Siqueira Leite, Karla Carneiro; Ferreira, Valdir Souza; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Red fruits are rich sources of antioxidant compounds with recognized health benefits. Since they are perishable, dried extracts emerge as more durable products and their quality control must include antioxidant capacity assays. In this study, the redox behavior of commercial dried products obtained from camu-camu, açai, acerola and cranberry red fruits was evaluated by electroanalytical approaches. The antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and the electrochemical index concept. The total phenol content was estimated by using a laccase based biosensor. A significant correlation was found between all methods and literature data. The voltammetric profile (cyclic, differential and square wave) obtained for each type of dried extract showed distinguishable features that were correlated with their main major markers, being also useful for identification purposes. The electrochemical methods were cheaper and more practical for evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenol content in dried powders obtained from different red fruits.

  19. BET Bromodomain Proteins as Cancer Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shaokun; Polyak, Kornelia

    2017-01-06

    Epigenetic regulators are emerging therapeutic targets in a wide variety of human cancers. BET bromodomain proteins have been identified as key regulators of oncogenic transcription factors including MYC; therefore, their inhibition might provide a way to block these "undruggable" targets. Several BET bromodomain inhibitors are in clinical development with promising preliminary findings. However, tumors acquire resistance to these agents in several different ways. In this review, we summarize the role that BET bromodomain proteins play in tumorigenesis as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying therapeutic responses and resistance to their inhibition with emphasis on BRD4 and breast cancer.

  20. Stuck threaded member extractor tool and extraction methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscosky, James M.; Essay, Shane M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed is a tool having a tapered first portion configured to translate a rotational force to the stuck member, a second portion connecting with the first portion and configured to translate the rotational force to the tapered first portion, a planar tip at an end of the first portion and perpendicular to a central axis passing through the first portion and the second portion, a plurality of left-handed splines extending helically around the central axis from the tip toward the second portion, a driver engaged with the second portion and configured to receive a third rotational force from a mechanical manipulator, and a leak seal connected to the driver and configured to form a seal around the stuck member and at least a portion of the driver and prevent gases opposite the stuck member from escaping.

  1. CFD Extraction Tool for TecPlot From DPLR Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a TecPlot macro of a computer program in the TecPlot programming language that processes data from DPLR solutions in TecPlot format. DPLR (Data-Parallel Line Relaxation) is a NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, and TecPlot is a commercial CFD post-processing tool. The Tec- Plot data is in SI units (same as DPLR output). The invention converts the SI units into British units. The macro modifies the TecPlot data with unit conversions, and adds some extra calculations. After unit conversions, the macro cuts a slice, and adds vectors on the current plot for output format. The macro can also process surface solutions. Existing solutions use manual conversion and superposition. The conversion is complicated because it must be applied to a range of inter-related scalars and vectors to describe a 2D or 3D flow field. It processes the CFD solution to create superposition/comparison of scalars and vectors. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, slow, and cannot be inserted into an automated process. This invention is quick and easy to use, and can be inserted into an automated data-processing algorithm.

  2. Effects of expertise on football betting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Billieux, Joël; Bizzini, Lucio; Monney, Grégoire; Fresard, Emmanuelle; Thorens, Gabriel; Bondolfi, Guido; El-Guebaly, Nady; Zullino, Daniele; Khan, Riaz

    2012-01-01

    .... It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes...

  3. Effects of expertise on football betting

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are bet...

  4. MyETL: A Java Software Tool to Extract, Transform, and Load Your Business

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Nuovo

    2015-01-01

    The project follows the development of a Java Software Tool that extracts data from Flat File (Fixed Length Record Type), CSV (Comma Separated Values), and XLS (Microsoft Excel 97-2003 Worksheet file), apply transformation to those sources, and finally load the data into the end target RDBMS. The software refers to a process known as ETL (Extract Transform and Load). Those kinds of systems are called ETL systems.

  5. MyETL: A Java Software Tool to Extract, Transform, and Load Your Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Nuovo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The project follows the development of a Java Software Tool that extracts data from Flat File (Fixed Length Record Type, CSV (Comma Separated Values, and XLS (Microsoft Excel 97-2003 Worksheet file, apply transformation to those sources, and finally load the data into the end target RDBMS. The software refers to a process known as ETL (Extract Transform and Load. Those kinds of systems are called ETL systems.

  6. The importance of extractives and abrasives in wood materials on the wearing of cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Darmawan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available For many wood cutting processes, the interest of high-speed tool steels and tungsten carbides remains very important because of their good tool edge accuracy and easy grinding. The wear of high-speed steel and tungsten carbide is an important economic parameter. Wood extractives and silica have a potential adverse effect on tool wear. Rapid chemical wearing due to corrosion and mechanical wearing has been attributed to the presence of extractives and silica in wood and wood composites. This paper presents the wear characteristics of SKH51 high-speed steel and K10 tungsten carbide caused by extractive and abrasive materials present in the lesser-known Tapi-Tapi wood and wood composites of wood cement board, particleboard, MDF, and oriented strand board (OSB. Experimental results showed that wearing of the cutting tools tested was determined by extractives and silica contained in the wood and wood composites. Wood cement board, which is high in silica content, caused severe damage to the cutting edge of the high-speed steel. A corrosion/oxidation mechanism was found to contribute to the wear of SKH51 and K10 when cutting the Tapi-Tapi wood, MDF, particleboard, wood cement board, and OSB. The silica and extractives determined the abrasion and corrosion wear mechanism to a varying degree.

  7. Analysis of Automated Modern Web Crawling and Testing Tools and Their Possible Employment for Information Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Grigalis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web has become an enormously big repository of data. Extracting, integrating and reusing this kind of data has a wide range of applications, including meta-searching, comparison shopping, business intelligence tools and security analysis of information in websites. However, reaching information in modern WEB 2.0 web pages, where HTML tree is often dynamically modified by various JavaScript codes, new data are added by asynchronous requests to the web server and elements are positioned with the help of cascading style sheets, is a difficult task. The article reviews automated web testing tools for information extraction tasks.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Mutation extraction tools can be combined for robust recognition of genetic variants in the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno Yepes, Antonio; Verspoor, Karin

    2014-01-01

    As the cost of genomic sequencing continues to fall, the amount of data being collected and studied for the purpose of understanding the genetic basis of disease is increasing dramatically. Much of the source information relevant to such efforts is available only from unstructured sources such as the scientific literature, and significant resources are expended in manually curating and structuring the information in the literature. As such, there have been a number of systems developed to target automatic extraction of mutations and other genetic variation from the literature using text mining tools. We have performed a broad survey of the existing publicly available tools for extraction of genetic variants from the scientific literature. We consider not just one tool but a number of different tools, individually and in combination, and apply the tools in two scenarios. First, they are compared in an intrinsic evaluation context, where the tools are tested for their ability to identify specific mentions of genetic variants in a corpus of manually annotated papers, the Variome corpus. Second, they are compared in an extrinsic evaluation context based on our previous study of text mining support for curation of the COSMIC and InSiGHT databases. Our results demonstrate that no single tool covers the full range of genetic variants mentioned in the literature. Rather, several tools have complementary coverage and can be used together effectively. In the intrinsic evaluation on the Variome corpus, the combined performance is above 0.95 in F-measure, while in the extrinsic evaluation the combined recall performance is above 0.71 for COSMIC and above 0.62 for InSiGHT, a substantial improvement over the performance of any individual tool. Based on the analysis of these results, we suggest several directions for the improvement of text mining tools for genetic variant extraction from the literature.

  9. The Bet v 1 fold: an ancient, versatile scaffold for binding of large, hydrophobic ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breiteneder Heimo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, is a member of the ubiquitous PR-10 family of plant pathogenesis-related proteins. In recent years, a number of diverse plant proteins with low sequence similarity to Bet v 1 was identified. In addition, determination of the Bet v 1 structure revealed the existence of a large superfamily of structurally related proteins. In this study, we aimed to identify and classify all Bet v 1-related structures from the Protein Data Bank and all Bet v 1-related sequences from the Uniprot database. Results Structural comparisons of representative members of already known protein families structurally related to Bet v 1 with all entries of the Protein Data Bank yielded 47 structures with non-identical sequences. They were classified into eleven families, five of which were newly identified and not included in the Structural Classification of Proteins database release 1.71. The taxonomic distribution of these families extracted from the Pfam protein family database showed that members of the polyketide cyclase family and the activator of Hsp90 ATPase homologue 1 family were distributed among all three superkingdoms, while members of some bacterial families were confined to a small number of species. Comparison of ligand binding activities of Bet v 1-like superfamily members revealed that their functions were related to binding and metabolism of large, hydrophobic compounds such as lipids, hormones, and antibiotics. Phylogenetic relationships within the Bet v 1 family, defined as the group of proteins with significant sequence similarity to Bet v 1, were determined by aligning 264 Bet v 1-related sequences. A distance-based phylogenetic tree yielded a classification into 11 subfamilies, nine exclusively containing plant sequences and two subfamilies of bacterial proteins. Plant sequences included the pathogenesis-related proteins 10, the major latex proteins/ripening-related proteins subfamily, and

  10. ncRNA-class Web Tool: Non-coding RNA feature extraction and pre-miRNA classification web tool

    KAUST Repository

    Kleftogiannis, Dimitrios A.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, it was commonly accepted that most genetic information is transacted by proteins. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of the genomes of mammals and other complex organisms are in fact transcribed into non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), many of which are alternatively spliced and/or processed into smaller products. Non coding RNA genes analysis requires the calculation of several sequential, thermodynamical and structural features. Many independent tools have already been developed for the efficient calculation of such features but to the best of our knowledge there does not exist any integrative approach for this task. The most significant amount of existing work is related to the miRNA class of non-coding RNAs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play a significant role in gene regulation and their prediction is a challenging bioinformatics problem. Non-coding RNA feature extraction and pre-miRNA classification Web Tool (ncRNA-class Web Tool) is a publicly available web tool ( http://150.140.142.24:82/Default.aspx ) which provides a user friendly and efficient environment for the effective calculation of a set of 58 sequential, thermodynamical and structural features of non-coding RNAs, plus a tool for the accurate prediction of miRNAs. © 2012 IFIP International Federation for Information Processing.

  11. Immunologic characterization of monoclonal antibodies that modulate human IgE binding to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebecque, S; Dolecek, C; Laffer, S; Visco, V; Denépoux, S; Pin, J J; Guret, C; Boltz-Nitulescu, G; Weyer, A; Valenta, R

    1997-03-01

    Bet v 1 and homologous proteins represent major allergens for almost 95% of patients allergic to tree pollen and approximately 70% of those allergic to fruits and vegetables. As yet, no continuous (sequential) IgE epitopes have been determined for Bet v 1, and evidence has accumulated that Bet v 1 IgE epitopes belong to the conformational (discontinuous) type. A panel of 85 mouse monoclonal anti-Bet v 1 antibodies was raised as a tool with which to study the interaction of human IgE antibodies with Bet v 1. The epitopes of selected monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were characterized by mapping with synthetic overlapping peptides and by cross-competition experiments. Cross-reactivity of Bet v 1-specific mAbs with tree and plant food allergens was investigated by Western blotting. The influence of Bet v 1-specific mAbs on the IgE-Bet v 1 interaction was studied by competition assays with immobilized purified recombinant Bet v 1 and by basophil histamine release experiments. Antibodies that increased the IgE binding to Bet v 1 up to fivefold could be defined, whereas others inhibited IgE binding to Bet v 1 up to 99% and competed with the Bet v 1-induced histamine release from patients' basophils. The activity of the enhancing antibodies is interpreted as a stabilization of Bet v 1 states/IgE epitopes, which are either more accessible for certain IgE antibodies or are recognized with higher affinity. Those mAbs that competed with the Bet v 1-IgE interaction, if humanized or produced as recombinant antibody fragments, might be considered as potential tools for local allergy therapy.

  12. The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET Family: Functional Anatomy of BET Paralogous Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Taniguchi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Bromodomain and Extra-Terminal Domain (BET family of proteins is characterized by the presence of two tandem bromodomains and an extra-terminal domain. The mammalian BET family of proteins comprises BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and BRDT, which are encoded by paralogous genes that may have been generated by repeated duplication of an ancestral gene during evolution. Bromodomains that can specifically bind acetylated lysine residues in histones serve as chromatin-targeting modules that decipher the histone acetylation code. BET proteins play a crucial role in regulating gene transcription through epigenetic interactions between bromodomains and acetylated histones during cellular proliferation and differentiation processes. On the other hand, BET proteins have been reported to mediate latent viral infection in host cells and be involved in oncogenesis. Human BRD4 is involved in multiple processes of the DNA virus life cycle, including viral replication, genome maintenance, and gene transcription through interaction with viral proteins. Aberrant BRD4 expression contributes to carcinogenesis by mediating hyperacetylation of the chromatin containing the cell proliferation-promoting genes. BET bromodomain blockade using small-molecule inhibitors gives rise to selective repression of the transcriptional network driven by c-MYC These inhibitors are expected to be potential therapeutic drugs for a wide range of cancers. This review presents an overview of the basic roles of BET proteins and highlights the pathological functions of BET and the recent developments in cancer therapy targeting BET proteins in animal models.

  13. Choice of data extraction tools for systematic reviews depends on resources and review complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Mohamed B; Flynn, David N; Bassler, Dirk; Briel, Matthias; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Guyatt, Gordon H; Malaga, German; Furukawa, Toshiaki A; Kunz, Regina; Schünemann, Holger; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Barbui, Corrado; Cipriani, Andrea; Montori, Victor M

    2009-05-01

    To assist investigators planning, coordinating, and conducting systematic reviews in the selection of data-extraction tools for conducting systematic reviews. We constructed an initial table listing available data-collection tools and reflecting our experience with these tools and their performance. An international group of experts iteratively reviewed the table and reflected on the performance of the tools until no new insights and consensus resulted. Several tools are available to manage data in systematic reviews, including paper and pencil, spreadsheets, web-based surveys, electronic databases, and web-based specialized software. Each tool offers benefits and drawbacks: specialized web-based software is well suited in most ways, but is associated with higher setup costs. Other approaches vary in their setup costs and difficulty, training requirements, portability and accessibility, versatility, progress tracking, and the ability to manage, present, store, and retrieve data. Available funding, number and location of reviewers, data needs, and the complexity of the project should govern the selection of a data-extraction tool when conducting systematic reviews.

  14. CTSS: A Tool for Efficient Information Extraction with Soft Matching Rules for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Christy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of information available digitally in modern world had made a demand for structured information. The problem of text mining which dealt with discovering useful information from unstructured text had attracted the attention of researchers. The role of Information Extraction (IE software was to identify relevant information from texts, extracting information from a variety of sources and aggregating it to create a single view. Information extraction systems depended on particular corpora and were poor in recall values. Therefore, developing the system as domain-independent as well as improving the recall was an important challenge for IE. In this research, the authors proposed a domain-independent algorithm for information extraction, called SOFTRULEMINING for extracting the aim, methodology and conclusion from technical abstracts. The algorithm was implemented by combining trigram model with softmatching rules. A tool CTSS was constructed using SOFTRULEMINING and was tested with technical abstracts of www.computer.org and www.ansinet.org and found that the tool had improved its recall value and therefore the precision value in comparison with other search engines.

  15. Low-Risk Investing without Industry Bets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    The strategy of buying safe low-beta stocks while shorting (or underweighting) riskier high-beta stocks (“betting against beta”) has been shown to deliver significant risk-adjusted returns. Some have suggested, however, that such “low-risk investing” delivers high returns primarily because...

  16. Data Extraction Tool to Analyse, Transform and Store Real Data from Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Ivo F.; Sousa, Tiago; Praca, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    of confidentiality, data regarding market proposals and transactions. These data can be used as source of knowledge to define realistic scenarios, which are essential for understanding and forecast electricity markets behavior. The development of tools able to extract, transform, store and dynamically update data......, is of great importance to go a step further into the comprehension of electricity markets and of the behaviour of the involved entities. In this paper an adaptable tool capable of downloading, parsing and storing data from market operators’ websites is presented, assuring constant updating and reliability...

  17. An Investigation into Error Source Identification of Machine Tools Based on Time-Frequency Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongju Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new identification method to identify the main errors of the machine tool in time-frequency domain. The low- and high-frequency signals of the workpiece surface are decomposed based on the Daubechies wavelet transform. With power spectral density analysis, the main features of the high-frequency signal corresponding to the imbalance of the spindle system are extracted from the surface topography of the workpiece in the frequency domain. With the cross-correlation analysis method, the relationship between the guideway error of the machine tool and the low-frequency signal of the surface topography is calculated in the time domain.

  18. New tools for extracting cork from Quercus suber L.: increasing productivity and reducing damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Beira Davila

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study is to test new tools designed to debark cork oak trees: mechanized tools to perform cutting operations (IPLA-Morell, Stihl MC200 and COVELESS and manual tools to separate and extract the cork (cork pincers, MIJURO.Area of study: Southwestern Spain.Material and methods: One of the longstanding problems affecting the sector is the shortage of skilled labor to perform debarking due to the difficulty of handling axes and the temporary nature of the work. To overcome these problems, four debarking systems using the new tools were designed according to the morphological properties of cork oak. The viability of the debarking systems were evaluated based on productivity (kg · person–1 · hour–1, production costs (€ · t1 and percentage of pieces smaller than 400 cm2 (%, and compared with the traditional system. Debarking quality and operator experience were also evaluated. A total of 204 trees were debarked.Main results: The new systems obtain better results: productivity is higher, the percentage of pieces is slightly lower and production costs are reduced, except for one system. Debarking quality improves with the new tools as cork is extracted in a more precise and cleaner manner, thus permitting cork manufacturers to obtain higher yields from the cork planks.Research highlights: Semi-skilled operators using the new tools obtain very similar results to skilled operators using axes. This would therefore resolve the problem of the lack of skilled labor, while improving the working conditions of operators. The results demonstrate that the new tools are viable for cork debarking and can bring potential benefits to the sector.Key words: Q. suber L.; cork debarking; mechanization; productivity; cork stripping damage; axe; IPLA_Morell, Sthil MC 200, COVELESS.

  19. Extraction Analysis and Creation of Three-Dimensional Road Profiles Using Matlab OpenCRG Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Hari Borse

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In vehicle systems dynamics there are wide applications of simulation of vehicles on road surfaces. These simulation applications are related to vehicle handling ride comfort and durability. For accurate prediction of results there is a need for a reliable and efficient road representations. The efficient representation of road surface profiles is to represent them in three-dimensional space. This is made possible by the CRG Curved Regular Grid approach. OpenCRG is a completely open source project including a tool suite for the creation modification and evaluation of road surfaces. Its objective is to standardized detailed road surface description and it may be used for applications like tire models vibrations or driving simulation. The Matlab tool suite of OpenCRG provides powerful modification or creation tools and allows to visualize the 3D road data representation. The current research focuses on basic concepts of OpenCRG and its Matlab environment. The extraction of longitudinal two-dimensional road profiles from three-dimensional CRG format is researched. The creation of simple virtual three-dimensional roads has been programmed. A Matlab software tool to extract create and analyze the three-dimensional road profiles is to be developed.

  20. Risk Factors for Gambling Problems on Online Electronic Gaming Machines, Race Betting and Sports Betting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M; Browne, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Growth of Internet gambling has fuelled concerns about its contribution to gambling problems. However, most online gamblers also gamble on land-based forms, which may be the source of problems for some. Studies therefore need to identify the problematic mode of gambling (online or offline) to identify those with an online gambling problem. Identifying most problematic form of online gambling (e.g., EGMs, race betting, sports betting) would also enable a more accurate examination of gambling problems attributable to a specific online gambling form. This study pursued this approach, aiming to: (1) determine demographic, behavioral and psychological risk factors for gambling problems on online EGMs, online sports betting and online race betting; (2) compare the characteristics of problematic online gamblers on each of these online forms. An online survey of 4,594 Australian gamblers measured gambling behavior, most problematic mode and form of gambling, gambling attitudes, psychological distress, substance use, help-seeking, demographics and problem gambling status. Problem/moderate risk gamblers nominating an online mode of gambling as their most problematic, and identifying EGMs (n = 98), race betting (n = 291) or sports betting (n = 181) as their most problematic gambling form, were compared to non-problem/low risk gamblers who had gambled online on these forms in the previous 12 months (n = 64, 1145 and 1213 respectively), using bivariate analyses and then logistic regressions. Problem/moderate risk gamblers on each of these online forms were then compared. Risk factors for online EGM gambling were: more frequent play on online EGMs, substance use when gambling, and higher psychological distress. Risk factors for online sports betting were being male, younger, lower income, born outside of Australia, speaking a language other than English, more frequent sports betting, higher psychological distress, and more negative attitudes toward gambling. Risk factors for

  1. Effective potential in the BET formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Bessa, A; Fraga, E S; Gelis, F

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the one-loop effective potential at finite temperature for a system of massless scalar fields with quartic interaction $\\lambda\\phi^4$ in the framework of the boundary effective theory (BET) formalism. The calculation relies on the solution of the classical equation of motion for the field, and Gaussian fluctuations around it. Our result is non-perturbative and differs from the standard one-loop effective potential for field values larger than $T/\\sqrt{\\lambda}$.

  2. Effects of expertise on football betting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khazaal Yasser

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Football (soccer is one of the most popular sports in the world, including Europe. It is associated with important betting activities. A common belief, widely spread among those who participate in gambling activities, is that knowledge and expertise on football lead to better prediction skills for match outcomes. If unfounded, however, this belief should be considered as a form of “illusion of control.” The aim of this study was to examine whether football experts are better than nonexperts at predicting football match scores. Methods Two hundred and fifty-eight persons took part in the study: 21.3% as football experts, 54.3% as laypersons (non-initiated to football, and 24.4% as football amateurs. They predicted the scores of the first 10 matches of the 2008 UEFA European Football Championship. Logistic regressions were carried out to assess the link between the accuracy of the forecasted scores and the expertise of the participants (expert, amateur, layperson, controlling for age and gender. Results The variables assessed did not predict the accuracy of scoring prognosis (R2 ranged from 1% to 6%. Conclusions Expertise, age, and gender did not appear to have an impact on the accuracy of the football match prognoses. Therefore, the belief that football expertise improves betting skills is no more than a cognitive distortion called the “illusion of control.” Gamblers may benefit from psychological interventions that target the illusion of control related to their believed links between betting skills and football expertise. Public health policies may need to consider the phenomenon in order to prevent problem gambling related to football betting.

  3. PIMiner: A web tool for extraction of protein interactions from biomedical literature

    KAUST Repository

    Chowdhary, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Information on Protein Interactions (PIs) is valuable for biomedical research, but often lies buried in the scientific literature and cannot be readily retrieved. While much progress has been made over the years in extracting PIs from the literature using computational methods, there is a lack of free, public, user-friendly tools for the discovery of PIs. We developed an online tool for the extraction of PI relationships from PubMed-abstracts, which we name PIMiner. Protein pairs and the words that describe their interactions are reported by PIMiner so that new interactions can be easily detected within text. The interaction likelihood levels are reported too. The option to extract only specific types of interactions is also provided. The PIMiner server can be accessed through a web browser or remotely through a client\\'s command line. PIMiner can process 50,000 PubMed abstracts in approximately 7 min and thus appears suitable for large-scale processing of biological/biomedical literature. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  4. A literature search tool for intelligent extraction of disease-associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Yoon; DeLuca, Todd F; Nelson, Tristan H; Wall, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    To extract disorder-associated genes from the scientific literature in PubMed with greater sensitivity for literature-based support than existing methods. We developed a PubMed query to retrieve disorder-related, original research articles. Then we applied a rule-based text-mining algorithm with keyword matching to extract target disorders, genes with significant results, and the type of study described by the article. We compared our resulting candidate disorder genes and supporting references with existing databases. We demonstrated that our candidate gene set covers nearly all genes in manually curated databases, and that the references supporting the disorder-gene link are more extensive and accurate than other general purpose gene-to-disorder association databases. We implemented a novel publication search tool to find target articles, specifically focused on links between disorders and genotypes. Through comparison against gold-standard manually updated gene-disorder databases and comparison with automated databases of similar functionality we show that our tool can search through the entirety of PubMed to extract the main gene findings for human diseases rapidly and accurately.

  5. Conformational Flexibility Differentiates Naturally Occurring Bet v 1 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Ahammer, Linda; Kamenik, Anna S; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-06-03

    The protein Bet v 1 represents the main cause for allergic reactions to birch pollen in Europe and North America. Structurally homologous isoforms of Bet v 1 can have different properties regarding allergic sensitization and Th2 polarization, most likely due to differential susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. Using NMR relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the initial proteolytic cleavage sites in two naturally occurring Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a) and Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), are conformationally flexible. Inaccessible cleavage sites in helices and strands are highly flexible on the microsecond-millisecond time scale, whereas those located in loops display faster nanosecond-microsecond flexibility. The data consistently show that Bet v 1.0102 is more flexible and conformationally heterogeneous than Bet v 1.0101. Moreover, NMR hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements reveal that the backbone amides in Bet v 1.0102 are significantly more solvent exposed, in agreement with this isoform's higher susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. The differential conformational flexibility of Bet v 1 isoforms, along with the transient exposure of inaccessible sites to the protein surface, may be linked to proteolytic susceptibility, representing a potential structure-based rationale for the observed differences in Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization.

  6. CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY TOOL (CMT): A GIS-BASED AUTOMATED EXTRACTION MODEL FOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JUDI, DAVID [Los Alamos National Laboratory; KALYANAPU, ALFRED [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY [Los Alamos National Laboratory; BERSCHEID, ALAN [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  7. Parameter Extraction for PSpice Models by means of an Automated Optimization Tool – An IGBT model Study Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suárez, Carlos Gómez; Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    An original tool for parameter extraction of PSpice models has been released, enabling a simple parameter identification. A physics-based IGBT model is used to demonstrate that the optimization tool is capable of generating a set of parameters which predicts the steady-state and switching behavio...

  8. PPInterFinder--a mining tool for extracting causal relations on human proteins from literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Kalpana; Subramani, Suresh; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2013-01-01

    One of the most common and challenging problem in biomedical text mining is to mine protein-protein interactions (PPIs) from MEDLINE abstracts and full-text research articles because PPIs play a major role in understanding the various biological processes and the impact of proteins in diseases. We implemented, PPInterFinder--a web-based text mining tool to extract human PPIs from biomedical literature. PPInterFinder uses relation keyword co-occurrences with protein names to extract information on PPIs from MEDLINE abstracts and consists of three phases. First, it identifies the relation keyword using a parser with Tregex and a relation keyword dictionary. Next, it automatically identifies the candidate PPI pairs with a set of rules related to PPI recognition. Finally, it extracts the relations by matching the sentence with a set of 11 specific patterns based on the syntactic nature of PPI pair. We find that PPInterFinder is capable of predicting PPIs with the accuracy of 66.05% on AIMED corpus and outperforms most of the existing systems. DATABASE URL: http://www.biomining-bu.in/ppinterfinder/

  9. Bet-hedging applications for conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mark S Boyce; Eileen M Kirsch; Christopher Servheen

    2002-07-01

    One of the early tenets of conservation biology is that population viability is enhanced by maintaining multiple populations of a species. The strength of this tenet is justified by principles of bet-hedging. Management strategies that reduce variance in population size will also reduce risk of extinction. Asynchrony in population fluctuations in independent populations reduces variance in the aggregate of populations whereas environmental correlation among areas increases the risk that all populations will go extinct. We review the theoretical rationale of bet-hedging and suggest applications for conservation management of least terns in Nebraska and grizzly bears in the northern Rocky Mountains of the United States. The risk of extinction for least terns will be reduced if we can sustain the small central Platte River population in addition to the larger population on the lower Platte. Similarly, by restoring grizzly bears to the Bitterroot wilderness of Idaho and Montana can reduce the probability of extinction for grizzly bears in the Rocky Mountains of the United States by as much as 69–93%.

  10. A Natural Language Processing Tool for Large-Scale Data Extraction from Echocardiography Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R.

    2016-01-01

    Large volumes of data are continuously generated from clinical notes and diagnostic studies catalogued in electronic health records (EHRs). Echocardiography is one of the most commonly ordered diagnostic tests in cardiology. This study sought to explore the feasibility and reliability of using natural language processing (NLP) for large-scale and targeted extraction of multiple data elements from echocardiography reports. An NLP tool, EchoInfer, was developed to automatically extract data pertaining to cardiovascular structure and function from heterogeneously formatted echocardiographic data sources. EchoInfer was applied to echocardiography reports (2004 to 2013) available from 3 different on-going clinical research projects. EchoInfer analyzed 15,116 echocardiography reports from 1684 patients, and extracted 59 quantitative and 21 qualitative data elements per report. EchoInfer achieved a precision of 94.06%, a recall of 92.21%, and an F1-score of 93.12% across all 80 data elements in 50 reports. Physician review of 400 reports demonstrated that EchoInfer achieved a recall of 92–99.9% and a precision of >97% in four data elements, including three quantitative and one qualitative data element. Failure of EchoInfer to correctly identify or reject reported parameters was primarily related to non-standardized reporting of echocardiography data. EchoInfer provides a powerful and reliable NLP-based approach for the large-scale, targeted extraction of information from heterogeneous data sources. The use of EchoInfer may have implications for the clinical management and research analysis of patients undergoing echocardiographic evaluation. PMID:27124000

  11. Expression and Characterization of Functional Recombinant Bet v 1.0101 in the Chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschl, Sonja; Ralser, Claudia; Asam, Claudia; Gangitano, Alessandro; Huber, Sara; Ebner, Christof; Bohle, Barbara; Wolf, Martin; Briza, Peter; Ferreira, Fatima; Griesbeck, Christoph; Wallner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) still plays a minor role in the treatment of allergic diseases. To improve the acceptance of AIT by allergic patients, the treatment has to become more convenient and efficacious. One possibility is the oral application of allergens or derivatives thereof. Therefore, we sought to produce a recombinant allergen in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a novel production platform. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was selected as candidate molecule, and a codon-optimized gene was synthesized and stably integrated into the microalga C. reinhardtii FUD50. Positive transformants were identified by PCR, cultured, and thereafter cells were disrupted by sonication. Bet v 1 was purified from algal total soluble protein (TSP) by affinity chromatography and characterized physicochemically as well as immunologically. All transformants showed expression of the allergen with yields between 0.01 and 0.04% of TSP. Algal-derived Bet v 1 displayed similar secondary structure elements as the Escherichia coli-produced reference allergen. Moreover, Bet v 1 produced in C. reinhardtii showed binding comparable to human IgE as well as murine Bet v 1-specific IgG. We could successfully produce recombinant Bet v 1 in C. reinhardtii. As microalgae are classified as GRAS (generally recognized as safe), the pilot study supports the development of novel allergy treatment concepts such as the oral administration of allergen-containing algal extracts for therapy. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Â Sentimental Preferences and the Organizational Regime of Betting Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Â Egon Franck; Â Erwin Verbeek; Â Stephan Nuesch

    2010-01-01

    Â We analyze the price impact of sentimental bettor preferences within a bookmaker betting market. Our model demonstrates that, under reasonable assumptions about the nature of demand in a market with strong competition, the bookmaker will offer lower prices for bets with comparatively stronger demand. Using a sample of more than 16,000 English soccer matches we find evidence that more favorable odds are extended to bets on more popular clubs and that this effect is amplified on weekends when...

  13. Experimental Political Betting Markets and the 2004 Election.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfers, Justin; Zitzewitz, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Betting on elections has been of interest to economists and political scientists for some time. We recently persuaded TradeSports to run experimental contingent betting markets, in which one bets on whether President Bush will be re-elected, conditional on other specified events occurring. Early results suggest that market participants strongly believe that Osama bin Laden's capture would have a substantial effect on President Bush's electoral fortunes, and interestingly that the chance of hi...

  14. T-bet as a key regulator of mucosal immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Rami; Lord, Graham M

    2016-04-01

    Initially understood to be a key regulator of interferon-γ-producing helper T cells, our knowledge of T-bet's functional roles has expanded to encompass a growing range of cellular lineages. In addition to regulating other interferon-γ-producing adaptive immune cells, it is now clear that T-bet plays a fundamental role in the regulation of innate immune responses across mucosal surfaces. This homeostatic role is demonstrated by the spontaneous colitis that occurs when T-bet is deleted from innate immune cells in RAG(-/-) mice. Using this model as a focal point, we review our understanding of T-bet's regulation of adaptive and innate immune systems, focusing particularly on mucosal populations including innate lymphoid cells, dendritic cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes. With the increasingly diverse effects of T-bet on different lineages, the classical binding-centric paradigm of T-bet's molecular functionality has increasingly struggled to account for the versatility of T-bet's biological effects. Recent recognition of the synergistic interactions between T-bet and other canonical transcription factors has led to a co-operative paradigm that has provided greater explanatory power. Synthesizing insights from ChIP-seq and comparative biology, we expand the co-operative paradigm further and suggest a network approach as a powerful way to understand and model T-bet's diverse functionality.

  15. Market Efficiency and Behavioral Biases in the WNBA Betting Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney J. Paul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The betting market for the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA is a thin financial market, which does not attract much interest from sports bettors. Given these characteristics, it is possible that profitable wagering strategies could exist for informed bettors of the WNBA. Using betting data on the WNBA from 2007–2012, we find that simple betting strategies do not earn statistically significant returns. WNBA bettors are like NBA bettors; however, in that they strongly prefer the best teams, particularly when they are on the road. Despite this clear bias, betting against the most popular public wagers is not found to earn statistically significant profits.

  16. A Forensic Log File Extraction Tool for ICQ Instant Messaging Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Morfitt

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger programs such as ICQ are often used by hackers and criminals for illicit purposes and consequently the log files from such programs are of interest in a forensic investigation. This paper outlines research that has resulted in the development of a tool for the extraction of ICQ log file entries. Detailed reconstruction of data from log files was achieved with a number of different ICQ software. There are several limitations with the current design including timestamp information not adjusted for the time zone, data could be altered, and conversations must be manually reconstructed. Future research will aim to address these and other limitations as pointed out in this paper.

  17. iBET: Immersive visualization of biological electron-transfer dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, C Masato; Moen, Erick; Byun, Hye Suk; Ma, Heng; Newman, Bradley; McDowell, Alexander; Wei, Tao; El-Naggar, Mohamed Y

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we presented a computational framework named VizBET to simulate and visualize biological electron-transfer (ET) dynamics. The visualization process was encapsulated as a plugin to the Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) software. However, the user's ability to understand complex, multidimensional ET pathways was severely limited when visualized in 2D on traditional computer monitors. To provide a more accurate representation with enhanced depth perception, we here present an extension of VizBET named iBET to render the VMD model of ET dynamics in a commodity virtual reality (VR) platform. The paper describes detailed procedures to export VMD models into the Unity game engine and render it in an Oculus Rift head mounted display. With the increasing availability of low-cost VR systems like the Rift and rich programmability of game engines, the iBET framework provides a powerful means to explore and understand not only biological ET processes but also a unique experiential tool for broad scientific communities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid production of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and its immunological in vitro and in vivo characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebitz, M; Wiedermann, U; Essl, D; Steinkellner, H; Wagner, B; Turpen, T H; Ebner, C; Scheiner, O; Breiteneder, H

    2000-07-01

    Type I allergies are immunological disorders that afflict a quarter of the world's population. Improved diagnosis of allergic diseases and the formulation of new therapeutic approaches are based on the use of recombinant allergens. We describe here for the first time the application of a rapid plant-based expression system for a plant-derived allergen and its immunological characterization. We expressed our model allergen Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, in the tobacco-related species Nicotiana benthamiana using a tobacco mosaic virus vector. Two weeks postinoculation, plants infected with recombinant viral RNA containing the Bet v 1 coding sequence accumulated the allergen to levels of 200 microg/g leaf material. Total nonpurified protein extracts from plants were used for immunological characterizations. IgE immunoblots and ELISA (enzyme-linked immunoassay) inhibition assays showed comparable IgE binding properties for tobacco recombinant (r) Bet v 1 and natural (n) Bet v 1, suggesting that the B cell epitopes were preserved when the allergen was expressed in N. benthamiana plants. Using a murine model of type I allergy, mice immunized with crude leaf extracts containing Bet v 1 with purified rBet v 1 produced in E. coli or with birch pollen extract generated comparable allergen-specific IgE and IgG1 antibody responses and positive type I skin test reactions. These results demonstrate that nonpurified Bet v 1 overexpressed in N. benthamina has the same immunogenicity as purified Bet v 1 produced in E. coli or nBet v 1. We therefore conclude that this plant expression system offers a viable alternative to fermentation-based production of allergens in bacteria or yeasts. In addition, there may be a broad utility of this system for the development of new and low-cost vaccination strategies against allergy.

  19. 22 CFR 1203.735-210 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gambling, betting, and lotteries. 1203.735-210... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Ethical and Other Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 1203.735-210 Gambling, betting, and lotteries. An employee shall not participate, while on Government-owned or leased property...

  20. 18 CFR 1300.102 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gambling, betting, and lotteries. 1300.102 Section 1300.102 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY STANDARDS OF CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY § 1300.102 Gambling, betting, and...

  1. 49 CFR 805.735-11 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gambling, betting, and lotteries. 805.735-11... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-11 Gambling, betting, and lotteries... the Board, in any gambling activity, including the operation of a gambling device, conducting...

  2. 19 CFR 200.735-111 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gambling, betting, and lotteries. 200.735-111...-111 Gambling, betting, and lotteries. An employee shall not participate, while on Government-owned or... a gambling device, in conducting a lottery or pool, in a game for money or property, or in...

  3. STS-40 descent BET products: Development and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Kevin F.; Wood, James S.; Findlay, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Descent Best Estimate Trajectory (BET) Data were generated for the final Orbiter Experiments Flight, STS-40. This report discusses the actual development of these post-flight products: the inertial BET, the Extended BET, and the Aerodynamic BET. Summary results are also included. The inertial BET was determined based on processing Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) coherent Doppler data in conjunction with observations from eleven C-band stations, to include data from the Kwajalein Atoll and the usual California coastal radars, as well as data from five cinetheodolite cameras in the vicinity of the runways at EAFB. The anchor epoch utilized for the trajectory reconstruction was 53,904 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) seconds which corresponds to an altitude at epoch of approximately 708 kft. Atmospheric data to enable development of an Extended BET for this mission were upsurped from the JSC operational post-flight BET. These data were evaluated based on Space Shuttle-derived considerations as well as model comparisons. The Aerodynamic BET includes configuration information, final mass properties, and both flight-determined and predicted aerodynamic performance estimates. The predicted data were based on the final pre-operational databook, updated to include flight determined incrementals based on an earlier ensemble of flights. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are presented and correlated versus statistical results based on twenty-two previous missions.

  4. 18 CFR 706.209 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gambling, betting, and... EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Conduct and Responsibilities of Employees § 706.209 Gambling, betting... while on duty for the Government, in any gambling activity, including the operation of a gambling...

  5. 15 CFR 0.735-17 - Gambling, betting, and lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gambling, betting, and lotteries. 0... RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT Regulatory Limitations Upon Employee Conduct § 0.735-17 Gambling, betting, and... for the Government, in any gambling activity including the operation of a gambling device,...

  6. Regression Tests and the Efficiency of Fixed Odds Betting Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Ruud H.

    The informational content of odds posted in sports betting market has been an ongoing topic of research. In this paper, I test whether fixed odds betting markets in soccer are informationally efficient. The contributions of the paper are threefold: first, I propose a simple yet flexible statistical

  7. On Loss Aversion, Level-1 Reasoning, and Betting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erev, Ido; Gilat-Yihyie, Sharon; Marchiori, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that human reaction to risky opportunities reflects two contradicting biases: “loss aversion”, and “limited level of reasoning” that leads to overconfidence. Rejection of attractive gambles is explained by loss aversion, while counterproductive risk seeking is attributed...... to limited level of reasoning. The current research highlights a shortcoming of this popular (but often implicit) “contradicting biases” assertion. Studies of “negative-sum betting games” reveal high rate of counterproductive betting even when limited level of reasoning and loss aversion imply no betting....... The results reflect two reasons for the high betting rate: initial tendency to participate and slow learning. Under certain conditions, the observed betting rate was higher than the rate predicted under random choice even after 250 trials with immediate feedback. These results can be captured with a model...

  8. Characterization of the porosity of human dental enamel and shear bond strength in vitro after variable etch times: initial findings using the BET method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trang T; Miller, Arthur; Orellana, Maria F

    2011-07-01

    (1) To quantitatively characterize human enamel porosity and surface area in vitro before and after etching for variable etching times; and (2) to evaluate shear bond strength after variable etching times. Specifically, our goal was to identify the presence of any correlation between enamel porosity and shear bond strength. Pore surface area, pore volume, and pore size of enamel from extracted human teeth were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) gas adsorption before and after etching for 15, 30, and 60 seconds with 37% phosphoric acid. Orthodontic brackets were bonded with Transbond to the samples with variable etch times and were subsequently applied to a single-plane lap shear testing system. Pore volume and surface area increased after etching for 15 and 30 seconds. At 60 seconds, this increase was less pronounced. On the contrary, pore size appears to decrease after etching. No correlation was found between variable etching times and shear strength. Samples etched for 15, 30, and 60 seconds all demonstrated clinically viable shear strength values. The BET adsorption method could be a valuable tool in enhancing our understanding of enamel characteristics. Our findings indicate that distinct quantitative changes in enamel pore architecture are evident after etching. Further testing with a larger sample size would have to be carried out for more definitive conclusions to be made.

  9. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Thamani T.; Mmualefe, Lesego C.; Okatch, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58 ± 7.20 to 113 ± 15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2 > 0.9900) in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.48 ± 0.16 to 1.50 ± 0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. PMID:27725893

  10. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamani T. Gondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly. The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58±7.20 to 113±15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2>0.9900 in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs ranging from 0.48±0.16 to 1.50±0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants.

  11. Assessing similarity analysis of chromatographic fingerprints of Cyclopia subternata extracts as potential screening tool for in vitro glucose utilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Alexandra E; De Beer, Dalene; Mazibuko, Sithandiwe E; Muller, Christo J F; Roux, Candice; Willenburg, Elize L; Nyunaï, Nyemb; Louw, Johan; Manley, Marena; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Similarity analysis of the phenolic fingerprints of a large number of aqueous extracts of Cyclopia subternata, obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was evaluated as a potential tool to screen extracts for relative bioactivity. The assessment was based on the (dis)similarity of their fingerprints to that of a reference active extract of C. subternata, proven to enhance glucose uptake in vitro and in vivo. In vitro testing of extracts, selected as being most similar (n = 5; r ≥ 0.962) and most dissimilar (n = 5; r ≤ 0.688) to the reference active extract, showed that no clear pattern in terms of relative glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes emerged, irrespective of the dose. Some of the most dissimilar extracts had higher glucose-lowering activity than the reference active extract. Principal component analysis revealed the major compounds responsible for the most variation within the chromatographic fingerprints, as mangiferin, isomangiferin, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside-4-O-β-D-glucoside, iriflophenone-3-C-β-D-glucoside, scolymoside, and phloretin-3',5'-di-C-β-D-glucoside. Quantitative analysis of the selected extracts showed that the most dissimilar extracts contained the highest mangiferin and isomangiferin levels, whilst the most similar extracts had the highest scolymoside content. These compounds demonstrated similar glucose uptake efficacy in C2C12 myocytes. It can be concluded that (dis)similarity of chromatographic fingerprints of extracts of unknown activity to that of a proven bioactive extract does not necessarily translate to lower or higher bioactivity.

  12. Signals that drive T-bet expression in B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myles, Arpita; Gearhart, Patricia J; Cancro, Michael P

    2017-09-11

    Transcription factors regulate various developmental and functional aspects of B cells. T-bet is a recently appreciated transcription factor associated with "Age-associated B cells" or ABCs, the development of autoimmunity, and viral infections. T-bet expression is favored by nucleic acid-containing antigens and immune complexes and is regulated by interplay between various cytokines, notably, the TFH cytokines IL-21, IL-4 and IFNγ. Adaptive signals by themselves cannot upregulate T-bet; however, they have a synergistic effect on induction of T-bet by innate receptors. The functional role of T-bet+ B cells is unclear, although it is known that T-bet promotes class switching to IgG2a/c. It is likely T-bet serves dichotomous roles in B cells, promoting pathogenic autoreactive antibodies on one hand but mediating microbial immunity on the other, making it a target of interest in both therapeutic and prophylactic settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bet v 1- and Bet v 2-Associated Plant Food Sensitization in Uganda and Germany: Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, Leo; Mulyowa, Grace; Goebeler, Matthias; Trautmann, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Birch pollen allergy and concomitant plant food sensitization are well documented in Europe. However, there are currently no data available on pollen-associated plant food sensitization or even pollen allergy in tropical Africa. Our study aimed to investigate Bet v 1- and Bet v 2-associated plant food sensitization in atopic patients from Uganda and compare it with sensitization rates in German patients. Sera from 83 Ugandan and 97 German atopic patients were analysed using UniCAP100™ for allergen-specific IgE against the birch tree pollen allergens Bet v 1 and Bet v 2 as well as the plant foods hazelnut, apple, kiwi, pea, peach, cherry, litchi, peanut, and soy. As expected, sensitization to Bet v 1 and cross-reactive plant food allergens was more common in German atopic patients. In contrast, the prevalence of sensitization against Bet v 2 was remarkably similar in Ugandan and German patients. Interestingly, in Ugandan patients we found IgE-mediated sensitization against plant foods such as hazelnut, pea, peach, cherry, and litchi that are neither cultivated nor consumed in Uganda. For Ugandan atopic patients, sensitization against the Bet v 2 allergen (a plant profilin) may explain cross-reactivity to several plant foods which are not consumed in Uganda. Additionally, it is probable that sensitization of Ugandan atopics to alder pollen (Alnus acuminata, plant family Betulaceae) caused serological cross-reactivity with Betula verrucosa-related allergens. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Overview of image processing tools to extract physical information from JET videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciunescu, T.; Murari, A.; Gelfusa, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Zoita, V.; EFDA Contributors, JET

    2014-11-01

    In magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices such as JET, the last few years have witnessed a significant increase in the use of digital imagery, not only for the surveying and control of experiments, but also for the physical interpretation of results. More than 25 cameras are routinely used for imaging on JET in the infrared (IR) and visible spectral regions. These cameras can produce up to tens of Gbytes per shot and their information content can be very different, depending on the experimental conditions. However, the relevant information about the underlying physical processes is generally of much reduced dimensionality compared to the recorded data. The extraction of this information, which allows full exploitation of these diagnostics, is a challenging task. The image analysis consists, in most cases, of inverse problems which are typically ill-posed mathematically. The typology of objects to be analysed is very wide, and usually the images are affected by noise, low levels of contrast, low grey-level in-depth resolution, reshaping of moving objects, etc. Moreover, the plasma events have time constants of ms or tens of ms, which imposes tough conditions for real-time applications. On JET, in the last few years new tools and methods have been developed for physical information retrieval. The methodology of optical flow has allowed, under certain assumptions, the derivation of information about the dynamics of video objects associated with different physical phenomena, such as instabilities, pellets and filaments. The approach has been extended in order to approximate the optical flow within the MPEG compressed domain, allowing the manipulation of the large JET video databases and, in specific cases, even real-time data processing. The fast visible camera may provide new information that is potentially useful for disruption prediction. A set of methods, based on the extraction of structural information from the visual scene, have been developed for the

  15. Cultural sequence of Bet Dwarka Island based on thermoluminescence dating

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Price, D.; Sundaresh

    , are apparently considerably more recent (2000 years BP), which may suggest the continuation of protohistoric habitation up to historical period at the same site. These TL ages assist in establishing a cultural sequence for Bet Dwarka Island....

  16. T-bet controls severity of hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nance Stephanie C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP is an interstitial lung disease that develops following repeated exposure to inhaled environmental antigens. The disease is characterized by alveolitis, granuloma formation and in some patients' fibrosis. IFNγ plays a critical role in HP; in the absence of IFNγ granuloma formation does not occur. However, recent studies using animal models of HP have suggested that HP is a Th17 disease calling into question the role of IFNγ. In this study, we report that initially IFNγ production is dependent on IL-18 and the transcription factor T-bet, however as the disease continues IFNγ production is IL-18-independent and partially T-bet dependent. Although IFNγ production is required for granuloma formation its role is distinct from that of T-bet. Mice that are deficient in T-bet and exposed to S. rectivirgula develop more severe disease characterized by an exacerbated Th17 cell response, decreased Th1 cell response, and increased collagen production in the lung. T-bet-mediated protection does not appear to be due to the development of a protective Th1 response; shifting the balance from a Th17 predominant response to a Th1 response by inhibition of IL-6 also results in lung pathology. The results from this study suggest that both Th1 and Th17 cells can be pathogenic in this model and that IFNγ and T-bet play divergent roles in the disease process.

  17. Abacus: a computational tool for extracting and pre-processing spectral count data for label-free quantitative proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermin, Damian; Basrur, Venkatesha; Yocum, Anastasia K; Nesvizhskii, Alexey I

    2011-04-01

    We describe Abacus, a computational tool for extracting spectral counts from MS/MS data sets. The program aggregates data from multiple experiments, adjusts spectral counts to accurately account for peptides shared across multiple proteins, and performs common normalization steps. It can also output the spectral count data at the gene level, thus simplifying the integration and comparison between gene and protein expression data. Abacus is compatible with the widely used Trans-Proteomic Pipeline suite of tools and comes with a graphical user interface making it easy to interact with the program. The main aim of Abacus is to streamline the analysis of spectral count data by providing an automated, easy to use solution for extracting this information from proteomic data sets for subsequent, more sophisticated statistical analysis.

  18. Birch pollen-related food allergy to legumes: identification and characterization of the Bet v 1 homologue in mungbean (Vigna radiata), Vig r 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittag, D; Vieths, S; Vogel, L; Wagner-Loew, D; Starke, A; Hunziker, P; Becker, W-M; Ballmer-Weber, B K

    2005-08-01

    Recently allergic reactions to legumes mediated by Bet v 1-homologous food allergens were described for soy and peanut. In this study we assessed allergic reactions to another legume, to mungbean seedlings, and identified its Bet v 1-homologous allergen Vig r 1. Ten patients were selected who had a history of allergic reactions to mungbean seedlings and a respiratory allergy to birch pollen. The Bet v 1 homologue in mungbean seedlings, Vig r 1, was cloned by a PCR strategy, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by preparative SDS-PAGE. In all sera, specific IgE against birch pollen, Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Vig r 1, and the Bet v 1 homologues in soy (Gly m 4) and cherry (Pru av 1) was determined by CAP-FEIA. Cross-reactivity of specific IgE with Vig r 1, Bet v 1, Gly m 4, and Pru av 1 was assessed by immunoblot inhibition. Expression of Vig r 1 during development of mungbean seedlings and under wounding stress was analysed by immunoblotting. The Vig r 1 double band was analysed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). All patients were sensitized to birch pollen and Bet v 1, 20% to Bet v 2, and 90% to Gly m 4. Seventy percent of the patients showed IgE binding to a double band at 15 kDa in mungbean extract that was inhibited after pre-incubation of sera with rBet v 1. PCR cloning revealed that the mungbean homologue of Bet v 1 had a molecular weight of 16.2 kDa, a calculated pI of 4.6% and 42.8% amino acid sequence identity with Bet v 1. MS analysis confirmed similarity of the double band with the deduced Vig r 1 sequence, but also indicated the existence of other Vig r 1 isoforms. ImmunoCAP analysis detected IgE against Vig r 1 in 80% of the sera. IgE binding to Vig r 1 was inhibited with Gly m 4 in six of six and with rPru av 1 in four of six patients. Vig r 1 expression occurred during development of seedlings and was increased by wounding stress. Food allergy to mungbean

  19. New ArcGIS tools developed for stream network extraction and basin delineations using Python and java script

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Adel; Dietrich, Schröder; Abouelmagd, Abdou; Michael, Märker

    2016-09-01

    Damages caused by flash floods hazards are an increasing phenomenon, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Thus, the need to evaluate these areas based on their flash flood risk using maps and hydrological models is also becoming more important. For ungauged watersheds a tentative analysis can be carried out based on the geomorphometric characteristics of the terrain. To process regions with larger watersheds, where perhaps hundreds of watersheds have to be delineated, processed and classified, the overall process need to be automated. GIS packages such as ESRI's ArcGIS offer a number of sophisticated tools that help regarding such analysis. Yet there are still gaps and pitfalls that need to be considered if the tools are combined into a geoprocessing model to automate the complete assessment workflow. These gaps include issues such as i) assigning stream order according to Strahler theory, ii) calculating the threshold value for the stream network extraction, and iii) determining the pour points for each of the nodes of the Strahler ordered stream network. In this study a complete automated workflow based on ArcGIS Model Builder using standard tools will be introduced and discussed. Some additional tools have been implemented to complete the overall workflow. These tools have been programmed using Python and Java in the context of ArcObjects. The workflow has been applied to digital data from the southwestern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. An optimum threshold value has been selected to optimize drainage configuration by statistically comparing all of the extracted stream configuration results from DEM with the available reference data from topographic maps. The code has succeeded in estimating the correct ranking of specific stream orders in an automatic manner without additional manual steps. As a result, the code has proven to save time and efforts; hence it's considered a very useful tool for processing large catchment basins.

  20. Overexpression of BetS, a Sinorhizobium meliloti high-affinity betaine transporter, in bacteroids from Medicago sativa nodules sustains nitrogen fixation during early salt stress adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Alexandre; Van de Sype, Ghislaine; Le Rudulier, Daniel; Mandon, Karine

    2006-08-01

    Sinorhizobium meliloti possesses several betaine transporters to cope with salt stress, and BetS represents a crucial high-affinity glycine and proline betaine uptake system involved in the rapid acquisition of betaines by cells subjected to osmotic upshock. Using a transcriptional lacZ (beta-galactosidase) fusion, we showed that betS is expressed during the establishment of the symbiosis and in mature nitrogen-fixing nodules. However, neither Nod nor Fix phenotypes were impaired in a betS mutant. BetS is functional in isolated bacteroids, and its activity is strongly activated by high osmolarity. In bacteroids from a betS mutant, glycine betaine and proline betaine uptake was reduced by 85 to 65%, indicating that BetS is a major component of the overall betaine uptake activity in bacteroids in response to osmotic stress. Upon betS overexpression (strain UNA349) in free-living cells, glycine betaine transport was 2.3-fold higher than in the wild-type strain. Interestingly, the accumulation of proline betaine, the endogenous betaine synthesized by alfalfa plants, was 41% higher in UNA349 bacteroids from alfalfa plants subjected to 1 week of salinization (0.3 M NaCl) than in wild-type bacteroids. In parallel, a much better maintenance of nitrogen fixation activity was observed in 7-day-salinized plants nodulated with the overexpressing strain than in wild-type nodulated plants. Taken altogether, these results are consistent with the major role of BetS as an emergency system involved in the rapid uptake of betaines in isolated and in planta osmotically stressed bacteroids of S. meliloti.

  1. Automatic Extraction of Tongue Coatings from Digital Images: A Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnostic Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Yunlu BAI; SHI Yundi; WU Jia; ZHANG Yonghong; WONG Weiliang; WU Yu; BAI Jing

    2009-01-01

    In traditional Chinese medicine, the coating on the tongue is considered to be a reflection of various pathologic factors. However, the conventional method to examine the tongue lacks an acceptable standard and does not provide the means for sharing information. This paper describes a segmentation method to extract tongue coatings. First, the tongue body was extracted from the original image using the watershed transform. Then, a threshold method was applied to the image to eliminate the light from the camera flash.Finally, a threshold method using the Otsu model in combination with a splitting-merging method was used in the red, green, and blue (RGB) space to extract the thin coating. The combination of the above two methods is applied in the hue, saturation, and value (HSV) space to extract the thick coating. The feasibility of this method is tested by experiments, and the accuracy of segmentation is 95.9%.

  2. Ultrasonication--a complementary 'green chemistry' tool to biocatalysis: a laboratory-scale study of lycopene extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Pramanik, Sujata; Kalita, Dipankar; Mahanta, Charu Lata; Karak, Niranjan

    2012-03-01

    Lycopene is bequeathed with multiple bio-protective roles, primarily attributed to its unique molecular structure. The concomitant exploitation of two of the green chemistry tools viz., sonication and biocatalysis is reported here for the laboratory scale extraction of lycopene from tomato peel. The coupled system improved the extraction by 662%, 225% and 150% times over the unaided, only cellulase 'Onozuka R-10' treated and only sonication treated samples respectively. The sonication parameters (duration, cycle and amplitude) during the coupled operation were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Derivative UV-visible spectra (i.e., dA/dλ and d(2)A/dλ(2) against λ), FTIR analysis, and DPPH scavenging test suggested that the reported extraction protocol did not affect the molecular structure and bioactivity of the extracted lycopene. The influence of sonication on the probable structural modulation (through UV-visible spectral analysis) and activity of the enzyme were also analyzed. A plausible mechanism is proposed for the enhanced extraction achieved via the coupled system.

  3. Shedding light on betL*: pPL2-lux mediated real-time analysis of betL* expression in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Shauna M; Culligan, Eamonn P; Hoffmann, Roland F; Gahan, Cormac G M; Hill, Colin; Snelling, William J; Sleator, Roy D

    2016-04-02

    We propose a mechanism of action for the betL* mutation which is based on DNA topology. Removing a single thymine residue from the betL σ(A) promoter's -10 and -35 spacer results in a 'twist'-mediated activation of transcription which accounts for the osmotolerance phenotype observed for strains expressing betL*.

  4. Standardization of allergen products: 3. Validation of candidate European Pharmacopoeia standard methods for quantification of major birch allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, S; Zimmer, J; Dehus, O; Costanzo, A; Daas, A; Buchheit, K H; Asturias, J A; Barber, D; Carnés, J; Chapman, M; Dayan-Kenigsberg, J; Döring, S; Führer, F; Hanschmann, K M; Holzhauser, T; Ledesma, A; Moingeon, P; Nony, E; Pini, C; Plunkett, G; Reese, G; Sandberg, E; Sander, I; Strecker, D; Valerio, C; van Ree, R; Vieths, S

    2016-10-01

    The BSP090 project aims at establishing European Pharmacopoeia Reference Substances in combination with the corresponding ELISA methods for the quantification of major allergens in allergen products. Two sandwich ELISAs proved suitable for quantification of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, in preceding phases of BSP090. Two Bet v 1-specific ELISA systems were compared with respect to accuracy and precision in a ring trial including 13 laboratories. Model samples containing recombinant rBet v 1.0101 as well as native birch pollen extracts were measured independently at least three times in each facility. The assessment was completed with a comparative quantification of Bet v 1 in 30 marketed birch allergen products in one laboratory, simulating the future use as reference method. In the collaborative study, both candidate ELISAs confirmed their suitability to quantify recombinant and native Bet v 1. ELISA-A showed higher precision and lower interlaboratory variability, yet ELISA-B exhibited slightly higher accuracy. Subsequent parallel measurement of Bet v 1 in a panel of 'real-life' birch allergen products indicated better repeatability of ELISA-B. Both systems detected substantial differences in Bet v 1 content between allergen products, but the effect was more pronounced using ELISA-B due to persistently higher values compared to ELISA-A. In the collaborative study, no deciding differences were observed between the two candidate ELISAs. Further comparison under conditions simulating the intended use combined with the criterion of long-term availability enabled the selection of one Bet v 1-specific ELISA for proposal as European Pharmacopoeia standard method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. BengaSaVex: A new computational genetic sequence extraction tool ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-21

    May 21, 2014 ... analysis. Computational biology aids this pruning process by providing computerized tools to ... developed and applied to different gene sequences. They ..... sequences with potential to form complex secondary structures.

  6. Alt Event Finder: a tool for extracting alternative splicing events from RNA-seq data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Ao; Breese Marcus R; Hao Yangyang; Edenberg Howard J; Li Lang; Skaar Todd C; Liu Yunlong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Alternative splicing increases proteome diversity by expressing multiple gene isoforms that often differ in function. Identifying alternative splicing events from RNA-seq experiments is important for understanding the diversity of transcripts and for investigating the regulation of splicing. Results We developed Alt Event Finder, a tool for identifying novel splicing events by using transcript annotation derived from genome-guided construction tools, such as Cufflinks and ...

  7. BilKristal 2.0: A tool for pattern information extraction from crystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyan, Erhan; Güdükbay, Uğur

    2014-01-01

    We present a revised version of the BilKristal tool of Okuyan et al. (2007). We converted the development environment into Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 in order to resolve compatibility issues. We added multi-core CPU support and improvements are made to graphics functions in order to improve performance. Discovered bugs are fixed and exporting functionality to a material visualization tool is added.

  8. Optimizing tritium extraction from a Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) by dimensional design using different tritium transport modeling tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, P., E-mail: pablomiguel.martinez@ciemat.es [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Moreno, C. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain); Martinez, I. [SENER Ingenieria y Sistemas, Provenca 392, 4a 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Sedano, L. [CIEMAT-LNF (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusion), Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-15

    The Permeator Against Vacuum (PAV) has been conceived as the simplest, cost effective and reliable technology system dedicated to tritium extraction from breeding liquid metals. An optimal design of a PAV requires a detailed hydraulic design optimization for established operational ranges (HCLL at low velocities of {approx}1 mm/s or DCLL in the ranges of tens of cm/s). The present work analyses the PAV extraction efficiency dependency on the design parameters as optimum on-line Tritium Extraction System (TES). Three different models have been built for that purpose: one through physically refined 1D tritium transport computation using TMAP7 (unique simulation tool with QA for ITER); and two further detailed models on 2D/3D FEM tool (COMSOL Multi-physics 4.0). The geometry used in this work is a simplification of Fuskite{sup Registered-Sign} conceptual design developed at CIEMAT, consisting of a set of cylindrical and concentric {alpha}-Fe double membranes enclosing a vacuumed space and in contact with in-pipe flowing LiPb eutectic. The aim of this paper is to give the first steps to establish the optimal design parameters of a PAV and evaluate the state-of-the-art of these models.

  9. EPIPOI: A user-friendly analytical tool for the extraction and visualization of temporal parameters from epidemiological time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Wladimir J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an increasing need for processing and understanding relevant information generated by the systematic collection of public health data over time. However, the analysis of those time series usually requires advanced modeling techniques, which are not necessarily mastered by staff, technicians and researchers working on public health and epidemiology. Here a user-friendly tool, EPIPOI, is presented that facilitates the exploration and extraction of parameters describing trends, seasonality and anomalies that characterize epidemiological processes. It also enables the inspection of those parameters across geographic regions. Although the visual exploration and extraction of relevant parameters from time series data is crucial in epidemiological research, until now it had been largely restricted to specialists. Methods EPIPOI is freely available software developed in Matlab (The Mathworks Inc that runs both on PC and Mac computers. Its friendly interface guides users intuitively through useful comparative analyses including the comparison of spatial patterns in temporal parameters. Results EPIPOI is able to handle complex analyses in an accessible way. A prototype has already been used to assist researchers in a variety of contexts from didactic use in public health workshops to the main analytical tool in published research. Conclusions EPIPOI can assist public health officials and students to explore time series data using a broad range of sophisticated analytical and visualization tools. It also provides an analytical environment where even advanced users can benefit by enabling a higher degree of control over model assumptions, such as those associated with detecting disease outbreaks and pandemics.

  10. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction as an efficient tool for removal of phospholipids from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ask, Kristine Skoglund; Bardakci, Turgay; Parmer, Marthe Petrine

    2016-01-01

    Generic Parallel Artificial Liquid Membrane Extraction (PALME) methods for non-polar basic and non-polar acidic drugs from human plasma were investigated with respect to phospholipid removal. In both cases, extractions in 96-well format were performed from plasma (125μL), through 4μL organic solv...... matrix effects were investigated with fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and quetiapine as model analytes. No signs of matrix effects were observed. Finally, PALME was evaluated for the aforementioned drug substances, and data were in accordance with European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines....

  11. NUMERICAL MODELS AS ENABLING TOOLS FOR TIDAL-STREAM ENERGY EXTRACTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping

    2016-06-24

    This paper presents a modeling study conducted to evaluate tidal-stream energy extraction and its associated potential environmental impacts using a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model, which was coupled with a water-quality model and a tidal-turbine module.

  12. Use of yeast cell wall extract as a tool to reduce the impact of necrotic enteritis in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Sadeq, Shawkat A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Choct, Mingan; Forder, Rebecca; Swick, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The use of a yeast cell wall extract derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Actigen(®)) has been proposed as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of yeast cell extract as an alternative to zinc bacitracin or salinomycin using a necrotic enteritis challenge model. A feeding study was conducted using 480-day-old male Ross 308 chicks assigned to 48 floor pens. A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. The factors were: challenge (- or +) and feed additive (control, zinc bacitracin at 100/50 mg/kg, yeast cell wall extract at 400/800/200 mg/kg, or salinomycin at 60 mg/kg in starter, grower, and finisher, respectively). Diets based on wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, meat and bone meal, and canola meal were formulated according to the Ross 308 nutrient specifications. Birds were challenged using a previously established protocol (attenuated Eimeria spp oocysts) on d 9 and 10(8) to 10(9) Clostridium perfringens (type A strain EHE-NE18) on d 14 and 15). Challenged and unchallenged birds were partitioned to avoid cross contamination. Challenged birds had lower weight gain, feed intake and livability compared to unchallenged birds on d 24 and d 35 (P enteritis lesion scores in the small intestine sections when compared to unchallenged birds (P enteritis in the current study. This study indicates that yeast cell wall extract has promise as a tool for controlling necrotic enteritis.

  13. Kinect as a tool for gait analysis: validation of a real-time joint extraction algorithm working in side view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cippitelli, Enea; Gasparrini, Samuele; Spinsante, Susanna; Gambi, Ennio

    2015-01-14

    The Microsoft Kinect sensor has gained attention as a tool for gait analysis for several years. Despite the many advantages the sensor provides, however, the lack of a native capability to extract joints from the side view of a human body still limits the adoption of the device to a number of relevant applications. This paper presents an algorithm to locate and estimate the trajectories of up to six joints extracted from the side depth view of a human body captured by the Kinect device. The algorithm is then applied to extract data that can be exploited to provide an objective score for the "Get Up and Go Test", which is typically adopted for gait analysis in rehabilitation fields. Starting from the depth-data stream provided by the Microsoft Kinect sensor, the proposed algorithm relies on anthropometric models only, to locate and identify the positions of the joints. Differently from machine learning approaches, this solution avoids complex computations, which usually require significant resources. The reliability of the information about the joint position output by the algorithm is evaluated by comparison to a marker-based system. Tests show that the trajectories extracted by the proposed algorithm adhere to the reference curves better than the ones obtained from the skeleton generated by the native applications provided within the Microsoft Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond,WA, USA, 2013) and OpenNI (OpenNI organization, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2013) Software Development Kits.

  14. Kinect as a Tool for Gait Analysis: Validation of a Real-Time Joint Extraction Algorithm Working in Side View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Cippitelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Microsoft Kinect sensor has gained attention as a tool for gait analysis for several years. Despite the many advantages the sensor provides, however, the lack of a native capability to extract joints from the side view of a human body still limits the adoption of the device to a number of relevant applications. This paper presents an algorithm to locate and estimate the trajectories of up to six joints extracted from the side depth view of a human body captured by the Kinect device. The algorithm is then applied to extract data that can be exploited to provide an objective score for the “Get Up and Go Test”, which is typically adopted for gait analysis in rehabilitation fields. Starting from the depth-data stream provided by the Microsoft Kinect sensor, the proposed algorithm relies on anthropometric models only, to locate and identify the positions of the joints. Differently from machine learning approaches, this solution avoids complex computations, which usually require significant resources. The reliability of the information about the joint position output by the algorithm is evaluated by comparison to a marker-based system. Tests show that the trajectories extracted by the proposed algorithm adhere to the reference curves better than the ones obtained from the skeleton generated by the native applications provided within the Microsoft Kinect (Microsoft Corporation, Redmond,WA, USA, 2013 and OpenNI (OpenNI organization, Tel Aviv, Israel, 2013 Software Development Kits.

  15. Adsorptive micro-extraction techniques--novel analytical tools for trace levels of polar solutes in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Silva, A R M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-11-19

    A novel enrichment technique, adsorptive μ-extraction (AμE), is proposed for trace analysis of polar solutes in aqueous media. The preparation, stability tests and development of the analytical devices using two geometrical configurations, i.e. bar adsorptive μ-extraction (BAμE) and multi-spheres adsorptive μ-extraction (MSAμE) is fully discussed. From the several sorbent materials tested, activated carbons and polystyrene divinylbenzene phases demonstrated the best stability, robustness and to be the most suitable for analytical purposes. The application of both BAμE and MSAμE devices proved remarkable performance for the determination of trace levels of polar solutes and metabolites (e.g. pesticides, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals) in water matrices and biological fluids. By comparing AμE techniques with stir bar sorptive extraction based on polydimethylsiloxane phase, great effectiveness is attained overcoming the limitations of the latter enrichment approach regarding the more polar solutes. Furthermore, convenient sensitivity and selectivity is reached through AμE techniques, since the great advantage of this new analytical technology is the possibility to choose the most suitable sorbent to each particular type of application. The enrichment techniques proposed are cost-effective, easy to prepare and work-up, demonstrating robustness and to be a remarkable analytical tool for trace analysis of priority solutes in areas of recognized importance such as environment, forensic and other related life sciences.

  16. An Approach for Comparative Research Between Ontology Building & Learning Tools for Information Extraction & Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Suresh Jain C. S. Bhatia Dharmendra Gupta Sumit Jain Bharat Pahadiya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Information available on the web is huge & it covers diversified fields. Nowadays most of search engines use essentially keyword based search techniques. We simply specify a set of keywords or query as a request and a reference we get a list of pages, ranked based on similarity of query. Currently searching web face with one problem that many times outcome is not satisfactory because of irrelevance of the information. Searching the exact information from such a huge repository of unstructured web data is still main area of research interest. One solution to achieve this is Semantic Web. Ontology is an effective concept commonly used for the Semantic Web. Ontology is “an explicit specification of a conceptualization”. There are two main pillars of semantic Web one is Problem Solving Methods & another is Ontology. Ontology building is a tedious job and a time consuming task for user. The quality of ontology plays an important role in information retrieval application .This paper deals with features & familiarity with different Ontology building & learning tools. After all the preliminary knowledge about all tools & software we have made research about specific features & services provided by some tools & identified the optimum tool in all respect for particularly for our further research project.

  17. (T-bet) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    微软用户

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... housed under standard conditions (25°C and 12-h light-dark cycle,. 5 mice per 80 ... daily for 7 days and the treatments of groups were as follows: Group A: ..... transduction of T-bet into polarized Th2 primary T cells redirected ...

  18. Delayed bet-hedging resilience strategies under environmental fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Masaki; Wakaiki, Masashi; Rubin, Harvey; Preciado, Victor M.

    2017-05-01

    Many biological populations, such as bacterial colonies, have developed through evolution a protection mechanism, called bet hedging, to increase their probability of survival under stressful environmental fluctuation. In this context, the concept of preadaptation refers to a common type of bet-hedging protection strategy in which a relatively small number of individuals in a population stochastically switch their phenotypes to a dormant metabolic state in which they increase their probability of survival against potential environmental shocks. Hence, if an environmental shock took place at some point in time, preadapted organisms would be better adapted to survive and proliferate once the shock is over. In many biological populations, the mechanisms of preadaptation and proliferation present delays whose influence in the fitness of the population are not well understood. In this paper, we propose a rigorous mathematical framework to analyze the role of delays in both preadaptation and proliferation mechanisms in the survival of biological populations, with an emphasis on bacterial colonies. Our theoretical framework allows us to analytically quantify the average growth rate of a bet-hedging bacterial colony with stochastically delayed reactions with arbitrary precision. We verify the accuracy of the proposed method by numerical simulations and conclude that the growth rate of a bet-hedging population shows a nontrivial dependency on their preadaptation and proliferation delays. Contrary to the current belief, our results show that faster reactions do not, in general, increase the overall fitness of a biological population.

  19. Construct Validity of Measures of Becker's Side Bet Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Lynn M.; Tetrick, Lois E.; Shore, Ted H.; Barksdale, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    Becker's side bet theory (remaining in a job because of perceived costs of leaving) was tested using data from 327 working business students. Three factors were most consistent with the theory: bureaucratic organization, nonwork-related concerns, and adjustment to social position. Attachment to the organization was significantly linked to tangible…

  20. Proces og struktur i ph.d.-forløbet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nete Nørgaard; From, Unni

    Bogen giver et indblik i ph.d.-forløbet fra både faglige og personlige vinkler og udpeger problemstillinger og faldgruber - muligheder, potentialer og spændende oplevelser, der knytter sig til livets som ph.d.-stipendiat. Bogen rummer bidrag fra såvel ph.d.-studerende og seniorforskere og sætter...

  1. Potent and selective bivalent inhibitors of BET bromodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Michael J; Chen, Huawei; Rabow, Alfred A; Walker, Graeme; Bobby, Romel; Boiko, Scott; Bradbury, Rob H; Callis, Rowena; Clark, Edwin; Dale, Ian; Daniels, Danette L; Dulak, Austin; Flavell, Liz; Holdgate, Geoff; Jowitt, Thomas A; Kikhney, Alexey; McAlister, Mark; Méndez, Jacqui; Ogg, Derek; Patel, Joe; Petteruti, Philip; Robb, Graeme R; Robers, Matthew B; Saif, Sakina; Stratton, Natalie; Svergun, Dmitri I; Wang, Wenxian; Whittaker, David; Wilson, David M; Yao, Yi

    2016-12-01

    Proteins of the bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family, in particular bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), are of great interest as biological targets. BET proteins contain two separate bromodomains, and existing inhibitors bind to them monovalently. Here we describe the discovery and characterization of probe compound biBET, capable of engaging both bromodomains simultaneously in a bivalent, in cis binding mode. The evidence provided here was obtained in a variety of biophysical and cellular experiments. The bivalent binding results in very high cellular potency for BRD4 binding and pharmacological responses such as disruption of BRD4-mediator complex subunit 1 foci with an EC50 of 100 pM. These compounds will be of considerable utility as BET/BRD4 chemical probes. This work illustrates a novel concept in ligand design-simultaneous targeting of two separate domains with a drug-like small molecule-providing precedent for a potentially more effective paradigm for developing ligands for other multi-domain proteins.

  2. Microbial bet-hedging : the power of being different

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grimbergen, Ard Jan; Siebring, Jeroen; Solopova, Ana; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-01-01

    Bet-hedging is an evolutionary theory that describes how risk spreading can increase fitness of a genotype in an unpredictably changing environment. To achieve risk spreading, maladapted phenotypes develop within isogenic populations that may be fit for a future environment. In recent years, various

  3. XID+ a new prior-based extraction tool for Herschel-SPIRE maps

    CERN Document Server

    Roehlly, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    We present XID+ a new generation of software for prior-based photometry extraction in the Herschel SPIRE maps. Based on a Bayesian framework, XID+ allows the inclusion of prior information and gives access to the full posterior probability distribution of fluxes. XID+ is developed within the Herschel Extragalactic Legacy Project (HELP) and is available at https://github.com/H-E-L-P/XID_plus.

  4. A TOOL FOR EXTRACTING STATIC AND VOLATILE FORENSIC ARTIFACTS OF WINDOWS 8.x APPS

    OpenAIRE

    Murtuza, Shariq; Verma, Robin; Govindaraj, Jayaprakash; Gupta, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Part 6: FORENSIC TOOLS; International audience; Microsoft Windows 8 introduced lightweight sandboxed applications called “apps” that provide a full range of functionality on top of touchenabled displays. Apps offer a wide range of functionality, including media editing, file sharing, Internet surfing, cloud service usage, online social media activities and audio/video streaming for the Windows 8 and 8.1 operating systems. The use of these apps produces much more forensically-relevant informat...

  5. Release of Bet v 1 from birch pollen from 5 European countries. Results from the HIALINE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The HIALINE working Group; Buters, Jeroen T. M.; Thibaudon, Michel; Smith, Matt; Kennedy, Roy; Rantio-Lehtimäki, Auli; Albertini, Roberto; Reese, Gerald; Weber, Bernhard; Galan, Carmen; Brandao, Rui; Antunes, Celia M.; Jäger, Siegfried; Berger, Uwe; Celenk, Sevcan; Grewling, Łukasz; Jackowiak, Bogdan; Sauliene, Ingrida; Weichenmeier, Ingrid; Pusch, Gudrun; Sarioglu, Hakan; Ueffing, Marius; Behrendt, Heidrun; Prank, Marje; Sofiev, Mikhail; Cecchi, Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to allergens is pivotal in determining sensitization and allergic symptoms in individuals. Pollen grain counts in ambient air have traditionally been assessed to estimate airborne allergen exposure. However, the exact allergen content of ambient air is unknown. We therefore monitored atmospheric concentrations of birch pollen grains and the matched major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 simultaneously across Europe within the EU-funded project HIALINE (Health Impacts of Airborne Allergen Information Network).Pollen count was assessed with Hirst type pollen traps at 10 l min-1 at sites in France, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy and Finland. Allergen concentrations in ambient air were sampled at 800 l min-1 with a Chemvol® high-volume cascade impactor equipped with stages PM > 10 μm, 10 μm > PM > 2.5 μm, and in Germany also 2.5 μm > PM > 0.12 μm. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 was determined with an allergen specific ELISA. Bet v 1 isoform patterns were analyzed by 2D-SDS-PAGE blots and mass spectrometric identification. Basophil activation was tested in an FcɛR1-humanized rat basophil cell line passively sensitized with serum of a birch pollen symptomatic patient.Compared to 10 previous years, 2009 was a representative birch pollen season for all stations. About 90% of the allergen was found in the PM > 10 μm fraction at all stations. Bet v 1 isoforms pattern did not vary substantially neither during ripening of pollen nor between different geographical locations. The average European allergen release from birch pollen was 3.2 pg Bet v 1/pollen and did not vary much between the European countries. However, in all countries a >10-fold difference in daily allergen release per pollen was measured which could be explained by long-range transport of pollen with a deviating allergen release. Basophil activation by ambient air extracts correlated better with airborne allergen than with pollen concentration.Although Bet v 1 is a mixture of different

  6. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  7. Extraction Fuzzy Linguistic Rules from Neural Networks for Maximizing Tool Life in High-speed Milling Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Zhigang; HE Ning; LI Liang

    2009-01-01

    In metal cutting industry it is a common practice to search for optimal combination of cutting parameters in order to maximize the tool life for a fixed minimum value of material removal rate(MRR). After the advent of high-speed milling(HSM) pro cess, lots of experimental and theoretical researches have been done for this purpose which mainly emphasized on the optimization of the cutting parameters. It is highly beneficial to convert raw data into a comprehensive knowledge-based expert system using fuzzy logic as the reasoning mechanism. In this paper an attempt has been presented for the extraction of the rules from fuzzy neural network(FNN) so as to have the most effective knowledge-base for given set of data. Experiments were conducted to determine the best values of cutting speeds that can maximize tool life for different combinations of input parameters. A fuzzy neural network was constructed based on the fuzzification of input parameters and the cutting speed. After training process, raw rule sets were extracted and a rule pruning approach was proposed to obtain concise linguistic rules. The estimation process with fuzzy inference showed that the optimized combination of fuzzy rules provided the estimation error of only 6.34 m/min as compared to 314 m/min of that of randomized combination of rules.

  8. Absolute quantification of allergens from complex mixtures: a new sensitive tool for standardization of allergen extracts for specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Ulla; Dauly, Claire; Robinson, Sarah; Hornshaw, Martin; Larsen, Jørgen Nedergaard; Ipsen, Henrik

    2011-04-01

    Products for specific diagnosis and immunotherapy of IgE-mediated allergies are currently based on natural extracts. Quantification of major allergen content is an important aspect of standardization as important allergens particularly impact vaccine potency. The aim of the study was to develop a mass spectrometry (MS) based assay for absolute quantification of Timothy (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens Phl p 1 and Phl p 5 in P. pratense extract. High-resolution and accurate mass (HRAM) MS was selected for its ability to detect peptides with high selectivity and mass accuracy (extract. Robustness and linearity of the method was demonstrated with intra day precision ≤ 5% (n = 3). Phl p 1b was shown to be 5 times less abundant than its variant Phl p 1a and Phl p 5b was shown to be 9 times more abundant than the Phl p 5a. The present study shows that allergen, and/or isoallergen specific, surrogate signature peptides analyzed with HRAM MS is a sensitive and accurate tool for identification and quantification of allergens from complex allergen sources.

  9. Preparation and characterization of standardized pomegranate extract-phospholipid complex as an effective drug delivery tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amisha Kamlesh Vora

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Punicalagins, a pair of anomeric ellagitannins, present in Punica granatum (Pomegranates are known to possess excellent antioxidant activity in vitro, but poor oral bioavailability. The reasons cited for poor bioavailability are their large molecular size, poor lipophilicity, and degradation by colonic microflora into less active metabolites. The objective of the present research work was to complex the standardized pomegranate extract (SPE with phospholipid to formulate standardized pomegranate extract-phospholipid complex (SPEPC, characterize it and check its permeability through an ex vivo everted gut sac experiment. SPEPC was prepared by mixing SPE (30% punicalagins and soya phosphatidylcholine (PC in 1:1 v/v mixture of methanol and dioxane and spray-drying the mixture. The complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. It was evaluated for its octanol solubility, dissolution, and permeability by everted the gut sac technique. The characterization methods confirmed the formation of complex. Increased n-octanol solubility of the complex proved its increased lipophilicity. Dissolution studies revealed that the phospholipid covering may prevent the punicalagins to be released in gastro-intestinal tract, thus preventing their colonic microbial degradation. SPEPC showed better apparent permeability than SPE in an everted gut sac technique. Hence, it could be concluded that phospholipid complex of SPE may be of potential use in increasing the permeability and hence the bioavailability of punicalagins.

  10. [Construction and characterization of a novel recombinant retroviral vector expressing mouse T-bet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhang, Wei; Guo, Jie; Zhou, Xuyu

    2014-10-01

    In order to study T-bet function in mouse cells, a novel retroviral vector expressing mouse T-bet and reporter gene Thy1.1 was constructed. Retrovirus particles were then produced by transfection of the recombinant retroviral plasmid into a packaging cell line Platinum-E. The recombinant retrovirus played considerable infection ability. T-bet expression was then identified by FACS after infection of CD4+ primary T cells from T-bet knockout mouse with recombinant retrovirus. To determine if exogenous expressing T-bet has normal function, we checked the expression level of T-bet target gene, Ifng. IFN-y expression was upregulated in the T-bet knockout T cells infected with recombinant retrovirus. In conclusion, we successfully constructed an effective mouse T-bet recombinant retroviral vector.

  11. Extraction of parasitic and channel resistance components in FinFETs using TCAD tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan; Banghart, Edmund; Zeitzoff, Peter; Korablev, Konstantin; Pandey, Shesh Mani; Gendron-Hansen, Amaury; Benistant, Francis

    2016-09-01

    A novel TCAD conductance integration method is presented to evaluate and extract the channel resistance as well as the three-dimensional (3D) parasitic resistance components in a FinFET device. It is shown that results with this method agree well with a well-known 3D analytical model and that the method accurately simulates the parasitic resistance of realistic 3D FinFETs. Furthermore, the method is shown to be an effective aid in designing FinFETs with minimized parasitic resistance. Finally, the method introduces a useful figure of merit (called βy) that quantifies precisely the amount of current spreading that occurs in each region of the device.

  12. Agarose- and alginate-based biopolymers for sample preparation: Excellent green extraction tools for this century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Loh, Saw Hong; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah; Pourmand, Neda; Salisu, Ahmed; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Ali, Imran

    2016-03-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the use of miniaturized sample preparation techniques before the chromatographic monitoring of the analytes in unknown complex compositions. The use of biopolymer-based sorbents in solid-phase microextraction techniques has achieved a good reputation. A great variety of polysaccharides can be extracted from marine plants or microorganisms. Seaweeds are the major sources of polysaccharides such as alginate, agar, agarose, as well as carrageenans. Agarose and alginate (green biopolymers) have been manipulated for different microextraction approaches. The present review is focused on the classification of biopolymer and their applications in multidisciplinary research. Besides, efforts have been made to discuss the state-of-the-art of the new microextraction techniques that utilize commercial biopolymer interfaces such as agarose in liquid-phase microextraction and solid-phase microextraction.

  13. Adults Learning Mathematics: What We Should Know about Betting and Bookkeeping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasz, Juergen; Siller, Hans-Stefan

    2010-01-01

    A lot of people risk money with bets on sport events or other events. Bookkeepers that offer such bets earn a lot of money. We are making a proposal (more exactly: a concept for a part of a basic mathematics course) for learning mathematics behind the screen (internet bets are very popular). Learners should organize a "sports event"…

  14. Molecular characterization of a cytokinin-inducible periwinkle protein showing sequence homology with pathogenesis-related proteins and the Bet v 1 allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpin, S; Laffer, S; Schoentgen, F; Valenta, R; Chénieux, J C; Rideau, M; Hamdi, S

    1998-03-01

    Cytokinin treatment of periwinkle callus cultures increased the accumulation of a protein, designated T1, in two-dimensional separated protein extracts. The first 30 NH2-terminal amino acids were determined by Edman degradation and showed significant sequence homology with intracellular pathogenesis-related (IPR) plant proteins and the Bet v 1 allergen family. The deduced amino acid sequence of cDNAs coding for T1, isolated by RT-PCR and 5' RACE-PCR, exhibited an average sequence identity of 40% with both IPR and Bet v 1-related allergens. T1 and all related proteins contained a p-loop motif typically found in nucleotide-binding proteins as the most conserved sequence feature. Northern blot analysis showed that cytokinin treatment of periwinkle callus induced T1 transcripts, whereas addition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid inhibited this accumulation. Hybridization of genomic periwinkle DNA with the T1 cDNA suggested that the protein is encoded by a single-copy gene. Immunoblot studies with a panel of Bet v 1-specific antibodies and sera from Bet v 1 allergic individuals identified T1 as a protein that is immunologically distinct from the Bet v 1 allergen family and has no allergenic properties.

  15. Nitration of the pollen allergen bet v 1.0101 enhances the presentation of bet v 1-derived peptides by HLA-DR on human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Anette C; Oostingh, Gertie J; Mutschlechner, Sonja; Ferreira, Fatima; Lackner, Peter; Bohle, Barbara; Fischer, Gottfried F; Vogt, Anne B; Duschl, Albert

    2012-01-01

    Nitration of pollen derived allergens can occur by NO(2) and ozone in polluted air and it has already been shown that nitrated major birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1) exhibits an increased potency to trigger an immune response. However, the mechanisms by which nitration might contribute to the induction of allergy are still unknown. In this study, we assessed the effect of chemically induced nitration of Bet v 1 on the generation of HLA-DR associated peptides. Human dendritic cells were loaded with unmodified Bet v 1 or nitrated Bet v 1, and the naturally processed HLA-DR associated peptides were subsequently identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nitration of Bet v 1 resulted in enhanced presentation of allergen-derived HLA-DR-associated peptides. Both the copy number of Bet v 1 derived peptides as well as the number of nested clusters was increased. Our study shows that nitration of Bet v 1 alters antigen processing and presentation via HLA-DR, by enhancing both the quality and the quantity of the Bet v 1-specific peptide repertoire. These findings indicate that air pollution can contribute to allergic diseases and might also shed light on the analogous events concerning the nitration of self-proteins.

  16. Evaluation of an Automated Information Extraction Tool for Imaging Data Elements to Populate a Breast Cancer Screening Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacson, Ronilda; Harris, Kimberly; Brawarsky, Phyllis; Tosteson, Tor D; Onega, Tracy; Tosteson, Anna N A; Kaye, Abby; Gonzalez, Irina; Birdwell, Robyn; Haas, Jennifer S

    2015-10-01

    Breast cancer screening is central to early breast cancer detection. Identifying and monitoring process measures for screening is a focus of the National Cancer Institute's Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) initiative, which requires participating centers to report structured data across the cancer screening continuum. We evaluate the accuracy of automated information extraction of imaging findings from radiology reports, which are available as unstructured text. We present prevalence estimates of imaging findings for breast imaging received by women who obtained care in a primary care network participating in PROSPR (n = 139,953 radiology reports) and compared automatically extracted data elements to a "gold standard" based on manual review for a validation sample of 941 randomly selected radiology reports, including mammograms, digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The prevalence of imaging findings vary by data element and modality (e.g., suspicious calcification noted in 2.6% of screening mammograms, 12.1% of diagnostic mammograms, and 9.4% of tomosynthesis exams). In the validation sample, the accuracy of identifying imaging findings, including suspicious calcifications, masses, and architectural distortion (on mammogram and tomosynthesis); masses, cysts, non-mass enhancement, and enhancing foci (on MRI); and masses and cysts (on ultrasound), range from 0.8 to1.0 for recall, precision, and F-measure. Information extraction tools can be used for accurate documentation of imaging findings as structured data elements from text reports for a variety of breast imaging modalities. These data can be used to populate screening registries to help elucidate more effective breast cancer screening processes.

  17. Characterization of Bet v 1-related allergens from kiwifruit relevant for patients with combined kiwifruit and birch pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Christina; Bulley, Sean M; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Bublin, Merima; Gaier, Sonja; DeWitt, Asa Marknell; Briza, Peter; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Lidholm, Jonas; Vieths, Stefan; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin

    2008-11-01

    Allergy to kiwifruit appears to have become more common in Europe and elsewhere during the past several years. Seven allergens have been identified from kiwifruit so far, with actinidin, kiwellin and the thaumatin-like protein as the most relevant ones. In contrast to other fruits, no Bet v 1 homologues were characterized from kiwifruit so far. We cloned, purified, and characterized recombinant Bet v 1-homologous allergens from green (Actinidia deliciosa, Act d 8) and gold (Actinidia chinensis, Act c 8) kiwifruit, and confirmed the presence of its natural counterpart by inhibition assays. Well-characterized recombinant Act d 8 and Act c 8 were recognized by birch pollen/kiwifruit (confirmed by double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge) allergic patients in IgE immunoblots and ELISA experiments. The present data point out that Bet v 1 homologues are allergens in kiwifruit and of relevance for patients sensitized to tree pollen and kiwifruit, and might have been neglected so far due to low abundance in the conventional extracts used for diagnosis.

  18. Development and application of an innovative tool to automate the process of results extraction from the thermo-hydraulic simulator Olga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Carducci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and application of an innovative code to extract in an automated way data from the thermo-hydraulic simulator Olga. The results show that the tool can significantly reduce the time needed for the data extraction procedure and increase the reliability of results due to the fact that there is no more the need of the human operator. Moreover, during the data extraction phase, the Olga code is available for running different simulations allowing to optimize the use of this resource.

  19. Application of the probabilistic model BET_UNREST during a volcanic unrest simulation exercise in Dominica, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Robert; Robertson, Richard; Lindsay, Jan M.; Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmitri; Smith, Patrick; Stewart, Roderick

    2016-11-01

    We report on the first "real-time" application of the BET_UNREST (Bayesian Event Tree for Volcanic Unrest) probabilistic model, during a VUELCO Simulation Exercise carried out on the island of Dominica, Lesser Antilles, in May 2015. Dominica has a concentration of nine potentially active volcanic centers and frequent volcanic earthquake swarms at shallow depths, intense geothermal activity, and recent phreatic explosions (1997) indicate the region is still active. The exercise scenario was developed in secret by a team of scientists from The University of the West Indies (Trinidad and Tobago) and University of Auckland (New Zealand). The simulated unrest activity was provided to the exercise's Scientific Team in three "phases" through exercise injects comprising processed monitoring data. We applied the newly created BET_UNREST model through its software implementation PyBetUnrest, to estimate the probabilities of having (i) unrest of (ii) magmatic, hydrothermal or tectonic origin, which may or may not lead to (iii) an eruption. The probabilities obtained for each simulated phase raised controversy and intense deliberations among the members of the Scientific Team. The results were often considered to be "too high" and were not included in any of the reports presented to ODM (Office for Disaster Management) revealing interesting crisis communication challenges. We concluded that the PyBetUnrest application itself was successful and brought the tool one step closer to a full implementation. However, as with any newly proposed method, it needs more testing, and in order to be able to use it in the future, we make a series of recommendations for future applications.

  20. Development of a screening tool to prioritize testing for the carcinogenic hazard of residual aromatic extracts and related petroleum streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; Kung, Ming H; Chen, Min; Aldous, Keith K; Freeman, James J

    2016-12-15

    Residual aromatic extracts (RAE) are petroleum substances with variable composition predominantly containing aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers greater than C25. Because of the high boiling nature of RAEs, the aromatics present are high molecular weight, with most above the range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, refinery distillations are imperfect; some PAHs and their heteroatom-containing analogs (collectively referred to as polycyclic aromatic content or PAC) may remain in the parent stream and be extracted into the RAE, and overall PAC content is related to the carcinogenic potential of an RAE. We describe here a real-time analytical chemistry-based tool to assess the carcinogenic hazard of RAE via the development of a functional relationship between carcinogenicity and boiling point. Samples representative of steps along the RAE manufacturing process were obtained from five refineries to evaluate relationships between mutagenicity index (MI), PAC ring content and gas chromatographic distillation (GCD) curves. As expected, a positive linear relationship between MI and PAC ring content occurred, most specifically for 3-6 ring PAC (R(2)=0.68). A negative correlation was found between MI and temperature at 5% vaporization by GCD (R(2)=0.72), indicating that samples with greater amounts of lower boiling constituents were more likely to be carcinogenic. The inverse relationship between boiling range and carcinogenicity was further demonstrated by fractionation of select RAE samples (MI=0.50+0.07; PAC=1.70+0.51wt%; n=5) into low and high boiling fractions, where lower boiling fractions were both more carcinogenic than the higher boiling fractions (MI=2.36±0.55 and 0.17±0.11, respectively) and enriched in 3-6 ring PACs (5.20+0.70wt% and 0.97+0.35wt%, respectively). The criteria defining carcinogenicity was established as 479°C for the 5% vaporization points by GCD, with an approximate 95% probability of a future sample having

  1. Standardization of allergen products: 1. Detailed characterization of GMP-produced recombinant Bet v 1.0101 as biological reference preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himly, M; Nony, E; Chabre, H; Van Overtvelt, L; Neubauer, A; van Ree, R; Buchheit, K-H; Vieths, S; Moingeon, P; Ferreira, F

    2009-07-01

    Standardization of allergen extracts requires the availability of well-characterized recombinant allergens, which can be used as reference standards provided by the European regulatory authorities. The objective of this study was the detailed physicochemical and immunological characterization of rBet v 1.0101, which shall be used in a ring trial within the framework of the Biological Standardization Programme BSP090 of the European Directorate for Quality of Medicines and Healthcare. Recombinant Bet v 1.0101 Y0487 was produced under good manufacturing practice conditions and analysed by an array of physicochemical and immunological methods for identity, quantity, homogeneity, folding and denaturation, aggregation state and stability in solution, as well as biological activity. Batch Y0487 was shown to contain monomeric and well-folded protein being identical with rBet v 1.0101, as determined by mass spectrometry. SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing, deamidation analysis and size-exclusion chromatography with light scattering revealed sample homogeneity of >99.9%. Upon storage at +4 degrees C batch Y0487 retained the monomeric state up to 3 months. Protein quantification determined by amino acid analysis was found coinciding with half-maximal inhibition of serum IgE in ELISA. Biological activity of batch Y0487 was shown to be comparable to natural Bet v 1 by IgG and IgE immunoblotting, as well as basophil and T-cell activation. Recombinant Bet v 1.0101 Y0487 was characterized extensively by physicochemical and immunological methods. It was shown highly stable, monomeric and immunologically equivalent to its natural counterpart. Thus, it represents an appropriate candidate reference standard for Bet v 1.

  2. Performance modeling of a wearable brain PET (BET) camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtlein, C. R.; Turner, J. N.; Thompson, M. O.; Mandal, K. C.; Häggström, I.; Zhang, J.; Humm, J. L.; Feiglin, D. H.; Krol, A.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose: To explore, by means of analytical and Monte Carlo modeling, performance of a novel lightweight and low-cost wearable helmet-shaped Brain PET (BET) camera based on thin-film digital Geiger Avalanche Photo Diode (dGAPD) with LSO and LaBr3 scintillators for imaging in vivo human brain processes for freely moving and acting subjects responding to various stimuli in any environment. Methods: We performed analytical and Monte Carlo modeling PET performance of a spherical cap BET device and cylindrical brain PET (CYL) device, both with 25 cm diameter and the same total mass of LSO scintillator. Total mass of LSO in both the BET and CYL systems is about 32 kg for a 25 mm thick scintillator, and 13 kg for 10 mm thick scintillator (assuming an LSO density of 7.3 g/ml). We also investigated a similar system using an LaBr3 scintillator corresponding to 22 kg and 9 kg for the 25 mm and 10 mm thick systems (assuming an LaBr3 density of 5.08 g/ml). In addition, we considered a clinical whole body (WB) LSO PET/CT scanner with 82 cm ring diameter and 15.8 cm axial length to represent a reference system. BET consisted of distributed Autonomous Detector Arrays (ADAs) integrated into Intelligent Autonomous Detector Blocks (IADBs). The ADA comprised of an array of small LYSO scintillator volumes (voxels with base a×a: 1.0 50% better noise equivalent count (NEC) performance relative to the CYL geometry, and >1100% better performance than a WB geometry for 25 mm thick LSO and LaBr3. For 10 mm thick LaBr3 equivalent mass systems LSO (7 mm thick) performed ~40% higher NEC than LaBr3. Analytic and Monte Carlo simulations also showed that 1×1×3 mm scintillator crystals can achieve ~1.2 mm FWHM spatial resolution. Conclusions: This study shows that a spherical cap brain PET system can provide improved NEC while preserving spatial resolution when compared to an equivalent dedicated cylindrical PET brain camera and shows greatly improved PET performance relative to a conventional

  3. The Clinical Impact of Bet v 6 in Birch Pollen-Sensitized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Donata; Eder, Katharina; San Nicoló, Marion; Berghaus, Alexander; Gröger, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Bet v 6, a minor birch pollen allergen, is commercially available for allergen-specific IgE antibody testing. However, there is hardly any literature on the clinical impact of Bet v 6. The aim of the present study was to analyze if testing specific IgE against Bet v 6 can add valuable benefit to the standard diagnostics of birch pollen-sensitized patients, especially in patients with unknown sensitization-eliciting allergens. Birch pollen-sensitized patients with missing IgE reactivity against Bet v 1, 2, and 4 were tested for specific IgE antibodies against Bet v 6. For comparison, an equal number of randomly selected patients with birch pollen sensitization, regardless of their individual sensitization patterns, were tested for specific anti-Bet v 6. Of 57 cases with missing reactivity against the standard birch pollen allergens, 2 patients were positive for Bet v 6. In the representative sample, 3 patients showed specific IgE against Bet v 6 - resulting in a total prevalence of 5%. None of the Bet v 6-positive patients showed allergic symptoms after exposure to birch pollen or an oral allergy syndrome. An increased prevalence of asthma and a higher degree of sensitization were the only distinctive clinical features in Bet v 6-positive patients. Among birch pollen-sensitized patients, the prevalence of specific IgE against Bet v 6 is low. Further, sensitization to Bet v 6, which shows characteristics of a panallergen, remains clinically silent. Therefore, determination of anti-Bet v 6 is not considered useful in the clinical routine. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. 3-D Numerical Modeling as a Tool for Managing Mineral Water Extraction from a Complex Groundwater Basin in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, A.; Tanda, M.

    2007-12-01

    The groundwater in Italy plays an important role as drinking water; in fact it covers about the 30% of the national demand (70% in Northern Italy). The mineral water distribution in Italy is an important business with an increasing demand from abroad countries. The mineral water Companies have a great interest in order to increase the water extraction, but for the delicate and complex geology of the subsoil, where such very high quality waters are contained, a particular attention must be paid in order to avoid an excessive lowering of the groundwater reservoirs or great changes in the groundwater flow directions. A big water Company asked our University to set up a numerical model of the groundwater basin, in order to obtain a useful tool which allows to evaluate the strength of the aquifer and to design new extraction wells. The study area is located along Appennini Mountains and it covers a surface of about 18 km2; the topography ranges from 200 to 600 m a.s.l.. In ancient times only a spring with naturally sparkling water was known in the area, but at present the mineral water is extracted from deep pumping wells. The area is characterized by a very complex geology: the subsoil structure is described by a sequence of layers of silt-clay, marl-clay, travertine and alluvial deposit. Different groundwater layers are present and the one with best quality flows in the travertine layer; the natural flow rate seems to be not subjected to seasonal variations. The water age analysis revealed a very old water which means that the mineral aquifers are not directly connected with the meteoric recharge. The Geologists of the Company suggest that the water supply of the mineral aquifers comes from a carbonated unit located in the deep layers of the mountains bordering the spring area. The valley is crossed by a river that does not present connections to the mineral aquifers. Inside the area there are about 30 pumping wells that extract water at different depths. We built a 3

  5. A mathematical analysis of an exchange-traded horse race betting fund with deterministic payoff betting strategy for institutional investment to challenge EMH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig George Leslie Hopf

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s primary alternative hypothesis is Ha: profitable exchange-traded horserace betting fund with deterministic payoff exists for acceptable institutional portfolio return—risk. The primary hypothesis challenges the semi-strong efficient market hypothesis applied to horse race wagering. An optimal deterministic betting model (DBM is derived from the existing stochastic model fundamentals, mathematical pooling principles, and new theorem. The exchange-traded betting fund (ETBF is derived from force of interest first principles. An ETBF driven by DBM processes conjointly defines the research’s betting strategy. Alpha is excess return above financial benchmark, and invokes betting strategy alpha that is composed of model alpha and fund alpha. The results and analysis from statistical testing of a global stratified data sample of three hundred galloper horse races accepted at the ninety-five percent confidence-level positive betting strategy alpha, to endorse an exchange-traded horse race betting fund with deterministic payoff into financial market.

  6. The state of the online sport betting industry in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nienaber, Maxine B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Online sport betting is not only a means of entertainment but is also an income generating means for Governments and organisations around the world. Up until 1994 online sport betting in South Africa was illegal. Consequently many travelled outside of South African borders to participate in gambling activities which meant that the Government was losing huge sums of tax revenue. The legalisation of online sport betting in 1994 meant that Governments could now benefit from this type o...

  7. NMR resonance assignments of a hypoallergenic isoform of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammer, Linda; Grutsch, Sarina; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fatima; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-08-14

    In Northern America and Europe a great number of people are suffering from birch pollen allergy and pollen related food allergies. The trigger for these immunological reactions is the 17.5 kDa major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, which belongs to the family of PR-10 (pathogenesis-related) proteins. In nature, Bet v 1 occurs as a mixture of various isoforms that possess different immunological properties despite their high sequence identities. Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), which is investigated here, is a hypoallergenic isoform of Bet v 1 and a potential candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy. We assigned the backbone and side chain (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonances of this protein and predicted its secondary structure. The NMR-chemical shift data indicate that Bet v 1.0102 is composed of three α-helices and a seven stranded β-sheet, in agreement with the known structure of the hyperallergenic isoform Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a). Our resonance assignments create the foundation for detailed characterization of the dynamic properties of Bet v 1 isoforms by NMR relaxation measurements.

  8. BET, thermal degradation, and FTIR spectras of triazine polyamine polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Here we show effect of the polyamine polymer chain length to BET isotherms. According to IUPAC classification [1], all three polymers are fitting type 1 physical adsorption isotherm with H3 hysteresis (except for EDA having H2 hysteresis). Moreover, TG and TGA analysis of polymers triazine-ethylenediamine (EDA) and triazine-triethylenetetramine (TETA) are provided. Due to the similarities of the structure, main decomposition temperatures are close to each other (between 593 K and 873 K). In order to understand change of FTIR spectra with adsorption and stripping Au(III), fresh, Au(III) adsorbed and recycled spectras of polymers measured. For further discussions about the effect of chain length to adsorption of Au(III) onto triazine polyamine polymer particles "Au (III) Uptake by Triazine Polyamine Polymers: Mechanism, Kinetic and Equilibrium Studies" Can et al. [2] (article in press).

  9. Capturing the context of maternal deaths from verbal autopsies: a reliability study of the maternal data extraction tool (M-DET.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann L Montgomery

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The availability of quality data to inform policy is essential to reduce maternal deaths. To characterize maternal deaths in settings without complete vital registration systems, we designed and assessed the inter-rater reliability of a tool to systematically extract data and characterize the events that precede a nationally representative sample of maternal deaths in India. METHOD/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 1017 nationally representative pregnancy-related deaths, which occurred between 2001 and 2003, we randomly selected 105 reports. Two independent coders used the maternal data extraction tool (questions with coding guidelines to collect information on antenatal care access, final pregnancy outcome; planned place of birth and care provider; community consultation, transport, admission, hospital referral; and verification of cause of death assignment. Kappa estimated inter-rater agreement was calculated and classified as poor (K≤0.4, moderate (K = 0.4≤0.6, substantial (K = 0.6≤ 0.8 and high (K>0.8 using the criteria from Landis & Koch. The data extraction tool had high agreement for gestational age, pregnancy outcome, transport, death en route and admission to hospital; substantial agreement for receipt of antenatal care, planned place of birth, readmission and referral to higher level hospital, and whether or not death occurred in the intrapartum period; moderate to substantial agreement for classification of deaths as direct or indirect obstetric deaths or incidental deaths; moderate agreement for classification of community healthcare consultation and total number of healthcare contacts; and poor agreement for the classification of deaths as sudden deaths and other/unknown cause of death. The ability of the tool to identify the most-responsible-person in labour varied from moderate agreement to high agreement. CONCLUSIONS: This data extraction tool achieved good inter-rater reliability and can be used to collect data on

  10. Loss aversion and mental accounting: the favorite-longshot bias in parimutuel betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that in the framework of prospect theory, the combination of mental accounting and loss aversion can fundamentally change the way individuals evaluate risky alternatives. This finding is then applied in a market setting: parimutuel betting markets. In parimutuel betting markets it has

  11. Bet-hedging as an evolutionary game: the trade-off between egg size and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Helen; Ripa, Jörgen; Jonzén, Niclas

    2009-08-22

    Bet-hedging theory addresses how individuals should optimize fitness in varying and unpredictable environments by sacrificing mean fitness to decrease variation in fitness. So far, three main bet-hedging strategies have been described: conservative bet-hedging (play it safe), diversified bet-hedging (don't put all eggs in one basket) and adaptive coin flipping (choose a strategy at random from a fixed distribution). Within this context, we analyse the trade-off between many small eggs (or seeds) and few large, given an unpredictable environment. Our model is an extension of previous models and allows for any combination of the bet-hedging strategies mentioned above. In our individual-based model (accounting for both ecological and evolutionary forces), the optimal bet-hedging strategy is a combination of conservative and diversified bet-hedging and adaptive coin flipping, which means a variation in egg size both within clutches and between years. Hence, we show how phenotypic variation within a population, often assumed to be due to non-adaptive variation, instead can be the result of females having this mixed strategy. Our results provide a new perspective on bet-hedging and stress the importance of extreme events in life history evolution.

  12. Applying 89Zr-Transferrin To Study the Pharmacology of Inhibitors to BET Bromodomain Containing Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Chromatin modifying proteins are attractive drug targets in oncology, given the fundamental reliance of cancer on altered transcriptional activity. Multiple transcription factors can be impacted downstream of primary target inhibition, thus making it challenging to understand the driving mechanism of action of pharmacologic inhibition of chromatin modifying proteins. This in turn makes it difficult to identify biomarkers predictive of response and pharmacodynamic tools to optimize drug dosing. In this report, we show that 89Zr-transferrin, an imaging tool we developed to measure MYC activity in cancer, can be used to identify cancer models that respond to broad spectrum inhibitors of transcription primarily due to MYC inhibition. As a proof of concept, we studied inhibitors of BET bromodomain containing proteins, as they can impart antitumor effects in a MYC dependent or independent fashion. In vitro, we show that transferrin receptor biology is inhibited in multiple MYC positive models of prostate cancer and double hit lymphoma when MYC biology is impacted. Moreover, we show that bromodomain inhibition in one lymphoma model results in transferrin receptor expression changes large enough to be quantified with 89Zr-transferrin and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo. Collectively, these data further underscore the diagnostic utility of the relationship between MYC and transferrin in oncology, and provide the rationale to incorporate transferrin-based PET into early clinical trials with bromodomain inhibitors for the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:26725682

  13. Plaque Size Is Decreased but M1 Macrophage Polarization and Rupture Related Metalloproteinase Expression Are Maintained after Deleting T-Bet in ApoE Null Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Tsaousi

    Full Text Available Thelper1 (Th1 lymphocytes have been previously implicated in atherosclerotic plaque growth but their role in plaque vulnerability to rupture is less clear. We investigated whether T-bet knockout that prevents Th1 lymphocyte differentiation modulates classical (M1 macrophage activation or production of matrix degrading metalloproteinases (MMPs and their tissue inhibitors, TIMPs.We studied the effect of T-bet deletion in apolipoproteinE (ApoE knockout mice fed a high fat diet (HFD or normal chow diet (ND. Transcript levels of M1/M2 macrophage polarization markers, selected MMPs and TIMPs were measured by RT-qPCR in macrophages isolated from subcutaneous granulomas or in whole aortae. Immunohistochemistry of aortic sinus (AS and brachiocephalic artery (BCA plaques was conducted to quantify protein expression of the same factors. Deletion of T-bet decreased mRNA for the M1 marker NOS-2 in granuloma macrophages but levels of M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1 and Ym-1, MMPs-2, -9, -12, -13, -14 and -19 or TIMPs-1 to -3 were unchanged. No mRNA differences were observed in aortic extracts from mice fed a HFD for 12 weeks. Moreover, AS and BCA plaques were similarly sized between genotypes, and had similar areas stained for NOS-2, COX-2, MMP-12 and MMP-14 proteins. T-bet deletion increased MMP-13, MMP-14 and arginase-1 in AS plaques. After 35 weeks of ND, T-bet deletion reduced the size of AS and BCA plaques but there were no differences in the percentage areas stained for M1 or M2 markers, MMPs-12, -13, -14, or TIMP-3.Absence of Th1 lymphocytes is associated with reduced plaque size in ApoE knockout mice fed a normal but not high fat diet. In either case, M1 macrophage polarization and expression of several MMPs related to plaque instability are either maintained or increased.

  14. Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) family proteins: New therapeutic targets in major diseases

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Balasundaram Padmanabhan; Shruti Mathur; Manjula Ramu; Shailesh Tripathi

    2016-06-01

    The bromodomains and extra-terminal domain (BET) family proteins recognize acetylated chromatin through their bromodomains (BDs) and helps in regulating gene expression. BDs are chromatin ‘readers’; by interacting with acetylated lysines on the histone tails, they recruit chromatin-regulating proteins on the promoter region to regulate gene expression and repression. Extensive efforts have been employed by the scientific communities worldwide, to identify and develop potential inhibitors of BET family BDs to regulate protein expression by inhibiting acetylated histone (H3/H4) interactions. Several small molecule inhibitors have been reported, which not only have high affinity, but also have high specificity to BET BDs. These developments make BET family proteins to be an important therapeutic targets, for major diseases such as cancer, neurological disorders, obesity and inflammation. Here, we review and discuss the structural biology of BET family BDs and their applications in major diseases.

  15. KARAKTERISASI ISOTERM SORPSI AIR BIJI KOPI DENGAN MODEL BET DAN GAB Water soption isotherms characterization of green coffee beans by BET and GAB models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2012-03-01

    32 oC and 25 oC temperature storage were 11.93 % and 11.22 % by BET model, and 12.81 % and 11.87 % by GAB model. For Arabica, 11.07 % and 11.09 % by BET model, and 11.65 % and 11.78 % by GAB model.   Keywords : Coffee, water sorption isotherm, water activity, BET, GAB ABSTRAK   Permasalahan dalam mempertahankan mutu selama penyimpanan dan pengiriman berkaitan dengan kadar air dan aktivitas air di dalam bahan. Equilibrium of Moisture Content (EMC didefinisikan sebagai kandungan air pada bahan yang seimbang dengan kandungan air udara sekitarnya. EMC merupakan tolok ukur kemampuan berkembangnya mikro organisme yang menyebabkan terjadinya kerusakan atau pembusukan bahan pada saat penyimpanan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan karakteristik isotermi sorpsi air biji kopi dengan menggunakan model BET dan GAB. Kondisi suhu yang digunakan adalah 25-39 oC sesuai dengan kondisi penyimpanan di daerah tropis. Biji kopi yang digunakan adalah kopi Arabika dan Robusta hasil pengolahan kering dari Sulawesi Selatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa berdasarkan pembagian daerah sorpsi, hasil analisis persamaan garis isotermi sorpsi model BET menunjukkan bahwa kadar air kopi Robusta yang berkeseimbangan dengan menggunakan model BET dan GAB pada kelembaban relatif 70 % pada suhu 32 oC masing-masing 11,93 % dan 11,22 %, sedangkan pada suhu 25 oC adalah 12,81 % dan 11,87 %. Untuk kopi Arabika pada suhu 32 oC masing-masing adalah 11,07 % dan 11,09 %, sedangkan pada suhu 25 oC adalah 11,65 % dan 11,78 %.   Kata kunci : Kopi, isotermi sorpsi air, aktivitas air, BET, GAB

  16. The First Experience With Space Scanning Extracted Beam On The Spin@u-70 Setup Target Possibility And Measurement Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Afonin, A G; Gres, V N; Terekhov, V I

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of experiments aimed at a provision of possibilities of the extracted beam space scanning on polarized target of the SPIN@U-70 Setup. The design and features of the special instrumentation are given.

  17. BetOnMath azzardo e matematica a scuola

    CERN Document Server

    Andrà, Chiara; Verani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Il libro ha origine dall'attività svolta durante il progetto "BetOnMath", un'esperienza di Matematica Civile finalizzata alla prevenzione dell'abuso di gioco d'azzardo tra gli studenti della scuola secondaria di secondo grado attraverso un insegnamento innovativo della matematica. In particolare, durante il progetto gli autori del libro hanno sviluppato un percorso didattico modulare sulla matematica del gioco d'azzardo che gli insegnanti di matematica delle scuole secondarie possono utilizzare sia per introdurre gli strumenti di base del calcolo delle probabilità sia per sensibilizzare sui rischi legati al gioco d'azzardo. Il libro descrive i pilastri metodologici e concettuali che hanno guidato la concezione e dato forma al percorso didattico, ovvero la centralità del ruolo dell'insegnante, l'uso dei simulatori di gioco, l'importanza delle attività di gruppo e il ruolo delle emozioni nell'affrontare e comprendere nuovi concetti matematici. Nel libro, ciascuno di questi pilastri è trattato sia mediante ...

  18. The balloon-borne electron telescope with scintillating fibers (BETS)

    CERN Document Server

    Torii, S; Tateyama, N; Yoshida, K; Ouchi, Y; Yamagami, T; Saitô, Y; Murakami, H; Kobayashi, T; Komori, Y; Kasahara, K; Yuda, T; Nishimura, J

    2000-01-01

    we describe a new detector system developed for high-altitude balloon flights to observe the cosmic-ray electrons above 10 GeV. The balloon borne electron telescope with Scintillating (BETS) fibers instrument is an imaging calorimeter which is capable of selecting electrons against the large background of protons. The calorimeter is composed of a sandwich of scintillating optical-fiber belts and lead plates with a combination of three plastic scintillators for the shower trigger. The total thickness of lead is 40 mm (~7.1 r.l.) and the number of fiber belts is nine. In each belt, alternating layers are oriented in orthogonal (x and y) directions. Two sets of an intensified CCD camera are adopted for read-out of the scintillating fibers in the x and y direction, respectively. The accelerator beam tests were carried out to study the performance of detector for electrons in 1996 and for protons in 1997 at CERN-SPS. The instrument was successfully flown aboard high-altitude balloon in 1997 and 1998. It is demonst...

  19. Betting on Illusory Patterns: Probability Matching in Habitual Gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Wilke, Andreas; Scheibehenne, Benjamin; McCanney, Paige; Barrett, H Clark

    2016-03-01

    Why do people gamble? A large body of research suggests that cognitive distortions play an important role in pathological gambling. Many of these distortions are specific cases of a more general misperception of randomness, specifically of an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences. In this article, we provide further evidence for the assumption that gamblers are particularly prone to perceiving illusory patterns. In particular, we compared habitual gamblers to a matched sample of community members with regard to how much they exhibit the choice anomaly 'probability matching'. Probability matching describes the tendency to match response proportions to outcome probabilities when predicting binary outcomes. It leads to a lower expected accuracy than the maximizing strategy of predicting the most likely event on each trial. Previous research has shown that an illusory perception of patterns in random sequences fuels probability matching. So does impulsivity, which is also reported to be higher in gamblers. We therefore hypothesized that gamblers will exhibit more probability matching than non-gamblers, which was confirmed in a controlled laboratory experiment. Additionally, gamblers scored much lower than community members on the cognitive reflection task, which indicates higher impulsivity. This difference could account for the difference in probability matching between the samples. These results suggest that gamblers are more willing to bet impulsively on perceived illusory patterns.

  20. Characterization of a hypoallergenic recombinant Bet v 1 variant as a candidate for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, H; Suck, R; Weber, B; Nandy, A; Wald, M; Keller, W; Cromwell, O; Fiebig, H

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant allergens and especially their hypoallergenic variants are promising candidates for a more effective and safer specific immunotherapy. Physicochemical and immunological characteristics of a folding variant of recombinant Bet v 1 (rBet v 1-FV) were investigated in comparison to natural Bet v 1 (nBet v 1) and the correctly folded recombinant Bet v 1 (rBet v 1-WT) by SDS-PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, multi-angle light scattering, circular dichroism, immunoblotting and enzyme allergosorbent test inhibition assay for detection of IgE reactivity and ELISA with Bet v 1-specific monoclonal antibodies. The functional IgE reactivity of the different Bet v 1 proteins was investigated using basophil activation in terms of CD203c expression and histamine release. T cell reactivity was investigated using T cell lines raised from birch pollen-allergic subjects against nBet v 1. Immunogenicity was investigated in mice. Physicochemical characterization revealed purity, homogeneity and monomeric properties of rBet v 1-FV. Unlike nBet v 1 and rBet v 1-WT, rBet v 1-FV showed almost no IgE binding in immunoblots. The reduction of allergenicity was further proved by IgE-binding inhibition assays, basophil activation and histamine release. T cell reactivity was completely conserved, as demonstrated by proliferation of Bet v 1-specific T cell lines with multiple epitope specificities. rBet v 1-FV showed strong immunogenicity in mice. Due to its reduced IgE reactivity and decreased capacity to activate basophils, but retained T cell reactivity and strong immunogenicity, rBet v 1-FV proved to be a very promising candidate for specific immunotherapy in birch pollen-allergic subjects. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  1. The Structural Features of Sports and Race Betting Inducements: Issues for Harm Minimisation and Consumer Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Sproston, Kerry; Brook, Kate; Brading, Richard

    2016-09-08

    Minimal research has been published about inducements for sports and race betting, despite their ready availability and aggressive advertising. This paper aimed to document the range and structural features of these inducements, and analyse their alignment with the harm minimisation and consumer protection goals of responsible gambling. A scan of all inducements offered on the websites of 30 major race and sports betting brands located 223 separate inducements which we categorised into 15 generic types, all offering financial incentives to purchase. These comprised sign-up offers, refer-a-friend offers, happy hours, mobile betting bonuses, multi-bet offers, refund/stake-back offers, matching stakes/deposits, winnings paid for 'close calls', bonus or better odds, bonus or better winnings, competitions, reduced commission, free bets to selected punters, cash rebates and other free bets. All inducements were subject to numerous terms and conditions which were complex, difficult to find, and obscured by legalistic language. Play-through conditions of bonus bets were particularly difficult to interpret and failed basic requirements for informed choice. Website advertisements for inducements were prominently promoted but few contained a responsible gambling message. The results were analysed to generate 12 research propositions considered worthy of empirical research to inform much needed regulatory reform in this area.

  2. Substrate specificity and ion coupling in the Na+/betaine symporter BetP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Camilo; Koshy, Caroline; Ressl, Susanne; Nicklisch, Sascha; Krämer, Reinhard; Ziegler, Christine

    2011-04-06

    BetP is an Na(+)-coupled betaine-specific transporter of the betaine-choline-carnitine (BCC) transporter family involved in the response to hyperosmotic stress. The crystal structure of BetP revealed an overall fold of two inverted structurally related repeats (LeuT-fold) that BetP shares with other sequence-unrelated Na(+)-coupled symporters. Numerous structures of LeuT-fold transporters in distinct conformational states have contributed substantially to our understanding of the alternating access mechanism of transport. Nevertheless, coupling of substrate and co-transported ion fluxes has not been structurally corroborated to the same extent. We converted BetP by a single-point mutation--glycine to aspartate--into an H(+)-coupled choline-specific transporter and solved the crystal structure of this mutant in complex with choline. The structure of BetP-G153D demonstrates a new inward-facing open conformation for BetP. Choline binding to a location close to the second, low-affinity sodium-binding site (Na2) of LeuT-fold transporters is facilitated by the introduced aspartate. Our data confirm the importance of a cation-binding site in BetP, playing a key role in a proposed molecular mechanism of Na(+) and H(+) coupling in BCC transporters.

  3. RVX-297- a novel BD2 selective inhibitor of BET bromodomains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharenko, Olesya A., E-mail: olesya@zenithepigenetics.com [Zenith Epigenetics, Suite 300, 4820 Richard Road SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6L1 (Canada); Gesner, Emily M.; Patel, Reena G.; Norek, Karen [Zenith Epigenetics, Suite 300, 4820 Richard Road SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6L1 (Canada); White, Andre; Fontano, Eric; Suto, Robert K. [Xtal BioStructures, Inc., 12 Michigan Dr., Natick, MA 01760 (United States); Young, Peter R.; McLure, Kevin G.; Hansen, Henrik C. [Zenith Epigenetics, Suite 300, 4820 Richard Road SW, Calgary, Alberta, T3E 6L1 (Canada)

    2016-08-12

    Bromodomains are epigenetic readers that specifically bind to the acetyl lysine residues of histones and transcription factors. Small molecule BET bromodomain inhibitors can disrupt this interaction which leads to potential modulation of several disease states. Here we describe the binding properties of a novel BET inhibitor RVX-297 that is structurally related to the clinical compound RVX-208, currently undergoing phase III clinical trials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, but is distinctly different in its biological and pharmacokinetic profiles. We report that RVX-297 preferentially binds to the BD2 domains of the BET bromodomain and Extra Terminal (BET) family of protein. We demonstrate the differential binding modes of RVX-297 in BD1 and BD2 domains of BRD4 and BRD2 using X-ray crystallography, and describe the structural differences driving the BD2 selective binding of RVX-297. The isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data illustrate the related differential thermodynamics of binding of RVX-297 to single as well as dual BET bromodomains. - Highlights: • A novel inhibitor of BET bromodomains, RVX-297 is described. • The differential binding modes of RVX-297 in BD1 and BD2 domains of BRD4 and BRD2 using X-ray crystallography are described. • RVX-297 preferentially binds to the BD2 domains of the BET bromodomains. • The structural and thermodynamic properties of the BD2 selective binding of RVX-297 are characterized.

  4. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Westende, van 't W.P.C.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background - Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula) have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the

  5. The T-box Transcription Factor T-bet in Immunity and Autoimmunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanford L. Peng

    2006-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor T-bet (Tbx21) has emerged as a key regulator of type 1-like immunity, playing critical roles in the establishment and/or maintenance of effector cell fates in T and B lymphocytes, as well as dendritic cells and natural killer cells. Several autoimmune diseases, especially those classically considered related to T helper 1 (Th1) immunity, appear to require T-bet, at least as judged in mouse models. This review summarizes a current understanding of T-bet's role in immunity, as well as its importance in autoimmunity, with implications for therapeutic intervention.

  6. 数控机床刀具磨损状态特征参数提取%Characteristic Parameters Extraction of CNC Machine Tool Wear State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鹏磊; 库祥臣

    2013-01-01

    基于振动信号小波包分解理论对不平稳信号特征提取的优势,提出了一种利用振动信号的能量变化来监测刀具磨损状态的方法.该方法利用db4小波基对振动信号进行4层小波包分解,并将分解后的各频带能量值作为刀具磨损状态判断的特征参数.在新刀和刀具磨损的状态下提取特征向量,并根据频段能量的变化判断刀具磨损程度.试验结果证明该方法在刀具磨损状态判断中的可行性.%Based on the advantage of the wavelet packet transform theory in the non-stationary signal feature extraction,a method is proposed to judge tool wear state by means of the energy variety of the vibration signals.This method uses db4 wavelet packet to decompose vibration signals into 4 level,and taking the decomposition of the each frequency band energy as characteristic parameters of the tool wear state.The characteristic vector is extracted under new tool condition and tool wear condition,and using this vector to judge the tool wear variety.The usability of this method is verified by the test results.

  7. SEAWEED EXTRACTS AS A POTENTIAL TOOL FOR THE ATTENUATION OF OXIDATIVE DAMAGE IN OBESITY-RELATED PATHOLOGIES(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok-Hwan; Yoon, Kye-Yoon; Kim, Kui-Jin; You, SangGuan; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2011-06-01

    Recent studies suggest that seaweed extracts are a significant source of bioactive compounds comparable to the dietary phytochemicals such as onion and tea extracts. The exploration of natural antioxidants that attenuate oxidative damage is important for developing strategies to treat obesity-related pathologies. The objective of this study was to screen the effects of seaweed extracts of 49 species on adipocyte differentiation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production during the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and to investigate their total phenol contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities. Our results show that high total phenol contents were observed in the extracts of Ecklonia cava (see Table 1 for taxonomic authors) (681.1 ± 16.0 μg gallic acid equivalents [GAE] · g(-1) ), Dictyopteris undulata (641.3 ± 70.7 μg GAE · g(-1) ), and Laurencia intermedia (560.9 ± 48.1 μg GAE · g(-1) ). In addition, DPPH radical scavenging activities were markedly higher in Sargassum macrocarpum (60.2%), Polysiphonia morrowii (55.0%), and Ishige okamurae (52.9%) than those of other seaweed extracts (P Sargassum micracanthum, Chondrus ocellatus, Gelidium amansii, Gracilaria verrucosa, and Grateloupia lanceolata significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation and ROS production during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the production of ROS was positively correlated with lipid accumulation (R(2)  = 0.8149). According to these preliminary results, some of the seaweed extracts can inhibit ROS generation, which may protect against oxidative stress that is linked to obesity. Further studies are required to determine the molecular mechanism between the verified seaweeds and ROS, and the resulting effects on obesity. [Table: see text].

  8. Misestimating betting behavior: the role of negative asymmetries in emotional self prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Eduardo B; Claro, Danny P; Islam, Gazi

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the role of negative asymmetries in emotional self-prediction by looking at the extent to which individuals misestimate their own betting behavior in sequential gambles. In a series of three experimental studies, we demonstrate that losses lead to higher than planned bets whereas bets are on average carried over after gains. Such asymmetric deviations from the plan emerge (1) when monetary and non-monetary incentives are used, and (2) when participants face fair and unfair gambles. The asymmetry is based on people's inability to predict how much the negative emotions generated by a bad experience (e.g. the loss) will influence them to put more effort (e.g. bet more) than planned in an attempt to re-establish a homeostatic state in the prospect of a good experience (e.g. winning).

  9. Stone anchors from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, Coast, India: Significance to historical period maritime activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Bet Dwarka Island is situated on the extreme west of Indian territory in Jamnagar district of Gujarat. Underwater, the most preserved remains of ancient maritime activity could be the stone anchors of different types, as every boat requires...

  10. A theory of multilayer adsorption on rough surfaces in terms of clustering and melting BET piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerofolini, G. F.; Meda, L.

    1998-10-01

    An equation is proposed on theoretical grounds for the description of equilibrium adsorption of vapours below their critical temperature on solid adsorbents. Like in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) theory, each surface site is described as the origin of an adsorbed pile; differently from the BET theory, however, the piles are allowed to undergo a branching process when the equilibrium pressure is increased; vapour condensation is assumed to occur when all the available space is filled. This growth is described by an isotherm behaving as the BET equation in the monolayer region, as the Anderson or Brunauer-Skalny-Bodor extension of the BET equation just above the monolayer, and as the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equation at higher coverage. For suitable choice of its free parameters, the proposed equation accounts for all isotherms of type I, II and III of Brunauer classification.

  11. The Effect of Investor Sentiment on Betting Against Beta: A SEM Approach Towards Beta Anomaly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hooman Abdollahi; Seyed Babak Ebrahimi; Hamed Tayebi

    2017-01-01

    .... Drawing on literature the authors propose new multi-factor models to develop our understanding of betting against beta using investor sentiment as well as Structural Equation Modeling methodology...

  12. Stabilization of the dimeric birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 impacts its immunological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Stefan; Ackaert, Chloé; Samonig, Martin; Asam, Claudia; Briza, Peter; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Cabrele, Chiara; Ferreira, Fatima; Duschl, Albert; Huber, Christian; Brandstetter, Hans

    2014-01-03

    Many allergens share several biophysical characteristics, including the capability to undergo oligomerization. The dimerization mechanism in Bet v 1 and its allergenic properties are so far poorly understood. Here, we report crystal structures of dimeric Bet v 1, revealing a noncanonical incorporation of cysteine at position 5 instead of genetically encoded tyrosine. Cysteine polysulfide bridging stabilized different dimeric assemblies, depending on the polysulfide linker length. These dimers represent quaternary arrangements that are frequently observed in related proteins, reflecting their prevalence in unmodified Bet v 1. These conclusions were corroborated by characteristic immunologic properties of monomeric and dimeric allergen variants. Hereby, residue 5 could be identified as an allergenic hot spot in Bet v 1. The presented results refine fundamental principles in protein chemistry and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  13. Bet hedging or not? A guide to proper classification of microbial survival strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Imke G.; Haccou, Patsy; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2011-01-01

    Bacteria have developed an impressive ability to survive and propagate in highly diverse and changing environments by evolving phenotypic heterogeneity. Phenotypic heterogeneity ensures that a subpopulation is well prepared for environmental changes. The expression bet hedging is commonly (but often

  14. 数据抽取及交换工具的设计与实现%Design and Implementation of a Data Extraction and Exchanging Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德胜; 李弘; 田佳烨

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the ETL-related technologies. As for the present situation and application demand of publishing industry, the author puts forward the publishing industry-oriented data extraction and exchanging tool design and implementation method. The author has developed a set of tools can be flexibly defined with the .NET development tools and C # development language. The tool has been applied in many publishing units and achieved good results.%:本文研究了 ETL 相关技术,并针对出版行业的现状和应用需求,提出了面向出版行业的数据抽取及交换工具设计方案和实现方法,通过.NET 开发工具和 C#开发语言开发了一套可灵活定义的工具,在多家出版单位进行了应用,取得了良好的效果。

  15. The Fold Variant BM4 Is Beneficial in a Therapeutic Bet v 1 Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Pichler

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Specific immunotherapy using recombinant allergens is clinically effective; still wild-type allergens can provoke treatment-induced side effects and often show poor immunogenicity in vivo. Thus, we tested the low IgE-binding, highly immunogenic fold variant BM4 in a Bet v 1 mouse model. Methods. Recombinant BM4 was used as active vaccine ingredient to treat mice sensitized to Bet v 1. As controls, mice were treated with either Bet v 1 or sham, and the humoral as well as cellular immune response was monitored. Moreover, lung function and lung inflammation were analysed. Results. BM4 was more effective than wild-type Bet v 1 in inducing Bet v 1-specific blocking antibodies as well as IFN-γ and IL-10 producing T cells. Further, birch pollen induced lung inflammation could be ameliorated significantly by BM4 treatment as demonstrated by a reduction of airway hyperresponsiveness and drastically decreased eosinophil counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Conclusion. The study outlines the high potential of BM4 as vaccine candidate for the treatment of Bet v 1-mediated birch pollen allergies.

  16. Response and resistance to BET bromodomain inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Doris P.; Roberts, Justin M.; Janiszewska, Michalina; Huh, Sung Jin; Liang, Yi; Ryan, Jeremy; Doherty, Ernest; Mohammed, Hisham; Guo, Hao; Stover, Daniel G.; Ekram, Muhammad B.; Brown, Jonathan; D'Santos, Clive; Krop, Ian E.; Dillon, Deborah; McKeown, Michael; Ott, Christopher; Qi, Jun; Ni, Min; Rao, Prakash K.; Duarte, Melissa; Wu, Shwu-Yuan; Chiang, Cheng-Ming; Anders, Lars; Young, Richard A.; Winer, Eric; Letai, Antony; Barry, William T.; Carroll, Jason S.; Long, Henry; Brown, Myles; Liu, X. Shirley; Meyer, Clifford A.; Bradner, James E.; Polyak, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous and clinically aggressive disease for which there is no targeted therapy1-3. BET bromodomain inhibitors, which have shown efficacy in several models of cancer4-6, have not been evaluated in TNBC. These inhibitors displace BET bromodomain proteins such as BRD4 from chromatin by competing with their acetyllysine recognition modules, leading to inhibition of oncogenic transcriptional programs7-9. Here we report the preferential sensitivity of TNBCs to BET bromodomain inhibition in vitro and in vivo, establishing a rationale for clinical investigation and further motivation to understand mechanisms of resistance. In paired cell lines selected for acquired resistance to BET inhibition from previously sensitive TNBCs, we failed to identify gatekeeper mutations, new driver events or drug pump activation. BET-resistant TNBC cells remain dependent on wild-type BRD4, which supports transcription and cell proliferation in a bromodomain-independent manner. Proteomic studies of resistant TNBC identify strong association with MED1 and hyper-phosphorylation of BRD4 attributable to decreased activity of PP2A, identified here as a principal BRD4 serine phosphatase. Together, these studies provide a rationale for BET inhibition in TNBC and present mechanism-based combination strategies to anticipate clinical drug resistance. PMID:26735014

  17. [Forms of pathological gambling: empirical research on consumers behaviour of sport betting and lottery participants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöntzke, Babett; Albrecht, Ulrike; Thalemann, Carolin; Grüsser, Sabine Miriam

    2004-08-01

    Gambling is one of the favourite leisure activities. 70-90 % of the grown-up population have gambled at least once in their life. Over the last few years, however, the variety of opportunities to gamble has changed. Decreasing numbers of casino visitors can be seen against an ever-increasing number of people using slot machines, and taking part in national lotteries and sport betting. Comprehensive empirical research regarding consumer behaviour and addiction potential involved in sport betting has been non-existent and only a few studies have dealt with lottery. In the present study, 108 subjects were questioned in Austrian betting offices. 33.3 % of the sample fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for pathological sport betting. Of the sport betting subjects who additionally play lottery, 22.92 % were diagnosed as being pathological lottery gamblers. Based on the criteria of substance addiction, the data demonstrate that sport betting and lottery have addiction potential and can therefore be seen as non-substance-related addiction.

  18. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P

    2015-01-07

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most 'model' species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions.

  19. Mating portfolios: bet-hedging, sexual selection and female multiple mating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco; Yasui, Yukio; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Polyandry (female multiple mating) has profound evolutionary and ecological implications. Despite considerable work devoted to understanding why females mate multiply, we currently lack convincing empirical evidence to explain the adaptive value of polyandry. Here, we provide a direct test of the controversial idea that bet-hedging functions as a risk-spreading strategy that yields multi-generational fitness benefits to polyandrous females. Unfortunately, testing this hypothesis is far from trivial, and the empirical comparison of the across-generations fitness payoffs of a polyandrous (bet hedger) versus a monandrous (non-bet hedger) strategy has never been accomplished because of numerous experimental constraints presented by most ‘model’ species. In this study, we take advantage of the extraordinary tractability and versatility of a marine broadcast spawning invertebrate to overcome these challenges. We are able to simulate multi-generational (geometric mean) fitness among individual females assigned simultaneously to a polyandrous and monandrous mating strategy. Our approaches, which separate and account for the effects of sexual selection and pure bet-hedging scenarios, reveal that bet-hedging, in addition to sexual selection, can enhance evolutionary fitness in multiply mated females. In addition to offering a tractable experimental approach for addressing bet-hedging theory, our study provides key insights into the evolutionary ecology of sexual interactions. PMID:25411448

  20. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  1. BET Bromodomain Proteins Function as Master Transcription Elongation Factors Independent of CDK9 Recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Georg E; Mayer, Andreas; Buckley, Dennis L; Erb, Michael A; Roderick, Justine E; Vittori, Sarah; Reyes, Jaime M; di Iulio, Julia; Souza, Amanda; Ott, Christopher J; Roberts, Justin M; Zeid, Rhamy; Scott, Thomas G; Paulk, Joshiawa; Lachance, Kate; Olson, Calla M; Dastjerdi, Shiva; Bauer, Sophie; Lin, Charles Y; Gray, Nathanael S; Kelliher, Michelle A; Churchman, L Stirling; Bradner, James E

    2017-07-06

    Processive elongation of RNA Polymerase II from a proximal promoter paused state is a rate-limiting event in human gene control. A small number of regulatory factors influence transcription elongation on a global scale. Prior research using small-molecule BET bromodomain inhibitors, such as JQ1, linked BRD4 to context-specific elongation at a limited number of genes associated with massive enhancer regions. Here, the mechanistic characterization of an optimized chemical degrader of BET bromodomain proteins, dBET6, led to the unexpected identification of BET proteins as master regulators of global transcription elongation. In contrast to the selective effect of bromodomain inhibition on transcription, BET degradation prompts a collapse of global elongation that phenocopies CDK9 inhibition. Notably, BRD4 loss does not directly affect CDK9 localization. These studies, performed in translational models of T cell leukemia, establish a mechanism-based rationale for the development of BET bromodomain degradation as cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Study of a Novel Tool for Follicular Unit Extraction for Individuals with Afro-textured Hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hair transplantation involving patients with tightly curled Afro-textured hair using follicular unit extraction (FUE) employing conventional rotary punches frequently leads to unacceptably high transection rates. These patients are unsuitable candidates for FUE hair transplantation. Transection rates were observed during FUE in a case series of 18 patients with tightly curled Afro-textured hair using different punches. Methods: Three different punches were sequentially used in patients to extract follicular units with several needle gauges until satisfactory transection rates occurred: conventional sharp and dull rotary punches, followed by a 2-pronged curved nonrotary punch. Results: In all instances, the curved nonrotary punch had the best transection rate of hair can overcome high transection rates experienced using conventional sharp or dull rotary punches. Limitations of this study include it being a small, retrospective case series, and that the new technique that could require additional training by current FUE hair transplant practitioners.

  3. Gamma rays as an effective tool for removing undesirable color without adverse changes in biological activities of red beet extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; Hong, Sung Hyun; Bai, Hyoung-Woo; Lee, In Chul; Chung, Byung Yeoup

    2012-08-01

    The ethanolic extracts of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy root were used to investigate the removal of color and improvement of biological activity for enhanced industrial applications. The extracts were exposed to gamma rays ranging from 2.5 to 30 kGy. The red beet hairy root is composed of two major red-colorants, betanin and isobetanin. Gamma ray radiation at 5 kGy remarkably reduced the levels of the major colorants by 94% and the reddish color was eliminated by doses greater than 10 kGy. Color removal was likely due to the gamma ray radiolysis of ethanol. Although details on the mechanism responsible for the decay of the chromophore have not been entirely determined, our results suggest that the free radicals that are produced during this process are capable of destroying the chromophore group in isobetanin, thus bleaching the substrate solution. In spite of the degradation of the major colorants, the biological activities of constituents of the extract such as DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition were negligibly affected by the gamma ray radiation up to 20 kGy. The antioxidant activity was 92.7% in control samples and 90.0-92.0% in irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy), and a slight decrease to 87.5% was observed for gamma ray radiation at 30 kGy. In addition, tyrosinase inhibition activity has also the same pattern; the activity is slightly increased from 50.7% of control to 49.1-52.8% of irradiated samples (2.5-20 kGy) with a 46.8% at 30 kGy.

  4. Biliary Interventions: Tools and Techniques of the Trade, Access, Cholangiography, Biopsy, Cholangioscopy, Cholangioplasty, Stenting, Stone Extraction, and Brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osman; Mathevosian, Sipan; Arslan, Bulent

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic access to the biliary system is generally limited to endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. A variety of percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions are applicable for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary system pathologies, the majority of which may be performed in conjunction with one another. The backbone of nearly all of these interventions is percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for opacification of the biliary tree, after which any number of therapeutic or diagnostic modalities may be pursued. We describe an overview of the instrumentation and technical approaches for several fundamental interventional procedures, including percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and internal/external biliary drainage, endobiliary biopsy techniques, cholangioscopy, cholangioplasty and biliary stenting, biliary stone extraction, and intraluminal brachytherapy.

  5. A tool to evaluate correspondence between extraction ion chromatographic peaks and peptide-spectrum matches in shotgun proteomics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruse, Cristian I; Peacock, Samantha; Ghiban, Cornel; Rivera, Keith; Pappin, Darryl J; Leopold, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Chromatographed peptide signals form the basis of further data processing that eventually results in functional information derived from data-dependent bottom-up proteomics assays. We seek to rank LC/MS parent ions by the quality of their extracted ion chromatograms. Ranked extracted ion chromatograms act as an intuitive physical/chemical preselection filter to improve the quality of MS/MS fragment scans submitted for database search. We identify more than 4900 proteins when considering detector shifts of less than 7 ppm. High quality parent ions for which the database search yields no hits become candidates for subsequent unrestricted analysis for PTMs. Following this rational approach, we prioritize identification of more than 5000 spectrum matches from modified peptides and confirmed the presence of acetylaldehyde-modified His/Lys. We present a logical workflow that scores data-dependent selected ion chromatograms and leverage information about semianalytical LC/LC dimension prior to MS. Our method can be successfully used to identify unexpected modifications in peptides with excellent chromatography characteristics, independent of fragmentation pattern and activation methods. We illustrate analysis of ion chromatograms detected in two different modes by RF linear ion trap and electrostatic field orbitrap.

  6. Sports betting marketing during sporting events: a stadium and broadcast census of Australian Football League matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Duong, Jenny; McLeod, Colin

    2012-04-01

    Using Australian Football League (AFL) matches as a case study, we investigated the frequency, length and content of marketing strategies for sports betting during two specific settings: 1) at stadiums during four live matches; and 2) during eight televised broadcasts of matches. Census of sports betting marketing during Round 12 of the 2011 AFL premiership season. Per match, there was an average of 58.5 episodes (median 49.5, s.d 27.8) and 341.1 minutes (median 324.1 minutes and s.d 44.5) of sports betting marketing at stadiums, and 50.5 episodes (median 53.5, s.d 45.2) and 4.8 minutes (median 5.0 minutes, s.d 4.0) during televised broadcasts. A diverse range of marketing techniques were used to: a) embed sports betting within the game; b) align sports betting with fans' overall experience of the game; and c) encourage individuals to bet live during the game. There were very few visible or audible messages (such as responsible gambling or Gambler's Help messages) to counter-frame the overwhelmingly positive messages that individuals received about sports betting during the match. This study raises important questions about the impacts of saturation, integrated and impulse gambling marketing strategies in sporting matches. Future research should explore: 1) how wagering industry marketing strategies may affect the attitudes and behaviours of community sub-groups (e.g. young male sports fans, and children); and 2) which public health and policy strategies, including regulation and harm minimisation messaging, will be effective in responding to wagering industry marketing strategies during sporting matches. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. MONITORING OF COAL BED EXTRACTION AS AN EFFECTIVE TOOL FOR IMPROVING THE PRODUCTION RESULTS OF A MINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold BIAŁY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The basic source of information necessary for proper and effective management of a hard coal mine is continuous monitoring of the mining process. An increased number of machines and devices used in a mine caused a need for continuous monitoring of mining departments’ work. Monitoring of the extraction of hard coal beds is crucial for this process management, as it determines the proper course of the mining process. Hence, monitoring can be considered the most important element of the controlling process, especially in the area of mining process management in a mine. Effective monitoring and proper, quick reacting to any irregularities in this process have a significant influence on the production results of a mine.

  8. Bet-hedging as a mechanism for the evolution of polyandry, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Yukio; Garcia-Gonzalez, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Females that mate with multiple males (polyandry) may reduce the risk that their eggs are fertilized by a single unsuitable male. About 25 years ago it was hypothesized that bet-hedging could function as a mechanism favoring the evolution of polyandry, but this idea is controversial because theory indicates that bet-hedging via polyandry can compensate the costs of mating only in small populations. Nevertheless, populations are often spatially structured, and even in the absence of spatial structure, mate-choice opportunity can be limited to a few potential partners. We examined the effectiveness of bet-hedging in such situations with simulations carried out under two scenarios: (1) intrinsic male quality, with offspring survival determined by male phenotype (male's ability to generate viable offspring), and (2) genetic incompatibility (offspring fitness determined nonadditively by parental genotypes). We find higher fixation probabilities for a polyandrous strategy compared to a monandrous strategy if complete reproductive failure due to male effects or parental incompatibility is pervasive in the population. Our results also indicate that bet-hedging polyandry can delay the extinction of small demes. Our results underscore the potential for bet-hedging to provide benefits to polyandrous females and have valuable implications for conservation biology. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Component Ratios of Independent and Herding Betters in a Racetrack Betting Market

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Shintaro

    2010-01-01

    We study the time series data of the racetrack betting market in the Japan Racing Association (JRA). As the number of votes t increases, the win bet fraction x(t) converges to the final win bet fraction x_{f}. We observe the power law $(x(t)-x_{f})^{2} \\propto t^{-\\beta}$ with $\\beta\\simeq 0.488$. We measure the degree of the completeness of the ordering of the horses using an index AR, the horses are ranked according to the size of the win bet fraction. AR(t) also obeys the power law and behaves as $\\mbox{AR}_{f}-\\mbox{AR}(t)\\propto t^{-\\gamma}$ with $\\gamma\\simeq 0.589$, where AR_{f} is the final value of AR. We introduce a simple voting model with two types of voters-independent and herding. Independent voters provide information about the winning probability of the horses and herding voters decide their votes based on the popularities of the horses.This model can explain two power laws of the betting process. The component ratio of the independent voter to the herding voter is 1:3.

  10. Expression in Escherichia coli, purification, and spectroscopic characterization of two mutant Bet v 1 proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, M; Rösch, P

    1997-07-01

    Bet v 1 is the major birch pollen allergen. A highly efficient expression and purification scheme for mutant forms of this protein was developed on the basis of the pET expression system in order to provide the high quantities of protein needed for spectroscopic and structural work. Bet v 1 (M139L) protein could be purified at high yield (approx. 30 mg from 1 liter of LB medium) in a two-step procedure by the use of metal-affinity chromatography. Matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectroscopy, and size exclusion chromatography demonstrate the homogeneity and purity of the prepared protein. Spectroscopic methods were used to show that Bet v 1 (M139L) is structurally similar to wild type Bet v 1. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of the nature of amino acid 139 on the thermodynamic behaviour of the protein by replacing the leucine residue by alanine. While there appears to be no global structural effect of this mutation, the thermostability of Bet v 1 is greatly decreased.

  11. The BET Family of Proteins Targets Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Integration near Transcription Start Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan De Rijck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of retroviral replication is integration of the viral genome into host cell DNA. This characteristic makes retrovirus-based vectors attractive delivery vehicles for gene therapy. However, adverse events in gene therapeutic trials, caused by activation of proto-oncogenes due to murine leukemia virus (MLV-derived vector integration, hamper their application. Here, we show that bromodomain and extraterminal (BET proteins (BRD2, BRD3, and BRD4 and MLV integrase specifically interact and colocalize within the nucleus of the cell. Inhibition of the BET proteins’ chromatin interaction via specific bromodomain inhibitors blocks MLV virus replication at the integration step. MLV integration site distribution parallels the chromatin binding profile of BET proteins, and expression of an artificial fusion protein of the BET integrase binding domain with the chromatin interaction domain of the lentiviral targeting factor LEDGF/p75 retargets MLV integration away from transcription start sites and into the body of actively transcribed genes, conforming to the HIV integration pattern. Together, these data validate BET proteins as MLV integration targeting factors.

  12. A linear classifier based on entity recognition tools and a statistical approach to method extraction in the protein-protein interaction literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Anália; Conover, Michael; Wong, Andrew; Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Pan, Fengxia; Shatkay, Hagit; Rocha, Luis M

    2011-10-03

    We participated, as Team 81, in the Article Classification and the Interaction Method subtasks (ACT and IMT, respectively) of the Protein-Protein Interaction task of the BioCreative III Challenge. For the ACT, we pursued an extensive testing of available Named Entity Recognition and dictionary tools, and used the most promising ones to extend our Variable Trigonometric Threshold linear classifier. Our main goal was to exploit the power of available named entity recognition and dictionary tools to aid in the classification of documents relevant to Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI). For the IMT, we focused on obtaining evidence in support of the interaction methods used, rather than on tagging the document with the method identifiers. We experimented with a primarily statistical approach, as opposed to employing a deeper natural language processing strategy. In a nutshell, we exploited classifiers, simple pattern matching for potential PPI methods within sentences, and ranking of candidate matches using statistical considerations. Finally, we also studied the benefits of integrating the method extraction approach that we have used for the IMT into the ACT pipeline. For the ACT, our linear article classifier leads to a ranking and classification performance significantly higher than all the reported submissions to the challenge in terms of Area Under the Interpolated Precision and Recall Curve, Mathew's Correlation Coefficient, and F-Score. We observe that the most useful Named Entity Recognition and Dictionary tools for classification of articles relevant to protein-protein interaction are: ABNER, NLPROT, OSCAR 3 and the PSI-MI ontology. For the IMT, our results are comparable to those of other systems, which took very different approaches. While the performance is not very high, we focus on providing evidence for potential interaction detection methods. A significant majority of the evidence sentences, as evaluated by independent annotators, are relevant to PPI

  13. Rangeland Brush Estimation Toolbox (RaBET): An Approach for Evaluating Brush Management Conservation Efforts in Western Grazing Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holifield Collins, C.; Kautz, M. A.; Skirvin, S. M.; Metz, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are over 180 million hectares of rangelands and grazed forests in the central and western United States. Due to the loss of perennial grasses and subsequent increased runoff and erosion that can degrade the system, woody cover species cannot be allowed to proliferate unchecked. The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has allocated extensive resources to employ brush management (removal) as a conservation practice to control woody species encroachment. The Rangeland-Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) has been tasked with determining how effective the practice has been, however their land managers lack a cost-effective means to conduct these assessments at the necessary scale. An ArcGIS toolbox for generating large-scale, Landsat-based, spatial maps of woody cover on grazing lands in the western United States was developed through a collaboration with NRCS Rangeland-CEAP. The toolbox contains two main components of operation, image generation and temporal analysis, and utilizes simple interfaces requiring minimum user inputs. The image generation tool utilizes geographically specific algorithms developed from combining moderate-resolution (30-m) Landsat imagery and high-resolution (1-m) National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography to produce the woody cover scenes at the Major Land Resource (MLRA) scale. The temporal analysis tool can be used on these scenes to assess treatment effectiveness and monitor woody cover reemergence. RaBET provides rangeland managers an operational, inexpensive decision support tool to aid in the application of brush removal treatments and assessing their effectiveness.

  14. Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, Ana I; Wangorsch, Andrea; Jensen, Bettina M

    2011-01-01

    Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity.......Four Bet v 1 homologous food allergens from celeriac (rApi g 1), apple (rMal d 1), peach (rPru p 1) and hazelnut (rCor a 1), were used to probe the structural responsiveness of the Bet v 1 scaffold to gastric digestion conditions and its impact on allergenicity....

  15. Betting strategies on fluctuations in the transient response of greenhouse warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risbey, James S; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Hunter, John R; Monselesan, Didier P

    2015-11-28

    We examine a series of betting strategies on the transient response of greenhouse warming, expressed by changes in 15-year mean global surface temperature from one 15-year period to the next. Over the last century, these bets are increasingly dominated by positive changes (warming), reflecting increasing greenhouse forcing and its rising contribution to temperature changes on this time scale. The greenhouse contribution to 15-year trends is now of a similar magnitude to typical naturally occurring 15-year trends. Negative 15-year changes (decreases) have not occurred since about 1970, and are still possible, but now rely on large, and therefore infrequent, natural variations. Model projections for even intermediate warming scenarios show very low likelihoods of obtaining negative 15-year changes over the coming century. Betting against greenhouse warming, even on these short time scales, is no longer a rational proposition.

  16. Determination of nitration degrees for the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selzle, Kathrin; Ackaert, Chloé; Kampf, Christopher J; Kunert, Anna T; Duschl, Albert; Oostingh, Gertie J; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2013-11-01

    Nitration of tyrosine residues in the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 may alter the allergenic potential of the protein. The kinetics and mechanism of the nitration reaction, however, have not yet been well characterized. To facilitate further investigations, an efficient method to quantify the nitration degree (ND) of small samples of Bet v 1 is required. Here, we present a suitable method of high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) that can be photometrically calibrated using the amino acids tyrosine (Tyr) and nitrotyrosine (NTyr) without the need for nitrated protein standards. The new method is efficient and in agreement with alternative methods based on hydrolysis and amino acid analysis of tetranitromethane (TNM)-nitrated Bet v 1 standards as well as samples from nitration experiments with peroxynitrite. The results confirm the applicability of the new method for the investigation of the reaction kinetics and mechanism of protein nitration.

  17. A Novel Epi-drug Therapy Based on the Suppression of BET Family Epigenetic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Guk; Bayarsaihan, Dashzeveg

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in epigenetic research has made a profound influence on pharmacoepigenomics, one of the fastest growing disciplines promising to provide new epi-drugs for the treatment of a broad range of diseases. Histone acetylation is among the most essential chromatin modifications underlying the dynamics of transcriptional activation. The acetylated genomic regions recruit the BET (bromodomain and extra-terminal) family of bromodomains (BRDs), thereby serving as a molecular scaffold in establishing RNA polymerase II specificity. Over the past several years, the BET epigenetic readers have become the main targets for drug therapy. The discovery of selective small-molecule compounds with capacity to inhibit BET proteins has paved a path for developing novel strategies against cancer, cardiovascular, skeletal, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, further research into small chemicals impeding the regulatory activity of BRDs could offer therapeutic benefits for many health problems including tumor growth, heart disease, oral, and bone disorders. PMID:28356894

  18. Molecular characterization of Dau c 1, the Bet v 1 homologous protein from carrot and its cross-reactivity with Bet v 1 and Api g 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; O'Riordain, G; Ahorn, H; Ebner, C; Laimer Da Camara Machado, M; Pühringer, H; Scheiner, O; Breiteneder, H

    1999-06-01

    Up to 70% of patients with birch pollen allergy exhibit the so-called oral allergy syndrome, an IgE-mediated food allergy. The most frequent and therefore best characterized pollen-fruit syndrome is apple allergy in patients suffering from tree pollen-induced pollinosis. The occurrence of adverse reactions to proteins present in vegetables such as celery and carrots in patients suffering from pollen allergy has also been reported. cDNAs for Bet v 1 homologous proteins have been cloned from celery, apple and cherry. Objective The aim of the study was to identify Bet v 1 homologues from carrot (Daucus carota), to isolate the respective cDNA, to compare the IgE-binding capacity of the natural protein to the recombinant allergen and determine the cross-reactivity to Api g 1 and Bet v 1. Molecular characterization of the carrot allergen was performed using IgE-immunoblotting, cross-inhibition assays, N-terminal sequencing, PCR-based cDNA cloning and expression of the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. A 16-kDa protein from carrot was identified as a major IgE-binding component and designated Dau c 1. Sequencing corresponding cDNAs revealed three extremely similar sequences (Dau c 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3) with an open reading frame of 462 bp coding for 154 amino acid residues. Purified recombinant Dau c 1.2 was tested in immunoblots displaying IgE-binding capacity comparable to its natural counterpart. Cross-inhibition assays verified the existence of common B-cell epitopes present on Dau c 1, Api g 1 as well as on Bet v 1.

  19. Betões eco-eficientes de matriz multi-funcional

    OpenAIRE

    Torgal,Fernando Pacheco; Jalali, Said

    2010-01-01

    Os betões eco-eficientes de matriz multi-funcional, congregam simultaneamente as características de sustentabilidade dos betões com incorporação de resíduos, as capacidades mecânicas dos compósitos de carbono, e ao mesmo tempo apresentam um comportamento “inteligente” actuando como materiais sensores. As funções “inteligentes” destes materiais incluem, controlo da integridade estrutural), monitorização da temperatura, interferência electromagnética, auto-aquecimento e protecção catódica no se...

  20. The Bet Tzedek legal services model: how a legal services model addresses elder abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Janet R

    2010-07-01

    Bet Tzedek, Hebrew for the "House of Justice," provides free legal assistance to older adults in Los Angeles County. Their civil attorneys work alongside prosecutors and service providers for the elderly as members of multidisciplinary teams to assist older adults with complicated elder abuse and neglect cases. Case examples demonstrate how civil attorneys collaborate with the Los Angeles County Elder Abuse Forensic Center to address financial abuse, real estate fraud, and self-neglect issues. Cooperation among the courts, Bet Tzedek, and other county agencies has resulted in more user-friendly processes to expedite filing of conservatorships and elder abuse restraining orders.

  1. Purification and characterization of natural Ara h 8, the Bet v 1 homologous allergen from peanut, provides a novel isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Susanne; Lindner, Buko; Petersen, Arnd; Jappe, Uta; Becker, Wolf-Meinhard

    2008-04-01

    The peanut allergen Ara h 8 is an important allergen for birch pollen allergic patients because of the cross-reactivity to the homologous Bet v 1. As the existence of Ara h 8 has been shown at the cDNA level so far (AY328088) and the allergen has indirectly been detected as natural protein, it was the aim of our study to identify natural Ara h 8 in peanut extract and to develop a purification strategy. This was achieved using a unique combination of purification steps, including optimized extraction conditions, size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography and treatment of the interfering contaminants with iodoacetic acid. A characterization of the protein by microsequencing showed discrepancies to the deduced amino acid sequence of AY328088. For this reason, we cloned and expressed a new Ara h 8 isoform from cDNA (EU046325). This IgE-reactive protein corresponds to the results of microsequencing, ESI-FTICR-MS and trypsin fingerprinting analysis of the authentic and purified nAra h 8. Apart from the ultimate use of recombinant allergens for diagnostic procedures, there is also a scientific need for the natural counterpart, as it represents an excellent reference point by which to compare protein characteristics and to standardize diagnostic and therapeutic allergens.

  2. Mutation extraction tools can be combined for robust recognition of genetic variants in the literature [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3j5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jimeno Yepes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As the cost of genomic sequencing continues to fall, the amount of data being collected and studied for the purpose of understanding the genetic basis of disease is increasing dramatically. Much of the source information relevant to such efforts is available only from unstructured sources such as the scientific literature, and significant resources are expended in manually curating and structuring the information in the literature. As such, there have been a number of systems developed to target automatic extraction of mutations and other genetic variation from the literature using text mining tools. We have performed a broad survey of the existing publicly available tools for extraction of genetic variants from the scientific literature. We consider not just one tool but a number of different tools, individually and in combination, and apply the tools in two scenarios. First, they are compared in an intrinsic evaluation context, where the tools are tested for their ability to identify specific mentions of genetic variants in a corpus of manually annotated papers, the Variome corpus. Second, they are compared in an extrinsic evaluation context based on our previous study of text mining support for curation of the COSMIC and InSiGHT databases. Our results demonstrate that no single tool covers the full range of genetic variants mentioned in the literature. Rather, several tools have complementary coverage and can be used together effectively. In the intrinsic evaluation on the Variome corpus, the combined performance is above 0.95 in F-measure, while in the extrinsic evaluation the combined recall performance is above 0.71 for COSMIC and above 0.62 for InSiGHT, a substantial improvement over the performance of any individual tool. Based on the analysis of these results, we suggest several directions for the improvement of text mining tools for genetic variant extraction from the literature.

  3. Individual contributions to portfolio risk: risk decomposition for the BET-FI index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ACATRINEI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper applies Euler formula for decomposing the standard deviation and the Expected Shortfall for the BET-FI equity index. Risk attribution allows the decomposition of the total risk of the portfolio in individual risk units. In this way we can compute the contribution of each company to the overall standard deviation/Expected Shortfall of the portfolio.

  4. Individual contributions to portfolio risk: risk decomposition for the BET-FI index

    OpenAIRE

    Marius ACATRINEI

    2015-01-01

    The paper applies Euler formula for decomposing the standard deviation and the Expected Shortfall for the BET-FI equity index. Risk attribution allows the decomposition of the total risk of the portfolio in individual risk units. In this way we can compute the contribution of each company to the overall standard deviation/Expected Shortfall of the portfolio.

  5. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts’ expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes themse

  6. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts' expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes themse

  7. Highly polarized Th17 cells induce EAE via a T-bet independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifka-Walk, Heather M; Lalor, Stephen J; Segal, Benjamin M

    2013-11-01

    In the MOG35-55 induced EAE model, autoreactive Th17 cells that accumulate in the central nervous system acquire Th1 characteristics via a T-bet dependent mechanism. It remains to be determined whether Th17 plasticity and encephalitogenicity are causally related to each other. Here, we show that IL-23 polarized T-bet(-/-) Th17 cells are unimpaired in either activation or proliferation, and induce higher quantities of the chemokines RANTES and CXCL2 than WT Th17 cells. Unlike their WT counterparts, T-bet(-/-) Th17 cells retain an IL-17(hi) IFN-γ(neg-lo) cytokine profile following adoptive transfer into syngeneic hosts. This population of highly polarized Th17 effectors is capable of mediating EAE, albeit with a milder clinical course. It has previously been reported that the signature Th1 and Th17 effector cytokines, IFN-γ and IL-17, are dispensable for the development of autoimmune demyelinating disease. The current study demonstrates that the "master regulator" transcription factor, T-bet, is also not universally required for encephalitogenicity. Our results contribute to a growing body of data showing heterogeneity of myelin-reactive T cells and the independent mechanisms they employ to inflict damage to central nervous system tissues, complicating the search for therapeutic targets relevant across the spectrum of individuals with multiple sclerosis.

  8. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts' expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes

  9. Information Salience, Investor Sentiment, and Stock Returns : The Case of British Soccer Betting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomino, F.A.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; Zhang, C.

    2008-01-01

    Soccer clubs listed on the London Stock Exchange provide a unique way of testing stock price reactions to different types of news. For each firm, two pieces of information are released on a weekly basis: experts’ expectations about game outcomes through the betting odds, and the game outcomes

  10. Poker, Sports Betting, and Less Popular Alternatives: Status, Friendship Networks, and Male Adolescent Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCicco-Bloom, Benjamin; Romer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The authors argue that the recent increase in poker play among adolescent males in the United States was primarily attributable to high-status male youth who are more able to organize "informal" gambling games (e.g., poker and sports betting) than are low-status male youth who are left to gamble on "formal" games (e.g., lotteries and slot…

  11. Characterization of T-bet and eomes in peripheral human immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James J; Cosma, Gabriela L; Betts, Michael R; McLane, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The T-box transcription factors T-bet and Eomesodermin (Eomes) have been well defined as key drivers of immune cell development and cytolytic function. While the majority of studies have defined the roles of these factors in the context of murine T-cells, recent results have revealed that T-bet, and possibly Eomes, are expressed in other immune cell subsets. To date, the expression patterns of these factors in subsets of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells beyond T-cells remain relatively uncharacterized. In this study, we used multiparametric flow cytometry to characterize T-bet and Eomes expression in major human blood cell subsets, including total CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cells, γδ T-cells, invariant NKT cells, natural killer cells, B-cells, and dendritic cells. Our studies identified novel cell subsets that express T-bet and Eomes and raise implications for their possible functions in the context of other human immune cell subsets besides their well-known roles in T-cells.

  12. Serratia entomophila bet gene induction and the impact of glycine betaine accumulation on desiccation tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, T R; O'Callaghan, M; Smalley, D J; Ronson, C W; Hurst, M R H

    2013-02-01

    The genes involved in choline transport and oxidation to glycine betaine in the biopesticidal bacterium Serratia entomophila were characterized, and the potential of osmoprotectants, coupled with increased NaCl concentrations, to improve the desiccation tolerance of this species was investigated. Serratia entomophila carries sequences similar to the Escherichia coli betTIBA genes encoding a choline transporter and dehydrogenase, a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase and a regulatory protein. Disruption of betA abolished the ability of Ser. entomophila to utilize choline as a carbon source. Quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR analysis revealed that betA transcription was reduced compared to that of the upstream genes in the operon, and that NaCl and choline induced bet gene expression. Glycine betaine and choline increased the NaCl tolerance of Ser. entomophila, and osmotically preconditioned cultures survived better than control cultures following desiccation and immediately after application to agricultural soil. Addition of glycine betaine and NaCl to growth medium can greatly enhance the desiccation survival of Ser. entomophila, and its initial survival in soil. Serratia entomophila is sensitive to desiccation and does not persist under low soil moisture conditions. Techniques described here for enhancing the desiccation survival of Ser. entomophila can be used to improve formulations of this bacterium, and allow its application under a wider range of environmental conditions. © 2012 AgResearch.

  13. Role of bundle helices in a regulatory crosstalk in the trimeric betaine transporter BetP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Rebecca M; Perez, Camilo; Koshy, Caroline; Ziegler, Christine

    2011-12-02

    The Na(+)-coupled betaine symporter BetP regulates transport activity in response to hyperosmotic stress only in its trimeric state, suggesting a regulatory crosstalk between individual protomers. BetP shares the overall fold of two inverted structurally related five-transmembrane (TM) helix repeats with the sequence-unrelated Na(+)-coupled symporters LeuT, vSGLT, and Mhp1, which are neither trimeric nor regulated in transport activity. Conformational changes characteristic for this transporter fold involve the two first helices of each repeat, which form a four-TM-helix bundle. Here, we identify two ionic networks in BetP located on both sides of the membrane that might be responsible for BetP's unique regulatory behavior by restricting the conformational flexibility of the four-TM-helix bundle. The cytoplasmic ionic interaction network links both first helices of each repeat in one protomer to the osmosensing C-terminal domain of the adjacent protomer. Moreover, the periplasmic ionic interaction network conformationally locks the four-TM-helix bundle between the same neighbor protomers. By a combination of site-directed mutagenesis, cross-linking, and betaine uptake measurements, we demonstrate how conformational changes in individual bundle helices are transduced to the entire bundle by specific inter-helical interactions. We suggest that one purpose of bundle networking is to assist crosstalk between protomers during transport regulation by specifically modulating the transition from outward-facing to inward-facing state.

  14. Seven different genes encode a diverse mixture of isoforms of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Esselink, G.D.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula, syn. B. verrucosa) is an important cause of hay fever. The main allergen is Bet v 1, member of the pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) multigene family. To establish the number of PR-10/Bet v 1 genes and the isoform diversity within a

  15. T-bet expression in the iris and spleen parallels disease expression during endotoxin-induced uveitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, B.; Yang, P.; Chu, L.; Zhou, H.; Huang, X.; Zhu, L.; Kijlstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    T lymphocytes have been implicated in the development of endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). T-bet is a Th1 cell-specific transcription factor that is involved in differentiation and effector functions. The aim of this study was to investigate kinetics of T-bet expression at the mRNA and protein levels

  16. Seven different genes encode a diverse mixture of isoforms of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Esselink, G.D.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula, syn. B. verrucosa) is an important cause of hay fever. The main allergen is Bet v 1, member of the pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10) multigene family. To establish the number of PR-10/Bet v 1 genes and the isoform diversity within a

  17. The impact of near-miss events on betting behavior: An examination of casino rapid roulette play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Sundali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We examine how almost winning in roulette affects subsequent betting behavior. Our main finding is heterogeneity in gambler behavior with some gamblers less likely to bet on numbers that were near misses on the prior spin and other gamblers more likely to bet on near miss numbers. Using a unique data set from the game rapid roulette, we model the likelihood of a gambler betting on a near miss number while controlling for the favorite number bias and the likelihood of a number being a near miss. We also find no evidence that near misses in roulette leads to gamblers extending the time spent gambling or to the placing of more bets.

  18. Epigenetic intervention with a BET inhibitor ameliorates acute retinal ganglion cell death in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Lei; Urabe, Go; Fu, Yingmei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The bromo and extraterminal (BET) epigenetic “reader” family is becoming an appealing new therapeutic target for several common diseases, yet little is known of its role in retinal neurodegeneration. We explored the potential of BET inhibition in the protection of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Methods To test the therapeutic effect of JQ1, an inhibitor highly selective for the BET family of proteins, we used an acute RGC damage model induced by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) excitotoxicity. Adult C57BL/6 mice received an intravitreal injection of NMDA with (or without) JQ1 in one eye and vehicle control in the contralateral eye; RGC loss was assessed on retinal sections and whole mounts. Gene expression and apoptosis were analyzed by quantitative real time (RT)-PCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), respectively. For counting RGCs, immunostaining of the marker protein BRN3A was performed on whole mounts. Results NMDA treatment eliminated RGCs (day 7 and day 14 post injection) and diminished the expression (mRNAs) of RGC-selective genes, including Thy1, Nrn1, Sncg, and Nfl (day 3 and day 7). In contrast, co-injection with JQ1 maintained the number and gene expression of RGCs at ~2 fold of the control (NMDA only, no JQ1), and it decreased NMDA-induced TUNEL-positive cells in the RGC layer by 35%. While NMDA treatment dramatically upregulated mRNAs of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, MCP-1, RANTES) in retinal homogenates, co-injection with JQ1 suppressed their upregulation by ~50%. Conclusions Intravitreal injection of a BET inhibitor (JQ1) ameliorates NMDA-induced RGC death, revealing the RGC-protective potential of pharmacological blockage of the BET family. This new strategy of epigenetic intervention may be extended to other retinal degenerative conditions. PMID:28356707

  19. Bioassay battery interlaboratory investigation of emerging contaminants in spiked water extracts - Towards the implementation of bioanalytical monitoring tools in water quality assessment and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, Carolina; Ottermanns, Richard; Keiter, Steffen; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Bluhm, Kerstin; Brack, Werner; Breitholtz, Magnus; Buchinger, Sebastian; Carere, Mario; Chalon, Carole; Cousin, Xavier; Dulio, Valeria; Escher, Beate I; Hamers, Timo; Hilscherová, Klára; Jarque, Sergio; Jonas, Adam; Maillot-Marechal, Emmanuelle; Marneffe, Yves; Nguyen, Mai Thao; Pandard, Pascal; Schifferli, Andrea; Schulze, Tobias; Seidensticker, Sven; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Tang, Janet; van der Oost, Ron; Vermeirssen, Etienne; Zounková, Radka; Zwart, Nick; Hollert, Henner

    2016-11-01

    Bioassays are particularly useful tools to link the chemical and ecological assessments in water quality monitoring. Different methods cover a broad range of toxicity mechanisms in diverse organisms, and account for risks posed by non-target compounds and mixtures. Many tests are already applied in chemical and waste assessments, and stakeholders from the science-police interface have recommended their integration in regulatory water quality monitoring. Still, there is a need to address bioassay suitability to evaluate water samples containing emerging pollutants, which are a current priority in water quality monitoring. The presented interlaboratory study (ILS) verified whether a battery of miniaturized bioassays, conducted in 11 different laboratories following their own protocols, would produce comparable results when applied to evaluate blinded samples consisting of a pristine water extract spiked with four emerging pollutants as single chemicals or mixtures, i.e. triclosan, acridine, 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). Assays evaluated effects on aquatic organisms from three different trophic levels (algae, daphnids, zebrafish embryos) and mechanism-specific effects using in vitro estrogenicity (ER-Luc, YES) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation) assays. The test battery presented complementary sensitivity and specificity to evaluate the different blinded water extract spikes. Aquatic organisms differed in terms of sensitivity to triclosan (algae > daphnids > fish) and acridine (fish > daphnids > algae) spikes, confirming the complementary role of the three taxa for water quality assessment. Estrogenicity and mutagenicity assays identified with high precision the respective mechanism-specific effects of spikes even when non-specific toxicity occurred in mixture. For estrogenicity, although differences were observed between assays and models, EE2 spike relative induction EC50 values were comparable to the literature, and E2/EE2

  20. Structure-based mutational studies of substrate inhibition of betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase BetB from Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Joo, Jeong Chan; Brown, Greg; Stolnikova, Ekaterina; Halavaty, Andrei S; Savchenko, Alexei; Anderson, Wayne F; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2014-07-01

    Inhibition of enzyme activity by high concentrations of substrate and/or cofactor is a general phenomenon demonstrated in many enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenases. Here we show that the uncharacterized protein BetB (SA2613) from Staphylococcus aureus is a highly specific betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase, which exhibits substrate inhibition at concentrations of betaine aldehyde as low as 0.15 mM. In contrast, the aldehyde dehydrogenase YdcW from Escherichia coli, which is also active against betaine aldehyde, shows no inhibition by this substrate. Using the crystal structures of BetB and YdcW, we performed a structure-based mutational analysis of BetB and introduced the YdcW residues into the BetB active site. From a total of 32 mutations, those in five residues located in the substrate binding pocket (Val288, Ser290, His448, Tyr450, and Trp456) greatly reduced the substrate inhibition of BetB, whereas the double mutant protein H448F/Y450L demonstrated a complete loss of substrate inhibition. Substrate inhibition was also reduced by mutations of the semiconserved Gly234 (to Ser, Thr, or Ala) located in the BetB NAD(+) binding site, suggesting some cooperativity between the cofactor and substrate binding sites. Substrate docking analysis of the BetB and YdcW active sites revealed that the wild-type BetB can bind betaine aldehyde in both productive and nonproductive conformations, whereas only the productive binding mode can be modeled in the active sites of YdcW and the BetB mutant proteins with reduced substrate inhibition. Thus, our results suggest that the molecular mechanism of substrate inhibition of BetB is associated with the nonproductive binding of betaine aldehyde.

  1. Genetic engineering of trimers of hypoallergenic fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, for allergy vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtala, Susanne; Fohr, Monika; Campana, Raffaela; Baumgartner, Christian; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2011-03-01

    An immunotherapy trial performed in allergic patients with hypoallergenic recombinant fragments, comprising aa 1-74 and 75-160 of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, has indicated that the induction of allergen-specific IgG responses may be an important mechanism of this treatment. To investigate whether the immunogenicity of the rBet v 1 fragments can be increased, recombinant trimers of the fragments were produced. For this purpose, DNA trimers of rBet v 1 aa 1-74 as well as of rBet v 1 aa 75-160 were subcloned into expression plasmid pET 17b, expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The fragments as well as the fragment trimers showed a reduced IgE-binding capacity and allergenic activity compared to rBet v 1 wildtype when tested in allergic patients. Both rBet v 1 aa 75-160 monomer and trimer induced high titers of allergen-specific IgG1 Abs in mice. Interestingly, rBet v 1 aa 1-74 trimer induced a much higher IgG(1) response to rBet v 1 than rBet v 1 aa 1-74 monomer. Consequently, IgG Abs induced with the rBet v 1 aa 1-74 trimer inhibited birch pollen allergic patients' IgE-binding 10-fold more efficiently than IgG Abs induced with the monomer. Our data show that the immunogenicity of allergy vaccines can be increased by oligomerization.

  2. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in

  3. 基于微流体技术的组织液透皮抽取装置%Interstitial fluid transdermal extraction tool based on microfluidics technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海霞; 栗大超; 刘同坤; 徐可欣

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic based Interstitial Fluid (ISF) transdermal extraction tool made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was designed to the application of continuous glucose monitoring. Four layers of PDMS fabricated by replica molding process were bonded together using oxygen plasma to construct the device, including a Venturi tube for vacuum generation, chambers for the introduction of ISF and normal saline solution, pneumatic valves for fluid control, and interconnected microchannels. Then,the output vacuum of Venturi tube and the close pressure of pneumatic valve were measured. Finally,the ISF extraction and collection function was tested. Results show that the vacuum pressure is used for fluid manipulation and a 92 kPa (absolute pressure) vacuum is achieved, when 220 kPa (absolute pressure) external pressure is applied to the Venturi tube. Moreover, the normally open pneumatic valves can be closed under the operating pressure.less than 65 kPa (relative pressure). Under the control of pneumatic valves, the normal saline injection, ISF extraction and collection function of the tool are implemented by using the vacuum generated from the Venturi tube.%为了在连续血糖监测中实现微量组织液的透皮抽取和收集,采用微流体技术,利用聚二甲基硅氧烷(Polydimethylsiloxane,PDMS)设计加工了组织液透皮抽取装置.首先,采用模塑法加工得到组成装置的4层PDMS.接着,采用氧等离子体键合方法键合PDMS获得能够产生真空负压的文氏管,用于注入生理盐水、抽取组织液和收集组织液的腔体,控制流体传输的气动阀以及连接各部分的微管路4部分装置.然后,测量文氏管的输出负压和气动阀的关闭压强.最后,检验了装置抽取和收集组织液的功能实现情况.结果显示,将220 kPa(绝对压强)的氮气通入文氏管的输入端口,在文氏管的喉部端口获得了92 kPa(绝对压强)的真空负压.另外,只需低于65 kPa(相对压强)的压强就可以关

  4. Ultrasound-assisted extraction methodology as a tool to improve the antioxidant properties of herbal drug Xiao-chia-hu-tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chu-Ting; Wu, Ching-Yi; Weng, Yih-Ming; Tseng, Chin-Yin

    2005-06-03

    Xiao-chai-hu-tang (XCHT) is an important Chinese herbal prescription for curing many types of liver diseases. The contents of bioactive constituents (saikosaponins a, c and d, baicalin, baicalein, and glycyrrhizic acid), and antioxidant properties of XCHT extracts prepared with ultrasound-assisted (US) extraction in combination with ethanol (up to 95%) as extraction modifier were studied. The results showed that the US extraction significantly increased the bioactive constituents concentrations and antioxidant properties of XCHT extracts when compared with the XCHT prepared with traditional boiling-water extraction. Among the XCHT extracts made with US extraction, the sample prepared with 95% ethanol showed the highest bioactive constituent concentrations and the best antioxidant functionalities. The results suggest that US extraction of XCHT is feasible to replace the traditional time-consuming and low efficiency preparation procedure in the future modernized and commercialized manufacture of this highly valuable Chinese herbal medicine.

  5. Characterization of PR-10 genes from eight Betula species and detection of Bet v 1 isoforms in birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Martijn F; Cordewener, Jan H G; America, Antoine H P; Van't Westende, Wendy P C; Smulders, Marinus J M; Gilissen, Luud J W J

    2009-03-03

    Bet v 1 is an important cause of hay fever in northern Europe. Bet v 1 isoforms from the European white birch (Betula pendula) have been investigated extensively, but the allergenic potency of other birch species is unknown. The presence of Bet v 1 and closely related PR-10 genes in the genome was established by amplification and sequencing of alleles from eight birch species that represent the four subgenera within the genus Betula. Q-TOF LC-MSE was applied to identify which PR-10/Bet v 1 genes are actually expressed in pollen and to determine the relative abundances of individual isoforms in the pollen proteome. All examined birch species contained several PR-10 genes. In total, 134 unique sequences were recovered. Sequences were attributed to different genes or pseudogenes that were, in turn, ordered into seven subfamilies. Five subfamilies were common to all birch species. Genes of two subfamilies were expressed in pollen, while each birch species expressed a mixture of isoforms with at least four different isoforms. Isoforms that were similar to isoforms with a high IgE-reactivity (Bet v 1a = PR-10.01A01) were abundant in all species except B. lenta, while the hypoallergenic isoform Bet v 1d (= PR-10.01B01) was only found in B. pendula and its closest relatives. Q-TOF LC-MSE allows efficient screening of Bet v 1 isoforms by determining the presence and relative abundance of these isoforms in pollen. B. pendula contains a Bet v 1-mixture in which isoforms with a high and low IgE-reactivity are both abundant. With the possible exception of B. lenta, isoforms identical or very similar to those with a high IgE-reactivity were found in the pollen proteome of all examined birch species. Consequently, these species are also predicted to be allergenic with regard to Bet v 1 related allergies.

  6. Development of Tools and Techniques for Processing STORRM Flight Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shane; D'Souza, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    While at JSC for the summer of 2011, I was assigned to work on the sensor test for Orion relative-navigation risk mitigation (STORRM) development test objective (DTO). The STORRM DTO was flown on-board Endeavor during STS-134. The objective of the STORRM DTO is to test the visual navigation system (VNS), which will be used as the primary relative navigation sensor for the Orion spacecraft. The VNS is a flash lidar system intended to provide both line of sight and range information during rendezvous and proximity operations. The STORRM DTO also serves as a testbed for the high-resolution docking camera. This docking camera will be used to provide piloting cues for the crew during proximity operations. These instruments were mounted next to the trajectory control sensor (TCS) in Endeavour s payload bay. My principle objective for the summer was to generate a best estimated trajectory (BET) for Endeavor using the flight data collected by the VNS during rendezvous and the unprecedented re-rendezvous with the ISS. I processed the raw images from the VNS to produce range and bearing measurements. I then aggregated these measurements and extracted the measurements corresponding to individual reflectors. I combined the information contained in these measurements with data from the Endeavour's inertial sensors using Kalman smoothing techniques to ultimately produce a BET. This work culminated with a final presentation of the result to division management. Development of this tool required that traditional linear smoothing techniques be modified in a novel fashion to permit for the inclusion of non-linear measurements. This internship has greatly helped me further my career by providing exposure to real engineering projects. I also have benefited immensely from the mentorship of the engineers working on these projects. Many of the lessons I learned and experiences I had are of particular value because then can only be found in a place like JSC.

  7. Molecular investigations of pathogenesis-related Bet v 1 homologues in Passiflora (Passifloraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Carla; Giacomet, Carolina; Muschner, Valéria C; Salzano, Francisco M; Freitas, Loreta B

    2005-07-01

    The major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, responsible for allergic reactions in many areas of the world, is homologous to a large number of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs), identified as PR10. As part of a long-range investigation of these types of proteins and of evolution in Passiflora, DNA sequences from eight Bet v 1 homologue isoforms were obtained from five species of this genus in Brazil, and their sequences compared among themselves and with 30 others from 8 different species, classified in different taxonomic units. The objective was a first characterization of these PRs in wild passionflowers, and their use for evolutionary and applied investigations. High interspecific, but low intraspecific variability was observed, as expected from multigenic families subjected to concerted evolution. The relationships obtained both within Passiflora and between it and seven other genera probably best reflect functional similarities than evolutionary history.

  8. BET Bromodomain Inhibitors with One-Step Synthesis Discovered from Virtual Screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayoub, Alex M.; Hawk, Laura M.L.; Herzig, Ryan J.; Jiang, Jiewei; Wisniewski, Andrea J.; Gee, Clifford T.; Zhao, Peiliang; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Berndt, Norbert; Offei-Addo, Nana K.; Scott, Thomas G.; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E.; Ward, Timothy R.; Schönbrunn, Ernst; Georg, Gunda I.; Pomerantz, William C.K. (Moffitt); (UMM); (Harvard-Med)

    2017-06-06

    Chemical inhibition of epigenetic regulatory proteins BrdT and Brd4 is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy in contraception, cancer, and heart disease. We report an easily synthesized dihydropyridopyrimidine pan-BET inhibitor scaffold, which was uncovered via a virtual screen followed by testing in a fluorescence anisotropy assay. Dihydropyridopyimidine 3 was subjected to further characterization and is highly selective for the BET family of bromodomains. Structure–activity relationship data and ligand deconstruction highlight the importance of the substitution of the uracil moiety for potency and selectivity. Compound 3 was also cocrystallized with Brd4 for determining the ligand binding pose and rationalizing subsequent structure–activity data. An additional series of dihydropyridopyrimidines was synthesized to exploit the proximity of a channel near the ZA loop of Brd4, leading to compounds with submicromolar affinity and cellular target engagement. Given these findings, novel and easily synthesized inhibitors are being introduced to the growing field of bromodomain inhibitor development.

  9. Benzodiazepines and benzotriazepines as protein interaction inhibitors targeting bromodomains of the BET family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippakopoulos, Panagis; Picaud, Sarah; Fedorov, Oleg; Keller, Marco; Wrobel, Matthias; Morgenstern, Olaf; Bracher, Franz; Knapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are psychoactive drugs with anxiolytic, sedative, skeletal muscle relaxant and amnestic properties. Recently triazolo-benzodiazepines have been also described as potent and highly selective protein interaction inhibitors of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins, a family of transcriptional co-regulators that play a key role in cancer cell survival and proliferation, but the requirements for high affinity interaction of this compound class with bromodomains has not been described. Here we provide insight into the structure–activity relationship (SAR) and selectivity of this versatile scaffold. In addition, using high resolution crystal structures we compared the binding mode of a series of benzodiazepine (BzD) and related triazolo-benzotriazepines (BzT) derivatives including clinically approved drugs such as alprazolam and midazolam. Our analysis revealed the importance of the 1-methyl triazolo ring system for BET binding and suggests modifications for the development of further high affinity bromodomain inhibitors. PMID:22137933

  10. BET Bromodomain Inhibitors with One-Step Synthesis Discovered from Virtual Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Alex M; Hawk, Laura M L; Herzig, Ryan J; Jiang, Jiewei; Wisniewski, Andrea J; Gee, Clifford T; Zhao, Peiliang; Zhu, Jin-Yi; Berndt, Norbert; Offei-Addo, Nana K; Scott, Thomas G; Qi, Jun; Bradner, James E; Ward, Timothy R; Schönbrunn, Ernst; Georg, Gunda I; Pomerantz, William C K

    2017-06-22

    Chemical inhibition of epigenetic regulatory proteins BrdT and Brd4 is emerging as a promising therapeutic strategy in contraception, cancer, and heart disease. We report an easily synthesized dihydropyridopyrimidine pan-BET inhibitor scaffold, which was uncovered via a virtual screen followed by testing in a fluorescence anisotropy assay. Dihydropyridopyimidine 3 was subjected to further characterization and is highly selective for the BET family of bromodomains. Structure-activity relationship data and ligand deconstruction highlight the importance of the substitution of the uracil moiety for potency and selectivity. Compound 3 was also cocrystallized with Brd4 for determining the ligand binding pose and rationalizing subsequent structure-activity data. An additional series of dihydropyridopyrimidines was synthesized to exploit the proximity of a channel near the ZA loop of Brd4, leading to compounds with submicromolar affinity and cellular target engagement. Given these findings, novel and easily synthesized inhibitors are being introduced to the growing field of bromodomain inhibitor development.

  11. Osmolality, temperature, and membrane lipid composition modulate the activity of betaine transporter BetP in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozcan, Nuran; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    to low temperatures. BetP from cold-adapted cells is less sensitive to osmotic stress. In order to become susceptible for chill activation, cold-adapted cells in addition needed a certain amount of osmotic stimulation, indicating that there is cross talk of these two types of stimuli at the level of Bet......P activity. We further correlated the change in BetP regulation properties in cells grown at different temperatures to changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. For this purpose, the glycerophospholipidome of C. glutamicum grown at different temperatures was analyzed by mass spectrometry using...

  12. Characterization of purified recombinant Bet v 1 with authentic N-terminus, cloned in fusion with maltose-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangfort, M D; Ipsen, H; Sparholt, S H; Aasmul-Olsen, S; Larsen, M R; Mørtz, E; Roepstorff, P; Larsen, J N

    1996-11-01

    A gene encoding the pollen major allergen Bet v 1 from Betula verrucosa (White Birch) has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion with maltose-binding protein and a Factor Xa proteolytic cleavage site. A generally applicable cloning strategy based on polymerase chain reaction was designed to position the Factor Xa proteolytic site so that the authentic amino terminus of Bet v 1 was generated after cleavage. Fusion protein was isolated by amylose affinity chromatography and enzymatically cleaved by incubation with Factor Xa. Recombinant Bet v 1 was isolated by gel filtration and gave rise to a single band with apparent molecular weight of 17 kDa when analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. N-terminal sequencing of the first 20 amino acids showed complete agreement with the deduced Bet v 1 DNA sequence. Mass spectrometry showed that recombinant Bet v 1 has a molecular mass of 17,440 +/- 2 Da; 86% of the recombinant Bet v 1 amino acid sequence could be verified by digestion with Lys-C and mass spectrometric peptide mapping. The yield of purified recombinant Bet v 1 was 10 mg per liter E. coli cell culture. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of purified recombinant protein gave rise to one major protein spot and one or two minor spots focusing at slightly different pHs. The immunochemical properties of recombinant protein were indistinguishable from those of naturally occurring Bet v 1 when compared using a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies and serum IgE from birch pollen allergic patients. Furthermore, recombinant Bet v 1 elicited T-cell proliferation comparable to that of natural Bet v 1. Thus, the methods used for bacterial expression and protein purification result in relatively high yields of folded recombinant Bet v 1 with correct N-terminal sequence and molecular mass. Furthermore, the B- and T-cell epitope structures of recombinant Bet v 1 closely resemble those of the natural protein from pollen.

  13. Evidence for Indo-Roman trade from Bet Dwarka waters, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    and the Mediterranean Sea suggest that the artifacts from Bet Dwarka may be datable to Ist century BC to 2nd century AD. The numbers of stone anchors suggest that this was an ancient anchoring point. Keywords: Marine Archaeology, Shipwreck, Indo... Island. The important findings include a late Harappan seal made on conch shell (Rao, 1988), besides a large number of pottery dating back to the Harappan and historical periods (Gaur, et al, 1994). A large number of archaeological artifacts...

  14. Application of BET_EF at Mount Etna: a retrospective analysis (years 2001-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Selva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in volcano monitoring and forecasting need a multidisciplinary collaborative framework. In light of this, a Bayesian Event Tree (BET approach was performed by the application of the BET for Eruption Forecasting (BET_EF code to analyze the space-time distribution of the volcanic activity of Mount Etna from 2001-2005. First, a reliable monitoring dataset was set up after some sessions to elicit geophysical, volcanological and geochemical ‘precursor’ parameters. A constant unrest probability of 100%, with a magma involvement usually greater than 95%, was computed throughout the time period analyzed. Eruption probabilities higher than 90% were estimated a few days before the onsets of the 2001 and 2002-2003 flank eruptions. Values slightly higher than 75% were observed during the lava fountaining period in June-July 2001. However, the probabilities flattened to around 30% for the 2004-2005 flank eruption. With suitable data, a good depiction of the actual location of the eruptive scenario for the 2001 and 2002-2003 events was provided. Conversely, the size of the eruptions was not indicated.

  15. BET and BRAF inhibitors act synergistically against BRAF-mutant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoluzzi, Luca; Hanniford, Douglas; Sokolova, Elena; Osman, Iman; Darvishian, Farbod; Wang, Jinhua; Bradner, James E; Hernando, Eva

    2016-06-01

    Despite major advances in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, treatment failure is still inevitable in most cases. Manipulation of key epigenetic regulators, including inhibition of Bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) family members impairs cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo in different cancers, including melanoma. Here, we investigated the effect of combining the BET inhibitor JQ1 with the BRAF inhibitor Vemurafenib in in vitro and in vivo models of BRAF-mutant melanoma. We performed cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays, and a xenograft mouse model to determine the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of JQ1 in combination with Vemurafenib against BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines. Further, to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of combined treatment, we conducted antibody arrays of in vitro drug-treated cell lines and RNA sequencing of drug-treated xenograft tumors. The combination of JQ1 and Vemurafenib acted synergistically in BRAF-mutant cell lines, resulting in marked apoptosis in vitro, with upregulation of proapoptotic proteins. In vivo, combination treatment suppressed tumor growth and significantly improved survival compared to either drug alone. RNA sequencing of tumor tissues revealed almost four thousand genes that were uniquely modulated by the combination, with several anti-apoptotic genes significantly down-regulated. Collectively, our data provide a rationale for combined BET and BRAF inhibition as a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.

  16. Eomesodermin and T-bet mark developmentally distinct human natural killer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Reiner, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    Immaturity of the immune system of human fetuses and neonates is often invoked to explain their increased susceptibility to infection; however, the development of the fetal innate immune system in early life remains incompletely explored. We now show that the most mature NK cells found in adult (or postnatal) human circulation (CD94–CD16+) are absent during ontogeny. Human fetal NK cells were found to express the 2 signature T-box transcription factors essential for the development of all murine NK and NK-like cells, eomesodermin (Eomes) and T-bet. The single-cell pattern of Eomes and T-bet expression during ontogeny, however, revealed a stereotyped pattern of reciprocal dominance, with immature NK cells expressing higher amounts of Eomes and more mature NK cells marked by greater abundance of T-bet. We also observed a stereotyped pattern of tissue-specific NK cell maturation during human ontogeny, with fetal liver being more restrictive to NK cell maturity than fetal bone barrow, spleen, or lung. These results support the hypothesis that maturation of human NK cells has a discrete restriction until postnatal life, and provide a framework to better understand the increased susceptibility of fetuses and newborns to infection. PMID:28289707

  17. The impact of near-miss events on betting behavior: An examination of casino rapid roulette play

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James A Sundali; Amanda H Safford; Rachel Croson

    2012-01-01

    .... Using a unique data set from the game rapid roulette, we model the likelihood of a gambler betting on a near miss number while controlling for the favorite number bias and the likelihood of a number being a near miss...

  18. Systematic Positive Expected Returns in the UK Fixed Odds Betting Market: An Analysis of the Fink Tank Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Buraimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report striking evidence of semi-strong inefficiency in the UK fixed-odds football betting market using a reputable newspaper tipster which offers probabilities of match outcomes rather than simple result indicators. Betting on the Fink Tank probabilities of home wins across 10 bookmakers, when there are positive expected returns, would have generated positive returns in each of the seasons from 2006–07 to 2011–12 for a variety of different betting strategies. These returns could have been enhanced by employing the best odds from a greater number of bookmakers. However, the fact that pure arbitrage bets have existed for years and appear to last for several hours or days suggest they are in practice not exploitable to a magnitude that poses any threat to bookmakers.

  19. Systematic Positive Expected Returns in the UK Fixed Odds Betting Market: An Analysis of the Fink Tank Predictions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babatunde Buraimo; David Peel; Rob Simmons

    2013-01-01

      We report striking evidence of semi-strong inefficiency in the UK fixed-odds football betting market using a reputable newspaper tipster which offers probabilities of match outcomes rather than simple result indicators...

  20. Transcription Factor T-Bet in Atlantic Salmon: Characterization and Gene Expression in Mucosal Tissues during Aeromonas Salmonicida Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kumari, Jaya; Zhang, Zuobing; Swain, Trilochan; Chi, Heng; Niu, Cuijuan; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy Ambli

    2015-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor T-bet is expressed in a number of hematopoietic cell types in mammals and plays an essential role in the lineage determination of Th1 T-helper cells and is considered...

  1. Transcription factor T-bet in Atlantic salmon: Characterization and gene expression in mucosal tissues during Aeromonas salmonicida infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya eKumari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The T-box transcription factor T-bet is expressed in a number of hematopoietic cell types in mammals and plays an essential role in the lineage determination of Th1 T-helper cells and is considered as an essential feature for both innate and adaptive immune responses in higher vertebrates. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the full-length Atlantic salmon T-bet cDNA (3502 bp. The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence contained 612 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. Phylogenetic study and gene synteny revealed it is a homologue to mammalian T-bet. Quantitative PCR analysis of different tissues in healthy fish showed that salmon T-bet gene was highly expressed in spleen, followed by head kidney, and was expressed in intestine, skin, and liver at lower levels. Moreover, the time dependent expression profile of T-bet, interferon gamma (IFNγ, interleukin-22 (IL-22, and NKEF (Natural killer enhancement factor in mucosal tissues during waterborne infection with live Aeromonas salmonicida, indicated the involvement of T-bet in mucosal immune response in Atlantic salmon.

  2. Stochasticity in the Genotype-Phenotype Map: Implications for the Robustness and Persistence of Bet-Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Daniel; Robertson-Tessi, Mark; Jeavons, Peter; Anderson, Alexander R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nongenetic variation in phenotypes, or bet-hedging, has been observed as a driver of drug resistance in both bacterial infections and cancers. Here, we study how bet-hedging emerges in genotype–phenotype (GP) mapping through a simple interaction model: a molecular switch. We use simple chemical reaction networks to implement stochastic switches that map gene products to phenotypes, and investigate the impact of structurally distinct mappings on the evolution of phenotypic heterogeneity. Bet-hedging naturally emerges within this model, and is robust to evolutionary loss through mutations to both the expression of individual genes, and to the network itself. This robustness explains an apparent paradox of bet-hedging—why does it persist in environments where natural selection necessarily acts to remove it? The structure of the underlying molecular mechanism, itself subject to selection, can slow the evolutionary loss of bet-hedging to ensure a survival mechanism against environmental catastrophes even when they are rare. Critically, these properties, taken together, have profound implications for the use of treatment-holidays to combat bet-hedging-driven resistant disease, as the efficacy of breaks from treatment will ultimately be determined by the structure of the GP mapping. PMID:27770034

  3. T-bet+ B cells are induced by human viral infections and dominate the HIV gp140 response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, James J.; Buggert, Marcus; Kardava, Lela; Seaton, Kelly E.; Eller, Michael A.; Canaday, David H.; Robb, Merlin L.; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Slifka, Mark K.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Moir, Susan; Moody, M. Anthony; Betts, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Humoral immunity is critical for viral control, but the identity and mechanisms regulating human antiviral B cells are unclear. Here, we characterized human B cells expressing T-bet and analyzed their dynamics during viral infections. T-bet+ B cells demonstrated an activated phenotype, a distinct transcriptional profile, and were enriched for expression of the antiviral immunoglobulin isotypes IgG1 and IgG3. T-bet+ B cells expanded following yellow fever virus and vaccinia virus vaccinations and also during early acute HIV infection. Viremic HIV-infected individuals maintained a large T-bet+ B cell population during chronic infection that was associated with increased serum and cell-associated IgG1 and IgG3 expression. The HIV gp140–specific B cell response was dominated by T-bet–expressing memory B cells, and we observed a concomitant biasing of gp140-specific serum immunoglobulin to the IgG1 isotype. These findings suggest that T-bet induction promotes antiviral immunoglobulin isotype switching and development of a distinct T-bet+ B cell subset that is maintained by viremia and coordinates the HIV Env–specific humoral response. PMID:28422752

  4. Transcription Factor T-Bet in Atlantic Salmon: Characterization and Gene Expression in Mucosal Tissues during Aeromonas Salmonicida Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Jaya; Zhang, Zuobing; Swain, Trilochan; Chi, Heng; Niu, Cuijuan; Bøgwald, Jarl; Dalmo, Roy Ambli

    2015-01-01

    The T-box transcription factor T-bet is expressed in a number of hematopoietic cell types in mammals and plays an essential role in the lineage determination of Th1 T-helper cells and is considered as an essential feature for both innate and adaptive immune responses in higher vertebrates. In the present study, we have identified and characterized the full-length Atlantic salmon T-bet cDNA (3502 bp). The putative primary structure of the polypeptide deduced from the cDNA sequence contained 612 aa, which possessed a T-box DNA binding domain. Phylogenetic study and gene synteny revealed it is as a homolog to mammalian T-bet. Quantitative PCR analysis of different tissues in healthy fish showed that salmon T-bet gene was highly expressed in spleen, followed by head kidney, and was expressed in intestine, skin, and liver at lower levels. Moreover, the time-dependent expression profile of T-bet, interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin-22 (IL-22), and natural killer enhancement factor in mucosal tissues during water-borne infection with live Aeromonas salmonicida, indicated the involvement of T-bet in mucosal immune response in Atlantic salmon.

  5. Characterization of the T-cell response to Dau c 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in carrot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulehner, N; Nagl, B; Briza, P; Roulias, A; Ballmer-Weber, B; Zlabinger, G J; Ferreira, F; Bohle, B

    2017-02-01

    In contrast to other Bet v 1-related food allergens, the major carrot allergen, Dau c 1, has been suggested to induce food allergy independently from Bet v 1. As T cells are crucial in the sensitization process, we sought to characterize the T-cell response to Dau c 1 and its cross-reactivity with Bet v 1. Dau c 1-specific T-cell lines (TCL) and clones (TCC) established from PBMC of birch pollen-allergic patients with carrot allergy were analyzed for reactivity to Bet v 1, epitope specificity, allergen-induced cytokine secretion, and expression of integrins α4β7 and α4β1, critical for gut and lung homing, respectively. mRNA expression of GATA3 and Tbet was analyzed in sorted CD3(+) CD4(+) CFSE(low) cells proliferating upon stimulation of PBMC with Dau c 1 or Bet v 1. Dau c 1 was incubated with endolysosomal proteases, and the resulting fragments were identified by mass spectrometry. Among 14 distinct T-cell-activating regions, Dau c 1139-153 was recognized by 55% of the patients. Only 6 of 15 (40%) Dau c 1-specific TCL and 9 of 21 (43%) TCC reacted with Bet v 1. Bet v 1-nonreactive TCC were mainly Th1-like and showed a higher expression of the integrin β7 and a significantly lower expression of the integrin β1 than Bet v 1-positive TCC. A Th1-like response was also detected in Dau c 1-reactive CD3(+) CD4(+) CFSE(low) cells. Full-length Dau c 1 was still detectable after 48 h of endolysosomal degradation. Proteolytic fragments of Dau c 1 matched its T-cell-activating regions. Dau c 1 displays several characteristics of sensitizing allergens, namely a major T-cell-activating region, low susceptibility to endolysosomal degradation, and induction of a Bet v 1-independent T-cell response. These cellular insights confirm that the major carrot allergen has a special status among Bet v 1-related food allergens. © 2016 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Best-bet integrated strategies for containing drug-resistant trypanosomes in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungube Erick O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African animal trypanosomosis is a major constraint to the rearing of productive livestock in the sub-humid Sudan-Sahel zone of West Africa where cotton is grown. Trypanosomosis is mainly controlled using trypanocidal drugs, but the effective use of drugs is threatened by the development of widespread resistance. This study tested integrated best-bet strategies for containment and/ or reversal of trypanocide resistance in villages in south-east Mali where resistance has been reported. Methods Four sentinel villages each from an intervention area (along the road from Mali to Burkina Faso and a control area (along the road from Mali to Côte d’Ivoire were selected for the study. Tsetse control was based on deltamethrin-treated stationary attractive devices and targeted cattle spraying between March 2008 and November 2009. Trypanosome-positive cattle were selectively treated with 3.5 mg/kg diminazene aceturate. Strategic helminth control using 10 mg/kg albendazole was also undertaken. During the intervention, tsetse densities along drainage lines, trypanosome infections and faecal egg counts in risk cattle (3 to 12 months of age were monitored. Results Catch reductions of 66.5 % in Glossina palpalis gambiensis and 90 % in G. tachinoides were observed in the intervention area. Trypanosome prevalence was significantly (p  0.05. Further studies are required before confirming the existence of albendazole resistant strongyles in the study area. Conclusion Integration of best-bet strategies in areas of multiple drug-resistance is expected to reduce trypanosome infection risk thus contributing to containment of trypanocidal drug resistance. Integrated best-bet strategies could therefore be considered a viable trypanosomosis control option especially in areas where multiple drug-resistance has been reported.

  7. Extraction assisted by pulsed electric energy as a potential tool for green and sustainable recovery of nutritionally valuable compounds from mango peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parniakov, Oleksii; Barba, Francisco J; Grimi, Nabil; Lebovka, Nikolai; Vorobiev, Eugene

    2016-02-01

    The study compares the efficiency of conventional aqueous extraction at different temperatures (20-60 °C) and pH (2.5-11) and extraction assisted by pulsed electric energy (pulsed electric fields, PEF or high voltage electrical discharges, HVED) of nutritionally valuable compounds found in mango peels. Exponential decay pulses with initial electric field strengths of ≈ 13.3 kV/cm and ≈ 40 kV/cm for PEF and HVED treatments were used, respectively. The impact of temperature on aqueous extraction of proteins and carbohydrates was not significant. The highest values of nutritionally valuable and antioxidant compounds (7.5mM TE) were obtained for aqueous extraction (T = 60 °C, pH 6) but extracts were unstable and cloudy. The application of two-stage procedure PEF+supplementary aqueous extraction (+SE) that include PEF-assisted extraction as the first step, and +SE at 50 °C, pH 6 during 3h as the second step, allowed a noticeable enhancement of the yields of TPC (+400%) even at normal pH.

  8. Renovation And Adaptation Of The Historic Olsztyn Purification House Bet Tahara Into A Public Utility Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deja, Barbara Maria

    2015-09-01

    The historic Jewish Purification House Bet Tahara was erected in Olsztyn in 1913 on the basis of the debut design of Erich Mendelsohn, a world-famous architect born in Olsztyn. The most valuable element of the building is a self-supporting pyramid vault above a mourning hall. The paper presents the interesting structure of the building, its technical condition before renovation, as well as the scope of work involved in adapting it into a public utility building - MENDELSOHN HOUSE Intercultural Dialogue Centre. The undertaking was executed thanks to the commitment of the building's leaseholder - "Borussia" Cultural Community Association, which raised money for this goal from public funds.

  9. Who decides who has won the bet? Total and Anthropogenic Warming Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K.; Allen, M. R.; Otto, F. E. L.; Schmidt, A.; Frame, D. J.; Forster, P.; Matthews, D.

    2016-12-01

    An extension of the idea of betting markets as a means of revealing opinions about future climate are climate policies indexed to geophysical indicators: for example, to ensure net zero global carbon dioxide emissions by the time anthropogenic warming reaches 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial, given about 1 degree of warming already, emissions must fall, on average, by 20% of their current value for every tenth of a degree of anthropogenic warming from now on. In principle, policies conditioned on some measure of attributable warming are robust to uncertainty in the global climate response: the risk of a higher or lower response than expected is borne by those affected by climate change mitigation policy rather than those affected by climate change impacts, as is the case with emission targets for specific years based on "current understanding" of the response. To implement any indexed policy, or to agree payout terms for any bet on future climate, requires consensus on the definition of the index: how is it calculated, and who is responsible for releasing it? The global mean surface temperature of the current decade relative to pre-industrial may vary by 0.1 degree or more depending on precisely what is measured, what is defined as pre-industrial, and the treatment of regions with sparse data coverage in earlier years. Indices defined using different conventions, however, are all expected to evolve very similarly over the coming decades, so agreeing on a conservative, traceable index such as HadCRUT is more important than debating the "true" global temperature. A more important question is whether indexed policies and betting markets should focus on total warming, including natural and anthropogenic drivers and internal variability, or an Anthropogenic Warming Index (AWI) representing an unbiased estimate of warming attributable to human influence to date. We propose a simple AWI based solely on observed temperatures and global natural and anthropogenic forcing

  10. Dysfunctional CD8+ T cells in hepatitis B and C are characterized by a lack of antigen-specific T-bet induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziorrouh, Bijan; Schraut, Winfried; Backmund, Markus; Wächtler, Martin; Wendtner, Clemens-Martin; Bengsch, Bertram; Thimme, Robert; Denk, Gerald; Zachoval, Reinhart; Dick, Andrea; Spannagl, Michael; Haas, Jürgen; Diepolder, Helmut M.; Jung, Maria-Christina; Gruener, Norbert H.

    2014-01-01

    The transcription factor T-bet regulates the production of interferon-γ and cytotoxic molecules in effector CD8 T cells, and its expression correlates with improved control of chronic viral infections. However, the role of T-bet in infections with differential outcome remains poorly defined. Here, we report that high expression of T-bet in virus-specific CD8 T cells during acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection was associated with spontaneous resolution, whereas T-bet deficiency was more characteristic of chronic evolving infection. T-bet strongly correlated with interferon-γ production and proliferation of virus-specific CD8 T cells, and its induction by antigen and IL-2 stimulation partially restored functionality in previously dysfunctional T-bet–deficient CD8 T cells. However, restoration of a strong interferon-γ response required additional stimulation with IL-12, which selectively induced the phosphorylation of STAT4 in T-bet+ CD8 T cells. The observation that T-bet expression rendered CD8 T cells responsive to IL-12 suggests a stepwise mechanism of T cell activation in which T-bet facilitates the recruitment of additional transcription factors in the presence of key cytokines. These findings support a critical role of T-bet for viral clearance and suggest T-bet deficiency as an important mechanism behind chronic infection. PMID:25225458

  11. Bioprospecting of microalgae: Proper extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatographic-high resolution mass spectrometric fingerprinting as key tools for successful metabolom characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranska-Zachariasova, Milena; Kastanek, Petr; Dzuman, Zbynek; Rubert, Josep; Godula, Michal; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-03-15

    Currently, the interest in microalgae as a source of biologically active components exploitable as supplementary ingredients to food/feed or in cosmetics continues to increase. Existing research mainly aims to focus on revealing and recovering the rare, cost competitive components of the algae metabolom. Because these components could be of very different physicochemical character, a universal approach for their isolation and characterization should be developed. This study demonstrates the systematic development of the extraction strategy that represents one of the key challenges in effective algae bioprospecting, which predefines their further industrial application. By using of Trachydiscus minutus as a model microalgae biomass, following procedures were tested and critically evaluated in order to develop the generic procedure for microalgae bioprospecting: (i) various ways of mechanical disintegration of algae cells enabling maximum extraction efficiency, (ii) the use of a wide range of extraction solvents/solvent mixtures suitable for optimal extraction yields of polar, medium-polar, and non-polar compounds, (iii) the use of consecutive extractions as a fractionation approach. Within the study, targeted screening of selected compounds representing broad range of polarities was realized by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution tandem mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-HRMS/MS), to assess the effectiveness of undertaken isolation steps. As a result, simple and high-throughput extraction-fractionation strategy based on consecutive extraction with water-aqueous methanol-hexane/isopropanol was developed. Moreover, to demonstrate the potential of the UHPLC-HRMS/MS for the retrospective non-target screening and compounds identification, the collected mass spectra have been evaluated to characterize the pattern of extracted metabolites. Attention was focused on medium-/non-polar extracts and characterization of lipid species

  12. Molecular characterization of a human immunoglobulin G4 antibody specific for the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, S; Steinberger, P; Eibensteiner, P B; Lebecque, S; Kraft, D; Valenta, R

    2008-02-01

    Allergen-specific IgG4 antibodies induced by specific immunotherapy are thought to represent a protective immune response. Objective Our aim was the molecular characterization of a human IgG4 antibody (BAB5) specific for the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 that was derived from an immunotherapy-treated patient. The cDNA coding for BAB5 was obtained by reverse transcriptase-PCR from the BAB5-producing cell line, compared with the germ line sequences and was expressed as a soluble antibody fragment in Escherichia coli. The epitope specificity and cross-reactivity of BAB5 were investigated with recombinant and synthetic Bet v 1 fragments and Bet v 1 homologous allergens from pollen. The ability of BAB5 to block allergic patients IgE was determined by competition experiments and sandwich ELISA. BAB5 is an affinity-matured Bet v 1-specific IgG4 antibody that reacts exclusively with Bet v 1 but not with Bet v 1-related allergens. Unlike an earlier-described monoclonal IgG1-blocking antibody, BAB1, which had been isolated from the same patient, BAB5 did not block allergic patients' IgE reactivity to Bet v 1. Our study demonstrates that not all allergen-specific IgG antibodies inhibit IgE recognition of allergens and can contribute to the success of immunotherapy. The epitope specificity and affinity of IgG antibodies but not their isotype are decisive for their protective activity.

  13. Electrical field assisted matrix solid phase dispersion as a powerful tool to improve the extraction efficiency and clean-up of fluoroquinolones in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariana Cristina; Orlando, Ricardo Mathias; Faria, Adriana Ferreira

    2016-08-26

    This work presents a new method by electrical matrix solid phase dispersion for the extraction and clean-up of marbofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in bovine milk. Composition and pH of the eluent, applied electrical potential and polarity were optimized by experimental designs. The combination of the chromatographic and electrophoretic mechanisms allowed the extraction and clean-up in one step with low organic solvent consumption, high extraction throughput and elution automation. Linearity, precision, trueness and limit of quantification were evaluated and provided values in accordance with other methods recently developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones in milk. This technique proved to be promising for the extraction and clean-up of ionizable analytes in different milk matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Bet-hedging in bacteriocin producing Escherichia coli populations: the single cell perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Bihter; Toubiana, David; van Vliet, Simon; Inglis, R. Fredrik; Shnerb, Nadav; Gillor, Osnat

    2017-02-01

    Production of public goods in biological systems is often a collaborative effort that may be detrimental to the producers. It is therefore sustainable only if a small fraction of the population shoulders the cost while the majority reap the benefits. We modelled this scenario using Escherichia coli populations producing colicins, an antibiotic that kills producer cells’ close relatives. Colicin expression is a costly trait, and it has been proposed that only a small fraction of the population actively expresses the antibiotic. Colicinogenic populations were followed at the single-cell level using time-lapse microscopy, and showed two distinct, albeit dynamic, subpopulations: the majority silenced colicin expression, while a small fraction of elongated, slow-growing cells formed colicin-expressing hotspots, placing a significant burden on expressers. Moreover, monitoring lineages of individual colicinogenic cells showed stochastic switching between expressers and non-expressers. Hence, colicin expressers may be engaged in risk-reducing strategies—or bet-hedging—as they balance the cost of colicin production with the need to repel competitors. To test the bet-hedging strategy in colicin-mediated interactions, competitions between colicin-sensitive and producer cells were simulated using a numerical model, demonstrating a finely balanced expression range that is essential to sustaining the colicinogenic population.

  15. Seasonality can induce coexistence of multiple bet-hedging strategies in Dictyostelium discoideum via storage effect

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    D. discoideum has been recently suggested as an example of bet-hedging. Upon starvation a population of unicellular amoebae splits between aggregators, which form a fruiting body made of a stalk and resistant spores, and non-aggregators. Spores are favored by long starvation periods, but vegetative cells can exploit resources in fast-recovering environments. This partition can be understood as a bet-hedging strategy that evolves in response to stochastic starvation times. A genotype is defined by a different balance between each type of cells. In this framework, if the ecological conditions are defined in terms of the mean starvation time (i.e. time between onset of starvation and the arrival of a new food pulse), a single genotype dominates each environment, which is inconsistent with the huge genetic diversity observed in nature. We investigate whether seasonality, represented by a periodic alternation in the mean starvation times, allows the coexistence of several strategies. We use a non-spatial (well-mix...

  16. Targeting the EWS-ETS transcriptional program by BET bromodomain inhibition in Ewing sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Tim; Giorgi, Chiara; Schmidt, Oxana; Calzada-Wack, Julia; Neff, Frauke; Buch, Thorsten; Niggli, Felix K; Schäfer, Beat W; Burdach, Stefan; Richter, Günther H S

    2016-01-12

    Ewing sarcomas (ES) are highly malignant bone or soft tissue tumors. Genetically, ES are defined by balanced chromosomal EWS/ETS translocations, which give rise to chimeric proteins (EWS-ETS) that generate an oncogenic transcriptional program associated with altered epigenetic marks throughout the genome. By use of an inhibitor (JQ1) blocking BET bromodomain binding proteins (BRDs) we strikingly observed a strong down-regulation of the predominant EWS-ETS protein EWS-FLI1 in a dose dependent manner. This was further enhanced by co-treatment with an inhibitor of the PI3K pathway. Microarray analysis further revealed JQ1 treatment to block a typical ES associated expression program. The effect on this expression program was mimicked by RNA interference with BRD3 or BRD4 expression, indicating that the EWS-FLI1 mediated expression profile is at least in part mediated via such epigenetic readers. Consequently, contact dependent and independent proliferation of different ES lines was strongly inhibited. Mechanistically, treatment of ES resulted in a partial arrest of the cell cycle as well as induction of apoptosis. Tumor development was suppressed dose dependently in a xeno-transplant model in immune deficient mice, overall indicating that ES may be susceptible to treatment with epigenetic inhibitors blocking BET bromodomain activity and the associated pathognomonic EWS-ETS transcriptional program.

  17. BET bromodomain inhibition rescues erythropoietin differentiation of human erythroleukemia cell line UT7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goupille, Olivier [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Penglong, Tipparat [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Thalassemia Research Center and Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Lefevre, Carine; Granger, Marine; Kadri, Zahra [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Fucharoen, Suthat [Thalassemia Research Center and Department of Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University (Thailand); Maouche-Chretien, Leila [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Leboulch, Philippe [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Genetics Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Chretien, Stany, E-mail: stany.chretien@cea.fr [CEA, Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); UMR INSERM U.962, University Paris XI, CEA, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2012-12-07

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UT7 erythroleukemia cells are known to be refractory to differentiate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brief JQ1 treatment initiates the first steps of erythroid differentiation program. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Engaged UT7 cells then maturate in the presence of erythropoietin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sustained JQ1 treatment inhibits both proliferation and erythroid differentiation. -- Abstract: Malignant transformation is a multistep process requiring oncogenic activation, promoting cellular proliferation, frequently coupled to inhibition of terminal differentiation. Consequently, forcing the reengagement of terminal differentiation of transformed cells coupled or not with an inhibition of their proliferation is a putative therapeutic approach to counteracting tumorigenicity. UT7 is a human leukemic cell line able to grow in the presence of IL3, GM-CSF and Epo. This cell line has been widely used to study Epo-R/Epo signaling pathways but is a poor model for erythroid differentiation. We used the BET bromodomain inhibition drug JQ1 to target gene expression, including that of c-Myc. We have shown that only 2 days of JQ1 treatment was required to transitory inhibit Epo-induced UT7 proliferation and to restore terminal erythroid differentiation. This study highlights the importance of a cellular erythroid cycle break mediated by c-Myc inhibition before initiation of the erythropoiesis program and describes a new model for BET bromodomain inhibitor drug application.

  18. Bet-hedging in bacteriocin producing Escherichia coli populations: the single cell perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramoglu, Bihter; Toubiana, David; van Vliet, Simon; Inglis, R. Fredrik; Shnerb, Nadav; Gillor, Osnat

    2017-01-01

    Production of public goods in biological systems is often a collaborative effort that may be detrimental to the producers. It is therefore sustainable only if a small fraction of the population shoulders the cost while the majority reap the benefits. We modelled this scenario using Escherichia coli populations producing colicins, an antibiotic that kills producer cells’ close relatives. Colicin expression is a costly trait, and it has been proposed that only a small fraction of the population actively expresses the antibiotic. Colicinogenic populations were followed at the single-cell level using time-lapse microscopy, and showed two distinct, albeit dynamic, subpopulations: the majority silenced colicin expression, while a small fraction of elongated, slow-growing cells formed colicin-expressing hotspots, placing a significant burden on expressers. Moreover, monitoring lineages of individual colicinogenic cells showed stochastic switching between expressers and non-expressers. Hence, colicin expressers may be engaged in risk-reducing strategies—or bet-hedging—as they balance the cost of colicin production with the need to repel competitors. To test the bet-hedging strategy in colicin-mediated interactions, competitions between colicin-sensitive and producer cells were simulated using a numerical model, demonstrating a finely balanced expression range that is essential to sustaining the colicinogenic population. PMID:28165017

  19. High levels of multiple paternity in Littorina saxatilis: hedging the bets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tuuli; Panova, Marina; André, Carl

    2007-01-01

    The mating system of a species can have great effects on its genetic structure and evolution. We studied the extent of multiple paternity in a gastropod with internal fertilization, the intertidal snail Littorina saxatilis. Paternal genotype reconstruction based on microsatellite markers was performed on the offspring of wild, naturally fertilized females from 2 populations. The numbers of males contributing to the offspring per female were among the highest detected in invertebrates so far, with the exception of social insects. No reproductive skew in favor of males that were genetically more distant from the females was detected, and the pattern of fertilization appeared random. The result fits a hypothesis of indiscriminate mating, with genetic bet hedging as the most likely explanation. Bet hedging may have evolved as a form of inbreeding avoidance, if the snails are not able to recognize relatives. However, nutritional benefits from sperm or sexual conflict with males are additional possibilities that remain to be assessed in this species. Whatever the causes, such high levels of multiple paternity are remarkable and are likely to have a large impact on population structure and dynamics in a species in which migration between populations is spurious.

  20. Flow Cytometric Analysis of Particle-bound Bet v 1 Allergen in PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süring, Katrin; Bach, Sabine; Höflich, Conny; Straff, Wolfgang

    2016-11-19

    Flow cytometry is a method widely used to quantify suspended solids such as cells or bacteria in a size range from 0.5 to several tens of micrometers in diameter. In addition to a characterization of forward and sideward scatter properties, it enables the use of fluorescent labeled markers like antibodies to detect respective structures. Using indirect antibody staining, flow cytometry is employed here to quantify birch pollen allergen (precisely Bet v 1)-loaded particles of 0.5 to 10 µm in diameter in inhalable particulate matter (PM10, particle size ≤10 µm in diameter). PM10 particles may act as carriers of adsorbed allergens possibly transporting them to the lower respiratory tract, where they could trigger allergic reactions. So far the allergen content of PM10 has been studied by means of enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and scanning electron microscopy. ELISA measures the dissolved and not the particle-bound allergen. Compared to scanning electron microscopy, which can visualize allergen-loaded particles, flow cytometry may additionally quantify them. As allergen content of ambient air can deviate from birch pollen count, allergic symptoms might perhaps correlate better with allergen exposure than with pollen count. In conjunction with clinical data, the presented method offers the opportunity to test in future experiments whether allergic reactions to birch pollen antigens are associated with the Bet v 1 allergen content of PM10 particles >0.5 µm.

  1. Preclinical Characterization of BET Family Bromodomain Inhibitor ABBV-075 Suggests Combination Therapeutic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Mai H; Lin, Xiaoyu; Albert, Daniel H; Li, Leiming; Lam, Lloyd T; Faivre, Emily J; Warder, Scott E; Huang, Xiaoli; Wilcox, Denise; Donawho, Cherrie K; Sheppard, George S; Wang, Le; Fidanze, Steve; Pratt, John K; Liu, Dachun; Hasvold, Lisa; Uziel, Tamar; Lu, Xin; Kohlhapp, Fred; Fang, Guowei; Elmore, Steven W; Rosenberg, Saul H; McDaniel, Keith F; Kati, Warren M; Shen, Yu

    2017-06-01

    ABBV-075 is a potent and selective BET family bromodomain inhibitor that recently entered phase I clinical trials. Comprehensive preclinical characterization of ABBV-075 demonstrated broad activity across cell lines and tumor models, representing a variety of hematologic malignancies and solid tumor indications. In most cancer cell lines derived from solid tumors, ABBV-075 triggers prominent G1 cell-cycle arrest without extensive apoptosis. In this study, we show that ABBV-075 efficiently triggers apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma cells. Apoptosis induced by ABBV-075 was mediated in part by modulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, exhibiting synergy with the BCL-2 inhibitor venetoclax in preclinical models of AML. In germinal center diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, BCL-2 levels or venetoclax sensitivity predicted the apoptotic response to ABBV-075 treatment. In vivo combination studies uncovered surprising benefits of low doses of ABBV-075 coupled with bortezomib and azacitidine treatment, despite the lack of in vitro synergy between ABBV-075 and these agents. The in vitro/in vivo activities of ABBV-075 described here may serve as a useful reference to guide the development of ABBV-075 and other BET family inhibitors for cancer therapy. Cancer Res; 77(11); 2976-89. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Identification and functional characterization of Bet protein as a negative regulator of BFV3026 replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Tiejun; Wu, Kai; Cui, Xiaoxu; Shao, Peng; Zhang, Qicheng; Bai, Xiaobo; Tan, Juan; Qiao, Wentao

    2014-06-01

    Foamy virus (FV) establishes persistent infection in the host without causing apparent disease. Besides the transactivator Tas protein, another auxiliary protein--Bet--has been reported in prototype foamy virus, equine foamy virus, and feline foamy virus. Here, we found the putative bbet gene in clone C74 from a cDNA library of bovine foamy virus strain 3026 (BFV3026) by comparison of gene localization, composition, and splicing features with other known bet genes. Subsequently, BBet protein was detected in BFV3026-infected cells by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses. Analysis of the BBet mutant infectious clone (pBS-BFVdelBBet) revealed that BBet could inhibit BFV3026 replication. Consistent with this result, overexpression of BBet in Cf2Th cells reduced BFV replication by approximately threefold. Furthermore, virus replication levels similarly were reduced by approximately threefold in pBS-BFV-transfected and BFV3026-infected Cf2Th cells stably expressing BBet compared with control cells. After three passages, BFV3026 replicated more slowly in BBet-expressing cells. This study implicates BBet as a negative regulator of BFV replication and provides a resource for future studies on the function of this protein in the virus lifecycle.

  3. The BET family member BRD4 interacts with OCT4 and regulates pluripotency gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Pinto, Hugo Borges; Kamikawa, Yasunao F; Donohoe, Mary E

    2015-03-10

    Embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency is controlled by defined transcription factors. During cellular differentiation, ESCs undergo a global epigenetic reprogramming. Female ESCs exemplify this process as one of the two X-chromosomes is globally silenced during X chromosome inactivation (XCI) to balance the X-linked gene disparity with XY males. The pluripotent factor OCT4 regulates XCI by triggering X chromosome pairing and counting. OCT4 directly binds Xite and Tsix, which encode two long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that suppress the silencer lncRNA, Xist. To control its activity as a master regulator in pluripotency and XCI, OCT4 must have chromatin protein partners. Here we show that BRD4, a member of the BET protein subfamily, interacts with OCT4. BRD4 occupies the regulatory regions of pluripotent genes and the lncRNAs of XCI. BET inhibition or depletion of BRD4 reduces the expression of many pluripotent genes and shifts cellular fate showing that BRD4 is pivotal for transcription in ESCs.

  4. Role of metabolic modulator Bet-CA in altering mitochondrial hyperpolarization to suppress cancer associated angiogenesis and metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Suchandrima; Ghosh, Monisankar; Dutta, Samir Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Solid tumors characteristically reflect a metabolic switching from glucose oxidation to glycolysis that plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis and metastasis to facilitate aggressive tumor outcomes. Hyperpolarized mitochondrial membrane potential is a manifestation of malignant cells that compromise the intrinsic pathways of apoptosis and confer a suitable niche to promote the cancer associated hallmark traits. We have previously reported that co-drug Bet-CA selectively targets cancer cells by inducing metabolic catastrophe without a manifest in toxicity. Here we report that the same molecule at a relatively lower concentration deregulates the cardinal phenotypes associated with angiogenesis and metastasis. In mice syngeneic 4T1 breast cancer model, Bet-CA exhibited effective abrogation of angiogenesis and concomitantly obliterated lung metastasis consistent with altered mitochondrial bioenergetics. Furthermore, Bet-CA significantly lowered vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels and obviated matrix metalloproteases (MMP-2/9) production directly to the criterion where abrogation of autocrine VEGF/VEGFR2 signalling loop was documented. In vitro studies anticipatedly documented the role of Bet-CA in inhibiting actin remodeling, lamellipodia formation and cell membrane ruffling to constitutively suppress cell motility and invasion. Results comprehensively postulate that Bet-CA, a mitochondria targeting metabolic modulator may serve as an excellent candidate for combating angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:27003027

  5. Playing smart vs. playing safe: the joint expression of phenotypic plasticity and potential bet hedging across and within thermal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, A M

    2014-06-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity evolves when cues reliably predict fitness consequences of life-history decisions, whereas bet hedging evolves when environments are unpredictable. These modes of response should be jointly expressed, because environmental variance is composed of both predictable and unpredictable components. However, little attention has been paid to the joint expression of plasticity and bet hedging. Here, I examine the simultaneous expression of plasticity in germination rate and two potential bet-hedging traits - germination fraction and within-season diversification in timing of germination - in seeds from multiple seed families of five geographically distant populations of Lobelia inflata (L.) subjected to a thermal gradient. Populations differ in germination plasticity to temperature, in total germination fraction and in the expression of potential diversification in the timing of germination. The observation of a negative partial correlation between the expression of plasticity and germination variance (potential diversification), and a positive correlation between plasticity and germination fraction is suggestive of a trade-off between modes of response to environmental variance. If the observed correlations are indicative of those between adaptive plasticity and bet hedging, we expect an optimal balance to exist and differ among populations. I discuss the challenges involved in testing whether the balance between plasticity and bet hedging depends on the relative predictability of environmental variance.

  6. High efficiency protocol of DNA extraction from Micromys minutus mandibles from owl pellets: a tool for molecular research of cryptic mammal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buś, Magdalena M; Zmihorski, Michał; Romanowski, Jerzy; Balčiauskienė, Laima; Cichocki, Jan; Balčiauskas, Linas

    2014-01-01

    Owl pellets have high potential as a source of DNA. However, this noninvasive method of collecting DNA is rarely used, and its methodological aspects are poorly understood. We investigated the methodology for DNA extraction and amplification from owl pellets containing the smallest European rodent-the Harvest mouse Micromys minutus-as an example. We used mandibles identified in owl pellets for mitochondrial and nuclear DNA amplification. For DNA extraction, we tested two commercial protocols and utilized a protocol being a combination of two commercial kits which ensured high efficiency of DNA extraction. Additionally, we recorded that the amount of DNA was five times higher in extracts from teeth as compared to DNA extracts from jawbones derived from the same mandible. The quantity of DNA was significantly positively correlated with biological sample weight; however, the age of the pellet remains had an impact on the level of inhibition. We recorded inhibition in 40 % of mtDNA extracts derived from pellets older than 150 months, whereas in DNA extracts from pellets younger than 80 months, we did not observe a negative impact of inhibition on PCR efficiency. The amplification success rate was 89.9 % for the mitochondrial fragment and 39.4 % in the case of the nuclear fragment. We observed partial degradation of DNA evidenced by the fact that the longest fragments that we were able to amplify in the case of mtDNA were 450 and 200 bp for nuDNA. The study shows that pellets can be considered as a source of DNA and have high potential for molecular research in the case of threatened species and species that are difficult to study using standard field techniques.

  7. Expression of T -bet/GATA -3 in decidual tissue of patients with preeclampsia%T - bet/GATA -3在子痫前期患者蜕膜组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳红; 杨海澜; 韩方

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the expression levels of T - bet/GATA - 3 in decidual tissues between normal pregnant women and patients with preeclampsia, explore their relationships with the occurrence of preeclampsia. Methods; A case - control study was performed, 13 patients with mild preeclampsia and 13 patients with severe preeclampsia were selected as study group, 14 normal pregnant women were selected as control group. Western blotting was used to compare the expression levels of T - bet/GATA - 3 in the three groups. Results: The expression level of T - bet in study group was higher than that in control group, the expression level of T - bet in severe preeclampsia group was higher than that in mild preeclampsia group, there was significant difference (P <0.05) . The expression level of GATA -3 in study group was lower than that in control group, the expression level of GATA -3 in severe preeclampsia group was lower than that in mild preeclampsia group, there was significant difference. There was significant difference in the ratio of T - bet/GATA - 3 among the three groups, and the ratio of T - bet/GATA - 3 increased with the aggravation of the disease. There was a significant negative correlation between T - bet and GATA - 3 (γ = - 0. 895, P < 0.05 ) . Conclusion: The unbalance and disorder of T - bet expression and GATA - 3 expression is an important link in the immune pathogenesis of preeclampsia, Thl/Th2 unbalance may be a pathogenesis of hypertensive disorder complicating pregnancy.%目的:比较T - bet/CATA -3在正常妊娠和子痫前期患者蜕膜组织中的表达水平,并探讨两者与子痫前期发病的关系.方法:采用病例对照研究方法,选择轻度子痫前期和重度子痫前期患者各13例作为研究组,选择14例正常妊娠孕妇为对照组,用Western bloting方法比较三组孕妇蜕膜中T- bet/GATA -3的表达水平.结果:①研究组T- bet表达水平比对照组高,重度子痫前期组比轻度组高,各组比

  8. CODEHOP法设计引物克隆色盐杆菌ST307胆碱脱氢酶基因及其序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Choline Dehydrogenase betA Gene Fragment by CODEHOP from Chromohalobacter sp.ST307

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冬华; 齐文静; 纪婧琦; 戴美学; 夏志洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the synthesis of betaine from Chromohalobacter sp. ST307 and obtain choline dehydrogenase betA gene fragment for the sequence analysis. Methods Betaine was extracted and detected by alcohol extraction from Chromohalobacter sp. ST307. CODEHOP software was used to online design the degenerate primers to carry out PCR of choline dehydrogenase betA gene obtained and molecular biological softwares were used for the sequence analysis. Results Chromohalobacter sp. ST307 cells accumulated betaine. The betA gene fragment with a length of 485 bp was obtained by PCR. BLAST sequence analysis indicated that the sequence had higher similarity, to betA gene of GenBank and the highest similarity reached 83%. Nucleotide phylogenetic analysis showed that betA gene sequence of strain ST307 had a close evolutionary relationship with Pseudomonas fulva 12-X. Conclusion The degenerate primers designed by the CODEHOP software can be used to obtain specific gene fragment with strong credibility. The success of cloning betA gene fragment will provide scientific basis for obtaining all sequences of choline dehydrogenase gene and studying salt-tolerant mechanism and genetic improvement.%目的 研究色盐杆菌ST307甜菜碱的合成,克隆分析其胆碱脱氢酶betA基因片段.方法 采用醇提法提取色盐杆菌ST307中的甜菜碱并检测,用CODEHOP在线程序设计简并引物扩增胆碱脱氢酶betA基因序列,并进行序列分析.结果 色盐杆菌ST307细胞中积累甜菜碱,通过PCR获得长度为485bp的betA基因片段.BLAST序列分析显示该基因序列与多个菌株的betA基因序列具有较高的同源性,最高达83%.核苷酸序列比对及进化树构建结果显示,色盐杆菌ST307胆碱脱氢酶基因序列与Pseudomonas fulva 12-X进化关系最为接近.结论 CODEHOP法设计的简并引物可信性较强,同时betA基因片段的成功克隆将为获得ST307胆碱脱氢酶基因的全序列、研究耐盐机制和遗传改良提供科学依据.

  9. The role of the Th1 transcription factor T-bet in a mouse model of immune-mediated bone-marrow failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Desierto, Marie J; Chen, Jichun; Young, Neal S

    2010-01-21

    The transcription factor T-bet is a key regulator of type 1 immune responses. We examined the role of T-bet in an animal model of immune-mediated bone marrow (BM) failure using mice carrying a germline T-bet gene deletion (T-bet(-/-)). In comparison with normal C57BL6 (B6) control mice, T-bet(-/-) mice had normal cellular composition in lymphohematopoietic tissues, but T-bet(-/-) lymphocytes were functionally defective. Infusion of 5 x 10(6) T-bet(-/-) lymph node (LN) cells into sublethally irradiated, major histocompatibility complex-mismatched CByB6F1 (F1) recipients failed to induce the severe marrow hypoplasia and fatal pancytopenia that is produced by injection of similar numbers of B6 LN cells. Increasing T-bet(-/-) LN-cell dose to 10 to 23 x 10(6) per recipient led to only mild hematopoietic deficiency. Recipients of T-bet(-/-) LN cells had no expansion in T cells or interferon-gamma-producing T cells but showed a significant increase in Lin(-)Sca1(+)CD117(+)CD34(-) BM cells. Plasma transforming growth factor-beta and interleukin-17 concentrations were increased in T-bet(-/-) LN-cell recipients, possibly a compensatory up-regulation of the Th17 immune response. Continuous infusion of interferon-gamma resulted in hematopoietic suppression but did not cause T-bet(-/-) LN-cell expansion or BM destruction. Our data provided fresh evidence demonstrating a critical role of T-bet in immune-mediated BM failure.

  10. Genetic association of ankylosing spondylitis with TBX21 influences T-bet and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in humans and SKG mice as a model of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Max C; Keith, Patricia; Costello, Mary-Ellen; Bradbury, Linda A; Hollis, Kelly A; Thomas, Ranjeny; Thomas, Gethin P; Brown, Matthew A; Kenna, Tony J

    2017-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly heritable immune-mediated arthropathy. Inflammation in AS is poorly understood. TBX21 encodes T-bet, a transcription factor, lying within a locus with genome-wide significant association with AS. T-bet is implicated in innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of T-bet in AS pathogenesis is unclear. We assessed the importance of T-bet in disease development and progression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 172 AS cases and 83 healthy controls carrying either risk or protective alleles of the peak AS-associated TBX21 single nucleotide polymorphism. Kinetics and localisation of T-bet expression in the SKG mouse model of spondyloarthropathy was examined, along with the impact of Tbx21 knockout on arthritis development in SKG mice. Patients with AS had higher T-bet expression than healthy individuals, driven predominantly by natural killer and CD8+ T cells, with expression levels in CD8+ T cells completely distinguishing AS cases from healthy controls. T-bet expression was increased in AS cases carrying risk compared with protective alleles of rs11657479. In curdlan-treated SKG mice, T-bet expression increased early after disease initiation and persisted throughout the course of disease. There was marked reduction in gut and peripheral joint inflammation, and less IFNγ-producing and IL-17-producing CD8+ T cells, in Tbx21-/- compared with wild-type SKG mice. AS-associated variants in TBX21 influence T-bet expression. T-bet+ innate and adaptive immune cells have altered IL-17 and IFNγ, and early activation marker CD69 expression than T-bet cells. This indicates that T-bet is a major component of inflammatory pathways of spondyloarthropathy in humans and mice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Comparison and evaluation of cloud point extraction and low-temperature directed crystallization as preconcentration tools for the determination of trace elements in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giokas, D.L.; Eksperiandova, L.P.; Blank, A.B.; Karayannis, M.I

    2004-03-03

    A comparative study between cloud point extraction (CPE) and low-temperature directed crystallization (LTDC) is presented. Trace elements (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe) were preconcentrated by both methods from model and natural water samples and the results were evaluated with respect to extraction efficiency, accuracy, precision, sample throughput and interferences. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were used for the final measurements. The results indicate that these extraction and preconcentration procedures ensure the required accuracy and precision for the reliable identification and quantification of trace elements in natural waters. Drawbacks of each method identified can further assist the analyst towards a better application of each method depending on the target species, the detector employed and the application intended (routine analysis, trace analysis, speciation analysis, etc.)

  12. Utilização de nano-partículas para a obtenção de betões de elevado desempenho

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Tiago Manuel da Rocha; Torgal, Fernando Pacheco; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Jesus, Carlos M. G.

    2014-01-01

    Os betões de elevado desempenho apresentam vantagens várias sobre os betões correntes nomeadamente elevada resistência e durabilidade. Estes materiais permitem a execução de estruturas com menor quantidade de aço e com uma vida útil superior, fatores cruciais para a ecoeficiência daquelas. Apesar disso as publicações sobre betões com nano-partículas são escassas, representando apenas 1% do total de publicações sobre estes materiais. As publicações sobre betões de elevado desemp...

  13. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D

    2017-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a_11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a_11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a_11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a_11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG4 binding to rBet v 1a_11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular characterization of Bip 1, a monoclonal antibody that modulates IgE binding to birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffer, S; Vangelista, L; Steinberger, P; Kraft, D; Pastore, A; Valenta, R

    1996-12-01

    Bet v 1 and homologous proteins represent major cross-reactive allergens for more than 95% of tree pollen-, fruit-, and vegetable-allergic individuals. To study the interaction of Bet v 1 and the immune system, we characterized a Bet v 1-specific mAb, Bip 1. Soluble rBip 1 Fabs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography using immobilized Bet v 1. Bip 1 Fabs displayed a cross-reactivity to homologous allergens comparable with that of IgE Abs from allergic patients. Preincubation of Bet v 1 with Bip 1 led to an up to fivefold increase of allergic patients' IgE binding to Bet v 1. This enhancement in IgE binding may be interpreted as stabilization of a Bet v 1 state, in which certain IgE epitopes are better applicable. It also shows that allergic patients possess IgE Abs directed against different Bet v 1 conformations. The modulation of Ab binding to a given Ag by other Abs was observed also for human Bet v 1-specific IgG Abs, and may represent a novel mechanism for the regulation of specific humoral immune responses in a complex network.

  15. The transcription factor T-bet is essential for the development of NKp46+ innate lymphocytes via the Notch pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Lucille C; Groom, Joanna R; Chopin, Michaël; Herold, Marco J; Walker, Jennifer A; Mielke, Lisa A; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Carotta, Sebastian; Nutt, Stephen L; Belz, Gabrielle T

    2013-04-01

    NKp46+ innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) serve important roles in regulating the intestinal microbiota and defense against pathogens. Whether NKp46+ ILCs arise directly from lymphoid tissue-inducer (LTi) cells or represent a separate lineage remains controversial. We report here that the transcription factor T-bet (encoded by Tbx21) was essential for the development of NKp46+ ILCs but not of LTi cells or nuocytes. Deficiency in interleukin 22 (IL-22)-producing NKp46+ ILCs resulted in greater susceptibility of Tbx21-/- mice to intestinal infection. Haploinsufficient T-bet expression resulted in lower expression of the signaling molecule Notch, and Notch signaling was necessary for the transition of LTi cells into NKp46+ ILCs. Furthermore, NKp46+ ILCs differentiated solely from the CD4- LTi population, not the CD4+ LTi population. Our results pinpoint the regulation of Notch signaling by T-bet as a distinct molecular pathway that guides the development of NKp46+ ILCs.

  16. Substrate-bound outward-open state of the betaine transporter BetP provides insights into Na+ coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Camilo; Faust, Belinda; Mehdipour, Ahmad Reza; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Forrest, Lucy R.; Ziegler, Christine

    2014-07-01

    The Na+-coupled betaine symporter BetP shares a highly conserved fold with other sequence unrelated secondary transporters, for example, with neurotransmitter symporters. Recently, we obtained atomic structures of BetP in distinct conformational states, which elucidated parts of its alternating-access mechanism. Here, we report a structure of BetP in a new outward-open state in complex with an anomalous scattering substrate, adding a fundamental piece to an unprecedented set of structural snapshots for a secondary transporter. In combination with molecular dynamics simulations these structural data highlight important features of the sequential formation of the substrate and sodium-binding sites, in which coordinating water molecules play a crucial role. We observe a strictly interdependent binding of betaine and sodium ions during the coupling process. All three sites undergo progressive reshaping and dehydration during the alternating-access cycle, with the most optimal coordination of all substrates found in the closed state.

  17. CXCR6 marks a novel subset of T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi) natural killer cells residing in human liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmann, Kerstin A; Robertson, Francis; Hansi, Navjyot; Gill, Upkar; Pallant, Celeste; Christophides, Theodoros; Pallett, Laura J; Peppa, Dimitra; Dunn, Claire; Fusai, Giuseppe; Male, Victoria; Davidson, Brian R; Kennedy, Patrick; Maini, Mala K

    2016-05-23

    Natural killer cells (NK) are highly enriched in the human liver, where they can regulate immunity and immunopathology. We probed them for a liver-resident subset, distinct from conventional bone-marrow-derived NK. CXCR6+ NK were strikingly enriched in healthy and diseased liver compared to blood (p hi)Eomes(lo)(CXCR6-) and T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi)(CXCR6+); the latter was virtually absent in the periphery. The small circulating CXCR6+ subset was predominantly T-bet(hi)Eomes(lo), suggesting its lineage was closer to CXCR6- peripheral than CXCR6+ liver NK. These data reveal a large subset of human liver-resident T-bet(lo)Eomes(hi) NK, distinguished by their surface expression of CXCR6, adapted for hepatic tolerance and inducible anti-viral immunity.

  18. The intestinal microbiota determines the colitis-inducing potential of T-bet-deficient Th cells in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Jakob; Durek, Pawel; Kühl, Anja A; Schattenberg, Florian; Maschmeyer, Patrick; Siracusa, Francesco; Lehmann, Katrin; Westendorf, Kerstin; Weber, Melanie; Riedel, René; Müller, Susann; Radbruch, Andreas; Chang, Hyun-Dong

    2017-09-06

    Conflicting evidence has been provided as to whether induction of intestinal inflammation by adoptive transfer of naïve T cells into Rag(-/-) mice requires expression of the transcription factor T-bet by the T cells. Here, we formally show that the intestinal microbiota composition of the Rag(-/-) recipient determines whether or not T-bet-deficient Th cells can induce colitis and we have resolved the differences of the two microbiomes, permissive or non-permissive to T-bet-independent colitis. Our data highlight the dominance of the microbiota over particular T cell differentiation programs in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel benzoxazole derivatives DCPAB and HPAB attenuate Th1 cell-mediated inflammation through T-bet suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yeon Ji; Kim, Darong; Oh, Sera; Jang, Eun Jung; Won, Hee Yeon; Jeong, Hana; Jeong, Mi Gyeong; Choo, Hea-Young Park; Hwang, Eun Sook

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), a critical inflammatory cytokine, is primarily produced by T helper 1 (Th1) cells and accelerates the pathogenesis of inflammatory colitis. Pharmacological suppression of IFN-γ production attenuates dysregulated inflammatory responses and may be beneficial for treating inflammatory disease. In this study, we aimed to discover potent anti-inflammatory compounds that suppress IFN-γ production and found that the novel benzoxazole derivatives, 2-((3,4-dichlorophenyl) amino) benzo[d]xazol-5-ol (DCPAB) and 2-((3,4-hydroxyphenyl) amino) benzo[d]xazol-5-ol (HPAB), suppressed IFN-γ production by T cells. Treatment of CD4+ T cells with DCPAB and HPAB selectively inhibited Th1 cell development, and DCPAB more potently suppressed IFN-γ than HPAB did. Interestingly, DCPAB and HPAB significantly suppressed the expression of T-box containing protein expressed in T cells (T-bet) that activates IFN-γ gene transcription. DCPAB additionally suppressed transcriptional activity of T-bet on IFN-γ gene promoter, whereas HPAB had no effect on T-bet activity. IFN-γ suppressive activity of DCPAB and HPAB was impaired in the absence of T-bet but was retrieved by the restoration of T-bet in T-bet-deficient T cells. Furthermore, DCPAB and HPAB attenuated inflammatory colitis development that was induced by CD4+ T cells in vivo. We suggest that the novel benzoxazole derivatives, DCPAB and HPAB, may have therapeutic effects on inflammatory colitis. PMID:28169371

  20. Introducing Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence (CE-LIF) as a Potential Analysis and Quantification Tool for Galactooligosaccharides Extracted from Complex Food Matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albrecht, S.A.; Schols, H.A.; Klarenbeek, B.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis and quantification of (galacto)oligosaccharides from food matrices demands both a reproducible extraction method as well as a sensitive and accurate analytical method. Three typical matrices, namely, infant formula, fruit juice, and a maltodextrin-rich preparation, to which a commercial

  1. PENGARUH STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN BIOLOGY ENVIRONMENT TECHNOLOGY SOCIETY (BETS TERHADAP KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS DAN HASIL BELAJAR BIOLOGI KELAS X KOTA MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Arum Sasi Mahardika

    2016-08-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran BETS terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis dan hasil belajar biologi  kelas X SMA Kota Malang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di SMAN 7 Malang pada bulan Februari-Mei 2016. Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan hasil belajar kognitif diukur melalui tes tulis sedangkan ranah afektif dan psikomor diukur melalui observasi selama pembelajaran. Data kemampuan berpikir kritis dan hasil belajar kognitif dianalisis menggunakan uji statistik dengan bantuan Software SPSS 22.0 for Window. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada pengaruh strategi BETS terhadap kemampuan berpikir kritis dan hasil belajar kognitif; afektif kelas eksperimen lebih tinggi dibandingkan kelas kontrol; psikomotor kelas kontrol lebih tinggi dibandingkan kelas kontrol.

  2. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. Objective The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. Methods DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. Results From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Psweight loss clustered within games (Pweight outcomes. Conclusions DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced excellent 4-week weight loss results. Given its reach and potential public health

  3. Speculation in Fixed Futures:An Ethnography of Betting in between Legal and Illegal Economies at the Delhi Racecourse

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Stine Simonsen

    2014-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis concerns betting in India. It is based on a long-term fieldwork at the Delhi racecourse and examines speculations behind the social and economic practices of betting on horse races. Speculation is understood as a method of profit seeking tied to interpretative methods on imprecise knowledge. These speculations are located in the context of an Indian economy, while parallels to global finance are drawn. The thesis follows a number of bettors in their daily life inside and out...

  4. Effect of Cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Ageing on T-Bet and Eomes Expression on T-Cell Subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh, Fakhri; Lopez-Sejas, Nelson; Campos, Carmen; Sanchez-Correa, Beatriz; Tarazona, Raquel; Pera, Alejandra; Solana, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    The differential impact of ageing and cytomegalovirus (CMV) latent infection on human T-cell subsets remains to some extent controversial. The purpose of this study was to analyse the expression of the transcription factors T-bet and Eomes and CD57 on CD4+, CD4hiCD8lo and CD8+ T-cell subsets in healthy individuals, stratified by age and CMV serostatus. The percentage of CD4+ T-cells expressing T-bet or Eomes was very low, in particular in CD4+ T-cells from young CMV-seronegative individuals, and were higher in CMV-seropositive older individuals, in both CD57− and CD57+ CD4+ T-cells. The study of the minor peripheral blood double-positive CD4hiCD8lo T-cells showed that the percentage of these T-cells expressing both Eomes and T-bet was higher compared to CD4+ T-cells. The percentage of CD4hiCD8lo T-cells expressing T-bet was also associated with CMV seropositivity and the coexpression of Eomes, T-bet and CD57 on CD4hiCD8lo T-cells was only observed in CMV-seropositive donors, supporting the hypothesis that these cells are mature effector memory cells. The percentage of T-cells expressing Eomes and T-bet was higher in CD8+ T-cells than in CD4+ T-cells. The percentages of CD8+ T-cells expressing Eomes and T-bet increased with age in CMV-seronegative and -seropositive individuals and the percentages of CD57− CD8+ and CD57+ CD8+ T-cells coexpressing both transcription factors were similar in the different groups studied. These results support that CMV chronic infection and/or ageing are associated to the expansion of highly differentiated CD4+, CD4hiCD8lo and CD8+ T-cells that differentially express T-bet and Eomes suggesting that the expression of these transcription factors is essential for the generation and development of an effector-memory and effector T lymphocytes involved in conferring protection against chronic CMV infection. PMID:28661443

  5. Estrategias de «quodlíbet» en el escenario internacional contemporáneo: las acciones de India, Brasil y Sudáfrica (IBSA en los ámbitos multilaterales The Strategies of "Quodlíbet" in the international contemporary scene: the actions of India, Brazil and South Africa (IBSA in the multilateral spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa Giaccaglia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Frente al cada vez más complejo sistema internacional contemporáneo, se plantea la necesidad de crear nuevas herramientas conceptuales que contribuyan a una mejor comprensión de la realidad mundial. En este contexto, se otorga especial relevancia al fortalecimiento de una perspectiva propiamente latinoamericana introduciendo la noción de estrategia de quodlíbet con el objetivo de analizar la creciente y multifacética presencia de los poderes emergentes en los ámbitos decisorios globales.Faced with increasingly complex international system, raises the need for new conceptual tools that contribute to a better understanding of global reality. In this context, attaches special importance to strengthening Latin American perspective by introducing the notion of quodlibet strategy with the aim of analyzing the growing and multifaceted presence of emerging powers in global decision-making levels.

  6. Young children bet on their numerical skills: metacognition in the numerical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Vy A; Li, Rosa; Kornell, Nate; Pouget, Alexandre; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2014-09-01

    Metacognition, the ability to assess one's own knowledge, has been targeted as a critical learning mechanism in mathematics education. Yet the early childhood origins of metacognition have proven difficult to study. Using a novel nonverbal task and a comprehensive set of metacognitive measures, we provided the strongest evidence to date that young children are metacognitive. We showed that children as young as 5 years made metacognitive "bets" on their numerical discriminations in a wagering task. However, contrary to previous reports from adults, our results showed that children's metacognition is domain specific: Their metacognition in the numerical domain was unrelated to their metacognition in another domain (emotion discrimination). Moreover, children's metacognitive ability in only the numerical domain predicted their school-based mathematics knowledge. The data provide novel evidence that metacognition is a fundamental, domain-dependent cognitive ability in children. The findings have implications for theories of uncertainty and reveal new avenues for training metacognition in children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Immune disease-associated variants in gene enhancers point to BET epigenetic mechanisms for therapeutic intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, David F; Prinjha, Rab K

    2016-12-07

    Genome-wide association studies have identified thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human genome that are statistically associated with particular disease traits. In this Perspective, we review emerging data suggesting that most single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with immune-mediated diseases are found in regulatory regions of the DNA - parts of the genome that control expression of the protein encoding genes - rather than causing mutations in proteins. We discuss how the emerging understanding of particular gene regulatory regions, gene enhancers and the epigenetic mechanisms by which they are regulated is opening up new opportunities for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases, focusing particularly on the BET family of epigenetic reader proteins as potential therapeutic targets.

  8. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this work BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry are used to characterize leached layers formed when seawater-soluble pigments (Cu2O and ZnO) dissolve during accelerated leaching of simple antifouling coatings. Measurements on single-pigment coatings show that an increasing...... fraction of Cu2O or ZnO pigment particles becomes unavailable for dissolution when the concentration of the pigment decreases in the coating and the interparticle distance in the binder matrix becomes larger. Experimental data for a coating initially containing a mixture of Cu2O and TiO2 pigments suggest...... that a substantial fraction of the smaller and inert TiO2 particles may be lost from the coating upon dissolution of the larger Cu2O particles. This inert particle translocation effect is important to take into account when interpreting polishing and leaching data and when developing mathematical models...

  9. Enzyme discovery beyond homology: a unique hydroxynitrile lyase in the Bet v1 superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranchi, Elisa; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Koehler, Eva-Maria; Diepold, Matthias; Steiner, Kerstin; Darnhofer, Barbara; Hartler, Jürgen; van den Bergh, Tom; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Gruber-Khadjawi, Mandana; Thallinger, Gerhard G.; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Gruber, Karl; Winkler, Margit; Glieder, Anton

    2017-05-01

    Homology and similarity based approaches are most widely used for the identification of new enzymes for biocatalysis. However, they are not suitable to find truly novel scaffolds with a desired function and this averts options and diversity. Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) are an example of non-homologous isofunctional enzymes for the synthesis of chiral cyanohydrins. Due to their convergent evolution, finding new representatives is challenging. Here we show the discovery of unique HNL enzymes from the fern Davallia tyermannii by coalescence of transcriptomics, proteomics and enzymatic screening. It is the first protein with a Bet v1-like protein fold exhibiting HNL activity, and has a new catalytic center, as shown by protein crystallography. Biochemical properties of D. tyermannii HNLs open perspectives for the development of a complementary class of biocatalysts for the stereoselective synthesis of cyanohydrins. This work shows that systematic integration of -omics data facilitates discovery of enzymes with unpredictable sequences and helps to extend our knowledge about enzyme diversity.

  10. Discovery and characterization of small molecule inhibitors of the BET family bromodomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chun-Wa; Coste, Herve; White, Julia H; Mirguet, Olivier; Wilde, Jonathan; Gosmini, Romain L; Delves, Chris; Magny, Sylvie M; Woodward, Robert; Hughes, Stephen A; Boursier, Eric V; Flynn, Helen; Bouillot, Anne M; Bamborough, Paul; Brusq, Jean-Marie G; Gellibert, Francoise J; Jones, Emma J; Riou, Alizon M; Homes, Paul; Martin, Sandrine L; Uings, Iain J; Toum, Jerome; Clement, Catherine A; Boullay, Anne-Benedicte; Grimley, Rachel L; Blandel, Florence M; Prinjha, Rab K; Lee, Kevin; Kirilovsky, Jorge; Nicodeme, Edwige

    2011-06-09

    Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation have a profound role in normal development and disease processes. An integral part of this mechanism occurs through lysine acetylation of histone tails which are recognized by bromodomains. While the biological and structural characterization of many bromodomain containing proteins has advanced considerably, the therapeutic tractability of this protein family is only now becoming understood. This paper describes the discovery and molecular characterization of potent (nM) small molecule inhibitors that disrupt the function of the BET family of bromodomains (Brd2, Brd3, and Brd4). By using a combination of phenotypic screening, chemoproteomics, and biophysical studies, we have discovered that the protein-protein interactions between bromodomains and acetylated histones can be antagonized by selective small molecules that bind at the acetylated lysine recognition pocket. X-ray crystal structures of compounds bound into bromodomains of Brd2 and Brd4 elucidate the molecular interactions of binding and explain the precisely defined stereochemistry required for activity.

  11. T-bet over-expression regulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated T helper type 17 differentiation through an interferon (IFN)γ-independent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokosawa, M; Kondo, Y; Tahara, M; Iizuka-Koga, M; Segawa, S; Kaneko, S; Tsuboi, H; Yoh, K; Takahashi, S; Matsumoto, I; Sumida, T

    2017-04-01

    Various transcription factors are also known to enhance or suppress T helper type 17 (Th17) differentiation. We have shown previously that the development of collagen-induced arthritis was suppressed in T-bet transgenic (T-bet Tg) mice, and T-bet seemed to suppress Th17 differentiation through an interferon (IFN)-γ-independent pathway, although the precise mechanism remains to be clarified. The present study was designed to investigate further the mechanisms involved in the regulation of Th17 differentiation by T-bet over-expression, and we found the new relationship between T-bet and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Both T-bet Tg mice and IFN-γ(-/-) -over-expressing T-bet (T-bet Tg/IFN-γ(-/-) ) mice showed inhibition of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor (ROR)γt expression and IL-17 production by CD4(+) T cells cultured under conditions that promote Th-17 differentiation, and decreased IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) phosphorylation in CD4(+) T cells. The mRNA expression of ahr and rorc were suppressed in CD4(+) T cells cultured under Th-17 conditions from T-bet Tg mice and T-bet Tg/IFN-γ(-/-) mice. CD4(+) T cells of wild-type (WT) and IFN-γ(-/-) mice transduced with T-bet-expressing retrovirus also showed inhibition of IL-17 production, whereas T-bet transduction had no effect on IL-6R expression and STAT-3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, the mRNA expression of ahr and rorc were suppressed in CD4(+) T cells with T-bet transduction cultured under Th17 conditions. The enhancement of interleukin (IL)-17 production from CD4(+) T cells by the addition of AHR ligand with Th17 conditions was cancelled by T-bet over-expression. Our findings suggest that T-bet over-expression-induced suppression of Th17 differentiation is mediated through IFN-γ-independent AHR suppression.

  12. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Daube, Mike

    2017-01-19

    Gambling can cause significant health and social harms for individuals, their families, and communities. While many studies have explored the individual factors that may lead to and minimise harmful gambling, there is still limited knowledge about the broader range of factors that may contribute to gambling harm. There are significant regulations to prevent the marketing of some forms of gambling but comparatively limited regulations relating to the marketing of newer forms of online gambling such as sports betting. There is a need for better information about how marketing strategies may be shaping betting attitudes and behaviours and the range of policy and regulatory responses that may help to prevent the risky or harmful consumption of these products. We conducted qualitative, semi-structured interviews with 50 Australian men (aged 20-37 years) who gambled on sports. We explored their attitudes and opinions regarding sports betting marketing, the embedding of marketing within sports and other non-gambling community environments, and the implications this had for the normalisation of betting. Our findings indicate that most of the environments in which participants reported seeing or hearing betting advertisements were not in environments specifically designed for betting. Participants described that the saturation of marketing for betting products, including through sports-based commentary and sports programming, normalised betting. Participants described that the inducements offered by the industry were effective marketing strategies in getting themselves and other young men to bet on sports. Inducements were also linked with feelings of greater control over betting outcomes and stimulated some individuals to sign up with more than one betting provider. This research suggests that marketing plays a strong role in the normalisation of gambling in sports. This has the potential to increase the risks and subsequent harms associated with these products

  13. Expression of T - bet and GATA3 in The Pathogenesis of Psoriasis%银屑病患者皮损T-bet/GATA3表达的免疫组化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晋广; 刘玉峰; 任小丽

    2007-01-01

    目的 检测Th1/Th2细胞特异性转录因子T-bet/GATA3在寻常性银屑病患者皮损中表达,探讨T-bet/GATA3在银屑病发病机制中的作用及意义.方法 采用免疫组化ABC法研究银屑病患者皮损中T-bet、GATA3表达,并以15例正常人作为对照组.通过图像分析技术进行定量分析.结果 银屑病皮损中既可表达T-bet,又可表达GATA3,而在正常皮肤不表达.定量分析显示,皮损中T-bet表达水平显著高于GATA3(P<0.05).结论 T-bet/GATA3表达的失衡和T-bet高表达可能参与了银屑病发病过程.

  14. RetroPred: A tool for prediction, classification and extraction of non-LTR retrotransposons (LINEs & SINEs) from the genome by integrating PALS, PILER, MEME and ANN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Pradeep Kumar; Mittal, Vinay Kumar; Gupta, Sumit

    2008-01-27

    The problem of predicting non-long terminal repeats (LTR) like long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) from the DNA sequence is still an open problem in bioinformatics. To elevate the quality of annotations of LINES and SINEs an automated tool "RetroPred" was developed. The pipeline allowed rapid and thorough annotation of non-LTR retrotransposons. The non-LTR retrotransposable elements were initially predicted by Pairwise Aligner for Long Sequences (PALS) and Parsimonious Inference of a Library of Elementary Repeats (PILER). Predicted non-LTR elements were automatically classified into LINEs and SINEs using ANN based on the position specific probability matrix (PSPM) generated by Multiple EM for Motif Elicitation (MEME). The ANN model revealed a superior model (accuracy = 78.79 +/- 6.86 %, Q(pred) = 74.734 +/- 17.08 %, sensitivity = 84.48 +/- 6.73 %, specificity = 77.13 +/- 13.39 %) using four-fold cross validation. As proof of principle, we have thoroughly annotated the location of LINEs and SINEs in rice and Arabidopsis genome using the tool and is proved to be very useful with good accuracy. Our tool is accessible at http://www.juit.ac.in/RepeatPred/home.html.

  15. Effects of the BET-inhibitor, RVX-208 on the HDL lipidome and glucose metabolism in individuals with prediabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebel, Andrew L; Trinh, Si Khiang; Formosa, Melissa F

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) can modulate glucose metabolism through multiple mechanisms. This study determined the effects of a novel bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitor (RVX-208) and putative apoA-I inducer on lipid species contained within HDL...

  16. The Interaction of the Gammaherpesvirus 68 orf73 Protein with Cellular BET Proteins Affects the Activation of Cell Cycle Promoters▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Matthias; Pliquet, Daniel; Christalla, Thomas; Frank, Ronald; Stewart, James P.; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Infection of mice with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) provides a valuable animal model for gamma-2 herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) infection and pathogenesis. The MHV-68 orf73 protein has been shown to be required for the establishment of viral latency in vivo. This study describes a novel transcriptional activation function of the MHV-68 orf73 protein and identifies the cellular bromodomain containing BET proteins Brd2/RING3, Brd3/ORFX, and BRD4 as interaction partners for the MHV-68 orf73 protein. BET protein members are known to interact with acetylated histones, and Brd2 and Brd4 have been implicated in fundamental cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation and transcriptional regulation. Using MHV-68 orf73 peptide array assays, we identified Brd2 and Brd4 interaction sites in the orf73 protein. Mutation of one binding site led to a loss of the interaction with Brd2/4 but not the retinoblastoma protein Rb, to impaired chromatin association, and to a decreased ability to activate the BET-responsive cyclin D1, D2, and E promoters. The results therefore pinpoint the binding site for Brd2/4 in a rhadinoviral orf73 protein and suggest that the recruitment of a member of the BET protein family allows the MHV-68 orf73 protein to activate the promoters of G1/S cyclins. These findings point to parallels between the transcriptional activator functions of rhadinoviral orf73 proteins and papillomavirus E2 proteins. PMID:19244327

  17. Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Garcia, A.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Birch pollen allergy is predominantly caused by the major allergen Bet v 1 and can lead to crossreactions with homologous proteins in food. Two major cross-reactive food allergens are Dau c 1 from carrot and Api g 1 from celery, which have never been purified from their natural source. Here, we desc

  18. Never smile at a crocodile: betting on electronic gaming machines is intensified by reptile-induced arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockloff, Matthew J; Greer, Nancy

    2010-12-01

    Tourists at the Koorana Saltwater Crocodile Farm in Coowonga, Queensland, Australia, including 62 males and 41 females, aged 18-66 (M = 34.2, SD = 13.3), were randomly assigned to play a laptop-simulated Electronic Gaming Machine (EGM) either: (1) prior to entry, or (2) after having held a 1-m saltwater-crocodile. Gambling behavior; including bet-size, speed of betting, final payouts and trials played on the EGM; was investigated with respect to participants' assigned arousal condition, problem-gambling status, and affective state. At-risk gamblers with few self-reported negative emotions placed higher average bets at the EGM after having held the crocodile when compared to the control. In contrast, at-risk gamblers with many self-reported negative emotions placed lower average bets at the EGM after having held the crocodile. The results suggest that high arousal can intensify gambling in at-risk players, but only if this feeling state is not perceived as a negative emotion.

  19. Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Garcia, A.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Birch pollen allergy is predominantly caused by the major allergen Bet v 1 and can lead to crossreactions with homologous proteins in food. Two major cross-reactive food allergens are Dau c 1 from carrot and Api g 1 from celery, which have never been purified from their natural source. Here, we desc

  20. The role of lipids and salts in two-dimensional crystallization of the glycine-betaine transporter BetP from Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsai, Ching-Ju; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej;

    2007-01-01

    The osmoregulated and chill-sensitive glycine-betaine transporter (BetP) from Corynebacterium glutamicum was reconstituted into lipids to form two-dimensional (2D) crystals. The sensitivity of BetP partly bases on its interaction with lipids. Here we demonstrate that lipids and salts influence...

  1. Seven different genes encode a diverse mixture of isoforms of Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilissen Ludovicus JWJ

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen of the European white birch (Betula pendula, syn. B. verrucosa is an important cause of hay fever. The main allergen is Bet v 1, member of the pathogenesis-related class 10 (PR-10 multigene family. To establish the number of PR-10/Bet v 1 genes and the isoform diversity within a single tree, PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of PR-10 genes was performed on two diploid B. pendula cultivars and one interspecific tetraploid Betula hybrid. Sequences were attributed to putative genes based on sequence identity and intron length. Information on transcription was derived by comparison with homologous cDNA sequences available in GenBank/EMBL/DDJB. PCR-cloning of multigene families is accompanied by a high risk for the occurrence of PCR recombination artifacts. We screened for and excluded these artifacts, and also detected putative artifact sequences among database sequences. Results Forty-four different PR-10 sequences were recovered from B. pendula and assigned to thirteen putative genes. Sequence homology suggests that three genes were transcribed in somatic tissue and seven genes in pollen. The transcription of three other genes remains unknown. In total, fourteen different Bet v 1-type isoforms were identified in the three cultivars, of which nine isoforms were entirely new. Isoforms with high and low IgE-reactivity are encoded by different genes and one birch pollen grain has the genetic background to produce a mixture of isoforms with varying IgE-reactivity. Allergen diversity is even higher in the interspecific tetraploid hybrid, consistent with the presence of two genomes. Conclusion Isoforms of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 are encoded by multiple genes, and we propose to name them accordingly. The present characterization of the Bet v 1 genes provides a framework for the screening of specific Bet v 1 genes among other B. pendula cultivars or Betula species, and for future breeding for trees with a reduced

  2. Engraftment of retrovirally transduced Bet v 1-GFP expressing bone marrow cells leads to allergen-specific tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattringer, Martina; Baranyi, Ulrike; Pilat, Nina; Hock, Karin; Klaus, Christoph; Buchberger, Elisabeth; Ramsey, Haley; Iacomini, John; Valenta, Rudolf; Wekerle, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Molecular chimerism is a promising strategy to induce tolerance to disease-causing antigens expressed on genetically modified haematopoietic stem cells. The approach was employed successfully in models of autoimmunity and organ transplantation. Recently, we demonstrated that molecular chimerism induces robust and lasting tolerance towards the major grass pollen allergen Phl p 5. Since allergens are a group of antigens differing widely in their function, origin and structure we further examined the effectiveness of molecular chimerism using the Phl p 5-unrelated major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, co-expressed with the reporter GFP. Besides, inhibition of CD26 was used to promote engraftment of modified stem cells. Retrovirus VSV-Betv1-GFP was generated to transduce 5-FU-mobilized BALB/c hematopoietic cells to express membrane-bound Bet v 1 (VSV-GFP virus was used as control). Myeloablated BALB/c mice received Betv1-GFP or GFP expressing bone marrow cells, pre-treated with a CD26 inhibitor. Chimerism was followed by flow cytometry. Tolerance was assessed by measuring allergen-specific isotype levels in sera, RBL assays and T-cell proliferation assays. Mice transplanted with transduced BMC developed multi-lineage molecular chimerism which remained stable long-term (>8 months). After repeated immunizations with Bet v 1 and Phl p 5 serum levels of Bet v 1-specific antibodies (IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG3 and IgA) remained undetectable in Betv1-GFP chimeras while high levels of Phl p 5-specific antibodies developed. Likewise, basophil degranulation was induced in response to Phl p 5 but not to Bet v 1 and specific non-responsiveness to Bet v 1 was observed in proliferation assays. These data demonstrate successful tolerization towards Bet v 1 by molecular chimerism. Stable long-term chimerism was achieved under inhibition of CD26. These results provide evidence for the broad applicability of molecular chimerism as tolerance strategy in allergy.

  3. Method development towards qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis of multiple pesticides from food surfaces and extracts by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry as a preselective tool for food control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbig, Stefanie; Stern, Gerold; Brunn, Hubertus E; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Spengler, Bernhard; Schulz, Sabine

    2017-03-01

    Direct analysis of fruit and vegetable surfaces is an important tool for in situ detection of food contaminants such as pesticides. We tested three different ways to prepare samples for the qualitative desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) analysis of 32 pesticides found on nine authentic fruits collected from food control. Best recovery rates for topically applied pesticides (88%) were found by analyzing the surface of a glass slide which had been rubbed against the surface of the food. Pesticide concentration in all samples was at or below the maximum residue level allowed. In addition to the high sensitivity of the method for qualitative analysis, quantitative or, at least, semi-quantitative information is needed in food control. We developed a DESI-MS method for the simultaneous determination of linear calibration curves of multiple pesticides of the same chemical class using normalization to one internal standard (ISTD). The method was first optimized for food extracts and subsequently evaluated for the quantification of pesticides in three authentic food extracts. Next, pesticides and the ISTD were applied directly onto food surfaces, and the corresponding calibration curves were obtained. The determination of linear calibration curves was still feasible, as demonstrated for three different food surfaces. This proof-of-principle method was used to simultaneously quantify two pesticides on an authentic sample, showing that the method developed could serve as a fast and simple preselective tool for disclosure of pesticide regulation violations. Graphical Abstract Multiple pesticide residues were detected and quantified in-situ from an authentic set of food items and extracts in a proof of principle study.

  4. Validation of LC for the determination of alpha-mangostin in mangosteen peel extract: a tool for quality assessment of Garcinia mangostana L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodhnu, Sukit; Sirikatitham, Anusak; Wattanapiromsakul, Chatchai

    2009-03-01

    Mangosteen, Garcinia mangostana L., is known as the "Queen of fruits" and can be cultivated in the tropical rainforest such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and Thailand. Compounds isolated from the fruit peel of mangosteen contain abundant xanthones (especially alpha-mangostin). It has been used as traditional medicine such as anti-inflammatory and antibacterial and is popularly applied to cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. However, there is little information for quality and quantity determination of alpha-mangostin in mangosteen. Thus, the aim of this study was to set up a validated and stability-indicated isocratic reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for quality control and quantity determination of a-mangostin from mangosteen peel extract. The assay was fully validated and shown to be linear (r(2) > 0.999), sensitive (LOD = 0.02 microg/mL and LOQ = 0.08 microg/mL), accurate (intra-day was between 98.1-100.8%, inter-day was between 90.0-101.3%), precise (intra-day variation mangosteen peel extract and products of mangosteen.

  5. Enhanced Trace-Fiber Color Discrimination by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry: A Quantitative and Qualitative Tool for the Analysis of Dyes Extracted from Sub-millimeter Nylon Fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-09-26

    The application of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) to trace-fiber color analysis is explored using acidic dyes commonly employed to color nylon-based fibers, as well as extracts from dyed nylon fibers. Qualitative information about constituent dyes and quantitative information about the relative amounts of those dyes present on a single fiber become readily available using this technique. Sample requirements for establishing the color-identity of different samples (i.e., comparative trace-fiber analysis) are shown to be sub-millimeter. Absolute verification of dye-mixture identity (beyond the comparison of molecular weights derived from ESI-MS) can be obtained by expanding the technique to include tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). For dyes of unknown origin, the ESI-MS/MS analyses may offer insights into the chemical structure of the compound--information not available from chromatographic techniques alone. This research demonstrates that ESI-MS is viable as a sensitive technique for distinguishing dye constituents extracted from a minute amount of trace fiber evidence. A protocol is suggested to establish/refute the proposition that two fibers--one of which is available in minute quantity only--are of the same origin.

  6. Osmotic stress response in Acinetobacter baylyi: identification of a glycine-betaine biosynthesis pathway and regulation of osmoadaptive choline uptake and glycine-betaine synthesis through a choline-responsive BetI repressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Anica; Stahl, Julia; de Berardinis, Veronique; Müller, Volker; Averhoff, Beate

    2016-04-01

    Acinetobacter baylyi, a ubiquitous soil bacterium, can cope with high salinity by uptake of choline as precursor of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Here, we report on the identification of a choline dehydrogenase (BetA) and a glycine betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BetB) mediating the oxidation of choline to glycine betaine. The betAB genes were found to form an operon together with the potential transcriptional regulator betI. The transcription of the betIBA operon and the two recently identified choline transporters was upregulated in response to choline and choline plus salt. The finding that the osmo-independent transporter BetT1 undergoes a higher upregulation in response to choline alone than betT2 suggests that BetT1 does not primarily function in osmoadaptation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays led to the conclusion that BetI mediates transcriptional regulation of both, the betIBA gene operon and the choline transporters. BetI was released from the DNA in response to choline which together with the transcriptional upregulation of the bet genes in the presence of choline suggests that BetI is a choline sensing transcriptional repressor.

  7. HEXIM1 as a Robust Pharmacodynamic Marker for Monitoring Target Engagement of BET Family Bromodomain Inhibitors in Tumors and Surrogate Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaoyu; Huang, Xiaoli; Uziel, Tamar; Hessler, Paul; Albert, Daniel H; Roberts-Rapp, Lisa A; McDaniel, Keith F; Kati, Warren M; Shen, Yu

    2017-02-01

    An increasing number of BET family protein inhibitors have recently entered clinical trials. It has been reported that attempts of monitoring target engagement of the BET bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 using literature-described putative pharmacodynamic markers, such as c-Myc, BRD2, etc., failed to detect pharmacodynamic marker responses in AML patients treated at active dose and those with clinical responses. Here, we report the identification and characterization of HEXIM1 and other genes as robust pharmacodynamic markers for BET inhibitors. Global gene expression profiling studies were carried out using cancer cells and surrogate tissues, such as whole blood and skin, to identify genes that are modulated by BET family proteins. Candidate markers were further characterized for concentration- and time-dependent responses to the BET inhibitor ABBV-075 in vitro and in vivo HEXIM1 was found to be the only gene that exhibited robust and consistent modulation by BET inhibitors across multiple cancer indications and surrogate tissues. Markers such as SERPINI1, ZCCHC24, and ZMYND8 were modulated by ABBV-075 and other BET inhibitors across cancer cell lines and xenograft tumors but not in blood and skin. Significant downregulation of c-Myc, a well-publicized target of BET inhibitors, was largely restricted to hematologic cancer cell lines. Incorporating well-characterized pharmacodynamic markers, such as HEXIM1 and other genes described here, can provide a better understanding of potential efficacy and toxicity associated with inhibiting BET family proteins and informs early clinical decisions on BET inhibitor development programs. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(2); 388-96. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a birch pollen minor allergen, Bet v 5, belonging to a family of isoflavone reductase-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamloo, F; Schmitz, N; Scheurer, S; Foetisch, K; Hoffmann, A; Haustein, D; Vieths, S

    1999-11-01

    Birch pollen is a major cause of pollinosis and is responsible for cross-reactive oral allergies to fruits, nuts, and vegetables. The major allergen, Bet v 1, has been extensively characterized, and 3 minor allergens, Bet v 2, Bet v 3, and Bet v 4, have been cloned and sequenced. Recently, another birch pollen protein with an apparent mass of 35 kd was described as a new IgE-binding protein in birch pollen with cross-reacting homologues in plant foods. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of the 35-kd birch pollen allergen and to investigate its immunologic properties. On the basis of a known complementary DNA fragment, a PCR strategy was applied to obtain the full-length nucleotide sequence of the coding region. The protein was expressed as His-Tag fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-chelate affinity chromatography. Nonfusion protein was obtained by cyanogen bromide treatment of the fusion protein. IgE-binding characteristics and potential allergenicity were investigated by immunoblot, immunoblot inhibition analysis, rat basophil leukemia-cell mediator release assay, and basophil histamine release and compared with those of natural (n) Bet v 5, recombinant (r)Bet v 1, and rBet v 2. Recombinant Bet v 5 has a mass of 33 kd, an isoelectric point of 9.0, and sequence identity of 60% to 80% to isoflavone reductase homologue proteins from various plants. On immunoblots the recombinant Bet v 5 bound IgE from 9 (32%) of 28 sera from patients allergic to birch pollen with a CAP class of at least 3; Bet v 1 was detected by 89% of these patients. IgE immunoblot and inhibition experiments showed that nBet v 5 and rBet v 5 shared identical epitopes. A rabbit antiserum raised against pea isoflavone reductase and patients' IgE reacted with Bet v 5 and proteins of similar size in several vegetable foods, including exotic fruits. A similar reaction pattern was obtained with 2 Bet v 5-specific mAbs. Furthermore, Bet v 5 triggered a dose

  9. Optimum BET surface areas for activated carbon produced from textile sewage sludges and its application as dye removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacan, Erdal

    2016-01-15

    The purpose of this experimental study is to determine optimum preparation conditions for activated carbons obtained from textile sewage sludge (TSS) for removal of dyes from aqueous solutions. The textile sewage sludge activated carbon (TSSAC) was prepared by chemical activation with potassium hydroxide using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The most influential factor on each experimental design responses was identified via ANNOVA analysis. Based on the central composite design (CCD), quadratic model was developed to correlate the preparation variables for one response which is the Brunauer-Emmelt-Teller (BET) surface area. RSM based on a three-variable CCD was used to determine the effect of pyrolyzed temperature (400-700 °C), carbonization time (45-180 min) and KOH: weight of TSS (wt%) impregnation ratio (0.5:1-1.5:1) on BET surface area. According to the results, pyrolyzed temperature and impregnation ratio were found as the significant factors for maximizing the BET surface area. The major effect which influences the BET surface area was found as pyrolyzed temperature. Both carbonization time and impregnation ratio of KOH had no significant effect. The optimum conditions for preparing TSSAC, based on response surface and contour plots, were found as follows: pyrolyzed temperature 700 °C, carbonization time of 45 min and chemical impregnation ratio of 0.5. The maximum and optimum BET surface area of TSSAC were found as 336 m(2)/g and 310.62 m(2)/g, respectively. Synozol Blue reactive (RSB) and Setapers Yellow-Brown (P2RFL) industrial textile dyes adsorption capacities were investigated. As expected the TSSAC which has the biggest BET surface area (336 m(2)/g) adsorbed dye best. The maximum (RSB) and (P2RFL) uptake capacities were found as 8.5383 mg/g and 5.4 mg/g, respectively. The results of this study indicated the applicability of TSSAC for removing industrial dyes from aqueous solution.

  10. Observations of high-energy electrons with the bets instrument and the future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torii, S.; Tamura, T.; Tateyama, N.; Yoshida, K.; Ouchi, T.; Nishimura, J.; Yamagami, T.; Saito, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Komori, Y.; Kasahara, K.; Yuda, T.

    We have developed the balloon-borne electron telescope with scintillating fibers (BETS) for the observation of cosmic-ray electrons in 10 -100 GeV. The detector is an imaging calorimeter consisting of the scintillating-fiber belts of 36 layers (each 280 mm wide) and the 8 plates of lead (each 5mm thick ). The rejection of the background protons was performed with an efficiency of ˜2000 using the shower imaging capability with high granulation. The balloon observations were carried out in 1997 and in 1998 at Sanriku Balloon Center (ISAS) in Japan. The observed electron flux is consistent around a few 10 GeV with the recent results reported by the HEAT group. Comparing the flux with theoretical expectations by a diffusion model, the best fit is obtained for the model of a diffusion coefficient of 2 × 10 28( E/GeV) 0.3 cm b/sec in the SN rate of once per 30 years in the Galaxy. In January, 2003, a newly-developed scintillating fiber detector will be borne on the Polar Patrol Balloon (PPB) in Antarctica and exposed for 30 days to the cosmic radiations. We can increase the statistics of electron number in 10-1000 GeV by 10 times comparing to the present data.

  11. T-Bet and Eomes Regulate the Balance between the Effector/Central Memory T Cells versus Memory Stem Like T Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Li

    Full Text Available Memory T cells are composed of effector, central, and memory stem cells. Previous studies have implicated that both T-bet and Eomes are involved in the generation of effector and central memory CD8 T cells. The exact role of these transcription factors in shaping the memory T cell pool is not well understood, particularly with memory stem T cells. Here, we demonstrate that both T-bet or Eomes are required for elimination of established tumors by adoptively transferred CD8 T cells. We also examined the role of T-bet and Eomes in the generation of tumor-specific memory T cell subsets upon adoptive transfer. We showed that combined T-bet and Eomes deficiency resulted in a severe reduction in the number of effector/central memory T cells but an increase in the percentage of CD62L(highCD44(low Sca-1(+ T cells which were similar to the phenotype of memory stem T cells. Despite preserving large numbers of phenotypic memory stem T cells, the lack of both of T-bet and Eomes resulted in a profound defect in antitumor memory responses, suggesting T-bet and Eomes are crucial for the antitumor function of these memory T cells. Our study establishes that T-bet and Eomes cooperate to promote the phenotype of effector/central memory CD8 T cell versus that of memory stem like T cells.

  12. Two tandem RNase III cleavage sites determine betT mRNA stability in response to osmotic stress in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minji Sim

    Full Text Available While identifying genes regulated by ribonuclease III (RNase III in Escherichia coli, we observed that steady-state levels of betT mRNA, which encodes a transporter mediating the influx of choline, are dependent on cellular concentrations of RNase III. In the present study, we also observed that steady-state levels of betT mRNA are dependent on RNase III activity upon exposure to osmotic stress, indicating the presence of cis-acting elements controlled by RNase III in betT mRNA. Primer extension analyses of betT mRNA revealed two tandem RNase III cleavage sites in its stem-loop region, which were biochemically confirmed via in vitro cleavage assays. Analyses of cleavage sites suggested the stochastic selection of cleavage sites by RNase III, and mutational analyses indicated that RNase III cleavage at either site individually is insufficient for efficient betT mRNA degradation. In addition, both the half-life and abundance of betT mRNA were significantly increased in association with decreased RNase III activity under hyper-osmotic stress conditions. Our findings demonstrate that betT mRNA stability is controlled by RNase III at the post-transcriptional level under conditions of osmotic stress.

  13. Crystallographically mapped ligand binding differs in high and low IgE binding isoforms of birch pollen allergen bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Stefan; Asam, Claudia; Eckhard, Ulrich; Wallner, Michael; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans

    2012-09-07

    The ability of pathogenesis-related proteins of family 10 to bind a broad spectrum of ligands is considered to play a key role for their physiological and pathological functions. In particular, Bet v 1, an archetypical allergen from birch pollen, is described as a highly promiscuous ligand acceptor. However, the detailed recognition mechanisms, including specificity factors discriminating binding properties of naturally occurring Bet v 1 variants, are poorly understood. Here, we report crystal structures of Bet v 1 variants in complex with an array of ligands at a resolution of up to 1.2 Å. Residue 30 within the hydrophobic pocket not only discriminates in high and low IgE binding Bet v 1 isoforms but also induces a drastic change in the binding mode of the model ligand deoxycholate. Ternary crystal structure complexes of Bet v 1 with several ligands together with the fluorogenic reporter 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate explain anomalous fluorescence binding curves obtained from 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate displacement assays. The structures reveal key interaction residues such as Tyr83 and rationalize both the binding specificity and promiscuity of the so-called hydrophobic pocket in Bet v 1. The intermolecular interactions of Bet v 1 reveal an unexpected complexity that will be indispensable to fully understand its roles within the physiological and allergenic context.

  14. Molecular characterization of recombinant T1, a non-allergenic periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus) protein, with sequence similarity to the Bet v 1 plant allergen family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffer, Sylvia; Hamdi, Said; Lupinek, Christian; Sperr, Wolfgang R; Valent, Peter; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Grote, Monika; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Karin; Scheiner, Otto; Kraft, Dietrich; Rideau, Marc; Valenta, Rudolf

    2003-07-01

    More than 25% of the population suffer from Type I allergy, an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity disease. Allergens with homology to the major birch ( Betula verrucosa ) pollen allergen, Bet v 1, belong to the most potent elicitors of IgE-mediated allergies. T1, a cytokinin-inducible cytoplasmic periwinkle ( Catharanthus roseus ) protein, with significant sequence similarity to members of the Bet v 1 plant allergen family, was expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant T1 (rT1) did not react with IgE antibodies from allergic patients, and failed to induce basophil histamine release and immediate-type skin reactions in Bet v 1-allergic patients. Antibodies raised against purified rT1 could be used for in situ localization of natural T1 by immunogold electron microscopy, but did not cross-react with most of the Bet v 1-related allergens. CD analysis showed significant differences regarding secondary structure and thermal denaturation behaviour between rT1 and recombinant Bet v 1, suggesting that these structural differences are responsible for the different allergenicity of the proteins. T1 represents a non-allergenic member of the Bet v 1 family that may be used to study structural requirements of allergenicity and to engineer hypo-allergenic plants by replacing Bet v 1-related allergens for primary prevention of allergy.

  15. Application of micro-thin-layer chromatography as a simple fractionation tool for fast screening of raw extracts derived from complex biological, pharmaceutical and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzycki, Pawel K., E-mail: pawel_k_z@hotmail.com [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J. [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)

    2011-03-04

    The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.

  16. Reprint of: Application of micro-thin-layer chromatography as a simple fractionation tool for fast screening of raw extracts derived from complex biological, pharmaceutical and environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarzycki, Pawel K., E-mail: pawel_k_z@hotmail.com [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland); Slaczka, Magdalena M.; Zarzycka, Magdalena B.; Wlodarczyk, Elzbieta; Baran, Michal J. [Section of Toxicology and Bioanalytics, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, Sniadeckich 2, 75-453 Koszalin (Poland)

    2012-02-24

    The main goal of present paper is to demonstrate the separation and detection capability of micro-TLC technique involving simple one step liquid extraction protocols of complex materials without multi-steps sample pre-purification. In the present studies target components (cyanobacteria pigments, lipids and fullerenes) were isolated from heavy loading complex matrices including spirulina dried cells, birds' feathers and fatty oils as well as soot samples derived from biomass fuel and fossils-fired home heating systems. In each case isocratic separation protocol involving less that 1 mL of one component or binary mixture mobile phases can be completed within time of 5-8 min. Sensitive detection of components of interest was performed via fluorescence or staining techniques using iodine or phosphomolybdic acid. Described methodology can be applied for fast fractionation or screening of whole range of target substances as well as chemo-taxonomic studies and fingerprinting of complex mixtures, which are present in raw biological or environmental samples.

  17. Interfacing on-line solid phase extraction with monolithic column multisyringe chromatography and chemiluminescence detection: An effective tool for fast, sensitive and selective determination of thiazide diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, Fernando; Estela, José Manuel; Cerdà, Víctor

    2010-01-15

    A new, multisyringe flow injection set-up has been developed for the completely automated determination of trace thiazide compounds with diuretic action in different types of samples. The proposed instrumental set-up exploits for the first time, a low pressure on-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection method. This novel combination of sample treatments in flow systems expands the current applicability of low pressure liquid chromatography due to the isolation/preconcentration of the target compounds, besides high selectivity and sensitivity. For the determination of three thiazide compounds named hydroflumethiazide, furosemide and bendroflumethiazide, the proposed set-up provided with the preconcentration of only 1mL of sample, limits of detection of 3, 60 and 40microgL(-1), respectively. Furthermore wide linear dynamic ranges of 6-4000, 140-20,000 and 90-40,000microgL(-1), respectively, were obtained. Besides of this, a high injection throughput of 12h(-1) was also achieved. As in sports, thiazide diuretics are prohibited substances, the proposed method has been applied to their determination in urine samples. Furthermore the potential of the proposed method as a fast-screening approach for emerging contaminants in waters has been also tested by applying it to well water and leachates from a solid waste landfill.

  18. Growth Manifestation of Transgenic Populus simonii×P. nigra with betA Gene on Low-grade Salinate Fields%轻度盐碱地转betA基因小黑杨的生长表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆怀志; 李志新; 李玉珠; 唐潇威; 姜静; 杨传平; 刘桂丰

    2009-01-01

    在前期获得11个转胆碱脱氢酶基因(betA)小黑杨株系的基础上,将转基因株系与非转基因对照株系在轻度盐碱地上造林,5 a后对试验林的转基因株系进行PCR分子检测,并运用SPSS软件对其树高、胸径、材积和保存率4个生长性状进行了方差分析.结果表明:转betA基因小黑杨外源基因稳定,目前尚未丢失;转基因株系与对照株系间树高、胸径、材积和保存率的差异均达到极显著水平;利用隶属函数法选择的转基因株系T1、T6和T8,为生长速度快、耐盐性高的优良株系.%An afforestation test of transgenic and untransformed control plants was conducted on low-grade salinate fields by means of the obtained 11 betA transgenic Populus simonii × P. nigra plants in the previous work. Five years later, PCR detection for the transgenic plants was done, and variance analysis for tree height, diameter at breast height, volume, and survival rate was also made with SPSS software. Result showed that betA gene still existed in the genome of the transgenic plants. Significant variations were found in tree height, diameter at breast height, volume, and survival rate between the transgenic and untransformed control plants. Tl, T6 and T8 transgenic lines were identified as fast growing plants with high saline tolerance by subordinate function.

  19. Proteomic profiling of birch (Betula verrucosa) pollen extracts from different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Anja; Hawranek, Thomas; Krückemeier, Leif; Asam, Claudia; Egger, Matthias; Ferreira, Fátima; Briza, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Pollen of the European white birch is a major source of spring pollinosis in Europe. Pollen-allergy diagnosis and treatment by specific immunotherapy commonly rely on extracts of natural origin. To gain insight into the protein content and its variability, we evaluated the profile of allergenic and non-allergenic proteins in extracts of pollen from different origins by MS-based proteomics. Aqueous extracts prepared from commercially available Swedish birch pollen, pollen collected from Austrian trees and a commercial skin prick extract were analyzed by 1-DE, 2-DE, immunoblotting and mass spectrometry, resulting in a complete inventory of extractable, disease-relevant pollen proteins. A main focus of this study was on the isoform distribution of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen. Using a combination of intact mass determination and peptide sequencing, five isoforms (a, b, d, f and j) were unequivocally identified in Swedish and Austrian birch pollen extracts, while the skin prick extract contained only isoforms a, b and d. Using the same methods as for Bet v 1, divergencies in the sequence of birch profilin (Bet v 2), a plant panallergen, were solved. The molecular characterization of pollen extracts is relevant for standardization and development of new reagents for specific immunotherapy.

  20. A continuous T-bet expression is required to silence the interleukin-4-producing potential in T helper type 1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yonghua; Huang, Zan; Nishida, Jun; Brown, Melissa; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Hua

    2009-09-01

    To develop into committed T helper type 1 (Th1) cells, naive CD4(+) T cells not only need to acquire the capacity to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), but they also need to gain the ability to silence their interleukin-4 (IL-4) -producing potential. How Th1 cells silence their Th2 cytokine-producing potential is an important yet unresolved issue in Th1 immunity. We found that a lack of IL-4 stimulation was not sufficient to silence the IL-4-producing potential in activated CD4(+) T cells and that Th1-promoting factor was required. Although it has been shown that T-bet is a crucial factor in suppressing Il4 gene expression, it is unclear whether a continuous presence of T-bet is required to silence the Il4 gene in Th1 cells. To address this problem, we used an inducible form of T-bet - a T-bet-oestrogen receptor fusion molecule (T-bet-ER). We found that the activation of T-bet during primary or secondary culture was sufficient to silence IL-4-producing potential. On the other hand, the inactivation of T-bet after naïve CD4(+) T cells had differentiated into Th1 cells resulted in derepression of Il4 gene transcription. Additionally, we found that T-bet is required to maintain Ifng expression. Our data demonstrate that the continuous expression of T-bet is required for Th1 cells to silence their IL-4-producing potential.

  1. Frequent occurrence of T cell–mediated late reactions revealed by atopy patch testing with hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Raffaela; Moritz, Katharina; Marth, Katharina; Neubauer, Angela; Huber, Hans; Henning, Rainer; Blatt, Katharina; Hoermann, Gregor; Brodie, Tess M.; Kaider, Alexandra; Valent, Peter; Sallusto, Federica; Wöhrl, Stefan; Valenta, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background Late allergic reactions are common in the course of allergen-specific immunotherapy and even occur with allergy vaccines with reduced IgE reactivity. Objective We sought to study atopy patch test (APT) reactions and T-cell responses to the recombinant birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and recombinant hypoallergenic T-cell epitope–containing Bet v 1 fragments in patients with birch pollen allergy with and without atopic dermatitis (AD). Methods A clinical study was conducted in 15 patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (group 1), 5 patients with birch pollen allergy without AD (group 2), 5 allergic patients without birch pollen allergy (group 3), and 5 nonallergic subjects (group 4) by performing skin prick tests and APTs with rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments. T-cell, cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)+ and CCR4+ T-cell and cytokine responses were studied by thymidine uptake, carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining, and Luminex technology, respectively. Results rBet v 1 and hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induced APT reactions in not only most of the patients with birch pollen allergy with AD (11/15) but also in most of those without AD (4/5). Patients with birch pollen allergy with AD had higher Bet v 1–specific proliferation of CLA+ and CCR4+ T cells compared with patients with birch pollen allergy without AD. There were no differences in Bet v 1–specific CLA+ and CCR4+ proliferation and cytokine secretion in patients with and without APT reactions. Conclusion Hypoallergenic rBet v 1 fragments induce T cell–dependent late reactions not only in patients with birch pollen allergy with AD but also in those without AD, which can be determined based on APT results but not based on in vitro parameters. PMID:26518092

  2. Characterization of the protective and therapeutic efficiency of a DNA vaccine encoding the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, A; Hochreiter, R; Stepanoska, T; Ferreira, F; Thalhamer, J

    2004-01-01

    An estimated 100 million individuals suffer from birch pollen allergy. More than 95% of birch pollen-allergic subjects react with the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a, and almost 60% of them are sensitized exclusively to this allergen. DNA immunization using the Bet v 1a gene was evaluated with respect to its prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy. A DNA vaccine containing the entire Bet v 1a cDNA under the control of a CMV-promoter was constructed. In order to estimate the protective efficiency, animals received three injections of this vaccine prior to sensitization with recombinant Bet v 1a. Vice versa, in a therapeutic approach, sensitization was followed by treatment with the DNA vaccine. The Bet v 1a DNA vaccine induced strong Bet v 1-specific antibody responses with a Th1-biased response type. Animals which received the DNA vaccine were protected against a following allergic sensitization with Bet v 1a. The protective effect was characterized by suppression of Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)E production, lack of basophil activation and enhanced interferon (IFN)-gamma expression. In a therapeutic situation, treatment of sensitized animals with DNA vaccines decreased IgE production, IgE-mediated basophil release and drastically reduced anaphylactic activity as measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assays. Concerning the cellular immune response, DNA immunization induced a sustaining and dominant shift from a Th2 type response towards a balanced Th1/Th2 type response as indicated by increased IFN-gamma but unchanged IL-5 levels in lymphoproliferation assays. The results demonstrate the allergen-specific protective and therapeutic efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the clinically highly relevant allergen Bet v 1a indicating the suitability of this concept for the treatment of allergic diseases.

  3. Evidence of antiferromagnetic fluctuation in the unconventional superconductor λ -(BETS)2GaCl4 by 13C NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kawamoto, A.

    2017-09-01

    We performed 13C NMR measurements on the unconventional organic superconductor λ -(BETS) 2GaCl4 to clarify its electronic properties in the paramagnetic state. We found that the spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by temperature 1 /T1T shows Curie-like enhancement above 55 K that arises from an antiferromagnetic fluctuation. In addition, we found additional enhancement of 1 /T1T below 10 K, where the Knight shift decreases and the linewidth of NMR spectra is broadened. The result could be understood by the magnetic fluctuation induced by the nesting of the Fermi surface. We discovered that λ -(BETS) 2GaCl4 salt inherently exhibits the two different types of magnetic fluctuations.

  4. BET surface area distributions in polar stream sediments: Implications for silicate weathering in a cold-arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L

    2014-01-01

    BET surface area values are critical for quantifying the amount of potentially reactive sediments available for chemical weathering and ultimately, prediction of silicate weathering fluxes. BET surface area values of fine-grained (glacier surfaces, where dust is trapped and subsequently liberated during summer melting. Additionally, variations in stream discharge rate, which mobilizes sediment in pulses and influences water:rock ratios, the origin and nature of the underlying drift material, and the contribution of organic acids may play significant roles in the production and mobilization of high-surface area sediment. This study highlights the presence of sediments with high surface area in cold-based glacier systems, which influences models of chemical denudation rates and the impact of glacial systems on the global carbon cycle.

  5. Not putting all their eggs in one basket: bet-hedging despite extraordinary annual reproductive output of desert tortoises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Agha, Mickey; Loughran, Caleb L.; Bjurlin, Curtis; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.

    2015-01-01

    Bet-hedging theory makes the counter-intuitive prediction that, if juvenile survival is low and unpredictable, organisms should consistently reduce short-term reproductive output to minimize the risk of reproductive failure in the long-term. We investigated the long-term reproductive output of an Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) population and conformance to a bet-hedging strategy of reproduction in an unpredictable but comparatively productive environment. Most females reproduced every year, even during periods of low precipitation and poor germination of food plants, and the mean percentage of reproducing females did not differ significantly on an annual basis. Although mean annual egg production (clutch size × clutch frequency) differed significantly among years, mean clutch size and mean clutch frequency remained relatively constant. During an El Niño year, mean annual egg production and mean annual clutch frequency were the highest ever reported for this species. Annual egg production was positively influenced by maternal body size but clutch size and clutch frequency were not. Our long-term results confirm earlier conclusions based on short-term research that desert tortoises have a bet-hedging strategy of producing small clutches almost every year. The risk of long-term reproductive failure is minimized in unpredictable environments, both through time by annually producing multiple small clutches over a long reproductive lifespan, even in years of low resource availability, and through space by depositing multiple annual clutches in different locations. The extraordinary annual reproductive output of this population appears to be the result of a typically high but unpredictable biomass of annual food plants at the site relative to tortoise habitat in dryer regions. Under the comparatively productive but unpredictable conditions, tortoises conform to predictions of a bet-hedging strategy of reproduction with relatively small but consistent

  6. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackaert, Chloé; Kofler, Stefan; Horejs-Hoeck, Jutta; Zulehner, Nora; Asam, Claudia; von Grafenstein, Susanne; Fuchs, Julian E; Briza, Peter; Liedl, Klaus R; Bohle, Barbara; Ferreira, Fátima; Brandstetter, Hans; Oostingh, Gertie J; Duschl, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air) or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue). We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs) upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) and primary DCs (primDCs) stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  7. The impact of nitration on the structure and immunogenicity of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloé Ackaert

    Full Text Available Allergy prevalence has increased in industrialized countries. One contributing factor could be pollution, which can cause nitration of allergens exogenously (in the air or endogenously (in inflamed lung tissue. We investigated the impact of nitration on both the structural and immunological behavior of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101 to determine whether nitration might be a factor in the increased incidence of allergy. Bet v 1.0101 was nitrated with tetranitromethane. Immune effects were assessed by measuring the proliferation of specific T-cell lines (TCLs upon stimulation with different concentrations of nitrated and unmodified allergen, and by measurement of cytokine release of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and primary DCs (primDCs stimulated with nitrated versus unmodified allergen. HPLC-MS, crystallography, gel electrophoresis, amino acid analysis, size exclusion chromatography and molecular dynamics simulation were performed to characterize structural changes after nitration of the allergen. The proliferation of specific TCLs was higher upon stimulation with the nitrated allergen in comparison to the unmodified allergen. An important structural consequence of nitration was oligomerization. Moreover, analysis of the crystal structure of nitrated Bet v 1.0101 showed that amino acid residue Y83, located in the hydrophobic cavity, was nitrated to 100%. Both moDCs and primDCs showed decreased production of TH1-priming cytokines, thus favoring a TH2 response. These results implicate that nitration of Bet v 1.0101 might be a contributing factor to the observed increase in birch pollen allergy, and emphasize the importance of protein modifications in understanding the molecular basis of allergenicity.

  8. Bet Anywhere, Anytime: An Analysis of Internet Sports Bettors' Responses to Gambling Promotions During Sports Broadcasts by Problem Gambling Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex Myles Thomas; Lamont, Matthew; Vitartas, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Promotions for online sports betting during televised sports broadcasts are regularly viewed by millions of Australians, raising concerns about their impacts on vulnerable groups including at-risk and problem gamblers. This study examined whether responses to these promotions varied with problem gambling severity amongst 455 Australian Internet sports bettors participating in an online survey. Results indicated that young male Internet sports bettors are especially vulnerable to gambling problems, particularly if they hold positive attitudes to gambling sponsors who embed promotions into sports broadcasts and to the promotional techniques they use and this heightens the risk that alluring messages contribute to excessive gambling. As problem gambling severity increased, so too did recognition that these promotions have impacted negatively on their sports betting behaviour. Because a plethora of sports betting brands and promotions are now heavily integrated into sports coverage, social marketing efforts are needed to offset their persuasive appeal and counter the positive attitudes towards them that appear linked to excessive gambling amongst Internet sports bettors.

  9. Deacetylase inhibitors repress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinz, Sophia; Unser, Samy; Buob, Dominik; Fischer, Philipp; Jobst, Belinda; Rascle, Anne

    2015-04-20

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription STAT5 is essential for the regulation of proliferation and survival genes. Its activity is tightly regulated through cytokine signaling and is often upregulated in cancer. We showed previously that the deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) inhibits STAT5-mediated transcription by preventing recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at a step following STAT5 binding to DNA. The mechanism and factors involved in this inhibition remain unknown. We now show that deacetylase inhibitors do not target STAT5 acetylation, as we initially hypothesized. Instead, they induce a rapid increase in global histone acetylation apparently resulting in the delocalization of the bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) protein Brd2 and of the Brd2-associated factor TBP to hyperacetylated chromatin. Treatment with the BET inhibitor (+)-JQ1 inhibited expression of STAT5 target genes, supporting a role of BET proteins in the regulation of STAT5 activity. Accordingly, chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that Brd2 is associated with the transcriptionally active STAT5 target gene Cis and is displaced upon TSA treatment. Our data therefore indicate that Brd2 is required for the proper recruitment of the transcriptional machinery at STAT5 target genes and that deacetylase inhibitors suppress STAT5-mediated transcription by interfering with Brd2 function.

  10. Maintenance of muscle myosin levels in adult C. elegans requires both the double bromodomain protein BET-1 and sumoylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fisher

    2013-10-01

    Attenuation of RAS-mediated signalling is a conserved process essential to control cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Cooperative interactions between histone modifications such as acetylation, methylation and sumoylation are crucial for proper attenuation in C. elegans, implying that the proteins recognising these histone modifications could also play an important role in attenuation of RAS-mediated signalling. We sought to systematically identify these proteins and found BET-1. BET-1 is a conserved double bromodomain protein that recognises acetyl-lysines on histone tails and maintains the stable fate of various lineages. Unexpectedly, adults lacking both BET-1 and SUMO-1 are depleted of muscle myosin, an essential component of myofibrils. We also show that this muscle myosin depletion does not occur in all animals at a specific time, but rather that the penetrance of the phenotype increases with age. To gain mechanistic insights into this process, we sought to delay the occurrence of the muscle myosin depletion phenotype and found that it requires caspase activity and MEK-dependent signalling. We also performed transcription profiling on these mutants and found an up-regulation of the FGF receptor, egl-15, a tyrosine kinase receptor acting upstream of MEK. Consistent with a MEK requirement, we could delay the muscle phenotype by systemic or hypodermal knock down of egl-15. Thus, this work uncovered a caspase- and MEK-dependent mechanism that acts specifically on ageing adults to maintain the appropriate net level of muscle myosin.

  11. c-Myb Regulates the T-Bet-Dependent Differentiation Program in B Cells to Coordinate Antibody Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Piovesan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Humoral immune responses are tailored to the invading pathogen through regulation of key transcription factors and their networks. This is critical to establishing effective antibody-mediated responses, yet it is unknown how B cells integrate pathogen-induced signals to drive or suppress transcriptional programs specialized for each class of pathogen. Here, we detail the key role of the transcription factor c-Myb in regulating the T-bet-mediated anti-viral program. Deletion of c-Myb in mature B cells significantly increased serum IgG2c and CXCR3 expression by upregulating T-bet, normally suppressed during Th2-cell-mediated responses. Enhanced expression of T-bet resulted in aberrant plasma cell differentiation within the germinal center, mediated by CXCR3 expression. These findings identify a dual role for c-Myb in limiting inappropriate effector responses while coordinating plasma cell differentiation with germinal center egress. Identifying such intrinsic regulators of specialized antibody responses can assist in vaccine design and therapeutic intervention in B-cell-mediated immune disorders.

  12. Purification and characterization of natural Bet v 1 from birch pollen and related allergens from carrot and celery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, Mirko A; Garcia, Aranzazu; Cordewener, Jan H G; Wichers, Harry J; Helsper, Johannes P F G; Savelkoul, Huub F J; van Boekel, Martinus A J S

    2007-12-01

    Birch pollen allergy is predominantly caused by the major allergen Bet v 1 and can lead to crossreactions with homologous proteins in food. Two major cross-reactive food allergens are Dau c 1 from carrot and Api g 1 from celery, which have never been purified from their natural source. Here, we describe a non-denaturing purification method for obtaining natural Bet v 1, Dau c 1 and Api g 1, comprising of ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction chromatography and size exclusion chromatography. This method resulted in 98-99% pure isoform mixtures for each allergen. Characterization of these isoform mixtures with Q-TOF MS/MS clearly showed earlier reported isoforms of Bet v 1, Dau c 1 and Api g 1, but also new isoforms. The presence of secondary structure in the three purified allergens was demonstrated via circular dichroism and showed high similarity. The immune reactivity of the natural allergens was compared with recombinant proteins by Western blot and ELISA and showed similar reactivity.

  13. Data extraction from proteomics raw data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mancuso, Francesco; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Wierer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In shot-gun proteomics raw tandem MS data are processed with extraction tools to produce condensed peak lists that can be uploaded to database search engines. Many extraction tools are available but to our knowledge, a systematic comparison of such tools has not yet been carried out. Using raw data...... and agreement in-between tools. Processing a primary data set with 9 different tandem MS extraction tools resulted in a low overlap of identified peptides. The tools differ by assigned charge states of precursors, precursor and fragment ion masses, and we show that peptides identified very confidently using one...... extraction tool might not be matched when using another tool. We also found a bias towards peptides of lower charge state when extracting fragment ion data from higher resolution raw data without deconvolution. Collecting and comparing the extracted data from the same raw data allow adjusting parameters...

  14. Bayesian Event Tree (BET) approach to Near Real Time monitoring on active volcanoes within ASI-SRV project: Mt. Etna test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Malvina; Musacchio, Massimo; Taroni, Matteo; Fabrizia Buongiorno, Maria; Dini, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    ASI-Sistema Rischio Vulcanico (SRV) project is devoted to the development of a pre-operative integrated system managing different Earth Observation (EO) and Non EO data to respond to specific needs of the Italian Civil Protection Department (DPC) and improve the monitoring of Italian active volcanoes. The project provides the capability to maintain a repository where the acquired data are stored and generates products offering a support to risk managers during the different volcanic activity phases. All the products are obtained considering technical choices and developments of ASI-SRV based on flexible and scalable modules which take into account also the new coming space sensors and new processing algorithms. An important step of the project development regards the technical and scientific feasibility of the provided products that depends on the data availability, accuracy algorithms and models used in the processing and of course the possibility to validate the results by means of comparison with non-EO independent measurements. The multivariate analysis allows to perform multiple comparisons in order to have a first idea of which variables are largely preferentially or rather rarely distributed, also considering their geographic localization. The "Volcanic Parameter" cross correlation will allow to define the weight of each product that will be used as input in the BET-EF model (Bayesian Event Tree model for eruption forecasting ) which is an already developed algorithm for the eruption model, and will be adapt, as it is, to the ASI-SRV needs. The BET model represents a flexible tool to provide probabilities of any specific event at which we are interested in, by merging any kind of available and relevant information, such as theoretical models, a priori beliefs, monitoring measures, and past data. It is mainly based on a Bayesian procedure and it relies on the fuzzy approach to manage monitoring data. The method deals with short- and long-term forecasting

  15. China Minsheng Bank China's first non-state owned bank is one of the safest bets in the risky Chinese banking sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BRADLEY GARDNER

    2008-01-01

    @@ Betting on China's banking sector is a risky proposition. High rates of overdue "problem" loans are more or less the norm, and financial reforms, while moving forward, are doing so at a snail's pace.

  16. The influence of marketing on the sports betting attitudes and consumption behaviours of young men: implications for harm reduction and prevention strategies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deans, Emily G; Thomas, Samantha L; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Daube, Mike

    2017-01-01

    .... There are significant regulations to prevent the marketing of some forms of gambling but comparatively limited regulations relating to the marketing of newer forms of online gambling such as sports betting...

  17. Fusion proteins of flagellin and the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 show enhanced immunogenicity, reduced allergenicity, and intrinsic adjuvanticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzmüller, Claudia; Kalser, Julia; Mutschlechner, Sonja; Hauser, Michael; Zlabinger, Gerhard J; Ferreira, Fatima; Bohle, Barbara

    2017-04-26

    Recombinant fusion proteins of flagellin and antigens have been demonstrated to induce strong innate and adaptive immune responses. Such fusion proteins can enhance the efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy. We sought to characterize different fusion proteins of flagellin and the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 for suitability as allergy vaccines. A truncated version of flagellin (NtCFlg) was genetically fused to the N- or C-terminus of Bet v 1. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 binding was assessed with HEK293 cells expressing TLR5. Upregulation of CD40, CD80, CD83, and CD86 on monocyte-derived dendritic cells from allergic patients was analyzed by using flow cytometry. The T cell-stimulatory capacity of the fusion proteins was assessed with naive and Bet v 1-specific T cells. IgE binding was tested in inhibition ELISAs and basophil activation tests. Mice were immunized with the fusion proteins in the absence and presence of aluminum hydroxide. Cellular and antibody responses were monitored. Murine antibodies were tested for blocking capacity in basophil activation tests. Both fusion proteins matured monocyte-derived dendritic cells through TLR5. Compared with Bet v 1, the fusion proteins showed stronger T cell-stimulatory and reduced IgE-binding capacity and induced murine Bet v 1-specific antibodies in the absence of aluminum hydroxide. However, only antibodies induced by means of immunization with NtCFlg fused to the C-terminus of Bet v 1 inhibited binding of patients' IgE antibodies to Bet v 1. Bet v 1-flagellin fusion proteins show enhanced immunogenicity, reduced allergenicity, and intrinsic adjuvanticity and thus represent promising vaccines for birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy. However, the sequential order of allergen and adjuvant within a fusion protein determines its immunologic characteristics. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The conserved 12-amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region of BET family proteins functions as a nuclear localization signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Hidesuke; Masumi, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) family is a group of chromatin-binding proteins characterized by two bromodomains, an extraterminal (ET) domain, and several other conserved regions of unknown function. In humans, the BET family consists of four members, BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT, that all normally localize to the nucleus. We identified a 12-amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region that is perfectly conserved among the BET family members. We deleted these residues and expressed the mutant proteins in HEK293T cells to investigate the function of this motif. We found that the deletion of this motif alters the localization of BET proteins. Mutated BRD3 and BRD4 were excluded from the nucleus, and BRDT was found to be diffused throughout the nucleus and cytoplasm. Although the mutant BRD2 remained predominantly in the nucleus, a punctate distribution was also observed in the cytosol. It has been reported that a conserved motif between the second bromodomain and the ET domain serves as a nuclear localization signal for BRD2. Nevertheless, BET mutants lacking the reported nuclear localization signal motif but retaining the 12-amino acid stretch resided in the nucleus. Furthermore, these mutants were diffused throughout the cytoplasm when the 12 residues were removed. These results indicate that the conserved amino acid stretch in the inter-bromodomain region of the BET family functions as a nuclear localization signal.

  19. The Ets-1 transcription factor is required for Stat1-mediated T-bet expression and IgG2a class switching in mouse B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai Vu; Mouly, Enguerran; Chemin, Karine; Luinaud, Romain; Despres, Raymonde; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Arnulf, Bertrand; Bories, Jean-Christophe

    2012-05-03

    In response to antigens and cytokines, mouse B cells undergo class-switch recombination (CSR) and differentiate into Ig-secreting cells. T-bet, a T-box transcription factor that is up-regulated in lymphocytes by IFN-γ or IL-27, was shown to regulate CSR to IgG2a after T cell-independent B-cell stimulations. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling this process remain unclear. In the present study, we show that inactivation of the Ets-1 transcription factor results in a severe decrease in IgG2a secretion in vivo and in vitro. No T-bet expression was observed in Ets-1-deficient (Ets-1(-/-)) B cells stimulated with IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharide, and forced expression of T-bet in these cells rescued IgG2a secretion. Furthermore, we identified a transcriptional enhancer in the T-bet locus with an activity in B cells that relies on ETS-binding sites. After IFN-γ stimulation of Ets-1(-/-) B cells, activated Stat1, which forms a complex with Ets-1 in wild-type cells, no longer binds to the T-bet enhancer or promotes histone modifications at this site. These results demonstrate that Ets-1 is critical for IgG2a CSR and acts as an essential cofactor for Stat1 in the regulation of T-bet expression in B cells.

  20. Betting and Belief: Modeling the Impact of Prediction Markets on Public Attribution of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, J. M.; Nay, J. J.; van der Linden, M.

    2016-12-01

    Despite overwhelming scientific evidence and an almost complete consensus among scientists, a large fraction of the American public is not convinced that global warming is anthropogenic. This doubt correlates strongly with political, ideological, and cultural orientation. [1] It has been proposed that people who do not trust climate scientists tend to trust markets, so prediction markets might be able to influence their beliefs about the causes of climate change. [2] We present results from an agent-based simulation of a prediction market in which traders invest based on their beliefs about what drives global temperature change (here, either CO2 concentration or total solar irradiance (TSI), which is a popular hypothesis among many who doubt the dominant role of CO2). At each time step, traders use historical and observed temperatures and projected future forcings (CO2 or TSI) to update Bayesian posterior probability distributions for future temperatures, conditional on their belief about what drives climate change. Traders then bet on future temperatures by trading in climate futures. Trading proceeds by a continuous double auction. Traders are randomly assigned initial beliefs about climate change, and they have some probability of changing their beliefs to match those of the most successful traders in their social network. We simulate two alternate realities in which the global temperature is controlled either by CO2 or by TSI, with stochastic noise. In both cases traders' beliefs converge, with a large majority reaching agreement on the actual cause of climate change. This convergence is robust, but the speed with which consensus emerges depends on characteristics of the traders' psychology and the structure of the market. Our model can serve as a test-bed for studying how beliefs might evolve under different market structures and different modes of decision-making and belief-change. We will report progress on studying alternate models of belief-change. This

  1. mTOR Modulates Lymphocyte Differentiation through T-bet and Eomesodermin in Response to Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Cui; Long-Xiang Su; Hao Wang; Meng Xiao; Fei Yang; Min Zheng; Xin Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:Aspergillosis infection is common in the patients with insufficient immunity.The role of mammalian target ofrapamycin (mTOR),T-box expressed in T-cells (T-bet),and eomesodermin (EOMES) in mediating T lymphocytes differentiation in response to Aspergillus fumigatus infection in immunocompromised rats was investigated in this study.Methods:Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) ofimmtmosuppressive twenty male rats were established and sacrificed at 24 h (n =5),48 h (n =5),72 h (n =5),and 96 h (n =5) after A.fumigatus infection.In addition,control (n =5),cyclophosphamide (CTX) (n =5),and aspergillosis (n =5) group were also established the tissues and pathology of lung tissue was examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining.CD8+ T-cells was sorted by flow cytometry.Serum mTOR,S6K,T-bet,and EOMES were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorhent assay.Results:Histology of lung tissue indicated severe lung tissue injury including infiltration of inflammatory cells,alveolar wall damage or degradation,blood congestion,and hemorrhage in the CTX,IPA,and CTX + IPA rats.Hyphae were seen in the IPA,and CTX + IPA groups.The proportion of CD8+ T-cells was significantly increased in the animals ofCTX + IPA.Memory CD8+ T-cells was significantly increased in early stage (24 h and 48 h,P < 0.001),but decreased in the late phase of fungal infection (72 h and 96 h) in the animals of CTX + IPA.In addition,at early stage of fungal infection (24 h and 48 h),serum mTOR (P < 0.001),S6K (P < 0.001),and T-bet (P < 0.05) was significantly higher,while EOMES was significantly lower (P < 0.001),in CTX + IPA group than that in control,CTX alone or IPA alone group.Conversely,serum mTOR,S6K,T-bet,and EOMES showed opposite changed in the late stage (72 h and 96 h).Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that mTOR and S6K were significantly correlated with T-bet (r =0.901 and 0.91,respectively,P < 0.001),but negatively and significantly correlated with EOMES (r =-0.758 and-0

  2. Environmental and genetic sources of diversification in the timing of seed germination: implications for the evolution of bet hedging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Andrew M; Johnston, Mark O

    2006-11-01

    Environmental variation that is not predictably related to cues is expected to drive the evolution of bet-hedging strategies. The high variance observed in the timing of seed germination has led to it being the most cited diversification strategy in the theoretical bet-hedging literature. Despite this theoretical focus, virtually nothing is known about the mechanisms responsible for the generation of individual-level diversification. Here we report analyses of sources of variation in timing of germination within seasons, germination fraction over two generations and three sequential seasons, and the genetic correlation structure of these traits using almost 10,000 seeds from more than 100 genotypes of the monocarpic perennial Lobelia inflata. Microenvironmental analysis of time to germination suggests that extreme sensitivity to environmental gradients, or microplasticity, even within a homogeneous growth chamber, may act as an effective individual-level diversification mechanism and explains more than 30% of variance in time to germination. The heritability of within-season timing of germination was low (h(2) = 0.07) but significant under homogeneous conditions. Consistent with individual-level diversification, this low h(2) was attributable not to low additive genetic variance, but to an unusually high coefficient of residual variation in time to germination. Despite high power to detect additive genetic variance in within-season diversification, it was low and indistinguishable from zero. Restricted maximum likelihood detected significant genetic variation for germination fraction (h(2) = 0.18) under homogeneous conditions. Unexpectedly, this heritability was positive when measured within a generation by sibling analysis and negative when measured across generations by offspring-on-parent regression. The consistency of dormancy fraction over multiple delays, a major premise of Cohen's classic model, was supported by a strong genetic correlation (r = 0

  3. Nickel Nanoparticles cause exaggerated lung and airway remodeling in mice lacking the T-box transcription factor, TBX21 (T-bet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) are increasingly used in a variety of industrial applications, including the manufacturing of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). While occupational nickel exposure is a known cause of pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis, and cancer, the health risks of NiNPs are not well understood, especially in susceptible individuals such as asthmatics. The T-box transcription factor Tbx21 (T-bet) maintains Th1 cell development and loss of T-bet is associated with a shift towards Th2 type allergic airway inflammation that characterizes asthma. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of T-bet in susceptibility to lung remodeling by NiNPs or MWCNTs. Methods Wild-type (WT) and T-bet-/- mice were exposed to NiNPs or MWCNTs (4 mg/kg) by oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA). Necropsy was performed at 1 and 21 days. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for differential counting of inflammatory cells and for measurement of cytokines by ELISA. The left lung was collected for histopathology. The right lung was analyzed for cytokine or mucin (MUC5AC and MUC5B) mRNAs. Results Morphometry of alcian-blue/periodic acid Schiff (AB/PAS)-stained lung tissue showed that NiNPs significantly increased mucous cell metaplasia in T-bet-/- mice at 21 days (p alveolitis was also increased by NiNPs, but not MWCNTs, in T-bet-/- mice compared to WT mice at 21 days (P alveolitis. Conclusion These findings identify T-bet as a potentially important susceptibility factor for NiNP exposure and to a lesser extent for MWCNT exposure, and suggests that individuals with asthma are at greater risk. PMID:24499286

  4. Molecular characterization, expression in Escherichia coli, and epitope analysis of a two EF-hand calcium-binding birch pollen allergen, Bet v 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twardosz, A; Hayek, B; Seiberler, S; Vangelista, L; Elfman, L; Grönlund, H; Kraft, D; Valenta, R

    1997-10-09

    Birch pollen belongs to the most potent elicitors of Type I allergic reactions in early spring. Using serum IgE from a birch pollen allergic patient, two cDNA clones (clone 6 and clone 13) were isolated from a birch pollen expression cDNA library constructed in phage lambda gt11. Clone 6 encoded a 9.3 kD two EF-hand calcium-binding protein, designated Bet v 4, with significant end to end sequence homology to EF-hand calcium-binding allergens from weed and grass pollen. Recombinant Bet v 4, expressed as beta-galactosidase fusion protein, reacted with serum IgE from approximately 20% of pollen allergic individuals. Depletion of allergenbound calcium by EGTA treatment lead to a substantial reduction of IgE-binding to Bet v 4, indicating that protein-bound calcium is necessary for the maintenance of IgE-epitopes. The greatly reduced IgE-binding capacity of clone 13, a Bet v 4 fragment that lacked the 16 N-terminal amino acids, indicated that the N-terminus contributes significantly to the proteins IgE-binding capacity. By IgE-inhibition experiments it was demonstrated that recombinant Bet v 4 shared IgE-epitopes with natural Bet v 4 and a homologous timothy grass pollen allergen. Recombinant Bet v 4 may therefore be considered as a relevant crossreactive plant allergen, which may be used for diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from multivalent plant allergies.

  5. Big Data Mining: Tools & Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Shiraz Hashmi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are now in Big Data era, and there is a growing demand for tools which can process and analyze it. Big data analytics deals with extracting valuable information from that complex data which can’t be handled by traditional data mining tools. This paper surveys the available tools which can handle large volumes of data as well as evolving data streams. The data mining tools and algorithms which can handle big data have also been summarized, and one of the tools has been used for mining of large datasets using distributed algorithms.

  6. Anisotropic Field Dependence of the Superconducting Transition in the Magnetic Molecular Superconductor κ-(BETS)2FeBr4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Shuhei; Yamashita, Satoshi; Nakazawa, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Takashi; Fujiwara, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    Angle-resolved heat capacity measurements of a π-d interacting system of κ-(BETS)2FeBr4 [BETS = bis(ethylenedithio)tetraselenafulvalene] with in-plane magnetic fields are performed. We observed a thermal anomaly in association with the superconducting transition of the π electrons in the π-d compound for the first time. By pursuing a systematic change in the thermal anomaly, we found that the thermodynamic feature of the superconducting state shows large anisotropy against in-plane magnetic fields. When the field is applied parallel to the c-axis, the thermal anomaly remains up to 2.6 T with a distinct peak structure. On the other hand, it is suppressed in synchrony with the decrease of the antiferromagnetic transition temperature, when the field is applied parallel to the a-axis. Our thermodynamic results indicate that the effect of the π-d interaction appears even when the π electrons are itinerant and that the anisotropic field-direction dependence of the superconducting transition originates from the correlation between superconductivity and magnetism.

  7. Resistive properties and phase diagram of the organic antiferromagnetic metal κ -(BETS) 2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Michael; Biberacher, Werner; Kushch, Natalia D.; Miyazaki, Akira; Kartsovnik, Mark V.

    2016-11-01

    The low-temperature electronic state of the layered organic charge-transfer salt κ -(BETS) 2FeCl4 was probed by interlayer electrical resistance measurements under magnetic field. Both above and below TN=0.47 K, the temperature of antiferromagnetic ordering of 3 d -electron spins of Fe3 + localized in the insulating anion layers, a nonsaturating linear R (T ) dependence has been observed. A weak superconducting signal has been detected in the antiferromagnetic state, at temperatures ≤0.2 K. Despite the very high crystal quality, only a tiny fraction of the sample appears to be superconducting. Aside from a small kink feature in the resistivity, the impact of the antiferromagnetic ordering of localized Fe3 + spins on the conduction π -electron system is clearly manifested in the Fermi surface reconstruction, as evidenced by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The "magnetic-field-temperature" phase diagrams for the field directions parallel to each of the three principal crystal axes have been determined. For magnetic field along the easy axis, a spin-flop transition has been found. Similarities and differences between the present material and the sister compound κ -(BETS) 2FeBr4 are discussed.

  8. T-helper Cell Type-1 Transcription Factor T-Bet Is Down-regulated in Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Vaseghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available T cells have been identified as key players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. However, the exact role of T-cell subpopulations in this pathway is presently unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression pattern of two lineage-specifying transcription factors GATA-3 and T-bet, which are important in T helper type 1 (Th1 and Th2 cell development, respectively. Gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was performed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Plasma levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were also determined by ELISA. T-bet and IFN-γ gene expression was significantly lower in patients group compared with healthy controls (p<0.05. The expression of GATA-3 was relatively similar in patients and controls; however, IL-4 mRNAs were significantly increased in the PBMCs from patients as compared with normal controls (p<0.05. In addition, a marked increase in plasma IL-4 levels were observed in patient group compared with controls (p<0.001. To the contrary, IFN-γ protein levels were decreased in patients in comparison with controls (p<0.001. These data suggest additional implications of the role of Th1/Th2 imbalance for the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. 

  9. T-bet regulates differentiation of forkhead box protein 3+ regulatory T cells in programmed cell death-1-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, M; Kondo, Y; Yokosawa, M; Tsuboi, H; Takahashi, S; Shibayama, S; Matsumoto, I; Sumida, T

    2015-01-01

    Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) plays an important role in peripheral T cell tolerance, but whether or not it affects the differentiation of helper T cell subsets remains elusive. Here we describe the importance of PD-1 in the control of T helper type 1 (Th1) cell activation and development of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). PD-1-deficient T cell-specific T-bet transgenic (P/T) mice showed growth retardation, and the majority died within 10 weeks. P/T mice showed T-bet over-expression, increased interferon (IFN)-γ production by CD4+ T cells and significantly low FoxP3+ Treg cell percentage. P/T mice developed systemic inflammation, which was probably induced by augmented Th1 response and low FoxP3+ Treg count. The study identified a unique, previously undescribed role for PD-1 in Th1 and Treg differentiation, with potential implication in the development of Th1 cell-targeted therapy. PMID:25219397

  10. Simulation tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jenni, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last two decades, simulation tools made a significant contribution to the great progress in development of power electronics. Time to market was shortened and development costs were reduced drastically. Falling costs, as well as improved speed and precision, opened new fields of application. Today, continuous and switched circuits can be mixed. A comfortable number of powerful simulation tools is available. The users have to choose the best suitable for their application. Here a simple rule applies: The best available simulation tool is the tool the user is already used to (provided, it can solve the task). Abilities, speed, user friendliness and other features are continuously being improved—even though they are already powerful and comfortable. This paper aims at giving the reader an insight into the simulation of power electronics. Starting with a short description of the fundamentals of a simulation tool as well as properties of tools, several tools are presented. Starting with simplified models ...

  11. Effects of allitridin on the expression of transcription factor T-bet mRNA of cytomegalovirus-induced myocarditis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi Xu; Feng Fang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of allitridin on the expression of transcription factor T-bet of cytomegalovirusinduced myocarditis in mice and to analyze its role in anti-cytomegalovirus mechanisms. Methods: Sixty mice were randomly divided into allitridin therapy group, infected controls group and bland controls group. Allitridin therapy group were given to mice via the intraperitoneal same volume of 0.89% sodium chloride and bland controls group were only given with the same volume of 0.89% sodium chloride, without infected MCMV. All experimental mice were sacrificed on day 3, 5, 7 and 14 i.p. ( n = 5 per time point). The expression levels of transcription factor T-bet were measured by RT-PCR. The expression levels of Th1 cytokine IFN-γ were measured by ELISA. Results:MCMV infection could markedly down-modulate the expression of IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA ( P < 0.01). Allitridin significantly up-regulated the expression of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and Th1-specific transcription factor T-bet mRNA ( P < 0.01). Conclusion: Allitridin up-regulates the expression of transcription factor T-bet mRNA which is an important, but not the only factor to mediate the constitutive expression of Th1 cytokines IFN-γ.

  12. T-bet expression by Foxp3+ T regulatory cells is not essential for their suppressive function in CNS autoimmune disease or colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoanne C McPherson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of T regulatory (Treg cells within the central nervous system (CNS during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is essential for the resolution of disease. CNS Treg cells have been shown to uniformly express the Th1-associated molecules T-bet and CXCR3. Here we report that the expression of T-bet is not required for the function of these Treg within the CNS. Using mice that lacked T-bet expression specifically within the Treg compartment, we demonstrate that there was no deficit in Treg recruitment into the CNS during EAE and no difference in the resolution of disease compared to control mice. T-bet deficiency did not impact on the in vitro suppressive capacity of Treg. Transfer of T-bet-deficient Treg was able to suppress clinical signs of either EAE, or colitis. These observations demonstrate that, although Treg can acquire characteristics associated with pathogenic Teff cells, this process is not necessarily required for their suppressive capacity and the resolution of autoimmune inflammation.

  13. Validation of capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing separations optimized for the characterization of two recombinant products of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronsteiner, Barbara; Dullnig, Verena; Stutz, Hanno

    2008-06-01

    CZE and CIEF separation systems, both developed previously for a quality control of two recombinant products of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1a of Betula verrucosa, were validated including aspects of the International Conference on Harmonization. One product contained carbamylated variants as impurities. Linearity of response was confirmed by Mandel's fitting test between 0.028 and 1.90 mg/mL for CZE and between 0.016 and 0.26 mg/mL for CIEF. Repeatability and intermediate precision were evaluated for the effective mobility (mu(eff)) in CZE, for relative mobilization time in CIEF and the peak area ratio of Bet v 1a. LOQ for Bet v 1a was between 10 and 23 microg/mL for both methods. Evaluation of robustness for CZE revealed susceptibility of micro(eff) of Bet v 1a to alterations in of buffer pH and separation temperature. Selectivity was impaired by an increase in temperature, pH, and buffer concentration. In addition, pH variations influenced the separation profile of impurities. For CIEF, the ratio of narrow pH range carrier ampholytes is the critical parameter to retain robustness. Results demonstrate the suitability of both separation systems to discriminate between nonmodified Bet v 1a and carbamylated variants in the selected recombinant allergen products.

  14. Betões de elevado desempenho com nano-partículas de TiO2 e cinzas volantes : resistência mecânica, durabilidade e custo

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Tiago Manuel da Rocha; Aguiar, J. L. Barroso de; Jesus, Carlos M. G.; Torgal, Fernando Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Os betões de elevado desempenho apresentam vantagens várias sobre os betões correntes nomeadamente elevada resistência e durabilidade. Estes materiais permitem a execução de estruturas com menor quantidade de aço e com uma vida útil superior, fatores cruciais para a eco-eficiência daquelas. Apesar disso as publicações sobre betões com nano-partículas são escassas, representando apenas 1% do total de publicações em revista internacional sobre estes materiais. As publicações sobre betões de ele...

  15. Analysis of the predictive qualities of betting odds and FIFA World Ranking: evidence from the 2006, 2010 and 2014 Football World Cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunderlich, Fabian; Memmert, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate the ability of a new framework enabling to derive more detailed model-based predictions from ranking systems. These were compared to predictions from the bet market including data from the World Cups 2006, 2010, and 2014. The results revealed that the FIFA World Ranking has essentially improved its predictive qualities compared to the bet market since the mode of calculation was changed in 2006. While both predictors were useful to obtain accurate predictions in general, the world ranking was able to outperform the bet market significantly for the World Cup 2014 and when the data from the World Cups 2010 and 2014 were pooled. Our new framework can be extended in future research to more detailed prediction tasks (i.e., predicting the final scores of a match or the tournament progress of a team).

  16. An IgE epitope of Bet v 1 and fagales PR10 proteins as defined by a human monoclonal IgE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hecker, J.; Diethers, A.; Schulz, D.;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analyses of the molecular basis underlying allergenicity and allergen cross-reactivity, as well as improvement of allergy diagnostics and therapeutics, are hampered by the lack of human monoclonal IgE antibodies and knowledge about their epitopes. Here, we addressed the consecutive...... generation and epitope delineation of a human monoclonal IgE against the prototypic allergen Bet v 1. METHODS: Phage-display scFv hybrid libraries of allergic donor-derived VH epsilon and synthetic VL were established from 107 mononuclear cells. An obtained scFv was converted into human immunoglobulin...... formats including IgE. Using variants of Bet v 1, the epitope of the antibody was mapped and extrapolated to other PR10 proteins. RESULTS: The obtained antibodies exhibited pronounced reactivity with Bet v 1, but were not reactive with the homologous PR10 protein Mal d 1. The epitope as defined by the IgE...

  17. Dominating IgE-binding epitope of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen, characterized by X-ray crystallography and site-directed mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangfort, Michael D; Mirza, Osman; Ipsen, Henrik; Van Neerven, R J Joost; Gajhede, Michael; Larsen, Jørgen N

    2003-09-15

    Specific allergy vaccination is an efficient treatment for allergic disease; however, the development of safer vaccines would enable a more general use of the treatment. Determination of molecular structures of allergens and allergen-Ab complexes facilitates epitope mapping and enables a rational approach to the engineering of allergen molecules with reduced IgE binding. In this study, we describe the identification and modification of a human IgE-binding epitope based on the crystal structure of Bet v 1 in complex with the BV16 Fab' fragment. The epitope occupies approximately 10% of the molecular surface area of Bet v 1 and is clearly conformational. A synthetic peptide representing a sequential motif in the epitope (11 of 16 residues) did not inhibit the binding of mAb BV16 to Bet v 1, illustrating limitations in the use of peptides for B cell epitope characterization. The single amino acid substitution, Glu(45)-Ser, was introduced in the epitope and completely abolished the binding of mAb BV16 to the Bet v 1 mutant within a concentration range 1000-fold higher than wild type. The mutant also showed up to 50% reduction in the binding of human polyclonal IgE, demonstrating that glutamic acid 45 is a critical amino acid also in a major human IgE-binding epitope. By solving the three-dimensional crystal structure of the Bet v 1 Glu(45)-Ser mutant, it was shown that the change in immunochemical activity is directly related to the Glu(45)-Ser substitution and not to long-range structural alterations or collapse of the Bet v 1 mutant tertiary structure.

  18. Bet hedging in a warming ocean: predictability of maternal environment shapes offspring size variation in marine sticklebacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Lisa N S

    2015-12-01

    Bet hedging at reproduction is expected to evolve when mothers are exposed to unpredictable cues for future environmental conditions, whereas transgenerational plasticity (TGP) should be favoured when cues reliably predict the environment offspring will experience. Since climate predictions forecast an increase in both temperature and climate variability, both TGP and bet hedging are likely to become important strategies to mediate climate change effects. Here, the potential to produce variably sized offspring in both warming and unpredictable environments was tested by investigating whether stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) mothers adjusted mean offspring size and within-clutch variation in offspring size in response to experimental manipulation of maternal thermal environment and predictability (alternating between ambient and elevated water temperatures). Reproductive output traits of F1 females were influenced by both temperature and environmental predictability. Mothers that developed at ambient temperature (17 °C) produced larger, but fewer eggs than mothers that developed at elevated temperature (21 °C), implying selection for different-sized offspring in different environments. Mothers in unpredictable environments had smaller mean egg sizes and tended to have greater within-female egg size variability, especially at 21 °C, suggesting that mothers may have dynamically modified the variance in offspring size to spread the risk of incorrectly predicting future environmental conditions. Both TGP and diversification influenced F2 offspring body size. F2 offspring reared at 21 °C had larger mean body sizes if their mother developed at 21 °C, but this TGP benefit was not present for offspring of 17 °C mothers reared at 17 °C, indicating that maternal TGP will be highly relevant for ocean warming scenarios in this system. Offspring of variable environment mothers were smaller but more variable in size than offspring from constant environment

  19. [Effects of acupoint injection of autoblood on expression of pulmonary transcription factor GATA 3 and T-bet proteins and genes in asthma rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Lü; Li, Jun-Xiong; Kravitz, Julia; Tang, Chun-Zhi; Guo, Ze-Kai; Li, Pei-Yong; Guo, Feng-Mei

    2012-10-01

    To observe the effect of autoblood acupoint-injection (ABAI) on expression levels of pulmonary transacting T-cell-specific transcription factor GATA 3 (involving Th 2 cytokine expression), Th 1-specific T-box transcription factor T-box expressed in T-cells (T-bet) proteins and genes in asthmatic rats so as to explore its mechanisms underlying asthma relief. Forty-eight male SD rats were randomized into normal control (n = 8), model (n = 10), saline acupoint-injection (SAI, n = 10), ABAI (n = 10), and Dexamethasone (DXM, n = 10) groups. Asthma model was established during 28 days by 10% Ovalbumin + 10% aluminium hydroxide solution injection (i. p.) and vapourized 2% Ovalbumin inhaling for 14 days. For rats of the ABAI group, 0.4 mL autoblood was injected into the bilateral "Feishu" (BL 13) or "Shenshu" (BL 23) alternately, once every other day for six times. For rats of the DXM group, 50% DXM solution (0.5 mg/kg, i. p.) was given from the 17th day on after starting the modeling, once every other day for 11 days. Pulmonary GATA 3 and T-bet protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and GATA 3 mRNA and T-bet mRNA expression detected by real time-PCR. In comparison with the normal group, pulmonary GATA 3 protein and mRNA expression levels in the model group were up-regulated significantly (P model group was down-regulated obviously (P model group, GATA 3 protein and mRNA expression levels were down-regulated significantly in both ABAI and DXM groups (P model and SAI groups, and between ABAI and DXM groups in GATA 3 protein expression levels; and between ABAI and DXM groups in GATA 3 mRNA expression levels; between normal and model groups, and between SAI and ABAI groups in T-bet protein expression levels; between model and SAI groups and between ABAI and DXM groups in T-bet mRNA expression levels (P > 0.05). The ratio of GATA 3 mRNA/T-bet mRNA expression was significantly higher in the model group than in the normal group (P model group (P 0

  20. Establishment of recombinant major allergens Bet v 1 and Phl p 5a as Ph. Eur. reference standards and validation of ELISA methods for their measurement. Results from feasibility studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieths, S; Barber, D; Chapman, M; Costanzo, A; Daas, A; Fiebig, H; Hanschmann, K M; Hrabina, M; Kaul, S; Ledesma, A; Moingeon, P; Reese, G; Schörner, C; van Ree, R; Weber, B; Buchheit, K H

    2012-04-01

    The potency of allergen extracts is determined as total allergenic activity without consideration of their composition and the units differ from one manufacturer to another, making it very difficult to compare the different products. Recently, purified major allergens have been obtained by recombinant DNA technology and produced under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. In principle, such recombinant allergens could be established as reference standards and could help for the standardisation of the major allergen content of allergen extracts. Two recombinant major allergens, one from birch pollen, rBet v 1, and one from Timothy grass pollen, Phl p 5a, have been selected at the end of the CREATE programme as a potential starting point for the establishment as European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) Reference Standards through a project run by the Biological Standardisation Programme (BSP) of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). To this end, bulk candidate recombinant materials, produced under GMP conditions, were procured from two European manufacturers and subsequently formulated and lyophilised. Four ELISA systems from three different manufacturers were included in the project, two for Bet v 1 and two for Phl p 5a with the aim of establishing reference methods for determination of the respective major antigens both in natural allergen extracts as well as in recombinant allergen products. The project was run in 3 phases: a preparatory and preliminary testing phase (feasibility phase or Phase 1), an extended feasibility phase carried out in 3 laboratories (Phase 2) to confirm the transferability of the methods and an international collaborative study with a large number of participating laboratories (Phase 3). This article describes the work done in Phase 1 and Phase 2, i.e. the physico-chemical and biological characterisation of the recombinant candidate reference standards, the assessment of their suitability for the

  1. Cálculo automático de pilares de betão armado com base no "Capacity Design"

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestre, Filipe; Estêvão, João Manuel Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    As regras de cálculo pela capacidade real ("capacity design") da NP EN 1998-1:2010 (EC8) trazem novos desafios ao projetos de estruturas de betão armado em zonas sísmicas, dado que os pilares são dimensionados com base nos reais momentos resistentes das vigas (secções em "T"), em vez de se considerarem, unicamente, os esforços de cálculo associados a um determinado espectro de resposta elástica. Por outro lado, a NP EN 1992-1-1:2010 (EC2) apresenta um diagrama de cálculo das armaduras com um ...

  2. Charge Transport in Antiferromagnetic Insulating Phase of Two-Dimensional Organic Conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Akiko; Zhou, Biao; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya

    2016-06-01

    Resistance and dielectric constants have been measured in the antiferromagnetic insulating phase of the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 to understand charge transport. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics are observed at low temperatures, which are explained by a charge transport model based on the electric-field dependent Coulomb potential between the thermally excited electron and hole. A small dip in the magnetic field dependence of the resistance is found at 1.2 T, which is ascribed to a spin-flop transition. The large difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric constants shows the two-dimensionality of the Coulomb potential, which is consistent with the charge transport model. The angular dependence of the metal-insulator transition field is determined, which suggests that the Zeeman effect of the 3d spins of the Fe ions plays an essential role.

  3. The Expression of T Cell FOXP3 and T-Bet Is Upregulated in Severe but Not Euthyroid Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is an organ-specific autoimmune disorder characterized by progressive thyroid failure. Th1 and Treg subset of CD4+ cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis; however, less is known about their respective roles across the spectrum of HT clinical presentations. To shed more light on CD4+ subsets role in HT, we investigated the mRNA expression levels of several Th1/Treg-associated transcription factors (T-bet/ETS1, HIF1α/BLIMP1/FOXP3) in peripheral blood T cells of 10 hypothyroid, untreated HT patients, 10 hypothyroid patients undergoing hormone replacement therapy, 12 euthyroid HT subjects, and 11 healthy controls by the qRT-PCR. Compared to euthyroid HT patients and controls, both hypothyroid (2.34-fold difference versus controls, P thyroid hormone status but proportional to disease activity. PMID:27478306

  4. BET Bromodomain Inhibition Triggers Apoptosis of NF1-Associated Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors through Bim Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amish J. Patel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are highly aggressive sarcomas that develop sporadically or in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 patients. There is no effective treatment for MPNSTs and they are typically fatal. To gain insights into MPNST pathogenesis, we utilized an MPNST mouse model that allowed us to study the evolution of these tumors at the transcriptome level. Strikingly, in MPNSTs we found upregulation of a chromatin regulator, Brd4, and show that BRD4 inhibition profoundly suppresses both growth and tumorigenesis. Our findings reveal roles for BET bromodomains in MPNST development and report a mechanism by which bromodomain inhibition induces apoptosis through induction of proapoptotic Bim, which may represent a paradigm shift in therapy for MPNST patients. Moreover, these findings indicate epigenetic mechanisms underlying the balance of anti- and proapoptotic molecules and that bromodomain inhibition can shift this balance in favor of cancer cell apoptosis.

  5. Corrosão das armaduras não estruturais em elementos de betão armado

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Sérgio Boris Gouveia

    2016-01-01

    A corrente dissertação enquadra-se na temática da corrosão das armaduras mais concretamente nas armaduras mínimas, não estruturais e construtivas. É frequente encontrarmos sinais de degradação em estruturas e elementos de betão armado, maioritariamente causado pela corrosão das armaduras. Tais armaduras por vezes não têm solicitações estruturais, desta forma estuda-se a hipótese de as mesmas terem sido dispensadas no momento de conceção da estrutura ou do elemento. Tem-se em conta todos os fa...

  6. Magnetic Torque Studies in Two-Dimensional Organic Conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the magnetic torque τ of the organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 have been performed to investigate the magnetic properties. In the magnetic field dependence of τ, a very sharp structure is observed at ˜1.2 T, resulting from the spin-flop transition. A step-like behavior associated with small hysteresis appears at ˜10 T, which is caused by the antiferromagnetic insulator-paramagnetic metal (AFI-PM) transition. In the angular dependence of τ for magnetic fields in the b*-c plane, it is found that the zero-crossing angles significantly change with field and temperature. The changes provide reasonable evidence of the antiferromagnetic order of the π spins (not the Fe 3d spins) in the AFI phase. The AFI-PM transition field has a minimum when the magnetization of the 3d spins has a maximum as a function of field angle.

  7. A novel BET bromodomain inhibitor, RVX-208, shows reduction of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic ApoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahagirdar, Ravi; Zhang, Haiyan; Azhar, Salman; Tobin, Jennifer; Attwell, Sarah; Yu, Raymond; Wu, Jin; McLure, Kevin G; Hansen, Henrik C; Wagner, Gregory S; Young, Peter R; Srivastava, Rai Ajit K; Wong, Norman C W; Johansson, Jan

    2014-09-01

    Despite the benefit of statins in reducing cardiovascular risk, a sizable proportion of patients still remain at risk. Since HDL reduces CVD risk through a process that involves formation of pre-beta particles that facilitates the removal of cholesterol from the lipid-laden macrophages in the arteries, inducing pre-beta particles, may reduce the risk of CVD. A novel BET bromodomain antagonist, RVX-208, was reported to raise apoA-I and increase preβ-HDL particles in non-human primates and humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of RVX-208 on aortic lesion formation in hyperlipidemic apoE(-/-) mice. Oral treatments of apoE(-/-) mice with 150 mg/kg b.i.d RVX-208 for 12 weeks significantly reduced aortic lesion formation, accompanied by 2-fold increases in the levels of circulating HDL-C, and ∼50% decreases in LDL-C, although no significant changes in plasma apoA-I were observed. Circulating adhesion molecules as well as cytokines also showed significant reduction. Haptoglobin, a proinflammatory protein, known to bind with HDL/apoA-I, decreased >2.5-fold in the RVX-208 treated group. With a therapeutic dosing regimen in which mice were fed Western diet for 10 weeks to develop lesions followed by switching to a low fat diet and concurrent treatment with RVX-208 for 14 weeks, RVX-208 similarly reduced lesion formation by 39% in the whole aorta without significant changes in the plasma lipid parameters. RVX-208 significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokines IP-10, MIP1(®) and MDC. These results show that the antiatherogenic activity of BET inhibitor, RVX-208, occurs via a combination of lipid changes and anti-inflammatory activities.

  8. Handling uncertainty in relation extraction: a case study on tennis tournament results extraction from tweets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg, J.; Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Relation extraction involves different types of uncertainty due to the imperfection of the extraction tools and the inherent ambiguity of unstructured text. In this paper, we discuss several ways of handling uncertainties in relation extraction from social media. Our study case is to extract tennis

  9. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  10. Modeling supercritical fluid extraction process involving solute-solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, M.; Roy, B. Kodama, A.; Hirose, T. [Kumamoto Univ., Kumamoto (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Extraction or leaching of solute from natural solid material is a mass transfer process involving dissolution or release of solutes from a solid matrix. Interaction between the solute and solid matrix often influences the supercritical fluid extraction process. A model accounting for the solute-solid interaction as well as mass transfer is developed. The BET equation is used to incorporate the interaction and the solubility of solutes into the local equilibrium in the model. Experimental data for the supercritical extraction of essential oil and cuticular wax from peppermint leaves are successfully analyzed by the model. The effects of parameters on the extraction behavior are demonstrated to illustrate the concept of the model. 18 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, C.

    2001-01-01

    On designing a tool steel, its composition and heat treatment parameters are chosen to provide a hardened and tempered martensitic matrix in which carbides are evenly distributed. In this condition the matrix has an optimum combination of hardness andtoughness, the primary carbides provide...... resistance against abrasive wear and secondary carbides (if any) increase the resistance against plastic deformation. Tool steels are alloyed with carbide forming elements (Typically: vanadium, tungsten, molybdenumand chromium) furthermore some steel types contains cobalt. Addition of alloying elements...

  12. A heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker player: Discretized betting models and automatically generated equilibrium-finding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilpin, Andrew G.; Sandholm, Tuomas; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    We present Tartanian, a game theory-based player for heads-up no-limit Texas Hold'em poker. Tartanian is built from three components. First, to deal with the virtually infinite strategy space of no-limit poker, we develop a discretized betting model designed to capture the most important strategic...

  13. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, D.; Akkerdaas, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Vogel, L.; Wensing, M.; Becker, W.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Knulst, A.C.; Helbling, A.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van; Vieths, S.

    2004-01-01

    We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and characterized the Bet v 1

  14. Ara h 8, a Bet v 1-homologous allergen from peanut, is a major allergen in patients with combined birch pollen and peanut allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittag, D.; Akkerdaas, J.; Ballmer-Weber, B.K.; Vogel, L.; Wensing, M.; Becker, W.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Knulst, A.C.; Helbling, A.; Hefle, S.L.; Ree, R. van; Vieths, S.

    2004-01-01

    We recently described patients with soybean allergy mainly mediated by cross-reactivity to birch pollen allergens. A majority of those patients were reported to have peanut allergy. We sought to study the occurrence of peanut allergy in patients allergic to birch pollen and characterized the Bet v 1

  15. THE EFFECT OF STORAGE AT AMBIENT HUMIDITY ON THE BET-SPECIFIC SURFACE-AREA OF TABLETS COMPACTED FROM DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RIEPMA, KA; DEKKER, BG; JAGER, RS; ELBERSE, PA; LERK, CF

    1993-01-01

    Tablets compacted from both water soluble and water insoluble particulate solids showed no change in BET-specific surface area when transferred immediately after ejection from the die in a dry atmosphere. Storage at ambient humidity resulted in an irreversible decrease in surface area, caused by cap

  16. IgE, IgG4 and IgA specific to Bet v 1-related food allergens do not predict oral allergy syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhsl, E E; Hofstetter, G; Lengger, N; Hemmer, W; Ebner, C; Fröschl, R; Bublin, M; Lupinek, C; Breiteneder, H; Radauer, C

    2015-01-01

    Background Birch pollen-associated plant food allergy is caused by Bet v 1-specific IgE, but presence of cross-reactive IgE to related allergens does not predict food allergy. The role of other immunoglobulin isotypes in the birch pollen-plant food syndrome has not been investigated in detail. Methods Bet v 1-sensitized birch pollen-allergic patients (n = 35) were diagnosed for food allergy by standardized interviews, skin prick tests, prick-to-prick tests and ImmunoCAP. Concentrations of allergen-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG4 and IgA to seven Bet v 1-related food allergens were determined by ELISA. Results Bet v 1, Cor a 1, Mal d 1 and Pru p 1 bound IgE from all and IgG4 and IgA from the majority of sera. Immunoglobulins to Gly m 4, Vig r 1 and Api g 1.01 were detected in hazelnut and Rosaceae fruits. In contrast, IgE and IgA to the distantly related allergen Api g 1 correlate with allergy to celeriac. PMID:25327982

  17. Marine archaeological explorations off Bet Dwarka (Gujarat), 2002-2003. Reort of the activity under in-house project: "Application of geological and geophysical methods in marine archaeology and underwater explorations."

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    these marine archaeological results in view the underwater explorations in Bet Dwarka with an objective of understanding the nature of the archaeological activities is planned. Explorations during this season was carried out at Bet Dwarka from 25.12.2002 to 3...

  18. The major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 induces different responses in dendritic cells of birch pollen allergic and healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Smole

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a fundamental role in shaping the immune response to allergens. The events that lead to allergic sensitization or tolerance induction during the interaction of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and dendritic cells are not very well studied. Here, we analyzed the uptake of Bet v 1 and the cross-reactive celery allergen Api g 1 by immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (iMoDCs of allergic and normal donors. In addition, we characterized the allergen-triggered intracellular signaling and transcriptional events. Uptake kinetics, competitive binding, and internalization pathways of labeled allergens by iMoDCs were visualized by live-cell imaging. Surface-bound IgE was detected by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Allergen- and IgE-induced gene expression of early growth response genes and Th1 and Th2 related cytokines and chemokines were analyzed by real-time PCR. Phosporylation of signaling kinases was analyzed by Western blot. Internalization of Bet v 1 by iMoDCs of both donor groups, likely by receptor-mediated caveolar endocytosis, followed similar kinetics. Bet v 1 outcompeted Api g 1 in cell surface binding and uptake. MoDCs of allergic and healthy donors displayed surface-bound IgE and showed a pronounced upregulation of Th2 cytokine- and NFκB-dependent genes upon non-specific Fcε receptor cross-linking. In contrast to these IgE-mediated responses, Bet v 1-stimulation increased transcript levels of the Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 but not of NFκB-related genes in MoDCs of BP allergic donors. Cells of healthy donors were either unresponsive or showed elevated mRNA levels of Th1-promoting chemokines. Moreover, Bet v 1 was able to induce Erk1/2 and p38 MAPK activation in BP allergics but only a slight p38 activation in normal donors. In conclusion, our data indicate that Bet v 1 favors the activation of a Th2 program only in DCs of BP allergic individuals.

  19. Early Detection of Pathological Gambling: Betting on GPs’ Beliefs and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Achab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility. To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG prevalence seems to be 6.2% has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP’s management skills in a public health approach.

  20. Early detection of pathological gambling: betting on GPs' beliefs and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achab, Sophia; Chatton, Anne; Khan, Riaz; Thorens, Gabriel; Penzenstadler, Louise; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-01

    Pathological gambling (PG) is an addictive disorder with harm related to the high psychiatric comorbidity and increased suicidal risk. Prevalence rates in general population range from 0.2% to 2.1%. Problem gamblers are hard to attract to treatment programs for several proper reasons and for obstacles (e.g., accessibility). To address these obstacles, primary care (where the problem gambling (PrG) prevalence seems to be 6.2%) has a crucial role to play (i.e., identifying and referring patients to specialized treatment programs and treating at first line when needed and possible) in the era of online gambling offer expansion. The present work aimed to collect data on resources in the field from GPs themselves, using a 24-item online questionnaire. Swiss French-speaking participants were asked about their screening practice and knowledge. The results state that the vast majority of them are aware of the existence and the potential impact of PrG on their patients. However, PrG screening is not systematic and their knowledge of adequate treatments or referral methods is scarce. GPs being central to health screening in general, targeted advice and training on short screening tools and better knowledge of referral pathways should be promoted and continued to empower the GP's management skills in a public health approach.

  1. CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF THE BET-FI INDEX’S CONSTITUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANCIU CRISTIAN VALERIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stocks, bonds, derivatives and structured products listed on the Bucharest Stock Exchange are, still, financial instruments often used by investors in the construction of investment portfolios. An important role in this process have indices, and this for several reasons: indices reflect the evolution of the stock exchange as a whole, but also of some companies in representative sectors; the composition of the indices includes important companies, attractive for the investors; by the way they are constructed, indices can be used as underlying for structured products or derivatives. The aim of this paper is to examine the correlations between the six companies which are the constituents of the BETFI index (Bucharest Exchange Trading Investment Funds, the first sectorial index launched by Bucharest Stock Exchange. To achieve this objective, we use a dynamic conditional correlation (DCC model using daily data over the period February 2011- October 2016.We hope that this paper can be a useful tool for investors in formulating the right investment policies for asset allocation in order to obtain the best results in terms of risk and return.

  2. Identification and characterization of the transcription factors involved in T-cell development, t-bet, stat6 and foxp3, within the zebrafish, Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Suman; Alnabulsi, Ayham; Secombes, Chris J; Bird, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of cytokines expressed by T-helper 1 (Th1), Th2, Th17 and T-regulatory (T(reg)) cells has prompted speculation that these types of responses may exist in fish, arising early in vertebrate evolution. In this investigation, we cloned three zebrafish transcription factors, T-box expressed in T cells (t-bet), signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (stat6) and fork-head box p3 (foxp3), in which two transcripts are present, that are important in the development of a number of these cell types. They were found within the zebrafish genome, using a synteny approach in the case of t-bet and foxp3. Multiple alignments of zebrafish t-bet, stat6 and foxp3 amino acids with known vertebrate homologues revealed regions of high conservation, subsequently identified to be protein domains important in the functioning of these transcription factors. The gene organizations of zebrafish t-bet and foxp3 were identical to those of the human genes, with the second foxp3 transcript lacking exons 5, 6, 7 and 8. Zebrafish stat6 (21 exons and 20 introns) was slightly different from the human gene, which contained 22 exons and 21 introns. Immunostimulation of zebrafish head kidney and spleen cells with phytohaemagglutinin, lipopolysaccharide or Poly I:C, showed a correlation between the expression of t-bet, stat6 and foxp3 with other genes involved in Th and T(reg) responses using quantitative PCR. These transcription factors, together with many of the cytokines that are expressed by different T-cell subtypes, will aid future investigations into the Th and T(reg) cell types that exist in teleosts.

  3. Management Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Manugistics, Inc. (formerly AVYX, Inc.) has introduced a new programming language for IBM and IBM compatible computers called TREES-pls. It is a resource management tool originating from the space shuttle, that can be used in such applications as scheduling, resource allocation project control, information management, and artificial intelligence. Manugistics, Inc. was looking for a flexible tool that can be applied to many problems with minimal adaptation. Among the non-government markets are aerospace, other manufacturing, transportation, health care, food and beverage and professional services.

  4. In the Casino of Life: Betting on Risks and Ignoring the Consequences of Climate Change and Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Even faced with strong scientific evidence decision-makers cite uncertainty and delay actions. Scientists, confident in the quality of their science and acknowledging that uncertainty while present is low by scientific standards, become more frustrated as their information is ignored. Decreasing scientific uncertainty, a hallmark of long term studies e.g. IPCC reports does little to motivate decision-makers. Imperviousness to scientific data is prevalent across all scales. Municipalities prefer to spend millions of dollars on engineered solutions to climate change and hazards, even if science shows that they perform less well than nature-based ones and cost much more. California is known to be at risk from tsunamis generated by earthquakes off Alaska. A study using a 9.1 earthquake, similar to a 1965 event, calculated the immediate economic price tag in infrastructure loss and business interruption at 9.5billion. The exposure of Los Angeles/Long Beach port trade to damage and downtime exceeds 1.2billion; business interruption would triple the figure. Yet despite several excellent scientific studies, the State is ill prepared; investments in infrastructure commerce and conservation risk being literally washed away. Globally there is a 5-10% probability of an extreme geohazard, e.g, a Tambora like eruption, occurring in this century. With a "value of statistical life" of 2.2 million and population at 7 billion the risk for fatalities alone is 1.1-7billion per yr. But there is little interest in investing the $0.5-3.5 billion per year in volcano monitoring necessary to reduce fatalities and lower risks of global conflict, starvation, and societal destruction. More science and less uncertainty is clearly not the driver of action. But is speaking with certainty really the answer? Decision makers and scientists are in the same casino of life but rarely play at the same tables. Decision makers bet differently to scientists. To motivate action we need to be cognizant of

  5. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  6. Growth kinetics, effect of carbon substrate in biosynthesis of mcl-PHA by Pseudomonas putida Bet001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Gumel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth associated biosynthesis of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA in Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. Models with substrate inhibition terms described well the kinetics of its growth. Selected fatty acids (C8:0 to C18:1 and ammonium were used as carbon and nitrogen sources during growth and PHA biosynthesis, resulting in PHA accumulation of about 50 to 69% (w/w and PHA yields ranging from 10.12 g L-1 to 15.45 g L-1, respectively. The monomer composition of the PHA ranges from C4 to C14, and was strongly influenced by the type of carbon substrate fed. Interestingly, an odd carbon chain length (C7 monomer was also detected when C18:1 was fed. Polymer showed melting temperature (Tm of 42.0 (± 0.2 °C, glass transition temperature (Tg of -1.0 (± 0.2 °C and endothermic melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔHf of 110.3 (± 0.1 J g-1. The molecular weight (Mw range of the polymer was relatively narrow between 55 to 77 kDa.

  7. Biotransformation of Momordica charantia fresh juice by Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 and its putative anti-diabetic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazlan, Farhaneen Afzal; Annuar, M. Suffian M.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum BET003 isolated from Momordica charantia fruit was used to ferment its juice. Momordica charantia fresh juice was able to support good growth of the lactic acid bacterium. High growth rate and cell viability were obtained without further nutrient supplementation. In stirred tank reactor batch fermentation, agitation rate showed significant effect on specific growth rate of the bacterium in the fruit juice. After the fermentation, initially abundant momordicoside 23-O-β-Allopyranosyle-cucurbita-5,24-dien-7α,3β,22(R),23(S)-tetraol-3-O-β-allopyranoside was transformed into its corresponding aglycone in addition to the emergence of new metabolites. The fermented M. charantia juice consistently reduced glucose production by 27.2%, 14.5%, 17.1% and 19.2% at 15-minute intervals respectively, when compared against the negative control. This putative anti-diabetic activity can be attributed to the increase in availability and concentration of aglycones as well as other phenolic compounds resulting from degradation of glycosidic momordicoside. Biotransformation of M. charantia fruit juice via lactic acid bacterium fermentation reduced its bitterness, reduced its sugar content, produced aglycones and other metabolites as well as improved its inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with the fresh, non-fermented juice. PMID:26539336

  8. Structural, Functional, and Immunological Characterization of Profilin Panallergens Amb a 8, Art v 4, and Bet v 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Lesa R; Schlachter, Caleb R; Perdue, Makenzie L; Majorek, Karolina A; He, John Z; Booth, William T; Garrett, Jessica; Kowal, Krzysztof; Chruszcz, Maksymilian

    2016-07-22

    Ragweed allergens affect several million people in the United States and Canada. To date, only two ragweed allergens, Amb t 5 and Amb a 11, have their structures determined and deposited to the Protein Data Bank. Here, we present structures of methylated ragweed allergen Amb a 8, Amb a 8 in the presence of poly(l-proline), and Art v 4 (mugwort allergen). Amb a 8 and Art v 4 are panallergens belonging to the profilin family of proteins. They share significant sequence and structural similarities, which results in cross-recognition by IgE antibodies. Molecular and immunological properties of Amb a 8 and Art v 4 are compared with those of Bet v 2 (birch pollen allergen) as well as with other allergenic profilins. We purified recombinant allergens that are recognized by patient IgE and are highly cross-reactive. It was determined that the analyzed allergens are relatively unstable. Structures of Amb a 8 in complex with poly(l-proline)10 or poly(l-proline)14 are the first structures of the plant profilin in complex with proline-rich peptides. Amb a 8 binds the poly(l-proline) in a mode similar to that observed in human, mouse, and P. falciparum profilin·peptide complexes. However, only some of the residues that form the peptide binding site are conserved. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  10. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  11. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  12. Mathematical tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Faraoni, Valerio

    In this chapter we discuss certain mathematical tools which are used extensively in the following chapters. Some of these concepts and methods are part of the standard baggage taught in undergraduate and graduate courses, while others enter the tool-box of more advanced researchers. These mathematical methods are very useful in formulating ETGs and in finding analytical solutions.We begin by studying conformal transformations, which allow for different representations of scalar-tensor and f(R) theories of gravity, in addition to being useful in GR. We continue by discussing variational principles in GR, which are the basis for presenting ETGs in the following chapters. We close the chapter with a discussion of Noether symmetries, which are used elsewhere in this book to obtain analytical solutions.

  13. Exploring the Role of BET Bromodomain Proteins in AR Transcriptional Regulation: A Perpetuating Cycle of JQ1 Resistance in CRPC Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    the N-terminal BET bromodomain of BRD4 to disrupt its interaction with AR and prevent expression of DHT dependent AR target genes. Ironically, while...with AR and prevent expression of DHT dependent AR target genes such as prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and ERG by inhibiting transcription (1...androgen and JQ1 treated prostate cancer cells and assess its correlation with AR mRNA expression. To determine whether DHT mediated AR activation

  14. SKIM MILK POWDER, WHEY POWDER AND MILK AND WHEY MIXTURES IN POWDER PRODUCED IN MINISPRAY DRYER:ISOTHERM ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF THE BET MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone, Ítalo Tuler; Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes de; Pereira, João Pablo Fortes; Stringueta, Paulo César; Silva, Paulo Henrique Fonseca da

    2013-01-01

    In this study whey powders and skim milk powder were produced in laboratory scale. Water vapor sorption for each powder was measured gravimetrically. The results of the isothermal adsorption were in agreement with the BET model and the quantities of water in the monolayer, obtained by the model, were less than the total quant ities of water in the powder s. Laboratory scale production of milk and whey powders showed that increasing whey percentage in the mixture of milk and whey before drying...

  15. Specific Surface versus Electrochemically Active Area of the Carbon/Polypyrrole Capacitor: Correlation of Ion Dynamics Studied by an Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance with BET Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosch, Heike L K S; Akintola, Oluseun; Plass, Winfried; Höppener, Stephanie; Schubert, Ulrich S; Ignaszak, Anna

    2016-05-10

    Carbon/polypyrrole (PPy) composites are promising electrode materials for energy storage applications such as lightweight capacitors. Although these materials are composed of relatively inexpensive components, there is a gap of knowledge regarding the correlation between surface, porosity, ion exchange dynamics, and the interplay of the double layer capacitance and pseudocapacitance. In this work we evaluate the specific surface area analyzed by the BET method and the area accessible for ions using electrochemical quartz-crystal microbalance (EQCM) for SWCNT/PPy and carbon black Vulcan XC72-R/PPy composites. The study revealed that the polymer has significant influence on the pore size of the composites. Although the BET surface is low for the polypyrrole, the electrode mass change and thus the electrochemical area are large for the polymer-containing electrodes. This indicates that multiple redox active centers in the charged polymer chain are good ion scavengers. Also, for the composite electrodes, the effective charge storage occurs at the polypyrrole-carbon junctions, which are easy to design/multiply by a proper carbon-to-polymer weight ratio. The specific BET surface and electrochemically accessible surface area are both important parameters in calculation of the electrode capacitance. SWCNTs/PPy showed the highest capacitances normalized to the BET and electrochemical surface as compared to the polymer-carbon black. TEM imaging revealed very homogeneous distribution of the nanosized polymer particles onto the CNTs, which facilitates the synergistic effect of the double layer capacitance (CNTs) and pseudocapacitance (polymer). The trend in the electrode mass change in correlation with the capacitance suggest additional effects such as a solvent co-insertion into the polymer and the contribution of the charge associated with the redox activity of oxygen-containing functional groups on the carbon surface.

  16. Assessment of Bet v 1-specific CD4+ T cell responses in allergic and nonallergic individuals using MHC class II peptide tetramers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Wambre, Erik; Maillère, Bernard; von Hofe, Eric; Louise, Anne; Balazuc, Anne Marie; Bohle, Barbara; Ebo, Didier; Leboulaire, Christophe; Garcia, Gilles; Moingeon, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we used HLA-DRB1*0101, DRB1*0401, and DRB1*1501 peptide tetramers combined with cytokine surface capture assays to characterize CD4(+) T cell responses against the immunodominant T cell epitope (peptide 141-155) from the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, in both healthy and allergic individuals. We could detect Bet v 1-specific T cells in the PBMC of 20 birch pollen allergic patients, but also in 9 of 9 healthy individuals tested. Analysis at a single-cell level revealed that allergen-specific CD4(+) T cells from healthy individuals secrete IFN-gamma and IL-10 in response to the allergen, whereas cells from allergic patients are bona fide Th2 cells (producing mostly IL-5, some IL-10, but no IFN-gamma), as corroborated by patterns of cytokines produced by T cell clones. A fraction of Bet v 1-specific cells isolated from healthy, but not allergic, individuals also expresses CTLA-4, glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor, and Foxp 3, indicating that they represent regulatory T cells. In this model of seasonal exposure to allergen, we also demonstrate the tremendous dynamics of T cell responses in both allergic and nonallergic individuals during the peak pollen season, with an expansion of Bet v 1-specific precursors from 10(-6) to 10(-3) among circulating CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Allergy vaccines should be designed to recapitulate such naturally protective Th1/regulatory T cell responses observed in healthy individuals.

  17. Down-regulation of the strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Alm, Rikard; Canbäck, Björn

    2006-01-01

    -tolerant searching against local protein databases built on both EST and full-length nucleotide sequences. The amino acid sequence of a strawberry allergen, homologous to the well-known major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, was partially determined. This strawberry allergen, named Fra a 1 according...... protein expression without access to genomic sequence information can also be applied to other crop plants and phenotypic traits....

  18. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascari, Matthew [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  19. Research to laws of sports betting in UK%英国体育博彩法律问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾文彤

    2015-01-01

    Referring to plenty of documents of UK,this thesis gave analysis to laws of sports betting,and the results were as follows:UK sports betting has a long history;its legislation undertook the way from prohibition to complete legality;the legislation showed the features such as higher law levels,detailed law and the more complete regulatory body.Sports betting in UK raised much money for the development of sport,which is worth referring for China.%参考大量英国文献,对英国体育博彩法律问题进行了研究,结果如下:英国体育博彩历史悠久,立法经历了从禁止到完全合法的历程,英国体育博彩立法体现了层级较高、法律规定详尽、监管机构较为完备等特点。英国体育博彩为体育发展募集了大量资金,值得我国借鉴。

  20. Effects of Shen-Fu Injection on the Expression of T-Cell-Specific Transcription Factors T-bet/Gata-3 in Porcine Postresuscitation Lung Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shen-Fu injection (SFI derived from the ancient traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the effects of SFI on the expression of T-bet/GATA-3 and its potential mechanisms causing the shift of T cells from Th2 to Th1 on postresuscitation lung injury were examined in a porcine model of cardiac arrest. 30 pigs were randomly divided into SHAM ( and three return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC groups ( per group; 24 pigs were subjected to 8 min of electrically induced cardiac arrest and 2 min of basic life support, which received central venous injection of Shen-Fu (SFI, epinephrine (EP or saline (SA. After successful ROSC, 18 surviving pigs were sacrificed at 24 h after ROSC ( per group. The levels of serum and lung tissue interleukin (IL-4 and interferon (IFN-γ were measured by ELISA, and the protein and mRNA levels of GATA-3 and T-bet in the lung tissue were determined by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Compared with the EP and SA groups, SFI treatment reduced the levels of IL-4 (, increased levels of IFN-γ (, and induced T-bet mRNA upregulation and GATA-3 mRNA downregulation (. SFI attenuated lung injury and regulated lung immune disorders. Therefore, SFI could protect postresuscitation lung injury by modulating a Th1/Th2 imbalance.

  1. pSTAT1, pSTAT3, and T-bet as markers of disease activity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madia, Francesca; Frisullo, Giovanni; Nociti, Viviana; Conte, Amelia; Luigetti, Marco; Del Grande, Alessandra; Patanella, Agata Katia; Iorio, Raffaele; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Batocchi, Anna Paola; Sabatelli, Mario

    2009-06-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is considered an auto-immune disorder. We evaluated expression of pSTAT1, T-bet, and pSTAT3 in circulating T-cells, B-cells, and monocytes and spontaneous production of interleukin-17 (IL17), interferon-gamma (IFN gamma), and interleukin-10 (IL10) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 14 active CIDP patients compared with 6 patients with long-lasting remission and 20 controls. Active disease patients showed higher pSTAT1, T-bet, and pSTAT3 in CD4(+) T-cells than controls (p CIDP patients than controls (p = 0.0011, p = 0.0041, p = 0.0413, respectively) and remission patients (p = 0.0073, p = 0.0274, p = 0.0251, respectively). Moreover in CD8(+) T-cells, pSTAT3 expression was higher in active CIDP patients than in remission patients (p = 0.0345) and in controls (p = 0.0023). IL17 and IFN gamma production were significantly higher in active CIDP patients than in controls (p CIDP patients (p = 0.0073). IL10 levels were higher in active phase patients than in controls (p = 0.0334). Our data suggest that pSTAT1, T-bet, and pSTAT3 can be considered putative markers of disease activity and potential targets for specific therapies.

  2. The effect of synthetic salidroside on cytokines and airway inflammation of asthma induced by diisocyanate (TDI) in mice by regulating GATA3/T-bet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Xiao, Lu; Zhu, Lingpeng; Hu, Mei; Wang, Qiujuan; Yan, Tianhua

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to explore the anti-asthma effects of synthetic salidroside on cytokines and airway inflammation of asthma induced by diisocyanate (TDI) in mice. The experiment was carried out 60 female BALB/C mice which were randomly assigned to six experimental groups: control, vehicle, model, dexamethasone (2 mg/kg), and salidroside (24 and 48 mg/kg). After the experiment, histological studies were evaluated by the hematoxylin and eosin staining, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood were collected from the animals, and the composition of the induced inflammatory cells, and the concentrations of certain cytokines (IL-4, INF-γ) were evaluated. GATA3 and T-bet mRNAs were evaluated by QPCR. Our study demonstrated that salidroside inhibited TDI-induced increases in eosinophil count; IL-4 and INF-γ were recovered. Histological studies demonstrated that salidroside substantially inhibited TDI-induced eosinophilia in lung tissue. Salidroside can improve T-bet mRNA and reduce GATA3 mRNA in lung. These findings suggest that salidroside may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma and could be used as a therapy for patients with allergic asthma by regulating GATA3/T-bet balance.

  3. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human nutrition, particularly in developing ... studied the effect of NaCl on the extractability of ... significant influence on the functional properties ..... Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  4. Characterization of Nanoencapsulated Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale Extract Using Combination of Malto Dextrin and Gum Arabic as Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meliana, Y.; Harmami, S. B.; Restu, W. K.

    2017-02-01

    This research investigated nanoencapsulation of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract. The encapsulated extract was used as a complex matrix of multi-layered interfacial membranes between malto dextrin and gum Arabic. Characterization of nanoencapsulation using Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and BET surface area (SA) showed the morphology, functional group and cumulative adsorption in the surface area of pores. The TEM image of the nanoencapsulated powders of Centella asiatica and Zingiber officinale extract showed a nearly spherical shape with the particle size of 664 nm from its average radius.

  5. Bevalac extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  6. Biosynthesis and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates copolymers produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mohammed Gumel

    Full Text Available The biosynthesis and characterization of medium chain length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA produced by Pseudomonas putida Bet001 isolated from palm oil mill effluent was studied. The biosynthesis of mcl-PHA in this newly isolated microorganism follows a growth-associated trend. Mcl-PHA accumulation ranging from 49.7 to 68.9% on cell dry weight (CDW basis were observed when fatty acids ranging from octanoic acid (C(8:0 to oleic acid (C(18:1 were used as sole carbon and energy source. Molecular weight of the polymer was found to be ranging from 55.7 to 77.7 kDa. Depending on the type of fatty acid used, the (1H NMR and GCMSMS analyses of the chiral polymer showed a composition of even and odd carbon atom chain with monomer length of C4 to C14 with C8 and C10 as the principal monomers. No unsaturated monomer was detected. Thermo-chemical analyses showed the accumulated PHA to be semi-crystalline polymer with good thermal stability, having a thermal degradation temperature (T(d of 264.6 to 318.8 (± 0.2 (oC, melting temperature (T(m of 43. (± 0.2 (oC, glass transition temperature (T(g of -1.0 (± 0.2 (oC and apparent melting enthalpy of fusion (ΔH(f of 100.9 (± 0.1 J g(-1.

  7. Prevalence of plasma lipid abnormalities and its association with glucose metabolism in Spain: the di@bet.es study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F; Real, Jose T; Masana, Luis; Catalá, Miguel; Vendrell, Joan; Vázquez, José Antonio; Valdés, Sergio; Urrutia, Inés; Soriguer, Federico; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Ortega, Emilio; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Menéndez, Edelmiro; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; López-Alba, Alfonso; Gomis, Ramón; Goday, Albert; Girbés, Juan; Gaztambide, Sonia; Franch, Josep; Delgado, Elías; Castell, Conxa; Castaño, Luis; Casamitjana, Roser; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso; Bordiú, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is a significant contributor to the elevated CVD risk observed in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We assessed the prevalence of dyslipidemia and its association with glucose metabolism status in a representative sample of the adult population in Spain and the percentage of subjects at guideline-recommended LDL-C goals. The di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey of 5728 adults. A total of 4776 subjects were studied. Dyslipidemia was diagnosed in 56.8% of subjects; only 13.2% of subjects were treated with lipid lowering drugs. Lipid abnormalities were found in 56.8% of Spanish adults: 23.3% with high LDL-C, 21.5% high TG, 35.8% high non-HDL-C, and 17.2% low HDL-C. Most normal subjects showed an LDL-C ≤ 3.36 mmol/l. Pre-diabetics presented similar proportion when considering a goal of 3.36 mmol/l, but only 35% of them reached an LDL-C goal ≤ 2.6 mmol/l. Finally, 45.3% of diabetics had an LDL-C ≤ 2.6 mmol/l, and only 11.3% achieved an LDL-C ≤ 1.8 mmol/l. Our study demonstrates a high prevalence of dyslipidemia in the adult Spanish population, and a low use of lipid-lowering drugs. Moreover, the number of subjects achieving their corresponding LDL-C goal is small, particularly in subjects at high cardiovascular risk, such as diabetics. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Spain using regional cutoff points for waist circumference: the di@bet.es study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuello, Clara; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L; Fuentes, Manuel; Runkle, Isabelle; Rubio, Miguel A; Montañez, Carmen; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Soriguer, Federico; Bordiu, Elena; Goday, Albert; Bosch-Comas, Anna; Carmena, Rafael; Casamitjana, Roser; Castaño, Luis; Castell, Conxa; Catalá, Miguel; Delgado, Elias; Franch, Josep; Gaztambide, Sonia; Girbés, Juan; Gomis, Ramon; Urrutia, Ines; López-Alba, Alfonso; Martínez-Larrad, Maria T; Menéndez, Eldelmiro; Mora-Peces, Inmaculada; Ortega, Emilio; Pascual-Manich, Gemma; Serrano-Rios, Manuel; Valdés, Sergio; Vázquez, Jose A; Vendrell, Joan

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Spain using specific cutoff points for waist circumference (WC) (>94.5 cm for men and >89.5 cm for women) and evaluating the influence of several socio-demographic and economic factors. Data on MetS were obtained from a national study of 4,727 subjects from 18 to 90 years of age, conducted in Spain between 2009 and 2010 (The di@bet.es study). MetS was defined applying the new Harmonized definition (evaluating the use of abdominal obesity (AO) as a obligatory criterion for MetS or not) as well as with other widely used criteria. Results were then compared with data from previous studies. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the influence of different social factors. The age-standardized MetS prevalence was 38.37 % (CI 35.74-40.99) in men and 29.62 % (CI 27.56-31.69) in women, when AO was required as a diagnostic criterion; 42.13 % (CI 39.37-44.89) and 32.31 % (CI 30.15-34.47) in men and women, respectively, if AO was not considered mandatory. Prevalence of MetS increased with age (p < 0.001 for trend). Women with a lower educational level were more likely to have MetS (OR 4.4; 95 % CI: 2.84-6.7) as compared with those with a higher educational level. Subjects with MetS had a worse physical quality of life. The combination of AO, hypertension and carbohydrate alterations was the most common MetS' pattern. A high prevalence of MetS was detected in the Spanish population especially in men, the elderly and women with a low educational level.

  9. Tool Gear: Infrastructure for Parallel Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2003-04-17

    Tool Gear is a software infrastructure for developing performance analysis and other tools. Unlike existing integrated toolkits, which focus on providing a suite of capabilities, Tool Gear is designed to help tool developers create new tools quickly. It combines dynamic instrumentation capabilities with an efficient database and a sophisticated and extensible graphical user interface. This paper describes the design of Tool Gear and presents examples of tools that have been built with it.

  10. I Bet You Thought...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David H.

    The booklet lists and dispels 14 economic myths through a discussion of money, economic concepts, and the Federal Reserve System. The objective is to help secondary students or adults understand the economic system as related to money and banking. Topics focus on money, banking, gold and silver, credit, government role, financial concepts, and…

  11. Hedging Mexico's Electricity Bets

    OpenAIRE

    Farchy, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Few investors will risk putting all of their money into a single asset based on a 30-year forecast, yet narrowly-interpreted least-cost energy planning has often done just that. In Mexico, regulatory policies have hindered adoption of renewable energy (RE) and other diversified power options that could reduce portfolio risk. Against this backdrop, this note illustrates the country's growin...

  12. 3G Bet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAN; STEINBOCK

    2006-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, Chinese mobile players have caught up rapidly with cutting-edge mobile services, while the Chinese marketplace has become an R&D hub for multinational companies and a test laboratory for large-scale ad campaigns by global marketers. As China prepares to enter the third-generation (3G) industry, it is faced with both great challenges and great opportunities. Scale and mobile services In late summer 2002, Coca-Cola ran a short message service (SMS) ad campaign, featuring

  13. Betting Big on Baseload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, Daniel; Spiegel, Eric; Van den Berg, Joe

    2006-08-15

    Some risks are unavoidable. Rather than pretending to forecast the future, successful companies will need to learn from other cyclical, capital-intensive industries: investing wisely, learning to build asset portfolios consonant with their owners' appetite for risk, and relentlessly seeking opportunities to improve efficiency. (author)

  14. Excavation at Bet Dwarka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, S.R.; Gaur, A.S.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Mar_Archaeol_3_42.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Mar_Archaeol_3_42.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Molecular characterization of human IgG monoclonal antibodies specific for the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1. Anti-allergen IgG can enhance the anaphylactic reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denépoux, S; Eibensteiner, P B; Steinberger, P; Vrtala, S; Visco, V; Weyer, A; Kraft, D; Banchereau, J; Valenta, R; Lebecque, S

    2000-01-07

    We report the molecular characterization of five human monoclonal antibodies, BAB1-5 (BAB1: IgG(1); BAB4: IgG(2); BAB2, 3, 5: IgG(4)), with specificity for the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1. BAB1-5 were obtained after immunotherapy and contained a high degree of somatic mutations indicative of an antigen-driven affinity maturation process. While BAB1 inhibited the binding of patients IgE to Bet v 1, BAB2 increased IgE recognition of Bet v 1, and, even as Escherichia coli-expressed Fab, augmented Bet v 1-induced immediate type skin reactions. The demonstration that IgG antibodies can enhance allergen-induced allergic reactions is likely to explain the unpredictability of specific immunotherapy.

  16. Genomic DNA extraction from whole blood stored from 15- to 30-years at -20 °C by rapid phenol-chloroform protocol: a useful tool for genetic epidemiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Ortenzi, Francesco; Tilio, Martina; Concetti, Fabio; Napolioni, Valerio

    2011-02-01

    Long-term stored (LTS) whole blood collection can be an important source of DNA without collection costs, but there is a lack of information on methods useful to extract genomic DNA from such type of biological material. Here we report a simple and fast revisited phenol/chloroform extraction method from LTS whole blood. Protocol reliability was assessed by comparison with proteinase K and silica-gel membrane spin column-based DNA extraction methods using LTS -20 °C whole blood from 1980, and by testing it on 82 whole blood samples, collected from 1980 to 1995, with high quality (A(260/280) = 1.79 ± 0.32 O.D., A(260/230) = 1.45 ± 0.52 O.D.) and quantity results. Genotyping efficiency was also checked by performing RFLP-PCR and ASP-PCR of p53 Pro72Arg (rs1042522) SNP and hTERT MNS16A VNTR, respectively, resulting in 100% of samples successfully typed. In addition to the goodness and the efficiency of method proposed here, this protocol achieves working time reduction combining extraction and purification steps, allowing to work at room temperature. Furthermore, phenol is able to inactivate any potential nuclease and potential infective sources from the first step on. Based on these results we also conclude that LTS -20 °C whole blood samples may be considered a reliable and potential resource for future genotyping studies and retrospective analysis in a genetic epidemiological setting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The expression levels of T -bet mRNA and GATA3 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with preeclampsia%子痫前期患者外周血T - bet mRNA和GATA3mRNA的表达水平

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李净; 杨海澜; 何银芳

    2011-01-01

    目的:从Th细胞特异性转录因子T- bet和GATA3的角度探讨其在子痫前期(pre - eclampsia)发病过程中可能的病理生理机制,为子痫前期的病因研究及免疫治疗提供思路.方法:采集正常产妇和子痫前期患者外周血单个核细胞(PBMCs),提取总RNA,逆转录成cDNA,利用SYBRGreenl荧光定量PCR方法,以β- actin为内对照基因检测每组PBMCs中T-bet mRNA和GATA3 mRNA的表达水平.结果:①GATA3 mRNA在正常妊娠组、子痫前期轻度组和子痫前期重度组的表达随病情的加重表达减弱,子痫前期重度组与正常妊娠组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),子痫前期轻度组与正常妊娠组、子痫前期重度组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);②T - bet mRNA的表达随病情的加重表达增强,子痫前期重度组与正常妊娠组、子痫前期轻度组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),子痫前期轻度组的表达也高于正常妊娠组,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);③T - bet mRNA/GATA3 mRNA比值结果显示,随病情的加重比值增大,且子痫前期重度组与正常妊娠组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),子痫前期轻度组与正常妊娠组、子痫前期重度组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:子痫前期患者外周血中表现为免疫杀伤的Th1型细胞转录因子T- bet mRNA表达增强,表现为免疫保护或免疫营养的Th2型细胞转录因子GATA3 mRNA表达减弱,提示子痫前期患者外周血中T- bet mRNA的高表达与其发病有关,GATA3 mRNA在子痫前期的发生、发展中的作用不如T - bet mRNA明显;T- bet mRNA/GATA3 mRNA比值随病情的加重而增大,提示外周血中Th1/Th2转录因子的平衡偏离可能是导致子痫前期发病的病因之一.%Objective: To explore the probable pathogenesis of preeclampsia from the point of T - bet and GATA3, provide ideas for etiological research and immune therapy of preeclampsia Methods: Mononuclear cells were obtained

  18. Pimecrolimus Is a Potent Inhibitor of Allergic Reactions to Hymenopteran Venom Extracts and Birch Pollen Allergen In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Heneberg

    Full Text Available Pimecrolimus (Elidel, SDZ ASM 981 is an anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory 33-epichloro-derivative of macrolactam ascomycin, with low potential for affecting systemic immune responses compared with other calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporin A and tacrolimus. Despite numerous studies focused on the mechanism of pimecrolimus action on mast cells, only the single report has addressed pimecrolimus effects on other typical FcεRI-expressing cells, the basophils. Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 20, hymenopteran venoms (n = 23 and 10 non-allergic volunteers were examined. Primary human basophils pre-treated or not with 0.5-50 μMol pimecrolimus were exposed to various concentrations of recombinant Bet v 1a allergen, bee or wasp venom extracts and anti-IgE for 20 min, and then examined for the expression of CD45, CD193, CD203c, CD63 and CD164 using flow cytometry. The externalization of basophil activation markers (CD63 and CD164 was equally inhibited through pimecrolimus in cells activated by recombinant pollen allergen, hymenopteran venom extracts and anti-IgE. Although the individual response rate was subject to strong variation, importantly, pre-treatment with pimecrolimus lowered the number of activated basophils in response to any of the stimuli in the basophils from all patients. The inhibition was concentration-dependent; approximately half of the basophils were inhibited in the presence of 2.5 mMol pimecrolimus. Pimecrolimus is a valuable new tool for the inhibition of hyper-reactive basophils in patients with pollen allergy and a history of anaphylactic reactions to bee or wasp venoms. Further research should address short-term use of pimecrolimus in vivo in a wide spectrum of allergic diseases.

  19. Medicaid Analytic eXtract (MAX) Chartbooks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Analytic eXtract Chartbooks are research tools and reference guides on Medicaid enrollees and their Medicaid experience in 2002 and 2004. Developed for...

  20. Extracting tag hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Tibély, Gergely; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2014-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy betwe...

  1. Expression and significance of T - bet mRNA and GATA3 mRNA of preeclampsia patients' decidua basalis%T-bet mRNA和GATA3 mRNA在子痫前期蜕膜组织中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓瑜; 杨海澜; 何银芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the different expression of various in decidua basalis between preeclampsia and normal pregnant women. Methods; The patients with preeclampsia and normot ensive of late pregnancy were selected as study group and control group. The levels of T - bet mRNA and GATA3 mRNA in both group were measured by RT - PCR. Results: ①The levels of T - bet mRNA were significant differences between severe preeclampsia group and normal pregnancy group, severe preeclampsia group and mild preeclampsia group (P <0.01, P <0.01 ). There was no significantly statistical difference between mild preeclampsia group and normal pregnancy group (P = 0. 089). ②The levels of GATA3 mRNA were significant differences between severe preeclampsia group and normal pregnancy group, severe preeclampsia group and Mild preeclampsia group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). There was no significantly statistical difference between mild preeclampsia group and normal pregnancy group (P = 0.127). ③The ratio of T - bet mRNA and GATA3 mRNA were differerces between severe preeclampsia group and normal pregnancy group, severe preeclampsia group and mild preeclampsia group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). The difference of The ratio of T - bet mRNA and GATA3 mRNA among mild preeclampsia group and normal pregnancy group were no statistically significant (P = 0. 322). Conclusions: The disbalant expression levels of T - bet mRNA and GATA - 3 mRNA may be lead to the shift of Th1 in preeclampsia.%目的 探讨T - bet mRNA和GATA3 mRNA在正常妊娠产妇及子痫前期患者蜕膜组织中的表达差异.方法 选取子痫前期和正常妊娠产妇作为实验组和对照组,采用RT - PCR方法,检测各组产妇蜕膜组织中T- bet mRNA和GA-TA3mRNA表达水平.结果 ①子痫前期重度组与轻度组相比,子痫前期重度组与正常组相比T- bet mRNA表达量的差异有统计学意义(P<0.01,P<0.01).子痫前期轻度组与正常组T- bet mRNA表达量相比较差异无统计学意义(P=0

  2. Information extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that

  3. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the phenomeno

  4. Tree Transduction Tools for Cdec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Matthews

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a collection of open source tools for learning tree-to-string and tree-to-tree transducers and the extensions to the cdec decoder that enable translation with these. Our modular, easy-to-extend tools extract rules from trees or forests aligned to strings and trees subject to different structural constraints. A fast, multithreaded implementation of the Cohn and Blunsom (2009 model for extracting compact tree-to-string rules is also included. The implementation of the tree composition algorithm used by cdec is described, and translation quality and decoding time results are presented. Our experimental results add to the body of evidence suggesting that tree transducers are a compelling option for translation, particularly when decoding speed and translation model size are important.

  5. Social Data Analysis Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Abid; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hardt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    that structure the inter-connections between these sites. Including contributions from a range of academic disciplines including Political Science, Media and Communication Studies, Economics, and Computer Science, this study showcases a new methodological approach that has been expressly designed to capture......As governments, citizens and organizations have moved online there is an increasing need for academic enquiry to adapt to this new context for communication and political action. This adaptation is crucially dependent on researchers being equipped with the necessary methodological tools to extract......, analyze and visualize patterns of web activity. This volume profiles the latest techniques being employed by social scientists to collect and interpret data from some of the most popular social media applications, the political parties' own online activist spaces, and the wider system of hyperlinks...

  6. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  7. Functional analysis of the stability determinant AlfB of pBET131, a miniplasmid derivative of bacillus subtilis (natto) plasmid pLS32.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Teruo

    2010-03-01

    Bacillus subtilis plasmid pBET131 is a derivative of pLS32, which was isolated from a natto strain of Bacillus subtilis. The DNA region in pBET131 that confers segregational stability contains an operon consisting of three genes, of which alfA, encoding an actin-like ATPase, and alfB are essential for plasmid stability. In this work, the alfB gene product and its target DNA region were studied in detail. Transcription of the alf operon initiated from a sigma(A)-type promoter was repressed by the alfB gene product. Overproduction of AlfA was inhibitory to cell growth, suggesting that the repression of the alf operon by AlfB is important for maintaining appropriate levels of AlfA. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay and footprinting analysis with purified His-tagged AlfB showed that it bound to a DNA region containing three tandem repeats of 8-bp AT-rich sequence (here designated parN), which partially overlaps the -35 sequence of the promoter. A sequence alteration in the first or third repeat did not affect the AlfB binding and plasmid stability, whereas that in the second repeat resulted in inhibition of these phenomena. The repression of alfA-lacZ expression was observed in the constructs carrying a mutation in either the first or third repeat, but not in the second repeat, indicating a correlation between plasmid stability, AlfB binding, and repression. It was also demonstrated by the yeast two-hybrid system that AlfA and AlfB interact with each other and among themselves. From these results, it was concluded that AlfB participates in partitioning pBET131 by forming a complex with AlfA and parN, the mode of which is typified by the type II partition mechanism.

  8. Brief Analysis of the Sports Betting Lottery Information System Technology%竞猜型体育彩票信息显示系统技术简析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勤炜

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the network architecture of the sports betting lottery information system,the network access technology and transmission technology has been further elaborated, finally it discuss some network security issues.%本文简析了竞猜型体育彩票信息显示系统的网络结构,对使用到关键的网络接入技术和通讯传输技术做了进一步的阐述,最后讨论了网络安全问题可能存在的各环节。

  9. El papel de India frente a la persecución etnico-religiosa en Tíbet durante 1960-1966

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez Murillo, Doris Margarita

    2009-01-01

    La persecución que se desarrolla en Tíbet desde la llegada del régimen comunista, ha generado un desacuerdo de la sociedad occidental frente a las políticas hostiles en contra de la etnia tibetana. Sin embargo, la violencia sistemática y lo que es considerado por muchos como genocidio, es utilizado como instrumento estratégico en política exterior. En este caso, la presente monografía busca analizar cómo el tema de los refugiados tibetanos en India, su lucha y denuncia a nivel internacional...

  10. Epitope grafting, re-creating a conformational Bet v 1 antibody epitope on the surface of the homologous apple allergen Mal d 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jens; Ferreras, Mercedes; Ipsen, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    Birch-allergic patients often experience oral allergy syndrome upon ingestion of vegetables and fruits, most prominently apple, that is caused by antibody cross-reactivity of the IgE antibodies in patients to proteins sharing molecular surface structures with the major birch pollen group 1 allergen...... scaffold molecule without loss of epitope functionality. Furthermore, we show that increasing surface similarity to Bet v 1 of Mal d 1 variants by substitution of 6-8 residues increased the ability to trigger basophil histamine release with blood from birch-allergic patients not responding to natural Mal d...

  11. THE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATION BETWEEN THE EVOLUTION OF THE BET INDEX AND THE MAIN MACROECONOMIC VARIABLES IN ROMANIA (1997-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoicas Ienciu Adrian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the conclusions which result from conducting some similar empirical studies on the great stock markets, in this work, we have set as our goal to analyze the return series behaviour of the main index of the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE - the BET index, during different periods of time, compared to the evolution of some macroeconomic variables, like interbank interest rates, inflation rate or unemployment rate. The results confirm that there is a weak relation between these variables, in what monthly data are concerned.

  12. Effect of BET surface area of recycled U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder on Mn-Al doped UO{sub 2} pellets property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jang Soo; Yang, Jae Ho; Kim, Dongjoo; Kim, Jong Hun; Rhee, Young Woo; Kim, Keon Sik; Koo, Yang Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Research on fuel pellets focuses on increasing the pellet density and grain size to increase the uranium contents and the high burn-up safety margins for LWRs. In the commercial manufacturing of UO{sub 2} fuel pellets, defective UO{sub 2} pellets that do not meet the manufacturing specifications of density and diameter may be produced. Defective UO{sub 2} pellets or scraps of pellets should be reused in manufacturing new UO{sub 2} pellets. A commonly used recycling method for defective UO{sub 2} pellets or scraps of pellets is that defective UO{sub 2} pellets are oxidized in air at about 450 .deg. C to make U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder and then added to UO{sub 2} powder. Because the recycled U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder has a low sinter-ability compared to the raw UO{sub 2} powder, addition of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} to UO{sub 2} leads to a drop in the pellet density, impeding a grain growth and the formation of undesired graph-like pore segregates. This adverse effect of recycled U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder on UO{sub 2} pellet property becomes more severe in large grain sized UO{sub 2} pellets. In general, the sinter-active powder should have small size and large BET surface area. However, since the powder property of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} depends on the initial grain size of UO{sub 2} pellets, larger grain UO{sub 2} pellet produces poorer sinter-active U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders having larger particle size and smaller BET surface area. In this paper, the effects of several process parameters on U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder properties have been tested. It is suggested that BET surface area of recycled U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder can be increased by applying low temperature oxidation and/or sequential cyclic thermal treatment procedures. The effect of those recycled U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder on the UO{sub 2} pellet properties is also investigated. The U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powders having higher BET surface area can mitigate the UO{sub 2} pellet density drop.

  13. Downhole tool with replaceable tool sleeve sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, W. A.

    1985-10-29

    A downhole tool for insertion in a drill stem includes elongated cylindrical half sleeve tool sections adapted to be non-rotatably supported on an elongated cylindrical body. The tool sections are mountable on and removable from the body without disconnecting either end of the tool from a drill stem. The half sleeve tool sections are provided with tapered axially extending flanges on their opposite ends which fit in corresponding tapered recesses formed on the tool body and the tool sections are retained on the body by a locknut threadedly engaged with the body and engageable with an axially movable retaining collar. The tool sections may be drivably engaged with axial keys formed on the body or the tool sections may be formed with flat surfaces on the sleeve inner sides cooperable with complementary flat surfaces formed on a reduced diameter portion of the body around which the tool sections are mounted.

  14. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  15. miR-148a is upregulated by Twist1 and T-bet and promotes Th1-cell survival by regulating the proapoptotic gene Bim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haftmann, Claudia; Stittrich, Anna-Barbara; Zimmermann, Jakob; Fang, Zhuo; Hradilkova, Kristyna; Bardua, Markus; Westendorf, Kerstin; Heinz, Gitta A; Riedel, René; Siede, Julia; Lehmann, Katrin; Weinberger, Esther E; Zimmel, David; Lauer, Uta; Häupl, Thomas; Sieper, Joachim; Backhaus, Marina; Neumann, Christian; Hoffmann, Ute; Porstner, Martina; Chen, Wei; Grün, Joachim R; Baumgrass, Ria; Matz, Mareen; Löhning, Max; Scheffold, Alexander; Wittmann, Jürgen; Chang, Hyun-Dong; Rajewsky, Nikolaus; Jäck, Hans-Martin; Radbruch, Andreas; Mashreghi, Mir-Farzin

    2015-04-01

    Repeatedly activated T helper 1 (Th1) cells present during chronic inflammation can efficiently adapt to the inflammatory milieu, for example, by expressing the transcription factor Twist1, which limits the immunopathology caused by Th1 cells. Here, we show that in repeatedly activated murine Th1 cells, Twist1 and T-bet induce expression of microRNA-148a (miR-148a). miR-148a regulates expression of the proapoptotic gene Bim, resulting in a decreased Bim/Bcl2 ratio. Inhibition of miR-148a by antagomirs in repeatedly activated Th1 cells increases the expression of Bim, leading to enhanced apoptosis. Knockdown of Bim expression by siRNA in miR-148a antagomir-treated cells restores viability of the Th1 cells, demonstrating that miR-148a controls survival by regulating Bim expression. Thus, Twist1 and T-bet not only control the differentiation and function of Th1 cells, but also their persistence in chronic inflammation.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa gbdR gene is transcribed from a σ54-dependent promoter under the control of NtrC/CbrB, IHF and BetI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Diego Germán; Primo, Emiliano David; Damiani, María Teresa; Lisa, Angela Teresita

    2017-08-09

    Pseudomonasaeruginosa uses choline as a source of carbon and nitrogen, and also for the synthesis of glycine betaine, an osmoprotectant under stress conditions such as drought and salinity. The transcription factor GbdR is the specific regulator of choline metabolism and it belongs to the Arac/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. Despite the link between choline catabolism and bacterial pathogenicity, gbdR regulation has not been explored in detail. In the present work, we describe how gbdR transcription can be initiated from a σ54-dependent promoter. gbdR transcription can be activated by NtrC in the absence of a preferential nitrogen source, by CbrB in the absence of a preferential carbon source, and by the integration host factor favouring DNA bending. In addition, we found that BetI negatively regulates gbdR expression in the absence of choline. We identified two overlapping BetI binding sites in the gbdR promoter sequence, providing an additional example of σ54-promoter down-regulation. Based on our findings, we propose a model for gdbR regulation and its impact on choline metabolism.

  17. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  18. A novel tool-use mode in animals: New Caledonian crows insert tools to transport objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; von Bayern, Auguste; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-11-01

    New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides) rely heavily on a range of tools to extract prey. They manufacture novel tools, save tools for later use, and have morphological features that facilitate tool use. We report six observations, in two individuals, of a novel tool-use mode not previously reported in non-human animals. Insert-and-transport tool use involves inserting a stick into an object and then moving away, thereby transporting both object and tool. All transported objects were non-food objects. One subject used a stick to transport an object that was too large to be handled by beak, which suggests the tool facilitated object control. The function in the other cases is unclear but seems to be an expression of play or exploration. Further studies should investigate whether it is adaptive in the wild and to what extent crows can flexibly apply the behaviour in experimental settings when purposive transportation of objects is advantageous.

  19. Useful design tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2005-01-01

    vague and contested concept of sustainability into concrete concepts and building projects. It describes a typology of tools: process tools, impact assessment tools, multi-criteria tools and tools for monitoring. It includes a Danish paradigmatic case study of stakeholder participation in the planning...... of a new sustainable settlement. The use of design tools is discussed in relation to innovation and stakeholder participation, and it is stressed that the usefulness of design tools is context dependent....

  20. Promoting energy efficiency investments with risk management decision tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Jerry [Texas A and M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    This paper reviews current capital budgeting practices and their impact on energy efficiency investments. The prevalent use of short payback 'rule-of-thumb' requirements to screen efficiency projects for risk is shown to bias investment choices towards 'sure bet' investments bypassing many profitable efficiency investment options. A risk management investment strategy is presented as an alternative to risk avoidance practices applied with payback thresholds. The financial industry risk management tool Value-at-Risk is described and extended to provide an Energy-Budgets-at-Risk or EBaR risk management analysis to convey more accurate energy efficiency investment risk information. The paper concludes with recommendations to expand the use of Value-at-Risk-type energy efficiency analysis. (author)

  1. CoC GIS Tools (GIS Tool)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool provides a no-cost downloadable software tool that allows users to interact with professional quality GIS maps. Users access pre-compiled projects through...

  2. Prototype of a Web ETL Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Novak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Extract, transform and load (ETL is a process that makes it possible to extract data from operational data sources, to transform data in the way needed for data warehousing purposes and to load data into a data warehouse (DW. ETL process is the most important part when building the data warehouse. Because the ETL process is a very complex and time consuming, this paper presents a prototype of a web ETL tool that offers step-by-step guidance through the entire process to the end user. This ETL tool is designed as a web application so users can save time (and space required for installation purposes.

  3. TOOL USE DISORDERS AFTER LEFT BRAIN DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josselin eBaumard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review studies that investigated tool use disorders in left-brain damaged (LBD patients over the last thirty years. Four tasks are classically used in the field of apraxia: Pantomime of tool use, single tool use, real tool use and mechanical problem solving. Our aim was to address two issues, namely, (1 the role of mechanical knowledge in real tool use and (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying pantomime of tool use, a task widely employed by clinicians and researchers. To do so, we extracted data from 36 papers and computed the difference between healthy subjects and LBD patients. On the whole, pantomime of tool use is the most difficult task and real tool use is the easiest one. Moreover, associations seem to appear between pantomime of tool use, real tool use and mechanical problem solving. These results suggest that the loss of mechanical knowledge is critical in LBD patients, even if all of those tasks (and particularly pantomime of tool use might put differential demands on semantic memory and working memory.

  4. Role of anion size, magnetic moment, and disorder on the properties of the organic conductor {kappa}-(BETS){sub 2}Ga{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Cl{sub 4-y}Br{sub y}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven, E.; Cui, H.B.; Kismarahardja, A. [Physics Department and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Brooks, J.S., E-mail: brooks@magnet.fsu.ed [Physics Department and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Graf, D. [Physics Department and National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Kobayashi, H. [Department of Chemistry, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    Shubnikov-de Haas and angular dependent magnetoresistance oscillations have been used to explore the role of anion size, magnetic moment, and disorder in the organic conductors {kappa}-(BETS){sub 2}GaBr{sub 4} and {kappa}-(BETS){sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}Br{sub 2} in the isomorphic class {kappa}-(BETS){sub 2}Ga{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Cl{sub 4-y}Br{sub y}. The results, combined with previous work, show correlations between the anion composition (Ga{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}Cl{sub 4-y}Br{sub y}) and the superconducting transition temperature, effective mass, Fermi surface topology, and the mean free path.

  5. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy. Induction of affinity-matured or blocking IgG antibodies does not account for the reduced binding of IgE to Bet v 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, Morten; Jacobi, Henrik H; Bødtger, Uffe;

    2003-01-01

    Specific allergy vaccination (SAV) is associated with increased levels of allergen specific IgG in serum. It is not clear, however, to what extent qualitative changes in allergen binding to IgG may be induced as well. We therefore analyzed the binding of the major allergen in pollen of birch.......001). These results show that high avidity IgG of low inter-individual difference in Bet v 1 binding quality is the dominant binding factor of Bet v 1 in sera of birch pollen-allergic patients, and that SAV-induced inhibition of binding of Bet v 1 to IgE can be explained mainly or solely by increased amounts of IgG....

  6. Extraction of scandium from red mud by modified activated carbon and kinetics study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hualei; LI Dongyan; TIAN Yajun; CHEN Yunfa

    2008-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) was modified by tri-butyl phosphate (TBP) for selectively extracting scandium from red mud and characterized by BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area. The modified AC had a preferential adsorption to scandium. The influences of adsorbent dosage, adsorption temperature, and time on adsorption capacity and selectivity to scandium were examined. An optimum adsorbent dosage (~6.25g/L), adsorption temperature (308K), and adsorption time (40min) were figured out. A pseudo-second-order kinetics model was employed for describing the adsorption process of scandium.

  7. Tool Changer For Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voellmer, George M.

    1992-01-01

    Mechanism enables robot to change tools on end of arm. Actuated by motion of robot: requires no additional electrical or pneumatic energy to make or break connection between tool and wrist at end of arm. Includes three basic subassemblies: wrist interface plate attached to robot arm at wrist, tool interface plate attached to tool, and holster. Separate tool interface plate and holster provided for each tool robot uses.

  8. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  9. Route Availabililty Planning Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Route Availability Planning Tool (RAPT) is a weather-assimilated decision support tool (DST) that supports the development and execution of departure management...

  10. Modelação e reforço de vigas de betão armado com laminados de fibra de carbono

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Ricardo Filipe Bastos de

    2013-01-01

    Com o atual estado da construção em Portugal, a reabilitação urbana é uma realidade. Com muitos dos edifícios a necessitarem de reforço, procurou-se abordar o comportamento real das estruturas, indo além da típica análise linear elástica. Desta forma, pretendeu-se aumentar o conhecimento acerca da modelação numérica não-linear de estruturas de betão armado, expondo modelos de cálculo relativamente simples e de fácil compreensão, com o objetivo de servir de base a uma avaliação da capacidad...

  11. Hydration behaviour of POPC/C(12)-Bet mixtures investigated by sorption gravimetry, (31)P NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, H; Weichert, H; Klose, G; Heremans, K

    2012-02-01

    The hydration behaviour of mixtures of the zwitterionic phospholipid 1-palmitoyl-2-oleolyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and the zwitterionic surfactant N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecyl-betain (C(12)-Bet) was investigated by sorption gravimetry, solid-state (31)P NMR-spectroscopy and small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD). Negative excess hydration (dehydration) was found for almost all hydration degrees investigated. This behaviour is explained by the formation of an inner salt between the dipoles of phospholipid and surfactant headgroups that show a reverse sequence of partial charges with respect to the hydrocarbon backbone. The formation of an inner-salt most probably reduces potential water binding sites. Moreover, NMR data suggest that the incorporation of the zwitterionic surfactant into the phospholipid membrane is correlated with reorientation of the phosphate axis towards the membrane director as well as with reduced lateral and wobbling diffusion.

  12. Automatized near-real-time short-term Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment of tephra dispersion before eruptions: BET_VHst for Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei during recent exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Rouwet, Dmtri; Tonini, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) represents the most complete scientific contribution for planning rational strategies aimed at mitigating the risk posed by volcanic activity at different time scales. The definition of the space-time window for PVHA is related to the kind of risk mitigation actions that are under consideration. Short temporal intervals (days to weeks) are important for short-term risk mitigation actions like the evacuation of a volcanic area. During volcanic unrest episodes or eruptions, it is of primary importance to produce short-term tephra fallout forecast, and frequently update it to account for the rapidly evolving situation. This information is obviously crucial for crisis management, since tephra may heavily affect building stability, public health, transportations and evacuation routes (airports, trains, road traffic) and lifelines (electric power supply). In this study, we propose a methodology named BET_VHst (Selva et al. 2014) for short-term PVHA of volcanic tephra dispersal based on automatic interpretation of measures from the monitoring system and physical models of tephra dispersal from all possible vent positions and eruptive sizes based on frequently updated meteorological forecasts. The large uncertainty at all the steps required for the analysis, both aleatory and epistemic, is treated by means of Bayesian inference and statistical mixing of long- and short-term analyses. The BET_VHst model is here presented through its implementation during two exercises organized for volcanoes in the Neapolitan area: MESIMEX for Mt. Vesuvius, and VUELCO for Campi Flegrei. References Selva J., Costa A., Sandri L., Macedonio G., Marzocchi W. (2014) Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: a case study for tephra fallout, J. Geophys. Res., 119, doi: 10.1002/2014JB011252

  13. Nitration of the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1.0101: efficiency and site-selectivity of liquid and gaseous nitrating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmuth-Selzle, Kathrin; Ackaert, Chloé; Kampf, Christopher J; Samonig, Martin; Shiraiwa, Manabu; Kofler, Stefan; Yang, Hong; Gadermaier, Gabriele; Brandstetter, Hans; Huber, Christian G; Duschl, Albert; Oostingh, Gertie J; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-03-07

    Nitration of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 alters the immune responses toward this protein, but the underlying chemical mechanisms are not yet understood. Here we address the efficiency and site-selectivity of the nitration reaction of recombinant protein samples of Bet v 1.0101 with different nitrating agents relevant for laboratory investigations (tetranitromethane, TNM), for physiological processes (peroxynitrite, ONOO(-)), and for the health effects of environmental pollutants (nitrogen dioxide and ozone, O₃/NO₂). We determined the total tyrosine nitration degrees (ND) and the NDs of individual tyrosine residues (NDY). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and HPLC coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of intact proteins, HPLC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic peptides, and amino acid analysis of hydrolyzed samples were performed. The preferred reaction sites were tyrosine residues at the following positions in the polypeptide chain: Y83 and Y81 for TNM, Y150 for ONOO(-), and Y83 and Y158 for O₃/NO₂. The tyrosine residues Y83 and Y81 are located in a hydrophobic cavity, while Y150 and Y158 are located in solvent-accessible and flexible structures of the C-terminal region. The heterogeneous reaction with O₃/NO₂ was found to be strongly dependent on the phase state of the protein. Nitration rates were about one order of magnitude higher for aqueous protein solutions (∼20% per day) than for protein filter samples (∼2% per day). Overall, our findings show that the kinetics and site-selectivity of nitration strongly depend on the nitrating agent and reaction conditions, which may also affect the biological function and adverse health effects of the nitrated protein.

  14. Molecular analysis of the role of osmolyte transporters opuCA and betL in Listeria monocytogenes after cold and freezing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Hanene; Elabed, Hamouda; Ben Slama, Rihab; Rhim, Amel; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2017-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen of humans and other animals. The striking ability to survive several stresses usually used for food preservation makes L. monocytogenes one of the biggest concerns to the food industry. This ubiquity can be partly explained by the ability of the organism to grow and persist at very low temperatures, a consequence of its ability to accumulate cryoprotective compound called osmolytes. A quantitative RT-PCR assay was used to measure mRNA transcript accumulation for the stress response genes opuCA and betL (encoding carnitine and betaine transporters, respectively) and the housekeeping gene 16S rRNA. Assays were conducted on mid-exponential phase L. monocytogenes cells exposed to conditions reflecting cold and freezing stress, conditions usually used to preserve foods. We showed that expression of the two cold-adapted genes encoded the transporters of the cryoprotectants carnitine and betaine in ATCC 19115 and the food-isolated L. monocytogenes S1 is induced after cold and freezing stress exposure. Furthermore, transcriptional analysis of the genes encoding opuCA and betL revealed that each transporter is induced to different degrees upon cold shock of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and S1. Our results confirm an increase in carnitine uptake at low temperatures more than in betaine after cold-shocked temperature compared to the non-stress control treatment. It was concluded the use of carnitine and betaine as cryoprotectants is essential for rapid induction of the tested stress response under conditions typically encountered during food preservation.

  15. Synthesis of polystyrene, poly(styrene/4-vinylpyridine), poly(p-nitrostyrene) and poly(p-aminostyrene)-coated silica and their extraction capabilities for amphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Changmei; Zhang Shuanhong [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong 264025 (China); Qu Rongjun, E-mail: qurongjun@eyou.com [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong 264025 (China); Sun Tao; Zhang Ying; Zhang Xiang; Song Jingyang [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Ludong University, Yantai, Shandong 264025 (China)

    2010-11-01

    Several novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials, including polystyrene-coated silica (SG-PS), poly(styrene/4-vinylpyridine)-coated silica (SG-PVP), poly(p-nitrostyrene)-coated silica (SG-PS-NO{sub 2}) and poly(p-aminostyrene)-coated silica (SG-PS-NH{sub 2}), were synthesized in order to improve the extraction methods of harmful stimulants via solid phase extraction. The materials were characterized using infrared spectra (IR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). The application of the new materials in solid phase extraction columns to extract methamphetamine revealed that the extraction capability of poly(styrene/4-vinylpyridine)-coated silica is the best among the four materials, which provides novel supporter materials for extracting amphetamine-derived drugs.

  16. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergely Tibély

    Full Text Available Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of

  17. Extracting tag hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the "flat" organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search. Moreover

  18. Extracting Tag Hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibély, Gergely; Pollner, Péter; Vicsek, Tamás; Palla, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    Tagging items with descriptive annotations or keywords is a very natural way to compress and highlight information about the properties of the given entity. Over the years several methods have been proposed for extracting a hierarchy between the tags for systems with a "flat", egalitarian organization of the tags, which is very common when the tags correspond to free words given by numerous independent people. Here we present a complete framework for automated tag hierarchy extraction based on tag occurrence statistics. Along with proposing new algorithms, we are also introducing different quality measures enabling the detailed comparison of competing approaches from different aspects. Furthermore, we set up a synthetic, computer generated benchmark providing a versatile tool for testing, with a couple of tunable parameters capable of generating a wide range of test beds. Beside the computer generated input we also use real data in our studies, including a biological example with a pre-defined hierarchy between the tags. The encouraging similarity between the pre-defined and reconstructed hierarchy, as well as the seemingly meaningful hierarchies obtained for other real systems indicate that tag hierarchy extraction is a very promising direction for further research with a great potential for practical applications. Tags have become very prevalent nowadays in various online platforms ranging from blogs through scientific publications to protein databases. Furthermore, tagging systems dedicated for voluntary tagging of photos, films, books, etc. with free words are also becoming popular. The emerging large collections of tags associated with different objects are often referred to as folksonomies, highlighting their collaborative origin and the “flat” organization of the tags opposed to traditional hierarchical categorization. Adding a tag hierarchy corresponding to a given folksonomy can very effectively help narrowing or broadening the scope of search

  19. Thermodynamic characterization of the PR-10 allergens Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 and pH-dependence of nApi g 1 and nDau c 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and recombinant Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, and homologous allergens, Api g 1 and Dau c 1, from celery and carrot, respectively, were studied by CD spectroscopy under conditions of varying denaturant concentration, pH and temperature to determine fundamental thermodynamic param

  20. Thermodynamic characterization of the PR-10 allergens Bet v 1, Api g 1 and Dau c 1 and pH-dependence of nApi g 1 and nDau c 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollen, M.A.; Wichers, H.J.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Natural and recombinant Bet v 1, the major birch pollen allergen, and homologous allergens, Api g 1 and Dau c 1, from celery and carrot, respectively, were studied by CD spectroscopy under conditions of varying denaturant concentration, pH and temperature to determine fundamental thermodynamic param

  1. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  2. Effect of ultrasound on the supercritical CO2 extraction of bioactive compounds from dedo de moça pepper (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Arthur Luiz Baião; Arroio Sergio, Camilla Scarelli; Santos, Philipe; Barbero, Gerardo Fernandéz; Rezende, Camila Alves; Martínez, Julian

    2016-07-01

    Extracts with bioactive compounds were obtained from the red pepper variety "dedo de moça" (Capsicum baccatum L. var. pendulum) through supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide assisted by ultrasound (SFE-US). The process was tested at pressures of 15, 20 and 25 MPa; temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C, and ultrasonic powers of 200, 400 and 600 W applied during 40, 60 and 80 min of extraction. The CO2 mass flow rate was fixed at 1.7569 × 10(-4) kg/s. Global yield, phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoid concentration were evaluated in the extracts. The application of ultrasound raised the global extraction yield of SFE up to 45%. The phenolic content of the extract increased with the application of higher ultrasound power and radiation time. The capsaicinoid yield was also enhanced with ultrasound up to 12%. However, the antioxidant capacity did not increase with the ultrasound application. The BET-based model and the broken and intact cell model fitted well to the kinetic SFE curves. The BET-based model with three adjustable parameters resulted in the best fits to the experimental data. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images showed that SFE disturbed the vegetable matrix, releasing particles from the inner region of the plant cells to their surface. When the ultrasound was applied this effect was more pronounced. On the other hand, cracks, fissures or any sign of rupture were not identified on the sample surface.

  3. Core 2 ß1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I, crucial for P-selectin ligand expression is controlled by a distal enhancer regulated by STAT4 and T-bet in CD4+ T helper cells 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardahl, Maibritt; Schröter, Micha F; Engelbert, Dirk; Pink, Matthias; Sperandio, Markus; Hamann, Alf; Syrbe, Uta

    2016-09-01

    P-selectin ligands (P-ligs) support the recruitment of lymphocytes into inflamed tissues. Binding to P-selectin is mediated by oligosaccharide groups synthesized by means of several glycosyltransferases including core 2 ß1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-I (C2GlcNAcT-I), encoded by the gene Gcnt1. Using Gcnt1(-/-) Th1 cells, we show that C2GlcNAcT-I is crucial for inflammatory T cell homing in vivo. To understand the molecular regulation of Gcnt1 in CD4(+) T helper cells, we performed ChIP-on-chip experiments across the Gcnt1 locus assessing the chromatin structure in P-lig-expressing versus non-expressing CD4(+) T cells. This identified a distal region about 20kb upstream of the promoter where the presence of a H3K27me3 mark correlated with Gcnt1 repression. This region possessed IL-12-dependent enhancer activity in reporter assays, in accordance with preferential IL-12-dependent induction of Gcnt1 in vitro. STAT4 and T-bet cooperated in control of the enhancer activity. Deficiency in either one resulted in drastically reduced Gcnt1 mRNA expression in differentiated Th1 cells. While both STAT4 and T-bet were bound to the enhancer early after activation only T-bet binding persisted throughout the expansion phase after TCR signal cessation. This suggests sequential action of STAT4 and T-bet at the enhancer. In summary, we show that Gcnt1 transcription and subsequent P-lig induction in Th1 cells is governed by binding of STAT4 and T-bet to a distal enhancer and further regulated by epigenetic marks such as H3K27me3.

  4. Useful design tools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole

    2005-01-01

    Tools for design management are on the agenda in building projects in order to set targets, to choose and prioritise between alternative environmental solutions, to involve stakeholders and to document, evaluate and benchmark. Different types of tools are available, but what can we learn from...... the use or lack of use of current tools in the development of future design tools for sustainable buildings? Why are some used while others are not? Who is using them? The paper deals with design management, with special focus on sustainable building in Denmark, and the challenge of turning the generally...... vague and contested concept of sustainability into concrete concepts and building projects. It describes a typology of tools: process tools, impact assessment tools, multi-criteria tools and tools for monitoring. It includes a Danish paradigmatic case study of stakeholder participation in the planning...

  5. Ontology Extraction Tools: An Empirical Study with Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, M.; Gasevic, D.; Siadaty, M.; Jovanovic, J.; Torniai, C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) demonstrated several important benefits that semantic technologies can bring to the TEL domain. An underlying assumption for most of these research efforts is the existence of a domain ontology. The second unspoken assumption follows that educators will build domain ontologies for their…

  6. Ontology Extraction Tools: An Empirical Study with Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, M.; Gasevic, D.; Siadaty, M.; Jovanovic, J.; Torniai, C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research in Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL) demonstrated several important benefits that semantic technologies can bring to the TEL domain. An underlying assumption for most of these research efforts is the existence of a domain ontology. The second unspoken assumption follows that educators will build domain ontologies for their…

  7. LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, A.

    2016-02-01

    LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.

  8. Solvent extractants for nickel and cobalt: New opportunities in aqueous processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihaylov, Indje

    2003-07-01

    The last two decades have witnessed unprecedented growth in the development and implementation of solvent extraction technology in the extractive metallurgy of nickel and cobalt. Solvent extraction is proving to be a powerful tool, opening new opportunities for simpler, more cost-efficient and environmentally sound metal refining processes. This article provides an overview of some of the latest developments regarding the solvent extractants.

  9. Analogy between gambling and measurement-based work extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Dror A.; Permuter, Haim H.; Merhav, Neri

    2016-04-01

    In information theory, one area of interest is gambling, where mutual information characterizes the maximal gain in wealth growth rate due to knowledge of side information; the betting strategy that achieves this maximum is named the Kelly strategy. In the field of physics, it was recently shown that mutual information can characterize the maximal amount of work that can be extracted from a single heat bath using measurement-based control protocols, i.e. using ‘information engines’. However, to the best of our knowledge, no relation between gambling and information engines has been presented before. In this paper, we briefly review the two concepts and then demonstrate an analogy between gambling, where bits are converted into wealth, and information engines, where bits representing measurements are converted into energy. From this analogy follows an extension of gambling to the continuous-valued case, which is shown to be useful for investments in currency exchange rates or in the stock market using options. Moreover, the analogy enables us to use well-known methods and results from one field to solve problems in the other. We present three such cases: maximum work extraction when the probability distributions governing the system and measurements are unknown, work extraction when some energy is lost in each cycle, e.g. due to friction, and an analysis of systems with memory. In all three cases, the analogy enables us to use known results in order to obtain new ones.

  10. Plaster core washout tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisman, R. M.; Keir, A. R.; Teramura, K.

    1977-01-01

    Tool powered by pressurized water or air removes water soluble plaster lining from Kevlar/epoxy duct. Rotating plastic cutterhead with sealed end fitting connects flexible shaft that allows tool to be used with curved ducts.

  11. OOTW COST TOOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HARTLEY, D.S.III; PACKARD, S.L.

    1998-09-01

    This document reports the results of a study of cost tools to support the analysis of Operations Other Than War (OOTW). It recommends the continued development of the Department of Defense (DoD) Contingency Operational Support Tool (COST) as the basic cost analysis tool for 00TWS. It also recommends modifications to be included in future versions of COST and the development of an 00TW mission planning tool to supply valid input for costing.

  12. Pro Tools HD

    CERN Document Server

    Camou, Edouard

    2013-01-01

    An easy-to-follow guide for using Pro Tools HD 11 effectively.This book is ideal for anyone who already uses ProTools and wants to learn more, or is new to Pro Tools HD and wants to use it effectively in their own audio workstations.

  13. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  14. Software engineering tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1994-01-01

    We have looked at general descriptions and illustrations of several software development tools, such as tools for prototyping, developing DFDs, testing, and maintenance. Many others are available, and new ones are being developed. However, you have at least seen some examples of powerful CASE tools for systems development.

  15. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  16. MOD Tool (Microwave Optics Design Tool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Borgioli, Andrea; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.

    1999-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is currently designing and building a number of instruments that operate in the microwave and millimeter-wave bands. These include MIRO (Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter), MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder), and IMAS (Integrated Multispectral Atmospheric Sounder). These instruments must be designed and built to meet key design criteria (e.g., beamwidth, gain, pointing) obtained from the scientific goals for the instrument. These criteria are frequently functions of the operating environment (both thermal and mechanical). To design and build instruments which meet these criteria, it is essential to be able to model the instrument in its environments. Currently, a number of modeling tools exist. Commonly used tools at JPL include: FEMAP (meshing), NASTRAN (structural modeling), TRASYS and SINDA (thermal modeling), MACOS/IMOS (optical modeling), and POPO (physical optics modeling). Each of these tools is used by an analyst, who models the instrument in one discipline. The analyst then provides the results of this modeling to another analyst, who continues the overall modeling in another discipline. There is a large reengineering task in place at JPL to automate and speed-up the structural and thermal modeling disciplines, which does not include MOD Tool. The focus of MOD Tool (and of this paper) is in the fields unique to microwave and millimeter-wave instrument design. These include initial design and analysis of the instrument without thermal or structural loads, the automation of the transfer of this design to a high-end CAD tool, and the analysis of the structurally deformed instrument (due to structural and/or thermal loads). MOD Tool is a distributed tool, with a database of design information residing on a server, physical optics analysis being performed on a variety of supercomputer platforms, and a graphical user interface (GUI) residing on the user's desktop computer. The MOD Tool client is being developed using Tcl

  17. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  18. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools...... are separate and intended for different documentation purposes they are related to each other in several ways. Both tools are based on XML languages for tool setup and for documentation authoring. In addition, both tools rely on the LAML framework which---in a systematic way---makes an XML language available...

  19. Extractive Summarisation of Medical Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeed Sarker

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM practice requires practitioners to extract evidence from published medical research when answering clinical queries. Due to the time-consuming nature of this practice, there is a strong motivation for systems that can automatically summarise medical documents and help practitioners find relevant information. Aim The aim of this work is to propose an automatic query-focused, extractive summarisation approach that selects informative sentences from medical documents. MethodWe use a corpus that is specifically designed for summarisation in the EBM domain. We use approximately half the corpus for deriving important statistics associated with the best possible extractive summaries. We take into account factors such as sentence position, length, sentence content, and the type of the query posed. Using the statistics from the first set, we evaluate our approach on a separate set. Evaluation of the qualities of the generated summaries is performed automatically using ROUGE, which is a popular tool for evaluating automatic summaries. Results Our summarisation approach outperforms all baselines (best baseline score: 0.1594; our score 0.1653. Further improvements are achieved when query types are taken into account. Conclusion The quality of extractive summarisation in the medical domain can be significantly improved by incorporating domain knowledge and statistics derived from a specialised corpus. Such techniques can therefore be applied for content selection in end-to-end summarisation systems.

  20. Adenosine A2A receptor signaling affects IL-21/IL-22 cytokines and GATA3/T-bet transcription factor expression in CD4(+) T cells from a BTBR T(+) Itpr3tf/J mouse model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sheikh F; Ansari, Mushtaq A; Nadeem, Ahmed; Bakheet, Saleh A; Almutairi, Mashal M; Attia, Sabry M

    2017-10-15

    Autism is a complex heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder; previous studies have identified altered immune responses among individuals diagnosed with autism. An imbalance in the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factors plays a role in neurodevelopmental behavioral and autism disorders. BTBR T(+) Itpr3tf/J (BTBR) mice are used as a model for autism, as they exhibit social deficits, communication deficits, and repetitive behaviors compared with C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) appears to be a potential target for the improvement of behavioral, inflammatory, immune, and neurological disorders. We investigated the effects of the A2AR antagonist SCH 5826 (SCH) and agonist CGS 21680 (CGS) on IL-21, IL-22, T-bet, T-box transcription factor (T-bet), GATA3 (GATA Binding Protein 3), and CD152 (CTLA-4) expression in BTBR mice. Our results showed that BTBR mice treated with SCH had increased CD4(+)IL-21(+), CD4(+)IL-22(+), CD4(+)GATA3(+), and CD4(+)T-bet(+) and decreased CD4(+)CTLA-4(+) expression in spleen cells compared with BTBR control mice. Moreover, CGS efficiently decreased CD4(+)IL-21(+), CD4(+)IL-22(+), CD4(+)GATA3(+), and CD4(+)T-bet(+) and increased CD4(+)CTLA-4 production in spleen cells compared with SCH-treated and BTBR control mice. Additionally, SCH treatment significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of IL-21, IL-22, GATA3, and T-bet in brain tissue compared with CGS-treated and BTBR control mice. The augmented levels of IL-21/IL-22 and GATA3/T-bet could be due to altered A2AR signaling. Our results indicate that A2AR agonists may represent a new class of compounds that can be developed for use in the treatment of autistic and neuroimmune dysfunctions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Kinetic and mechanistic study on the pyrolysis of 1,3-dihydroisothianaphthene-2,2-dioxide toward benzocyclobutene using RRKM and BET theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Ehsan; Mozaffari, Majid; Yousefi, Leyla; Shiroudi, Abolfazl; Deleuze, Michael S.

    2017-02-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of pyrolysis of 1,3-dihydroisothianaphthene-2,2-dioxide toward benzocyclobutene have been theoretically studied using canonical transition state theory (CTST), statistical Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) theory, and bonding evolution theory (BET) in conjugation with M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. The CTST slightly breaks down to estimate the reaction rate of the cheletropic extrusion. RRKM results indicated that the cheletropic extrusion and electrocyclic reaction require energy barriers of 171.3 and 122.2 kJ/mol to be overcome; and can be characterized respectively by 7 and 3 phases associated to the sequence of catastrophes C8H8SO2 (1): 7-[FF]C†C†FFF-0: C8H8 + SO2 and C8H8 (2): 3-[F†F†]C-0: C8H8 (3). For the cheletropic extrusion, breaking of the C7-S and C8-S bonds begins respectively at Rx = -2.7434 amu1/2 Bohr and Rx = -1.7458 amu1/2 Bohr, and formation of the sulfur dioxide is completed at Rx = -0.2494 amu1/2 Bohr. For the electrocyclic reaction, formation of new C7-C8 bond occurs at Rx = 1.6214 amu1/2 Bohr from C- to C- coupling between the generated pseudoradical centers at Rx = 0.1474 amu1/2 Bohr on the terminal carbon atoms.

  2. Bet-hedging when targets may disappear: optimal mate-seeking or prey-catching trajectories and the stability of leks and herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson

    1999-01-01

    When a female frog moves towards a calling male, the male may suddenly stop calling and the female have to switch to another male. Analogous situations where "hunters" move towards "targets" that can disappear unpredictably include predators stalking prey and plants growing towards gaps in the canopy. I use dynamic programming to show that when the hunter has a choice of such targets it is optimal to take a curved bet-hedging trajectory, initially heading between two targets so that if one target disappears the other is closer. Also hunters should prefer groups of targets, even if a solitary target is somewhat closer, because it is unlikely that all targets in a group will disappear. Assuming that hunters follow these optimal trajectories I then ask whether it will pay targets to form herds or leks. The extra attractiveness of groups in this model turns out not to be sufficient to outweigh the advantages of herding, but the net benefits of herding are considerably reduced. Copyright 1999 Academic Press

  3. Synthesis of MOF having hydroxyl functional side groups and optimization of activation process for the maximization of its BET surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongsik; Kim, Dong Ok; Kim, Dong Wook; Sagong, Kil

    2013-01-01

    To accomplish the postsynthetic modification of MOF with organic-metal precursors (OMPs) described in our previous researches more efficiently, synthesis of MOF (HCC-2) possessing relatively larger pore size as well as higher number of hydroxyl functional side groups per its base unit than those of HCC-1 has been successfully conducted via adopting 1,4-di-(4-carboxy-2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)benzene as an organic ligand and Zn(NO3)2·6H2O as a metal source, respectively. Also, optimization about the Activation process of HCC-2 was performed to maximize its BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) surface area which was proved to be proportional to the number of exposed active sites on which its postsynthetic modification occurred. However, Activation process having been validated to be so effective with the acquirement of highly-purified HCC-1 (CO2 supercritical drying step followed by vacuum drying step) was less satisfactory with the case of HCC-2. This might be attributed to relatively higher hydrophilicity and bulkier molecular structure of organic ligand of HCC-2. However, it was readily settled by simple modification of above Activation process. Moreover, indispensable residues composed of both DMF and its thermally degraded derivatives which were chemically attached via coordination bond with hydroxyl functionalities even after Activation process III might enable their H2 adsorption properties to be seriously debased compared to that of IRMOF-16 having no hydroxyl functionalities.

  4. Glycine betaine improves Listeria monocytogenes tolerance to desiccation on parsley leaves independent of the osmolyte transporters BetL, Gbu and OpuC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreux, N; Albagnac, C; Sleator, R D; Hill, C; Carlin, F; Morris, C E; Nguyen-the, C

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the effect of glycine betaine (GB) on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes on leaf surfaces under low relative humidity (RH). The addition of GB (> or = 25 mmol l(-1)) improved the survival of L. monocytogenes under low RH on parsley leaves, thus suggesting that GB can improve the tolerance of L. monocytogenes to desiccation. Ten times less GB was needed to improve L. monocytogenes survival under low RH on nonbiological surfaces compared with parsley leaves, suggesting that, on the leaf surface, L. monocytogenes may have to compete for the available GB with autochthonous bacteria and/or the plant itself. Wild type and mutants carrying deletions in the three GB uptake systems, BetL, Gbu and OpuC, behaved similarly with and without added GB on parsley leaves (P > 0.05). In addition, preaccumulation of GB, triggered by osmotic stress prior to inoculation, failed to improve survival under low RH compared with osmotic stress without GB accumulation. Exogenous GB had a protective effect on L. monocytogenes cells from desiccation during survival on parsley leaves. This effect was independent of intracellular GB accumulation by the known uptake systems. Presence of GB could improve the survival of L. monocytogenes to desiccation on leaf surfaces and nonbiological surfaces.

  5. Bet-hedging dry-forest resilience to climate-change threats in the western USA based on historical forest structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lawrence Baker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry forests are particularly subject to wildfires, insect outbreaks, and droughts that likely will increase with climate change. Efforts to increase resilience of dry forests often focus on removing most small trees to reduce wildfire risk. However, small trees often survive other disturbances and could provide broader forest resilience, but small trees are thought to have been historically rare. We used direct records by land surveyors in the late-1800s along 22,206 km of survey lines in 1.7 million ha of dry forests in the western USA to test this idea. These systematic surveys (45,171 trees of historical forests reveal that small trees dominated (52-92% of total trees dry forests. Historical forests also included diverse tree sizes and species, which together provided resilience to several types of disturbances. Current risk to dry forests from insect outbreaks is 5.6 times the risk of higher-severity wildfires, with small trees increasing forest resilience to insect outbreaks. Removal of most small trees to reduce wildfire risk may compromise the bet-hedging resilience, provided by small trees and diverse tree sizes and species, against a broad array of unpredictable future disturbances.

  6. Identification of a BET Family Bromodomain/Casein Kinase II/TAF-Containing Complex as a Regulator of Mitotic Condensin Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Soo Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensin is a central regulator of mitotic genome structure with mutants showing poorly condensed chromosomes and profound segregation defects. Here, we identify NCT, a complex comprising the Nrc1 BET-family tandem bromodomain protein (SPAC631.02, casein kinase II (CKII, and several TAFs, as a regulator of condensin function. We show that NCT and condensin bind similar genomic regions but only briefly colocalize during the periods of chromosome condensation and decondensation. This pattern of NCT binding at the core centromere, the region of maximal condensin enrichment, tracks the abundance of acetylated histone H4, as regulated by the Hat1-Mis16 acetyltransferase complex and recognized by the first Nrc1 bromodomain. Strikingly, mutants in NCT or Hat1-Mis16 restore the formation of segregation-competent chromosomes in cells containing defective condensin. These results are consistent with a model where NCT targets CKII to chromatin in a cell-cycle-directed manner in order to modulate the activity of condensin during chromosome condensation and decondensation.

  7. Application of GIS to Geological Information Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    GIS. a powerful tool for processing spatial data, is advantageous in its spatial overlaying. In this paper, GIS is applied to the extraction of geological information. Information associated with mineral resources is chosen to delineate the geo-anomalies, the basis of ore-forming anomalies and of mineral-deposit location. This application is illustrated with an example in Weixi area, Yunnan Province.

  8. DKIE: Open Source Information Extraction for Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Field, Camilla Vilhelmsen; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2014-01-01

    Danish is a major Scandinavian language spoken daily by around six million people. However, it lacks a unified, open set of NLP tools. This demonstration will introduce DKIE, an extensible open-source toolkit for processing Danish text. We implement an information extraction architecture for Danish...

  9. DKIE: Open Source Information Extraction for Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derczynski, Leon; Field, Camilla Vilhelmsen; Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden

    2014-01-01

    Danish is a major Scandinavian language spoken daily by around six million people. However, it lacks a unified, open set of NLP tools. This demonstration will introduce DKIE, an extensible open-source toolkit for processing Danish text. We implement an information extraction architecture for Danish...... independently or with the Stanford NLP toolkit....

  10. Prototype of a Web ETL Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Matija Novak; Kornelije Rabuzin

    2014-01-01

    Extract, transform and load (ETL) is a process that makes it possible to extract data from operational data sources, to transform data in the way needed for data warehousing purposes and to load data into a data warehouse (DW). ETL process is the most important part when building the data warehouse. Because the ETL process is a very complex and time consuming, this paper presents a prototype of a web ETL tool that offers step-by-step guidance through the entire process to the end user. This E...

  11. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  12. Quantifying traces of tool use: a novel morphometric analysis of damage patterns on percussive tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew V Caruana

    Full Text Available Percussive technology continues to play an increasingly important role in understanding the evolution of tool use. Comparing the archaeological record with extractive foraging behaviors in nonhuman primates has focused on percussive implements as a key to investigating the origins of lithic technology. Despite this, archaeological approaches towards percussive tools have been obscured by a lack of standardized methodologies. Central to this issue have been the use of qualitative, non-diagnostic techniques to identify percussive tools from archaeological contexts. Here we describe a new morphometric method for distinguishing anthropogenically-generated damage patterns on percussive tools from naturally damaged river cobbles. We employ a geomatic approach through the use of three-dimensional scanning and geographical information systems software to statistically quantify the identification process in percussive technology research. This will strengthen current technological analyses of percussive tools in archaeological frameworks and open new avenues for translating behavioral inferences of early hominins from percussive damage patterns.

  13. Forensic surface metrology: tool mark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Carol; McLaughlin, Patrick; Kuo, Loretta; Kammerman, Frani; Shenkin, Peter; Diaczuk, Peter; Petraco, Nicholas; Hamby, James; Petraco, Nicholas D K

    2011-01-01

    Over the last several decades, forensic examiners of impression evidence have come under scrutiny in the courtroom due to analysis methods that rely heavily on subjective morphological comparisons. Currently, there is no universally accepted system that generates numerical data to independently corroborate visual comparisons. Our research attempts to develop such a system for tool mark evidence, proposing a methodology that objectively evaluates the association of striated tool marks with the tools that generated them. In our study, 58 primer shear marks on 9 mm cartridge cases, fired from four Glock model 19 pistols, were collected using high-resolution white light confocal microscopy. The resulting three-dimensional surface topographies were filtered to extract all "waviness surfaces"-the essential "line" information that firearm and tool mark examiners view under a microscope. Extracted waviness profiles were processed with principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction. Support vector machines (SVM) were used to make the profile-gun associations, and conformal prediction theory (CPT) for establishing confidence levels. At the 95% confidence level, CPT coupled with PCA-SVM yielded an empirical error rate of 3.5%. Complementary, bootstrap-based computations for estimated error rates were 0%, indicating that the error rate for the algorithmic procedure is likely to remain low on larger data sets. Finally, suggestions are made for practical courtroom application of CPT for assigning levels of confidence to SVM identifications of tool marks recorded with confocal microscopy.

  14. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enterprise integration: A tool`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polito, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, A. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Grant, H. [National Science Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The advent of sophisticated automation equipment and computer hardware and software is changing the way manufacturing is carried out. To compete in the global marketplace, manufacturing companies must integrate these new technologies into their factories. In addition, they must integrate the planning, control, and data management methodologies needed to make effective use of these technologies. This paper provides an overview of recent approaches to achieving this enterprise integration. It then describes, using simulation as a particular example, a new tool`s perspective of enterprise integration.

  16. Comparison of three solutions to correct erroneous blocks to extract an image of a multiplicative homomorphic cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, N.; Puech, W.; Brouzet, R.

    2011-02-01

    Multiplicative homomorphic properties of a cryptosystem can be used in various applications requiring security, protection and authentication e.g. digital fingerprinting, electronic voting, on line betting etc. Secret sharing between two or more parties exploiting multiplicative homomorphic property of RSA results into erroneous blocks while extracting the message. The generation of these erroneous blocks limits the capabilities of homomorphic properties of RSA to be used in its full extend. This paper provides three different approaches as solutions to the problem of erroneous blocks in image. These solutions are: mean value approach, shortest distance approach and image preprocessing approach. It has been observed that shortest distance approach results into good PSNR but it is computationally expensive. The best approach with high PSNR is image preprocessing approach before sharing process, which results into no erroneous blocks in the extracted image, thus no extra extraction techniques are required.

  17. An architecture for biological information extraction and representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailaya, Aditya; Bluvas, Peter; Kincaid, Robert; Kuchinsky, Allan; Creech, Michael; Adler, Annette

    2005-02-15

    Technological advances in biomedical research are generating a plethora of heterogeneous data at a high rate. There is a critical need for extraction, integration and management tools for information discovery and synthesis from these heterogeneous data. In this paper, we present a general architecture, called ALFA, for information extraction and representation from diverse biological data. The ALFA architecture consists of: (i) a networked, hierarchical, hyper-graph object model for representing information from heterogeneous data sources in a standardized, structured format; and (ii) a suite of integrated, interactive software tools for information extraction and representation from diverse biological data sources. As part of our research efforts to explore this space, we have currently prototyped the ALFA object model and a set of interactive software tools for searching, filtering, and extracting information from scientific text. In particular, we describe BioFerret, a meta-search tool for searching and filtering relevant information from the web, and ALFA Text Viewer, an interactive tool for user-guided extraction, disambiguation, and representation of information from scientific text. We further demonstrate the potential of our tools in integrating the extracted information with experimental data and diagrammatic biological models via the common underlying ALFA representation. aditya_vailaya@agilent.com.

  18. Outcomes of lead extraction in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Chami, Mikhael F; Sayegh, Michael N; Patel, Adarsh; El-Khalil, Jad; Desai, Yaanik; Leon, Angel R; Merchant, Faisal M

    2017-04-01

    Extraction of pacemaker and defibrillator leads in young adults may be technically challenging because of more extensive fibrosis and calcification in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes of lead extraction (LE) in young adults at our institution. We retrospectively identified all patients who underwent LE at our institution between January 1, 2007, and May 31, 2016. Patients were divided by age into 2 groups: extracted per procedure compared to group 1 (1.64 ± 0.80 vs 1.45 ± 0.64; P extraction techniques more frequently (9.5% vs 4.4%; P = .055). Extraction procedural success (group 1: 94.1%, group 2: 94.9%; P = .792), major complications (group 1: 0%, group 2: 1.3%; P = 1), and periprocedural mortality (group 1: 0%, group 2: 0.86%; P = 1) were similar in the 2 groups. LE can be performed safely and effectively in young adults. Despite the lower number of leads extracted per procedure and the similar lead dwell time, younger adults more frequently required the use of femoral extraction tools, thus highlighting the importance of performing these procedures in centers with advanced expertise in extraction techniques. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Extraction parameters for metabolomics from cell extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ser, Zheng; Liu, Xiaojing; Tang, Ngoc Nu; Locasale, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    The successful extraction of metabolites is a critical step in metabolite profiling. By optimizing metabolite extraction, the range and quantitative capacity of metabolomics studies can be improved. We considered eight separate extraction protocols for the preparation of a metabolite extract from cultured mammalian cells. Parameters considered included temperature, pH, and cell washing before extraction. The effects on metabolite recovery were studied using a high resolution liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) platform that measures metabolites of diverse chemical classes including among others amino acids, lipids, and sugar derivatives. The temperature considered during the extraction or the presence of formic acid, a commonly used additive, was shown to have minimal effects on the measured ion intensities of metabolites. However, washing of samples before metabolite extraction whether with water or PBS (both commonly considered practices) exhibited dramatic effects on measured intensities of both intra- and extra-cellular metabolites. Together these findings present a systematic assessment of extraction conditions for metabolite profiling. PMID:25613493

  20. Lunar hand tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Karl F.; Coleman, Robert D.; Dubnik, Kathy; Marshall, William S.; Mcentee, Amy; Na, Sae H.; Patton, Scott G.; West, Michael C.

    1987-01-01

    Tools useful for operations and maintenance tasks on the lunar surface were determined and designed. Primary constraints are the lunar environment, the astronaut's space suit and the strength limits of the astronaut on the moon. A multipurpose rotary motion tool and a collapsible tool carrier were designed. For the rotary tool, a brushless motor and controls were specified, a material for the housing was chosen, bearings and lubrication were recommended and a planetary reduction gear attachment was designed. The tool carrier was designed primarily for ease of access to the tools and fasteners. A material was selected and structural analysis was performed on the carrier. Recommendations were made about the limitations of human performance and about possible attachments to the torque driver.