WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraction time temperature

  1. Phyocyanin extraction from microalgae Spirulina platensis assisted by ultrasound irradiation: effect of time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiyanto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina platensis using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was conducted by using variable of extraction time, temperature and ultrasound frequency, while ethanol was used as solvent. The results show that the yield of phycocyanin extract was 15.97% at constant frequency of 42 kHz and 11.24% at constant frequency of 28 kHz, while the soxhlet extraction method obtained yield at 11.13%. The ultrasound could reduce the extraction time from 4 hrs (conventional to 20 minutes, while the optimum temperature of extraction was found at 55°C.

  2. Extraction time and temperature affect the extraction efficiencies of coumarin and phenylpropanoids from Cinnamomum cassia bark using a microwave-assisted extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hoon

    2017-09-15

    Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), an efficient extraction tool, was employed to extract a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids (cinnamic acid, cinnamyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, 2-hydroxycinnamadehyde, and 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde) from Cinnamomum cassia bark using water as the extraction solvent. Six marker compounds were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector using a validated analytical method. To investigate the influences of temperature and time on the extraction yields of the six marker compounds, the water extracts of C. cassia bark were prepared using a MAE method at six different extraction temperatures (70, 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95°C) and times (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12min). Their influences were assessed by multiple regression analysis. The results obtained demonstrated that higher extraction temperature and longer extraction time positively affected coumarin and cinnamyl alcohol contents, but negatively affected extract contents of cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde and 2-hydroxycinnamaldehyde (all p-extraction of 2-methoxycinnamaldehyde was affected by both positively and negatively by increasing temperature and time. These changes during MAE were assumed by the chemical natures of the marker compounds with various functional groups. In conclusion, temperature and times significantly affected the extraction efficiencies of a coumarin and five phenylpropanoids from C. cassia bark when a water-based MAE method was used. This study provides a novel approach to the preparation of the water extract of C. cassia bark using MAE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of extraction time and temperature on antioxidant activity of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Rao, Vigneswara; Low, Jia Yin; Matanjun, Patricia; How, Siew Eng; Ho, Chun Wai

    2013-04-01

    Central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction time (X 1 : 99.5-290.5 min) and temperature (X 2 : 30.1-54.9 °C) of Schizophyllum commune aqueous extract with high antioxidant activities and total phenolic content (TPC). Results indicated that the data were adequately fitted into four second-order polynomial models. The extraction time and temperature were found to have significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects on antioxidant activities and TPC. The optimal extraction time and temperature were: 290.5 min and 35.7 °C (DPPH(•) scavenging ability); 180.7 min and 41.7 °C (ABTS(•+) inhibition ability); 185.2 min and 42.4 °C (ferric reducing antioxidant power, FRAP); 290.5 min and 40.3 °C (TPC). These optimum conditions yielded 85.10%; 94.31%; 0.74 mM Fe(2+) equivalent/100 g; 635.76 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, respectively. The yields of antioxidant activities and TPC obtained experimentally were close to its predicted values. The establishment of such model provides a good experimental basis employing RSM for optimizing the extraction time and temperature on antioxidants from S. commune aqueous extract.

  4. Optimization of Multistage Extraction of Olive Leaves for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds at Moderated Temperatures and Short Extraction Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to improve the recovery of polyphenols from olive leaves (OL by optimizing a multistage extraction scheme; provided that the olive leaves have been previously steam blanched. The maximum total phenol content expressed in ppm caffeic acid equivalents was obtained at pH 2, particle size 0.315 mm, solid-liquid ratio 1:7 and aqueous ethanol concentration 70% (v/v. The optimum duration time of each extraction stage and the operation temperature, were chosen based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of oleuropein (OLE, verbascoside, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside performed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD. The optimum conditions for multistage extraction were 30 min total extraction time (10 min × 3 stages at 85 °C. The 80% of the total yield of polyphenols was obtained at the 1st stage of the extraction. The total extraction yield of oleuropein was found 23 times higher (103.1 mg OLE/g dry weight (d.w. OL compared to the yield (4.6 mg OLE/g d.w. OL obtained by the conventional extraction method (40 °C, 48 h. However, from an energetic and hence from an economical point of view it is preferable to work at 40 °C, since the total extraction yield of polyphenolic compounds was only 17% higher for a double increase in the operating temperature (i.e., 85 °C.

  5. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time

    OpenAIRE

    PEDRO,ALESSANDRA C.; FERNANDA MOREIRA; DANIEL GRANATO; ROSSO,NEIVA D.

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presen...

  6. The effect of temperature and extraction period of time on the chemicals content of emprit ginger ethanol extract (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaningrum, Diah; Endah, Een Sri; Pudjiraharti, Sri

    2017-01-01

    Research on extraction method of emprit ginger using ethanol with agitation of 100 rpm at different temperatures (ambient temperature, 40, and 50°C) and various extraction period of times (30, 60, and 90 minutes) was conducted. Analysis of chemicals content i.e. total phenolic and total flavonoid. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperatures and extraction period of times on the chemicals content of its ethanol extract. Based on the results of the test, the highest content total flavonoid (5.17% w/w) was resulted at 40°C for 90 minutes, while the total phenolic content was not affected by either temperature or extraction period of times used. The content of total phenolic was around 2.39% to 2.65% w/w.

  7. Extracting Concrete Thermal Characteristics from Temperature Time History of RC Column Exposed to Standard Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Jung J. Kim; Kwang-Soo Youm; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method to identify thermal conductivity from time history of one-dimensional temperature variations in thermal unsteady-state is proposed. The numerical method considers the change of specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature. Fire test of reinforced concrete (RC) columns was conducted using a standard fire to obtain time history of temperature variations in the column section. A thermal equilibrium model in unsteady-state condition was developed. The ther...

  8. Extracting the temperature of hot carriers in time- and angle-resolved photoemission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Søren; Johannsen, Jens Christian; Grioni, Marco;

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of light with a material’s electronic system creates an out-of-equilibrium (nonthermal) distribution of optically excited electrons. Non-equilibrium dynamics relaxes this distribution on an ultrafast timescale to a hot Fermi-Dirac distribution with a well-defined temperature. The ......, we introduce a method that circumvents these difficulties and accurately extracts both the temperature and the position of the Fermi level for a hot carrier distribution by tracking the occupation statistics of the carriers measured in a TR-ARPES experiment...

  9. Extracting Concrete Thermal Characteristics from Temperature Time History of RC Column Exposed to Standard Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method to identify thermal conductivity from time history of one-dimensional temperature variations in thermal unsteady-state is proposed. The numerical method considers the change of specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature. Fire test of reinforced concrete (RC columns was conducted using a standard fire to obtain time history of temperature variations in the column section. A thermal equilibrium model in unsteady-state condition was developed. The thermal conductivity of concrete was then determined by optimizing the numerical solution of the model to meet the observed time history of temperature variations. The determined thermal conductivity with respect to temperature was then verified against standard thermal conductivity measurements of concrete bricks. It is concluded that the proposed method can be used to conservatively estimate thermal conductivity of concrete for design purpose. Finally, the thermal radiation properties of concrete for the RC column were estimated from the thermal equilibrium at the surface of the column. The radiant heat transfer ratio of concrete representing absorptivity to emissivity ratio of concrete during fire was evaluated and is suggested as a concrete criterion that can be used in fire safety assessment.

  10. Extracting concrete thermal characteristics from temperature time history of RC column exposed to standard fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung J; Youm, Kwang-Soo; Reda Taha, Mahmoud M

    2014-01-01

    A numerical method to identify thermal conductivity from time history of one-dimensional temperature variations in thermal unsteady-state is proposed. The numerical method considers the change of specific heat and thermal conductivity with respect to temperature. Fire test of reinforced concrete (RC) columns was conducted using a standard fire to obtain time history of temperature variations in the column section. A thermal equilibrium model in unsteady-state condition was developed. The thermal conductivity of concrete was then determined by optimizing the numerical solution of the model to meet the observed time history of temperature variations. The determined thermal conductivity with respect to temperature was then verified against standard thermal conductivity measurements of concrete bricks. It is concluded that the proposed method can be used to conservatively estimate thermal conductivity of concrete for design purpose. Finally, the thermal radiation properties of concrete for the RC column were estimated from the thermal equilibrium at the surface of the column. The radiant heat transfer ratio of concrete representing absorptivity to emissivity ratio of concrete during fire was evaluated and is suggested as a concrete criterion that can be used in fire safety assessment.

  11. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Alessandra C; Moreira, Fernanda; Granato, Daniel; Rosso, Neiva D

    2016-05-13

    In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L.) extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  12. Extraction of bioactive compounds and free radical scavenging activity of purple basil (Ocimum basilicum L. leaf extracts as affected by temperature and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRA C. PEDRO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, response surface methodology (RSM was used to assess the effects of extraction time and temperature on the content of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of purple basil leaf (Ocimum basilicum L. extracts. The stability of anthocyanins in relation to temperature, light and copigmentation was also studied. The highest anthocyanin content was 67.40 mg/100 g extracted at 30 °C and 60 min. The degradation of anthocyanins with varying temperatures and in the presence of light followed a first-order kinetics and the activation energy was 44.95 kJ/mol. All the extracts exposed to light showed similar half-lives. The extracts protected from light, in the presence of copigments, showed an increase in half-life from 152.67 h for the control to 856.49 and 923.17 h for extract in the presence of gallic acid and phytic acid, respectively. These results clearly indicate that purple basil is a potential source of stable bioactive compounds.

  13. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Hegde, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based blood group on tooth pulp obtained from teeth stored for 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year following extraction and to evaluate the stability of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in primary tooth subjected to a temperature of 200°C ± 5°C for 15 minutes. Materials and methods Dental pulp tissue was collected from 40 exfoliated primary teeth stored for various time durations and temperature and preserved at 4°C till DNA extraction was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted using silica membrane-based spin-column procedure of QIAamp DNA minikit from BioRad. Deoxyribonucleic acid was subjected to PCR amplification and monoplex allele-specific PCR primers for ABO genotyping. Statistical analysis used The data were analyzed by comparison (based on percentage). Results In our study, overall, 85% samples showed a DNA yield. Cent percent results were obtained for samples studied at the end of 1 month followed by 90 and 80% for samples studied for 6 months and 1 year respectively. Heated samples showed 70% result. Conclusion Polymerase chain reaction was found to be an effective method for blood group determination for teeth stored at various time durations and temperatures. However, as the time interval increased, the number of positive results obtained decreased. How to cite this article Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Hegde S. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):308-312. PMID:28127161

  14. Effects of temperature and time on polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity in the pressurized hot water extraction of deodorized thyme (Thymus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Salinas, José R; Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís; Agosin, Eduardo; Pérez-Correa, José R

    2012-11-07

    The effects of temperature (50-200 °C) and contact time (5-30 min) on the pressurized hot water extraction of deodorized thyme were explored for antioxidant activity, polyphenol profiles, and total antioxidants. Six not previously reported polyphenolic compounds were identified in thyme. An inverse correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and total antioxidants with the amount and diversity of polyphenols. The highest total extract yield and antioxidant activity were obtained at 200 °C, although maximum polyphenol extraction yields of hydroxycinnamic acids, flavones, flavonols/flavanones, and total polyphenols were detected at 100 °C and 5 min. Higher temperatures and longer exposure times reduced extract polyphenol diversity. Dihydroxyphenyllactic acid was the only phenolic compound for which extraction yield increased with temperature, probably as a product of the thermal degradation of rosmarinic acid. Consequently, for extracting phenolics from thyme, 100 °C and 5 min would be appropriate operating conditions, whereas antioxidant-active nonphenolic compounds were favored at higher temperatures and exposure times.

  15. Improving the extraction of Ara h 6 (a peanut allergen) from a chocolate-based matrix for immunosensing detection: Influence of time, temperature and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Rita C; Pimentel, Filipa B; Nouws, Henri P A; Silva, Túlio H B; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2017-03-01

    The extraction of Ara h 6 (a peanut allergen) from a complex chocolate-based food matrix was optimized by testing different temperatures, extraction times, and the influence of additives (NaCl and skimmed milk powder) in a total of 36 different conditions. Analyses were carried out using an electrochemical immunosensor. Three conditions were selected since they allowed the extraction of the highest levels of Ara h 6. These extractions were performed using 2g of sample and 20ml of Tris-HNO3 (pH=8) containing: a) 0.1M NaCl and 2g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; b) 1M NaCl and 1g of skimmed milk powder at 21°C for 60min; and c) 2g of skimmed milk powder at 60°C for 60min. Recoveries were similar or higher than 94.7%. This work highlights the importance to adjust extraction procedures regarding the target analyte and food matrix components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The influence of temperature and time on the stability of the antioxidant activity and colour parameters of grape marc ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena CRISTEA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest to replace synthetic food colorants, preservatives and antioxidants in beverages with natural ones is leading researchers to explore the polyphenols of winery wastes. It is of great interest to see if these compounds could replace synthetic dyes in drinks. However, it is still necessary to study the stability of extracts containing grape phenolics during various technological treatments. This paper presents the study of the stability of the 50% ethanolic extract of marc resulting from the winemaking process. The extract was subjected to the following temperatures: -2oC for 12 hours; 4oC for 12 hours; 40oC for 15 minutes, 60oC for 15 minutes, 80oC for 15 minutes and 100oC for 2 minutes; after that the antioxidant activity and the colour parameters (CIELab were measured. Three sets of extracts were kept for 2 weeks at -2oC, 4oC, and 25-30oC and afterwards the parameters mentioned above were measured once again. Furthermore, the total content of polyphenols and the content of tannins were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were expressed in mg gallic acid equivalents per litre and mg tannic acid equivalents per litre, respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined using the method based on the interaction with the ABTS radical, the results being expressed in % inhibition. The results have shown that the colour (CIELab parameters and the antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extract of marc are relatively stable during thermal processes. High temperatures as well as prolonged storage at room temperature increased the values of antioxidant activity, chroma, and redness. However, they also produced the most significant effect of the overall colour of the extract, leading to the degradation of blue pigments and a shift towards orange hues.

  17. Gluten-Free Sources of Fermentable Extract: Effect of Temperature and Germination Time on Quality Attributes of Teff [Eragrostis tef (zucc.) Trotter] Malt and Wort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ghionno, Lidia; Marconi, Ombretta; Lee, Eung Gwan; Rice, Christopher J; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-06-14

    This study was conducted to evaluate the behavior of a white teff variety called Witkop during malting by using different parameters (germination temperature and duration) and to identify the best malting program. Samples were evaluated for standard quality malt and wort attributes, pasting characteristics, β-glucan and arabinoxylan content, and sugar profile. It was concluded that malting teff at 24 °C for 6 days produced acceptable malt in terms of quality attributes and sugar profile for brewing. The main attributes were 80.4% extract, 80.9% fermentability, 1.53 mPa s viscosity, 7.4 EBC-U color, 129 mg/L FAN, and 72.1 g/L of total fermentable sugars. Statistical analysis showed that pasting characteristics of teff malt were negatively correlated with some malt quality attributes, such as extract and fermentability. Witkop teff appeared to be a promising raw material for malting and brewing. However, the small grain size may lead to difficulties in handling malting process, and a bespoke brewhouse plant should be developed for the production at industrial scale.

  18. Time profile of the slowly extracted beam

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1997-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. For this application a precise control of the slow extraction is needed to satisfy the medical specifications for the online measurement and control of the delivered dose. This has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, an analytic study of the time profile of the extracted beam is made by first considering the time profile of an elementary strip of monoenergetic particles from the side of the shrinking stable triangle. This basic result is then used to predict the characteristics of the spills for the most common extraction configurations. The influence of ripples whose period is comparable to the transit time of a particle in the resonance is also analyzed. Simulations of the extraction process that confirm the analytic study are included.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE AND TIME ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND COLOR PARAMETERS OF DOG-ROSE (ROSA CANINA ETHANOLIC EXTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA CRISTEA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of the stability of antioxidant activity and color of the 50 % ethanolic extract of dog-rose (Rosa canina from the Republic of Moldova with the main objective to test a food dye of natural origin. The extract was submitted to: -2 °C for 12 hours; 4 °C for 12 hours; 40 °C for 15 minutes, 60 °C for 15 minutes, 80 °C for 15 minutes and 100 °C for 2 minutes, after which the antioxidant activity and the color (CIELab parameters were measured. Three sets of extracts were kept for 2 weeks at -2 °C; 4 °C and 25 - 30 °C and afterwards the parameters mentioned above were measured once again. Moreover, the total content of polyphenols was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The results were expressed in mg gallic acid equivalents per liter. The antioxidant activity was determined using the method based on the interaction with the ABTS radical, the results being expressed in mmol trolox equivalent per liter. Thermal treatments have not influenced antioxidant activity, but have significantly affected the extract by increasing its luminosity and changing the red/green parameter towards more red tones, while storage at -2 °C caused the decrease of yellowness. Storage at 4 °C was found to be optimal for the preservation of the antioxidant activity.

  20. Optimized Feature Extraction for Temperature-Modulated Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Vergara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious limitations to the practical utilization of solid-state gas sensors is the drift of their signal. Even if drift is rooted in the chemical and physical processes occurring in the sensor, improved signal processing is generally considered as a methodology to increase sensors stability. Several studies evidenced the augmented stability of time variable signals elicited by the modulation of either the gas concentration or the operating temperature. Furthermore, when time-variable signals are used, the extraction of features can be accomplished in shorter time with respect to the time necessary to calculate the usual features defined in steady-state conditions. In this paper, we discuss the stability properties of distinct dynamic features using an array of metal oxide semiconductors gas sensors whose working temperature is modulated with optimized multisinusoidal signals. Experiments were aimed at measuring the dispersion of sensors features in repeated sequences of a limited number of experimental conditions. Results evidenced that the features extracted during the temperature modulation reduce the multidimensional data dispersion among repeated measurements. In particular, the Energy Signal Vector provided an almost constant classification rate along the time with respect to the temperature modulation.

  1. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar S. Kolosovas-Machuca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p<0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p<0.001 and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim.

  2. Transit time for third order resonance extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Pullia, M

    1996-01-01

    An important spin-off from accelerators is the use of synchrotrons for cancer therapy. A precise control of the extraction from the synchrotron is needed to satisfy the medical specifications and this has led to a renewed interest in the basic theory of third-order resonance extraction. In the present paper, a complete description of the transit time in the resonance (the time between a particle becoming unstable and reaching the electrostatic septum) is developed as a basis for future work predicting spill shapes and the influence of power supply ripple. The transit time is evaluated for constant tune and for a slowly varying tune. Both cases are subdivided into particles that start close simulation and are shown to be correct to within a few percent.

  3. Temperature dependence of fluctuation time scales in spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenning, Gregory G.; Bowen, J.; Sibani, Paolo;

    2010-01-01

    Using a series of fast cooling protocols we have probed aging effects in the spin glass state as a function of temperature. Analyzing the logarithmic decay found at very long time scales within a simple phenomenological barrier model, leads to the extraction of the fluctuation time scale of the s...

  4. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Peiró; Gordon, Michael H.; Mónica Blanco; Francisca Pérez-Llamas; Francisco Segovia; María Pilar Almajano

    2014-01-01

    The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols w...

  5. Extraction of temperature dependent interfacial resistance of thermoelectric modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an approach for extracting the temperature dependency of the electrical interfacial resistance associated with thermoelectric devices. The method combines a traditional module-level test rig and a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity to minimize measurement errors...

  6. Extraction of temperature dependent interfacial resistance of thermoelectric modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses an approach for extracting the temperature dependency of the electrical interfacial resistance associated with thermoelectric devices. The method combines a traditional module-level test rig and a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity to minimize measurement errors...... on the interfacial resistance. The extracted results represent useful data to investigating the characteristics of thermoelectric module resistance and comparing performance of various modules....

  7. Extraction of plutonium(IV) by diglycolamide extractants in room temperature ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, Dattaprasad R.; Raut, Dhaval R.; Murali, Mallekav S.; Mohapatra, Prasanta K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.

    2017-06-01

    Extraction of Pu(IV) was investigated using solutions of two diglycolamide extractants viz., N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide (TODGA) and its branched homolog, N,N,N{sup '},N{sup '}-tetra(2-ethylhexyl) diglycolamide (T2EHDGA), dissolved in two imidazolium based room temperature ionic liquids viz., 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulphonyl) imide ([C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]) from aqueous nitric acid medium. The extraction kinetics was found to be extremely slow which is reported for the first time for analogous extraction systems and took as long as 30 h to attain equilibrium D{sub Pu} values. In general, TODGA based solvents showed better extraction of Pu(IV) than the T2EHDGA based solvents, one order of magnitude higher, and though both the ionic liquids ultimately yielded comparable D{sub Pu} values, attainment of equilibrium was slower with [C{sub 4}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. The extracted species conformed to 1:1 for TODGA in both the ionic liquids while a mixture of 1:1 and 1:2 species was observed for T2EHDGA at 1 M HNO{sub 3} which changed to 1:1 species at 4 M HNO{sub 3}. The extracted species is proposed to be (Pu(L){sub x}{sup 4+}){sub IL} (where, L is the extractant and x=1 or 2) at lower acidities suggesting a cation exchange mechanism which changes over to (Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} .L){sub IL} at 4 M HNO{sub 3} conforming to a solvation mechanism for all the systems except for T2EHDGA-[C{sub 8}mim][NTf{sub 2}]. UV-VIS spectroscopic studies were carried out to throw light on the nature of the extracted species.

  8. Managing Perishables with Time and temperature History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketzenberg, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Gaukler, G.

    2015-01-01

    We address the use and value of time and temperature information to manage perishables in the contextof a retailer that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product’s lifetime is largely determined by the temperature history and the flow time through the s

  9. Managing Perishables with Time and temperature History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketzenberg, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Gaukler, G.

    2015-01-01

    We address the use and value of time and temperature information to manage perishables in the contextof a retailer that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product’s lifetime is largely determined by the temperature history and the flow time through the

  10. Managing Perishables with Time and temperature History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketzenberg, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Gaukler, G.

    2015-01-01

    We address the use and value of time and temperature information to manage perishables in the contextof a retailer that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product’s lifetime is largely determined by the temperature history and the flow time through the s

  11. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadiyanto,, E-mail: hadiyanto@live.undip.ac.id; Suttrisnorhadi,; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH-Tembalang, Semarang 50239 INDONESIA (Indonesia); Sutanto, Heri [Physic Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia); Suzery, Meiny [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Diponegoro University (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  12. The effects of temperature and frequencies in ultrasound assisted extraction of phycocyanin from microalgae Spirulina sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadiyanto, Suttrisnorhadi, Sutanto, Heri; Suzery, Meiny; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    Microalgae Spirulina sp has been identified as source of protein and other high added value compounds. One of the compounds is phycocyanin as also known for antioxidant use. The extraction of this compound by using conventional method (soxhlet extraction) resulted low yield and longer processing time. This research was aimed to extract phycocyanin by using an extraction assisted by ultrasound irradiation. The extraction was performed by using variable of ultrasound frequency and extraction temperature and ethanol was used as a solvent. The result showed that yield of phycocyanin extracted by conventional method was 11.13% while the ultrasound irradiation could increase the yield up to 15.61% at constant frequency of 42 kHz, while the optimum temperature was obtained at 45°C. The analysis of variable interactions showed that both temperature and time has an interaction and temperature was the highest variable in increasing the yield. The conclusion of this research was the ultrasound could improve significantly the efficiency of extraction as well as activity of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae.

  13. Influence of pressure and time on extraction process using supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mićić V.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO2 of Salvia officinalis L. was investigated. SFE by CO2 was performed at different pressure (80, 100, 150, 200 and 300 bar and constant temperature of 40ºC (all other extraction conditions, such are flow rate, particle diameter of Salvia officinalis, extraction time were kept constant. The GC-MS method was used for determination of qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts and essential oils.

  14. Time-temperature superposition in viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    2001-01-01

    with a reduced time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  15. A Novel Lipid Extraction Method from Wet Microalga Picochlorum sp. at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangfang Yang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel method using ethanol was proposed for extracting lipids from wet microalga Picochlorum sp. at room temperature and pressure. In this study, Central Composite design (CCD was applied to investigate the optimum conditions of lipid extraction. The results revealed that the solvent to biomass ratio had the largest effect on lipid extraction efficiency, followed by extraction time and temperature. A high lipid extraction yield (33.04% of the dry weight was obtained under the following extraction conditions: 5 mL solvents per gram of wet biomass for 37 min with gentle stirring at room temperature. The extraction yield was comparable to that obtained by the widely used Bligh-Dyer method. Furthermore, no significant differences in the distribution of lipid classes and fatty acid composition were observed according to different extraction methods. In conclusion, these results indicated that the proposed procedure using ethanol could extract lipids from wet biomass efficiently and had giant potential for lipid extraction at large scale.

  16. The effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on protein extraction by means of electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberl-Meglič, Saša; Levičnik, Eva; Luengo, Elisa; Raso, Javier; Miklavčič, Damijan

    2016-12-01

    Different chemical and physical methods are used for extraction of proteins from bacteria, which are used in variety of fields. But on a large scale, many methods have severe drawbacks. Recently, extraction by means of electroporation showed a great potential to quickly obtain proteins from bacteria. Since many parameters are affecting the yield of extracted proteins, our aim was to investigate the effect of temperature and bacterial growth phase on the yield of extracted proteins. At the same time bacterial viability was tested. Our results showed that the temperature has a great effect on protein extraction, the best temperature post treatment being 4°C. No effect on bacterial viability was observed for all temperatures tested. Also bacterial growth phase did not affect the yield of extracted proteins or bacterial viability. Nevertheless, further experiments may need to be performed to confirm this observation, since only one incubation temperature (4°C) and one incubation time before and after electroporation (0.5 and 1h) were tested for bacterial growth phase. Based on our results we conclude that temperature is a key element for bacterial membrane to stay in a permeabilized state, so more proteins flow out of bacteria into surrounding media.

  17. Degradation kinetics of the main carbohydrates in birch wood during hot water extraction in a batch reactor at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Nieminen, Kaarlo; Sixta, Herbert

    2011-11-01

    Hot water extraction of wood at elevated temperatures may be a suitable method to produce hemicellulose-lean pulps and to recover xylan-derived products from the water extract. In this study, water extractions of birch wood were conducted at temperatures between 180 and 240 °C in a batch reactor. Xylan was extensively removed, whereas cellulose was partly degraded only at temperatures above 180 °C. Under severe extraction conditions, acetic acid content in the water extract was higher than the corresponding amount of acetyl groups in wood. In addition to oligo- and monosaccharides, considerable amounts of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) were recovered from the extracts. After reaching a maximum, the furfural yield remained constant with increasing extraction time. This maximum slightly decreased with increasing extraction temperature, suggesting the preferential formation of secondary degradation products from xylose. Kinetic models fitting experimental data are proposed to explain degradation and conversion reactions of xylan and glucan.

  18. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent.

  19. Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Grant A. [CSM; Speer, John G. [CSM; Matlock, David K. [CSM; Krauss, George [CSM

    2008-06-16

    The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

  20. Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J

    2002-09-30

    The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.

  1. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste.

  2. Fibre-optical measurement of the time curve of layer temperatures in a well as a result of heat injection and heat extraction; Untersuchung der zeitlichen Entwicklung von Schichttemperaturen in einer Bohrung bei Waermeaus- und Waermeeinspeisung mit Hilfe faseroptischer Temperaturmessungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurtig, E.; Groswig, S.; Kasch, M. [GESO GmbH, Jena (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The relations between the thermal processes around a 200 m deep geothermal well and the petrographic composition were studied using the fibre optic temperature sensing method. The heat injection and heat extraction properties depend on the petrographic properties (porosity, permeability) of the individual layers. Coarse sandy, water saturated layers have good properties, silts and clays have poor properties for het storage and heat extraction. Heat transport occurs in well defined layers with good hydraulic properties and can be explained by a convective heat transport model. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit faseroptischen Temperaturmessungen in einer Erdwaermesonde (EWS)-Bohrung wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen den thermischen Prozessen unmittelbar um die EWS und dem petrographischen Aufbau untersucht. Das Waermeein- bzw. -ausspeisevermoegen haengt von der petrographischen Ausbildung der einzelnen Schichten ab (Porositaet, Kf-Wert). Grobsandige bis kiesige, wassergesaettigte Schichten haben guenstige, schluffig-tonige unguenstige Eigenschaften fuer die Waermeaus- bzw. -einspeisung. Der wesentliche Waermetransport erfolgt in definierten geringmaechtigen Schichten mit guten hydraulischen Eigenschaften. Der Waermetransport in poroesen, wassergefuellten Schichten kann mit einem konvektiven Waermetransportmodell erklaert werden. (orig.)

  3. Primary magmas and mantle temperatures through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, Jérôme; Feng, Xiaojun

    2017-03-01

    Chemical composition of mafic magmas is a critical indicator of physicochemical conditions, such as pressure, temperature, and fluid availability, accompanying melt production in the mantle and its evolution in the continental or oceanic lithosphere. Recovering this information has fundamental implications in constraining the thermal state of the mantle and the physics of mantle convection throughout the Earth's history. Here a statistical approach is applied to a geochemical database of about 22,000 samples from the mafic magma record. Potential temperatures (Tps) of the mantle derived from this database, assuming melting by adiabatic decompression and a Ti-dependent (Fe2O3/TiO2 = 0.5) or constant redox condition (Fe2+/∑Fe = 0.9 or 0.8) in the magmatic source, are thought to be representative of different thermal "horizons" (or thermal heterogeneities) in the ambient mantle, ranging in depth from a shallow sublithospheric mantle (Tp minima) to a lower thermal boundary layer (Tp maxima). The difference of temperature (ΔTp) observed between Tp maxima and minima did not change significantly with time (˜170°C). Conversely, a progressive but limited cooling of ˜150°C is proposed since ˜2.5 Gyr for the Earth's ambient mantle, which falls in the lower limit proposed by Herzberg et al. [2010] (˜150-250°C hotter than today). Cooling of the ambient mantle after 2.5 Ga is preceded by a high-temperature plateau evolution and a transition from dominant plumes to a plate tectonics geodynamic regime, suggesting that subductions stabilized temperatures in the Archaean mantle that was in warming mode at that time.abstract type="synopsis">Plain Language SummaryThe Earth's upper mantle constitutes a major interface between inner and outer envelops of the planet. We explore at high resolution its thermal state evolution (potential temperature of the ambient mantle, Tp) in depth and time using a multi-dimensional database of mafic lavas chemistry (>22,000 samples formed in

  4. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, John C.; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2014-10-01

    Particles in non - isothermal turbulent flow are subject to a stochastic environment tha t produces a distribution of particle time - temperature histories. This distribution is a function of the dispersion of the non - isothermal (continuous) gas phase and the distribution of particles relative to that gas phase. In this work we extend the one - dimensional turbulence (ODT) model to predict the joint dispersion of a dispersed particle phase and a continuous phase. The ODT model predicts the turbulent evolution of continuous scalar fields with a model for the cascade of fluctuations to smaller sc ales (the 'triplet map') at a rate that is a function of the fully resolved one - dimens ional velocity field . Stochastic triplet maps also drive Lagrangian particle dispersion with finite Stokes number s including inertial and eddy trajectory - crossing effect s included. Two distinct approaches to this coupling between triplet maps and particle dispersion are developed and implemented along with a hybrid approach. An 'instantaneous' particle displacement model matches the tracer particle limit and provide s an accurate description of particle dispersion. A 'continuous' particle displacement m odel translates triplet maps into a continuous velocity field to which particles respond. Particles can alter the turbulence, and modifications to the stochastic rate expr ession are developed for two - way coupling between particles and the continuous phase. Each aspect of model development is evaluated in canonical flows (homogeneous turbulence, free - shear flows and wall - bounded flows) for which quality measurements are ava ilable. ODT simulations of non - isothermal flows provide statistics for particle heating. These simulations show the significance of accurately predicting the joint statistics of particle and fluid dispersion . Inhomogeneous turbulence coupled with the in fluence of the mean flow fields on particles of varying properties

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF TIME AND TYPE OF SOLVENT ON EFFICIENCY OF THE EXTRACTION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM GREEN TEA AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OBTAINED EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Beata Drużyńska; Agnieszka Stępniewska; Rafał Wołosiak

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of the type of solvent and time on efficiency of the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant properties extracts obtained from green tea. Extraction was conducted at room temperature using four solvents: water and 80% ethanol, 80% methanol and 80% acetone (water solutions, v/v) at 15, 30 and 60 minutes. Extracts were analysed for contents of polyphenols and catechins. The antioxidant properties have been determined by two methods: scaven...

  6. Extraction of organic compounds with room temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Colin F; Poole, Salwa K

    2010-04-16

    Room temperature ionic liquids are novel solvents with a rather specific blend of physical and solution properties that makes them of interest for applications in separation science. They are good solvents for a wide range of compounds in which they behave as polar solvents. Their physical properties of note that distinguish them from conventional organic solvents are a negligible vapor pressure, high thermal stability, and relatively high viscosity. They can form biphasic systems with water or low polarity organic solvents and gases suitable for use in liquid-liquid and gas-liquid partition systems. An analysis of partition coefficients for varied compounds in these systems allows characterization of solvent selectivity using the solvation parameter model, which together with spectroscopic studies of solvent effects on probe substances, results in a detailed picture of solvent behavior. These studies indicate that the solution properties of ionic liquids are similar to those of polar organic solvents. Practical applications of ionic liquids in sample preparation include extractive distillation, aqueous biphasic systems, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, supported liquid membrane extraction, matrix solvents for headspace analysis, and micellar extraction. The specific advantages and limitations of ionic liquids in these studies is discussed with a view to defining future uses and the need not to neglect the identification of new room temperature ionic liquids with physical and solution properties tailored to the needs of specific sample preparation techniques. The defining feature of the special nature of ionic liquids is not their solution or physical properties viewed separately but their unique combinations when taken together compared with traditional organic solvents.

  7. Modelling Extraction of White Tea Polyphenols: The Influence of Temperature and Ethanol Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Peiró

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of the extraction of natural antioxidants from white tea has fostered intensive research. This study has investigated the effects of ethanol-water mixtures, temperature and time on the extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant components from white tea. The response surface methodology was applied to identify the best extraction conditions. The best conditions to maximize the extraction of total polyphenols were: ethanol, 50%, for 47.5 min. Although the yield of polyphenols was optimal at 65 °C, the maximum antioxidant capacity was achieved with an extraction temperature of 90 °C. This study has identified the optimal conditions for the extraction of tea liquor with the best antioxidant properties. Epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin and epicatechin were extracted from white tea at concentrations up to 29.6 ± 10.6, 5.40 ± 2.09, 5.04 ± 0.20 and 2.48 ± 1.10 mg/100 g.

  8. Extracting changes in air temperature using acoustic coda phase delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Whitaker, Rod; Morton, Emily; Scott Phillips, W

    2014-10-01

    Blast waves produced by 60 high-explosive detonations were recorded at short distances (few hundreds of meters); the corresponding waveforms show charge-configuration independent coda-like features (i.e., similar shapes, amplitudes, and phases) lasting several seconds. These features are modeled as reflected and/or scattered waves by acoustic reflectors/scatters surrounding the explosions. Using explosion pairs, relative coda phase delays are extracted and modeled as changes in sound speed due to changes in air temperature. Measurements from nearby weather towers are used for validation.

  9. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad A Hossain; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Kawther Khalifa Al-Rashdi; Afaf M Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T.vulgaris ) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol.Results:The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform.Conclusions:In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.

  10. Time lens assisted photonic sampling extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrillo, Keith Gordon

    Telecommunication bandwidth demands have dramatically increased in recent years due to Internet based services like cloud computing and storage, large file sharing, and video streaming. Additionally, sensing systems such as wideband radar, magnetic imaging resonance systems, and complex modulation formats to handle large data transfer in telecommunications require high speed, high resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) to interpret the data. Accurately processing and acquiring the information at next generation data rates from these systems has become challenging for electronic systems. The largest contributors to the electronic bottleneck are bandwidth and timing jitter which limit speed and reduce accuracy. Optical systems have shown to have at least three orders of magnitude increase in bandwidth capabilities and state of the art mode locked lasers have reduced timing jitters into thousands of attoseconds. Such features have encouraged processing signals without the use of electronics or using photonics to assist electronics. All optical signal processing has allowed the processing of telecommunication line rates up to 1.28 Tb/s and high resolution analog-to-digital converters in the 10s of gigahertz. The major drawback to these optical systems is the high cost of the components. The application of all optical processing techniques such as a time lens and chirped processing can greatly reduce bandwidth and cost requirements of optical serial to parallel converters and push photonically assisted ADCs into the 100s of gigahertz. In this dissertation, the building blocks to a high speed photonically assisted ADC are demonstrated, each providing benefits to its own respective application. A serial to parallel converter using a continuously operating time lens as an optical Fourier processor is demonstrated to fully convert a 160-Gb/s optical time division multiplexed signal to 16 10-Gb/s channels with error free operation. Using chirped processing, an

  11. Does crystallinity of extracted bone mineral increase over storage time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that the crystallinity of extracted bone mineral samples from the fin bones of zebrafish could increase over storage time. This would have implications in many studies in which the samples need to be stored until analysis. The aim of this study was to further evaluate if the crystallinity of extracted bone mineral increases over storage time. The extracted mineral was a biological bone-like apatite produced in osteoblast cell cultures. The overall characterization of the mineral was done by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. In order to evaluate possible changes in crystallinity over storage time, the same sample was analyzed by X-ray diffraction immediately after mineral extraction and after 18 months of storage. In conclusion, no statistically relevant changes were observed over storage time, although the occurrence of a slight increase in crystallinity could be discussed in the stored mineral sample.

  12. A high-throughput platform for low-volume high-temperature/pressure sealed vessel solvent extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damm, Markus [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Kappe, C. Oliver, E-mail: oliver.kappe@uni-graz.at [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Microwave Chemistry (CDLMC) and Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstrasse 28, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Parallel low-volume coffee extractions in sealed-vessel HPLC/GC vials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extractions are performed at high temperatures and pressures (200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapid caffeine determination from the liquid phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Headspace analysis of volatiles using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). - Abstract: A high-throughput platform for performing parallel solvent extractions in sealed HPLC/GC vials inside a microwave reactor is described. The system consist of a strongly microwave-absorbing silicon carbide plate with 20 cylindrical wells of appropriate dimensions to be fitted with standard HPLC/GC autosampler vials serving as extraction vessels. Due to the possibility of heating up to four heating platforms simultaneously (80 vials), efficient parallel analytical-scale solvent extractions can be performed using volumes of 0.5-1.5 mL at a maximum temperature/pressure limit of 200 Degree-Sign C/20 bar. Since the extraction and subsequent analysis by either gas chromatography or liquid chromatography coupled with mass detection (GC-MS or LC-MS) is performed directly from the autosampler vial, errors caused by sample transfer can be minimized. The platform was evaluated for the extraction and quantification of caffeine from commercial coffee powders assessing different solvent types, extraction temperatures and times. For example, 141 {+-} 11 {mu}g caffeine (5 mg coffee powder) were extracted during a single extraction cycle using methanol as extraction solvent, whereas only 90 {+-} 11 were obtained performing the extraction in methylene chloride, applying the same reaction conditions (90 Degree-Sign C, 10 min). In multiple extraction experiments a total of {approx}150 {mu}g caffeine was extracted from 5 mg commercial coffee powder. In addition to the quantitative caffeine determination, a comparative qualitative analysis of the liquid phase coffee

  13. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata leaf extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R. F.; Natalia, Desy

    2016-11-01

    In traditional medicine, Physalis angulata which is well known as ceplukan in Indonesia, has been utilized to cure several diseases by conventional extraction in hot water. The investigation of the Swietenia mahagoni extract activity in modern medicine typically utilized organic solvents such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform and hexane in extraction. In this research, subcritical water was used as a solvent instead of organic solvent to extract the Pysalis angulata leaf part. The focus of this research was the investigation of extract drying condition in the presence of filler to preserve the quality of antioxidant in Swietenia mahagoni extract. Filler, which is inert, was added to the extract during drying to help absorb the water while protect the extract from exposure in heat during drying. The effects of filler types, concentrations and oven drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol and antioxidant activity. Aerosil and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were utilized as fillers with concentration was varied from 0-30 wt% for MCC and 0-15 wt% for aerosil. The oven drying temperature was varied from 40-60 oC. The results showed that compare to extract dried without filler, total phenol and antioxidant activity were improved upon addition of filler. The higher the concentration of filler, the better the antioxidant; however it was limited by the homogeneity of filler in the extract. Both of the variables (oven temperature and concentration) played an important role in the improvement of extract quality of Swietenia mahagoni leaf. It was related to the drying time which can be minimized to protect the deterioration of extract from heat. In addition, filler help to provide the powder form of extract instead of the typical extract form which is sticky and oily.

  14. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE AND PARTICLE SIZE ON THE ALKALINE EXTRACTION OF PROTEIN FROM CHICKEN BONE WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Cahyo Kumoro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Chicken bone is a waste of chicken meat processing industry and restaurants that has not been used widely, even though it contains valuable organic compounds that are functionals, such as collagenous and non collagenous protein. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature and particle size on the protein extraction from chicken bones using dilute sodium hydroxide solution. Controlled parameters in this study were the solvent in the form of sodium hydroxide solution, extraction time for 1 hour, pH 10.5, the ratio of chicken bone powder: solvent (1:4 w/v, and stirring speed 200 rpm. While the operating variables included the extraction temperature of 30oC, 55oC, and 80oC, and particle size of 150 and 250 μm. Experiments were carried out by heating of 300 mL of sodium hydroxide solution with pH 10.5 in a three-necked flask equipped with Leibig condenser, thermometer, mechanical agitator and sampling device to reach the desired temperature (30oC, 55oC, and 80oC. Then, a total of 75 g of chicken bone powders with desired particle size (150μm and 250μm was introduced into the sodium hydroxide solution and the stirrer was operated at speed of 200rpm. At every 10 minutes interval, as much as 10 mL samples were withdrawn for total protein analysis using Lowry-Folin method. The experiment was terminated after 1 hour. The results show that both increase in temperature and particle size caused an increase in the amount of extracted protein. Highest concentration of protein extracted was achieved at 630.99 mg/L, when the extraction was carried out using 250mm bone particles and temperature 80oC.

  15. Real-Time Information Extraction from Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Real-Time Information Extraction from Big Data Robert M. Rolfe...Information Extraction from Big Data Jagdeep Shah Robert M. Rolfe Francisco L. Loaiza-Lemos October 7, 2015 I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E...AN A LY S E S Abstract We are drowning under the 3 Vs (volume, velocity and variety) of big data . Real-time information extraction from big

  16. Influence of Temperature on the Extractibility of Polysaccharides in Barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriţă

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Barley contains substantial amounts of both soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. The main watersoluble NSP in barley are highly viscous β-glucans. Monogastric animals, including humans and birds, cannotsynthesize β-glucanase, and the amount of β-glucanase derived from barley grain and bacteria in the gastrointestinaltract is insufficient to completely hydrolyze β-glucans. In the present investigation, we have studied the influence oftemperature and heating time on the extractibility of soluble polysaccharides in barley. Heating the barley samples at60°C and 80°C before extraction has the effect of lowering the soluble fraction of the polysaccharides. The dynamicviscosity values of water extracts from barley decreased up to 21.68% when heating at 60ºC for 15 minutes, and upto 25.30% when heating at 80ºC for 15 minutes, when the determinations were made immediately after extractseparation. Heating the barley samples for 15 minutes at 80°C deactivates the endogenous hydrolytic enzymes.

  17. Optimisation and characterisation of marihuana extracts obtained by supercritical fluid extraction and focused ultrasound extraction and retention time locking GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Jone; Olivares, Maitane; Alzaga, Mikel; Etxebarria, Nestor

    2013-04-01

    The optimisation of focused ultrasound extraction and supercritical fluid extraction of volatile oils and cannabinoids from marihuana has been accomplished by experimental design approach. On the one hand, the focused ultrasound extraction method of volatile compounds and cannabinoids was studied based on the optimisation of cyclohexane and isopropanol solvent mixtures, and the instrumental variables. The optimal working conditions were finally fixed at isopropanol/cyclohexane 1:1 mixture, cycles (3 s(-1)), amplitude (80%) and sonication time (5 min). On the other hand, the supercritical fluid extraction method was optimised in order to obtain a deterpenation of the plant and a subsequent cannabinoid extraction. For this purpose, pressure, temperature, flow and co-solvent percentage were optimised and the optimal working conditions were set at 100 bar, 35°C, 1 mL/min, no co-solvent for the terpenes and 20% of ethanol for the cannabinoids. Based on the retention time locking GC-MS analysis of the supercritical fluid extracts the classification of the samples according to the type of plant, the growing area and season was attained. Finally, three monoterpenes and three cannabinoids were quantified in the ranges of 0.006-6.2 μg/g and 0.96-324 mg/g, respectively.

  18. Statistics of particle time-temperature histories :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewson, John C.; Gin, Craig; Lignell, David O.; Sun, Guangyuan

    2013-10-01

    Progress toward predictions of the statistics of particle time-temperature histories is presented. These predictions are to be made using Lagrangian particle models within the one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) model. In the present reporting period we have further characterized the performance, behavior and capabilities of the particle dispersion models that were added to the ODT model in the first period. We have also extended the capabilities in two manners. First we provide alternate implementations of the particle transport process within ODT; within this context the original implementation is referred to as the type-I and the new implementations are referred to as the type-C and type-IC interactions. Second we have developed and implemented models for two-way coupling between the particle and fluid phase. This allows us to predict the reduced rate of turbulent mixing associated with particle dissipation of energy and similar phenomena. Work in characterizing these capabilities has taken place in homogeneous decaying turbulence, in free shear layers, in jets and in channel flow with walls, and selected results are presented.

  19. Purification of nattokinase by reverse micelles extraction from fermentation broth: effect of temperature and phase volume ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun-Guo; Xing, Jian-Min; Chang, Tian-Shi; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2006-03-01

    Nattokinase is a novel fibrinolytic enzyme that is considered to be a promising agent for thrombosis therapy. In this study, reverse micelles extraction was applied to purify and concentrate nattokinase from fermentation broth. The effects of temperature and phase volume ratio used for the forward and backward extraction on the extraction process were examined. The optimal temperature for forward and backward extraction were 25 degrees C and 35 degrees C respectively. Nattokinase became more thermosensitive during reverse micelles extraction. And it could be enriched in the stripping phase eight times during backward extraction. It was found that nattokinase could be purified by AOT reverse micelles with up to 80% activity recovery and with a purification factor of 3.9.

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Global Temperature Time Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The global temperature time series provides time series charts using station based observations of daily temperature. These charts provide information about the...

  1. Extreme temperatures in summer time. Health implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Díaz Jiménez

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The increment that has been detected in summer temperatures in the last years joined to the trends expected to climate for the next century provide an increase in frequency and intensity of the extreme climate events, basically in heat waves. The undoubted relationship between temperature and mortality makes necessary a quantifying in order to characterize the expected effects of temperature over mortality particularly in heat waves.This study show a state-of-the-art review this problem, with a special emphasis in the heat wave that Europe suffered in summer of 2003 and how the heat waves has been characterized until now. Lastly, which are the characteristics that should have the preventive measures designed to minimized the effects of heat waves over population ́s health.

  2. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  3. Extracting Hot spots of Topics from Time Stamped Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Chundi, Parvathi

    2011-07-01

    Identifying time periods with a burst of activities related to a topic has been an important problem in analyzing time-stamped documents. In this paper, we propose an approach to extract a hot spot of a given topic in a time-stamped document set. Topics can be basic, containing a simple list of keywords, or complex. Logical relationships such as and, or, and not are used to build complex topics from basic topics. A concept of presence measure of a topic based on fuzzy set theory is introduced to compute the amount of information related to the topic in the document set. Each interval in the time period of the document set is associated with a numeric value which we call the discrepancy score. A high discrepancy score indicates that the documents in the time interval are more focused on the topic than those outside of the time interval. A hot spot of a given topic is defined as a time interval with the highest discrepancy score. We first describe a naive implementation for extracting hot spots. We then construct an algorithm called EHE (Efficient Hot Spot Extraction) using several efficient strategies to improve performance. We also introduce the notion of a topic DAG to facilitate an efficient computation of presence measures of complex topics. The proposed approach is illustrated by several experiments on a subset of the TDT-Pilot Corpus and DBLP conference data set. The experiments show that the proposed EHE algorithm significantly outperforms the naive one, and the extracted hot spots of given topics are meaningful.

  4. Effect of ionol extraction temperature onto its gas chromatographic detection at transformer oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy V. Zaitsev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The gas chromatography used for detecting antioxidizing additive ionol at transformer oil presence helps to ensure reliable operation of oil-filled electrical equipment. Changes in the ionol preliminary extraction temperature do affect the reliability of measurement result. This study aim consisted in investigating the temperature effect on the value of extraction degree and distribution coefficients for ionol in the system “oil — ionol — ethanol” at extraction temperatures 15...75 °C. The experiment included optimization of gas chromatographic ionol in transformer oil detection conditions using method of ionol ethanol extraction and an estimated equation for a single extraction. Found is that the ionol extraction temperature increase in the range of 15...75 °C reduces the values of the ionol distribution coefficients and increases the value of ionol extraction degree and its concentration in the extract reducing the extraction duration, lowering the value of the detection threshold and the total duration of ionol in transformer oil detection. The recommended values for ionol extraction in the temperature range of 15...32 °C at a temperature of extraction 20 °C with precision temperature Δt ≤ ±1 °C, in the range of 32…40 °C, with a temperature of extraction 36 °C and Δt ≤ ±2 °C, in the range of 40...75 °C, with a temperature of extraction 65 °C and Δt ≤ ±5 °C.

  5. Extracting unstable periodic orbits from chaotic time series data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, P.; Schiff, S.; Gluckman, B.J., [Center for Neuroscience, Childrens Research Institute, Childrens National Medical Center and the George Washington University, NW, Washington, D.C. 20010 (United States); So, P.; Ott, E.; Grebogi, C., [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Sauer, T., [Department of Mathematics, The George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030 (United States); Gluckman, B.J., [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Carderock Division, Bethesda, Maryland 20054-5000 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    A general nonlinear method to extract unstable periodic orbits from chaotic time series is proposed. By utilizing the estimated local dynamics along a trajectory, we devise a transformation of the time series data such that the transformed data are concentrated on the periodic orbits. Thus, one can extract unstable periodic orbits from a chaotic time series by simply looking for peaks in a finite grid approximation of the distribution function of the transformed data. Our method is demonstrated using data from both numerical and experimental examples, including neuronal ensemble data from mammalian brain slices. The statistical significance of the results in the presence of noise is assessed using surrogate data. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  6. Fast SIFT design for real-time visual feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Liang-Chi; Chang, Tian-Sheuan; Chen, Jiun-Yen; Chang, Nelson Yen-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Visual feature extraction with scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is widely used for object recognition. However, its real-time implementation suffers from long latency, heavy computation, and high memory storage because of its frame level computation with iterated Gaussian blur operations. Thus, this paper proposes a layer parallel SIFT (LPSIFT) with integral image, and its parallel hardware design with an on-the-fly feature extraction flow for real-time application needs. Compared with the original SIFT algorithm, the proposed approach reduces the computational amount by 90% and memory usage by 95%. The final implementation uses 580-K gate count with 90-nm CMOS technology, and offers 6000 feature points/frame for VGA images at 30 frames/s and ∼ 2000 feature points/frame for 1920 × 1080 images at 30 frames/s at the clock rate of 100 MHz.

  7. SISTEM PENGENDALIAN TEMPERATUR PADA DINDING BIOREAKTOR ANAEROB SECARA REAL TIME

    OpenAIRE

    Ika Nurina Rachmawati; Rony Dwi Noriyati; Totok Soehartanto

    2013-01-01

    Temperatur merupakan salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi proses anaerob pada bioreaktor. Dimana pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dipengaruhi oleh perubahan suhu. Maka dari itu akan dilakukan pengendalian temperatur secara real-time pada dinding tabung bioreaktor anaerob. Pengendalian temperatur berguna untuk menjaga suhu permukaan bioreaktor saat terjadi perubahan cuaca dari luar. Sebab jika temperatur dinding dijaga pada suhu 35 0C maka temperatur dalam tabung bioreaktor akan berada pada range ope...

  8. Inactivation of Mold Spores from Moist Carpet Using Steam Vapor: Contact Time and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Emo, Brett; Lewis, Roger D; Kennedy, Jason; Thummalakunta, Laxmi N A; Elliott, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Steam vapor has been shown to reduce viable mold spores in carpet, but the minimal effective temperature and contact time has not been established. This study evaluated the effectiveness of steam vapor in reducing the number of viable mold spores in carpet as a function of temperature and contact time. Seventy carpet samples were inoculated with a liquid suspension of Cladosporium sphaerospermum and incubated over a water-saturated foam carpet pad for 24 hr. Steam was applied to the samples as the temperature was measured from the carpet backing. Contact time was closely monitored over seven time intervals: 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 sec. Following steam vapor treatment, mold spores were extracted from the carpet samples and the extract was plated on DG-18 plates at 1:1, 1:10, 1:100 dilutions followed by one week of incubation. Raw colony forming units were determined using an automated colony counter and adjusted based on dilution factor, extraction volume, and plated volume. Analysis of variance and linear regression were used to test for statistically significant relationships. Steam contact time exhibited a linear relationship to observed temperature of carpet backing (F = 90.176, R(2) = 0.609). Observed temperature of carpet backing had a positive relationship to percent reduction of mold (F = 76.605, R(2) = 0.569). Twelve seconds of steam vapor contact time was needed to achieve over 90% mold reduction on moist carpet.

  9. Extracting the relevant delays in time series modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril

    1997-01-01

    selection, and more precisely stepwise forward selection. The method is compared to other forward selection schemes, as well as to a nonparametric tests aimed at estimating the embedding dimension of time series. The final application extends these results to the efficient estimation of FIR filters on some......In this contribution, we suggest a convenient way to use generalisation error to extract the relevant delays from a time-varying process, i.e. the delays that lead to the best prediction performance. We design a generalisation-based algorithm that takes its inspiration from traditional variable...

  10. CHARACTERISTICS OF GELATIN FROM SWIM BLADDER OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (THUNNUS ALBACORES AS INFLUENCED BY EXTRACTING TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kaewdang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gelatin was extracted from the swim bladder of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacores at different temperatures (60, 70 and 80°C with the extraction yields of 35.6%, 41.1% and 47.3% (dryweight basis, respectively. The α-chains of gelatin decreased with increasing extraction temperatures.Similar amino acid compositions were noticeable among all gelatins, in which glycine constituted the major amino acid. Imino acids ranged from 169 to 172 residues/1,000 residues. Thegel strength of gelatin extracted at lower temperature was higher than that of gelatins extracted at higher temperatures. Gelling and melting temperatures for swim bladder gelatin were 11.07-15.24 and 20.36-22.33°C, respectively. Higher gelling and melting points were observed for gelatin extracted at lower temperatures. Microstructure of gel of gelatin extracted at 60°C was finerwith smaller voids, compared with others. FTIR spectra of obtained gelatins revealed the significant loss of molecular order of the triple-helix. Thus, extraction temperatures showed the directimpact on characteristics of gelatin from swim bladder.

  11. A window-based time series feature extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu-Öztürk, Deniz; Güvenir, H Altay; Ravens, Ursula; Baykal, Nazife

    2017-08-09

    This study proposes a robust similarity score-based time series feature extraction method that is termed as Window-based Time series Feature ExtraCtion (WTC). Specifically, WTC generates domain-interpretable results and involves significantly low computational complexity thereby rendering itself useful for densely sampled and populated time series datasets. In this study, WTC is applied to a proprietary action potential (AP) time series dataset on human cardiomyocytes and three precordial leads from a publicly available electrocardiogram (ECG) dataset. This is followed by comparing WTC in terms of predictive accuracy and computational complexity with shapelet transform and fast shapelet transform (which constitutes an accelerated variant of the shapelet transform). The results indicate that WTC achieves a slightly higher classification performance with significantly lower execution time when compared to its shapelet-based alternatives. With respect to its interpretable features, WTC has a potential to enable medical experts to explore definitive common trends in novel datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extracting a Smooth Trend from a Time Series: A Modification of Singular Spectrum Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Andrew R.; Patwardhan, Anand

    1996-09-01

    Singular spectrum analysis is commonly used in climatology to extract a trend from a noisy time series. Implicit in this method is the association of trends with high variance. In many cases, it may be more natural to associate trends with smoothness. This paper describes how singular spectrum analysis can be modified to incorporate this idea. The modified approach is illustrated using the annual central England temperature series.

  13. Low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction of phenols from aqueous solutions with hydrophilic mixtures of extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudakov, O. B.; Khorokhordina, E. A.; Preobrazhenskii, M. A.; Rudakova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The volume ratios in acetonitrile-ethyl acetate (90 : 10, 95 : 5), acetonitrile-isopropanol-ethyl acetate (70 : 15 : 15, 80 : 5 : 15), and isopropanol-1-butanol (50 : 50) mixtures were determined. Their mixing with water (1 : 1) and storage at-10°C led to partitioning into two immiscible liquid phases without formation of the ice phase. The mixtures were shown to be useful as hydrophilic extractants in low-temperature liquidliquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions.

  14. Real-time optoacoustic monitoring of temperature in tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larina, Irina V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Larin, Kirill V [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Esenaliev, Rinat O [Center for Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States); Department of Anesthesiology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77555-0456 (United States)

    2005-08-07

    To improve the safety and efficacy of thermal therapy, it is necessary to map tissue temperature in real time with submillimetre spatial resolution. Accurate temperature maps may provide the necessary control of the boundaries of the heated regions and minimize thermal damage to surrounding normal tissues. Current imaging modalities fail to monitor tissue temperature in real time with high resolution and accuracy. We investigated a non-invasive optoacoustic method for accurate, real-time monitoring of tissue temperature during thermotherapy. In this study, we induced temperature gradients in tissue and tissue-like samples and monitored the temperature distribution using the optoacoustic technique. The fundamental harmonic of a Q-switched Nd : YAG laser ({lambda} = 1064 nm) was used for optoacoustic wave generation and probing of tissue temperature. The tissue temperature was also monitored with a multi-sensor temperature probe inserted in the samples. Good agreement between optoacoustically measured and actual tissue temperatures was obtained. The accuracy of temperature monitoring was better than 1{sup 0}C, while the spatial resolution was about 1 mm. These data suggest that the optoacoustic technique has the potential to be used for non-invasive, real-time temperature monitoring during thermotherapy.

  15. The effect of air temperature on the sappan wood extract drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Triyastuti, M. S.; Asiah, N.; Annisa, A. N.; Novita, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The sappan wood extract contain natural colour called brazilin that can be used as a food colouring and antioxidant. The product is commonly found as a dry extract powder for consummer convenience. The spray dryer with air dehumidification can be an option to retain the colour and antioxidant agent. This paper discusses the effect of air temperature on sappan wood extract drying that was mixed with maltodextrin. As responses, the particle size, final moisture content, and extract solubility degradation were observed. In all cases, the process conducted in temperature ranging 90 - 110°C can retain the brazilin quality as seen in solubility and particle size. In addition, the sappan wood extract can be fully dried with moisture content below 2%. Moreover, with the increase of air temperature, the particle size of dry extract can be smaller.

  16. Degradation effects in the extraction of antioxidants from birch bark using water at elevated temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Co, Michelle; Zettersten, Camilla; Nyholm, Leif; Sjöberg, Per J R; Turner, Charlotta

    2012-02-24

    Experiments with birch bark samples have been carried to enable a distinction between extraction and degradation effects during pressurised hot water extraction. Two samples, E80 and E180, contained birch bark extracts obtained after extraction at 80 and 180°C for up to 45 min, respectively. Two other samples, P80 and P180, were only extracted for 5 min at the two temperatures and were thereafter filtered and hydrothermally treated at 80 and 180°C, respectively. During the latter treatment, samples were collected at different times to assess the stability of the extracted compounds. An offline DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, as well as a high performance liquid chromatographic separation coupled to an electrochemical detector, were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the processed samples. The results obtained with the different techniques were compared to assess the yield of the extraction and degradation processes. In addition, an online hyphenated system comprising high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode-array; electrochemical; and tandem mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-DAD-ECD-MS/MS) was used to study the compositions of the extracts in more detail. The results for the samples processed at 80°C showed that the extraction reached a steady-state already after 5 min, and that the extracted compounds were stable throughout the entire extraction process. Processing at 180°C, on the other hand, gave rise to partly degraded extracts with a multitude of peaks in both the diode array and electrochemical detectors, and a higher antioxidant capacity compared to for the extracts obtained at 80°C. It is concluded that HPLC-DAD-ECD is a more appropriate technique for the determination of antioxidants than the DPPH assay. The mass spectrometric results indicate that one of the extracted antioxidants, catechin, was isomerised to its diastereoisomers; (+)-catechin, (-)-catechin, (+)-epicatechin, and (-)-epicatechin.

  17. Extraction of temperature dependent electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity from silicon microwires self-heated to melting temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Gokhan; Adnane, Lhacene; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena

    2012-09-01

    Temperature-dependent electrical resistivity, ρ(T), and thermal conductivity, k(T), of nanocrystalline silicon microwires self-heated to melt are extracted by matching simulated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics to experimental I-V characteristics. Electrical resistivity is extracted from highly doped p-type wires on silicon dioxide in which the heat losses are predominantly to the substrate and the self-heating depends mainly on ρ(T) of the wires. The extracted ρ(T) decreases from 11.8 mΩ cm at room-temperature to 5.2 mΩ cm at 1690 K, in reasonable agreement with the values measured up to ˜650 K. Electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity are extracted from suspended highly doped n-type silicon wires in which the heat losses are predominantly through the wires. In this case, measured ρ(T) (decreasing from 20.5 mΩ cm at room temperature to 12 mΩ cm at 620 K) is used to extract ρ(T) at higher temperatures (decreasing to 1 mΩ cm at 1690 K) and k(T) (decreasing from 30 W m-1 K-1 at room temperature to 20 W m-1 K-1 at 1690 K). The method is tested by using the extracted parameters to model wires with different dimensions. The experimental and simulated I-V curves for these wires show good agreement up to high voltage and temperature levels. This technique allows extraction of the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity up to very high temperatures from self-heated microstructures.

  18. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Copyright @ 200 by the American College of Sports Medicine. Unauthorized reproduction of this article is prohibited.9 Influence of Sensor Ingestion ... Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 597–602, 2009. Purpose: The validity and the...reliability of using intestinal temperature (Tint) via ingestible temperature sensors (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However

  19. Antioxidant activity and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction temperature influences the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC of medicinal plant extracts to a great extend. TPC and TFC are the principle activity constituents present in the plant. The effects of extraction temperature on TPC, TFC and free radical-scavenging capacity of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts are worth to study. Materials and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric assay were used to determine the TPC and TFC of Gynura divaricata leaf extracts at different temperatures. The antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activity were measured by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS and phosphomolybdenum methods. Results: TPC and TFC were significantly elevated with increasing extraction temperature (from 40°C to 100°C. However, TPC and TFC were not significantly different (P > 0.05 at the extraction temperatures 90°C and 100°C. Also, the extracts obtained at a higher temperature exhibited a significant free radical-scavenging activity compared with extraction at lower temperatures (P < 0.05. The TPCs (13.95-36.68 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry material were highly correlated with DPPH (R2 = 0.9229, ABTS (R2 = 0.9951 free radical-scavenging capacity, and total antioxidant activity (R2 = 0.9872 evaluated by phosphomolybdenum method. Conclusion: The TPC and TFC of G. divaricata leaf was significantly influenced by the extraction temperatures, which were the main antioxidant constituents present in the G. divaricata plant.

  20. SISTEM PENGENDALIAN TEMPERATUR PADA DINDING BIOREAKTOR ANAEROB SECARA REAL TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Nurina Rachmawati

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Temperatur merupakan salah satu faktor yang mempengaruhi proses anaerob pada bioreaktor. Dimana pertumbuhan mikroorganisme dipengaruhi oleh perubahan suhu. Maka dari itu akan dilakukan pengendalian temperatur secara real-time pada dinding tabung bioreaktor anaerob. Pengendalian temperatur berguna untuk menjaga suhu permukaan bioreaktor saat terjadi perubahan cuaca dari luar. Sebab jika temperatur dinding dijaga pada suhu 35 0C maka temperatur dalam tabung bioreaktor akan berada pada range operasionalnya. Sistem pengendalian temperatur pada dinding bioreaktor berupa elemen pemanas atau heater yang diletakkan pada dinding bioreaktor. Pengukuran temperatur dilakukan pada 3 posisi yaitu temperatur luar, temperature dinding dan temperatur dalam tabung bioreaktor. Pengujian sistem pengendalian dilakukan dengan memberi gangguan pada dinding bioreaktor berupa aliran air dingin pada dinding bioreaktor ketika kondisi telah stabil dengan mengamati pHnya. Pemberian gangguan dilakukan selama beberapa saat hingga terjadi penurunan temperatur di dalam tabung bioreaktor. Dengan turunnya temperatur maka kontroler akan bekerja untuk mencapai temperatur yang diinginkan sesuai dengan setpoint yang diberikan. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa sistem pengendalian temperatur berhasil menjaga suhu dinding bioreaktor anaerob pada suhu 35 0C dari temperatur 25 0C dalam waktu 1900 detik.

  1. Whiskers de fibra de sisal obtidos sob diferentes condições de hidrólise ácida: efeito do tempo e da temperatura de extração Whiskers from sisal fibers obtained under different acid hydrolysis conditions: effect of time and temperature of extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelcilene B. R. Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    bleached fiber was submitted to the process of hydrolysis with sulphuric acid solution 60 wt. (% under three different conditions of temperature and time of extraction: 45 °C and 60 minutes (WS45_60; 45 °C and 75 minutes (WS45_75 and 60 °C and 30 minutes (WS60_30. The whiskers were characterized as the morphology by transmission electron microscopy (MET, crystallinity (DRX, surface charge (zeta potential, sulfur content (by elemental analysis and thermal stability by thermogravimetry (TGA. The sisal whiskers presented an average length and diameter of 210 nm and 5 nm, respectively. Due to the high agglomeration state of whiskers, differences on dimensional features could not be determined. The results showed a strong dependence on crystallinity of whiskers with temperature and time of extraction. Hydrolysis in higher temperature (60 °C and lower extraction time (30 minutes resulted in whiskers with good thermal stability (235 °C, higher crystallinity and preserving the crystalline structure of cellulose.

  2. Method of gentle extraction and subsequent concentration at low temperature of natural compounds in the extract from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2007-01-01

    membranes for polar solvents and pervaporation membranes for unpolar solutes, where solutes with a low vapour pressure are retained, while components with higher vapour pressures permeate the membrane including water and most other solvents. The operation is performed at relatively low temperature enabling......A unit performing a simple and effective way to extract active phytochemicals from the plant specimens has been developed. The unit is mobile enabling operation near the place of collection of plant specimens reducing waste of potential valuable phytochemicals. The design is based on counter...... current liquid extraction following a pretreatment, where the plant material is harvested and macerated to an extent increasing the extraction of relevant components. The pretreated plant material is fed to an inclined conveyor, counter currently with the extracting solution. The technology, known...

  3. Effect of the temperature on the spray drying of Roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Palomares, Salvador; Estarrón-Espinosa, Mirna; Gómez-Leyva, Juan Florencio; Andrade-González, Isaac

    2009-03-01

    The effect of the drying temperature on the volatile components and sensory acceptance of the Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) extract in powder was investigated. The Roselle extraction was carried out by maceration with 7 L of 30% ethanol (v/v), 560 g of fresh Roselle calyces for 168 h. The Roselle extracts were spray dried at different temperatures 150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 200 and 210 degrees C, giving different outlet values about yield and final moisture. The volatile compounds in Roselle extract and dried samples were performed using needles of solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS HP-5890). Twenty volatile compounds were identified in the extracts among them terpenoids, esters, hydrocarbons and aldehydes. Fourteen volatile compounds were identified in the powder sample, but only ten were present in the Roselle extract. This indicates that some compounds were lost and some others were generated due to a degradation process. An acceptability sensory analysis showed that the best powder sample was the Roselle extract dehydrated using temperature between 190 degrees C and 200 degrees C (pspray drying temperature of the Roselle extracts has an effect on the volatile compounds losses.

  4. Time-dependent extraction kinetics of infused components of different Indian black tea types using UV spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asir Gani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Time-dependent aqueous extraction of six tea types was carried out with leaf–water–ratio of 0.5 g/100 ml, temperature of extraction 90°C and time of extraction ranging from 1 to 10 min. UV–vis spectroscopic analysis in the range varying from 220 to 900 nm of the aqueous tea extracts showed a prominent peak at 273 nm in the ultraviolet region which can be associated with n → π* electronic transition of caffeine molecules. Parabolic diffusion, Power law, hyperbolic, Weibull’s and Elovich’s models were fitted to represent the aqueous soluble component extraction behaviour for time-dependent extraction of aqueous extractables. Parabolic diffusion model, Power law and Elovich’s model were a close fit to the experimental data for all the selected tea types with correlation coefficients (R2 ranging 0.8029–0.9953, whereas hyperbolic and Weibull’s models showed poor fitness to represent the extraction behaviour of fanning and AO leaf, LD, fanning and dust, respectively, with R2 < 0.8, for time-dependent aqueous soluble component extraction.

  5. Dynamic time warping for temperature compensation in structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Alexander; Harley, Joel B.

    2017-02-01

    Guided wave structural health monitoring uses ultrasonic waves to identify changes in structures. To identify these changes, most guided wave methods require a pristine baseline measurement with which other measurements are compared. Damage signatures arise when there is a deviation between the baseline and the recorded measurement. However, temperature significantly complicates this analysis by creating misalignment between the baseline and measurements. This leads to false alarms of damage and significantly reduces the reliability of these systems. Several methods have been created to account for these temperature perturbations. Yet, most of these compensation methods fail in harsh, highly variable temperature conditions or require a prohibitive amount of prior data. In this paper, we use an algorithm known as dynamic time warping to compensate for temperature in these harsh conditions. We demonstrate that dynamic time warping is able to account for temperature variations whereas the more traditional baseline signal stretch method is unable to resolve damage under high temperature fluctuations.

  6. Temperature Distribution and Heat Saturating Time of Regenerative Heat Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li JIA; Ying MAO; Lixin YANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, heat transfer of the ceramic honeycomb regenerator was numerically simulated based on the computational fluid dynamics numerical analysis software CFX5. The longitudinal temperature distribution of regenerator and gas were obtained. The variation of temperature with time was discussed. In addition, the effects of some parameters such as switching time, gas temperature at the inlet of regenerator, height of regenerator and specific heat of the regenerative materials on heat saturating time were discussed. It provided primarily theoretic basis for further study of regenerative heat transfer mechanism.

  7. Highly efficient extraction of phenolic compounds by use of magnetic room temperature ionic liquids for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning; Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; de Rooy, Sergio L; Warner, Isiah M

    2011-09-15

    A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl(3) · 6H(2)O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substituents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (D(Ph)) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D(3,5-DCP)) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] exhibited significantly higher extraction efficiency under the same experimental conditions used in this work. Pentachlorophenol, a major component in the contaminated soil sample obtained from a superfund site, was successfully extracted and removed by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] with high extraction efficiency. Pentachlorophenol concentration was dramatically reduced from 7.8 μg mL(-1) to 0.2 μg mL(-1) after the magnetic extraction by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)].

  8. Effect of temperature on aging and time-temperature superposition in nonergodic laponite suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Varun; Joshi, Yogesh M.

    We have studied the effect of temperature on aging dynamics of laponite suspensions by carrying out the rheological oscillatory and creep experiments. We observed that at higher temperatures the mechanism responsible for aging became faster thereby shifting the evolution of elastic modulus to lower ages. Significantly, in the creep experiments, all the aging time and the temperature dependent strain data superposed to form a master curve. Possibility of such superposition suggests that the rheological behavior depends on the temperature and the aging time only through the relaxation processes and both the variables do not affect the distribution but only the average value of relaxation times. In addition, this procedure allows us to predict long time rheological behavior by carrying out short time tests at high temperatures and small ages.

  9. Temperature and curing time affect composite sorption and solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Luscino Alves de Castro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated the effect of temperature and curing time on composite sorption and solubility. Material and Methods: Seventy five specimens (8×2 mm were prepared using a commercial composite resin (ICE, SDI. Three temperatures (10°C, 25°C and 60°C and five curing times (5 s, 10 s, 20 s, 40 s and 60 s were evaluated. The specimens were weighed on an analytical balance three times: A: before storage (M1; B: 7 days after storage (M2; C: 7 days after storage plus 1 day of drying (M3. The storage solution consisted of 75% alcohol/25% water. Sorption and solubility were calculated using these three weights and specimen dimensions. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U Tests (α=5%. Results: The results showed that time, temperature and their interaction influenced the sorption and solubility of the composite (p0.05. The 60°C composite temperature led to lower values of sorption for all curing times when compared with the 10°C temperature (p0.05. Solubility was similar at 40 s and 60 s for all temperatures (p>0.05, but was higher at 10°C than at 60°C for all curing times (p0.05. Conclusions: In conclusion, higher temperatures or longer curing times led to lower sorption and solubility values for the composite tested; however, this trend was only significant in specific combinations of temperature and curing times.

  10. Extracting oil from used auto tires at low temperature after chemical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandah, Munther; Al-Otoom, Awni; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Al-Zoubi, Raed M; Al-Harahsheh, Adnan

    2017-03-01

    This study presents an alternative tactic to pyrolysis of auto tires avoiding the use of high temperature and increasing the yield of oil produced. It depends on a simple chemical treatment of auto tires with sodium carbonate at low temperature (50°C) followed by solvent extraction. This treatment produced two folds of the yield that can be obtained using normal solvent extraction. The experimental results suggests that sodium carbonate is responsible for breakage of CS bond in the main structure of auto tires making solvent extraction easier. Additionally, the sulphur content of the extracted oil using the sodium carbonate treatment is reduced significantly (by about 28%) making the product more favorable energy/fuel source. This technique allows about 30wt.% of oil to be extracted from the used auto tires at 50°C under atmospheric pressure resulted from the breakage of the sulphur cross-linking by the sodium carbonate.

  11. A model for quantification of temperature profiles via germination times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipper, Christian Bressen; Adolf, Verena Isabelle; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2013-01-01

    Current methodology to quantify temperature characteristics in germination of seeds is predominantly based on analysis of the time to reach a given germination fraction, that is, the quantiles in the distribution of the germination time of a seed. In practice interpolation between observed...... time and a specific type of accelerated failure time models is provided. As a consequence the observed number of germinated seeds at given monitoring times may be analysed directly by a grouped time-to-event model from which characteristics of the temperature profile may be identified and estimated...... germination fractions at given monitoring times is used to obtain the time to reach a given germination fraction. As a consequence the obtained value will be highly dependent on the actual monitoring scheme used in the experiment. In this paper a link between currently used quantile models for the germination...

  12. Reduced quenching and extraction time for mammalian cells using filtration and syringe extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Bort, Juan A; Shanmukam, Vinoth; Pabst, Martin; Windwarder, Markus; Neumann, Laura; Alchalabi, Ali; Krebiehl, Guido; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan; Sonntag, Denise; Altmann, Friedrich; Heel, Christine; Borth, Nicole

    2014-07-20

    In order to preserve the in vivo metabolite levels of cells, a quenching protocol must be quickly executed to avoid degradation of labile metabolites either chemically or biologically. In the case of mammalian cell cultures cultivated in complex media, a wash step previous to quenching is necessary to avoid contamination of the cell pellet with extracellular metabolites, which could distort the real intracellular concentration of metabolites. This is typically achieved either by one or multiple centrifugation/wash steps which delay the time until quenching (even harsh centrifugation requires several minutes for processing until the cells are quenched) or filtration. In this article, we describe and evaluate a two-step optimized protocol based on fast filtration by use of a vacuum pump for quenching and subsequent extraction of intracellular metabolites from CHO (Chinese hamster ovary) suspension cells, which uses commercially available components. The method allows transfer of washed cells into liquid nitrogen within 10-15s of sampling and recovers the entire extraction solution volume. It also has the advantage to remove residual filter filaments in the final sample, thus preventing damage to separation columns during subsequent MS analysis. Relative to other methods currently used in the literature, the resulting energy charge of intracellular adenosine nucleotides was increased to 0.94 compared to 0.90 with cold PBS quenching or 0.82 with cold methanol/AMBIC quenching.

  13. Temperature Effect and Correction Method of White Rabbit Timing Link

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongming; Pan, Weibin; Du, Qiang; Li, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee the angular resolution, the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO) requires a 500ps (rms) timing synchronization among the 6866 detect units for its KM2A sub-detector array. The White Rabbit technology is applied which combines sub-nanosecond precision timing transfer and gigabit Ethernet data transfer over the same fiber media. Deployed on a wild field at 4300m a.s.l. altitude, the WR network must maintain the precision over a wide temperature range. The temperature effect on a small WR link is measured, and contributions from different components like optical fiber, SFP module, fixed delay on PCB and ICs are separately studied and analyzed. An online real-time temperature correction method was applied based on the result which significantly reduce the synchronization variation from 300 ps to 50 ps in a temperature range of 50 degrees centigrade.

  14. Physical properties evaluation of roselle extract-egg white mixture under various drying temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triyastuti, M. S.; Kumoro, A. C.; Djaeni, M.

    2017-03-01

    Roselle contains anthocyanin that is potential for food colorant. Occasionally, roselle extract is provided in dry powder prepared under high temperature. In this case, the anthocyanin color degrades due to the intervention of heat. The foammat drying with egg white is a potential method to speed up the drying process as well as minimize color degradation. This research aims to study the physical properties of roselle extract under foam mat drying. As indicators, the powder size and color intensity were observed. The result showed that at high temperatures, roselle powder under foam mat drying has the fine size with porous structure. However, at the higher the drying temperature the color retention decreased.

  15. Chemical relaxation times in a hadron gas at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Goity, J L

    1993-01-01

    The relaxation times of particle numbers in hot hadronic matter with vanishing baryon number are estimated using the ideal gas approximation and taking into account resonance decays and annihilation processes as the only sources of particle number fluctuations. Near the QCD critical temperature the longest relaxation times turn out to be of the order of 10 fm and grow roughly exponentially to become of the order of $10^{3}$ fm at temperatures around 100 MeV. As a consequence of such long relaxation times, a clear departure from chemical equilibrium must be observed in the momentum distribution of secondary particles produced in high energy nuclear collisions.

  16. Time-resolved, local temperature measurements during pulsed laser heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappes, Ralf S; Li Chen; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Gutmann, Jochen S, E-mail: kappes@mpip-mainz.mpg.d [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, D-55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    To analyse processes during laser heating, one needs to be able to measure temperatures of about 1000 K within one microsecond and with micrometre resolution. To achieve this accuracy, we set up a high-performance optical detection system with a microsecond gated camera in combination with selected interference filters to detect the thermal emission spectrum in the visible range. By fitting the emission spectrum to Planck's law, we are able to collect an area temperature profile for time intervals as short as one microsecond. Thus we can show that a polymer film, which is doped with an organic dye for energy conversion, can reach temperatures of at least 900 K, which is high above its 'normal' decomposition temperature. It is, furthermore, possible to relate the temperature to the effect of the laser beam on the polymer film.

  17. Multiaxial Temperature- and Time-Dependent Failure Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, David; McLennan, Michael; Anderson, Gregory; Macon, David; Batista-Rodriquez, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    A temperature- and time-dependent mathematical model predicts the conditions for failure of a material subjected to multiaxial stress. The model was initially applied to a filled epoxy below its glass-transition temperature, and is expected to be applicable to other materials, at least below their glass-transition temperatures. The model is justified simply by the fact that it closely approximates the experimentally observed failure behavior of this material: The multiaxiality of the model has been confirmed (see figure) and the model has been shown to be applicable at temperatures from -20 to 115 F (-29 to 46 C) and to predict tensile failures of constant-load and constant-load-rate specimens with failure times ranging from minutes to months..

  18. Corrected Hawking Temperature in Snyder's Quantized Space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ren

    2015-06-01

    In the quantized space-time of Snyder, generalized uncertainty relation and commutativity are both included. In this paper we analyze the possible form for the corrected Hawking temperature and derive it from the both effects. It is shown that the corrected Hawking temperature has a form similar to the one of noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole, however with an requirement for the noncommutative parameter 𝜃 and the minimal length a.

  19. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Sangwook

    This dissertation summarizes my study of time- and temperature-dependent behavior of a tubular lap bonded joint to provide a design methodology for windmill blade structures. The bonded joint is between a cast-iron rod and a GFRP composite pipe. The adhesive material is an epoxy containing chopped glass fibers. We proposed a new fabrication method to make concentric and void-less specimens of the tubular joint with a thick adhesive bondline to stimulate the root bond of a blade. The thick bondline facilitates the joint assembly of actual blades. For a better understanding of the behavior of the bonded joint, we studied viscoelastic behavior of the adhesive materials by measuring creep compliance at several temperatures during loading period. We observed that the creep compliance depends highly on the period of loading and the temperature. We applied time-temperature equivalence to the creep compliance of the adhesive material to obtain time-temperature shift factors. We also performed constant-rate of monotonically increased uniaxial tensile tests to measure static strength of the tubular lap joint at several temperatures and different strain-rates. We observed two failure modes from load-deflection curves and failed specimens. One is the brittle mode, which was caused by weakness of the interfacial strength occurring at low temperature and short period of loading. The other is the ductile mode, which was caused by weakness of the adhesive material at high temperature and long period of loading. Transition from the brittle to the ductile mode appeared as the temperature or the loading period increased. We also performed tests under uniaxial tensile-tensile cyclic loadings to measure fatigue strength of the bonded joint at several temperatures, frequencies and stress ratios. The fatigue data are analyzed statistically by applying the residual strength degradation model to calculate statistical distribution of the fatigue life. Combining the time-temperature

  20. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particle extracts: influence of driving cycle and environmental temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C R; Dutcher, J S; Brooks, A L; McClellan, R O; Marshall, W F; Naman, T M

    1982-01-01

    General Motors and Volkswagen diesel passenger cars (1980 and 1981 model year) were operated on a climate controlled chassis dynomometer and the particulate portion of the exhaust was collected on high volume filters. Dichloromethane extracts of the exhaust particles (soot) collected while the cars were operated under simulated highway, urban and congested urban driving cycles were assayed for mutagenicity in Salmonella strains TA-98 and TA-100. Driving pattern did not significantly influence the mutagenic potency of the exhaust particle extracts or estimates of the amount of mutagenicity emitted from the exhaust despite large differences in particle emission rates and extractable fraction of the particles. Mutagenicity of extracts of exhaust particles collected while the vehicles were operated at test chamber temperatures of 25, 50, 75 and 100 degrees F were also very similar. The results suggest that driving pattern and environmental temperature do not significantly alter the emission of genotoxic combustion products from the exhaust.

  1. Real-time temperature field measurement based on acoustic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yong; Jia, Jiabin; Polydorides, Nick

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic tomography can be used to measure the temperature field from the time-of-flight (TOF). In order to capture real-time temperature field changes and accurately yield quantitative temperature images, two improvements to the conventional acoustic tomography system are studied: simultaneous acoustic transmission and TOF collection along multiple ray paths, and an offline iteration reconstruction algorithm. During system operation, all the acoustic transceivers send modulated and filtered wideband Kasami sequences simultaneously to facilitate fast and accurate TOF measurements using cross-correlation detection. For image reconstruction, the iteration process is separated and executed offline beforehand to shorten computation time for online temperature field reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed methods are validated in the simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the processing time per frame from 160 ms to 20 ms, while the reconstruction error remains less than 5%. Hence, the proposed method has great potential in the measurement of rapid temperature change with good temporal and spatial resolution.

  2. Extracting the temperature distribution on a phase-change memory cell during crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakan, Gokhan; Gerislioglu, Burak; Dirisaglik, Faruk; Jurado, Zoila; Sullivan, Lindsay; Dana, Aykutlu; Lam, Chung; Gokirmak, Ali; Silva, Helena

    2016-10-01

    Phase-change memory (PCM) devices are enabled by amorphization- and crystallization-induced changes in the devices' electrical resistances. Amorphization is achieved by melting and quenching the active volume using short duration electrical pulses (˜ns). The crystallization (set) pulse duration, however, is much longer and depends on the cell temperature reached during the pulse. Hence, the temperature-dependent crystallization process of the phase-change materials at the device level has to be well characterized to achieve fast PCM operations. A main challenge is determining the cell temperature during crystallization. Here, we report extraction of the temperature distribution on a lateral PCM cell during a set pulse using measured voltage-current characteristics and thermal modelling. The effect of the thermal properties of materials on the extracted cell temperature is also studied, and a better cell design is proposed for more accurate temperature extraction. The demonstrated study provides promising results for characterization of the temperature-dependent crystallization process within a cell.

  3. Multi-Stage Control of Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Slags Based on Time Temperature Transformation Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi Sun

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a significant method and a basic idea of waste heat recovery from high temperature slags based on Time Temperature Transformation (TTT curves. Three samples with a fixed CaO/SiO2 ratio of 1.05 and different levels of Al2O3 were designed and isothermal experiments were performed using a Single Hot Thermocouple Technique (SHTT. The TTT curves established through SHTT experiments described well the variation of slag properties during isothermal processes. In this study, we propose a multi-stage control method for waste heat recovery from high temperature slags, in which the whole temperature range from 1500 °C to 25 °C was divided into three regions, i.e., Liquid region, Crystallization region and Solid region, based on the TTT curves. Accordingly, we put forward an industrial prototype plant for the purpose of waste heat recovery and the potential of waste heat recovery was then calculated. The multi-stage control method provided not only a significant prototype, but also a basic idea to simultaneously extract high quality waste heat and obtain glassy phases on high temperature slags, which may fill the gap between slag properties and practical waste heat recovery processes.

  4. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  5. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper in "The Physics Teacher (TPT)", DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of…

  6. Time- and temperature-dependent failures of a bonded joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihn, Sangwook; Miyano, Yasushi; Tsai, S.W. [Stanford Univ., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Time and temperature dependent properties of a tubular lap bonded joint are reported. The joint bonds a cast iron rod and a composite pipe together with an epoxy type of an adhesive material containing chopped glass fiber. A new fabrication method is proposed.

  7. Increasing Temperature, Not Mean Temperature, Is a Cue for Avian Timing of Reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaper, Sonja V.; Dawson, Alistair; Sharp, Peter J.; Gienapp, Phillip; Caro, Samuel P.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2012-01-01

    Timing of reproduction in temperate-zone birds is strongly correlated with spring temperature, with an earlier onset of breeding in warmer years. Females adjust their timing of egg laying between years to be synchronized with local food sources and thereby optimize reproductive output. However, clim

  8. Extracting Time-Resolved Information from Time-Integrated Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Grifoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS data are characterized by a strong dependence on the acquisition time after the onset of the laser plasma. However, time-resolved broadband spectrometers are expensive and often not suitable for being used in portable LIBS instruments. In this paper we will show how the analysis of a series of LIBS spectra, taken at different delays after the laser pulse, allows the recovery of time-resolved spectral information. The comparison of such spectra is presented for the analysis of an aluminium alloy. The plasma parameters (electron temperature and number density are evaluated, starting from the time-integrated and time-resolved spectra, respectively. The results are compared and discussed.

  9. Effectivity of Betel Leaf (Piper betle L. Gel Extract in Shortening Bleeding Time After Deciduous Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tedjasulaksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As an Indonesian traditional medicine, betel leafis often used to stop nosebleed. Effective substances in betel leaves which serves to stop the bleeding is tannin. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the betel leaf ethanol extract gel shortened bleeding time after the revocation of deciduous teeth. Method: This research was conducted at the Department of Dental Nursing Clinic, Health Polytechnic Denpasar.This study is pure experimental research design with Completely Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design. The total sample of 27 respondents were divided into a treatment group and two control groups. Anterior deciduous teeth on the physiological loose grade 3 or 4 is extracted, then the tooth socket is put pure gel for group 1 to group 2, epinephrine gel and gel ethanol extract of betel leaf for group 3. The bleeding time is calculated from the first moment the blood out until there is blood on filter paper that is placed on the tooth socket. Data were statistically analyzed with descriptive test and comparability test with One Way Anova. Result: The results showed bleeding time pure gel groups differ significantly with epinephrine group and the group of ethanol extract of betel leaf gel (p< 0.05. Bleeding time of epinephrine group did not differ significantly with betel leaf ethanol extract group (p>0.05. Conclusion: This means ethanol gel betel leaf extract can shorten bleeding after deciduous tooth extraction and it is suggested that the use of gel ethanol extract of betel leaves to cope with bleeding after tooth extraction.

  10. Rectal temperature-based death time estimation in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igari, Yui; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Funayama, Masato

    2016-03-01

    In determining the time of death in infants based on rectal temperature, the same methods used in adults are generally used. However, whether the methods for adults are suitable for infants is unclear. In this study, we examined the following 3 methods in 20 infant death cases: computer simulation of rectal temperature based on the infinite cylinder model (Ohno's method), computer-based double exponential approximation based on Marshall and Hoare's double exponential model with Henssge's parameter determination (Henssge's method), and computer-based collinear approximation based on extrapolation of the rectal temperature curve (collinear approximation). The interval between the last time the infant was seen alive and the time that he/she was found dead was defined as the death time interval and compared with the estimated time of death. In Ohno's method, 7 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80 min. The results of both Henssge's method and collinear approximation were apparently inferior to the results of Ohno's method. The corrective factor was set within the range of 0.7-1.3 in Henssge's method, and a modified program was newly developed to make it possible to change the corrective factors. Modification A, in which the upper limit of the corrective factor range was set as the maximum value in each body weight, produced the best results: 8 cases were within the death time interval, and the average deviation in the other 12 cases was approximately 80min. There was a possibility that the influence of thermal isolation on the actual infants was stronger than that previously shown by Henssge. We conclude that Ohno's method and Modification A are useful for death time estimation in infants. However, it is important to accept the estimated time of death with certain latitude considering other circumstances.

  11. Temperature versus time curves for manual and automated soldering processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent, M.A.

    1978-08-01

    Temperature-versus-time curves were recorded for various electronic components during pre-tinning, hand soldering, and drag soldering operations to determine the temperature ranges encountered. The component types investigated included a wide range of electronic assemblies. The data collected has been arranged by process and will help engineers to: (1) predetermine the thermal profile to which various components are subjected during the soldering operation; (2) decide--on the basis of component heat sensitivity and the need for thermal relief--where hand soldering would be more feasible than drag soldering; and (3) determine the optimum drag solder control parameters.

  12. Spatial patterns in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. H. Holmes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structural difference in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle (DTC over land resulting from choice of measuring device or model framework. It is shown that the timing can be reliably estimated from temporally sparse observations acquired from a constellation of low Earth orbiting satellites given record lengths of at least three months. Based on a year of data, the spatial patterns of mean DTC timing are compared between Ka-band temperature estimates, geostationary thermal infrared (TIR temperature estimates and numerical weather prediction model output from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO. It is found that the spatial patterns can be explained by vegetation effects, sensing depth differences and more speculatively the orientation of orographic relief features. In absolute terms, the GMAO model puts the peak of the DTC on average at 12:50 local solar time, 23 min before TIR with a peak temperature at 13:13. Since TIR is the shallowest observation of the land surface, this small difference represents a structural error that possibly affects the models ability to assimilate observations that are closely tied to the DTC. For non-desert areas, the Ka-band observations have only a small delay of about 15 min with the TIR observations which is in agreement with their respective theoretical sensing depth. The results of this comparison provide insights into the structural differences between temperature measurements and models, and can be used as a first step to account for these differences in a coherent way.

  13. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C...

  14. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SILVER AND PALLADIUM NANOPARTICLES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE USING COFFEE AND TEA EXTRACT

    Science.gov (United States)

    An extremely simple green approach that generates bulk quantities of nanocrystals of noble metals such as silver (Ag) and palladium (Pd) using coffee and tea extract at room temperature is described. The single-pot method uses no surfactant, capping agent, and/or template. The ob...

  15. Effects of Temperature on Time Dependent Rheological Characteristics of Koumiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdal Sabancı

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The rheological properties of koumiss were investigated at different temperatures (4, 10, and 20°C. Experimental shear stress–shear rate data were fitted to different rheological models. The consistency of koumiss was predicted by using the power-law model since it described the consistency of koumiss best with highest regression coefficient and lowest errors (root mean square error and chi-square. Koumiss exhibited shear thinning behavior (n<1. The flow activation energy for temperature dependency of consistency was 25.532 kJ/mol, and the frequency constant was 2.18×10-7Pa.sn. As the temperature increased the time dependent thixotropic characteristics of koumiss decreased.

  16. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Xie, Anjian; Yu, Xuerong; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Yang, Liangbao; Li, Chuanhao

    2007-10-01

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium (α-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO32-) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO32- ions to Se0, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se0, and even participates in the formation of α-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the α-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO32- ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  17. Actinide ion extraction using room temperature ionic liquids: opportunities and challenges for nuclear fuel cycle applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-02-14

    Studies on the extraction of actinide ions from radioactive feeds have great relevance in nuclear fuel cycle activities, mainly in the back end processes focused on reprocessing and waste management. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based diluents are becoming increasingly popular due to factors such as more efficient extraction vis-à-vis molecular diluents, higher metal loading, higher radiation resistance, etc. The fascinating chemistry of the actinide ions in RTIL based solvent systems due to complex extraction mechanisms makes it a challenging area of research. By the suitable tuning of the cationic and anionic parts of the ionic liquids, their physical properties such as density, dielectric constant and viscosity can be changed which are considered key parameters in metal ion extraction. Aqueous solubility of the RTILs, which can lead to significant loss in the solvent inventory, can be avoided by appending the extractant moieties onto the ionic liquid. While the low vapour pressure and non-flammability of the ionic liquids make them appear as 'green' diluents, their aqueous solubility raises concerns of environmental hazards. The present article gives a summary of studies carried out on actinide ion extraction and presents perspectives of its applications in the nuclear fuel cycle. The article discusses various extractants used for actinide ion extraction and at many places, comparison is made vis-à-vis molecular diluents which includes the nature of the extracted species and the mechanism of extraction. Results of studies on rare earth elements are also included in view of their similarities with the trivalent minor actinides.

  18. Spatial patterns in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. H. Holmes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structural difference in timing of the diurnal temperature cycle (DTC over land resulting from choice of measuring device or model framework. It is shown that the timing can be reliably estimated from temporally sparse observations acquired from a constellation of low Earth-orbiting satellites given record lengths of at least three months. Based on a year of data, the spatial patterns of mean DTC timing are compared between temperature estimates from microwave Ka-band, geostationary thermal infrared (TIR, and numerical weather prediction model output from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO. It is found that the spatial patterns can be explained by vegetation effects, sensing depth differences and more speculatively the orientation of orographic relief features. In absolute terms, the GMAO model puts the peak of the DTC on average at 12:50 local solar time, 23 min before TIR with a peak temperature at 13:13 (both averaged over Africa and Europe. Since TIR is the shallowest observation of the land surface, this small difference represents a structural error that possibly affects the model's ability to assimilate observations that are closely tied to the DTC. The equivalent average timing for Ka-band is 13:44, which is influenced by the effect of increased sensing depth in desert areas. For non-desert areas, the Ka-band observations lag the TIR observations by only 15 min, which is in agreement with their respective theoretical sensing depth. The results of this comparison provide insights into the structural differences between temperature measurements and models, and can be used as a first step to account for these differences in a coherent way.

  19. Extraction of static parameters to extend the EKV model to cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Germano S.; de Sá, Leonardo B.; Mesquita, Antonio C.

    2016-05-01

    The electric simulation models of CMOS devices provided by the foundries are valid at the standard temperature range of -55 to 125°C. These models are not suitable to the design of circuits intended to operate at cryogenic temperatures as is the case of cooled infrared readout circuits. To generate a library of CMOS electric simulation models valid at cryogenic temperatures, the characterization of wide and long CMOS transistors are investigated. The EKV2.6 model, which is an industry-standard compact simulation model for CMOS transistors, is used in this characterization. Due to its relatively small number of parameters the EKV2.6 model is well suited to the parameter extraction procedures when not disposing of an expensive automated parameter extraction system. It is shown that to provide an appropriate IV-characteristic fit to cryogenic temperature range it is sufficient to extract only five parameters - threshold voltage VT0, body effect GAMMA, Fermi potential PHI, transconductance factor KP, and the vertical characteristic field for mobility reduction E0. The proposed approach is tested in a standard 0.35μm/3.3V CMOS technology, employing extraction procedures recommended in the literature. Simulations are made with a BSIM3V3 standard library provided by the foundry changing the temperature parameter and with the generated library. The results are compared with the measurements. As expected, the simulations made with the generated library show a best agreement with the performed measurements at 77K than the simulations with the BSIM3V3 model. The proposed methodology is shown to be particularly effective above strong freeze-out temperature.

  20. Analyses of Inhomogeneities in Radiosonde Temperature and Humidity Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Panmao; Eskridge, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    Twice daily radiosonde data from selected stations in the United States (period 1948 to 1990) and China (period 1958 to 1990) were sorted into time series. These stations have one sounding taken in darkness and the other in sunlight. The analysis shows that the 0000 and 1200 UTC time series are highly correlated. Therefore, the Easterling and Peterson technique was tested on the 0000 and 1200 time series to detect inhomogeneities and to estimate the size of the biases. Discontinuities were detected using the difference series created from the 0000 and 1200 UTC time series. To establish that the detected bias was significant, a t test was performed to confirm that the change occurs in the daytime series but not in the nighttime series.Both U.S. and Chinese radiosonde temperature and humidity data include inhomogeneities caused by changes in radiosonde sensors and observation times. The U.S. humidity data have inhomogeneities that were caused by instrument changes and the censoring of data. The practice of reporting relative humidity as 19% when it is lower than 20% or the temperature is below 40°C is called censoring. This combination of procedural and instrument changes makes the detection of biases and adjustment of the data very difficult. In the Chinese temperatures, them are inhomogeneities related to a change in the radiation correction procedure.Test results demonstrate that a modified Easterling and Peterson method is suitable for use in detecting and adjusting time series radiosonde data.Accurate stations histories are very desirable. Stations histories can confirm that detected inhomogeneities are related to instrument or procedural changes. Adjustments can then he made to the data with some confidence.

  1. Persistence and Time Trends in the Temperatures in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Gil-Alana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of the temperatures in several locations in Spain during the last 50 years. We focus on the degree of persistence of the series, measured through a fractional differencing parameter. This is crucial to properly estimate the parameters of the time trend coefficients in order to determine the degree of warming in the area. The results indicate that all series are fractionally integrated with orders of integration ranging between 0 and 0.5. Moreover, the time trend coefficients are all positive though they are statistically insignificant, which is in contrast with the results based on nonfractional integration.

  2. Temperature and Time of Steeping Affect the Antioxidant Properties of White, Green, and Black Tea Infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiaghaalipour, Fatemeh; Sanusi, Junedah; Kanthimathi, M S

    2016-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis) is the most highly consumed beverage in the world next to water. The common way of preparation is steeping in hot water which is varying for different type of tea. We investigated the antioxidant properties of 6 type of tea leaves under different time and temperatures of extraction method used. In general, all samples tested in this study demonstrated high levels of antioxidant capacity and antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the antioxidants activity is significantly affected by time and temperature of steeping and the highest was depending on the variety. White state values, green and black teas showed different levels of antioxidants under different extraction conditions. Overall, the highest activity for white tea was in prolonged hot and in some assays prolonged hot and cold extracts, whereas for green tea the highest activity observed in prolonged cold steeping while, for black tea was in short hot water infusion. The results of this study showed the antioxidant capacity of white and green tea was greater than black tea.

  3. Shear failure characterization of time-temperature sensitive interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Francesco; Ferrotti, Gilda; Graziani, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Poor interlayer bonding can lead to early failures and thus to a reduction in service life of bituminous pavements. For this reason, it is important to identify the parameters influencing the interlayer shear failure and to characterize their effect by means of laboratory test. In particular, this study is focussed on the effects of test temperature and deformation rate on the interlayer shear strength (ISS) of double-layered asphalt concrete specimens. First, the ISS was measured at temperatures ranging from 0 °C to 30 °C and deformation rates ranging from 0.5 mm/min to 9 mm/min using the Ancona Shear Testing Research and Analysis (ASTRA) device. Then the experimental data were analyzed using a two-stage statistical modelling approach. In the first stage, the variation of ISS versus deformation rate, at each testing temperature, was modelled using both a power-law and a logarithmic function. In the investigated range of deformation rate, the models allowed to estimate the mean ISS with residual standard error varying from 0.062 MPa to 0.128 MPa. Moreover, the linear regression coefficients, which measure the influence of the deformation rate on ISS, changed with temperature. In the second stage, both temperature and deformation rate were used as joint predictors of ISS by using an approach based on the superposition of their effects. Results showed that the time-temperature superposition approach is applicable and a sigmoid-shaped master curve for ISS was obtained. The proposed approach was validated by using ISS measurements obtained on the same materials with different test devices.

  4. High temperature garnet growth in New England: regional temperature-time trends revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, N.; Ostwald, C.; Chu, X.; Baxter, E. F.; Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2013-12-01

    A series of localized ultrahigh-temperature (UHT)/high-temperature (HT) granulite facies regions have been identified within the regional amphibolite facies metamorphic zone of the Central Maine Terrane stretching from north-central New Hampshire, through central Massachusetts, and into northeastern Connecticut. Here, we aim to constrain the age and peak temperature of metamorphism at three localities within this region: Bristol, NH, Phillipston, MA and Willington, CT. Garnet-forming reactions are linked directly to peak metamorphic temperatures through thermodynamic modeling and/or Zr-in-rutile thermometry. Precise garnet geochronology allows us to identify the timing of these peak temperatures, as well as the duration of garnet growth. Geochronologic and thermodynamic work was done on 12 samples collected throughout a ~5 km2 metamorphic 'hotspot' previously identified in Bristol, NH (Chamberlain and Rumble, 1988; Journal of Petrology). The highest temperature assemblage within this hotspot is characterized by the presence of garnet + sillimanite + K-feldspar + cordierite and reached temperatures >820οC. The lowest temperature periphery of the hotspot is characterized by sillimanite + muscovite + K-feldspar + minor garnet and reached a maximum temperature of 650οC. Bulk garnet ages from samples within the hotspot range significantly from at least 400.0 × 2.5 Ma to 352.7 × 1.8 Ma with the youngest ages associated with the lower temperature samples. This collection of ages indicates a prolonged period (~50 Ma) of >650οC temperatures interspersed by period(s) of garnet growth. Zoned garnet geochronology will help reveal whether garnet growth and related heating was continuous or episodic. Further south, in Phillipston, MA, zoned garnet geochronology performed on a 2.5 cm diameter garnet porphyroblast indicates garnet growth spanning 389 - 363 Ma, reaching peak temperatures at the end of that time span of 920-940οC, followed by a younger event recorded in

  5. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, N. Narayana; Ravindra, S.; Reddy, N. Madhava; Rajinikanth, V.; Raju, K. Mohana; Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu

    2015-11-01

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies.

  6. The Influence of Heating Time and Temperature on the Properties of CIGSSe Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Giacomo Flammini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonencapsulated CIGSSe solar cells, with a silver grid, were exposed to different temperatures for various periods in order to measure the effect of the heat exposure in CIGSSe modules. The heat treatment time and temperature were varied during the experiments, which were executed at atmospheric conditions. In all the cases, after reaching a temperature of about 300°C, the IV measurement showed a reduction of 2-3% in terms of VOC and JSC. This is confirmed, respectively, by Raman and EQE measurements as well. The efficiency drop was −7%, −29%, and −48%, respectively, for 30 seconds, 300 seconds, and 600 seconds of exposure time. With temperatures larger than 225°C, the series resistance starts to increase exponentially and a secondary barrier becomes visible in the IV curve. This barrier prevents the extraction of electrons and consequently reducing the solar cells efficiency. Lock-in thermography demonstrated the formation of shunts on the mechanical scribes only for 300 and 600 seconds exposure times. The shunt resistance reduction is in the range of 5% for all time periods.

  7. Effect of extraction time on antioxidants and bioactive volatile components of green tea (Camellia sinensis, using GC/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two green tea types, leaf grade and sanding, were extracted at different time intervals: 20, 40, and 120 min at a constant temperature of 50°C. The extracts were analyzed by GC/MS technique. The major compounds identified were myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, 1H-purine-2,6-dione, caffeine, linoleic acid, diethyl ester, and 1H-purine-6-amine. Stearic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid, and myristic acid were more abundantly present in the leaf-grade variety than sanding. However, some levels of acetic acid, cyclobutanol, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, and caffeine were also found in both the tea types. Most of the volatile compounds were detected between 20–40-min time of extraction. The 40-min time of extraction also showed the maximum content of polyphenols and antioxidants in both the tea types. Thus, 40 min was suggested as the most suitable time for maximum extraction of bioactive volatiles, antioxidants, and polyphenols from green tea.

  8. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Huang, S. L.; Wang, S.; Zhao, W.

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  9. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N. Narayana, E-mail: nagireddynarayana@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Healthcare, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia@CRIB, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ravindra, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Reddy, N. Madhava [Department of Environmental Science, Gates Institute of Technology, NH-7, Gooty, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rajinikanth, V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Raju, K. Mohana [Synthetic Polymer Laboratory, Department of Polymer Science & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies. - Highlights: • We have developed temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites. • Addition of AMPS monomer to this magnetic hydrogel enhances the temperature sensitivity to 40–43 °C. • Similarly the sulfonic groups present in the AMPS units enhances the swelling ratio of magnetic hydrogels. • AMPS acts as good stabilizing agent for nanoparticles in the magnetic nanogel.

  10. Antioxidant activities of orange peel extract in ghee (butter oil) stored at different storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, A; Manjunatha, M; Rekha, R M; Surendranath, B; Heartwin, P; Rao, J; Magdaline, E; Sinha, Chitranayak

    2015-12-01

    Antioxidant activities of butylatedhydroxyanisole (BHA) and orange peel powder extract in ghee stored at different storage temperatures (T1:6 ± 2 °C; T2: 32 ± 2 °C; T3:60 ± 2 °C) were evaluated during storage period of 21 days. Peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), radical scavenging activity (RSA) and free fatty acids (FFA) of ghee samples were analyzed during the study. PV, TBA and FFA of ghee samples increased significantly while radical scavenging activity (RSA) of ghee samples decreased significantly at accelerated temperature (T3) as compared to the temperatures at T1 and T2. Effect of storage temperature on development of peroxides and TBA of ghee samples was significantly higher than the effect of treatment and storage period while treatment had more significant effect on the change in FFA and RSA as compared to storage temperature and storage period. Ghee incorporated with orange peel extract (OPE) showed stronger activity in quenching DPPH radicals and least development of PV, TBA and FFA than ghee incorporated with BHA and control. The study revealed that orange peel could be a good natural source of antioxidants which can be used in fat rich food products like ghee to retard oxidative deterioration.

  11. Organic Materials for Time-Temperature Integrator Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Massimiliano; Melucci, Manuela

    2015-08-12

    Time-temperature integrators (TTIs) are devices capable of recording the thermal history of a system. They have an enormous impact in the food and pharmaceutical industries. TTIs exploit several irreversible thermally activated transitions such as recrystallization, dewetting, smoothening, chemical decomposition, and polymorphic transitions, usually considered drawbacks for many technological applications. The aim of this article is to sensitize research groups working in organic synthesis and surface science toward TTI devices, enlarging the prospects of many new materials. We reviewed the principal applications highlighting the need and criticisms of TTIs, which offer a new opportunity for the development of many materials.

  12. Taste and Temperature in Swallowing Transit Time after Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Cola

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is common in individuals after stroke. Taste and temperature are used in dysphagia rehabilitation. The influence of stimuli, such as taste and temperature, on swallowing biomechanics has been investigated in both healthy individuals and in individuals with neurological disease. However, some questions still remain unanswered, such as how the sequence of offered stimuli influences the pharyngeal response. The goal of the present study was to determine the influence of the sequence of stimuli, sour taste and cold temperature, on pharyngeal transit time during deglutition in individuals after stroke. Methods: The study included 60 individuals with unilateral ischemic stroke, 29 males and 31 females, aged 41–88 years (mean age: 66.2 years examined 0–50 days after ictus (median: 6 days, with mild to moderate oropharyngeal dysphagia. Exclusion criteria were hemorrhagic stroke patients, patients with decreased level of consciousness, and clinically unstable patients, as confirmed by medical evaluation. The individuals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. Group 1 received a nonrandomized sequence of stimuli (i.e. natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold and group 2 received a randomized sequence of stimuli. A videofluoroscopic swallowing study was performed to analyze the pharyngeal transit time. Four different stimuli (natural, cold, sour, and sour-cold were offered. The images were digitalized and specific software was used to measure the pharyngeal transit time. Since the values did not present regular distribution and uniform variances, nonparametric tests were performed. Results: Individuals in group 1 presented a significantly shorter pharyngeal transit time with the sour-cold stimulus than with the other stimuli. Individuals in group 2 did not show a significant difference in pharyngeal transit time between stimuli. Conclusions: The results showed that the sequence of offered stimuli influences

  13. The room temperature preservation of filtered environmental DNA samples and assimilation into a phenol–chloroform–isoamyl alcohol DNA extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Mark A; Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; McVeigh, Margaret M; Lodge, David M

    2015-01-01

    Current research targeting filtered macrobial environmental DNA (eDNA) often relies upon cold ambient temperatures at various stages, including the transport of water samples from the field to the laboratory and the storage of water and/or filtered samples in the laboratory. This poses practical limitations for field collections in locations where refrigeration and frozen storage is difficult or where samples must be transported long distances for further processing and screening. This study demonstrates the successful preservation of eDNA at room temperature (20 °C) in two lysis buffers, CTAB and Longmire's, over a 2-week period of time. Moreover, the preserved eDNA samples were seamlessly integrated into a phenol–chloroform–isoamyl alcohol (PCI) DNA extraction protocol. The successful application of the eDNA extraction to multiple filter membrane types suggests the methods evaluated here may be broadly applied in future eDNA research. Our results also suggest that for many kinds of studies recently reported on macrobial eDNA, detection probabilities could have been increased, and at a lower cost, by utilizing the Longmire's preservation buffer with a PCI DNA extraction. PMID:24834966

  14. The room temperature preservation of filtered environmental DNA samples and assimilation into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Mark A; Olds, Brett P; Jerde, Christopher L; McVeigh, Margaret M; Lodge, David M

    2015-01-01

    Current research targeting filtered macrobial environmental DNA (eDNA) often relies upon cold ambient temperatures at various stages, including the transport of water samples from the field to the laboratory and the storage of water and/or filtered samples in the laboratory. This poses practical limitations for field collections in locations where refrigeration and frozen storage is difficult or where samples must be transported long distances for further processing and screening. This study demonstrates the successful preservation of eDNA at room temperature (20 °C) in two lysis buffers, CTAB and Longmire's, over a 2-week period of time. Moreover, the preserved eDNA samples were seamlessly integrated into a phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (PCI) DNA extraction protocol. The successful application of the eDNA extraction to multiple filter membrane types suggests the methods evaluated here may be broadly applied in future eDNA research. Our results also suggest that for many kinds of studies recently reported on macrobial eDNA, detection probabilities could have been increased, and at a lower cost, by utilizing the Longmire's preservation buffer with a PCI DNA extraction. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. TIME-TEMPERATURE-TRANSFORMATION (TTT) DIAGRAMS FOR FUTURE WASTE COMPOSITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, A.; Edwards, T.

    2010-07-08

    As a part of the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) for Vitrified High-Level Waste Forms defined by the Department of Energy - Office of Environmental Management, the waste form stability must be determined for each of the projected high-level waste (HLW) types at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, WAPS 1.4.1 requires the glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) to be defined and time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagrams to be developed. The T{sub g} of a glass is an indicator of the approximate temperature where the supercooled liquid converts to a solid on cooling or conversely, where the solid begins to behave as a viscoelastic solid on heating. A TTT diagram identifies the crystalline phases that can form as a function of time and temperature for a given waste type or more specifically, the borosilicate glass waste form. In order to assess durability, the Product Consistency Test (PCT) was used and the durability results compared to the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass. The measurement of glass transition temperature and the development of TTT diagrams have already been performed for the seven Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) projected compositions as defined in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and in SRNL-STI-2009-00025. Additional phase transformation information exists for other projected compositions, but overall these compositions did not cover composition regions estimated for future waste processing. To develop TTT diagrams for future waste types, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated two caches of glass from reagent grade oxides to simulate glass compositions which would be likely processed with and without Al dissolution. These were used for glass transition temperature measurement and TTT diagram development. The glass transition temperatures of both glasses were measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and were recorded to be 448 C and 452 C. Using the previous TTT diagrams as

  16. Effect of blanching temperature and dipping time on drying time of broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, Ibrahim

    2014-03-01

    Drying characteristics of broccoli was experimentally studied in cabinet-type convective dryer. Experiments were conducted using constant air velocity of 2 m/s and air temperature of 60 . Drying rate increased with increasing blanching temperature and thus reduced the drying time. The experimental drying data were used to fit twelve drying models and drying rate constants and coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis. Estimations by the Midilli et al. model were in good agreement with the experimental data obtained. Fick's second law was used to calculate the effective moisture diffusivity, which varied from 1.987 to 3.577 × 10(-8) m(2)/s for the given blanching temperature range. The rehydration ratio was observed to increase with increasing blanching temperature.

  17. A long time low drift integrator with temperature control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Donglai; Yan, Xiaolan; Zhang, Enchao; Pan, Shimin

    2016-10-01

    The output of an operational amplifier always contains signals that could not have been predicted, even with knowledge of the input and an accurately determined closed-loop transfer function. These signals lead to integrator zero-drift over time. A new type of integrator system with a long-term low-drift characteristic has therefore been designed. The integrator system is composed of a temperature control module and an integrator module. The aluminum printed circuit board of the integrator is glued to a thermoelectric cooler to maintain the electronic components at a stable temperature. The integration drift is automatically compensated using an analog-to-digital converter/proportional integration/digital-to-analog converter control circuit. Performance testing in a standard magnet shows that the proposed integrator, which has an integration time constant of 10 ms, has a low integration drift (<5 mV) over 1000 s after repeated measurements. The integrator can be used for magnetic flux measurements in most tokamaks and in the wire rope nondestructive test.

  18. Extracting superconducting parameters from surface resistivity by using inside temperatures of SRF cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Ge, M; Padamsee, H; Shemelin, V

    2014-01-01

    The surface resistance of an RF superconductor depends on the surface temperature, the residual resistance and various superconductor parameters, e.g. the energy gap, and the electron mean free path. These parameters can be determined by measuring the quality factor Q0 of a SRF cavity in helium-baths of different temperatures. The surface resistance can be computed from Q0 for any cavity geometry, but it is not trivial to determine the temperature of the surface when only the temperature of the helium bath is known. Traditionally, it was approximated that the surface temperature on the inner surface of the cavity was the same as the temperature of the helium bath. This is a good approximation at small RF-fields on the surface, but to determine the field dependence of Rs, one cannot be restricted to small field losses. Here we show the following: (1) How computer simulations can be used to determine the inside temperature Tin so that Rs(Tin) can then be used to extract the superconducting parameters. The compu...

  19. Extracting Chaos Control Parameters from Time Series Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, R B B [Centro Universitario da FEI, Avenida Humberto de Alencar Castelo Branco 3972, 09850-901, Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Graves, J C, E-mail: rsantos@fei.edu.br [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Praca Marechal Eduardo Gomes 50, 12228-900, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2011-03-01

    We present a simple method to analyze time series, and estimate the parameters needed to control chaos in dynamical systems. Application of the method to a system described by the logistic map is also shown. Analyzing only two 100-point time series, we achieved results within 2% of the analytical ones. With these estimates, we show that OGY control method successfully stabilized a period-1 unstable periodic orbit embedded in the chaotic attractor.

  20. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Huang, S L; Wang, S; Zhao, W

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of wave detection signals.

  1. Constant pressure and temperature discrete-time Langevin molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Farago, Oded

    2014-11-21

    We present a new and improved method for simultaneous control of temperature and pressure in molecular dynamics simulations with periodic boundary conditions. The thermostat-barostat equations are built on our previously developed stochastic thermostat, which has been shown to provide correct statistical configurational sampling for any time step that yields stable trajectories. Here, we extend the method and develop a set of discrete-time equations of motion for both particle dynamics and system volume in order to seek pressure control that is insensitive to the choice of the numerical time step. The resulting method is simple, practical, and efficient. The method is demonstrated through direct numerical simulations of two characteristic model systems-a one-dimensional particle chain for which exact statistical results can be obtained and used as benchmarks, and a three-dimensional system of Lennard-Jones interacting particles simulated in both solid and liquid phases. The results, which are compared against the method of Kolb and Dünweg [J. Chem. Phys. 111, 4453 (1999)], show that the new method behaves according to the objective, namely that acquired statistical averages and fluctuations of configurational measures are accurate and robust against the chosen time step applied to the simulation.

  2. Extracting information masked by the chaotic signal of a time-delay system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarenko, V I; Prokhorov, M D

    2002-08-01

    We further develop the method proposed by Bezruchko et al. [Phys. Rev. E 64, 056216 (2001)] for the estimation of the parameters of time-delay systems from time series. Using this method we demonstrate a possibility of message extraction for a communication system with nonlinear mixing of information signal and chaotic signal of the time-delay system. The message extraction procedure is illustrated using both numerical and experimental data and different kinds of information signals.

  3. Solvent-extractable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar: influence of pyrolysis temperature and feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiluweit, Marco; Kleber, Markus; Sparrow, Margaret A; Simoneit, Bernd R T; Prahl, Fredrick G

    2012-09-01

    Despite the increasing agricultural use of biochar as a way of combining the utilization of biomass for energy production with the removal of CO(2) from the atmosphere, it is not known how variations in pyrolysis temperature and feedstock type affect concentration and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that inevitably form and associate with biochar. To close this knowledge gap, we quantified 11 unsubstituted three- to five-ring PAHs as well as alkylated forms of phenanthrene and anthracene in grass and wood chars produced in 100 °C increments across a temperature range (100 to 700 °C). Our results show that solvent-extractable PAH concentrations in biochars produced at heat treatment temperatures (HTTs) of 400 and 500 °C greatly exceed those observed at higher and lower temperature, supporting a low HTT solid-phase formation mechanism operable at temperatures commonly used for industrial biochar production. The maximum extractable yield of 'pyrolytic' unsubstituted PAHs for grass (22 μg g(-1) at HTT = 500 °C) greatly exceeds the value for wood (5.9 μg g(-1)). Moreover, PAH signatures (e.g., total monomethylphenanthrene to phenanthrene ratios, MP/P ~2-3) at intermediate temperatures (400 °C) resemble those of fossil oils rather than that commonly attributed to pyrolytic products. Further research is needed to characterize the PAH evolution in modern pyrolysis reactors and assess the fate of biochar-bound PAHs in soils and sediments. Various commonly applied PAH ratios and indicator compounds show promise as markers for specific feedstock materials and pyrolysis conditions of biochars in environmental systems.

  4. The importance of set up time and temperature in real-time PCR; an essential reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Hayley; MacLean, Alasdair; Gunson, Rory

    2017-05-01

    Non-specific amplification can arise in real-time PCR when temperatures are above 4°C during PCR set up. Pressure of high throughput tests, particularly in a clinical setting, can lead to short cuts being taken during PCR set up. This study set out to evaluate the outcome of exposing a real-time PCR assay to increasing durations of room temperature prior to PCR amplification. A real-time PCR assay was exposed to increasing durations of room temperature prior to PCR amplification. We found that reactions left at room temperature for 30min or more produced non-specific traces in the negative controls which could be mistaken for weak positive traces. In addition we found that the fluorescence of positive control traces was significantly reduced indicating reduced reaction efficiency, however the Ct valves were comparable between all reactions highlighting that control Ct monitoring alone would not have detected this issue. This study acts as a reminder for PCR users to set up reactions on ice/chill blocks prior to PCR amplification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Multi-dimensional sparse time series: feature extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Franciosi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We show an analysis of multi-dimensional time series via entropy and statistical linguistic techniques. We define three markers encoding the behavior of the series, after it has been translated into a multi-dimensional symbolic sequence. The leading component and the trend of the series with respect to a mobile window analysis result from the entropy analysis and label the dynamical evolution of the series. The diversification formalizes the differentiation in the use of recurrent patterns, from a Zipf law point of view. These markers are the starting point of further analysis such as classification or clustering of large database of multi-dimensional time series, prediction of future behavior and attribution of new data. We also present an application to economic data. We deal with measurements of money investments of some business companies in advertising market for different media sources.

  6. Extracting molecular Hamiltonian structure from time-dependent fluorescence intensity data

    OpenAIRE

    Brif, Constantin; Rabitz, Herschel

    2000-01-01

    We propose a formalism for extracting molecular Hamiltonian structure from inversion of time-dependent fluorescence intensity data. The proposed method requires a minimum of \\emph{a priori} knowledge about the system and allows for extracting a complete set of information about the Hamiltonian for a pair of molecular electronic surfaces.

  7. Influence of time characteristics of beam extraction on coherent Bremsstrahlung spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, R.O.; Avetisyan, A.E.; Sarkisyan, R.T.; Simonyan, K.A.; Taroyan, S.P.; Zapol' skii, N.A.

    1985-09-01

    This paper describes a new method of increasing the degree of polarization chromaticity of the coherent Bremsstrahlung spectra. The authors consider the time characteristics of electron-beam extraction from the Erevan synchrotron. By adjusting the extraction regime, the Bresstrahlung beam parameters can be controlled. Practical applications of the new method are discussed.

  8. Binary solvent extraction system and extraction time effects on phenolic antioxidants from kenaf seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) extracted by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yu Hua; Lau, Hwee Wen; Tan, Chin Ping; Long, Kamariah; Nyam, Kar Lin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE) were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, β -carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract) and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract), which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  9. Binary Solvent Extraction System and Extraction Time Effects on Phenolic Antioxidants from Kenaf Seeds (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Extracted by a Pulsed Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hua Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the best parameter for extracting phenolic-enriched kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. seeds by a pulsed ultrasonic-assisted extraction. The antioxidant activities of ultrasonic-assisted kenaf seed extracts (KSE were determined by a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging capacity assay, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radical scavenging assay, β-carotene bleaching inhibition assay, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Total phenolic content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC evaluations were carried out to determine the phenolic and flavonoid contents in KSE. The KSE from the best extraction parameter was then subjected to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify the phenolic compounds. The optimised extraction condition employed 80% ethanol for 15 min, with the highest values determined for the DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assay. KSE contained mainly tannic acid (2302.20 mg/100 g extract and sinapic acid (1198.22 mg/100 g extract, which can be used as alternative antioxidants in the food industry.

  10. "Deflategate": Time, Temperature, and Moisture Effects on Football Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jack; Beljak, Lauren; Macatangay, Dahlia-Marie; Helmuth-Malone, Lilly; McWilliams, Catharina; Raptis, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    In a recent paper in TPT, DiLisi and Rarick used the National Football League "Deflategate" controversy to introduce to physics students the physics of a bouncing ball. In this paper, we measure and analyze the environmental effects of time, ambient temperature, and moisture on the internal pressure of an NFL football. We focus on the rate of pressure recovery that occurs when a cold football (either wet or dry) is returned to the warm locker room environment where the pressure was initially measured. Both studies stem from the so-called NFL "Deflategate" controversy in which footballs that initially met a minimum internal pressure requirement were rechecked at halftime of the AFC Championship game, and in some cases were reported to have fallen below the minimum pressure requirement. The question is whether the pressure changes were due to environmental exposure or rather to some air being released from the balls, or both.

  11. Effect of temperature on the anthocyanin extraction and color evolution during controlled dehydration of Tempranillo grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ana; Perez-Serratosa, Maria; Varo, M Angeles; Merida, Julieta

    2014-08-06

    In this paper, the influence of temperature during the controlled dehydration of Tempranillo red grapes has been studied. Two experiments at fixed temperatures of 30 and 40 °C, and a third experiment alternating temperatures of 40 and 15 °C every 12 h were carried out. The must from grapes dried at 40 °C presented the reddest color, and the highest anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant activity. A possible hypothesis could be that the high temperature induced a continuous water evaporation from the grapes, preventing the oxygen entry. At the same time, the dehydration resulted in broken skins, which facilitated the transfer of colored compounds to the pulp, increasing the red color of the musts. However, when the temperature dropped, oxygen could penetrate through the skin and the browning reactions started. As a result, the must obtained from gra pes dehydrated by alternating high and low temperatures presented the least anthocyanin content and the least red color.

  12. Rapid, room-temperature synthesis of amorphous selenium/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Shikuo; Shen Yuhua; Xie Anjian; Yu Xuerong; Zhang Xiuzhen; Yang Liangbao; Li Chuanhao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2007-10-10

    We describe the formation of amorphous selenium ({alpha}-Se)/protein composites using Capsicum annuum L extract to reduce selenium ions (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) at room temperature. The reaction occurs rapidly and the process is simple and easy to handle. A protein with a molecular weight of 30 kDa extracted from Capsicum annuum L not only reduces the SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions to Se{sup 0}, but also controls the nucleation and growth of Se{sup 0}, and even participates in the formation of {alpha}-Se/protein composites. The size and shell thickness of the {alpha}-Se/protein composites increases with high Capsicum annuum L extract concentration, and decreases with low reaction solution pH. The results suggest that this eco-friendly, biogenic synthesis strategy could be widely used for preparing inorganic/organic biocomposites. In addition, we also discuss the possible mechanism of the reduction of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions by Capsicum annuum L extract.

  13. Real-time hypothesis driven feature extraction on parallel processing architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granmo, O.-C.; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2002-01-01

    Feature extraction in content-based indexing of media streams is often computational intensive. Typically, a parallel processing architecture is necessary for real-time performance when extracting features brute force. On the other hand, Bayesian network based systems for hypothesis driven feature......, rather than one-by-one. Thereby, the advantages of parallel feature extraction can be combined with the advantages of hypothesis driven feature extraction. The technique is based on a sequential backward feature set search and a correlation based feature set evaluation function. In order to reduce...

  14. Orbital component extraction by time-variant sinusoidal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Zivanovic, Miroslav; De Vleeschouwer, David; Claeys, Philippe; Schoukens, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Accurately deciphering periodic variations in paleoclimate proxy signals is essential for cyclostratigraphy. Classical spectral analysis often relies on methods based on the (Fast) Fourier Transformation. This technique has no unique solution separating variations in amplitude and frequency. This characteristic makes it difficult to correctly interpret a proxy's power spectrum or to accurately evaluate simultaneous changes in amplitude and frequency in evolutionary analyses. Here, we circumvent this drawback by using a polynomial approach to estimate instantaneous amplitude and frequency in orbital components. This approach has been proven useful to characterize audio signals (music and speech), which are non-stationary in nature (Zivanovic and Schoukens, 2010, 2012). Paleoclimate proxy signals and audio signals have in nature similar dynamics; the only difference is the frequency relationship between the different components. A harmonic frequency relationship exists in audio signals, whereas this relation is non-harmonic in paleoclimate signals. However, the latter difference is irrelevant for the problem at hand. Using a sliding window approach, the model captures time variations of an orbital component by modulating a stationary sinusoid centered at its mean frequency, with a single polynomial. Hence, the parameters that determine the model are the mean frequency of the orbital component and the polynomial coefficients. The first parameter depends on geologic interpretation, whereas the latter are estimated by means of linear least-squares. As an output, the model provides the orbital component waveform, either in the depth or time domain. Furthermore, it allows for a unique decomposition of the signal into its instantaneous amplitude and frequency. Frequency modulation patterns can be used to reconstruct changes in accumulation rate, whereas amplitude modulation can be used to reconstruct e.g. eccentricity-modulated precession. The time-variant sinusoidal model

  15. Method of gentle extraction and subsequent concentration at low temperature of natural compounds in the extract from plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norddahl, Birgir; Christensen, Knud Villy

    2007-01-01

    current liquid extraction following a pretreatment, where the plant material is harvested and macerated to an extent increasing the extraction of relevant components. The pretreated plant material is fed to an inclined conveyor, counter currently with the extracting solution. The technology, known...

  16. Accessories after the facts: Constraining the timing, duration and conditions of high-temperature metamorphic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard J. M.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Clark, Chris

    2016-11-01

    High-temperature metamorphic rocks are the result of numerous chemical and physical processes that occur during a potentially long-lived thermal evolution. These rocks chart the sequence of events during an orogenic episode including heating, cooling, exhumation and melt interaction, all of which may be interpreted through the elemental and isotopic characteristics of accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite and rutile. Developments in imaging and in situ chemical analysis have resulted in an increasing amount of information being extracted from these accessory phases. The refractory nature of these minerals, combined with both their use as geochronometers and tracers of metamorphic mineral reactions, has made them the focus of many studies of granulite-facies terrains. In such studies the primary aim is often to determine the timing and conditions of the peak of metamorphism, and high-temperature metasedimentary rocks may seem ideal for this purpose. For example pelites typically contain an abundance of accessory minerals in a variety of bulk compositions, are melt-bearing, and may have endured extreme conditions that facilitate diffusion and chemical equilibrium. However complexities arise due to the heterogeneous nature of these rocks on all scales, driven by both the composition of the protolith and metamorphic differentiation. In additional to lithological heterogeneity, the closure temperatures for both radiogenic isotopes and chemical thermometers vary between different accessory minerals. This apparent complexity can be useful as it permits a wide range of temperature and time (T-t) information to be recovered from a single rock sample. In this review we cover: 1) characteristic internal textures of accessory minerals in high temperature rocks; 2) the interpretation of zircon and monazite age data in relation to high temperature processes; 3) rare earth element partitioning; 4) trace element thermometry; 5) the incorporation of accessory mineral growth

  17. Time dependent intrinsic correlation analysis of temperature and dissolved oxygen time series using empirical mode decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Y X

    2014-01-01

    In the marine environment, many fields have fluctuations over a large range of different spatial and temporal scales. These quantities can be nonlinear \\red{and} non-stationary, and often interact with each other. A good method to study the multiple scale dynamics of such time series, and their correlations, is needed. In this paper an application of an empirical mode decomposition based time dependent intrinsic correlation, \\red{of} two coastal oceanic time series, temperature and dissolved oxygen (saturation percentage) is presented. The two time series are recorded every 20 minutes \\red{for} 7 years, from 2004 to 2011. The application of the Empirical Mode Decomposition on such time series is illustrated, and the power spectra of the time series are estimated using the Hilbert transform (Hilbert spectral analysis). Power-law regimes are found with slopes of 1.33 for dissolved oxygen and 1.68 for temperature at high frequencies (between 1.2 and 12 hours) \\red{with} both close to 1.9 for lower frequencies (t...

  18. Helicopter parameter extraction using joint Time-Frequency and Tomographic Techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cilliers, A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A technique based on time-frequency and tomographic analysis to extract helicopter blade parameters for the purposes of radar non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR) is investigated. The proposed algorithm shows that (under certain conditions...

  19. Creep behavior of bone cement: a method for time extrapolation using time-temperature equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R L; Farrar, D F; Rose, J; Forster, H; Morgan, I

    2003-04-01

    The clinical lifetime of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is considerably longer than the time over which it is convenient to perform creep testing. Consequently, it is desirable to be able to predict the long term creep behavior of bone cement from the results of short term testing. A simple method is described for prediction of long term creep using the principle of time-temperature equivalence in polymers. The use of the method is illustrated using a commercial acrylic bone cement. A creep strain of approximately 0.6% is predicted after 400 days under a constant flexural stress of 2 MPa. The temperature range and stress levels over which it is appropriate to perform testing are described. Finally, the effects of physical aging on the accuracy of the method are discussed and creep data from aged cement are reported.

  20. Extraction Time of Kidneys From Deceased Donors and Impact on Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osband, A J; James, N T; Segev, D L

    2016-02-01

    Cold ischemia time (from flush to out-of-ice) and warm ischemia time (from out-of-ice to reperfusion) are known to impact delayed graft function (DGF) rates and long-term allograft survival following deceased donor kidney transplantation. We propose an additional ischemia time, extraction time, beginning with aortic cross-clamp and perfusion/cooling of the kidneys, and ending with removal of the kidneys and placement on ice on the backtable. During this time the kidneys rewarm, suffering an additional ischemic insult, which may impair transplant function. We measured extraction times of 576 kidneys recovered and transplanted locally between January 2006 and December 2008, then linked to Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR) data for outcomes. Extraction time ranged from 14 to 123 min, with a mean of 44.7 min. In SRTR-adjusted analyses, longer extraction time and DGF were statistically associated (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19 per 5 min beyond 60 min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.39, p = 0.03). Up to 60 min of extraction time, DGF incidence was 27.8%; by 120 min it doubled to nearly 60%. Although not statistically significant (OR = 1.19, 95% CI 0.96-1.49, p = 0.11), primary nonfunction rate also rose dramatically to nearly 20% by 120 min extraction time. Extraction time is a novel and important factor to consider when evaluating a deceased donor kidney offer and when strategizing personnel for kidney recovery.

  1. Time and moisture effects on total and bioavailable copper in soil water extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Hansen, H.C.B.; Nybroe, O.

    2004-01-01

    between total metal content and metal toxicity calls for integrated chemical and biological analysis. The aim of this work was to determine time- and moisture-dependent changes in total water-extractable Cu as well as bioavailable Cu in soil water extracts. Measurements of total water-extractable copper...... to increase with time. The moisture content of the soil was important for Cu retention. Dry soil had higher [Cu](tot) concentrations than humid soil, but the [Cu](bio) to [Cu](tot) ratio was lower in the dry soil. Alternating drying and wetting did not lead to a more rapid Cu retention than observed under...

  2. Low temperature fiber optic pyrometer for fast time resolved temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsch, M.; Bosselmann, T.; Gaenshirt, D.; Kaiser, J.; Villnow, M.; Banda, M.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature Pyrometry at temperatures beyond 150°C is limited in the measurement speed due to slow pyroelectric detectors. To detect the circumferential temperature distribution of fast rotating machines a novel Fiber Optical Pyrometer Type is presented here.

  3. Electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from ash of low-temperature gasification of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature gasification allows the production of energy from biomass with high contents of low melting point compounds, like sewage sludge, and the recycling of the nutrients as P from the resulting ashes as renewable fertiliser. Major drawbacks are, however, the presence of heavy metals...... and the low plant-availability of Al- and Fe- phosphate compounds in the gasification ashes. In the present research, the feasibility of a 2-compartment electrodialytic (ED) setup for P separation from Al, Fe and heavy metals in two different low-temperature gasification ashes was investigated. One ash...... was from gasification of sewage sludge where P was precipitated with Fe and Al salts, from which it was possible to extract up to 26% of the P. The other ash was from co-gasification of a mixture of biologically precipitated sewage sludge and wheat straw pellets. More promising results were obtained...

  4. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectinase enzyme from guava (Psidium guajava) peel: Enzyme recovery, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Islam Sarker, Zaidul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions on the yield, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability of the pectinase enzyme from guava peel. The ultrasound variables studied were sonication time (10-30 min), ultrasound temperature (30-50 °C), pH (2.0-8.0), and solvent-to-sample ratio (2:1 mL/g to 6:1 mL/g). The main goal was to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to maximize the recovery of pectinase from guava peel with the most desirable enzyme-specific activity and stability. Under the optimum conditions, a high yield (96.2%), good specific activity (18.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.3%), and storage stability (90.3%) of the extracted enzyme were achieved. The optimal conditions were 20 min sonication time, 40 °C temperature, at pH 5.0, using a 4:1 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio. The study demonstrated that optimization of ultrasound-assisted process conditions for the enzyme extraction could improve the enzymatic characteristics and yield of the enzyme.

  5. AUTO-EXTRACTING TECHNIQUE OF DYNAMIC CHAOS FEATURES FOR NONLINEAR TIME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of nonlinear time series analysis is based on the rebuilding theory of phase space, and to study how to transform the response signal to rebuilt phase space in order to extract dynamic feature information, and to provide effective approach for nonlinear signal analysis and fault diagnosis of nonlinear dynamic system. Now, it has already formed an important offset of nonlinear science. But, traditional method cannot extract chaos features automatically, and it needs man's participation in the whole process. A new method is put forward, which can implement auto-extracting of chaos features for nonlinear time series. Firstly, to confirm time delay τ by autocorrelation method; Secondly, to compute embedded dimension m and correlation dimension D;Thirdly, to compute the maximum Lyapunov index λmax; Finally, to calculate the chaos degree Dch of features extracting has important meaning to fault diagnosis of nonlinear system based on nonlinear chaos features. Examples show validity of the proposed method.

  6. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Santos, Thiago Rezende Dos; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2015-11-01

    Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce.This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care.The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model.An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates.In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates.

  7. LOSS OF SPACE ACCORDING TO THE TIME AND THE TYPE OF THE PREMATURE EXTRACTED DECIDUOUS TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosveta S. Andreeva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a difference of space loss depending on the time of premature extraction and the type of the prematurely extracted teeth. The aim of the study is to determine the space loss according to the time and the type of the extracted teeth. Material and methods: We studied 90 children 6 to 9 years old with premature loss of one or more primary teeth divided into three groups according to the severity of the orthodontic deformation. We used two biometric methods – the Moyers method and measured the mesial and distal movement of the adjustment teeth by drawing perpendicular lines towards the middle line. Results: The average amount of space lost is 0,033 mm for the first group, 2,2 for the second and 3,16 for the third group. The lack of space when the first primary molars are extracted is 0,37 mm in the upper jaw and is due to medicalization of the second primary molar. In the lower jaw the loss of space is – 1,12mm. The lack of space when the second primary molars are prematurely extracted is 1,2 for the upper and 1,45 for the lower jaw. Conclusion: The time is a significant factor for the loss of space. The reduction of space increases when the premature extraction is done before more than two months and when second primary molars are extracted.

  8. Optimizing Simulation Times of SPS Slow Extraction using MAD-X

    CERN Document Server

    Schicho, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    The simulation time of a \\texttt{MAD-X} script employing particle tracking to model the slow-extraction process of 400 GeV protons from the SPS was studied by batching the code on the CERN computing batch service. The behaviour of the code for large numbers of particles and turns was examined and batching significantly reduced simulations times to $\\mathcal{O}(1000~\\mathrm{s)}$. Convergence studies showed that simulated quantities that are time-averaged across the spill, e.g. the rms extracted beam emittance, can be reliably simulated with more than 400 particles and in a simulation time of less than an hour.

  9. Extracting messages masked by chaotic signals of time-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Lai, C H

    1999-07-01

    We show how to extract messages masked by a chaotic signal of a time-delay system with very high dimensions and many positive Lyapunov exponents. Using a special embedding coordinate, the infinite-dimensional phase space of the time-delay system is projected onto a special three-dimensional space, which enables us to identify the time delay of the system from the transmitted signal and reconstruct the chaotic dynamics to unmask the hidden message successfully. The message extraction procedure is illustrated by simulations with the Mackey-Glass time-delay system for two types of masking schemes and different kinds of messages.

  10. Analysis of ion dynamics and peak shapes for delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, V. M.; Ponciano, C. R.; Fernandez-Lima, F. A.; da Silveira, E. F.

    2004-06-01

    The dependence of time-of-flight (TOF) peak shapes on time-dependent extraction electric fields is studied theoretically. Conditions for time focusing are analyzed both analytically and numerically for double-acceleration-region TOF spectrometers. Expressions for the spectrometer mass resolution and for the critical delay time are deduced. Effects due to a leakage field in the first acceleration region are shown to be relevant under certain conditions. TOF peak shape simulations for the delayed extraction method are performed for emitted ions presenting a Maxwellian initial energy distribution. Calculations are compared to experimental results of Cs+ emission due to CsI laser ablation.

  11. Extracting Date/Time Expressions in Super-Function Based Japanese-English Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasayama, Manabu; Kuroiwa, Shingo; Ren, Fuji

    Super-Function Based Machine Translation(SFBMT) which is a type of Example-Based Machine Translation has a feature which makes it possible to expand the coverage of examples by changing nouns into variables, however, there were problems extracting entire date/time expressions containing parts-of-speech other than nouns, because only nouns/numbers were changed into variables. We describe a method for extracting date/time expressions for SFBMT. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages. In this method, we add a rule to extract date/time expressions and then extract date/time expressions from a Japanese-English bilingual corpus. The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is 96.7%, with a recall of 98.2% and the precision for English sentences is 94.7%, with a recall of 92.7%.

  12. A Fault Feature Extraction Method for Rolling Bearing Based on Pulse Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinbao Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shock pulse method is a widely used technique for condition monitoring of rolling bearing. However, it may cause erroneous diagnosis in the presence of strong background noise or other shock sources. Aiming at overcoming the shortcoming, a pulse adaptive time-frequency transform method is proposed to extract the fault features of the damaged rolling bearing. The method arranges the rolling bearing shock pulses extracted by shock pulse method in the order of time and takes the reciprocal of the time interval between the pulse at any moment and the other pulse as all instantaneous frequency components in the moment. And then it visually displays the changing rule of each instantaneous frequency after plane transformation of the instantaneous frequency components, realizes the time-frequency transform of shock pulse sequence through time-frequency domain amplitude relevancy processing, and highlights the fault feature frequencies by effective instantaneous frequency extraction, so as to extract the fault features of the damaged rolling bearing. The results of simulation and application show that the proposed method can suppress the noises well, highlight the fault feature frequencies, and avoid erroneous diagnosis, so it is an effective fault feature extraction method for the rolling bearing with high time-frequency resolution.

  13. Effects of Different Ultrasound Irradiation Frequencies and Water Temperatures on Extraction Rate of Bitumen from Oil Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, Hirokazu; Saito, Tomonao; Hosokawa, Ryota; Nakamura, Takashi; Kawamura, Youhei; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2010-07-01

    Low (28 kHz) and high (200 kHz) frequency sonication combined with hot water treatments at 45 and 75 °C were investigated to assess the effects of different ultrasound frequencies and water temperatures on the extraction of bitumen from oil sand. A mechanical stirrer was also used to compare the efficiency of separation. Bitumen extraction tests were performed under argon, air, and nitrogen atmospheres. Sonication at 200 kHz was shown to extract bitumen effectively from oil sand at 75 °C. The bitumen extraction rate for sonication at 200 kHz was slightly higher than that at 28 kHz. For low temperature (45 °C) solutions, only sonication at 28 kHz could extract bitumen from oil sand, demonstrating that sonication at 28 kHz can effectively breakdown the oil sand aggregates into a suspension.

  14. Joint multi-mode dispersion extraction in Fourier and space time domains

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Sandip; Valero, Henri-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel broadband approach for the extraction of dispersion curves of multiple time frequency overlapped dispersive modes such as in borehole acoustic data. The new approach works jointly in the Fourier and space time domains and, in contrast to existing space time approaches that mainly work for time frequency separated signals, efficiently handles multiple signals with significant time frequency overlap. The proposed method begins by exploiting the slowness (phase and group) and time location estimates based on frequency-wavenumber (f-k) domain sparsity penalized broadband dispersion extraction method as presented in \\cite{AeronTSP2011}. In this context we first present a Cramer Rao Bound (CRB) analysis for slowness estimation in the (f-k) domain and show that for the f-k domain broadband processing, group slowness estimates have more variance than the phase slowness estimates and time location estimates. In order to improve the group slowness estimates we exploit the time compactne...

  15. Effect of solvent and extraction time on the antioxidant properties of Citrus macroptera

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of solvents and different time intervals on the extractions of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of the pulp of the Citrus macroptera. The pulp of the fruit was extracted for one and two hours separately with four types of solvent namely- methanol, ethanol, acetone and water. Total phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ceucalteu method, while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), 1,1- diphenyl-2-picryl...

  16. Extraction of espresso coffee by using gradient of temperature. Effect on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of espresso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamanca, C Alejandra; Fiol, Núria; González, Carlos; Saez, Marc; Villaescusa, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Espresso extraction is generally carried out at a fixed temperature within the range 85-95°C. In this work the extraction of the espressos was made in a new generation coffee machine that enables temperature profiling of the brewing water. The effect of using gradient of temperature to brew espressos on physicochemical and sensorial characteristics of the beverage has been investigated. Three different extraction temperature profiles were tested: updrawn gradient (88-93°C), downdrawn gradient (93-88°C) and fixed temperature (90°C). The coffee species investigated were Robusta, Arabica natural and Washed Arabica. Results proved that the use of gradient temperature for brewing espressos allows increasing or decreasing the extraction of some chemical compounds from coffee grounds. Moreover an appropriate gradient of temperature can highlight or hide some sensorial attributes. In conclusion, the possibility of programming gradient of temperature in the coffee machines recently introduced in the market opens new expectations in the field of espresso brewing.

  17. A 181 GOPS AKAZE Accelerator Employing Discrete-Time Cellular Neural Networks for Real-Time Feature Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Guangli Jiang; Leibo Liu; Wenping Zhu; Shouyi Yin; Shaojun Wei

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a real-time feature extraction VLSI architecture for high-resolution images based on the accelerated KAZE algorithm. Firstly, a new system architecture is proposed. It increases the system throughput, provides flexibility in image resolution, and offers trade-offs between speed and scaling robustness. The architecture consists of a two-dimensional pipeline array that fully utilizes computational similarities in octaves. Secondly, a substructure (block-serial discrete-time...

  18. Synergistic enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination nickel in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chujie; Xu, Xili; Zhou, Neng; Lin, Yao

    A new method based on enhancement effect of room temperature ionic liquids for cloud point extraction trace amounts of nickel combined with UV-vis spectrophotometric determination was developed. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) were used enhancement reagent and chelating reagent, respectively. The addition of room temperature ionic liquids leads to 3.0 times improvement in the determination of nickel. The nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 was used as the extractant. When the temperature of the system was higher than the cloud point of Triton X-100, Ni-DTC complex was extracted into Triton X-100 and separation of the analyte from the matrix was achieved. Some parameters that influenced cloud point extraction and subsequent determination were evaluated in detail, such as the concentrations of RTILs, DDTC and Triton X-100; pH of sample solution, as well as interferences. Under optimized conditions, an enrichment factor of 72 could be obtained, and the detection limit (LOD) for Ni was 0.5 ng mL-1. Relative standard deviations for five replicate determinations of the standard solution containing 50 ng mL-1 Ni was 3.9%. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of nickel in certified reference materials with satisfactory results.

  19. Chemical study of extracted rockrose and of chars and activated carbons prepared at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor-Villegas, J.; Gomez-Serrano, V.; Duran-Valle, C.J.; Higes-Rolando, F.J. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain)

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses the chemical composition and chemical structure of rockrose (Cistus ladaniferus L.) extracted into petroleum ether and resulting chars as well as activated carbons. The isothermal temperature of carbonization of extracted rockrose (Jex) in N{sub 2} ranged between 600 and 1000C. The char (C{sub Jex}-600) employed in the preparation of activated carbons was prepared by treatment of Jex at 30-600C. This char was heated in N{sub 2} before activation, which was carried out in CO{sub 2} or steam at 700-950C to 40% burn-off. Chemical analyses, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction techniques have been applied. The extraction does not exert a significant influence on the organic chemical structure of raw material. In ash prepared at 600C from Jex (ash content 1.29%), the major elements are Ca, K, Mg and P; calcite is the main component. When this ash is heated at 950C, lime is the main component. The chars and activated carbons contain carbon-carbon double bonds and ether structures; C{sub Jex}-600 also contains carbonyl groups. The ether groups decrease with the temperature increase. The analyses of chars and activated carbons show an ash content close to 6-8%, and calcite as the main component. The presence of whewellite, CaC{sub 2}O{sub 4}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, indicates that the pyrolysis is delayed in the preparation of C{sub Jex}-600, that a partial calcium-carboxylate association occurs, and that hydration takes place during storage period. The mineral matter of the activated carbons prepared at 700C depends on the activating agent: calcite is the only component identified using CO{sub 2}, whereas lime, portlandite and vaterite are also identified using steam. At higher temperatures, the mineral matter is practically independent of the activating agent. Probably, CaO transforms into Ca(OH){sub 2} and CaCO{sub 3} during the char and activated carbon storage periods

  20. Firing technology in practice - temperature, residence time, corrosion; Feuerungstechnik in der Praxis - Temperatur, Verweilzeit, Korrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freimann, P.; Holl, D. [Muellheizkraftwerk Betriebsgesellschaft mbH, Burgkirchen/Alz (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    In a circular dated 1st Sept. 1994, i.e., after the issue of the pertinent planning decision, the Federal Environmental Ministry, BMU, laid down uniform standards on measurements and the parameterisation of the evaluation system for different operation states and loads. Subsequently, TUeV, the German Technical Control Board, prepared the parameterisation curves on the basis of these specifications. The implementation of the BMU paper of 1st Sept. 1994 did not result in any advantage, nor did it lead to a reduction of plant emissions, nor to advantages in the operation of the waste-fuelled cogeneration plant. On the contrary, elevated gas consumption and operating trouble due to frequent feed stops worsened the operating state of the plant. Elevated crude gas temperature in the boiler reduced the lifetime of the two boilers to a critical degree. An operating temperature of 850 C and a residence time of approx. 1 sec. in Burgkirchen waste-fuelled cogeneration plant have not worsened emission values while rendering the plant operable again. [Deutsch] Durch Rundschreiben d. BMU vom 01.09.1994 - also nach Erlass des Planfeststellungsbeschlusses - wurden einheitliche Vorgaben ueber Messungen und Parametrierung des Auswertesystems fuer die verschiedenen Betriebs- bzw. Lastzustaende erlassen. Unter Beruecksichtigung dieser Vorgaben wurden vom TUeV die Parametrierungskurven erstellt. Die Umsetzung des BMU-Papieres vom 01.09.1994 ergab keinerlei Vorteile, weder gab es eine Verringerung der anlagenbedingten Emissionen noch Vorteile fuer den Betrieb des MHKW`s. Im Gegenteil, erhoehte Gasverbraeuche und Betriebsstoerungen durch oftmalige Beschickungsstops verschlechterten den Betriebszustand. Erhoehte Rohgastemperatur im Kessel reduzierten die Lebensdauer der beiden Kessel kritisch. Der Betrieb mit 850 C und mit einer Verweilzeit von ca. 1 sec. fuehrt im MHKW Burgkirchen zu keiner Verschlechterung der Emissionswerte, macht aber die Anlagen wieder betreibbar. (orig./SR)

  1. Effects of Ultrasound Power, Temperature and Flow Rate of Solvent on Decontamination of Sensitive Equipment by Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Andrle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solvent extraction process is regarded amongst other known methods to be applicable for decontamination of sensitive equipment components, especially in cases the components are contaminated in-depth with chemical warfare agents. Viability of the solvent extraction method was evaluated on coupons of butadiene rubber contaminated by sulphur mustard before decontamination by the solvent extraction. The contaminated coupons were extracted in a flow cell, which the solvent (ethoxynonafluorobutane passed through. Three following specific operational factors, namely the temperature, the flow rate, and the power of ultrasound bath, were assessed for the extent of influencing upon the respective observed extraction efficiencies. The paper describes the results of the evaluation of the solvent extraction effectiveness.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 168-172. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.64.3887

  2. Extracting oscillating components from nonstationary time series: A wavelet-induced method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliège, Adrien; Nicolay, Samuel

    2017-09-01

    This paper consists in the description and application of a method called wavelet-induced mode extraction (WIME) in the context of time-frequency analysis. WIME aims to extract the oscillating components that build amplitude modulated-frequency modulated signals. The essence of this technique relies on the successive extractions of the dominant ridges of wavelet-based time-frequency representations of the signal under consideration. Our tests on simulated examples indicate strong decomposition and reconstruction skills, trouble-free handling of crossing trajectories in the time-frequency plane, sharp performances in frequency detection in the case of mode-mixing problems, and a natural tolerance to noise. These results are compared with those obtained with empirical mode decomposition. We also show that WIME still gives meaningful results with real-life data, namely, the Oceanic Niño Index.

  3. Posterior Segment Intraocular Foreign Body: Extraction Surgical Techniques, Timing, and Indications for Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante A. Guevara-Villarreal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon.

  4. Note: Fully integrated 3.2 Gbps quantum random number generator with real-time extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Guang; Nie, You-Qi; Zhou, Hongyi; Liang, Hao; Ma, Xiongfeng; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-07-01

    We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra-high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.

  5. The case of the missing mechanism: how does temperature influence seasonal timing in endotherms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P Caro

    Full Text Available Temperature has a strong effect on the seasonal timing of life-history stages in both mammals and birds, even though these species can regulate their body temperature under a wide range of ambient temperatures. Correlational studies showing this effect have recently been supported by experiments demonstrating a direct, causal relationship between ambient temperature and seasonal timing. Predicting how endotherms will respond to global warming requires an understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which temperature affects the seasonal timing of life histories. These mechanisms, however, remain obscure. We outline a road map for research aimed at identifying the pathways through which temperature is translated into seasonal timing.

  6. Extracting temperature and transverse flow by fitting transverse mass spectra and HBT radii together

    CERN Document Server

    He, Ronghua; Chen, Jianyi; Wu, Qingxin; Huo, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Single particle transverse mass spectra and HBT radii of identical pion and identical kaon are analyzed with a blast-wave parametrization under the assumptions local thermal equilibrium and transverse expansion. Under the assumptions, temperature parameter $T$ and transverse expansion rapidity $\\rho$ are sensitive to the shapes of transverse mass $m_\\text T$ spectrum and HBT radius $R_\\text{s}(K_\\text T)$. Negative and positive correlations between $T$ and $\\rho$ are observed by fitting $m_\\text{T}$ spectrum and HBT radius $R_\\text s (K_\\text T)$, respectively. For a Monte Carlo simulation using the blast-wave function, $T$ and $\\rho$ are extracted by fitting $m_T$ spectra and HBT radii together utilizing a combined optimization function $\\chi^2$. With this method, $T$ and $\\rho$ of the Monte Carlo sources can be extracted. Using this method for A Multi-Phase Transport model (AMPT) at RHIC energy, the differences of $T$ and $\\rho$ between pion and kaon are observed obviously, and the tendencies of $T$ and $\\r...

  7. In vitro protoscolicidal effects of various concentrations of Ziziphora tenuior L. extract at different exposure times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Shahnazi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hydatidosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and surgery is still the main treatment for this problem. One of the side effects of hydatid cyst surgery is recurrence, thus, searching and assessment of some new agents such as medicinal plant extracts are very important. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of ethanolic extract of Ziziphora tenuior L. (Z. tenuior was investigated. Materials and Methods: Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and used in the experiments. Z. tenuior extract was used at concentration of 3-100 mg/ml for 10-60 min. Viability of protoscolices was determined by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: Based on our results, Z. tenuior extract at concentration of 10 mg/ml killed all protoscolices after 20 min. However, this medicinal plant at concentration of 25 mg/ml destroyed all protoscolices in a shorter exposure time (10 min. Therefore, the scolicidal activity of the extract at 10 and 25 mg/ml concentrations was considerably effective in lower concentrations and shorter exposure times. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the ethanolic extract of Z. tenuior produces high scolicidal activity; it may be used as an appropriate and effective scolicidal agent in hydatidosis surgery. This is the first report on the protoscolicidal activity of Z. tenuior.

  8. Microstructure-Enhanced Liquid–Liquid Extraction in a Real-Time Fluorescence Detection Microfluidic Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penghui Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic system is widely employed in the detection of environmental contaminants and biological specimens. One of the critical issues which limits the applications of microfluidic chips is the limit of detection of trace specimens. Liquid–liquid extraction is of great importance in the preprocessing in microfluidic devices. In this paper, we developed a real-time fluorescence detection microfluidic chip combined with a microstructure-enhanced liquid–liquid laminar extraction technique, which concentrated the trace compound and realized real-time monitoring. Auxiliary microstructures integrated in the microfluidic chip were applied to increase the extraction efficiency, which was proved by the FEM (finite element method simulation as well. A common fluorescence probe, Rhodamine 6G (Rh6g, was used in the experiment to demonstrate the performance of the microfluidic system. It revealed that the liquid–liquid laminar extraction combined with auxiliary microstructures of a cross shape was an effective method for enrichment. The efficiency of microstructure-enhanced liquid–liquid extraction was increased by 350% compared to the traditional laminar flow extraction.

  9. In vitro protoscolicidal effects of various concentrations of Ziziphora tenuior L. extract at different exposure times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazi, Mojtaba; Azadmehr, Abbas; Latifi, Robabeh; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Saraei, Mehrzad; Alipour, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hydatidosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and surgery is still the main treatment for this problem. One of the side effects of hydatid cyst surgery is recurrence, thus, searching and assessment of some new agents such as medicinal plant extracts are very important. In the present study, the scolicidal effect of ethanolic extract of Ziziphora tenuior (Z. tenuior) was investigated. Materials and Methods: Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cyst and used in the experiments. Z. tenuior extract was used at concentration of 3-100 mg/ml for 10-60 min. Viability of protoscolices was determined by 0.1% eosin staining. Results: Based on our results, Z. tenuior extract at concentration of 10 mg/ml killed all protoscolices after 20 min. However, this medicinal plant at concentration of 25 mg/ml destroyed all protoscolices in a shorter exposure time (10 min). Therefore, the scolicidal activity of the extract at 10 and 25 mg/ml concentrations was considerably effective in lower concentrations and shorter exposure times. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the ethanolic extract of Z. tenuior produces high scolicidal activity; it may be used as an appropriate and effective scolicidal agent in hydatidosis surgery. This is the first report on the protoscolicidal activity of Z. tenuior. PMID:27516978

  10. Effects of Drying Temperature on Flavonoids Extraction Rate from Young Stems and Leaves of Two Cassava Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ding-mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve flavonoids resources utilization level of young cassava stems and leaves, using cassava varieties SC09 and SC205 as ob jects, investigated the effect of different drying temperatures(40~120℃on the flavonoids extraction rate(FERand their stability in 120 d storage period after drying, explored a right drying storage method for postharvest young cassava stems and leaves. The research showed that total FER rised first, and then fell and rised again with the increase of drying temperature. During 40~80℃, the total FER was obviously in fluenced by variety and temperature, but only temperature was main factor affecting total FER during 90~120℃. Extract degree of flavonoids include rutin, amentoflavone or catechin, kaempferol, hesperidin, quercetin minished in order; the effect of cassava variety on the extraction rate of catechin and hesperidin was greater than that of drying temperature, but that contrary to other 4 flavonoids. Variety and temperature had a maximum impact respectively on catechin and rutin extraction rates. Whereas both of variety and temperature had a minimum impact on kaempferol extraction rate. FER reached higher levels of 1.42%and 1.53% respectively in SC09 after 120℃drying and SC205 after 110℃drying, and had best stability during 120 d storage period. The extraction rate of hesperidin increased after drying storage, and that of other 5 ingredients were changing with different varieties and temperatures; the coefficient variation(CV=1.03%~6.86%of kaempferol was minimum and its stability was best; extraction rates of rutin and kaempferol in SC205 after 110℃drying were maximum, whose increasing rates were 44.89%and 7.27%respectively with a small separate degree(CV were 6.94%, 4.59%and good extraction stability. Maximum in creasing rates of catechin, amentoflavone, quercetin and hesperidin were 211.60%,17.60%,186.39% and 538.08% respectively. However,their stabilities of extraction efficiency were poor

  11. Comparison of nine DNA extraction methods for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Moura

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a high impact on the cattle industry, particularly in developing countries. PCR is a very sensitive method for detection of infectious agents, but the sensitivity of molecular diagnosis is largely dependent on the efficiency of the DNA extraction methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate DNA extraction methods for direct detection of Mycobacterium bovis in bovine tissue. Nine commercial kits for DNA extraction were evaluated when combined with two real time PCRs. The DNeasy Blood & Tissue Kit from QIAGEN showed better performance and sensitivity followed by the DNA Mini Kit RBC and FTA Elute Micro Card. Results suggested that, even when the analytical sensitivity of the qPCR is very high, the extraction method can influence the diagnostic sensitivity.

  12. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  13. Microwave signal extraction from femtosecond mode-locked lasers with attosecond relative timing drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungwon; Kärtner, Franz X

    2010-06-15

    We present a feedback-control method for suppression of excess phase noise in the optical-to-electronic conversion process involved in the extraction of microwave signals from femtosecond mode-locked lasers. A delay-locked loop based on drift-free phase detection with a differentially biased Sagnac loop is employed to eliminate low-frequency (e.g., locked laser with a relative rms timing jitter of 2.4 fs (integrated from 1 mHz to 1 MHz) and a relative rms timing drift of 0.84 fs (integrated over 8 h with 1 Hz bandwidth) between the optical pulse train and the extracted microwave signal.

  14. The time course of processing difficulties with non-WH extraction in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads

    if unintegrated constituents are present at a clause boundary. Thus this theory predicts longer reading times at ‘if’ in (2) compared to ‘that’ in (1). Thus with regard to time course, this account is similar in spirit to work on island constraints in English indicating that extraction constraints work......-Pedersen & P. Harder (Eds.), Ikonicitet og struktur (pp. 23-39): Preprint from Netværk for Funktionel Lingvistik, Department of English, University of Copenhagen. Erteschik-Shir, N. (1982). Extractability in Danish and the pragmatic principle of dominance. In E. Engdahl & E. Ejerhed (Eds.), Readings...

  15. The effect of pH and time on the extractability and speciation of uranium(VI) sorbed to SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilton, Eugene S; Wang, Zheming; Boily, Jean-François; Qafoku, Odeta; Rosso, Kevin M; Smith, Steven C

    2012-06-19

    The effect of pH and contact time on uranium extractability from quartz surfaces was investigated using either acidic or carbonate (CARB) extraction solutions, time-delayed spikes of different U isotopes ((238)U and (233)U), and liquid helium temperature time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). Quartz powders were reacted with (238)U(VI) bearing solutions equilibrated with atmospheric CO(2) at pH 6, 7, and 8. After 42 days, the suspensions were spiked with (233)U(VI) and reacted for an additional 7 days. Sorbed U was then extracted with either dilute nitric acid or CARB. For the CARB, but not the acid, extraction there was a systematic decrease in extraction efficiency for both isotopes from pH 6 to 8, which was mimicked by less desorption of (238)U, after the (233)U spike, from pH 6 to 8. The efficiency of (233)U extraction was consistently greater than that of (238)U, indicating a strong temporal component to the strength of U association with the surface that was accentuated with increasing pH. TRLFS revealed a strong correlation between CARB extraction efficiency and sorbed U speciation as a function of pH and time. Collectively, the observations show that aging and pH are critical factors in determining the form and strength of uranium-silica interactions.

  16. Determination of diamondoids in crude oils using gas purge microsyringe extraction with comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanfeng; Zhu, Shukui; Pang, Liling; Gao, Xuanbo; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Li, Donghao

    2016-12-23

    Based on a homemade device, gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) of crude oil samples was developed for the first time. As a simple, fast, low-cost, sensitive and solvent-saving technique, GP-MSE provides some outstanding advantages over the widely used sample preparation methods for crude oils such as column chromatography (ASTM D2549). Several parameters affecting extraction efficiency were optimized, including extraction temperature, extraction time, extraction solvent, condensing temperature and purge gas flow rate. With the optimized GP-MSE conditions, several real crude oil samples were extracted, and trace diamondoids were determined using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). In total, more than 100 diamondoids were detected and 27 marker compounds were identified and quantified accurately. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N=3) were less than 0.08μg/L for all diamondoids. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was below 8%, ranging from 1.1 to 7.6%. The linearity of the developed method was in the range of 0.5-100.0μg/L with correlation coefficients (R(2)) more than 0.996. The recoveries obtained at spiking 50μg/L were between 81 and 108% for diamondoids in crude oil samples. The developed method can also be extended to the analysis of other components in crude oils and other complex matrices.

  17. Temperature dependence of fluctuation time scales in spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenning, Gregory G.; Bowen, J.; Sibani, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    a generalized Arrhenius law. We discuss the hypothesis that, upon cooling to a measuring temperature within the spin glass state, there is a range of dynamically in-equivalent configurations in which the system can be trapped, and check within a numerical barrier model simulation, that this  leads to sub...

  18. Effect of Immerse Temperature and Time on Solvent Debinding Process of Stainless Steel 316L Metal Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizah Kamarudin, Nur; Irwan Ibrahim, Mohd Halim

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate solvent debinding by conducting the extraction process at temperature ranging from 40 to 80 °C within 2 to 8 hours, while keeping the heptane solvent and 12:1 of solvent to feed ratio as constant. The palm kernel loss was evaluated as an indicator of the process’s performance. It was also supported by the pore evolution that was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Micrograph (FESEM). Results show that both parameter give large effect on the solvent debinding performance. The best immerse temperature and time for extracting maximum palm kernel in heptane solution at S/F ratio of 12:1, without sacrificing the ability of producing free defect metal part were given by 80 °C and 6 hours, respectively.

  19. Low temperature aqueous electrodeposited TiO(x) thin films as electron extraction layer for efficient inverted organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kim Hai; Mason, Chad William; Devaraj, Sappani; Ouyang, Jianyong; Balaya, Palani

    2014-02-26

    Organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester were fabricated with electrodeposited TiOx electron extraction layers 5-180 nm thick. Electrodeposition under ambient conditions is an attractive, facile and viable approach to prepare metal oxide interfacial layers. The TiOx films obtained displayed a linear relationship between thickness and deposition time when fabricated under ambient conditions using an aqueous air stable peroxotitanium precursor. The precursor solution was prepared from titanium isopropoxide using a chelate process, which allowed water to be used as solvent due to considerably decreased sensitivity of the precursor solution towards hydrolysis. Highly conformal TiOx films, typically observed with vacuum deposition techniques, were obtained on the indium tin oxide substrate upon electrogeneration of OH(-) ions using H2O2 additive. Conversely, significantly rougher films with spherical growths were obtained using NO3(-) additives. Low temperature annealing at 200 °C in air was found to greatly improve purity and O stoichiometry of the TiOx films, enabling efficient devices incorporating the electrodeposited TiOx to be made. Using MoOx as the hole extraction layer, the maximum power conversion efficiency obtained was 3.8% (Voc = 610 mV; Jsc = 10.6 mA/cm(2); FF = 59%) under simulated 100 mW/cm(2) (AM1.5G) solar irradiation, whereas an efficiency of 3.4% was achieved with fully solution processed interfacial layers comprising the electrodeposited TiOx films and a surfactant-modified PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer.

  20. Focal-plane CMOS wavelet feature extraction for real-time pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olyaei, Ashkan; Genov, Roman

    2005-09-01

    Kernel-based pattern recognition paradigms such as support vector machines (SVM) require computationally intensive feature extraction methods for high-performance real-time object detection in video. The CMOS sensory parallel processor architecture presented here computes delta-sigma (ΔΣ)-modulated Haar wavelet transform on the focal plane in real time. The active pixel array is integrated with a bank of column-parallel first-order incremental oversampling analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). Each ADC performs distributed spatial focal-plane sampling and concurrent weighted average quantization. The architecture is benchmarked in SVM face detection on the MIT CBCL data set. At 90% detection rate, first-level Haar wavelet feature extraction yields a 7.9% reduction in the number of false positives when compared to classification with no feature extraction. The architecture yields 1.4 GMACS simulated computational throughput at SVGA imager resolution at 8-bit output depth.

  1. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  2. A Delay Time Measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) for a High Temperature Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil Mo; Kim, Sang Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The temperature measurement of very high temperature core melt is of importance in a high temperature as the molten pool experiment in which gap formation between core melt and the reactor lower head, and the effect of the gap on thermal behavior are to be measured. The existing temperature measurement techniques have some problems, which the thermocouple, one of the contact methods, is restricted to under 2000 .deg. C, and the infrared thermometry, one of the non-contact methods, is unable to measure an internal temperature and very sensitive to the interference from reacted gases. In order to solve these problems, the delay time technique of ultrasonic wavelets due to high temperature has two sorts of stage. As a first stage, a delay time measurement of ULTRAS (Ultra-high Temperature Ultrasonic Response Analysis System) is suggested. As a second stage, a molten material temperature was measured up to 2300 .deg. C. Also, the optimization design of the UTS (ultrasonic temperature sensor) with persistence at the high temperature was suggested in this paper. And the utilization of the theory suggested in this paper and the efficiency of the developed system are performed by special equipment and some experiments supported by KRISS (Korea Research Institute of Standard and Science)

  3. Real-time measurement of materials properties at high temperatures by laser produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong W.

    1990-01-01

    Determination of elemental composition and thermophysical properties of materials at high temperatures, as visualized in the context of containerless materials processing in a microgravity environment, presents a variety of unusual requirements owing to the thermal hazards and interferences from electromagnetic control fields. In addition, such information is intended for process control applications and thus the measurements must be real time in nature. A new technique is described which was developed for real time, in-situ determination of the elemental composition of molten metallic alloys such as specialty steel. The technique is based on time-resolved spectroscopy of a laser produced plasma (LPP) plume resulting from the interaction of a giant laser pulse with a material target. The sensitivity and precision were demonstrated to be comparable to, or better than, the conventional methods of analysis which are applicable only to post-mortem specimens sampled from a molten metal pool. The LPP technique can be applied widely to other materials composition analysis applications. The LPP technique is extremely information rich and therefore provides opportunities for extracting other physical properties in addition to the materials composition. The case in point is that it is possible to determine thermophysical properties of the target materials at high temperatures by monitoring generation and transport of acoustic pulses as well as a number of other fluid-dynamic processes triggered by the LPP event. By manipulation of the scaling properties of the laser-matter interaction, many different kinds of flow events, ranging from shock waves to surface waves to flow induced instabilities, can be generated in a controllable manner. Time-resolved detection of these events can lead to such thermophysical quantities as volume and shear viscosities, thermal conductivity, specific heat, mass density, and others.

  4. Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

    2013-10-01

    Plants monitor changes in photoperiod and temperature to synchronize their flowering with seasonal changes to maximize fitness. In the Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway, the circadian clock-regulated components, such as FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 and CONSTANS, both of which have light-controlled functions, are crucial to induce the day-length specific expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene in leaves. Recent advances indicate that FT transcriptional regulation is central for integrating the information derived from other important internal and external factors, such as developmental age, amount of gibberellic acid, and the ambient temperature. In this review, we describe how these factors interactively regulate the expression of FT, the main component of florigen, in leaves.

  5. Development of an Analytical Method Based on Temperature Controlled Solid-Liquid Extraction Using an Ionic Liquid as Solid Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongwei Pan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the present paper, an analytical method based on temperature controlled solid-liquid extraction (TC-SLE utilizing a synthesized ionic liquid, (N-butylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate, [BPy]PF6, as solid solvent and phenanthroline (PT as an extractant was developed to determine micro levels of Fe2+ in tea by PT spectrophotometry. TC-SLE was carried out in two continuous steps: Fe2+ can be completely extracted by PT-[BPy]PF6 or back-extracted at 80 °C and the two phases were separated automatically by cooling to room temperature. Fe2+, after back-extraction, needs 2 mol/L HNO3 as stripping agent and the whole process was determined by PT spectrophotometry at room temperature. The extracted species was neutral Fe(PTmCl2 (m = 1 according to slope analysis in the Fe2+-[BPy]PF6-PT TC-SLE system. The calibration curve was Y = 0.20856X − 0.000775 (correlation coefficient = 0.99991. The linear calibration range was 0.10–4.50 μg/mL and the limit of detection for Fe2+ is 7.0 × 10−2 μg/mL. In this method, the contents of Fe2+ in Tieguanyin tea were determined with RSDs (n = 5 3.05% and recoveries in range of 90.6%–108.6%.

  6. Equilibrium Copper Strip Points as a Function of Temperature and Other Operating Parameters: Implications for Commercial Copper Solvent Extraction Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The development of pressure and bioleaching processes for high grade copper ores and concentrates will result in copper solvent extraction plants treating solutions with high copper and acid concentrations at temperatures up to 45C and these copper solvent extraction plants will run with reagent concentrations up to 40 vol.%. There is also a trend to use copper stripping solutions with less acid than typically used in recent years. Cognis has developed a model that accurately predicts the copper strip point for virtually any copper solvent extraction reagent or combination of reagents under a wide variety of conditions. The equilibrium strip points for several well known commercial copper solvent extraction reagents are given as a function of reagent concentration, the copper and acid concentration of the strip aqueous, and the temperature. It is shown that the equilibrium strip point is not a straight line function of reagent concentration and that the equilibrium strip point increases with an increase in temperature. Copper extraction also increases as the temperature increases.

  7. Correlations of Eisenia fetida metabolic responses to extractable phenanthrene concentrations through time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to phenanthrene for thirty days to compare hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction of soil and {sup 1}H NMR earthworm metabolomics as indicators of bioavailability. The phenanthrene 28-d LC{sub 50} value was 750 mg/kg (632-891, 95% confidence intervals) for the peat soil tested. The initial phenanthrene concentration was 319 mg/kg, which biodegraded to 16 mg/kg within 15 days, at which time HPCD extraction suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that phenanthrene exposed and control earthworms differed throughout the 30 day experiment despite the low phenanthrene concentrations present after 15 days. This metabolic response was better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.59) than HPCD-extractable phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.46) suggesting that {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor the bioavailability of contaminants to earthworms in the environment. - Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms to phenanthrene exposure are better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations than to cyclodextrin-extractable concentrations through time.

  8. Mapping air temperature using time series analysis of LST: the SINTESI approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfieri, S.M.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new procedure to map time series of air temperature (Ta) at fine spatial resolution using time series analysis of satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST) observations. The method assumes that air temperature is known at a single (reference) location such as in gridded

  9. Carotenoid stability in fruits, vegetables and working standards - effect of storage temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M Graça; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Oliveira, Luísa

    2014-08-01

    The effects of freezing and storage temperature on the mass fraction of α- and β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin in minimally processed fresh food products, were evaluated after sample preparation, extraction and saponification (only when strictly necessary). Effects of freezing and long-term stability were studied at two temperatures, -20 and -70°C, using high performance liquid chromatography (reversed phase columns, UV-Vis diode array detector) at time points during storage; measurement uncertainty was included in the evaluation. Stability of working standard solutions was also examined. Freezing did not affect the carotenoid mass fraction under the conditions studied. Carotenoids in orange, cherry, peach, apple, and kale were stable (except α-carotene and zeaxanthin in peach) for 13, 9.7, 5.7, 2.5 and 7.5months, respectively. For these food sample matrices, no significant difference between the freezing/storage at -20 and -70°C was observed. Standard solutions (0.05-5μg/mL) were stable for at least 6months at -70°C, except lycopene which at 0.05μg/mL was apparently stable only for six weeks.

  10. Simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in water samples using a new sampling strategy combining different extraction modes and temperatures in a single extraction solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchin, Joyce Nunes; Nardini, Giuliana; Merib, Josias; Dias, Adriana Neves; Martendal, Edmar; Carasek, Eduardo

    2012-04-13

    This study proposes a new optimization approach for the simultaneous determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) from water samples using the solid-phase microextraction technique followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) separation and detection. The objective of the study was to achieve compromise extraction conditions, suitable for all semi-volatile and volatile compounds, under which the amount extracted is maximized for all analytes. This was achieved by careful optimization of the fiber coating, salting-out effect, extraction time and temperature and extraction mode (headspace or direct immersion). With the optimized fiber coating - PDMS/DVB 65 μm - the other selected factors were optimized using a response surface methodology through central composite designs. As expected, the optimized results for each class of analytes varied significantly, probably due to the differences in their volatility and the equilibrium constants for the analyte/fiber coating. In order to overcome this issue, a new optimization approach was proposed based on a combination of extraction modes and extraction temperatures in a single extraction procedure. The final optimized procedure was: 48 min of extraction in direct immersion mode with the sample maintained at 80 °C followed by a further 32 min of headspace extraction with the sample temperature kept at 10 °C. The proposed procedure was compared with conventional methods based on the use of a single extraction mode and temperature (80 min of headspace extraction at 60 °C or 80 min of direct immersion extraction at 50 °C). The newly proposed method was shown to be more attractive as it extracted higher amounts of both semi-volatile and volatile compounds in a single extraction procedure compared to the conventional approaches. The optimized method was validated and excellent results were obtained.

  11. Influence of measurement errors on temperature-based death time determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubig, Michael; Muggenthaler, Holger; Mall, Gita

    2011-07-01

    Temperature-based methods represent essential tools in forensic death time determination. Empirical double exponential models have gained wide acceptance because they are highly flexible and simple to handle. The most established model commonly used in forensic practice was developed by Henssge. It contains three independent variables: the body mass, the environmental temperature, and the initial body core temperature. The present study investigates the influence of variations in the input data (environmental temperature, initial body core temperature, core temperature, time) on the standard deviation of the model-based estimates of the time since death. Two different approaches were used for calculating the standard deviation: the law of error propagation and the Monte Carlo method. Errors in environmental temperature measurements as well as deviations of the initial rectal temperature were identified as major sources of inaccuracies in model based death time estimation.

  12. Time And Temperature Dependent Micromechanical Properties Of Solder Joints For 3D-Package Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roellig, Mike; Meier, Karsten; Metasch, Rene

    2010-11-01

    The recent development of 3D-integrated electronic packages is characterized by the need to increase the diversity of functions and to miniaturize. Currently many 3D-integration concepts are being developed and all of them demand new materials, new designs and new processing technologies. The combination of simulation and experimental investigation becomes increasingly accepted since simulations help to shorten the R&D cycle time and reduce costs. Numerical calculations like the Finite-Element-Method are strong tools to calculate stress conditions in electronic packages resulting from thermal strains due to the manufacturing process and environmental loads. It is essential for the application of numerical calculations that the material data is accurate and describes sufficiently the physical behaviour. The developed machine allows the measurement of time and temperature dependent micromechanical properties of solder joints. Solder joints, which are used to mechanically and electrically connect different packages, are physically measured as they leave the process. This allows accounting for process influences, which may change material properties. Additionally, joint sizes and metallurgical interactions between solder and under bump metallization can be respected by this particular measurement. The measurement allows the determination of material properties within a temperature range of 20° C-200° C. Further, the time dependent creep deformation can be measured within a strain-rate range of 10-31/s-10-81/s. Solder alloys based on Sn-Ag/Sn-Ag-Cu with additionally impurities and joint sizes down to O/ 200 μm were investigated. To finish the material characterization process the material model coefficient were extracted by FEM-Simulation to increase the accuracy of data.

  13. Kinetic modeling of ultrasound-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from grape marc: influence of acoustic energy density and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Zhang, Zhihang; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-07-01

    The effects of acoustic energy density (6.8-47.4 W/L) and temperature (20-50 °C) on the extraction yields of total phenolics and tartaric esters during ultrasound-assisted extraction from grape marc were investigated in this study. The ultrasound treatment was performed in a 25-kHz ultrasound bath system and the 50% aqueous ethanol was used as the solvent. The initial extraction rate and final extraction yield increased with the increase of acoustic energy density and temperature. The two site kinetic model was used to simulate the kinetics of extraction process and the diffusion model based on the Fick's second law was employed to determine the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc. Both models gave satisfactory quality of data fit. The diffusion process was divided into one fast stage and one slow stage and the diffusion coefficients in both stages were calculated. Within the current experimental range, the diffusion coefficients of total phenolics and tartaric esters for both diffusion stages increased with acoustic energy density. Meanwhile, the rise of temperature also resulted in the increase of diffusion coefficients of phenolics except the diffusion coefficient of total phenolics in the fast stage, the value of which being the highest at 40 °C. Moreover, an empirical equation was suggested to correlate the effective diffusion coefficient of phenolics in grape marc with acoustic energy density and temperature. In addition, the performance comparison of ultrasound-assisted extraction and convention methods demonstrates that ultrasound is an effective and promising technology to extract bioactive substances from grape marc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Contact Time Gambir Extract (Uncaria gambier Roxb Against Bacterial Growth Enterococcus faecalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafsah Katu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis (E.Faecalis gram-positive bacteria commonly found in endodontic retreatment cases. Extract Gambir, a type of dried sap from the leaves and young stems of plants gambier (Uncaria gambier Roxb contains catechins, which are potent antibacterial and anti fungal with minimal side effects. This study aimed to determine the inhibitory concentrations and minimal contact time Gambir extract on the growth of the bacteria E. faecalis. Research applied a design with lab experiments, conducted on May 30-June 16, 2011 at the Laboratory of Pharmacognosy-Phytochemicals Faculty of Pharmacy and Laboratory of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hasanuddin. Materials and methods; 600 gr Gambir which has been crushed, extracted with reflux and rotary method. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration is determined with 5 ml of 5.25% NaOCl as a positive control and sterile distilled water negative control. Antibacterial activity is determined based on the time zone diameter hambat.Analisis contact and SPSS version 16.0 for windows with One-way ANOVA test and LSD on (p <0.05. Results indicated that Statistical analysis showed a 1% concentration and contact time of 24 hours, effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria E.faecalis. in conclusion, Gambir extract effectively inhibits the growth of bacteria E. faecalis.

  15. Real time algorithm temperature compensation in tunable laser / VCSEL based WDM-PON system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on a real time experimental validation of a centralized algorithm for temperature compensation of tunable laser/VCSEL at ONU and OLT, respectively. Locking to a chosen WDM channel is shown for temperature changes over 40°C.......We report on a real time experimental validation of a centralized algorithm for temperature compensation of tunable laser/VCSEL at ONU and OLT, respectively. Locking to a chosen WDM channel is shown for temperature changes over 40°C....

  16. Low temperature extraction and upgrading of oil sands and bitumen in supercritical fluid mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, Sarah A; Riley, Sandra H; McGrady, G Sean; Tanhawiriyakul, Supaporn; Romero-Zerón, Laura; Willson, Christopher D

    2010-07-21

    Preliminary results are reported for the extraction and catalytic hydrocracking of Alberta bitumen and oil sands using supercritical fluid mixtures; high levels of extraction and upgrading were attained using reaction conditions significantly milder than those previously reported.

  17. Statistical assessment of DNA extraction reagent lot variability in real-time quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushon, R.N.; Kephart, C.M.; Koltun, G.F.; Francy, D.S.; Schaefer, F. W.; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability in lots of a DNA extraction kit using real-time PCR assays for Bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis and Vibrio cholerae. Methods and Results: Replicate aliquots of three bacteria were processed in duplicate with three different lots of a commercial DNA extraction kit. This experiment was repeated in triplicate. Results showed that cycle threshold values were statistically different among the different lots. Conclusions: Differences in DNA extraction reagent lots were found to be a significant source of variability for qPCR results. Steps should be taken to ensure the quality and consistency of reagents. Minimally, we propose that standard curves should be constructed for each new lot of extraction reagents, so that lot-to-lot variation is accounted for in data interpretation. Significance and Impact of the Study: This study highlights the importance of evaluating variability in DNA extraction procedures, especially when different reagent lots are used. Consideration of this variability in data interpretation should be an integral part of studies investigating environmental samples with unknown concentrations of organisms. ?? 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Extracting kinetic freeze-out temperature and radial flow velocity from an improved Tsallis distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Lao, Hai-Ling; Lacey, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the transverse momentum ($p_T$) spectra of identified particles ($\\pi^{\\pm}$, $K^{\\pm}$, $p$, and $\\bar p$) produced in gold-gold (Au-Au) and lead-lead (Pb-Pb) collisions over a $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ (center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair) range from 14.5 GeV [one of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies] to 2.76 TeV [one of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies]. For the spectra with a narrow $p_T$ range, an improved Tsallis distribution which is in fact the Tsallis distribution with radial flow is used. For the spectra with a wide $p_T$ range, a superposition of the improved Tsallis distribution and an inverse power-law is used. Both the extracted kinetic freeze-out temperature ($T_0$) and radial flow velocity ($\\beta_T$) increase with the increase of $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$, which indicate a higher excitation and larger expansion of the interesting system at the LHC. Both the values of $T_0$ and $\\beta_T$ in central collisions are slightly larger than those in peripheral collisions, and they...

  19. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  20. Buccal cells DNA extraction to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for polymorphism genotyping by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küchler, Erika Calvano; Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Lopes, Taliria Silva; Granjeiro, Jose Mauro; Amorim, Lidia Maria Fonte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR, the yield and quality of genomic DNA collected from buccal cells by mouthwash after different storage times at room temperature. A group of volunteers was recruited to collect buccal cells using a mouthwash solution. The collected solution was divided into 3 tubes, one tube were used for immediate extraction and the remaining received ethanol and were kept at room temperature for 4 and 8 days followed by dna extraction. The concentration, purity and integrity of the dna were determined using spectrophotometry and electrophoresis. DNA quality differences among the three incubation times were also evaluated for genotyping EGF +61 a/g (rs 4444903) polymorphism by PCR-RFLP and for IRF6 polymorphism (rs 17015215) using real-time PCR. There was no significant difference of dna yield (p=0.75) and purity (p=0.86) among the three different incubation times. DNA obtained from different incubation times presented high-molecular weight. The PCR-RFLP and real time pcr reactions were successfully performed for all DNA samples, even those extracted after 8 days of incubation. All samples genotyped by real-time pcr presented c allele for irf6 gene polymorphism (homozygous: cc; heterozygous: Ct) and the C allele was used as a reference for Ct values. The samples presented the same genotype for the different times in both techniques. We demonstrated that the method described herein is simple and low cost, and that DNA can be extracted and pcr amplified after storage in mouthwash solution at room temperature.

  1. Buccal cells DNA extraction to obtain high quality human genomic DNA suitable for polymorphism genotyping by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Calvano Küchler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR, the yield and quality of genomic DNA collected from buccal cells by mouthwash after different storage times at room temperature. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of volunteers was recruited to collect buccal cells using a mouthwash solution. The collected solution was divided into 3 tubes, one tube were used for immediate extraction and the remaining received ethanol and were kept at room temperature for 4 and 8 days followed by dna extraction. The concentration, purity and integrity of the dna were determined using spectrophotometry and electrophoresis. DNA quality differences among the three incubation times were also evaluated for genotyping EGF +61 a/g (rs 4444903 polymorphism by PCR-RFLP and for IRF6 polymorphism (rs 17015215 using real-time PCR. RESULTS: There was no significant difference of dna yield (p=0.75 and purity (p=0.86 among the three different incubation times. DNA obtained from different incubation times presented high-molecular weight. The PCR-RFLP and real time pcr reactions were successfully performed for all DNA samples, even those extracted after 8 days of incubation. All samples genotyped by real-time pcr presented c allele for irf6 gene polymorphism (homozygous: cc; heterozygous: Ct and the C allele was used as a reference for Ct values. The samples presented the same genotype for the different times in both techniques. CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that the method described herein is simple and low cost, and that DNA can be extracted and pcr amplified after storage in mouthwash solution at room temperature.

  2. Real-time implementation of optimized maximum noise fraction transform for feature extraction of hyperspectral images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Gao, Lianru; Zhang, Bing; Zhao, Haina; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    We present a parallel implementation of the optimized maximum noise fraction (G-OMNF) transform algorithm for feature extraction of hyperspectral images on commodity graphics processing units (GPUs). The proposed approach explored the algorithm data-level concurrency and optimized the computing flow. We first defined a three-dimensional grid, in which each thread calculates a sub-block data to easily facilitate the spatial and spectral neighborhood data searches in noise estimation, which is one of the most important steps involved in OMNF. Then, we optimized the processing flow and computed the noise covariance matrix before computing the image covariance matrix to reduce the original hyperspectral image data transmission. These optimization strategies can greatly improve the computing efficiency and can be applied to other feature extraction algorithms. The proposed parallel feature extraction algorithm was implemented on an Nvidia Tesla GPU using the compute unified device architecture and basic linear algebra subroutines library. Through the experiments on several real hyperspectral images, our GPU parallel implementation provides a significant speedup of the algorithm compared with the CPU implementation, especially for highly data parallelizable and arithmetically intensive algorithm parts, such as noise estimation. In order to further evaluate the effectiveness of G-OMNF, we used two different applications: spectral unmixing and classification for evaluation. Considering the sensor scanning rate and the data acquisition time, the proposed parallel implementation met the on-board real-time feature extraction.

  3. Flowering time of butterfly nectar food plants is more sensitive to temperature than the timing of butterfly adult flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharouba, Heather M; Vellend, Mark

    2015-09-01

    1. Variation among species in their phenological responses to temperature change suggests that shifts in the relative timing of key life cycle events between interacting species are likely to occur under climate warming. However, it remains difficult to predict the prevalence and magnitude of these shifts given that there have been few comparisons of phenological sensitivities to temperature across interacting species. 2. Here, we used a broad-scale approach utilizing collection records to compare the temperature sensitivity of the timing of adult flight in butterflies vs. flowering of their potential nectar food plants (days per °C) across space and time in British Columbia, Canada. 3. On average, the phenology of both butterflies and plants advanced in response to warmer temperatures. However, the two taxa were differentially sensitive to temperature across space vs. across time, indicating the additional importance of nontemperature cues and/or local adaptation for many species. 4. Across butterfly-plant associations, flowering time was significantly more sensitive to temperature than the timing of butterfly flight and these sensitivities were not correlated. 5. Our results indicate that warming-driven shifts in the relative timing of life cycle events between butterflies and plants are likely to be prevalent, but that predicting the magnitude and direction of such changes in particular cases is going to require detailed, fine-scale data.

  4. Elevated temperature alters the lunar timing of Planulation in the brooding coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camerron M Crowder

    Full Text Available Reproductive timing in corals is associated with environmental variables including temperature, lunar periodicity, and seasonality. Although it is clear that these variables are interrelated, it remains unknown if one variable in particular acts as the proximate signaler for gamete and or larval release. Furthermore, in an era of global warming, the degree to which increases in ocean temperatures will disrupt normal reproductive patterns in corals remains unknown. Pocillopora damicornis, a brooding coral widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific, has been the subject of multiple reproductive ecology studies that show correlations between temperature, lunar periodicity, and reproductive timing. However, to date, no study has empirically measured changes in reproductive timing associated with increased seawater temperature. In this study, the effect of increased seawater temperature on the timing of planula release was examined during the lunar cycles of March and June 2012. Twelve brooding corals were removed from Hobihu reef in Nanwan Bay, southern Taiwan and placed in 23 and 28°C controlled temperature treatment tanks. For both seasons, the timing of planulation was found to be plastic, with the high temperature treatment resulting in significantly earlier peaks of planula release compared to the low temperature treatment. This suggests that temperature alone can influence the timing of larval release in Pocillopora damicornis in Nanwan Bay. Therefore, it is expected that continued increases in ocean temperature will result in earlier timing of reproductive events in corals, which may lead to either variations in reproductive success or phenotypic acclimatization.

  5. Damage Detection Based on Cross-Term Extraction from Bilinear Time-Frequency Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yuchao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundant damage information is implicated in the bilinear time-frequency distribution of structural dynamic signals, which could provide effective support for structural damage identification. Signal time-frequency analysis methods are reviewed, and the characters of linear time-frequency distribution and bilinear time-frequency distribution typically represented by the Wigner-Ville distribution are compared. The existence of the cross-term and its application in structural damage detection are demonstrated. A method of extracting the dominant term is proposed, which combines the short-time Fourier spectrum and Wigner-Ville distribution; then two-dimensional time-frequency transformation matrix is constructed and the complete cross-term is extracted finally. The distribution character of which could be applied to the structural damage identification. Through theoretical analysis, model experiment and numerical simulation of the girder structure, the change rate of cross-term amplitude is validated to identify the damage location and degree. The effectiveness of the cross-term of bilinear time-frequency distribution for damage detection is confirmed and the analytical method of damage identification used in structural engineering is available.

  6. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  7. Novel Doppler Frequency Extraction Method Based on Time-Frequency Analysis and Morphological Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shu-juan; WU Si-liang

    2006-01-01

    A novel method of Doppler frequency extraction is proposed for Doppler radar scoring systems. The idea is that the time-frequency map can show how the Doppler frequency varies along the time-line, so the Doppler frequency extraction becomes curve detection in the image-view. A set of morphological operations are used to implement curve detection. And a map fusion scheme is presented to eliminate the influence of strong direct current (DC) component of echo signal during curve detection. The radar real-life data are used to illustrate the performance of the new approach. Experimental results show that the proposed method can over come the shortcomings of piecewise-processing-based FFT method and can improve the measuring precision of miss distance.

  8. Rapid and economic DNA extraction from a single salmon egg for real-time PCR amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Huang, Hsiao-Yun; Chou, Yii-Cheng; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Lee, Guo-Chi; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Salmon eggs are common in Japanese sushi and other seafood products; however, certain fish eggs are used as counterfeit salmon eggs which are found in foods and processed products. This study develops a simple, rapid, and cost-effective method for DNA extraction, filtration (FT) and dilution (DL) protocols from a single salmon egg with good DNA quality for real-time PCR amplification. The DNA amount, DNA quality, and real-time PCR performance for different dilutions and different lengths of PCR amplicons were evaluated and compared with the common Qiagen tissue kit (QTK) and Chelex-100-based (CX) protocols. The extracted DNA from a single salmon egg using the FT or DL protocol can be applied in phylogenic research, food authentication and post-marketing monitoring of genetically modified (GM) food products.

  9. Pattern of Refractive Correction and Timing of Stage II IOL Implantation after Congenital Cataract Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Haotian Lin

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cataract occurs during infancy when the axial length and corneal and visual function are in the sensitive stages of rapid development..Inappropriate surgical interven-tion not only fails to restore visual function,.but also causes irreversible serious influences upon eyeball development in children diagnosed with congenital cataract. At present, the uncertainty of selection of intraocular lens (IOL) degrees dur-ing the eyeball development period is averted by using a main treatment of congenital cataract that includes two -stage surgery:.stage I cataract extraction and stage II IOL implanta-tion. However, the accurate selection of a refractive correction method and the timing of IOL implantation during stage II surgery for aphakic eyes remains controversial following stage I cataract extraction..This review retrospectively summarizes the current progress and existing problems indicated by related recent studies focusing on refractive correction pattern and IOL implantation timing.

  10. Pattern of refractive correction and timing of stage II IOL implantation after congenital cataract extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Lin, Haotian

    2014-12-01

    Congenital cataract occurs during infancy when the axial length and corneal and visual function are in the sensitive stages of rapid development. Inappropriate surgical intervention not only fails to restore visual function, but also causes irreversible serious influences upon eyeball development in children diagnosed with congenital cataract. At present, the uncertainty of selection of intraocular lens (IOL) degrees during the eyeball development period is averted by using a main treatment of congenital cataract that includes two-stage surgery: stage I cataract extraction and stage II IOL implantation. However, the accurate selection of a refractive correction method and the timing of IOL implantation during stage II surgery for aphakic eyes remains controversial following stage I cataract extraction. This review retrospectively summarizes the current progress and existing problems indicated by related recent studies focusing on refractive correction pattern and IOL implantation timing.

  11. The case of the missing mechanism: how does temperature influence seasonal timing in endotherms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, S.P.; Schaper, S.V.; Hut, R.A.; Ball, G.F.; Visser, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Temperature has a strong effect on the seasonal timing of life-history stages in both mammals and birds, even though these species can regulate their body temperature under a wide range of ambient temperatures. Correlational studies showing this effect have recently been supported by experiments dem

  12. The case of the missing mechanism : how does temperature influence seasonal timing in endotherms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Samuel P; Schaper, Sonja V; Hut, Roelof A; Ball, Gregory F; Visser, Marcel E

    2013-01-01

    Temperature has a strong effect on the seasonal timing of life-history stages in both mammals and birds, even though these species can regulate their body temperature under a wide range of ambient temperatures. Correlational studies showing this effect have recently been supported by experiments dem

  13. The case of the missing mechanism : How does temperature influence seasonal timing in endotherms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caro, Samuel P; Schaper, Sonja V; Hut, Roelof A; Ball, Gregory F; Visser, Marcel E

    2013-01-01

    Temperature has a strong effect on the seasonal timing of life-history stages in both mammals and birds, even though these species can regulate their body temperature under a wide range of ambient temperatures. Correlational studies showing this effect have recently been supported by experiments

  14. Research for time-temperature equivalence effect of rock (I):Theory research%Research for time-temperature equivalence effect of rock (Ⅰ):Theory research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quan-sheng; ZHU Yuan-guang

    2011-01-01

    In order to know about the theological properties of rock in a long range of the time scale,method of increasing temperature was brought forward to accelerate the rheological process of rock,which could extend the time scale of experimental test data.Firstly,based on the generalized linear viscoelastic constitutive equation with temperature variable,the creep behavior of rock was divided into three types according to the different strain dependences of the time,that is,Hookean deformation,Newtonian flow,and retarded elasticity.Then the general equivalence relationship between time parameter and temperature parameter was derived for each type of strain.Finally,the relation between time parameter and temperature parameter in the whole creep was considered and the effect on the instantaneous strain could be modified through vertical shift.(9 The key point of the TTEE of Newtonian flow depends on whether in the study of linear viscoelastic behavior of rock change of temperature is completely equivalent to a shift of the horizontal shift function of Newtonian flow and retarded elasticity is consentaneous.

  15. Extraction of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution by dynamic headspace-needle trap extraction temperature and pH optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Da-Wei; Lee, Xinqing; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-08-08

    A combined method of dynamic headspace-needle trap sample preparation and gas chromatography for the determination of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution was developed in this study. A needle extraction device coupled with a gas aspirating pump was intended to perform sampling and preconcentration of target compounds from aqueous sample before gas chromatographic analysis. The needle trap extraction (NTE) technique allows for the successful sampling of short chain fatty acids under dynamic conditions while keeping the headspace (HS) volume constant. Two important parameters, including extraction temperature and effect of acidification, have been optimized and evaluated using the needle trap device. The method detection limits for the compounds estimated were 87.2microg/L for acetic acid and 234.8microg/L for formic acid in spite of the low flame ionization detection response for formic acid and its low Henry's law constant in aqueous solution. Precision was determined based on the two real samples and ranged between 4.7 and 10.7%. The validated headspace-needle trap extraction method was also successfully applied to several environmental samples.

  16. Use of real-time PCR to evaluate two DNA extraction methods from food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Branquinho

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The DNA extraction is a critical step in Genetically Modified Organisms analysis based on real-time PCR. In this study, the CTAB and DNeasy methods provided good quality and quantity of DNA from the texturized soy protein, infant formula, and soy milk samples. Concerning the Certified Reference Material consisting of 5% Roundup Ready® soybean, neither method yielded DNA of good quality. However, the dilution test applied in the CTAB extracts showed no interference of inhibitory substances. The PCR efficiencies of lectin target amplification were not statistically different, and the coefficients of correlation (R² demonstrated high degree of correlation between the copy numbers and the threshold cycle (Ct values. ANOVA showed suitable adjustment of the regression and absence of significant linear deviations. The efficiencies of the p35S amplification were not statistically different, and all R² values using DNeasy extracts were above 0.98 with no significant linear deviations. Two out of three R² values using CTAB extracts were lower than 0.98, corresponding to lower degree of correlation, and the lack-of-fit test showed significant linear deviation in one run. The comparative analysis of the Ct values for the p35S and lectin targets demonstrated no statistical significant differences between the analytical curves of each target.

  17. Short-time Forecast Method of Winter Minimum Temperature in the Northern Area of Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to study the short-time forecast method of winterminimum temperature in the northern area of Fujian.[Method] By analyzing the variation trends and distribution characteristics of extremely and averageminimum temperatures in northern Fujian in winter during 1969-2008,the relative meteorological factors which affected the low temperature weather in winter were found.The influences of relative meteorological factors on winterminimum temperature and the forecast method were summar...

  18. Prospects of real-time ion temperature and rotation profiles based on neural-network charge exchange analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.W.T.; Von Hellermann, M. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Svensson, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-07-01

    A back-propagation neural network technique is used at JET to extract plasma parameters like ion temperature, rotation velocities or spectral line intensities from charge exchange (CX) spectra. It is shown that in the case of the C VI CX spectra, neural networks can give a good estimation (better than +-20% accuracy) for the main plasma parameters (Ti, V{sub rot}). Since the neural network approach involves no iterations or initial guesses the speed with which a spectrum is processed is so high (0.2 ms/spectrum) that real time analysis will be achieved in the near future. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Investigation of low-temperature electrical conduction mechanisms in highly resistive GaN bulk layers extracted with simple parallel conduction extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A. [Ahi Evran University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kirsehir (Turkey); Ankara University, Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Lisesivdin, S.B. [Bilkent University, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Kasap, M.; Ozcelik, S. [Gazi University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, Teknikokullar, Ankara (Turkey); Ozbay, E. [Bilkent University, Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Bilkent University, Department of Physics, Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent, Ankara (Turkey); Balkan, N. [University of Essex, School of Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, Colchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    The electrical conduction mechanisms in various highly resistive GaN layers of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N/AlN/GaN/AlN heterostructures are investigated in a temperature range between T=40 K and 185 K. Temperature-dependent conductivities of the bulk GaN layers are extracted from Hall measurements with implementing simple parallel conduction extraction method (SPCEM). It is observed that the resistivity ({rho}) increases with decreasing carrier density in the insulating side of the metal-insulator transition for highly resistive GaN layers. Then the conduction mechanism of highly resistive GaN layers changes from an activated conduction to variable range hopping conduction (VRH). In the studied temperature range, ln ({rho}) is proportional to T{sup -1/4} for the insulating sample and proportional to T{sup -1/2} for the more highly insulating sample, indicating that the transport mechanism is due to VRH. (orig.)

  20. Delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electron impact for PAH studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, P. K.; Kadhane, U.

    2017-03-01

    A time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer with a pulsed electron beam as well as pulsed extraction of the recoil ions, with variable delay is reported. The effectiveness of this technique is highlighted by studying the statistical decay of mono-cations over microsecond time scales. Various details of the design and operation are discussed in the context of electron impact ionization and fragmentation of naphthalene (C10H8). The temporal behavior of acetylene (C2H2) and diacetylene (C4H2) loss is observed and compared with the associated Arrhenius decay constant, internal energy and plasmon excitation energy.

  1. An Investigation into Error Source Identification of Machine Tools Based on Time-Frequency Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongju Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new identification method to identify the main errors of the machine tool in time-frequency domain. The low- and high-frequency signals of the workpiece surface are decomposed based on the Daubechies wavelet transform. With power spectral density analysis, the main features of the high-frequency signal corresponding to the imbalance of the spindle system are extracted from the surface topography of the workpiece in the frequency domain. With the cross-correlation analysis method, the relationship between the guideway error of the machine tool and the low-frequency signal of the surface topography is calculated in the time domain.

  2. The Influence of Storage Time on the Yield of Alcohol Extraction from Marc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balteş Mihaela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The influence of time on the yield of alcohol extraction from marc stored monitored and interpreted for 10, respectively 20, 40, 60 and 80 days was investigated. The distillation of diffusion juice obtained through two fermentation variants led to the conclusion that a longer storage time leads to a drastic decrease of the alcohol level in marc. Thus, this valuable sub product evaporates, i.e. is lost. It was clear that the results were strongly connected, although the procedure differs from the point of view of the order of the technological succession.

  3. Occupant Time Period of Thermal Adaption to Change of Outdoor Air Temperature in Naturally Ventilated Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    liu, weiwei; Wargocki, Pawel; Xiong, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The present work proposed a method to determine time period of thermal adaption of occupants in naturally ventilated building, based on the relationship between their neutral temperatures and running mean outdoor air temperature. Based on the data of the field investigation, the subjects’ time...

  4. Anion concentration-dependent partitioning mechanism in the extraction of uranium into room-temperature ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Mark L; Stepinski, Dominique C

    2008-04-15

    The mode of partitioning of uranyl ion between nitrate-containing aqueous phases and various N,N'-dialkylimidazolium-based room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in the presence of tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) is shown to change from an ion-exchange process to one involving extraction of a neutral uranyl-TBP-nitrato complex as the aqueous nitrate concentration is increased. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the RTIL cation eventually leads to nitrato complex extraction as the predominant mode of partitioning, regardless of nitrate concentration.

  5. [Influence of temperature on the preferential extraction of RNA polymerase I from hepatic nuclei of the rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoncheddu, A; Accomando, R; Pertica, M; Orunesu, M

    1979-11-15

    RNA polymerase I has been extracted from rat liver nuclei by three consecutive washings at 0 degrees C with a medium of relatively low ionic strength (0.15 M KCl) containing Mg++ rather than by incubating the organelles at 37 degrees C in the same medium, as originally proposed by Chesterton and Butterworth. The modified technique, which has the advantage of preventing a temperature-mediated conversion of form IB to IA, gives similar yields of RNA polymerase I and retains the capacity of preferentially extracting the enzyme with respect to the other forms of nuclear RNA polymerase.

  6. Extracting a common pulse like signal from Time Serie using a non linear Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeaux, J.; Batista, D.; Ammann, C.; Naveau, P.; Jégat, C.; Gao, C.

    2009-04-01

    To understand the nature and cause of natural climate variability, it is important to attribute past climate variations to particular forcing factors. In this work, our main focus is to introduce an automatic assimilation procedure to estimate the magnitude of strong but short-lived perturbations, such as large explosive volcanic eruptions, using climate/proxies time series. The extraction and decomposition procedure is run on real multivariate time series of sulfate from ice cores drilled at different sites in Greenland. The sulfate ejected by volcanoes is transported through the stratosphere towards the poles and deposited via sedimentation near the pole. Sulfate in Greenland is then a marker of huge volcanic eruptions which occur all over the world. Such pulse-like processes are highly non linear, as much in time as for their intensity. If they are not detected, such pulse-like signals of extreme and rare events can perturb an objective calculation of the trend. This work is then as much an estimation procedure for such signals, as a first step to estimate a posteriori trend in the time series. Our extraction algorithm handles multivariate time series with a common but unknown forcing. This statistical procedure is based on a multivariate multi-state space model and a non linear Kalman Filter. The non linearity is solved using the calculation of a twice conditional expectation and variance. It can provide an accurate estimate of the timing and duration of individual pulse-like events from a set of different series covering the same temporal space. It not only allows for a more objective estimation of its associated peak amplitude and the subsequent time evolution of the signal, but at the same time it provides a measure of confidence through the posterior probability for each pulse-like event. The flexibility, robustness and limitations of our approach are discussed by applying our method to simulated time series and to the Monte-Carlo method to test the

  7. Feasibility of the direct coupling of solid-phase extraction-pipette tips with a programmed-temperature vaporiser for gas chromatographic analysis of drugs in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W J; van Egmond, W.M A; Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction-pipette tips (SPE-PTs) were used for micro solid-phase extraction of lidocaine and diazepam from plasma. Off-line extraction was followed by on-line desorption. On-line desorption was carried out by direct coupling of the SPE-PTs with the liner of the programmed-temperature va

  8. The influence of different combinations of probiotic bacteria and fermentation temperatures on the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of fermented lactic beverages containing soybean hydrosoluble extract during refrigerated storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic beverages containing probiotics were prepared with whole UHT milk, whey of Mozzarella cheese, soybean hydrosoluble extract and sugar. Three formulations were studied, each one containing a different combination of probiotic/starter bacteria, fermented at two different temperatures (37 and 45 °C. The aim of this work was to verify the influence of these variables on the viability of probiotic microorganisms and on the physicochemical stability of lactic beverages during storage under refrigeration (21 days at 7 °C. The results indicated that the fermentation temperature had a significant effect on the viability of probiotic bacteria. Counts for Lactobacillus acidophilus were affected by storage time, resulting appropriate after 21 days only for the beverage fermented at 37 °C. Physicochemical parameters did not exhibit drastic variations - proving the stability of formulations during storage. Cells of Bifidobacterium spp. showed high survival ability, probably due to the presence of growth promoters from soybean and cheese whey. The fermentation temperature of 37 °C allowed counts above the minimum limit for all the studied microorganisms, being preferred to the temperature of 45 °C. The inclusion of soybean hydrosoluble extract, a prebiotics source, resulted in a symbiotic product with more benefits to the health of consumers.

  9. Phase shifts extraction based on time-domain orthogonal character of phase-shifting interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Junwei; Zhong, Liyun; Zhou, Yunfei; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2017-01-01

    Based on the time-domain orthogonal character of different pixel intensity variation of phase-shifting interferograms, a novel non-iterative algorithm is proposed to achieve the phase shifts in random phase-shifting interferometry. Due to there is no requirement for the fringe number of phase-shifting interferograms, the proposed algorithm can work well even in the case that the fringe number of interferogram is less than one, which is a difficult problem in interferometry. Moreover, only two one-dimensional vectors, achieved from the average intensity of several pixels of interferogram, are enough to perform the phase shifts extraction, the proposed algorithm reveals rapid processing speed. Specially, compared with the conventional phase shifts extraction algorithms, the proposed algorithm does not need to perform the pixel-pixel calculation or the iterative calculation, so its processing speed is greatly improved. Both the simulation and the experiment demonstrate the outstanding performance of the proposed algorithm.

  10. GPU-accelerated phase extraction algorithm for interferograms: a real-time application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Yongqian; Liu, Fengwei

    2016-11-01

    Optical testing, having the merits of non-destruction and high sensitivity, provides a vital guideline for optical manufacturing. But the testing process is often computationally intensive and expensive, usually up to a few seconds, which is sufferable for dynamic testing. In this paper, a GPU-accelerated phase extraction algorithm is proposed, which is based on the advanced iterative algorithm. The accelerated algorithm can extract the right phase-distribution from thirteen 1024x1024 fringe patterns with arbitrary phase shifts in 233 milliseconds on average using NVIDIA Quadro 4000 graphic card, which achieved a 12.7x speedup ratio than the same algorithm executed on CPU and 6.6x speedup ratio than that on Matlab using DWANING W5801 workstation. The performance improvement can fulfill the demand of computational accuracy and real-time application.

  11. A Modified Time-Delay Addition Method to Extract Resistive Leakage Current of MOSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodsuz, Masume; Mirzaie, Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Metal oxide surge arresters are one of the most important equipment for power system protection against switching and lightning over-voltages. High-energy stresses and environmental features are the main factors which degrade surge arresters. In order to verify surge arresters good condition, their monitoring is necessary. The majority of surge arrester monitoring techniques is based on total leakage current decomposition of their capacitive and resistive components. This paper introduces a new approach based on time-delay addition method to extract the resistive current from the total leakage current without measuring voltage signal. Surge arrester model for calculating leakage current has been performed in ATP-EMTP. In addition, the signal processing has been done using MATLAB software. To show the accuracy of the proposed method, experimental tests have been performed to extract resistive leakage current by the proposed method.

  12. Influence of temperature on patch residence time in parasitoids: physiological and behavioural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiroux, Joffrey; Abram, Paul K; Louâpre, Philippe; Barrette, Maryse; Brodeur, Jacques; Boivin, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Patch time allocation has received much attention in the context of optimal foraging theory, including the effect of environmental variables. We investigated the direct role of temperature on patch time allocation by parasitoids through physiological and behavioural mechanisms and its indirect role via changes in sex allocation and behavioural defences of the hosts. We compared the influence of foraging temperature on patch residence time between an egg parasitoid, Trichogramma euproctidis, and an aphid parasitoid, Aphidius ervi. The latter attacks hosts that are able to actively defend themselves, and may thus indirectly influence patch time allocation of the parasitoid. Patch residence time decreased with an increase in temperature in both species. The increased activity levels with warming, as evidenced by the increase in walking speed, partially explained these variations, but other mechanisms were involved. In T. euproctidis, the ability to externally discriminate parasitised hosts decreased at low temperature, resulting in a longer patch residence time. Changes in sex allocation with temperature did not explain changes in patch time allocation in this species. For A. ervi, we observed that aphids frequently escaped at intermediate temperature and defended themselves aggressively at high temperature, but displayed few defence mechanisms at low temperature. These defensive behaviours resulted in a decreased patch residence time for the parasitoid and partly explained the fact that A. ervi remained for a shorter time at the intermediate and high temperatures than at the lowest temperature. Our results suggest that global warming may affect host-parasitoid interactions through complex mechanisms including both direct and indirect effects on parasitoid patch time allocation.

  13. Control of the extraction procedures on the response of DOC concentration and composition to soil temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Thibault; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Gruau, Gérard; Jaffrézic, Anne; Jeanneau, Laurent; Racape, Armelle

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) leached from soils is a crucial component of the terrestrial C cycling and a major source for DOC export at the landscape scale by stream and river waters. In the context of global warming, it is necessary to understand how changes in soil temperature will impact the DOC dynamic in soils, but this remains a matter of debate. We conducted a series of experiments in order to study both biological and physical processes involved in soil DOC production and mobilisation at different temperatures. Two experiments of DOC extraction were conducted at different temperatures: (i) soil solution percolation through a soil column and (ii) soil solution agitation in jars, which are both commonly used in the literature. The organo-mineral horizon of a wetland soil was incubated during 14 days at temperature ranging from 4 to 30 ° C. Along with DOC concentrations, changes in DOC composition were assessed by monitoring the natural stable carbon isotopic composition of (δ13C) and the specific ultra violet absorbance (SUVA) of DOC. The results showed strong differences between the two extraction procedures in term of DOC response to temperature rise, both in concentration and composition. DOC released by percolation through soil column displayed a strong concentration increase with increasing temperature. Whatever the temperature, a low SUVA and relatively high δ13C values indicated a release of molecules with lower aromaticity and lower molecular weight the two first days than after. On the contrary, DOC extracted by agitation in jars showed minor changes in both concentrations and composition along the incubation. The difference observed between soil leaching and batch incubation can mainly be explained by the extraction procedures. Indeed, the percolation procedure favors transfer from the micro-porosity to the macro-porosity pool between two successive leaching, whereas agitation procedure releases DOC produced and accumulated in the whole soil

  14. Parsley extract inhibits in vitro and ex vivo platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadi, Dounia; Bnouham, Mohamed; Aziz, Mohammed; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Legrand, Chantal; Lafeve, Françoise Fauvel; Mekhfi, Hassane

    2009-08-17

    Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with an increase in blood platelet activity. In Morocco, parsley (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) is one of the medicinal herbs used to treat cardiovascular diseases such as arterial hypertension. In this study, crude aqueous extract (CAE) of parsley was evaluated for its anti-platelet activity in experimental animals on platelet aggregation in vitro and ex vivo; and on bleeding time in vivo. The in vitro aggregation was monitored after pre-incubation of platelets with CAE. The bleeding time and ex vivo aggregation were performed after oral treatment. CAE inhibited dose dependently platelet aggregation in vitro induced by thrombin, ADP, collagen and epinephrine. The oral administration of CAE (3g/kg) inhibited significantly (p<0.001) platelet aggregation ex vivo and prolonged bleeding time (p<0.001) without changes in the platelet amount. The prolongation of bleeding time by CAE may be attributed to the observed inhibition of platelet aggregation. These effects could be related in part to the polyphenolic compounds present in the extract. These results support the hypothesis that the dietary intake of parsley may be benefit in the normalization of platelet hyperactivation, in the nutritional prevention of cardiovascular diseases and are potentially interesting in the development of new prevention strategies.

  15. Extraction of rice bran extract and some factors affecting its inhibition of polyphenol oxidase activity and browning in potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsiripiphat, Kunnikar; Theerakulkait, Chockchai

    2009-01-01

    The extraction conditions of rice bran extract (RBE), including extraction ratio, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were studied in relation to enzymatic browning inhibition in potato. The inhibitory effect of RBE on potato polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and its total phenolic compound content were highest at an extraction ratio of 1:3 (rice bran:water, w/v), extraction time of 30 min, and extraction temperature of 40 degrees C. RBE showed the most inhibitory effect on PPO activity at pH 6.5. However, the inhibitory effect of RBE on potato PPO activity and its total phenolic compound content were decreased at the higher temperature and longer time.

  16. Influence of low temperature storage on the properties of human placenta extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina D. Rozanova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research represents the results of comparative investigations of the composition and biological activity of aqueous-saline extracts, obtained from fresh and stored at –196ºC human placental tissues. Methods: The studying of quantitative composition of proteins in human placenta extract (HPE was performed with gel-chromatography method. Content of lipid peroxidation products and catalase activity in the extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric assay. Biological activity of extracts was evaluated by studying the modifications of structural and functional parameters of erythrocytes after exposure with the extracts. Results: Our researches have shown that properties of HPE from the stored at –196ºС tissues slightly differ from those of fresh tissues. In extract of frozen tissues the content of high-molecular proteins is relatively higher. Content of malonyldialdehyde in extracts of the tissues stored at –196ºC does not change. Catalase activity decreases. For evaluation of biological effect of the extract on erythrocytes we have analyzed the following structural and functional parameters of red blood cells: spontaneous hemolysis, osmotic, and low-pH resistances, which characterize mechanical properties and stability of cellular membranes; relative content of main forms of hemoglobin (oxy-, deoxy-, and met-Hb, which elucidate the functioning of biochemical systems; and cytosol microviscosity, which reflects structure-dynamical state, determined, first of all, by interaction of cytosol and components of cytoskeleton with membranes. Conclusion: It was shown that distinctions between the effects of extracts on erythrocytes were mainly manifested at cellular membrane level, not affecting main vital parameters. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 213-217

  17. Large-Strain Time-Temperature Equivalence and Adiabatic Heating of Polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furmanski, Jevan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-06

    Time-temperature equivalence is a well-known phenomenon in time-dependent material response, where rapid events at a moderate temperature are indistinguishable from some occurring at modest rates but elevated temperatures. However, there is as-yet little elucidation of how well this equivalence holds for substantial plastic strains. In this work, we demonstrate time-temperature equivalence over a large range in a previously studied high-density polyethylene formulation (HDPE). At strain-rates exceeding 0.1/s, adiabatic heating confounds the comparison of nominally isothermal material response, apparently violating time-temperature equivalence. Strain-rate jumps can be employed to access the instantaneous true strain rate without heating. Adiabatic heating effects were isolated by comparing a locus of isothermal instantaneous flow stress measurements from strain-rate jumps up to 1/s with the predicted equivalent states at 0.01/s and 0.001/s in compression. Excellent agreement between the isothermal jump condition locus and the quasi-static tests was observed up to 50% strain, yielding one effective isothermal plastic response for each material for a given time-temperature equivalent state. These results imply that time-temperature equivalence can be effectively used to predict the deformation response of polymers during extreme mechanical events (large strain and high strain-rate) from measurements taken at reduced temperatures and nominal strain-rates in the laboratory.

  18. Optimization on temperature efficiency and switch time of thin-walled regenerator with perturbation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Yuan-fang; MEI Chi; JIANG Shao-jian; HUANG Guo-dong; CHEN Hong-rong

    2006-01-01

    The heat transfer characteristic of honeycomb ceramic regenerator was optimized by the perturbation analytical-numerical method. The results show that there is a temperature efficiency peak and the corresponding optimal switch time. The decrease of air oxygen concentration leads to the decrease of maximum temperature efficiency. Optimal switch time is directly proportional to the matrix thickness. The solid heat conduction along the flow direction and the regenerator heat storage capacity of the unit volume have no impact on maximum temperature efficiency and optimal switch time. The temperature efficiency tendency based on the semi-analysis is the same as dispersion combustion tests with low oxygen concentration, and optimal switch time of 2 - 4 s agrees well with that of 4 s in high-temperature gasification tests. The possibility of design, operate and control a thin-walled regenerator with high efficiency by means of the perturbation method is proved.

  19. Electrodialytic extraction of phosphorus from ash of low-temperature gasification of sewage sludge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2015-01-01

    was from gasification of sewage sludge where P was precipitated with Fe and Al salts, from which it was possible to extract up to 26% of the P. The other ash was from co-gasification of a mixture of biologically precipitated sewage sludge and wheat straw pellets. More promising results were obtained...... with this ash, as up to 90% of the P was extracted from the ashes. For both ashes, P was extracted by ED in acidic aqueous solutions with ratios of Fe, Al and each heavy metal to P considerably below the values found in the initial ashes. Therefore, the 2-compartment ED cell technology was proved as possible...

  20. The general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) section 3.6(a). DPL do only concern material functions and only the effect of the temperature on these. This is a short introduction to the general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle.......This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) section 3.6(a). DPL do only concern material functions and only the effect of the temperature on these. This is a short introduction to the general use of the time-temperature-pressure superposition principle....

  1. THE EFFECT OF CONCENTRATION OF CARRIER, pH AND TIME OF EXTRACTION ON SEPARATION'S FACTOR OF PENICILLIN G - PHENYL ACETATE BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Santoso

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to study the effect of concentration carrier, pH and time of extraction on separation's factor of penicillin g - phenyl acetate by reactive extraction technique. The 10 mL  aqueous  solution with variation of  pH : 5, 6 contains 0.001 M penicillin G and 0.001 M phenyl acetate has been extracted with 10 mL n-butyl acetate contains dioctylamine as carrier. Variation concentration  of carrier were 0.000; 0.002; 0.004; 0.006 and 0.008 M. Variation time of extraction were 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min. The penicillin G and phenyl acetate that dissolved in organic phase ha been  reextracted with 10 mL aqueous with variation of pH : 7, 8. The optimum condition obtained as follow : concentration dioctylamine was 0.002M ; pH the first phase water was 5 and the second phase water was 8 ; and the time of extraction was 10 min.   Keywords: Separation factor, Reactive extraction

  2. Osteoinductivity assay of the variability of repeated extractions of bone morphogenetic proteins from bovine bone at different times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhen-ming 胡侦明; Sean AF Peel; Cameron ML Clokie

    2004-01-01

    Objective:To observe the activity of repeated extracts of bone matrix and the production of purified bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs).Methods: BMPs were extracted 1- 4 times from fresh bovine cortical bone by the modified Urist's method, with each collected precipitate separated and lyophilized as partially purified BMPs. Another fresh bovine bone was extracted three times and the precipitates were mixed and lyophilized. Meanwhile, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)activity was measured by an in vitro assay employing cultured C2C12 mouse myoblast cells through the osteoinductivity of bovine BMPs extracted four times at days 1, 4, 7, and 14, and the correlation between BMPs quantities and costing during extraction processes was analyzed.Results:The purified and the cost showed a positive correlation(r=0.969).To separate and lyophilize each collected precipitate as partially purified BMPs raised the cost,and mixed precipitates also cost much.ALPactivities of 1st and mixed extractions of BMPs were shown to be highly osteoinductive and keep a significantly high level(P<0.05-0.01)4 days after culturing compared with the 2nd,3rd and 4th extractions,especially the control group.However,the more times the extraction ws done,the less activity of BMPs was shown and more costing was.The x-ray and histological analysis also showed that the 1st extraction of BMPs induced more ossicles and new bone formation.Conclusions:The results indicated that BMPs enhanced the abilities of osteoinductiviyt in C2C12 culture in vitro.The first extraction of BMPsfrom bone is fitfull,4th extractions are unnecessary for they cost more and waste more time,say nothing of mixed extractions.

  3. Modeling of piezoelectric energy extraction in a thermoacoustic engine with multi-pole time-domain impedance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jeffrey; Scalo, Carlo; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2015-11-01

    We have carried out the first high-fidelity Navier-Stokes simulation of a complete thermoacoustic engine with piezoelectric energy extraction. The standing-wave thermoacoustic piezoelectric (TAP) engine model comprises a 51 cm long cylindrical resonator, containing a thermoacoustic stack on one end and capped by a PZT-5A piezoelectric diaphragm on the other end, tuned to the frequency of the thermoacoustically-amplified mode (388 Hz). A multi-pole broadband time-domain impedance model has been adopted to accurately simulate the measured electromechanical properties of the piezoelectric diaphragm. Simulations are first carried out from quasi-quiescent conditions to a limit cycle, with varying temperature gradients and stack configurations. Stack geometry and boundary layers are fully resolved. Acoustic energy extraction is then activated, achieving a new limit cycle at lower pressure amplitudes. The scaling of the modeled electrical power output and attainable thermal-to-electric energy conversion efficiencies are discussed. Limitations of extending a quasi-one-dimensional linear approximation based on Rott's theory to a (low amplitude) limit cycle are discussed, as well as nonlinear effects such as thermoacoustic energy transport and viscous dissipation.

  4. The Effect of Temperature on Pressurised Hot Water Extraction of Pharmacologically Important Metabolites as Analysed by UPLC-qTOF-MS and PCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Khoza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolite extraction methods have been shown to be a critical consideration for pharmacometabolomics studies and, as such, optimization and development of new extraction methods are crucial. In the current study, an organic solvent-free method, namely, pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE, was used to extract pharmacologically important metabolites from dried Moringa oleifera leaves. Here, the temperature of the extraction solvent (pure water was altered while keeping other factors constant using a homemade PHWE system. Samples extracted at different temperatures (50, 100, and 150°C were assayed for antioxidant activities and the effect of the temperature on the extraction process was evaluated. The samples were further analysed by mass spectrometry to elucidate their metabolite compositions. Principal component analysis (PCA evaluation of the UPLC-MS data showed distinctive differential metabolite patterns. Here, temperature changes during PHWE were shown to affect the levels of metabolites with known pharmacological activities, such as chlorogenic acids and flavonoids. Our overall findings suggest that, if not well optimised, the extraction temperature could compromise the “pharmacological potency” of the extracts. The use of MS in combination with PCA was furthermore shown to be an excellent approach to evaluate the quality and content of pharmacologically important extracts.

  5. Endmembers extraction of wheat based on time series of MODIS-NDVI and TM samples data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xulong; Zhong, Kaiwen; Liu, Wanxia; Pan, Yaozhong

    2008-10-01

    Knowledge of the area and distribution of cropland is important for land management and land security. Low spatial resolution imagery is one of the important remote sensing data source in the study of the large extent cropland. There exist many mixed pixels and effective method that should be improved to deal with them. In this paper, linear mixing model was used to unmix the time series of MODIS-NDVI data. The emphasis was the identification and extraction of endmembers, which represent the spectral characteristics of the single pure land cover types. A new endmembers extraction algorithm based on the temporal series of MODIS-NDVI and TM sample data was presented in this paper. We used the effective endmembers to linear spectral mixture model to achieve the wheat area in the study area. Regarding the classification of TM as the reference data, we evaluated the classification results and found wheat distribution's region accuracy and pixel accuracy reach to 92.9% and 0.837 respectively, which were higher than the clarification result based on the endmembers from MODIS-NDVI pixel purity index analysis or from classifications of TM data. This shew that our endmembers extraction algorithmwas available and effective, which helped to improve monitoring accuracy of large scope and distribution of vegetation.

  6. Extracting strong measurement noise from stochastic time series: applications to empirical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P G; Haase, M; Böttcher, F; Peinke, J; Kleinhans, D; Friedrich, R

    2010-04-01

    It is a big challenge in the analysis of experimental data to disentangle the unavoidable measurement noise from the intrinsic dynamical noise. Here we present a general operational method to extract measurement noise from stochastic time series even in the case when the amplitudes of measurement noise and uncontaminated signal are of the same order of magnitude. Our approach is based on a recently developed method for a nonparametric reconstruction of Langevin processes. Minimizing a proper non-negative function, the procedure is able to correctly extract strong measurement noise and to estimate drift and diffusion coefficients in the Langevin equation describing the evolution of the original uncorrupted signal. As input, the algorithm uses only the two first conditional moments extracted directly from the stochastic series and is therefore suitable for a broad panoply of different signals. To demonstrate the power of the method, we apply the algorithm to synthetic as well as climatological measurement data, namely, the daily North Atlantic Oscillation index, shedding light on the discussion of the nature of its underlying physical processes.

  7. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  8. Temperature, physiological time, and zinc toxicity in the isopod, Porcellio scaber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donker, M.H.; Van Straalen, N.M. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Ecology and Ecotoxicology; Abdel-Lateif, H.M.; Khalil, M.A.; Bayoumi, B.M. [Tanta Univ. (Egypt)

    1998-08-01

    Temperature is an important controlling factor in the metabolism of ectotherms, and it may interact with the toxicity of heavy metals in a variety of ways. In this work, a study on the effect of different zinc concentrations on growth of the isopod, Porcellio scaber was conducted using four temperature levels. The results demonstrated a significant effect for both zinc and temperature on the growth rate; the interaction between zinc and temperature was also significant. The Arrhenius function was used to describe the temperature-growth rate relationship, from which estimates for the activation energy were derived. A tendency for activation energy to decrease with increasing zinc concentration was observed. Isopods exposed to 13 {micro}mol Zn/g had the highest activation energy and the highest growth rate. To analyze the effect of temperature on the internal body concentration of zinc, the exposure time was transformed into physiological time, calibrated at 15 C, for all experimental groups using the activation energies estimated earlier. The rate of zinc accumulation was derived from the relationship between internal body concentration and physiological exposure time. Differences between isopods cultured at different temperatures could be explained well by the effect of physiological exposure time. The interaction between temperature and zinc toxicity seems to be due not to increased accumulation of zinc at higher temperatures as such but to a physiological interaction with the energy metabolism.

  9. Performance of a Predictive Model for Calculating Ascent Time to a Target Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Woo Moon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop an artificial neural network (ANN prediction model for controlling building heating systems. This model was used to calculate the ascent time of indoor temperature from the setback period (when a building was not occupied to a target setpoint temperature (when a building was occupied. The calculated ascent time was applied to determine the proper moment to start increasing the temperature from the setback temperature to reach the target temperature at an appropriate time. Three major steps were conducted: (1 model development; (2 model optimization; and (3 performance evaluation. Two software programs—Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB and Transient Systems Simulation (TRNSYS—were used for model development, performance tests, and numerical simulation methods. Correlation analysis between input variables and the output variable of the ANN model revealed that two input variables (current indoor air temperature and temperature difference from the target setpoint temperature, presented relatively strong relationships with the ascent time to the target setpoint temperature. These two variables were used as input neurons. Analyzing the difference between the simulated and predicted values from the ANN model provided the optimal number of hidden neurons (9, hidden layers (3, moment (0.9, and learning rate (0.9. At the study’s conclusion, the optimized model proved its prediction accuracy with acceptable errors.

  10. Comparison of efficiency of various DNA extraction methods from cysts of Giardia intestinalis measured by PCR and TaqMan real time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamska, M; Leońska-Duniec, A; Maciejewska, A; Sawczuk, M; Skotarczak, B

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the presented study was to work out an effective method of extraction of DNA from Giardia intestinalis cysts as well as a sensitive and specific method for detection of DNA of this protozoan using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twelve protocols for DNA extraction have been compared. Purification and extraction of DNA were preceded by additional actions in order to destroy the cysts' wall. The highest effectiveness of DNA extraction was obtained in case of alternating application of freezing the samples in liquid nitrogen and their incubation in water bath in the temperature of 100 degrees C, and then the extraction with the QIAamp DNA Tissue Mini Kit (QIAGEN)--T kit--with an all night long incubation with proteinase K in 56 degrees C. Effectiveness of DNA extraction with the use of each kit after extraction with each treatment was measured by nested PCR product of beta-giardin gene fragment and C(T) values of real time PCR of the SSU rRNA gene of G. intestinalis. The detection limit, defined as the lowest number detected in 100% cases, was 100 cysts per 200 microl when effectiveness was evaluated with nested PCR and 50 oocysts with real time PCR after extraction DNA with T kit. Results of our comparative studies have shown that all stages preceding the molecular detection of G. intestinalis DNA are equally important, and materially influence on the final effect and this version of method seems to be very useful for the sensitive detection of DNA of G. intestinalis.

  11. Comparison of efficiency of various DNA extraction methods from cysts of Giardia intestinalis measured by PCR and TaqMan real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamska M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented study was to work out an effective method of extraction of DNA from Giardia intestinalis cysts as well as a sensitive and specific method for detection of DNA of this protozoan using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Twelve protocols for DNA extraction have been compared. Purification and extraction of DNA were preceded by additional actions in order to destroy the cysts’ wall. The highest effectiveness of DNA extraction was obtained in case of alternating application of freezing the samples in liquid nitrogen and their incubation in water bath in the temperature of 100 ˚C, and then the extraction with the QIAamp DNA Tissue Mini Kit (QIAGEN – T kit – with an all night long incubation with proteinase K in 56 ˚C. Effectiveness of DNA extraction with the use of each kit after extraction with each treatment was measured by nested PCR product of β-giardin gene fragment and CT values of real time PCR of the SSU rRNA gene of G. intestinalis. The detection limit, defined as the lowest number detected in 100 % cases, was 100 cysts per 200 μl when effectiveness was evaluated with nested PCR and 50 oocysts with real time PCR after extraction DNA with T kit. Results of our comparative studies have shown that all stages preceding the molecular detection of G. intestinalis DNA are equally important, and materially influence on the final effect and this version of method seems to be very useful for the sensitive detection of DNA of G. intestinalis.

  12. Comparison of DNA extraction protocols for Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Thakur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several nucleic acid amplification techniques are available for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB in pulmonary and extrapulmonary samples, but insufficient data are available on the diagnostic utility of these techniques in tubercular meningitis where bacilli load is less. The success of final amplification and detection of nucleic acid depends on successful extraction of DNA from the organism. Aims: We performed this study to compare four methods of extraction of MTB DNA from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples so as to select one method of DNA extraction for amplification of nucleic acid from clinical samples. Materials and Methods: Four methods of extracting MTB DNA from CSF samples for testing by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR were compared: QIAGEN R protocol for DNA purification using QIAamp spin procedure (manual, AMPLICOR R respiratory specimen preparation kit, MagNA Pure R kit extraction, combined manual DNA extraction with automated extraction by MagNA Pure R . Real-time PCR was performed on COBAS TaqMan 48 Analyzer R with known positive and negative controls. Results: The detection limit for the combined manual and MagNA Pure R extraction protocol was found to be 100 copies of MTB DNA per reaction as against 1,000 copies of MTB DNA per reaction by the QIAGEN R , AMPLICOR R , and the MagNA Pure R extraction protocol. Conclusion: The real-time PCR assay employing the combination of manual extraction steps with MagNA Pure R extraction protocol for extraction of MTB DNA proved to be better than other extraction methods in analytical sensitivity, but could not detect less than 10 2 bacilli /ml.

  13. [Studies on extraction of active fraction from Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Cai-Ni; He, Wei; Li, Yong; Yuan, Wan-Rui

    2008-10-01

    To study the conditions of extraction of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici by supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Using the content of ferulic acid as the index, conditions for the extraction including extracting pressure, extracting temperature, temperature of resolution and extracting time were optimized by uniform design. The best SFE conclusions were as follows: cosolvent was 50% ethanol (ml/g), extracting pressure was 40 MPa, extracting temperature was 50 degrees C, pressure of resolution was 6 MPa, temperature of resolution was 50 degrees C, extracting time was 3.5 hours. The optimum extraction has high extraction ratio of active fraction in Rhizoma et Radix Ligustici, so it is reasonable and practicable.

  14. Methods for optimizing DNA extraction before quantifying oral bacterial numbers by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Martin, F Elizabeth; Hunter, Neil; Jacques, Nicholas A

    2009-07-01

    Methods for the optimal extraction of genomic DNA for real-time PCR enumeration of oral bacteria using the muramidase, mutanolysin, were developed using a simple in vitro oral flora model comprised of the facultative anaerobic gram-positive bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus mutans, the gram-positive anaerobe, Parvimonas micra, and the gram-negative anaerobes, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella melaninogenica and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Traditional, as well as more elaborate, methods of quantifying bacterial numbers, including colony counting and estimation of DNA content using 4',6-diamino-2-phenylindole were compared in order to validate the real-time PCR approach. Evidence was obtained that P. gingivalis nuclease activity adversely affected the extraction of double-stranded DNA from this bacterium either alone or when it formed part of a consortium with the other bacteria. This nuclease activity could be overcome by treatment of the bacteria with either 20 mM diethyl pyrocarbonate or 70% ethanol at 4 degrees C overnight. A final purification of the DNA to remove any potential PCR inhibitors was added to the protocol in order to accurately quantify the amount of DNA by real-time PCR and hence the number of bacteria in a sample.

  15. Feature extraction from time domain acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Christine; Goldman, Geoffrey H.

    2014-06-01

    The U.S. Army is interested in developing algorithms to classify weapons systems fire based on their acoustic signatures. To support this effort, an algorithm was developed to extract features from acoustic signatures of weapons systems fire and applied to over 1300 signatures. The algorithm filtered the data using standard techniques then estimated the amplitude and time of the first five peaks and troughs and the location of the zero crossing in the waveform. The results were stored in Excel spreadsheets. The results are being used to develop and test acoustic classifier algorithms.

  16. The influence of time and temperature on molecular gut content analysis: Adalia bipunctata fed with Rhopalosiphum padi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STUART MCMILLAN; ANNA-KARIN KUUSK; ANNA CASSEL-LUNDHAGEN; BARBARA EKBOM

    2007-01-01

    Gut content analysis is a useful tool when studying arthropod predator-prey interactions. We used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique to examine how detection of prey DNA in the gut content of predators was influenced by digestion time and temperature. Such knowledge is critical before applying PCR-based gut content analysis to field collected predators. Larvae of the two-spotted ladybeetle (Adalia bipunctata L.) were fed with the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphumpadi L.) at either 21℃ or 14℃. After consuming one aphid, the predators were allowed to digest the prey for a range of time periods up to 24 hours. The influence of temperature on A. bipunctata feeding behavior was also recorded. From the fed larvae, total DNA was extracted and PCR reactions with R. padi specific primers were run. The number ofA. bipunctata that tested positive for R. padi DNA was negatively related to the length of digestion time. Temperature influenced larval feeding behavior but did not have a significant effect on R. padi DNA detection. After pooling the data from both temperature treatments we estimated the time point when R. padi DNA could be amplified from 50% of the fed A. bipunctata by PCR to be 4.87 hours. With such a rapid decrease in prey DNA detection success, positive PCR reactions will most likely be the result of predation events occurring shortly before capture. If a defined digestion temperature range has proven not to influence prey detection, PCR data obtained from predators collected within that particular range can be interpreted in the same way.

  17. Temperature effects on the immature development time of Culex eduardoi Casal and Garcia (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loetti, V.; Schweigmann, N.J.; Burroni, N.E., E-mail: nburroni@ege.fcen.uba.a [Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Grupo de Estudio de Mosquitos

    2011-01-15

    The effect of constant temperatures on the development time from first instar to adult emergence was studied in Culex eduardoi Casal and Garcia reared at 7, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 or 33 deg C. Data were adjusted to the linear degree-day model and the nonlinear Briere model. According to the linear model, the development time was inversely related to the rearing temperatures between 7 deg C and 25 deg C. Maximum mortality (100%) was recorded at temperatures > 30 deg C. According to the linear model, the development threshold temperature and thermal constant were 5.7 deg C and 188.8 degree days, respectively. The lower and upper threshold temperatures and the optimum temperature for the nonlinear model were -2.3, 30.0 and 28.1 deg C, respectively. (author)

  18. Extracting biologically significant patterns from short time series gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinnis Thomas

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time series gene expression data analysis is used widely to study the dynamics of various cell processes. Most of the time series data available today consist of few time points only, thus making the application of standard clustering techniques difficult. Results We developed two new algorithms that are capable of extracting biological patterns from short time point series gene expression data. The two algorithms, ASTRO and MiMeSR, are inspired by the rank order preserving framework and the minimum mean squared residue approach, respectively. However, ASTRO and MiMeSR differ from previous approaches in that they take advantage of the relatively few number of time points in order to reduce the problem from NP-hard to linear. Tested on well-defined short time expression data, we found that our approaches are robust to noise, as well as to random patterns, and that they can correctly detect the temporal expression profile of relevant functional categories. Evaluation of our methods was performed using Gene Ontology (GO annotations and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-chip data. Conclusion Our approaches generally outperform both standard clustering algorithms and algorithms designed specifically for clustering of short time series gene expression data. Both algorithms are available at http://www.benoslab.pitt.edu/astro/.

  19. A study on the stability and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) extract at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Gholamhoseinpoor, F

    2015-01-05

    Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Mediated Synthesis by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The involved reducing agents include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of this plant and its ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Z.tenuior leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Silver nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 8 to 40 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that silver nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (NH₂), carbonyl group, -OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles with size of 38 nm. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here were view the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming silver nanoparticles. The results of TEM, SEM, FT-IR, UV-VIS and XRD confirm that the leaves extract of Zt can synthesis silver nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  20. A study on the stability and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) extract at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Gholamhoseinpoor, F.

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Mediated Synthesis by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The involved reducing agents include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of this plant and its ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Z.tenuior leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Silver nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 8 to 40 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that silver nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (sbnd NH2), carbonyl group, sbnd OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles with size of 38 nm. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here were view the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming silver nanoparticles. The results of TEM, SEM, FT-IR, UV-VIS and XRD confirm that the leaves extract of Zt can synthesis silver nanoparticles.

  1. Implications of High Temperature and Elevated CO2 on Flowering Time in Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, S V Krishna; Bahuguna, Rajeev N; Djanaguiraman, Maduraimuthu; Gamuyao, Rico; Prasad, P V Vara; Craufurd, Peter Q

    2016-01-01

    Flowering is a crucial determinant for plant reproductive success and seed-set. Increasing temperature and elevated carbon-dioxide (e[CO2]) are key climate change factors that could affect plant fitness and flowering related events. Addressing the effect of these environmental factors on flowering events such as time of day of anthesis (TOA) and flowering time (duration from germination till flowering) is critical to understand the adaptation of plants/crops to changing climate and is the major aim of this review. Increasing ambient temperature is the major climatic factor that advances flowering time in crops and other plants, with a modest effect of e[CO2].Integrated environmental stimuli such as photoperiod, temperature and e[CO2] regulating flowering time is discussed. The critical role of plant tissue temperature influencing TOA is highlighted and crop models need to substitute ambient air temperature with canopy or floral tissue temperature to improve predictions. A complex signaling network of flowering regulation with change in ambient temperature involving different transcription factors (PIF4, PIF5), flowering suppressors (HvODDSOC2, SVP, FLC) and autonomous pathway (FCA, FVE) genes, mainly from Arabidopsis, provides a promising avenue to improve our understanding of the dynamics of flowering time under changing climate. Elevated CO2 mediated changes in tissue sugar status and a direct [CO2]-driven regulatory pathway involving a key flowering gene, MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT), are emerging evidence for the role of e[CO2] in flowering time regulation.

  2. [Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time in cavity ring-down spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Hu, Ren-Zhi; Xie, Pin-Hua; Qin, Min; Ling, Liu-Yi; Duan, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Research is conducted to accurate and efficient algorithms for extracting ring-down time (r) in cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) which is used to measure NO3 radical in the atmosphere. Fast and accurate extraction of ring-down time guarantees more precise and higher speed of measurement. In this research, five kinds of commonly used algorithms are selected to extract ring-down time which respectively are fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm, discrete Fourier transform (DFT) algorithm, linear regression of the sum (LRS) algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm and least squares (LS) algorithm. Simulated ring-down signals with various amplitude levels of white noises are fitted by using five kinds of the above-mentioned algorithms, and comparison and analysis is conducted to the fitting results of five kinds of algorithms from four respects: the vulnerability to noises, the accuracy and precision of the fitting, the speed of the fitting and preferable fitting ring-down signal waveform length The research results show that Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and linear regression of the sum algorithm are able to provide more precise results and prove to have higher noises immunity, and by comparison, the fitting speed of Leven- berg-Marquardt algorithm turns out to be slower. In addition, by analysis of simulated ring-down signals, five to ten times of ring-down time is selected to be the best fitting waveform length because in this case, standard deviation of fitting results of five kinds of algorithms proves to be the minimum. External modulation diode laser and cavity which consists of two high reflectivity mirrors are used to construct a cavity ring-down spectroscopy detection system. According to our experimental conditions, in which the noise level is 0.2%, linear regression of the sum algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm are selected to process experimental data. The experimental results show that the accuracy and precision of linear regression of

  3. Time-lapse and slow-motion tracking of temperature changes: response time of a thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggio, L.; Onorato, P.; Gratton, L. M.; Oss, S.

    2017-03-01

    We propose the use of a smartphone based time-lapse and slow-motion video techniques together with tracking analysis as valuable tools for investigating thermal processes such as the response time of a thermometer. The two simple experimental activities presented here, suitable also for high school and undergraduate students, allow one to measure in a simple yet rigorous way the response time of an alcohol thermometer and show its critical dependence on the properties of the surrounding environment giving insight into instrument characteristics, heat transfer and thermal equilibrium concepts.

  4. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Benjamin; Hocking, Daniel; O'Neill, K.; Whiteley, Andrew R.; Nislow, Keith H.; O'Donnell, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59 °C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C · decade-1) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d · decade-1). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (~ 0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (~ 0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  5. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letcher, Benjamin H; Hocking, Daniel J; O'Neil, Kyle; Whiteley, Andrew R; Nislow, Keith H; O'Donnell, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C), identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade(-1)) and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade(-1)). We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data). Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE), but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  6. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Letcher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C, identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1 and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1. We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data. Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE, but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  7. Imaging technique for real-time temperature monitoring during cryotherapy of lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Elena; Liopo, Anton; Nadvoretskiy, Vyacheslav; Ermilov, Sergey

    2016-11-01

    Noninvasive real-time temperature imaging during thermal therapies is able to significantly improve clinical outcomes. An optoacoustic (OA) temperature monitoring method is proposed for noninvasive real-time thermometry of vascularized tissue during cryotherapy. The universal temperature-dependent optoacoustic response (ThOR) of red blood cells (RBCs) is employed to convert reconstructed OA images to temperature maps. To obtain the temperature calibration curve for intensity-normalized OA images, we measured ThOR of 10 porcine blood samples in the range of temperatures from 40°C to -16°C and analyzed the data for single measurement variations. The nonlinearity (ΔTmax) and the temperature of zero OA response (T0) of the calibration curve were found equal to 11.4±0.1°C and -13.8±0.1°C, respectively. The morphology of RBCs was examined before and after the data collection confirming cellular integrity and intracellular compartmentalization of hemoglobin. For temperatures below 0°C, which are of particular interest for cryotherapy, the accuracy of a single temperature measurement was ±1°C, which is consistent with the clinical requirements. Validation of the proposed OA temperature imaging technique was performed for slow and fast cooling of blood samples embedded in tissue-mimicking phantoms.

  8. Automation of a center pivot using the temperature-time-threshold method of irriation scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A center pivot was completely automated using the temperature-time-threshold (TTT) method of irrigation scheduling. An array of infrared thermometers was mounted on the center pivot and these were used to remotely determine the crop leaf temperature as an indicator of crop water stress. We describ...

  9. Effect of semen extender and storage temperature on ram sperm motility over time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storage of ram semen for long period of time depends on a number of factors, including type of extender and storage temperature. A study compared the effect of semen extender and storage temperature on motility of ram semen stored for 72 h. Semen collected via electroejaculator from 5 mature Katahd...

  10. Lag time for germination of Penicillium chrysogenum conidia is induced by temperature shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalai, Safaa; Bensoussan, Maurice; Dantigny, Philippe

    2014-09-01

    In the environment, fungal conidia are subject to transient conditions. In particular, temperature is varying according to day/night periods. All predictive models for germination assume that fungal spores can adapt instantaneously to changes of temperature. The only study that supports this assumption (Gougouli and Koutsoumanis, 2012, Modelling germination of fungal spores at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 152: 153-161) was carried out on Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger conidia that, in most cases, already produced germ tubes. In contrast, the present study focuses on temperature shifts applied during the first stages of germination (i.e., before the apparition of the germ tubes). Firstly, germination times were determined in steady state conditions at 10, 15, 20 and 25 °C. Secondly, temperature shifts (e.g., up-shifts and down-shifts) were applied at 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 of germination times, with 5, 10 and 15 °C magnitudes. Experiments were carried out in triplicate on Penicillium chrysogenum conidia on Potato Dextrose Agar medium according to a full factorial design. Statistical analysis of the results clearly demonstrated that the assumption of instantaneous adaptation of the conidia should be rejected. Temperature shifts during germination led to an induced lag time or an extended germination time as compared to the experiments conducted ay steady state. The induced lag time was maximized when the amplitude of the shift was equal to 10 °C. Interaction between the instant and the direction of the shift was highlighted. A negative lag time was observed for a 15 °C down-shift applied at 1/4 of the germination time. This result suggested that at optimal temperature the rate of germination decreased with time, and that the variation of this rate with time depended on temperature.

  11. A 181 GOPS AKAZE Accelerator Employing Discrete-Time Cellular Neural Networks for Real-Time Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time feature extraction VLSI architecture for high-resolution images based on the accelerated KAZE algorithm. Firstly, a new system architecture is proposed. It increases the system throughput, provides flexibility in image resolution, and offers trade-offs between speed and scaling robustness. The architecture consists of a two-dimensional pipeline array that fully utilizes computational similarities in octaves. Secondly, a substructure (block-serial discrete-time cellular neural network that can realize a nonlinear filter is proposed. This structure decreases the memory demand through the removal of data dependency. Thirdly, a hardware-friendly descriptor is introduced in order to overcome the hardware design bottleneck through the polar sample pattern; a simplified method to realize rotation invariance is also presented. Finally, the proposed architecture is designed in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology. The experimental results show a performance of 127 fps in full HD resolution at 200 MHz frequency. The peak performance reaches 181 GOPS and the throughput is double the speed of other state-of-the-art architectures.

  12. A 181 GOPS AKAZE Accelerator Employing Discrete-Time Cellular Neural Networks for Real-Time Feature Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guangli; Liu, Leibo; Zhu, Wenping; Yin, Shouyi; Wei, Shaojun

    2015-09-04

    This paper proposes a real-time feature extraction VLSI architecture for high-resolution images based on the accelerated KAZE algorithm. Firstly, a new system architecture is proposed. It increases the system throughput, provides flexibility in image resolution, and offers trade-offs between speed and scaling robustness. The architecture consists of a two-dimensional pipeline array that fully utilizes computational similarities in octaves. Secondly, a substructure (block-serial discrete-time cellular neural network) that can realize a nonlinear filter is proposed. This structure decreases the memory demand through the removal of data dependency. Thirdly, a hardware-friendly descriptor is introduced in order to overcome the hardware design bottleneck through the polar sample pattern; a simplified method to realize rotation invariance is also presented. Finally, the proposed architecture is designed in TSMC 65 nm CMOS technology. The experimental results show a performance of 127 fps in full HD resolution at 200 MHz frequency. The peak performance reaches 181 GOPS and the throughput is double the speed of other state-of-the-art architectures.

  13. Short-Time Fourier Transform and Decision Tree-Based Pattern Recognition for Gas Identification Using Temperature Modulated Microhotplate Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aixiang He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the sensor response is dependent on its operating temperature, modulated temperature operation is usually applied in gas sensors for the identification of different gases. In this paper, the modulated operating temperature of microhotplate gas sensors combined with a feature extraction method based on Short-Time Fourier Transform (STFT is introduced. Because the gas concentration in the ambient air usually has high fluctuation, STFT is applied to extract transient features from time-frequency domain, and the relationship between the STFT spectrum and sensor response is further explored. Because of the low thermal time constant, the sufficient discriminatory information of different gases is preserved in the envelope of the response curve. Feature information tends to be contained in the lower frequencies, but not at higher frequencies. Therefore, features are extracted from the STFT amplitude values at the frequencies ranging from 0 Hz to the fundamental frequency to accomplish the identification task. These lower frequency features are extracted and further processed by decision tree-based pattern recognition. The proposed method shows high classification capability by the analysis of different concentration of carbon monoxide, methane, and ethanol.

  14. EFFECTS OF PROPOLIS EXTRACTS IN CHICKENS DIET AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM DETECTED BY REAL-TIME PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to follow the effect of propolis extractsin chickens feed against colonization of GIT (gastrointestinal tract with Salmonella spp. by Step One real-time PCR. Propolis has been used in folk medicine since ancient times due to its many biological properties, such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, among others. Propolis extracts was applied to chickens feeds in four groups with different concentration of propolis. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and MicroSEQ® Salmonella spp. Detection Kit for pursuance the real-time PCR(Applied Biosystems. In the investigated samples without incubation we could detect strain of Salmonella spp. in twenty of twenty five samples (swabs, as well as internal positive control (IPC, which was positive in all samples. Our results indicate positive effect of propolis against colonization of GIT (gastrointestinal tract with Salmonellaspp. in all experimental groups. This Step One real-time PCR assay is extremely useful for any laboratory equipped by real-time PCR. Thus, these results proved real-time PCR to be useful as a rapid diagnostic test for the direct detection of pathogens in food, without the need of enrichment steps.

  15. Time-frequency manifold sparse reconstruction: A novel method for bearing fault feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoxi; He, Qingbo

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel transient signal reconstruction method, called time-frequency manifold (TFM) sparse reconstruction, is proposed for bearing fault feature extraction. This method introduces image sparse reconstruction into the TFM analysis framework. According to the excellent denoising performance of TFM, a more effective time-frequency (TF) dictionary can be learned from the TFM signature by image sparse decomposition based on orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP). Then, the TF distribution (TFD) of the raw signal in a reconstructed phase space would be re-expressed with the sum of learned TF atoms multiplied by corresponding coefficients. Finally, one-dimensional signal can be achieved again by the inverse process of TF analysis (TFA). Meanwhile, the amplitude information of the raw signal would be well reconstructed. The proposed technique combines the merits of the TFM in denoising and the atomic decomposition in image sparse reconstruction. Moreover, the combination makes it possible to express the nonlinear signal processing results explicitly in theory. The effectiveness of the proposed TFM sparse reconstruction method is verified by experimental analysis for bearing fault feature extraction.

  16. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  17. The sign of temperature inhomogeneities deduced from time-distance helioseismology

    CERN Document Server

    Brüggen, M

    2000-01-01

    Inhomogeneities in wave propagation conditions near and below the solar surface have been detected by means of time-distance helioseismology. Here we calculate the effect of temperature inhomogeneities on the travel times of sound waves. A temperature increase, e.g. in active regions, not only increases the sound speed but also lengthens the path along which the wave travels because the expansion of the heated layers shifts the upper turning of the waves upward. Using a ray tracing approximation we find that in many cases the net effect of a temperature enhancement is an {\\it increase} of the travel times. We argue that the reduced travel times that are observed are caused by a combination of magnetic fields in the active region and {\\it reduced} subsurface temperatures. Such a reduction may be related to the increased radiative energy loss from small magnetic flux tubes.

  18. Rapid green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using Rosa hybrida petal extract at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruzi, Masumeh; Zare, Davood; Khoshnevisan, Kamyar; Davoodi, Daryoush

    2011-09-01

    This study reports a green method for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of rose petals. The effects of gold salt concentration, extract concentration and extract quantity were investigated on nanoparticles synthesis. Gold nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are formed with various shapes. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that gold nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (-NH2), carbonyl group, -OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of gold nanoparticles. Dynamic light scattering technique was used for particle size measurement, and it was found to be about 10nm. The rate of the reaction was high and it was completed within 5 min.

  19. IMPACT OF TIME / TEMPERATURE CURING CONDITIONS AND ALUMINATE CONCENTRATIONS ON SALTSTONE PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-05-05

    This report addresses the impact of (1) the time and temperature curing conditions (profile) and (2) the impact of higher aluminate concentrations in the decontaminated salt solution on Saltstone processing and performance properties. The results demonstrate that performance properties as well as some of the processing properties of Saltstone are highly sensitive to the conditions of time and temperature under which curing occurs. This sensitivity is in turn dependent on the concentration of aluminate in the salt feed solution. In general, the performance properties and indicators (Young's modulus, compressive strength and total porosity) are reduced when curing is initially carried out under high temperature. However, this reduction in performance properties is dependent on the sequence of temperatures (the time/temperature profile) experienced during the curing process. That is, samples that are subjected to a 1, 2, 3 or 4 day curing time at 60 C followed by final curing at 22 C lead to performance properties that are significantly different than the properties of grouts allowed to cure for 1, 2, 3 or 4 days at 22 C followed by a treatment at 60 C. The performance properties of Saltstone cured in the sequence of higher temperature first are generally less (and in some cases significantly less) than performance properties of Saltstone cured only at 22 C. This loss in performance was shown to be mitigated by increased slag content or cement content in the premix at the expense of fly ash. For the sequence in which the Saltstone is initially cured at 22 C followed by a higher temperature cure, the performance properties can be equal to or greater than the properties observed with curing only at 22 C curing. The results in this report indicate that in order to meaningfully measure and report the performance properties of Saltstone, one has to know the time/temperature profile conditions under which the Saltstone will be cured. This will require thermal modeling

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF TIME ON THE DEATH OF HELA CELLS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time required to kill HeLa cells in suspension was determined for the range of temperatures from 48 to 65 C. The cells were placed between 6...elevated temperature episode and distinguished live from dead cells. The time (t) to cause death of the HeLa cells was found to range from 1 second at 65 C to 1900 seconds at 48 C. (Author)

  1. Modelling spoilage of fresh turbot and evaluation of a time-temperature integrator (TTI) label under fluctuating temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuin, Maider; Alfaro, Begoña; Cruz, Ziortza; Argarate, Nerea; George, Susie; Le Marc, Yvan; Olley, June; Pin, Carmen

    2008-10-31

    Kinetic models were developed to predict the microbial spoilage and the sensory quality of fresh fish and to evaluate the efficiency of a commercial time-temperature integrator (TTI) label, Fresh Check(R), to monitor shelf life. Farmed turbot (Psetta maxima) samples were packaged in PVC film and stored at 0, 5, 10 and 15 degrees C. Microbial growth and sensory attributes were monitored at regular time intervals. The response of the Fresh Check device was measured at the same temperatures during the storage period. The sensory perception was quantified according to a global sensory indicator obtained by principal component analysis as well as to the Quality Index Method, QIM, as described by Rahman and Olley [Rahman, H.A., Olley, J., 1984. Assessment of sensory techniques for quality assessment of Australian fish. CSIRO Tasmanian Regional Laboratory. Occasional paper n. 8. Available from the Australian Maritime College library. Newnham. Tasmania]. Both methods were found equally valid to monitor the loss of sensory quality. The maximum specific growth rate of spoilage bacteria, the rate of change of the sensory indicators and the rate of change of the colour measurements of the TTI label were modelled as a function of temperature. The temperature had a similar effect on the bacteria, sensory and Fresh Check kinetics. At the time of sensory rejection, the bacterial load was ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g. The end of shelf life indicated by the Fresh Check label was close to the sensory rejection time. The performance of the models was validated under fluctuating temperature conditions by comparing the predicted and measured values for all microbial, sensory and TTI responses. The models have been implemented in a Visual Basic add-in for Excel called "Fish Shelf Life Prediction (FSLP)". This program predicts sensory acceptability and growth of spoilage bacteria in fish and the response of the TTI at constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. The program is freely

  2. Spatial organization and time dependence of Jupiter's tropospheric temperatures, 1980-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Friedson, A. James; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padmavati A.; Caldwell, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Baines, Kevin H.; Bergstralh, Jay T.; Martin, Terry Z.; West, Robert A.; Veeder, Glenn J., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The spatial organization and time dependence of Jupiter's temperature near 250-millibar pressure were measured through a jovian year by imaging thermal emission at 18 micrometers. The temperature field is influenced by seasonal radiative forcing, and its banded organization is closely correlated with the visible cloud field. Evidence was found for a quasi-periodic oscillation of temperatures in the Equatorial Zone, a correlation between tropospheric and stratospheric waves in the North Equatorial Belt, and slowly moving thermal features in the North and South Equatorial Belts. There appears to be no common relation between temporal changes of temperature and changes in the visual albedo of the various axisymmetric bands.

  3. Phase separation time/temperature dependence of thermoplastics-modified thermosetting systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiujuan ZHANG; Xiaosu YI; Yuanze XU

    2008-01-01

    The cure-induced phase separation processes of various thermoplastics(TP)-modified thermosetting systems which show upper critical solution temperature (UCST) or lower critical solution temperature (LCST) were studied with emphasis on the temperature depend-ency of the phase separation time and its potential application in the cure time-temperature processing win-dow.We found that the phase separation time/temper-ature relationship follows the simple Arrhenius equation.The cure-induced phase separation activation energy Ea(ps) generated from the linear fitting of the Arrhenius equation is irrelevant to the detection means of phase separation time.We also found that Ea(ps) is insensitive to TP content,TP molecular weight and curing rate,but it changes with the cure reaction kinetics and the chemical environment of the systems.With the established phase separation time-temperature dependence relation,we can easily establish the whole cure time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagram with morphology information which is a useful map for the TP/TS compo-sites processing industry.

  4. Time series analysis of data for sea surface temperature and upwelling components from the southwest coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goela, Priscila Costa; Cordeiro, Clara; Danchenko, Sergei; Icely, John; Cristina, Sónia; Newton, Alice

    2016-11-01

    This study relates sea surface temperature (SST) to the upwelling conditions off the southwest coast of Portugal using statistical analyses of publically available data. Optimum Interpolation (OI) of daily SST data were extracted from the United States (US) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and data for wind speed and direction were from the US National Climatic Data Center. Time series were extracted at a daily frequency for a time horizon of 26 years. Upwelling indices were estimated using westerly (Qx) and southerly (Qy) Ekman transport components. In the first part of the study, time series were inspected for trend and seasonality over the whole period. The seasonally adjusted time series revealed an increasing slope for SST (0.15 °C per decade) and decreasing slopes for Qx (- 84.01 m3 s- 1 km- 1 per decade) and Qy (- 25.20 m3 s- 1 km- 1 per decade), over the time horizon. Structural breaks analysis applied to the time series showed that a statistically significant incremental increase in SST was more pronounced during the last decade. Cross-correlation between upwelling indices and SST revealed a time delay of 5 and 2 days between Qx and SST, and between Qy and SST, respectively. A spectral analysis combined with the previous analysis enabled the identification of four oceanographic seasons. Those seasons were later recognised over a restricted time period of 4 years, between 2008 and 2012, when there was an extensive sampling programme for the validation of ocean colour remote sensing imagery. The seasons were defined as: summer, with intense and regular events of upwelling; autumn, indicating relaxation of upwelling conditions; and spring and winter, showing high interannual variability in terms of number and intensity of upwelling events.

  5. Essential Oil Variability and Biological Activities of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. Wood According to the Extraction Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Saka, Boualem; Boudarene, Lynda; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, the hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) kinetics of essential oil (EO) extracted from Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. wood was conducted, in order to assess the impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities. Gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analyses showed significant differences between the extracted EOs, where each family class or component presents a specific kinetic according to extraction time, technique and especially for the major components: camphene, linalool, cedrol, carvacrol and α-acorenol. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, where each activity has a specific effect according to extraction time and technique. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of extraction time and technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select EOs to be investigated carefully depending on extraction time and technique, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of EO in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food.

  6. [Association between temperature and daily mortality in Guangzhou, 2006-2009: a time-series study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qing-hua; Zhang, Yong-hui; Ma, Wen-jun; Xu, Yan-jun; Xu, Xiao-jun; Cai, Qiu-mao; Pan, Bo; Zeng, Si-qing

    2011-01-01

    To study the association between temperature and daily mortality from June 1, 2006 to December 31, 2009 in Guangzhou. Time series approach was used to estimate the impact of temperature on the rates of total and cause-specific daily mortality. We fitted generalized additive Poisson regression using non-parametric smooth functions to control for the long-term time trend, day of week, air pollution and other weather variables. A slight sloping U-like relationship between the total mortality and temperature was found, with an optimum average temperature (temperature with lowest mortality risk) value of 19.7°C in Guangzhou. For temperature above the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality increased by 3.0% (RR=1.030, 95%CI: 1.011-1.050) for each increase of degree in Celsius. For average temperature below the optimum value, the relative risk of total mortality and diseases of circulatory system had a 3.3% (RR=0.967, 95%CI: 0.936-0.997) decrease and a 3.6% (RR=0.964, 95%CI: 0.935-0.994) increase, for each degree of Celsius increase, respectively. Our findings showed that the temperature had an impact on the daily mortality in Guangzhou. Countermeasures needed to be taken to reduce the temperature related mortality.

  7. The onion fly modulates the adult eclosion time in response to amplitude of temperature cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Watari, Yasuhiko

    2011-08-01

    To confirm whether the amplitude of diel temperature cycles causes a phase shift of adult eclosion rhythm of the onion fly, Delia antiqua, the peak time ( Ø E) of adult eclosion was determined under various thermoperiods with a fixed temperature either in the warm or cool phase and temperature differences ranging from 1°C to 4°C between the two phases. Irrespective of the temperature level during the warm or cool phase, Ø E occurred earlier with decreasing amplitude of the temperature cycle. The results strongly support the previous conclusion of Tanaka and Watari (Naturwissenschaften 90:76-79, 2003) that D. antiqua responds to the amplitude of temperature cycle as a cue for the circadian adult eclosion timing. The phase advance was larger in thermoperiods with a fixed warm-phase temperature than in those with a fixed cool-phase temperature. This might be ascribed to the interaction between the amplitude and level of temperature in the thermoperiodic regimes.

  8. Thermal Skin Damage During Reirradiation and Hyperthermia Is Time-Temperature Dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Akke; Kolff, M Willemijn; Holman, Rebecca; van Leeuwen, Caspar M; Korshuize-van Straten, Linda; de Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne; Rasch, Coen R N; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Crezee, Hans

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the relationship of thermal skin damage (TSD) to time-temperature isoeffect levels for patients with breast cancer recurrence treated with reirradiation plus hyperthermia (reRT + HT), and to investigate whether the treatment history of previous treatments (scar tissue) is a risk factor for TSD. In this observational study, temperature characteristics of hyperthermia sessions were analyzed in 262 patients with recurrent breast cancer treated in the AMC between 2010 and 2014 with reirradiation and weekly hyperthermia for 1 hour. Skin temperature was measured using a median of 42 (range, 29-82) measurement points per hyperthermia session. Sixty-eight patients (26%) developed 79 sites of TSD, after the first (n=26), second (n=17), third (n=27), and fourth (n=9) hyperthermia session. Seventy percent of TSD occurred on or near scar tissue. Scar tissue reached higher temperatures than other skin tissue (0.4°C, Pskin damage sites had much higher maximum temperatures than non-TSD sites (2.8°C, Pskin damage during reRT + HT for recurrent breast cancer was related to higher local temperatures and time-temperature isoeffect levels. Scar tissue reached higher temperatures than other skin tissue, and TSD occurred at lower temperatures and thermal dose values in scar tissue compared with other skin tissue. Indeed, TSD developed often on and around scar tissue from previous surgical procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Global Sea Surface Temperature and Sea Level Rise Estimation with Optimal Historical Time Lag Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Aral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of global temperatures and sea level rise (SLR is important for sustainable development planning of coastal regions of the world and the health and safety of communities living in these regions. In this study, climate change effects on sea level rise is investigated using a dynamic system model (DSM with time lag on historical input data. A time-invariant (TI-DSM and time-variant dynamic system model (TV-DSM with time lag is developed to predict global temperatures and SLR in the 21st century. The proposed model is an extension of the DSM developed by the authors. The proposed model includes the effect of temperature and sea level states of several previous years on the current temperature and sea level over stationary and also moving scale time periods. The optimal time lag period used in the model is determined by minimizing a synthetic performance index comprised of the root mean square error and coefficient of determination which is a measure for the reliability of the predictions. Historical records of global temperature and sea level from 1880 to 2001 are used to calibrate the model. The optimal time lag is determined to be eight years, based on the performance measures. The calibrated model was then used to predict the global temperature and sea levels in the 21st century using a fixed time lag period and moving scale time lag periods. To evaluate the adverse effect of greenhouse gas emissions on SLR, the proposed model was also uncoupled to project the SLR based on global temperatures that are obtained from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC emission scenarios. The projected SLR estimates for the 21st century are presented comparatively with the predictions made in previous studies.

  10. Extracting information in spike time patterns with wavelets and information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-dos-Santos, Vítor; Panzeri, Stefano; Kayser, Christoph; Diamond, Mathew E; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-02-01

    We present a new method to assess the information carried by temporal patterns in spike trains. The method first performs a wavelet decomposition of the spike trains, then uses Shannon information to select a subset of coefficients carrying information, and finally assesses timing information in terms of decoding performance: the ability to identify the presented stimuli from spike train patterns. We show that the method allows: 1) a robust assessment of the information carried by spike time patterns even when this is distributed across multiple time scales and time points; 2) an effective denoising of the raster plots that improves the estimate of stimulus tuning of spike trains; and 3) an assessment of the information carried by temporally coordinated spikes across neurons. Using simulated data, we demonstrate that the Wavelet-Information (WI) method performs better and is more robust to spike time-jitter, background noise, and sample size than well-established approaches, such as principal component analysis, direct estimates of information from digitized spike trains, or a metric-based method. Furthermore, when applied to real spike trains from monkey auditory cortex and from rat barrel cortex, the WI method allows extracting larger amounts of spike timing information. Importantly, the fact that the WI method incorporates multiple time scales makes it robust to the choice of partly arbitrary parameters such as temporal resolution, response window length, number of response features considered, and the number of available trials. These results highlight the potential of the proposed method for accurate and objective assessments of how spike timing encodes information. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Near surface spatially averaged air temperature and wind speed determined by acoustic travel time tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Raabe

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic travel time tomography is presented as a possibility for remote monitoring of near surface airtemperature and wind fields. This technique provides line-averaged effective sound speeds changing with temporally and spatially variable air temperature and wind vector. The effective sound speed is derived from the travel times of sound signals which propagate at defined paths between different acoustic sources and receivers. Starting with the travel time data a tomographic algorithm (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique, SIRT is used to calculate area-averaged air temperature and wind speed. The accuracy of the experimental method and the tomographic inversion algorithm is exemplarily demonstrated for one day without remarkable differences in the horizontal temperature field, determined by independent in situ measurements at different points within the measuring field. The differences between the conventionally determined air temperature (point measurement and the air temperature determined by tomography (area-averaged measurement representative for the area of the measuring field 200m x 260m were below 0.5 K for an average of 10 minutes. The differences obtained between the wind speed measured at a meteorological mast and calculated from acoustic measurements are not higher than 0.5 ms-1 for the same averaging time. The tomographically determined area-averaged distribution of air temperature (resolution 50 m x 50 m can be used to estimate the horizontal gradient of air temperature as a pre-condition to detect horizontal turbulent fluxes of sensible heat.

  12. Application of time-temperature-stress superposition on creep of wood-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Cheng; Lam, Frank; Kadla, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Time-temperature-stress superposition principle (TTSSP) was widely applied in studies of viscoelastic properties of materials. It involves shifting curves at various conditions to construct master curves. To extend the application of this principle, a temperature-stress hybrid shift factor and a modified Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation that incorporated variables of stress and temperature for the shift factor fitting were studied. A wood-plastic composite (WPC) was selected as the test subject to conduct a series of short-term creep tests. The results indicate that the WPC were rheologically simple materials and merely a horizontal shift was needed for the time-temperature superposition, whereas vertical shifting would be needed for time-stress superposition. The shift factor was independent of the stress for horizontal shifts in time-temperature superposition. In addition, the temperature- and stress-shift factors used to construct master curves were well fitted with the WLF equation. Furthermore, the parameters of the modified WLF equation were also successfully calibrated. The application of this method and equation can be extended to curve shifting that involves the effects of both temperature and stress simultaneously.

  13. Turbulent Prandtl number and space-time temperature correlation measurements in an incompressible turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Nader; Strataridakis, Constantine J.; White, Bruce R.

    1990-01-01

    Hot-wire anemometry measurements in an incompressible turbulent boundary laeyr flow over a heated flat plate at zero pressure gradient were made using an x-probe and temperature fluctuation probe. The experiments resulted in direct measurement of the turbulent Prandtl number as a function of height through the boundary layer for three temperature difference cases. Also, space-time correlations of temperature fluctuations T-prime were obtained with a pair of temperature fluctuation probes. The mean convection velocities of the T-prime large-scale structure are presented for the three temperature difference cases. The mean convection velocity of the T-prime structure is a function of position y(+) and is found to be independent of the temperature difference for the cases considered.

  14. Real Time Extraction Kinetics of Electro Membrane Extraction Verified by Comparing Drug Metabolism Profiles Obtained from a Flow-Flow Electro Membrane Extraction-Mass Spectrometry System with LC-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, David; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    A simple to construct and operate, "dip-in" electromembrane extraction (EME) probe directly coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for rapid extraction and real time analysis of various analytes was developed. The setup demonstrated that EME-MS can be used as a viable...... alternative to conventional protein precipitation followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for studying drug metabolism. Comparison of EME-MS with LC-MS for drug metabolism analysis demonstrated for the first time that real time extraction of analytes by EME is possible. Metabolism kinetics...... were investigated for three different drugs: amitriptyline, promethazine, and methadone. By comparing the EME-MS extraction profiles of the drug substances and formed drug metabolites with the metabolism profiles obtained by conventional protein precipitation followed by LC-MS good correlation...

  15. Optimization and validation of liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning for determination of carbamates in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Goulart, Simone; Domingos Alves, Renata; Neves, Antonio Augusto; Queiroz, Jose Humberto de; Conde de Assis, Tamires [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eliana L.R. de, E-mail: meliana@ufv.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vila Gianetti, Casa 24, 36 570-000 Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2010-06-25

    Using a 2{sup 3} experimental design, liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature partitioning (LLE-LTP) was optimized and validated for analysis of three carbamates (aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl) in water samples. In this method, 2.0 mL of sample is placed in contact with 4.0 mL of acetonitrile. After agitation, the sample is placed in a freezer for 3 h for phase separation. The organic extract is analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV). For validation of the technique, the following figures of merit were evaluated: accuracy, precision, detection and quantification limits, linearity, sensibility and selectivity. Extraction recovery percentages of the carbamates aldicarb, carbofuran and carbaryl were 90%, 95% and 96%, respectively. Even though extremely low volumes of sample and solvent were used, the extraction method was selective and the detection and quantification limits were between 5.0 and 10.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and 17.0 and 33.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively.

  16. Fast and effective low-temperature freezing extraction technique to determine organotin compounds in edible vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxia; Ma, Yaqian; Wan, Yiqun; Guo, Lan; Wan, Xiaofen

    2016-06-01

    Most organotin compounds that have been widely used in food packaging materials and production process show serious toxicity effects to human health. In this study, a simple and low-cost method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of four organotins in edible vegetable oil samples was developed. Four organotins including dibutyltin dichloride, tributyltin chloride, diphenyltin dichloride, and triphenyltin chloride were simultaneously extracted with methanol using the low-temperature precipitation process. After being concentrated, the extracts were purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion using graphitized carbon black. The experimental parameters such as extraction solvent and clean-up material were optimized. To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the recoveries were investigated. In addition, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was also proposed for comparison. The procedures of extracting and purifying samples for the analysis were simple and easy to perform batch operations, also showed good efficiency with lower relative standard deviation. The limits of detection of the four organotins were 0.28-0.59 μg/L, and the limits of quantification of the four organotins were 0.93-1.8 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the four organotins in edible vegetable oil. Some analytes were detected at the level of 2.5-28.8 μg/kg.

  17. The loss of essential oil components induced by the Purge Time in the Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) procedure of Cupressus sempervirens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Czapczyńska, Natalia B; Wianowska, Dorota

    2012-05-30

    The influence of different Purge Times on the effectiveness of Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) of volatile oil components from cypress plant matrix (Cupressus sempervirens) was investigated, applying solvents of diverse extraction efficiencies. The obtained results show the decrease of the mass yields of essential oil components as a result of increased Purge Time. The loss of extracted components depends on the extrahent type - the greatest mass yield loss occurred in the case of non-polar solvents, whereas the smallest was found in polar extracts. Comparisons of the PLE method with Sea Sand Disruption Method (SSDM), Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method (MSPD) and Steam Distillation (SD) were performed to assess the method's accuracy. Independent of the solvent and Purge Time applied in the PLE process, the total mass yield was lower than the one obtained for simple, short and relatively cheap low-temperature matrix disruption procedures - MSPD and SSDM. Thus, in the case of volatile oils analysis, the application of these methods is advisable.

  18. Uniaxial Time-Dependent Ratcheting of SS304 Stainless Steel at High Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-zheng; ZHANG Juan; SUN Ya-fang; KAN Qian-hua

    2007-01-01

    The uniaxial time-dependent strain cyclic behaviors and ratcheting of SS304 stainless steel were studied at high temperatures (350 ℃ and 700 ℃). The effects of straining and stressing rates, holding time at the peak and/or valley of each cycle in addition to ambient temperature on the cyclic softening/hardening behavior and ratcheting of the material were discussed. It can be seen from experimental results that the material presents remarkable time dependence at 700 ℃, and the ratcheting strain depends greatly on the stressing rate, holding time and ambient temperature. Some significant conclusions are obtained, which are useful to build a constitutive model describing the time-dependent cyclic deformation of the material.

  19. Detecting and resolving position-dependent temperature effects in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kanel, Thomas; Gerber, Dominik; Wittwer, Carl T; Hermann, Mark; Gallati, Sabina

    2011-12-15

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) depends on precise temperature control of the sample during cycling. In the current study, we investigated how temperature variation in plate-based qPCR instruments influences qPCR results. Temperature variation was measured by amplicon melting analysis as a convenient means to assess well-to-well differences. Multiple technical replicates of several SYBR Green I-based qPCR assays allowed correlation of relative well temperature to quantification cycle. We found that inadequate template denaturation results in an inverse correlation and requires increasing the denaturation temperature, adding a DNA destabilizing agent, or pretreating with a restriction enzyme. In contrast, inadequate primer annealing results in a direct correlation and requires lowering the annealing temperature. Significant correlations were found in 18 of 25 assays. The critical nature of temperature-dependent effects was shown in a blinded study of 29 patients for the diagnosis of Prader-Willy and Angelman syndromes, where eight diagnoses were incorrect unless temperature-dependent effects were controlled. A method to detect temperature-dependent effects by pairwise comparisons of replicates in routine experiments is presented and applied. Systematic temperature errors in qPCR instruments can be recognized and their effects eliminated when high precision is required in quantitative genetic diagnostics and critical complementary DNA analyses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dynamic temperature estimation and real time emergency rating of transmission cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, R. S.; Holboll, J.; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella

    2012-01-01

    enables real time emergency ratings, such that the transmission system operator can make well-founded decisions during faults. Hereunder is included the capability of producing high resolution loadability vs. time schedules within few minutes, such that the TSO can safely control the system.......This paper is concerned with the development of a fast computational methodology for dynamical estimation of the temperature in transmission cables solely based on current measurements and an enhanced version of the lumped parameters model, also denoted thermo electric equivalents (TEE......). It is found that the calculated temperature estimations are fairly accurate — within 1.5oC of the finite element method (FEM) simulation to which it is compared — both when looking at the temperature profile (time dependent) and the temperature distribution (geometric dependent). The methodology moreover...

  1. How to extract information from simulations of coarsening at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrida, B.

    1997-03-01

    Certain properties of coarsening phenomena such as the fraction of space which remains always in the same phase are hard to measure in simulations, at nonzero temperature, because one needs to distinguish spin flips due to thermal fluctuations from those due to the motion of interfaces. By comparing the system where coarsening takes place with a fully ordered system submitted to the same thermal noise, one can measure in a simple way the fraction of space which remains in the same phase. Our numerical results indicate a power law decay (of the fraction of persistent spins) in the whole low temperature phase very similar to the zero temperature situation.

  2. Control of nanoparticle agglomeration through variation of the time-temperature profile in chemical vapor synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djenadic, Ruzica; Winterer, Markus

    2017-02-01

    The influence of the time-temperature history on the characteristics of nanoparticles such as size, degree of agglomeration, or crystallinity is investigated for chemical vapor synthesis (CVS). A simple reaction-coagulation-sintering model is used to describe the CVS process, and the results of the model are compared to experimental data. Nanocrystalline titania is used as model material. Titania nanoparticles are generated from titanium-tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in a hot-wall reactor. Pure anatase particles and mixtures of anatase, rutile (up to 11 vol.%), and brookite (up to 29 vol.%) with primary particle sizes from 1.7 nm to 10.5 nm and agglomerate particle sizes from 24.3 nm to 55.6 nm are formed depending on the particle time-temperature history. An inductively heated furnace with variable inductor geometry is used as a novel system to control the time-temperature profile in the reactor externally covering a large wall temperature range from 873 K to 2023 K. An appropriate choice of inductor geometry, i.e. time-temperature profile, can significantly reduce the degree of agglomeration. Other particle characteristics such as crystallinity are also substantially influenced by the time-temperature profile.

  3. Functional relationship of room temperature and setting time of alginate impression material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Irnawati

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia is a tropical country with temperature variation. A lot of dental clinics do not use air conditioner. The room temperature influences water temperature for mixing alginate impression materials. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the functional relationship of room temperature and initial setting time of alginate impression materials. Methods: The New Kromopan® alginate (normal and fast sets were used. The initial setting time were tested at 23 (control, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31 degrees Celcius room temperatures (n = 5. The initial setting time was tested based on ANSI/ADA Specification no. 18 (ISO 1563. The alginate powder was mixed with distilled water (23/50 ratio, put in the metal ring mould, and the initial setting time was measured by test rod. Data were statistically analyzed by linear regression (α = 0.05. result: The initial setting times were 149.60 ± 0.55 (control and 96.40 ± 0.89 (31° C seconds for normal set, and 122.00 ± 1.00 (control and 69.60 ± 0.55 (31° C seconds for fast set. The coefficient of determination of room temperature to initial setting time of alginate were R2 = 0.74 (normal set and R2 = 0.88 (fast set. The regression equation for normal set was Y = 257.6 – 5.5 X (p < 0.01 and fast set was Y = 237.7 – 5.6 X (p < 0.01. Conclusions: The room temperature gave high contribution and became a strength predictor for initial setting time of alginates. The share contribution to the setting time was 0.74% for normal set and 0.88% for fast set alginates.

  4. Real-time Virtual Environment Signal Extraction and Denoising Using Programmable Graphics Hardware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Su; Zhi-Jie Xu; Xiang-Qian Jiang

    2009-01-01

    The sense of being within a three-dimensional (3D) space and interacting with virtual 3D objects in a computer-generated virtual environment (VE) often requires essential image, vision and sensor signal processing techniques such as differentiating and denoising. This paper describes novel implementations of thc Gaussian filtering for characteristic signal extraction and wavelet-based image denoising algorithms that run on the graphics processing unit (GPU). While significant acceleration over standard CPU implementations is obtained through exploiting data parallelism provided by the modern programmable graphics hardware, the CPU can be freed up to run other computations more efficiently such as artificial intelligence (AI) and physics. The proposed GPU-based Gaussian filtering can extract surface information from a real object and provide its material features for rendering and illumination. The wavelet-based signal denoising for large size digital images realized in this project provided better realism for VE visualization without sacrificing real-time and interactive performances of an application.

  5. A Joint Time-Frequency and Matrix Decomposition Feature Extraction Methodology for Pathological Voice Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Ghoraani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of people affected by speech problems is increasing as the modern world places increasing demands on the human voice via mobile telephones, voice recognition software, and interpersonal verbal communications. In this paper, we propose a novel methodology for automatic pattern classification of pathological voices. The main contribution of this paper is extraction of meaningful and unique features using Adaptive time-frequency distribution (TFD and nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF. We construct Adaptive TFD as an effective signal analysis domain to dynamically track the nonstationarity in the speech and utilize NMF as a matrix decomposition (MD technique to quantify the constructed TFD. The proposed method extracts meaningful and unique features from the joint TFD of the speech, and automatically identifies and measures the abnormality of the signal. Depending on the abnormality measure of each signal, we classify the signal into normal or pathological. The proposed method is applied on the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary (MEEI voice disorders database which consists of 161 pathological and 51 normal speakers, and an overall classification accuracy of 98.6% was achieved.

  6. On-chip electromembrane extraction for monitoring drug metabolism in real time by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Pedersen, Jacob Sønderby; Poulsen, Nicklas Nørgård

    2012-01-01

    A temperature controlled (37 °C) metabolic reaction chamber with a volume of 1 mL was coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) by the use of a 50 µm deep counter flow micro-chip electromembrane extraction (EME) system. The EME/ESI-MS system was used to study the in v...

  7. Phenological indicators extraction from dense time-series of Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna; Vuolo, Francesco; Facchi, Arianna

    2016-04-01

    to extract local maxima and minima for each pixel. The resulting values are automatically screened to identify the absolute maxima and minima for each crop cycle. Finally, the algorithm estimates the timing of key phenological periods (i.e. green-up, maximum and senescence) for each pixel. Accuracy assessment is carried out through the visual interpretation of several crop growth curves and using a land cover/land use dataset to analyse the results. The results show that the method can successfully extract phenological indicators from dense smoothed and gap-filled time series, both for summer and winter crops. In addition, the comparison between phenologies extracted from each vegetation indices (NDVI and fAPAR) shows a good agreement (R2 = 0.70). Future effort will be dedicated to apply the proposed approach to Landsat time series for other areas of interest. Furthermore, the method will be improved by calibrating and validating the results for the pilot study based on ground truth data. The phenological indicators will be then assimilated into a hydrological model to estimate crop water requirements at basin scale.

  8. Electronic temperatures of terahertz quantum cascade active regions with phonon scattering assisted injection and extraction scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patimisco, Pietro; Scamarcio, Gaetano; Santacroce, Maria Vittoria; Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Dupont, Emmanuel; Laframboise, Sylvain R; Fathololoumi, Saeed; Razavipour, Ghasem S; Wasilewski, Zbigniew

    2013-04-22

    We measured the lattice and subband electronic temperatures of terahertz quantum cascade devices based on the optical phonon-scattering assisted active region scheme. While the electronic temperature of the injector state (j = 4) significantly increases by ΔT = T(e)(4) - T(L) ~40 K, in analogy with the reported values in resonant phonon scheme (ΔT ~70-110 K), both the laser levels (j = 2,3) remain much colder with respect to the latter (by a factor of 3-5) and share the same electronic temperature of the ground level (j = 1). The electronic population ratio n(2)/n(1) shows that the optical phonon scattering efficiently depopulates the lower laser level (j = 2) up to an electronic temperature T(e) ~180 K.

  9. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Kells

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments. However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime. The lethal temperature (LTemp99 for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  10. Hydration kinetics and physical properties of split chickpea as affected by soaking temperature and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnny, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed M A; Khodaei, Diako

    2015-12-01

    In this study, some physical properties (principal dimensions, mean diameters, sphericity, area, density and electrical conductivity) of split chickpea were measured as function of soaking time (up to 360 min) and temperature (25-65 °C). Initially, the water absorption rate was high and then it showed a progressive decrease at all temperatures, whereas solid loss exhibited a power function of temperature (P chickpea soaking. No significant difference (P chickpea at temperature of 25 °C. As temperature increased from 25 to 65 °C, the K1 value decreased from 0.04620 to 0.00945 g h(-1), whereas the K2 value increased from 0.08597 to 0.11320 g(-1). Plot for K1 exhibited a slope changes around 45 °C corresponding to gelatinization temperature of split chickpeas. The effect of temperature and time on physical properties of split chickpea during soaking was monitored by regression equations. It was concluded that physical properties of split chickpea affected by its water absorption especially at higher temperatures.

  11. Temperature and Time Requirements for Controlling Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) under Commercial Heat Treatment Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kells, Stephen A; Goblirsch, Michael J

    2011-08-29

    Developing effective alternative approaches for disinfesting bed bugs from residential spaces requires a balance between obtaining complete insect mortality, while minimizing costs and energy consumption. One method of disinfestation is the application of lethal high temperatures directly to rooms and contents within a structure (termed whole-room heat treatments). However, temperature and time parameters for efficacy in whole-room heat treatments are unknown given the slower rate of temperature increase and the probable variability of end-point temperatures within a treated room. The objective of these experiments was to explore requirements to produce maximum mortality from heat exposure using conditions that are more characteristic of whole-room heat treatments. Bed bugs were exposed in an acute lethal temperature (LTemp) trial, or time trials at sub-acute lethal temperatures (LTime). The lethal temperature (LTemp99) for adults was 48.3 °C, while LTemp99 for eggs was 54.8 °C. Adult bed bugs exposed to 45 °C had a LTime99 of 94.8 min, while eggs survived 7 h at 45 °C and only 71.5 min at 48 °C. We discuss differences in exposure methodologies, potential reasons why bed bugs can withstand higher temperatures and future directions for research.

  12. Research for time-temperature equivalence effect of rock(Ⅱ):Experimental research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yuan-guang; LIU Quan-sheng

    2011-01-01

    With the creep test data of granite taken from Three Gorges,the existence of time-temperature equivalence effect(TTEE) of granite is investigated.Based on the creep test data at different temperatures,which are 20℃,60℃,80℃,100℃,200℃,300℃,four-component viscoelastic Burgers model iS presented to characterize the creep curves.The parameters of elasticity modulus and viscosity coefficient in the constitutive model at different temperatures and their functional dependences on temperature are obtained.Then,according to the basic theory of TTEE presented in research(Ⅰ),the TTEE of granite is investigated through modifying the compliance curves with vertical shift function and checking the coincidence of the modified curves with horizontal shift functions.It is concluded that:①Burgers model could appropriately characterize the creep property of granite in a short time scale.②Both elastic modulus and viscosity coefficient in the Burgers model decay exponentially with temperature.③The coincidence of the curves at different temperatures after vertical shift modification and horizontal shift is fine,which indicates the existence of TTEE of granite.④The master curves which reflect the long time scale test data at temperatures 20℃,100℃,200℃ are obtained.

  13. Thermal time constant: optimising the skin temperature predictive modelling in lower limb prostheses using Gaussian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    Elevated skin temperature at the body/device interface of lower-limb prostheses is one of the major factors that affect tissue health. The heat dissipation in prosthetic sockets is greatly influenced by the thermal conductive properties of the hard socket and liner material employed. However, monitoring of the interface temperature at skin level in lower-limb prosthesis is notoriously complicated. This is due to the flexible nature of the interface liners used which requires consistent positioning of sensors during donning and doffing. Predicting the residual limb temperature by monitoring the temperature between socket and liner rather than skin and liner could be an important step in alleviating complaints on increased temperature and perspiration in prosthetic sockets. To predict the residual limb temperature, a machine learning algorithm – Gaussian processes is employed, which utilizes the thermal time constant values of commonly used socket and liner materials. This Letter highlights the relevance of thermal time constant of prosthetic materials in Gaussian processes technique which would be useful in addressing the challenge of non-invasively monitoring the residual limb skin temperature. With the introduction of thermal time constant, the model can be optimised and generalised for a given prosthetic setup, thereby making the predictions more reliable. PMID:27695626

  14. Angular radiation temperature simulation for time-dependent capsule drive prediction in inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing, Longfei; Yang, Dong; Li, Hang; Zhang, Lu; Lin, Zhiwei; Li, Liling; Kuang, Longyu [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Jiang, Shaoen, E-mail: jiangshn@vip.sina.com; Ding, Yongkun [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Huang, Yunbao, E-mail: huangyblhy@gmail.com [Mechatronics School of Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2015-02-15

    The x-ray drive on a capsule in an inertial confinement fusion setup is crucial for ignition. Unfortunately, a direct measurement has not been possible so far. We propose an angular radiation temperature simulation to predict the time-dependent drive on the capsule. A simple model, based on the view-factor method for the simulation of the radiation temperature, is presented and compared with the experimental data obtained using the OMEGA laser facility and the simulation results acquired with VISRAD code. We found a good agreement between the time-dependent measurements and the simulation results obtained using this model. The validated model was then used to analyze the experimental results from the Shenguang-III prototype laser facility. More specifically, the variations of the peak radiation temperatures at different view angles with the albedo of the hohlraum, the motion of the laser spots, the closure of the laser entrance holes, and the deviation of the laser power were investigated. Furthermore, the time-dependent radiation temperature at different orientations and the drive history on the capsule were calculated. The results indicate that the radiation temperature from “U20W112” (named according to the diagnostic hole ID on the target chamber) can be used to approximately predict the drive temperature on the capsule. In addition, the influence of the capsule on the peak radiation temperature is also presented.

  15. Complexity analysis of the air temperature and the precipitation time series in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimić, G.; Mihailović, D. T.; Kapor, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we have analyzed the time series of daily values for three meteorological elements, two continuous and a discontinuous one, i.e., the maximum and minimum air temperature and the precipitation. The analysis was done based on the observations from seven stations in Serbia from the period 1951-2010. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the complexity of the annual values for the mentioned time series and to calculate the rate of its change. For that purpose, we have used the sample entropy and the Kolmogorov complexity as the measures which can indicate the variability and irregularity of a given time series. Results obtained show that the maximum temperature has increasing trends in the given period which points out a warming, ranged in the interval 1-2 °C. The increasing temperature indicates the higher internal energy of the atmosphere, changing the weather patterns, manifested in the time series. The Kolmogorov complexity of the maximum temperature time series has statistically significant increasing trends, while the sample entropy has increasing but statistically insignificant trend. The trends of complexity measures for the minimum temperature depend on the location. Both complexity measures for the precipitation time series have decreasing trends.

  16. Evaluation of methods of DNA extraction from Staphylococcus aureus in milk for use in real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibbern, A G; Botaro, B G; Viziack, M P; Silva, L F P; Santos, M V

    2015-01-16

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the repeatability and performance of 4 methods of extracting DNA from Staphylococcus aureus (SAU) and the gene encoding bovine mitochondrial cytochrome B (BMCB) in milk samples from cows with subclinical mastitis for use in amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Two milk samples were obtained from cows naturally infected with S. aureus and subjected to the following extraction methods: Qiagen DNA extraction kit; Axyprep DNA extraction kit; in silica column boil and in silica column method. After extraction in duplicate, eluates were subjected to purification and precipitation to determine purity (A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ ratio) and concentration (μg/μL) by spectrophotometry and amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction of target genes (SAU and BMCB). There was no effect of the DNA extraction method on DNA concentration and threshold cycle for BMCB and SAU. The purity ratio (A₂₆₀/A₂₈₀ ) was higher when using Qiagen DNA extraction (1.76 ± 0.136) compared to the other methods tested. Our results indicate that the DNA extraction kit from Qiagen produces samples of the highest purity ratio compared to other methods.

  17. Extracting message inter-departure time distributions from the human electroencephalogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratislav Mišić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The complex connectivity of the cerebral cortex is a topic of much study, yet the link between structure and function is still unclear. The processing capacity and throughput of information at individual brain regions remains an open question and one that could potentially bridge these two aspects of neural organization. The rate at which information is emitted from different nodes in the network and how this output process changes under different external conditions are general questions that are not unique to neuroscience, but are of interest in multiple classes of telecommunication networks. In the present study we show how some of these questions may be addressed using tools from telecommunications research. An important system statistic for modeling and performance evaluation of distributed communication systems is the time between successive departures of units of information at each node in the network. We describe a method to extract and fully characterize the distribution of such inter-departure times from the resting-state electroencephalogram (EEG. We show that inter-departure times are well fitted by the two-parameter Gamma distribution. Moreover, they are not spatially or neurophysiologically trivial and instead are regionally specific and sensitive to the presence of sensory input. In both the eyes-closed and eyes-open conditions, inter-departure time distributions were more dispersed over posterior parietal channels, close to regions which are known to have the most dense structural connectivity. The biggest differences between the two conditions were observed at occipital sites, where inter-departure times were significantly more variable in the eyes-open condition. Together, these results suggest that message departure times are indicative of network traffic and capture a novel facet of neural activity.

  18. Equal-time temperature correlators of the one-dimensional Heisenberg $XY$ chain

    CERN Document Server

    Izergin, A G; Kitanine, N A

    1997-01-01

    Representations as determinants of $M\\times M$ dimensional matrices are obtained for equal-time temperature correlators of the anisotropic Heisenberg XY chain. These representations are simple deformations of the answers for the isotropic XX0 chain. In the thermodynamic limit, the correlators are expressed in terms of the Fredholm determinants of linear integral operators.

  19. Counting photons at low temperature with a streaming time-to-digital converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Nadeau, P.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Trudeau, C.; Verdier, M. -A.

    2013-01-01

    We present some aspects of photon counting to study scintillators at low temperatures. A time-to-digital converter (TDC) had been configured to acquire several-minute-long streams of data, simplifying the multiple photon counting coincidence technique. Results in terms of light yield and time struct

  20. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elroy R. Cober

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode. The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data.

  1. Counting photons at low temperature with a streaming time-to-digital converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Nadeau, P.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Trudeau, C.; Verdier, M. -A.

    2013-01-01

    We present some aspects of photon counting to study scintillators at low temperatures. A time-to-digital converter (TDC) had been configured to acquire several-minute-long streams of data, simplifying the multiple photon counting coincidence technique. Results in terms of light yield and time

  2. Feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time for coke oven and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Huo; Zhi Wen; Dong Chen; Yueling Shen; Yongqin Zhang; Xiaoming Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Based on the detailed analysis of the third coke oven in BaoSteel, a feedback control strategy of longitudinal temperature and finished carbonization time of coke ovens was proposed and it was applied to the third coke oven in BaoSteel. As a result, the ratio of the instance that the absolute deviation of the longitudinal temperature is within ±7°C and the finished carbonization time within ± 10 rain is more than 80%, having acquired the patent saving effect of an energy consumption lowered by 2.92%. At the same time, it can provide an example for the same coke ovens inside and outside the nation.

  3. Temperature, plant species and residence time effects on nitrogen removal in model treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C R; Stein, O R; Hook, P B; Burr, M D; Parker, A E; Hafla, E C

    2013-01-01

    Total nitrogen (TN) removal in treatment wetlands (TWs) is challenging due to nitrogen cycle complexity and the variation of influent nitrogen species. Plant species, season, temperature and hydraulic loading most likely influence root zone oxygenation and appurtenant nitrogen removal, especially for ammonium-rich wastewater. Nitrogen data were collected from two experiments utilizing batch-loaded (3-, 6-, 9- and 20-day residence times), sub-surface TWs monitored for at least one year during which temperature was varied between 4 and 24 °C. Synthetic wastewater containing 17 mg/l N as NH4 and 27 mg/l amino-N, 450 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD), and 13 mg/l SO4-S was applied to four replicates of Carex utriculata, Schoenoplectus acutus and Typha latifolia and unplanted controls. Plant presence and species had a greater effect on TN removal than temperature or residence time. Planted columns achieved approximately twice the nitrogen removal of unplanted controls (40-95% versus 20-50% removal) regardless of season and temperature. TWs planted with Carex outperformed both Typha and Schoenoplectus and demonstrated less temperature dependency. TN removal with Carex was excellent at all temperatures and residence times; Schoenoplectus and Typha TN removal improved at longer residence times. Reductions in TN were not accompanied by increases in NO3, which was consistently below 1 mg/l N.

  4. Effect of various temperature and storage duration on setting time of OREGA sealer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sunarko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Choosing the right rigid material and root canal paste are crucial in the success of root canal obturation. N2 is a root canal paste containing formaldehyde, which is toxic and carcinogenic. Whilst zinc oxide, resorcin, eugenol, glycerin, and hydrochloric acid, abbreviated as OREGA, are considered a safer root canal paste. In order to perform good obturation, root canal paste’s setting time plays an important role. This is connected with how long and in what temperature the paste’s substances are stored. Purpose: This experiment was performed to find out the effect of various temperature and storage duration on the setting time of OREGA sealer. Method: OREGA and N 2sealers were used as samples. Eighty sealer samples were produced for both sealers providing 10 samples foe each testing category. Each of these samples were stored in 27°C room temperature, 4°C refrigerator temperature, and put into storage for the duration of 0, 1, 2, and 3 months. After these treatments, the samples were tested and analyzed. Result: Data collected were analyzed by two-way ANOVA, showing no significant difference of the setting time among temperature and storage duration (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Temperature and storage duration do not affect the setting time of OREGA root canal paste.

  5. Time Series Analysis: A New Methodology for Comparing the Temporal Variability of Air Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piia Post

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal variability of three different temperature time series was compared by the use of statistical modeling of time series. The three temperature time series represent the same physical process, but are at different levels of spatial averaging: temperatures from point measurements, from regional Baltan65+, and from global ERA-40 reanalyses. The first order integrated average model IMA(0, 1, 1 is used to compare the temporal variability of the time series. The applied IMA(0, 1, 1 model is divisible into a sum of random walk and white noise component, where the variances for both white noises (one of them serving as a generator of the random walk are computable from the parameters of the fitted model. This approach enables us to compare the models fitted independently to the original and restored series using two new parameters. This operation adds a certain new method to the analysis of nonstationary series.

  6. Effect of reaction temperature and time on the electrochemical properties of nickel hydroxide nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijiong; Zhang, Weiyang; Su, Yuling; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Baocheng

    2016-10-01

    2D (Two-dimensional) Ni(OH)2 nanosheets is synthesized by hydrothermal method with nickel nitrate hexahydrate and hexamethylenetetramine as raw materials. Herein, the effect of reaction temperature and time on the electrochemical performance of Ni(OH)2 nanosheets are studied. The results showed that morphology and performance appeared great changes as the reaction time and temperature changed. The maximum specific capacitance of 1404.6 F g-1 at current density of 1.5 A g-1 by chronopotentiometry is achieved for Ni(OH)2 nanosheets in 6.0 M KOH when reaction temperature and time are 140 °C and 8 h. Moreover, the capacitance only reduced to 88% after 2000 times charge and discharge of constant current. Such results demonstrated that Ni(OH)2 nanosheets is a promising electrode material for the practical application of high-performance supercapacitor and it is worthy of further investigation.

  7. [Adaptation of a sensitive DNA extraction method for detection of Entamoeba histolytica by real-time polymerase chain reaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pınar, Ahmet; Akyön, Yakut; Alp, Alpaslan; Ergüven, Sibel

    2010-07-01

    This study was aimed to adapt a sensitive DNA extraction protocol in stool samples for real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of Entamoeba histolytica which causes important morbidity and mortality worldwide. Stool extraction is a problematic step and has direct effects on PCR sensitivity. In order to improve the sensitivity of E.histolytica detection by real-time PCR, "QIAamp DNA stool minikit (Qiagen, Germany)" was modified by adding an overnight incubation step with proteinase K and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in this study. Three different extraction methods [(1) original method, (2) cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) method, (3) modified method] were evaluated for effects on sensitivity in real-time quantitative PCR (Artus RealArt TM E.histolytica RG PCR Kit, Qiagen Diagnostics, Germany). For this purpose, several concentrations of standard E.histolytica DNA were spiked in parasite-free stool samples and three different extraction protocols were performed. Detection sensitivities of "QIAamp DNA stool minikit" was found 5000 copies/ml and of CTAB method was found 500 copies/ml. Detection sensitivity of the extraction was improved to 5 copies/mL by modified "QIAamp DNA stool minikit" protocol. Since detection sensitivities of nucleic acid extraction protocols from stool samples directly affect the sensitivity of PCR amplification, different extraction protocols for different microorganisms should be evaluated.

  8. Improved extraction of pine bark for wood adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Fernando Caldeira; Brito, Paulo; Pepino, Lina; Portugal, António; Gil, Maria Helena; IRLE, Mark A; Costa, Rui Pereira da

    1999-01-01

    Pine bark tannins must be subjected to sulphonation to have an acceptable solubility in water for the preparation of wood adhesives. In this study, several extraction variables (sodium sulphite and urea concentrations in the extraction white liquor, extraction time, bark/liquor ratio and temperature) were assessed for their effect on extraction yield, and on the phenol, sulphur and ash content of extracts. Temperature had the highest positive effect on extraction yield and on the yield of tot...

  9. Extraction of breathing pattern using temperature sensor based on Arduino board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajesh; Sengottuvel, S.; Gireesan, K.; Janawadkar, M. P.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.

    2015-06-01

    Most of the basic functions of human body are assessed by measuring the different parameters from the body such as temperature, pulse activity and blood pressure etc. Respiration rate is the number of inhalations a person takes per minute and needs to be quantitatively assessed as it modulates other measurements such as SQUID based magnetocardiography (MCG) by bringing the chest closer to or away from the sensor array located inside a stationary liquid helium cryostat. The respiration rate is usually measured when a person is at rest and simply involves counting the number of inhalations for one minute. This paper aims at the development of a suitable methodology for the measurement of respiration rate with the help of a temperature sensor which monitors the very slight change in temperature near the nostril during inhalation & exhalation. The design and development of the proposed system is presented, along with typical experiment results.

  10. [Effects of temperature and heating time on armco iron spectral emissivity in atmospheric environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kun; Wang, Wen-Bao; Zhang, Kai-Hua; Liu, Yu-Fang

    2014-09-01

    The spectral emissivity of pure iron at 1.55 μm was investigated systematically by using our self-designed reflective experimental apparatus based on the Kirchhoff's law, and the influences of temperature and heating time on the spectral emissivity of pure iron were also discussed. The experimental data showed that the spectral emissivity of pure iron increased with temperature rising and its peak value and valley value appeared at certain temperatures. By analyzing the emissivity model of metal with oxidation layer, the variation of the spectral emissivity of pure iron was illustrated. The influence of heating time on the spectral emissivity was different at different temperature. The research results will further enrich pure iron spectral emissivity data, and provide the experimental basis for its application in atmospheric environment.

  11. Tracing temperature in a nanometer size region in a picosecond time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kaoru; Kitayama, Takumi; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Makoto; Sataka, Masao; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Toulemonde, Marcel; Bouffard, Serge; Kimura, Kenji

    2015-08-21

    Irradiation of materials with either swift heavy ions or slow highly charged ions leads to ultrafast heating on a timescale of several picosecond in a region of several nanometer. This ultrafast local heating result in formation of nanostructures, which provide a number of potential applications in nanotechnologies. These nanostructures are believed to be formed when the local temperature rises beyond the melting or boiling point of the material. Conventional techniques, however, are not applicable to measure temperature in such a localized region in a short time period. Here, we propose a novel method for tracing temperature in a nanometer region in a picosecond time period by utilizing desorption of gold nanoparticles around the ion impact position. The feasibility is examined by comparing with the temperature evolution predicted by a theoretical model.

  12. Time-dependent radiolytic yields at room temperature and temperature-dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electrons in polyols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The molar extinction coefficients at the absorption maximum of the solvated electron spectrum have been evaluated to be 900, 970, and 1000 mol-1·m2 for 1,2-ethanediol (12ED), 1,2-propanediol (12PD), and 1,3-propanediol (13PD), respectively. These values are two-third or three-fourth of the value usually reported in the published report.Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies have aided in depicting the radiolytic yield of the solvated electron in these solvents as a function of time from picosecond to microsecond. The radiolytic yield in these viscous solvents is found to be strongly different from that of the water solution. The temperature dependent absorption spectra of the solvated electron in 12ED, 12PD, and 13PD have been also investigated. In all the three solvents, the optical spectra shift to the red with increasing temperature. While the shape of the spectra does not change in 13PD, a widening on the blue side of the absorption band is observed in 12ED and 12PD at elevated temperatures.

  13. 低温制取芝麻油的研究进展%Research progress on extraction of sesame oil at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘日斌; 汪学德

    2012-01-01

    综述了低温制取芝麻油的工艺方法;低温萃取既能提取品质优良的芝麻油,又能得到蛋白低变性的芝麻粕,保证了芝麻油充分利用和芝麻蛋白的综合利用;低温萃取方法主要包括:低温压榨、超临界萃取、亚临界萃取及碱提法等。从低温压榨、超临界萃取、亚临界萃取三种不同生产工艺介绍芝麻油的制取及其对芝麻油和芝麻蛋白的影响。%The process of extracting sesame oil at low temperatures was researched. The technique not on- ly extracted good quality sesame oil, but also obtained sesame meal with activity protein, to ensure the comprehensive utilization of sesame oil and sesame protein. The low temperature extraction methods in- clude: low- temperature squeezing and supercritical extraction, subcritical extraction and alkali extrac- tion and so on. The three different extractions (low -temperature squeezing, supercritical extraction and subcritical extraction) and their influence on sesame oil and sesame protein were mainly introduced.

  14. Influence of Heat Sources and Relaxation Time on Temperature Distribution in Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the temperature fluctuations in tissues based on Penne’s bio-heat transfer equation is investigated by applying the Laplace and Hankel transforms. To get the solution in a physical form, a numerical inversion technique has been applied. The temporal and spatial distribution of temperature is investigated with the effect of relaxation time and is presented graphically.

  15. Temperature field at time of pulse current discharge in metal structure with elliptical embedding crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Yu-ming; TIAN Zhen-guo; ZHENG Li-juan; LI Wei

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical analysis is made on the temperature field at the time of pulse current discharge in a metal structure with an elliptical embedding crack. In finding the temperature field, analogy between the current flow through an elliptical embedding crack and the fluid flow through a barrier is made based on the similarity principle. Boundary conditions derived from this theory are introduced so that the distribution of current density and the temperature field expressions can be obtained. The study provides a theoretic basis to the applications of stopping spatial crack with electromagnetic heating.

  16. Liquid fuel film ignition delay times on the substrate heated up to high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer processes under the conditions of unsteady evaporation and boiling of the liquid fuel film in coordination with the substrate heated up to high temperatures were investigated. The film thickness values and the substrate temperature (whereby the ignition conditions are not implemented were determined. The film thickness values and the substrate temperature (whereby as low as practicable ignition delay times are provided were found. The differences of liquid fuel film ignition condition under the local heating and the interoperating with the massive heating source were analyzed.

  17. Time and frequency response of a resistance-wire aircraft atmospheric temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, G. A.; Friehe, C. A.; Edwards, D. K.

    1994-04-01

    The heat transfer characteristics of an aircraft-mounted resistance-wire atmospheric temperature sensor are modeled to determine the time and frequency responses. The sensor element (Rosemount 102E4AL) consists of a 25-micron-diameter platinum wire wound around a cruciform mica support with approximately 143 diameters of wire between contacts with the mica. A longitudinally distributed, radially lumped capacitance model provided for the convective heat transfer to the wire and the transient heat conduction along it. Similarly, the temperature gradient across the thin dimension of the mica support was neglected, and a radially distributed model provided for the convective heat transfer to the mica and the transient conduction within it. The two solutions are coupled by the boundary conditions at the wire-mica contact. The equations were solved to produce the temperature distribution along the wire and in the mica support as a function of the frequency of a free-stream sinusoidal temperature fluctuation. The frequency response transfer function was determined and fit to a two-time-constant transfer function by regression analysis. The two-time-constant model fits the general solution very well. The small (fast response) time constant is essentially determined by the wire itself. The larger (slow response) time constant is due to conduction into and out of the mica supports. The model predicts that the effects of the mica supports are important for frequencies greater than about 0.1 Hz. The responses to five different temperature waveform inputs (sinusoid, step, pulse, ramp, and ramp level) are derived using the two-time-constant model with Laplace transform techniques for both infinite-length wire (no mica support effects) and the finite-length wire of the 102 probe. The actual temperature signals are distorted by the larger time constant of the mica supports, especially for the pulse and ramp inputs that are typical of aircraft measurements of thermals and

  18. Natural convection in square enclosure induced by inner circular cylinder with time-periodic pulsating temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Zhu

    2015-03-01

    The periodic unsteady natural convection flow and heat transfer in a square enclosure containing a concentric circular cylinder is numerically studied. The temperature of the inner circular cylinder fluctuates periodically with time at higher averaged value while the temperature of the enclosure keeps lower constant, and the natural convection is driven by the temperature difference. The two-dimensional natural convection is simulated with high accuracy temporal spectral method and local radial basis functions method. The Rayleigh number is studied in the range 103 ≤ Ra ≤ 106, the temperature pulsating period ranges from 0.01 to 100 and the temperature pulsating amplitudes are a = 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5. Numerical results reveal that the fluid flow and heat transfer is strongly dependent on the pulsating temperature of inner cylinder. Comparing with the steady state natural convection, the heat transfer is enhanced generally for the time-periodic unsteady natural convection, and the local maximum heat transfer rate is observed for Ra = 105 and 106. Moreover, the phenomenon of backward heat transfer is discussed quantitatively. Also, the influence of pulsating temperature on the unsteady fluid flow and heat transfer are discussed and analyzed.

  19. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF PERSEA AMERICANA(AVOCADO PEAR ON PROTHROMBIN TIME AND ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P and lt;0.05. The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P and gt;0.05. The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.

  20. A space and time scale-dependent nonlinear geostatistical approach for downscaling daily precipitation and temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Jha, Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-07-21

    A geostatistical framework is proposed to downscale daily precipitation and temperature. The methodology is based on multiple-point geostatistics (MPS), where a multivariate training image is used to represent the spatial relationship between daily precipitation and daily temperature over several years. Here, the training image consists of daily rainfall and temperature outputs from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 50 km and 10 km resolution for a twenty year period ranging from 1985 to 2004. The data are used to predict downscaled climate variables for the year 2005. The result, for each downscaled pixel, is daily time series of precipitation and temperature that are spatially dependent. Comparison of predicted precipitation and temperature against a reference dataset indicates that both the seasonal average climate response together with the temporal variability are well reproduced. The explicit inclusion of time dependence is explored by considering the climate properties of the previous day as an additional variable. Comparison of simulations with and without inclusion of time dependence shows that the temporal dependence only slightly improves the daily prediction because the temporal variability is already well represented in the conditioning data. Overall, the study shows that the multiple-point geostatistics approach is an efficient tool to be used for statistical downscaling to obtain local scale estimates of precipitation and temperature from General Circulation Models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of temperature on the setting time of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, R; Araghid, A; Ghanem, S; Fatahi, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has numerous applications in dentistry due to various advantages. However, its long setting time has still remained a problem. The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature (ambient and distilled water temperature) on the setting time of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Materials and methods: This experimental study comprised of two parts. In the first part, MTA and distilled water samples were kept at ambient temperature for 24 hours (before mixing: effect of distilled water temperature on the setting time of MTA and after mixing: effect of distilled water and ambient temperature on the setting time of MTA), and analyzed and divided into three groups: group 1 (4°C), group 2 (37°C) and group 3 (90°C). The mixed samples were placed in the glass cylinders with an internal diameter of 8 mm and a height of 10 mm, and kept at 37°C temperature and 100% humidity. In the second part, the samples were prepared the same as those of the first part and divided into three groups according to the terms of maintenance: group 1 (4°C), group 2 (37°C) and group 3 (75°C). The mixed samples were then put in glass cylinders with an internal diameter of 8 mm and a height of 10 mm and the samples of groups 1, 2 and 3 were kept at 4, 37 and 75 °C, respectively. At the end of each part, the primary and final setting times were measured by Gilmore needle. Data were analyzed by SPSS using Kruskal-Wallis test (pMTA for the samples of both parts of the study with an increase in ambient temperature (pMTA.

  2. Analysis of traumatic ulcer healing time under the treatment of the Mauli banana (Musa acuminata 25% stem extract gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Puspitasari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Traumatic ulcer is one of oral disorders that often occur. The prevalence is quite high, between 3-24% of population. Therapy of traumatic ulcer is symptomatic. People usually use Aloe vera extract gel. Previous research showed that the Aloe vera gel is equivalent with ethanol extract of 25% Mauli banana (Musa acuminata stem in accelerating wound healing based on the number of macrophages and neovascular. The objective of the study is to find out the time difference of traumatic ulcer healing using 25% Musa acuminata stem extract gel compared to a gel containing Aloe vera extract. Methods: The research was post test design. Subjects were patients of Oral Medicine Installation in Gusti Hasan Aman Dental Hospital Banjarmasin with diagnosis of traumatic ulcer using completely random sampling method. Eight patients as samples were determined by the formula of Lemeshow. Results: there was no significant difference with p=0,724 (p>0,05 between healing time using Aloe vera gel and 25% Musa acuminata stem extract. Conclusion: At the concentration of 25% Musa acuminata stem extract gel concentration has the same healing time with Aloe vera gel, therefore can be recommended as a topical use for traumatic ulcer healing. Keywords: Musa acuminata stem, Healing time, Traumatic ulcer

  3. Time resolved measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in pulsed fluorocarbon rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, O; Stepanov, S; Pfafferott, M; Meichsner, J [Institute of Physics, University of Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17498, Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-11-01

    Knowledge of the absolute densities of small radicals like CF, CF{sub 2} and CF{sub 3} in fluorocarbon plasmas is essential for a fundamental understanding of plasma chemical processes and plasma surface interaction. Infrared absorption spectroscopy by means of tunable diode lasers (IR-TDLAS) was established and widely used for density measurements in the last decade. The often unknown parameter in the calculation of absolute radical densities from a measured absorption of a single line is the rotational temperature. In particular, a strong dependence of the line strength on rotational temperature has a significant influence on density calculation. In this paper we report on measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasmas (CCP) with rf (13.56 MHz) powers up to 200 W. Rotational temperatures in continuous and pulsed modes of the discharge were found to be between 300 and 450 K. Furthermore, first measurements of the time dependence of the rotational temperature in pulsed rf plasma are presented. The rotational temperature rises in the plasma phase within 0.1 s and goes down again to the temperature of the background gas in the plasma pause within 0.5 s. It is also shown that accurate density measurements of the radicals by means of single line absorption need correct information about the rotational temperature and careful selection of a suitable absorption line.

  4. Daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence in Guangzhou, China: a time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Changyuan; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Renjie; Cai, Jing; Meng, Xia; Wan, Yue; Kan, Haidong

    2016-08-01

    Few previous studies have examined the association between temperature and renal colic in developing regions, especially in China, the largest developing country in the world. We collected daily emergency ambulance dispatches (EADs) for renal colic from Guangzhou Emergency Center from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012. We used a distributed-lag nonlinear model in addition to the over-dispersed generalized additive model to investigate the association between daily ambient temperature and renal colic incidence after controlling for seasonality, humidity, public holidays, and day of the week. We identified 3158 EADs for renal colic during the study period. This exposure-response curve was almost flat when the temperature was low and moderate and elevated when the temperature increased over 21 °C. For heat-related effects, the significant risk occurred on the concurrent day and diminished until lag day 7. The cumulative relative risk of hot temperatures (90th percentile) and extremely hot temperatures (99th percentile) over lag days 0-7 was 1.92 (95 % confidence interval, 1.21, 3.05) and 2.45 (95 % confidence interval, 1.50, 3.99) compared with the reference temperature of 21 °C. This time-series analysis in Guangzhou, China, suggested a nonlinear and lagged association between high outdoor temperatures and daily EADs for renal colic. Our findings might have important public health significance to prevent renal colic.

  5. Storm time equatorial magnetospheric ion temperature derived from TWINS ENA flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, R. M.; Keesee, A. M.; Scime, E.; Liemohn, M. W.

    2017-04-01

    The plasma sheet plays an integral role in the transport of energy from the magnetotail to the ring current. We present a comprehensive study of the equatorial magnetospheric ion temperatures derived from Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) energetic neutral atom (ENA) measurements during moderate to intense (Dstpeak Los Alamos National Laboratory magnetospheric plasma analyzer. The ion temperatures are analyzed as a function of storm time, local time, and L shell. We perform a normalized superposed epoch analysis of 48 geomagnetic storms and examine the spatial and temporal evolution of the plasma as a function of storm phase. This analysis illustrates the spatial and temporal variation of the ions from the plasma sheet into the inner magnetosphere. We find that the ion temperature increases approaching the storm peak. This enhancement has the largest magnetic local time extent near 12 RE distance downtail.

  6. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Time- and Temperature-Dependent Photoluminescence in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishehchi, Sara; Garrett, Gregory A.; Rudin, Sergey; Wraback, Michael; Bellotti, Enrico

    2014-08-01

    In this work, we investigate the dynamics of photo-excited carriers in ZnO. Specifically, we study the luminescence spectrum and the effect of temperature on the luminescence rise time. For comparison, experimental time- resolved photo-luminescence studies on ZnO samples are performed. In the theoretical model, interaction with a laser pulse is treated coherently and a generalized Monte Carlo simulation is used to account for scattering processes. The scattering mechanisms included are carrier interactions with polar optical phonons and acoustic phonons, and carrier-carrier Coulomb interactions. We observed a good agreement between the experimental and simulation results for the photo-luminescence spectrum. Furthermore, as the temperature increases, the luminescence rise time decreases, mostly due to the weaker effect of polar optical scattering at lower temperature.

  7. High-resolution, real-time simultaneous 3D surface geometry and temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yatong; Zhang, Song

    2016-06-27

    This paper presents a method to simultaneously measure three-dimensional (3D) surface geometry and temperature in real time. Specifically, we developed 1) a holistic approach to calibrate both a structured light system and a thermal camera under exactly the same world coordinate system even though these two sensors do not share the same wavelength; and 2) a computational framework to determine the sub-pixel corresponding temperature for each 3D point as well as discard those occluded points. Since the thermal 2D imaging and 3D visible imaging systems do not share the same spectrum of light, they can perform sensing simultaneously in real time: we developed a hardware system that can achieve real-time 3D geometry and temperature measurement at 26 Hz with 768 × 960 points per frame.

  8. Extraction of the spatial distribution of electron temperature and density in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion implosion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kyle; Mancini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    We are testing polychromatic tomography to extract the spatial distribution of electron temperatures and densities in the cylindrical implosion plasmas created during MagLIF. Motivation for this technique stems from its successful application to spherical implosion core plasmas on Omega through the analysis of spatially resolved spectra (SRS) collected via pinhole imaging. In MagLIF, collections of SRS can be extracted from the images created by the slit imaging CRITR spectrometers. These spectra can be complemented with pinhole monochromatic images and spectra recorded with a spherical crystal spectrometer. One axially resolved and one radially resolved CRITR are field during MagLIF and information extracted from one of these SRS would be spatially integrated over a plane of finite thickness given by the spatial resolution of the instrument. In our method, we couple a model that creates synthetic sets of spectra, like those obtained from an experiment, with a Pareto genetic algorithm which searches in parameter space for the spatial distribution which best simultaneously and self-consistently fits the set of SRS/ Solutions obtained are used as the initial solution for a Levenberg-Marquadt minimization algorithm to provide a final ``fine-tuned'' solution. We are testing this method by creating synthetic ``experimental'' data and using the technique to search for the spatial distribution. The results of these feasibility studies will be discussed. The work is supported by a contract from Sandia National Laboratories.

  9. Maximal oxygen consumption increases with temperature in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) through increased heart rate and arteriovenous extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claësson, Débora; Wang, Tobias; Malte, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Global warming results in increasing water temperature, which may represent a threat to aquatic ectotherms. The rising temperature affects ecology through physiology, by exerting a direct limiting effect on the individual. The mechanism controlling individual thermal tolerance is still elusive, but some evidence shows that the heart plays a central role, and that insufficient transport of oxygen to the respiring tissues may determine the thermal tolerance of animals. In this study, the influence of the heart in thermal limitation was investigated by measurements of aerobic scope in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) together with measurements of cardiac output during rest and activity. Aerobic capacity was not limited by an acutely increased temperature in the European eel. Oxygen demand was met by an increase in heart rate and arteriovenous extraction. These findings suggest that thermal tolerance during exposure to acute temperature changes is not defined by oxygen transport capacity in the eel, and other mechanisms may play a central role in limiting thermal tolerance in these fish.

  10. Time-shared channel identification for adaptive noise cancellation in breath sound extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng HAN; Hong WANG; Leyi WANG; Gang George YIN

    2004-01-01

    Noise artifacts are one of the key obstacles in applying continuous monitoring and computer-assisted analysis of lung sounds.Traditional adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) methodologies work reasonably well when signal and noise are stationary and independent.Clinical lung sound auscultation encounters an acoustic environment in which breath sounds are not stationary and often correlate with noise.Consequently,capability of ANC becomes significantly compromised.This paper introduces a new methodology for extracting authentic lung sounds from noise-corrupted measurements.Unlike traditional noise cancellation methods that rely on either frequency band separation or signal/noise independence to achieve noise reduction,this methodology combines the traditional noise canceling methods with the unique feature of time-split stages in breathing sounds.By employing a multi-sensor system,the method first employs a high-pass filter to eliminate the off-band noise,and then performs time-shared blind identification and noise cancellation with recursion from breathing cycle to cycle.Since no frequency separation or signal/noise independence is required,this method potentially has a robust and reliable capability of noise reduction,complementing the traditional methods.

  11. Fractionation of metals by sequential extraction procedures (BCR and Tessier) in soil exposed to fire of wide temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkovic, Hana; Rončević, Sanda; Nemet, Ivan; Prohić, Esad; Leontić-Vazdar, Dana

    2017-04-01

    Forest fire presents serious problem, especially in Mediterranean Region. Effects of fire are numerous, from climate change and deforestation to loss of soil organic matter and changes in soil properties. One of the effects, not well documented, is possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of pollutants previously deposited in the soil, due to the new physical and chemical soil properties and changes in equilibrium conditions. For understanding and predicting possible redistribution and/or remobilisation of potential pollutants from soil, affected by fire different in temperature, several laboratory investigations were carried out. To evaluate the influence of organic matter on soil under fire, three soil samples were analysed and compared: (a) the one with added coniferous organic matter; (b) deciduous organic matter (b) and (c) soil without additional organic matter. Type of organic matter is closely related to pH of soil, as pH is influencing the mobility of some pollutants, e.g. metals. For that reason pH was also measured through all experimental steps. Each of mentioned soil samples (a, b and c) were heated at 1+3 different temperatures (25°C, 200°C, 500°C and 850°C). After heating, whereby fire effect on soil was simulated, samples were analysed by BCR protocol with the addition of a first step of sequential extraction procedure by Tessier and analysis of residual by aqua regia. Element fractionation of heavy metals by this procedure was used to determine the amounts of selected elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn). Selected metal concentrations were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer. Further on, loss of organic matter was calculated after each heating procedure as well as the mineral composition. The mineral composition was determined using an X-ray diffraction. From obtained results, it can be concluded that temperature has an influence on concentration of elements in specific step of

  12. Kurtosis based blind source extraction of complex noncircular signals with application in EEG artifact removal in real-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush eJavidi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A new class of complex domain blind source extraction (BSE algorithms suitable for the extraction of both circular and noncircular complex signals is proposed. This is achieved through sequential extraction based on the degree of kurtosis and in the presence of noncircular measurement noise. The existence and uniqueness analysis of the solution is followed by a study of fast converging variants of the algorithm. The performance is first assessed through simulations on well understood benchmark signals, followed by a case study on real-time artifact removal from EEG signals, verified using both qualitative and quantitative metrics. The results illustrate the power of the proposed approach in real-time blind extraction of general complex-valued sources.

  13. A Portable, Pressure Driven, Room Temperature Nucleic Acid Extraction and Storage System for Point of Care Molecular Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Samantha; Fan, Andy; Trueb, Jacob; Jareczek, Francis; Mazzochette, Mark; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F; Klapperich, Catherine M

    2013-07-07

    Many new and exciting portable HIV viral load testing technologies are emerging for use in global medicine. While the potential to provide fast, isothermal, and quantitative molecular diagnostic information to clinicians in the field will soon be a reality, many of these technologies lack a robust front end for sample clean up and nucleic acid preparation. Such a technology would enable many different downstream molecular assays. Here, we present a portable system for centrifuge-free room temperature nucleic acid extraction from small volumes of whole blood (70 µL), using only thermally stable reagents compatible with storage and transport in low resource settings. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of simulated samples demonstrate a lower limit of detection of 1000 copies/ml, with the ability to detect differences in viral load across four orders of magnitude. The system can also be used to store extracted RNA on detachable cartridges for up to one week at ambient temperature, and can be operated using only hand generated air pressure.

  14. Thermotolerance in preirradiated intestine and its influence on time-temperature relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hume, S.P.; Marigold, J.C.; Manjil, L.G.

    1988-02-01

    The crypt compartment of mouse jejunum showed a transient increase in thermal susceptibility approximately 10 days after moderate X-ray doses to the abdomen (9-10 Gy). The increase in response was manifest as an increase in slope of the crypt dose-response curve but was limited to temperatures below 43/sup 0/C. As a result, the 43/sup 0/C inflexion in the Arrhenius plot (the relationship between treatment time and temperature) for thermal sensitivity of crypts was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, and the curve became monophasic over the range 42.0-44.5/sup 0/C. At temperatures below 42/sup 0/C, the curve again deviated. At supranormal temperatures of 42/sup 0/C and below, the durations of hyperthermia needed for measurable effect were sufficient to allow thermotolerance to be expressed within the heating period. Neither the threshold heating times nor this thermotolerance were affected by prior irradiation. In the temperature range 42-43/sup 0/C, an earlier development of thermotolerance could be demonstrated in control tissue by challenging with an acute high-temperature heat treatment. This thermotolerance was eliminated in preirradiated tissue, resulting in the apparent increase in sensitivity. The findings support the view that the complex nature of the time-temperature relationship seen in normal tissue in vivo is a manifestation of the ability of the tissue to progressively acquire a thermotolerant state during treatment at temperatures below approximately 43/sup 0/C, so that the intrinsic sensitivity is modulated while being assessed.

  15. Extracting the Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation Rate from Ion Stopping Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Paul E.; Frenje, Johan A.; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2016-10-01

    Direct measurement of i-e equilibration rates at ICF-relevant conditions is a big challenge, as it is difficult to differentiate from other sinks and sources of energy, such as heat conduction and pdV work. Another method is to use information from ion stopping experiments. Such experiments at the OMEGA laser have made precision energy loss measurements of fusion products at these conditions. Combined with the multimonochromatic x-ray imager technique, which gives temporally and spatially resolved electron temperature and density, we have a robust stopping experiment. We propose to use such stopping measurements to assess the i-e temperature relaxation rate, since both processes involve energy exchange between electrons and ions. We require that the fusion products are 1) much faster than the thermal ions so that i-i collisions are negligible compared to i-e collisions and 2) slower than the thermal electrons so that the stopping obeys a linear friction law. Then the Coulomb logarithms associated with ion stopping and i-e temperature relaxation rate are identical and a measurement of the former provides the latter. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Daytime Land Surface Temperature Extraction from MODIS Thermal Infrared Data under Cirrus Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwei Fan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Simulated data showed that cirrus clouds could lead to a maximum land surface temperature (LST retrieval error of 11.0 K when using the generalized split-window (GSW algorithm with a cirrus optical depth (COD at 0.55 μm of 0.4 and in nadir view. A correction term in the COD linear function was added to the GSW algorithm to extend the GSW algorithm to cirrus cloudy conditions. The COD was acquired by a look up table of the isolated cirrus bidirectional reflectance at 0.55 μm. Additionally, the slope k of the linear function was expressed as a multiple linear model of the top of the atmospheric brightness temperatures of MODIS channels 31–34 and as the difference between split-window channel emissivities. The simulated data showed that the LST error could be reduced from 11.0 to 2.2 K. The sensitivity analysis indicated that the total errors from all the uncertainties of input parameters, extension algorithm accuracy, and GSW algorithm accuracy were less than 2.5 K in nadir view. Finally, the Great Lakes surface water temperatures measured by buoys showed that the retrieval accuracy of the GSW algorithm was improved by at least 1.5 K using the proposed extension algorithm for cirrus skies.

  17. LITERATURE REVIEW OF PUO2 CALCINATION TIME AND TEMPERATURE DATA FOR SPECIFIC SURFACE AREA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G.

    2012-03-06

    The literature has been reviewed in December 2011 for calcination data of plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) from plutonium oxalate Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} precipitation with respect to the PuO{sub 2} specific surface area (SSA). A summary of the literature is presented for what are believed to be the dominant factors influencing SSA, the calcination temperature and time. The PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} calcination data from this review has been regressed to better understand the influence of calcination temperature and time on SSA. Based on this literature review data set, calcination temperature has a bigger impact on SSA versus time. However, there is still some variance in this data set that may be reflecting differences in the plutonium oxalate preparation or different calcination techniques. It is evident from this review that additional calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} needs to be collected and evaluated to better define the relationship. The existing data set has a lot of calcination times that are about 2 hours and therefore may be underestimating the impact of heating time on SSA. SRNL recommends that more calcination temperature and time data for PuO{sub 2} from Pu(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2} be collected and this literature review data set be augmented to better refine the relationship between PuO{sub 2} SSA and its calcination parameters.

  18. Analysis of temperature time series based on Hilbert-Huang Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马皓; 邱翔; 罗剑平; 顾品强; 刘宇陆

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, with consideration of the nonlinear and non-stationary properties of the temperature time series, we employ the Hilbert-Huang Transform, based on the empirical mode decomposition (EMD), to analyze the temperature time series from 1959 to 2012 in the Fengxian district of Shanghai, obtained from a certain monitoring station. The oscillating mode is drawn from the data, and its characteristics of the time series are investigated. The results show that the intrinsic modes of 1, 2 and 6 represent the periodic properties of 1 year, 2.5 years, and 27 years. The mean temperature shows periodic variations, but the main trend of this fluctuation is the rising of the temperature in the recent 50 years. The analysis of the reconstructed modes with the wave pattern shows that the variations are quite large from 1963 to 1964, from 1977 to 1982 and from 2003 to 2006, which indicates that the temperature rises and falls dramatically in these periods. The volatility from 1993 to 1994 is far more dramatic than in other periods. And the volatility is the most remarkable in recent 50 years. The log-linear plots of the mean time scalesT andMshow that each mode associated with a time scale almost twice as large as the time scale of the preceding mode. The Hilbert spectrum shows that the energy is concentra-ted in the range of low frequency from 0.05 to 0.1 Hz, and a very small amount of energy is distributed in the range of higher frequency over 0.1 Hz. In conclusion, the HHT is better than other traditional signal analysis methods in processing the nonlinear signals to obtain the periodic variation and volatility’s properties of different time scales.

  19. Effect of Milling Time on the Blocking Temperature of Nanoparticles of Magnetocaloric Gd5Si4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadimani, Ravi; Gupta, Shalbh; Harstad, Shane; Pecharsky, Vitalij; Jiles, David; David C Jiles Team; Vitalij Pecharsky Collaboration

    Extensive research has been done on giant magnetocaloric material Gd5(SixGe1-x)4 to improve adiabatic temperature/isothermal entropy change. However, there have been only a few reports on fabrication of nanostructure/nanoparticles that can be used to tune various properties by changing the length scale. Recently we have reported fabrication of room temperature ferromagnetic nanoparticles of Gd5Si4 using high energy ball milling. These nanoparticles have potential applications in biomedical engineering such as better T2 MRI contrast agents and in hypothermia. Here we report the effect of milling time on the blocking temperature, micro-structure, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of these nanoparticles. Magnetization vs. temperature at an applied field of 100 Oe is measured for all the ball milled samples. Bulk Gd5Si4 has a transition temperature of ~340 K. There are two phase transitions observed in the nanoparticles, one near 300 K corresponding to the Gd5Si4 phase and another between 75-150 K corresponding to Gd5Si3. Zero Field Cooling (ZFC) and Field Cooling (FC) were measured. The blocking temperatures for the nanoparticles increase with decrease in milling time.

  20. A Real-Time Temperature Data Transmission Approach for Intelligent Cooling Control of Mass Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary aim of the study presented in this paper is to propose a real-time temperature data transmission approach for intelligent cooling control of mass concrete. A mathematical description of a digital temperature control model is introduced in detail. Based on pipe mounted and electrically linked temperature sensors, together with postdata handling hardware and software, a stable, real-time, highly effective temperature data transmission solution technique is developed and utilized within the intelligent mass concrete cooling control system. Once the user has issued the relevant command, the proposed programmable logic controllers (PLC code performs all necessary steps without further interaction. The code can control the hardware, obtain, read, and perform calculations, and display the data accurately. Hardening concrete is an aggregate of complex physicochemical processes including the liberation of heat. The proposed control system prevented unwanted structural change within the massive concrete blocks caused by these exothermic processes based on an application case study analysis. In conclusion, the proposed temperature data transmission approach has proved very useful for the temperature monitoring of a high arch dam and is able to control thermal stresses in mass concrete for similar projects involving mass concrete.

  1. Control of insects and mites in grain using a high temperature/short time (HTST) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier; Poulsen

    2000-07-01

    Wheat infested with grain mites (Acari) and Sitophilus granarius, and maize infested with Prostephanus truncatus, were exposed to hot air in a CIMBRIA HTST Microline toaster((R)). Inlet temperatures of the hot air were in the range of 150-750 degrees C decreasing to outlet temperatures in the range of 100-300 degrees C during the exposure period. A rotating drum, connected to a natural-gas burner was fed with grain which was in constant movement along the drum and thereby mixed thoroughly during the process. The capacity of the toaster was 1000 kg per hour.Complete control of grain mites and adult S. granarius in wheat was obtained with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average residence time in the drum of 6 s. More than 99% mortality was obtained for all stages of S. granarius with an inlet temperature of 300-350 degrees C and an average exposure period of 40 s. For control of P. truncatus in maize, an inlet temperature of 700 degrees C resulted in a complete disinfestation when the exposure time was 19 s.The reduction in grain moisture content was 0.5-1% at treatments giving 100% control. Germination tests indicate that it is possible to choose a combination of inlet temperatures and exposure periods which effectively kills mites and insects in small grains, without harming the functional properties of the grain.Economy of the method was considered to be competitive with fumigation using phosphine.

  2. Accurate Behavioral Simulator of All-Digital Time-Domain Smart Temperature Sensors by Using SIMULINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new behavioral simulator that uses SIMULINK for all-digital CMOS time-domain smart temperature sensors (TDSTSs for performing rapid and accurate simulations. Inverter-based TDSTSs offer the benefits of low cost and simple structure for temperature-to-digital conversion and have been developed. Typically, electronic design automation tools, such as HSPICE, are used to simulate TDSTSs for performance evaluations. However, such tools require extremely long simulation time and complex procedures to analyze the results and generate figures. In this paper, we organize simple but accurate equations into a temperature-dependent model (TDM by which the TDSTSs evaluate temperature behavior. Furthermore, temperature-sensing models of a single CMOS NOT gate were devised using HSPICE simulations. Using the TDM and these temperature-sensing models, a novel simulator in SIMULINK environment was developed to substantially accelerate the simulation and simplify the evaluation procedures. Experiments demonstrated that the simulation results of the proposed simulator have favorable agreement with those obtained from HSPICE simulations, showing that the proposed simulator functions successfully. This is the first behavioral simulator addressing the rapid simulation of TDSTSs.

  3. Accurate Behavioral Simulator of All-Digital Time-Domain Smart Temperature Sensors by Using SIMULINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Chao-Lieh; Lin, You-Ting

    2016-08-08

    This study proposes a new behavioral simulator that uses SIMULINK for all-digital CMOS time-domain smart temperature sensors (TDSTSs) for performing rapid and accurate simulations. Inverter-based TDSTSs offer the benefits of low cost and simple structure for temperature-to-digital conversion and have been developed. Typically, electronic design automation tools, such as HSPICE, are used to simulate TDSTSs for performance evaluations. However, such tools require extremely long simulation time and complex procedures to analyze the results and generate figures. In this paper, we organize simple but accurate equations into a temperature-dependent model (TDM) by which the TDSTSs evaluate temperature behavior. Furthermore, temperature-sensing models of a single CMOS NOT gate were devised using HSPICE simulations. Using the TDM and these temperature-sensing models, a novel simulator in SIMULINK environment was developed to substantially accelerate the simulation and simplify the evaluation procedures. Experiments demonstrated that the simulation results of the proposed simulator have favorable agreement with those obtained from HSPICE simulations, showing that the proposed simulator functions successfully. This is the first behavioral simulator addressing the rapid simulation of TDSTSs.

  4. Concentration of Umami Compounds in Pork Meat and Cooking Juice with Different Cooking Times and Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotola-Pukkila, Minna K; Pihlajaviita, Seija T; Kaimainen, Mika T; Hopia, Anu I

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the concentrations of umami compounds in pork loins cooked at 3 different temperatures and 3 different lengths of cooking times. The pork loins were cooked with the sous vide technique. The free amino acids (FAAs), glutamic acid and aspartic acid; the 5'-nucleotides, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP); and corresponding nucleoside inosine of the cooked meat and its released juice were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Under the experimental conditions used, the cooking temperature played a more important role than the cooking time in the concentration of the analyzed compounds. The amino acid concentrations in the meat did not remain constant under these experimental conditions. The most notable effect observed was that of the cooking temperature and the higher amino acid concentrations in the released juice of meat cooked at 80 °C compared with 60 and 70 °C. This is most likely due to the heat induced hydrolysis of proteins and peptides releasing water soluble FAAs from the meat into the cooking juice. In this experiment, the cooking time and temperature had no influence on the IMP concentrations observed. However, the AMP concentrations increased with the increasing temperature and time. This suggests that the choice of time and temperature in sous vide cooking affects the nucleotide concentration of pork meat. The Sous vide technique proved to be a good technique to preserve the cooking juice and the results presented here show that cooking juice is rich in umami compounds, which can be used to provide a savory or brothy taste. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.W. Goh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottle is one of the common plastic wastes existed in the municipal solid waste in Malaysia. One alternative to solve the abundant of PET wastes is chemical recycling of the wastes to produce a value added product. This technology not only can decrease the PET wastes in landfill sites but also can produce many useful recycled PET products. Bis(2-hydroxyethyl terephthalate (BHET obtained from glycolysis reaction of PET waste was purified using crystallization process. The hot distilled water was added to glycolysis product followed by cooling and filtration to extract BHET in white solid form from the product. The effect of three operating conditions namely crystallization time, crystallization temperatures and amount of distilled water used to the yield of crystallization process were investigated. The purity of crystallization products were analyzed using HPLC and DSC. The optimum conditions of 3 hours crystallization time, 2 °C crystallization temperature and 5:1 mass ratio of distilled water used to glycolize solid gave the highest yield and purity of the crystallization process. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd August 2014; Revised: 4th February 2015; Accepted: 5th February 2015How to Cite: Goh, H.W., Salmiaton, A., Abdullah, N., Idris, A. (2015. Time, Temperature and Amount of Distilled Water Effects on the Purity and Yield of Bis(2-hydroxyethyl Terephthalate Purification System. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 143-154. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7195.143-154  

  6. Exogenous estradiol alters gonadal growth and timing of temperature sex determination in gonads of sea turtle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hernández, Verónica; Marmolejo-Valencia, Alejandro; Merchant-Larios, Horacio

    2015-12-01

    Temperature sex determining species offer a model for investigating how environmental cues become integrated to the regulation of patterning genes and growth, among bipotential gonads. Manipulation of steroid hormones has revealed the important role of aromatase in the regulation of the estrogen levels involved in temperature-dependent sex determination. Estradiol treatment counteracts the effect of male-promoting temperature, but the resulting ovarian developmental pattern differs from that manifested with the female-promoting temperature. Hypoplastic gonads have been reported among estradiol-treated turtles; however the estradiol effect on gonadal size has not been examined. Here we focused on the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea, which develops hypoplastic gonads with estradiol treatment. We studied the effect of estradiol on cell proliferation and on candidate genes involved in ovarian pattern. We found this effect is organ specific, causing a dramatic reduction in gonadal cell proliferation during the temperature-sensitive period. Although the incipient gonads resembled tiny ovaries, remodeling of the medullary cords and down-regulation of testicular factor Sox9 were considerably delayed. Contrastingly, with ovarian promoting temperature as a cue, exogenous estradiol induced the up-regulation of the ovary factor FoxL2, prior to the expression of aromatase. The strong expression of estrogen receptor alpha at the time of treatment suggests that it mediates estradiol effects. Overall results indicate that estradiol levels required for gonadal growth and to establish the female genetic network are delicately regulated by temperature.

  7. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR surveys, egg surveys and commercial landings from Danish coastal fisheries in the North Sea, Skagerrak, Kattegat and inner Danish waters. The three independent sources of data all show that there is a significant relationship between the timing of spawning and sea surface temperature. Large mackerel are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management and monitoring. An increase in temperature is likely to affect the timing and magnitude of the growth, recruitment and migration of North Sea mackerel with subsequent impacts on its sustainable exploitation.

  8. A time-temperature integrator based on fluorescent and polymorphic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Durso, Margherita; Bettini, Cristian; Manet, Ilse; Gazzano, Massimo; Capelli, Raffaella; Muccini, Michele; Melucci, Manuela; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    Despite the variety of functional properties of molecular materials, which make them of interest for a number of technologies, their tendency to form inhomogeneous aggregates in thin films and to self-organize in polymorphs are considered drawbacks for practical applications. Here, we report on the use of polymorphic molecular fluorescent thin films as time temperature integrators, a class of devices that monitor the thermal history of a product. The device is fabricated by patterning the fluorescent model compound thieno(bis)imide-oligothiophene. The fluorescence colour of the pattern changes as a consequence of an irreversible phase variation driven by temperature, and reveals the temperature at which the pattern was exposed. The experimental results are quantitatively analysed in the range 20-200°C and interpreted considering a polymorph recrystallization in the thin film. Noteworthy, the reported method is of general validity and can be extended to every compound featuring irreversible temperature-dependent change of fluorescence.

  9. Ultrasound-associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGYing; WANGZhen-yu; CHENXiao-qiang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment on ultrasound- associated extraction of seed oil of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) was conducted in Northeast Forestry University, Harbin, China. The factors affecting extraction yield, such as ultrasonic frequency, extracting temperature, extracting time and the ratio of material to liquid (ratio of Korean pine seed to absolute alcohol), were analyzed under specific condition and the optimal extracting parameters were obtained as the ultrasonic frequency 32 000 Hz, the extracting temperature 80℃, the extracting time 50 rain, and the ratio of material to liquid 1: 30. The study demonstrates that ultrasound is a reliable and great efficiency tool for the fast extraction of Korean pine seed oil。

  10. The timing of embryonic exposure to elevated temperature alters stress endocrinology in domestic chickens (Gallus domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Mast, Andrew D; Luu, Thuyvan H; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of glucocorticoid (GC) release in response to stimuli vary both among individuals and within individuals across their lifetime. While much work has focused on how the prenatal steroid environment can affect GC release, relatively little is known about how environmental parameters, such as incubation temperature affect GCs. We tested the hypothesis that variation and timing of elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone can alter the pattern of GC release. We incubated domestic chicken eggs (Gallus domesticus) at the optimal incubation temperature (37.5 °C) or at a slightly higher temperature (+1.1 °C) either early, late, or throughout incubation. At three weeks post-hatch, all birds were (i) exposed to a capture-restraint stress to measure stress-induced GC release (naïve). Three days following the naïve stressor, birds were (ii) exposed to a heat challenge, which was followed the next day by a second capture-restraint stress (post-heat challenge). Regardless of treatment, birds had similar patterns of GC release following the naïve stress series. However, during the post-heat challenge stress series, birds incubated at optimal temperatures increased their peak GC release. In contrast, birds exposed to slightly elevated temperatures for any period of development failed to increase peak GC release, and their specific response varied with timing of exposure to the elevated incubation temperature. Our results demonstrate that subtle variation in the embryonic environment, such as elevated incubation temperature within the thermoneutral zone, can impact the pattern of GC release of offspring. Further work is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these changes and the relationship between fitness and environmentally-altered phenotypes.

  11. Novel Analytic Methods Needed for Real-Time Continuous Core Body Temperature Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Vicki; Mac, Valerie; Elon, Lisa; Mutic, Nathan; Mutic, Abby; Peterman, Katherine; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Economos, Eugenia; Flocks, Joan; McCauley, Linda

    2016-10-18

    Affordable measurement of core body temperature (Tc) in a continuous, real-time fashion is now possible. With this advance comes a new data analysis paradigm for occupational epidemiology. We characterize issues arising after obtaining Tc data over 188 workdays for 83 participating farmworkers, a population vulnerable to effects of rising temperatures due to climate change. We describe a novel approach to these data using smoothing and functional data analysis. This approach highlights different data aspects compared with describing Tc at a single time point or summaries of the time course into an indicator function (e.g., did Tc ever exceed 38 °C, the threshold limit value for occupational heat exposure). Participants working in ferneries had significantly higher Tc at some point during the workday compared with those working in nurseries, despite a shorter workday for fernery participants. Our results typify the challenges and opportunities in analyzing big data streams from real-time physiologic monitoring.

  12. Quantum dynamics at finite temperature: Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christov, Ivan P., E-mail: ivan.christov@phys.uni-sofia.bg

    2016-08-15

    In this work we investigate the ground state and the dissipative quantum dynamics of interacting charged particles in an external potential at finite temperature. The recently devised time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo (TDQMC) method allows a self-consistent treatment of the system of particles together with bath oscillators first for imaginary-time propagation of Schrödinger type of equations where both the system and the bath converge to their finite temperature ground state, and next for real time calculation where the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated. In that context the application of TDQMC appears as promising alternative to the path-integral related techniques where the real time propagation can be a challenge.

  13. Omphacite microstructures as time-temperature indicators of blueschist- and eclogite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Michael A.

    1982-03-01

    Omphacites from a wide range of geological environments have been examined by transmission electron-microscopy. Their microstructures are sufficiently variable as to be potential indicators of thermal history for blueschist and eclogite metamorphism. In particular, the average size of equiaxed antiphase domains (APD's) arising from cation ordering appears to be a characteristic feature of each environment and increases in the sequence: Franciscan, blueschist (1) ≈ Turkey, blueschist (2) Wine Complex, Canada, amphibolite (1) behaviour in other systems where: (APD size)n 410_2004_Article_BF00375206_TeX2GIFE1.gif ({text{APD size)}}^{text{n}} ∝ {text{e}}^{{text{(}} - {text{Q/RT)}}} \\cdot {text{ }}time{text{.}} . Most omphacites fit into a self-consistent scheme with n=8±2 if the activation energy ( Q) is assumed to be that of cation disordering (75 kcal mole-1), available estimates of peak metamorphic temperature ( T) are used, and a reasonable geological time-scale is taken as 104 108 years. According to this model, APD sizes are set in a relatively short interval of the total history of a rock when its temperature is close to its peak value. APD sizes are much more sensitive to temperature than to time and may be used as a geothermometer which has the advantage of not being reset by re-equilibration at low temperatures. Petrological implications arising from the model are that Allalin metagabbros were metamorphosed at a similar peak temperature to Zermatt-Saas blueschists, Franciscan eclogites reached higher temperatures than has been previously supposed and that the microstructures in some Sesia-Lanzo omphacites are consistent with a high temperature, pre-blueschist origin. Deviation from an ideal coarsening law with n=2 implies that the APD's are not simply stacking mistakes but have some associated structural or compositional modification locally. Excess titanium concentrated at APD's in Red Wine Complex omphacites may account for their anomalously low

  14. An overview of oil palm biomass torrefaction: Effects of temperature and residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaacob, N.; Rahman, N. A.; Matali, S.; Idris, S. S.; Alias, A. B.

    2016-06-01

    Biomass is characterized as high moisture content, low bulk and energy density, possesses hygroscopic behaviour and poor grindability material as compared to the superior coal. A thermal treatment called torrefaction is a heating of biomass in a temperature range between 200°C to 300°C under inert atmosphere in order to upgrade biomass properties. Torrefied biomass has many similar characteristics to coal such as low moisture content, high bulk and energy density, hydrophobic and good grindability. This paper reviews the effects of oil palm biomass torrefaction in terms of temperature and residence time. This is because comprehensive studies on torrefaction parameters need to be carried out since different parameters might affect the chemical and physical characteristic of the torrefied product. Hence, this paper aims to discuss the effects of different torrefaction temperature and residence time towards physicochemical characteristic, mass and energy yield as well as calorific value of torrefied oil palm biomass.

  15. Thermal maps of Jupiter - Spatial organization and time dependence of stratospheric temperatures, 1980 to 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Friedson, A. James; Baines, Kevin H.; Martin, Terry Z.; West, Robert A.; Caldwell, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Bergstralh, Jay T.; Malcolm, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    The spatial organization and time dependence of Jupiter's stratospheric temperatures have been measured by observing thermal emission from the 7.8-micrometer CH4 band. These temperatures, observed through the greater part of a Jovian year, exhibit the influence of seasonal radiative forcing. Distinct bands of high temperature are located at the poles and midlatitudes, while the equator alternates between warm and cold with a period of approximately 4 years. Substantial longitudinal variability is often observed within the warm midlatitude bands, and occasionally elsewhere on the planet. This variability includes small, localized structures, as well as large-scale waves with wavelengths longer than about 30,000 kilometers. The amplitudes of the waves vary on a time scale of about 1 month; structures on a smaller scale may have lifetimes of only days. Waves observed in 1985, 1987, and 1988 propagated with group velocities less than + or - 30 meters/sec.

  16. An atomic clock with $1\\times 10^{-18}$ room-temperature blackbody Stark uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Beloy, K; Phillips, N B; Sherman, J A; Schioppo, M; Lehman, J; Feldman, A; Hanssen, L M; Oates, C W; Ludlow, A D

    2014-01-01

    The Stark shift due to blackbody radiation (BBR) is the key factor limiting the performance of many atomic frequency standards, with the BBR environment inside the clock apparatus being difficult to characterize at a high level of precision. Here we demonstrate an in-vacuum radiation shield that furnishes a uniform, well-characterized BBR environment for the atoms in an ytterbium optical lattice clock. Operated at room temperature, this shield enables specification of the BBR environment to a corresponding fractional clock uncertainty contribution of $5.5 \\times 10^{-19}$. Combined with uncertainty in the atomic response, the total uncertainty of the BBR Stark shift is now $1\\times10^{-18}$. Further operation of the shield at elevated temperatures enables a direct measure of the BBR shift temperature dependence and demonstrates consistency between our evaluated BBR environment and the expected atomic response.

  17. Extraction of Phrase-Structure Fragments with a Linear Average Time Tree-Kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm and implementation for extracting recurring fragments from treebanks. Using a tree-kernel method the largest common fragments are extracted from each pair of trees. The algorithm presented achieves a thirty-fold speedup over the previously available method on the Wall Street

  18. Extraction of Phrase-Structure Fragments with a Linear Average Time Tree-Kernel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Cranenburgh, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present an algorithm and implementation for extracting recurring fragments from treebanks. Using a tree-kernel method the largest common fragments are extracted from each pair of trees. The algorithm presented achieves a thirty-fold speedup over the previously available method on the Wall Street

  19. A real-time algorithm for predicting core temperature in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribok, Andrei V; Buller, Mark J; Hoyt, Reed W; Reifman, Jaques

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we present a real-time implementation of a previously developed offline algorithm for predicting core temperature in humans. The real-time algorithm uses a zero-phase Butterworth digital filter to smooth the data and an autoregressive (AR) model to predict core temperature. The performance of the algorithm is assessed in terms of its prediction accuracy, quantified by the root mean squared error (RMSE), and in terms of prediction uncertainty, quantified by statistically based prediction intervals (PIs). To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, we simulated real-time implementation using core-temperature data collected during two different field studies, involving ten different individuals. One of the studies includes a case of heat illness suffered by one of the participants. The results indicate that although the real-time predictions yielded RMSEs that are larger than those of the offline algorithm, the real-time algorithm does produce sufficiently accurate predictions for practically meaningful prediction horizons (approximately 20 min). The algorithm reached alert (39 degrees C) and alarm (39.5 degrees C) thresholds for the heat-ill individual but did not even attain the alert threshold for the other individuals, demonstrating the algorithm's good sensitivity and specificity. The PIs reflected, in an intuitively expected manner, the uncertainty associated with real-time forecast as a function of prediction horizon and core-temperature variability. The results also corroborate the feasibility of "universal" AR models, where an offline-developed model based on one individual's data could be used to predict any other individual in real time. We conclude that the real-time implementation of the algorithm confirms the attributes observed in the offline version and, hence, could be considered as a warning tool for impending heat illnesses.

  20. Mechanics of submerged jet cavitating action: material properties, exposure time and temperature effects on erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutli, Ezddin A.F.; Nedeljkovic, Milos S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Belgrade (RS); Radovic, Nenad A. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (RS)

    2008-05-15

    Experimental setup with a submerged cavitating jet has been used for the study of influences of material, exposure time and working fluid temperature on the erosion process. Each of the parameters has been varied separately, and the results of erosion are analyzed in detail. Additionally, comparison of experiments with nitrated and non-nitrated material has been made in order to study the enhancement (mostly reflected as the prolonged incubation time) of erosion resistance achieved by nitrating the specimen surface. (orig.)

  1. Signals features extraction in liquid-gas flow measurements using gamma densitometry. Part 1: time domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Robert; Zych, Marcin; Petryka, Leszek; Jaszczur, Marek; Hanus, Paweł

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents an application of the gamma-absorption method to study a gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipeline. In the tests on laboratory installation two 241Am radioactive sources and scintillation probes with NaI(Tl) crystals have been used. The experimental set-up allows recording of stochastic signals, which describe instantaneous content of the stream in the particular cross-section of the flow mixture. The analyses of these signals by statistical methods allow to determine the mean velocity of the gas phase. Meanwhile, the selected features of signals provided by the absorption set, can be applied to recognition of the structure of the flow. In this work such three structures of air-water flow as: plug, bubble, and transitional plug - bubble one were considered. The recorded raw signals were analyzed in time domain and several features were extracted. It was found that following features of signals as the mean, standard deviation, root mean square (RMS), variance and 4th moment are most useful to recognize the structure of the flow.

  2. Hydrodistillation extraction time effect on essential oil yield, composition, and bioactivity of coriander oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2014-01-01

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a major essential oil crop grown throughout the world. Coriander essential oil is extracted from coriander fruits via hydrodistillation, with the industry using 180-240 min of distillation time (DT), but the optimum DT for maximizing essential oil yield, composition of constituents, and antioxidant activities are not known. This research was conducted to determine the effect of DT on coriander oil yield, composition, and bioactivity. The results show that essential oil yield at the shorter DT was low and generally increased with increasing DT with the maximum yields achieved at DT between 40 and 160 min. The concentrations of the low-boiling point essential oil constituents: α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene, myrcene, para-cymene, limonene, and γ-terpinene were higher at shorter DT (essential oil constituent, linalool, was 51% at DT 1.15 min, and increased steadily to 68% with increasing DT. In conclusion, 40 min DT is sufficient to maximize yield of essential oil; and different DT can be used to obtain essential oil with differential composition. Its antioxidant capacity was affected by the DT, with 20 and 240 min DT showing higher antioxidant activity. Comparisons of coriander essential oil composition must consider the length of the DT.

  3. Signals features extraction in liquid-gas flow measurements using gamma densitometry. Part 1: time domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanus Robert

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an application of the gamma-absorption method to study a gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipeline. In the tests on laboratory installation two 241Am radioactive sources and scintillation probes with NaI(Tl crystals have been used. The experimental set-up allows recording of stochastic signals, which describe instantaneous content of the stream in the particular cross-section of the flow mixture. The analyses of these signals by statistical methods allow to determine the mean velocity of the gas phase. Meanwhile, the selected features of signals provided by the absorption set, can be applied to recognition of the structure of the flow. In this work such three structures of air-water flow as: plug, bubble, and transitional plug – bubble one were considered. The recorded raw signals were analyzed in time domain and several features were extracted. It was found that following features of signals as the mean, standard deviation, root mean square (RMS, variance and 4th moment are most useful to recognize the structure of the flow.

  4. Shifts in the timing of spawning in sole linked to warming sea temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fincham, J.I.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Engelhard, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic traits such as peak spawning time may vary within and differ between populations in relation to environmental factors, such as temperature. Sole (Solea solea) is a valuable, commercially exploited species that spawns in late winter or spring. The date of peak spawning was estimated for ea

  5. Recovery time of high temperature superconducting tapes exposed in liquid nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Jie, E-mail: sjtushengjie@gmail.com; Zeng, Weina; Yao, Zhihao; Zhao, Anfeng; Hu, Daoyu; Hong, Zhiyong

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel method based on a sequence of AC pulses is presented. • Liquid nitrogen temperature is used as criterion to judge whether the sample has recovered. • Recovery time of some tape doesn't increase with the amplitude of fault current. • This phenomenon is caused by boiling heat transfer process of liquid nitrogen. • This phenomenon can be used in optimizing both the limiting rate and reclosing system. - Abstract: The recovery time is a crucial parameter to high temperature superconducting tapes, especially in power applications. The cooperation between the reclosing device and the superconducting facilities mostly relies on the recovery time of the superconducting tapes. In this paper, a novel method is presented to measure the recovery time of several different superconducting samples. In this method criterion used to judge whether the sample has recovered is the liquid nitrogen temperature, instead of the critical temperature. An interesting phenomenon is observed during the testing of superconducting samples exposed in the liquid nitrogen. Theoretical explanations of this phenomenon are presented from the aspect of heat transfer. Optimization strategy of recovery characteristics based on this phenomenon is also briefly discussed.

  6. Effect of Storage Time and Temperature on Rheological and Microstructural Properties of Gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, Y.; Smit, R.J.M.; Aalst, van H.; Esselink, F.J.; Weegels, P.L.; Agterof, W.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of frozen storage on the rheological and microstructural properties of gluten, two model systems were investigated: System A, gluten and water; System B, gluten, water, and NaCl. The storage time was varied from 1 to 16 weeks and the storage temperature was varied from -5

  7. Effect of storage time and temperature on the rheological and microstructural properties of gluten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolas, Y.; Smit, R.J.M.; van Aalst, H.; Esselink, F.J.; Weegels, P.L.; Agterof, W.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the effects of frozen storage on the rheological and microstructural properties of gluten, two model systems were investigated: System A, gluten and water; System B, gluten, water, and NaCl. The storage time was varied from 1 to 16 weeks and the storage temperature was varied from -5

  8. Applicability condition of time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) to a multi-phase system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takato

    2013-08-01

    The applicability condition of the time-temperature superposition principle (TTSP) to a multi-phase system is analytically discussed assuming a mixture law. It was concluded that the TTSP does not hold for a multi-phase system in general but does hold for a multi-component system in which some components have the same temperature dependence and the others have no temperature dependence. On the basis of the results, the application of the TTSP to plant materials such as wood and bamboo was examined using a mixture law and a stretched-exponential function having a characteristic relaxation time τ 0 and a stretching parameter β. Wood can be treated as a multi-phase system consisting of a framework (f) and matrix (m). In this case, it was expected that the TTSP holds for the matrix in the shorter time region t≪ τ 0 f under T T gm , where t and T g is a measurement time and the glass transition temperature, respectively.

  9. Torrefaction of agricultural by-products: Effects of temperature and time on energy yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural by-products, such as apple, grape, olive, and tomato pomaces as well as almond and walnut shells, were torrefied at different temperatures and times. Torrefaction of biomass involves heating in an inert atmosphere to remove volatile components for improved grindability and increased ene...

  10. Sensory characteristics of meat cooked for prolonged times at low temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Bach; Gunvig, Annemarie; Tørngren, Mari Ann

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the sensory characteristics of low temperature long time (LTLT) treated Semitendinosus from pork and beef and Pectoralis profundus from chicken. Semitendinosus and Pectoralis profundus muscles were heat treated at 53°C and 58°C for Tc + 6 h, Tc + 17 h, and Tc + 30 h...

  11. Time evolution of chiral phase transition at finite temperature and density in the linear sigma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Koide, Tomoi; Maruyama, Masahiro [Tohoku Univ., Faculty of Science, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    There are various approaches to nonequilibrium system. We use the projection operator method investigated by F. Shibata and N. Hashitsume on the linear sigma model at finite temperature and density. We derive a differential equation of the time evolution for the order parameter and pion number density in chiral phase transition. (author)

  12. Effect of temperature, salinity, light and time of dehiscence on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the effect of temperature, salinity and time of fruit dehiscence on the seed germination and seedling morphology of .... in shape with a mean length of 12 cm and a mean width of10cm. ..... plant either due to absence of rain in the study area or.

  13. Influence of temperature and hydroxide concentration on the settling time of hydroxy-catalysis bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, S. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: s.reid@physics.gla.ac.uk; Cagnoli, G. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Elliffe, E. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Faller, J. [JILA, NIST and University of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Hough, J. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Martin, I. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Rowan, S. [Institute for Gravitational Research, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, SUPA, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-09

    Many applications using bonded optical components have stringent requirements on the strength, rigidity, stability and alignment of the bonds. Hydroxy-catalysis bonding fulfills these requirements. Here we investigate methods by which the bonding time may be extended to better aid the precise prealignment of optical components through controlling the temperature and concentration of the bonding solution.

  14. Body temperature predicts the direction of internal desynchronization in humans isolated from time cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a new analysis of experiments that were carried out in human subjects in isolation from time cues, under supervision of Jurgen Aschoff and Rutger Wever at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology (Erling-Andechs, Germany, 1964-1974). Mean rectal temperatures

  15. Volatile compound profile of sous-vide cooked lamb loins at different temperature-time combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Mar; Ruiz, Jorge; Del Pulgar, José Sánchez; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Antequera, Teresa

    2015-02-01

    Lamb loins were subjected to sous-vide cooking at different combinations of temperature (60 and 80°C) and time (6 and 24h) to assess the effect on the volatile compound profile. Major chemical families in cooked samples were aliphatic hydrocarbons and aldehydes. The volatile compound profile in sous-vide cooked lamb loin was affected by the cooking temperature and time. Volatile compounds arising from lipid oxidation presented a high abundance in samples cooked at low or moderate cooking conditions (60°C for 6 and 24h, 80°C for 6h), while a more intense time and temperature combination (80°C for 24h) resulted on a higher concentration of volatile compounds arising from Strecker degradations of amino acids, as 2-methylpropanal and 3-methylbutanal. Therefore, sous-vide cooking at moderately high temperatures for long times would result in the formation of a stronger meaty flavor and roast notes in lamb meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Postmortem time estimation using body temperature and a finite-element computer model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Lotens, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    In the Netherlands most murder victims are found 2-24 h after the crime. During this period, body temperature decrease is the most reliable method to estimate the postmortem time (PMT). Recently, two murder cases were analysed in which currently available methods did not provide a su.ciently reliabl

  17. Body temperature predicts the direction of internal desynchronization in humans isolated from time cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a new analysis of experiments that were carried out in human subjects in isolation from time cues, under supervision of Jurgen Aschoff and Rutger Wever at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology (Erling-Andechs, Germany, 1964-1974). Mean rectal temperatures (t(b

  18. Effect of temperature on the time-dependent behavior of geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Xu, Shuo; Teng, Jidong; Xiong, Yonglin

    2016-08-01

    In many geotechnical engineering applications, such as nuclear waste disposal and geothermal extraction and storage, it is necessary to consider the long-term mechanical properties. The effect of temperature could have a complicated influence on the creep damage behavior of soft rock. As a consequence, it is meaningful, both in theory and in practice, to establish a constitutive model that can describe the creep damage behavior. Within the framework of continuum mechanics, a thermo-visco-elastoplastic model is proposed on the basis of a sub-loading Cam-clay model and the concept of equivalent stress. Triaxial creep tests under different confining pressures for Tage stone were conducted to validate the proposed model. The experimental results show that an optimum temperature exists for a certain stress state, and this temperature significantly slows down the creep damage rate. In addition, both the retarding and accelerating effects on creep rupture due to limited warming are observed for the same material, and this phenomenon can be predicted well by the proposed model. Finally, a parametric analysis is performed, and the influence of the material parameter on creep regularity is discussed in detail.

  19. Welding of Nafion® - The influence of time, temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Konstantin; Rauner, Helmut; Scheiba, Frieder; Roth, Christina; Ehrenberg, Helmut

    2014-12-01

    The properties of perfluorosulfonic acid ionomers (PFSIs) such as DuPont's Nafion® have been extensively characterized during the last decades. However, despite its importance for the upcoming industrialization of PFSI-based products no detailed investigation of the welding behavior of PFSIs has been performed. This paper investigates the welding behavior of Nafion® NRE-211 membranes common in both academia and industry over an industrially relevant parameter range of time, temperature and pressure. The strength evolution of the welded interface shows a linear dependence with square root of time and an Arrhenius temperature dependence. It is thus suggested that the welding behavior of Nafion® membranes can be predicted by the reptation model from polymer dynamics. Time-temperature master curves for a large range of parameters are constructed. Pressure is shown to have positive effects at very low welding times, but strongly negative effects at longer welding times, which can be explained by the model. Welding time and final strength of the fully healed interface are predicted using measurement and literature data. A short discussion on thermal transitions and on the role of crystallinity is also presented.

  20. Extraction of time and frequency features from grip force rates during dexterous manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, Keivan; Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2015-05-01

    The time course of grip force from object contact to onset of manipulation has been extensively studied to gain insight into the underlying control mechanisms. Of particular interest to the motor neuroscience and clinical communities is the phenomenon of bell-shaped grip force rate (GFR) that has been interpreted as indicative of feedforward force control. However, this feature has not been assessed quantitatively. Furthermore, the time course of grip force may contain additional features that could provide insight into sensorimotor control processes. In this study, we addressed these questions by validating and applying two computational approaches to extract features from GFR in humans: 1) fitting a Gaussian function to GFR and quantifying the goodness of the fit [root-mean-square error, (RMSE)]; and 2) continuous wavelet transform (CWT), where we assessed the correlation of the GFR signal with a Mexican Hat function. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic pseudorandomized presentation of object mass (light or heavy), where grip forces developed to lift a mass heavier than expected are known to exhibit corrective responses. For Experiment 2, we applied our two techniques to analyze grip force exerted for manipulating an inverted T-shaped object whose center of mass was changed across blocks of consecutive trials. For both experiments, subjects were asked to grasp the object at either predetermined or self-selected grasp locations ("constrained" and "unconstrained" task, respectively). Experiment 1 successfully validated the use of RMSE and CWT as they correctly distinguished trials with versus without force corrective responses. RMSE and CWT also revealed that grip force is characterized by more feedback-driven corrections when grasping at self-selected contact points. Future work will examine the application of our analytical approaches to a broader range of tasks, e.g., assessment of recovery of sensorimotor function following clinical intervention, interlimb

  1. Influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction in 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Tecchio

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of rootstocks and pruning times on yield and on nutrient content and extraction by pruned branches and harvested bunches of 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine in subtropical climate. The rootstocks 'IAC 766', 'IAC 572', 'IAC 313', 'IAC 571-6', and '106-8 Mgt' were evaluated. Treatments consisted of a combination between five rootstocks and three pruning times. At pruning, fresh and dry matter mass of branches were evaluated to estimate biomass accumulation. At harvest, yield was estimated by weighing of bunches per plant. Branches and bunches were sampled at pruning and at harvest, respectively, for nutrient content analysis. Nutrient content and dry matter mass of branches and bunches were used to estimate total nutrient extraction. 'Niagara Rosada' grapevine grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock had the highest yield and dry matter mass of bunches, which were significantly different from the ones observed in 'Niagara Rosada'/'IAC 313'. 'Niagara Rosada' grafted onto the 'IAC 572' rootstock extracted the largest quantity of K, P, Mg, S, Cu, and Fe, differing from 'IAC 313' and 'IAC 766' in K and P extraction, and from '106-8 Mgt' in Mg and S extraction. Winter pruning results in higher yield, dry matter accumulation by branches, and total nutrient content and extraction.

  2. [Extraction of 10-Deacetyl Baccatin by Supercritical CO2 from Taxus yunnanensis Branches and Leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang-qin; Li, Hai-chi; Huang, Wen-jie; Xiong, Yan; Ge, Fa-huan

    2015-04-01

    To study the supercritical CO2 fluids extraction (SFE) method to extract the components from Taxus yunnanensis. Medicinal meterials were extracted by supercritical CO2, and then purified by industrial chromatography. Using the extraction yield of 10-DAB as the index,single factor test was carried out to investigate the effect of co-solvent, extraction time, extraction pressure, extraction temperature, pressure and temperature of separation kettle I. Then orthogonal experiment was used to optimize the best extraction condition. The suitable extraction condition was as follows: the ratio of co-solvent (80% ethanol) amount and the madicinal materials was 3: 1, Separation kettle I pressure was 14 MPa, separation kettle I temperature was 40 °C, extraction pressure was 25 MPa, extraction temperature was 60 T and extraction time was 90 min. The extract was separated by industrial chromatographic and then crystallized. The supercritical CO2 extraction and purification process of 10-DAB were simple and feasible.

  3. Sudden cold temperature regulates the time-lag between plant CO2 uptake and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, M.; Cieraad, E.; Zakharova, A.; Hunt, J. E.

    2013-11-01

    Since substrates for respiration are supplied mainly by recent photo-assimilates, there is a strong but time-lagged link between short-term above- and belowground carbon (C) cycling. However, regulation of this coupling by environmental variables is poorly understood. Whereas recent studies focussed on the effect of drought and shading on the link between above and belowground short-term C cycling, the effect of temperature remains unclear. We used a 13CO2 pulse-chase labelling experiment to investigate the effect of a sudden temperature change from 25 °C to 10 °C on the short-term coupling between assimilatory C uptake and respiratory loss. The study was done in the laboratory using two month old perennial rye-grass plants (time intervals using laser spectroscopy. In addition, δ13C was also analysed in bulk root and shoot samples using IRMS. Cold temperature (10 °C) reduced the short-term coupling between shoot and roots by delaying belowground transfer of recent assimilates and its subsequent respiratory use, as indicated by the δ13C signal of root respiration (δ13CRR). That is, the time-lag from the actual shoot labelling to the first appearance of the label in 13CRR was about 1.5 times longer under cold temperature (time-lags of 1 h and 1.5 h in the warm and cold treatments, respectively). Moreover, analysis of bulk shoot and root material revealed that plants at cold temperature invest relatively more carbon into respiration compared to growth or storage. These results increase our understanding of environmental controls on the link between short-term above- and belowground C cycling.

  4. PCR detection of malaria parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes is uninhibited by storage time and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rider Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable methods to preserve mosquito vectors for malaria studies are necessary for detecting Plasmodium parasites. In field settings, however, maintaining a cold chain of storage from the time of collection until laboratory processing, or accessing other reliable means of sample preservation is often logistically impractical or cost prohibitive. As the Plasmodium infection rate of Anopheles mosquitoes is a central component of the entomological inoculation rate and other indicators of transmission intensity, storage conditions that affect pathogen detection may bias malaria surveillance indicators. This study investigated the effect of storage time and temperature on the ability to detect Plasmodium parasites in desiccated Anopheles mosquitoes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods Laboratory-infected Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were chloroform-killed and stored over desiccant for 0, 1, 3, and 6 months while being held at four different temperatures: 28, 37, -20 and -80°C. The detection of Plasmodium DNA was evaluated by real-time PCR amplification of a 111 base pair region of block 4 of the merozoite surface protein. Results Varying the storage time and temperature of desiccated mosquitoes did not impact the sensitivity of parasite detection. A two-way factorial analysis of variance suggested that storage time and temperature were not associated with a loss in the ability to detect parasites. Storage of samples at 28°C resulted in a significant increase in the ability to detect parasite DNA, though no other positive associations were observed between the experimental storage treatments and PCR amplification. Conclusions Cold chain maintenance of desiccated mosquito samples is not necessary for real-time PCR detection of parasite DNA. Though field-collected mosquitoes may be subjected to variable conditions prior to molecular processing, the storage of samples over an inexpensive and logistically

  5. Time Series Stream Temperature And Dissolved Oxygen Modeling In The Lower Flint River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G.; Jackson, C. R.

    2004-12-01

    The tributaries of the Lower Flint River Basin (LFRB) are incised into the upper Floridan semi-confined limestone aquifer, and thus seepage of relatively old groundwater sustains baseflows and provides some control over temperature and dissolved oxygen fluctuations. This hydrologic and geologic setting creates aquatic habitat that is unique in the state of Georgia. Groundwater withdrawals and possible water supply reservoirs threaten to exacerbate low flow conditions during summer droughts, which may force negative impacts to stream temperature and dissolved oxygen (DO). To evaluate the possible effects of human modifications to stream habitat, summer time series (in 15 min interval) of stream temperature and DO were monitored over the last three years along these streams, and a Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) model was developed and calibrated with these data. The driving forces of the diel trends and the overall levels of stream temperature and DO were identified by this model. Simulations were conducted with assumed managed flow conditions to illustrate potential effects of various stream flow regimes on stream temperature and DO time series. The goal of this research is to provide an accurate simulation tool to guide management decisions.

  6. Photothermal damage is correlated to the delivery rate of time-integrated temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michael L.; Noojin, Gary D.; Gamboa, B. Giovanna; Ahmed, Elharith M.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2016-03-01

    Photothermal damage rate processes in biological tissues are usually characterized by a kinetics approach. This stems from experimental data that show how the transformation of a specified biological property of cells or biomolecule (plating efficiency for viability, change in birefringence, tensile strength, etc.) is dependent upon both time and temperature. However, kinetic methods require determination of kinetic rate constants and knowledge of substrate or product concentrations during the reaction. To better understand photothermal damage processes we have identified temperature histories of cultured retinal cells receiving minimum lethal thermal doses for a variety of laser and culture parameters. These "threshold" temperature histories are of interest because they inherently contain information regarding the fundamental thermal dose requirements for damage in individual cells. We introduce the notion of time-integrated temperature (Tint) as an accumulated thermal dose (ATD) with units of °C s. Damaging photothermal exposure raises the rate of ATD accumulation from that of the ambient (e.g. 37 °C) to one that correlates with cell death (e.g. 52 °C). The degree of rapid increase in ATD (ΔATD) during photothermal exposure depends strongly on the laser exposure duration and the ambient temperature.

  7. Finite-temperature time-dependent variation with multiple Davydov states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Fujihashi, Yuta; Chen, Lipeng; Zhao, Yang

    2017-03-28

    The Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variational approach with Davydov Ansätze is a sophisticated, yet efficient technique to obtain an accurate solution to many-body Schrödinger equations for energy and charge transfer dynamics in molecular aggregates and light-harvesting complexes. We extend this variational approach to finite temperature dynamics of the spin-boson model by adopting a Monte Carlo importance sampling method. In order to demonstrate the applicability of this approach, we compare calculated real-time quantum dynamics of the spin-boson model with that from numerically exact iterative quasiadiabatic propagator path integral (QUAPI) technique. The comparison shows that our variational approach with the single Davydov Ansätze is in excellent agreement with the QUAPI method at high temperatures, while the two differ at low temperatures. Accuracy in dynamics calculations employing a multitude of Davydov trial states is found to improve substantially over the single Davydov Ansatz, especially at low temperatures. At a moderate computational cost, our variational approach with the multiple Davydov Ansatz is shown to provide accurate spin-boson dynamics over a wide range of temperatures and bath spectral densities.

  8. Time-resolved microplasma excitation temperature in a pulsed microwave discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Jeffrey; Monfared, Shabnam; Hoskinson, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Microwave-driven microplasmas are usually operated in a steady-state mode such that the electron temperature is constant in time. Transient measurements of excitation temperature and helium emission lines, however, suggest that short microwave pulses can be used to raise the electron energy by 20-30% for approximately 100 ns. Time-resolved optical emission spectrometry reveals an initial burst of light emission from the igniting microplasma. This emission overshoot is also correlated with a measured increase in excitation temperature. Excimer emission lags atomic emission, however, and does not overshoot. A simple model demonstrates that an increase in electron temperature is responsible for the overshoot of atomic optical emission at the beginning of each microwave pulse. The formation of dimers and subsequent excimer emission requires slower three-body collisions with the excited rare gas atom; this is why excimer emission does not overshoot the steady state value. Similar experimental and modeling results are observed in argon gas. The overshoot in electron temperature may be used to manipulate the collisional production of species in microplasmas using short, low-duty cycle microwave pulses. This material is based upon work supported by the USAF and Physical Sciences Inc., under contract No. FA8650-C-12-C-2312. Additional support was provided by the DARPA MPD program under award FA9550-12-1-0006.

  9. Effect of aging time and temperature on the aging behavior in Sn containing AZ91 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Kyun; Oh, Seung Hyun; Kim, Kang Cheol; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Do Hyang

    2017-02-01

    Effects of aging temperature and time on the aging behavior in AZ91 alloy and Sn containing AZ91 alloy (AZT915) have been investigated in the present study. The mode of precipitation, i.e. discontinuous and continuous precipitation in both alloys is strongly affected by the aging temperature. At low aging temperature of 403 K, only discontinuous precipitation occurs at the grain boundaries, whereas at high aging temperatures of 573 and 623 K only continuous precipitation occurs inside the grains. At intermediate temperature range (443 or 498 K) both discontinuous and continuous precipitation reactions occur. In AZT915, the Mg2Sn particles at the grain boundary effectively reduce the available nucleation sites for discontinuous β precipitates, and slow down the movement of the grain boundary, resulting in suppression of discontinuous precipitation. In addition, increased local lattice strain by the presence of Sn in the α-Mg solid solution matrix accelerates the nucleation of the continuous precipitates at the early stage of aging treatment. Therefore, significantly higher peak hardness can be obtained within a shorter aging time in AZT915.

  10. Compositional Differences of Ojeok-san (Wuji-san) Decoctions Using Pressurized or Non-pressurized Methods for Variable Extraction Times

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This study compared Ojeok-san (Wuji-san in Chinese) decoctions produced using different extraction methods for variable times. Decoctions were extracted in pressurized or non-pressurized conditions for 60, 120, and 180 mins. We investigated the Ojeok-san extract yield, the total soluble solid content, the hydrogen ion concentration (pH), and the reference compound content. The extract yield and the total soluble solid content were higher in decoctions produced by non-pressurized extraction; b...

  11. [In situ temperature measurement by absorption spectroscopy based on time division multiplexing technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Nan-zheng; Li, Ning; Weng, Chun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology is a kind of high sensitivity, high selectivity of non contacting gas in situ measurement technique. In the present paper, in situ gas temperature measurement of an open environment was achieved by means of direct scanning multiple characteristic lines of H2O and combined with least-squares algorithm. Through the use of HITRAN spectral database, the boundary effect on the gas temperature and concentration measurements was discussed in detail, and results showed that the combination of scanning multiple characteristic lines and least-squares algorithm can effectively reduce the boundary effect on the gas temperature measurements under the open environment. Experiments using time division multiplexing technology to simultaneously scan 7444.36, 7185.60, 7182.95 and 7447.48 cm(-1), the four characteristic H2O lines, the gas temperature of tubular furnace in the range of 573-973 K was measured under different conditions. The maximum temperature difference between absorption spectrum measurement and thermocouple signal was less than 52.4 K, and the maximum relative error of temperature measurement was 6.8%.

  12. Time-Series Modeling and Prediction of Global Monthly Absolute Temperature for Environmental Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Liming; YANG Guixia; Eric VAN RANST; TANG Huajun

    2013-01-01

    A generalized,structural,time series modeling framework was developed to analyze the monthly records of absolute surface temperature,one of the most important environmental parameters,using a deterministicstochastic combined (DSC) approach.Although the development of the framework was based on the characterization of the variation patterns of a global dataset,the methodology could be applied to any monthly absolute temperature record.Deterministic processes were used to characterize the variation patterns of the global trend and the cyclic oscillations of the temperature signal,involving polynomial functions and the Fourier method,respectively,while stochastic processes were employed to account for any remaining patterns in the temperature signal,involving seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) models.A prediction of the monthly global surface temperature during the second decade of the 21st century using the DSC model shows that the global temperature will likely continue to rise at twice the average rate of the past 150 years.The evaluation of prediction accuracy shows that DSC models perform systematically well against selected models of other authors,suggesting that DSC models,when coupled with other ecoenvironmental models,can be used as a supplemental tool for short-term (~10-year) environmental planning and decision making.

  13. The variability of SE2 tide extracted from TIMED/SABER observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Wan, Weixing; Ren, Zhipeng; Yu, You

    2017-04-01

    Based on the temperature observations of the SABER/TIMED, the variability of the non-migrating tide SE2 with high resolution (one-day) is analyzed, using the method from Li et al., [2015]. From the temperature observation data measured in the mesosphere and lower atmosphere region (MLT, 70-110 km altitudes) and at the low- and mid -latitudes (45S - 45N) from2002 to 2012), we obtained the non-migrating tide SE2 and further studied it in detail. It is found that the climatological features (large time scale variability and spatial distribution) of the SE2 tidal component are similar with the results from the previous researches, which are picked up from the interpolated data with 60-day resolution. The climatological features are that the SE2 tidal component manifests mainly at the low-mid latitudes around 30. The northern hemisphere tidal amplitudes below 110 km are larger than the southern hemisphere tide, at the same time, its peaks below 110 km mainly present between 100 and 110 km altitude; the tidal amplitudes below 110 km occur a north-south asymmetry about the equator in the annual variation: in the southern hemisphere, SE2 occurs with an obvious annual variation with a maximum of tidal amplitudes in December; while, in the northern one, the semi-annual variations with maximum at the equinoxes are stronger than that in the southern one. Herein, owing to the high-resolution tidal data (one day), we could research the short term (day-to-day) variations of the SE2 tide. We found that: (1) the day-to-day variations manifests mainly at the altitudes range between 100 and 110 km; (2) it increases gradually with latitudes and it is stronger at the low-mid latitudes; (3) it is relatively slightly stronger around solstices than equinoxes; (4) it does not present a remarkably inter-annual variation. Finally, the SE2 day-to-day variations may be composed by the absolute amplitudes' variance and the impact of the wave phases. In addition, the variations of

  14. Effect of pressing and combination of three storage temperatures and times on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of canola expellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guadagnin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of combinations of three temperatures and storage times on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and oxidative stability of canola expellers obtained from the cold-pressing extraction of oil. Canola seeds were single-crushed at moderate temperatures (60°C during 3 pressing sessions. Nine samples (100±1 g of each session were collected, inserted into sealed bags, stored at three temperatures (12, 24, 36°C over 3 periods of time (10, 20, 30 d. Then, samples (100±1 g of canola seeds collected before each pressing session and canola expellers collected before and after each storage time were analyzed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, peroxide number and Kreis test. Before storage, the fatty acid profile of canola seeds and expellers differed significantly, except for myristic (P=0.18, palmitic (P=0.57, oleic (P=0.07, and α-linolenic acids (P=0.45. Compared to canola seeds, expellers showed greater content of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and n-6 fatty acids (P<0.01, but a lower content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.01. Peroxide values were definitely (P<0.01 greater for expellers and averaged 4.22 and 4.11 mEq/kg fat before and after storage, respectively. The Kreis test was negative for all samples. Under different temperatures and times of storage, canola expellers showed to maintain a good oxidative stability, as highlighted by low peroxide values (<10 mEq/kg fat and negative response for Kreis test. Canola expellers obtained by on-farm cold extraction, despite great oil residual (from 17 to 19% ether extracts on dry matter basis, can be stored at farm without significant chemical and nutritional changes.

  15. Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Determination of Heating Time During High-Temperature Heat Treatment of Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Xin-you

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical prediction provides basic understanding and guidance to correctly implement a certaintechnology in the production process. The present study uses a differential equation to predict the heattransfer time between the surface and core layer of wood during the heat treatment, with applicability inestimating the duration of heat treatments at high temperatures. The obtained prediction was compared withthe result of an experimental study performed on Chinese poplar wood with various thicknesses (20, 40 and60mm. During this experiment, the time necessary for the core of wood to reach a temperature of 100°C,130°C and finally 180°C was monitored and the recorded values were compared with the predicted ones.The result of this comparison proved that the experimental values matched the theoretically predicted times,validating thus the applicability of the proposed equation as prediction tool.

  16. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Parmoon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The response of seed germination to environmental factors can be estimated by nonlinear regression. The present study was performed to compare four nonlinear regression models (segmented, beta, beta modified, and dent-like to describe the germination rate–temperature relationships of milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. at six constant temperatures, with the aim of identifying the cardinal temperatures and thermal times required to reach different germination percentiles. Models and statistical indices were calibrated using an iterative optimization method and their performance was compared by root mean square error (RMSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and Akaike information criterion correction (AICc. The beta model was found to be the best model for predicting the required time to reach 50% germination (D50, (R2 = 0.99; RMSE = 0.004; AICc = − 276.97. Based on the model outputs, the base, optimum, and maximum temperatures of seed germination were 5.19 ± 0.79, 24.01 ± 0.11, and 34.32 ± 0.36 °C, respectively. The thermal times required for 50% and 90% germination were 4.99 and 7.38 degree-days, respectively.

  17. Influence of Temperature and Time Shifts on the Densification of Randomly Oriented Carbon/Carbon Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Sudesh Kumar Raunija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efforts were made to improve the hot-pressing method of carbon/carbon (C/C composite fabrication. The C/C composite was fabricated by hot-pressing the slurry moulded compact followed by carbonisation. The temperature and time shifts during hot-pressing were made in order to see their effect on the densification. Their effect was checked through visual inspection, density measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis, and mechanical properties evaluation. The results showed that the temperature shift yielded in significant increase in the density after hot-pressing. Further, the density pick up instead of fall after carbonisation was noticed. The results further showed that the time shift too yielded in significant enhancement of density after hot-pressing and showed the pattern after carbonisation similar to the temperature shift. And also showed that the shifts of both temperature and time yielded in significant increase in density and moderate increase in mechanical properties.

  18. Effect of bath water temperature and immersion time on bend angle during cartilage thermoforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ryan; Protsenko, Dmitry E.; Diaz, Sergio H.; Ho, K.-H. K.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2003-06-01

    Much interest has been placed on the permanent reshaping of cartilage for facial reconstructive surgery using lasers. An alternate way to reshape cartilage is to heat the tissue in a water bath while maintaining the specimen in mechanical deformation. The objective of this study was to measure the circular bend angle of a cartilage specimen produced by varying the temperature and immersion time in a water bath. Rectangular cartilage specimens (18 x 4 x 1.5 mm) were bent in a semicircular jig (diameter 11 mm) and then immersed in a saline bath at temperatures between 50 - 80°C. The immersion times were 5, 20, 80, 160 and 320 seconds at each temperature. The distance between the ends of each specimen was measured before reshaping and at 15 minutes and 24 hours after immersion in order to calculate the resulting bend angle. The largest bend angle occurred in the specimen immersed in saline at 74°C for 320 seconds, illustrating a definite thermal influence on the physical shape of the cartilage sample. The critical immersion times and bath temperatures where definite shape change occurred were determined.

  19. Remote sensing of temperature and wind using acoustic travel-time measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Barth

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A remote sensing technique to detect area-averaged temperature and flow properties within an area under investigation, utilizing acoustic travel-time measurements, is introduced. This technique uses the dependency of the speed of acoustic signals on the meteorological parameters temperature and wind along the propagation path. The method itself is scalable: It is applicable for investigation areas with an extent of some hundred square metres as well as for small-scale areas in the range of one square metre. Moreover, an arrangement of the acoustic transducers at several height levels makes it possible to determine profiles and gradients of the meteorological quantities. With the help of two examples the potential of this remote sensing technique for simultaneously measuring averaged temperature and flow fields is demonstrated. A comparison of time histories of temperature and wind values derived from acoustic travel-time measurements with point measurements shows a qualitative agreement whereas calculated root-mean-square errors differ for the two example applications. They amount to 1.4 K and 0.3 m/s for transducer distances of 60 m and 0.4 K and 0.2 m/s for transducer distances in the range of one metre.

  20. Effect of temperature and storage time of wheat germ on the oil tocopherol concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Capitani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germ represents approximately 3% of the grain and it contains 8-14% oil, which is a rich source of tocopherols (vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly linoleic acid. The present work shows the influence of temperature (27ºC and 45ºC and storage time (maximum 35 days of the wheat germ on the concentration of tocopherol in the oil. Their effect on other quality parameters was also investigated. Results indicated that oil oxidation and free fatty acid formation increased markedly with temperature and storage time. The initial sample contained 3134 µg/g total tocopherol, of which 67% was α-tocopherol and, in a lower proportions, β-tocopherol and Γ-tocopherol (30.5% and 2.4%, respectively. In the temperature range studied, tocopherols decreased as a function of storage time following first-order kinetics. The rate constant k for β-tocopherol increased with temperature. The fatty acid composition was not affected by the storage conditions applied.

  1. Relaxation time and excess entropy in viscous liquids: Electric field versus temperature as control parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richert, Ranko

    2017-02-01

    On the basis of adiabatic calorimetry data and results obtained from dielectric relaxation studies in the presence of a high static electric field, the effects of temperature and electric field induced changes of the excess entropy are compared for the same sample: supercooled cresolphthalein dimethylether. A field induced reduction of the excess entropy by 45 mJ K-1 mol-1 at constant temperature increases the structural relaxation time by 0.75%, while the same entropy change originating from lowering the temperature at constant field increases the time constant by 3.5%. Therefore, there is no simple link connecting excess entropy and relaxation time that is independent of the control parameter that is used to modify the entropy. A consequence is that the Adam-Gibbs approach does not provide a quantitative prediction for how the dynamics of liquids depend on the electric field, and, more generally, on excess entropy. This work compares the dynamics for temperature versus field induced changes of isobaric excess entropy, thereby eliminating previous uncertainties arising from isochoric versus isobaric conditions and from unknown relations between thermodynamic, excess, and configurational entropies.

  2. Quantifying cardinal temperatures and thermal time required for germination of Silybum marianum seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghasem; Parmoon; Seyed; Amir; Moosavi; Hamed; Akbari; Ali; Ebadi

    2015-01-01

    The response of seed germination to environmental factors can be estimated by nonlinear regression. The present study was performed to compare four nonlinear regression models(segmented, beta, beta modified, and dent-like) to describe the germination rate–temperature relationships of milk thistle(Silybum marianum L.) at six constant temperatures, with the aim of identifying the cardinal temperatures and thermal times required to reach different germination percentiles. Models and statistical indices were calibrated using an iterative optimization method and their performance was compared by root mean square error(RMSE), coefficient of determination(R2) and Akaike information criterion correction(AICc). The beta model was found to be the best model for predicting the required time to reach 50% germination(D50),(R2= 0.99;RMSE = 0.004; AICc =-276.97). Based on the model outputs, the base, optimum, and maximum temperatures of seed germination were 5.19 ± 0.79, 24.01 ± 0.11, and 34.32 ± 0.36 °C,respectively. The thermal times required for 50% and 90% germination were 4.99 and7.38 degree-days, respectively.

  3. Effect of temperature, curing time, and filler composition on surface microhardness of composite resins

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Dionysopoulos; Constantinos Papadopoulos; Eugenia Koliniotou-Koumpia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microhardness of two composite resins when subjected to three different temperatures and three different light-curing times. Materials and Methods: Two composites were used; Filtek Z250 and Grandio. Three different temperatures (23, 37, and 55 o C) were used, utilizing a composite warmer. The heated samples were immediately injected into cylindrical molds (6 mm × 2 mm) and the top surface of the specimens was polymerized for 10, 20, and 40 se...

  4. Effects of temperature and deposition time on the RF- sputtered CdTe films preparation

    OpenAIRE

    E. Camacho-Espinosa; Rosendo, E.; T. Díaz; A. I. Oliva; V. Rejon; Peña, J. L.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, CdTe thin films were deposited by rf-sputtering at different substrate temperatures (room temperature (RT), 100, 150, 200, and 250 °C) and deposition times (30, 60, and 90 min). The applied power and vacuum pressure were maintained fixed for all depositions. A mean value of 18 .5 nm/s on the deposition rate was maintained for films deposition. The surface morphology, rms-roughness, and grain size of the sputtered-films were obtained from atomic force microscopy and scanning elec...

  5. Optimizing headspace sampling temperature and time for analysis of volatile oxidation products in fish oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbæk, Karen; Jensen, Benny

    1997-01-01

    Headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC), based on adsorption to Tenax GR(R), thermal desorption and GC, has been used for analysis of volatiles in fish oil. To optimize sam sampling conditions, the effect of heating the fish oil at various temperatures and times was evaluated from anisidine values (......) and HS-CC. AV indicated sample degradations at 90 degrees C but only small alterations between 60 and 75 degrees C. HS-GC showed increasing response with temperature and rime. Purging at 75 degrees C for 45 min was selected as the preferred sampling condition for oxidized fish oil....

  6. Interplay between diffusive and displacive phase transformations: time-temperature-transformation diagrams and microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2006-08-01

    Materials which can undergo extremely fast displacive transformations as well as very slow diffusive transformations are studied using a Ginzburg-Landau framework. This simple model captures the essential physics behind microstructure formation and time-temperature-transformation diagrams in alloys such as steels. It also predicts the formation of mixed microstructures by an interplay between diffusive and displacive mechanisms. The intrinsic volume changes associated with the transformations stabilize mixed microstructures such as martensite-retained austenite (responsible for the existence of a martensite finish temperature) and martensite-pearlite.

  7. Development of an extraction type magnetometer under low temperature and high magnetic fields over 20 T by the hybrid magnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, K; Sakakura, R; Watanabe, K [High Field Laboratory for Superconducting materials, Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)], E-mail: kkoyama@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    An extraction-type magnetometer has been developed, which is performed under the low temperature of 0.5-0.6 K using a {sup 3}He-refrigerator and high magnetic fields up to 18 T using a superconducting magnet (SM) and 27 T using a hybrid magnet (HM). Magnetization curves can be measured with the absolute value over 0.0005 emu using SM and 0.005 emu using HM. We confirmed that the resolution is 0.001 emu for SM and 0.005 emu for HM. For demonstrating the ability of the magnetometer, high field magnetization curves of NdO{sub 4}Ag in 0.6-4.2 K are presented.

  8. Exploring Granger causality between global average observed time series of carbon dioxide and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodra, Evan A [ORNL; Chatterjee, Snigdhansu [University of Minnesota; Ganguly, Auroop R [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Detection and attribution methodologies have been developed over the years to delineate anthropogenic from natural drivers of climate change and impacts. A majority of prior attribution studies, which have used climate model simulations and observations or reanalysis datasets, have found evidence for humaninduced climate change. This papers tests the hypothesis that Granger causality can be extracted from the bivariate series of globally averaged land surface temperature (GT) observations and observed CO2 in the atmosphere using a reverse cumulative Granger causality test. This proposed extension of the classic Granger causality test is better suited to handle the multisource nature of the data and provides further statistical rigor. The results from this modified test show evidence for Granger causality from a proxy of total radiative forcing (RC), which in this case is a transformation of atmospheric CO2, to GT. Prior literature failed to extract these results via the standard Granger causality test. A forecasting test shows that a holdout set of GT can be better predicted with the addition of lagged RC as a predictor, lending further credibility to the Granger test results. However, since second-order-differenced RC is neither normally distributed nor variance stationary, caution should be exercised in the interpretation of our results.

  9. Time series requirements and trends of temperature and precipitation extremes over Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioravanti, Guido; Desiato, Franco; Fraschetti, Piero; Perconti, Walter; Piervitali, Emanuela

    2013-04-01

    Extreme climate events have strong impacts on society and economy; accordingly,the knowledge of their trends on long period is crucial for the definition and implementation of a national adaptation strategy to climate change. The Research Programme on Climate Variability and Predictability (CLIVAR) identified a set of temperature and precipitation indices suited to investigate variability and trends of climate extremes. It is well known that extreme indices calculation is more demanding than first and second order statistics are: daily temperature and precipitation data are required and strict constrains in terms of continuity and completeness must be met. In addition, possible dishomogeneities affecting time series must be identified and adjusted before indices calculation. When metadata are not available, statistical methods can provide scientist a relevant support for homogeneity check; however, ad-hoc decision criteria (sometimes subjective) must be applied whenever contradictory results characterize different statistical homogeneity tests. In this work, a set of daily (minimum and maximum) temperature and precipitation time series for the period 1961-2011 were selected in order to guarantee a quite uniform spatial distribution of the stations over the Italian territory and according to the afore-said continuity and completeness criteria. Following the method described by Vincent, the homogeneity check of temperature time series was run at annual level. Two well-documented tests were employed (F-test and T-test), both implemented in the free R-package RHtestV3. The Vincent method was also used for a further investigation of time series homogeneity. Temperature dishomogeneous series were discarded. For precipitation series, no homogeneity check was run. The selected series were employed at daily level to calculate a reliable set of extreme indices. For each station, a linear model was employed for indices trend estimation. Finally, single station results were

  10. Conditional probability distribution (CPD) method in temperature based death time estimation: Error propagation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubig, Michael; Muggenthaler, Holger; Mall, Gita

    2014-05-01

    Bayesian estimation applied to temperature based death time estimation was recently introduced as conditional probability distribution or CPD-method by Biermann and Potente. The CPD-method is useful, if there is external information that sets the boundaries of the true death time interval (victim last seen alive and found dead). CPD allows computation of probabilities for small time intervals of interest (e.g. no-alibi intervals of suspects) within the large true death time interval. In the light of the importance of the CPD for conviction or acquittal of suspects the present study identifies a potential error source. Deviations in death time estimates will cause errors in the CPD-computed probabilities. We derive formulae to quantify the CPD error as a function of input error. Moreover we observed the paradox, that in cases, in which the small no-alibi time interval is located at the boundary of the true death time interval, adjacent to the erroneous death time estimate, CPD-computed probabilities for that small no-alibi interval will increase with increasing input deviation, else the CPD-computed probabilities will decrease. We therefore advise not to use CPD if there is an indication of an error or a contra-empirical deviation in the death time estimates, that is especially, if the death time estimates fall out of the true death time interval, even if the 95%-confidence intervals of the estimate still overlap the true death time interval.

  11. Validation of frequency and mode extraction calculations from time-domain simulations of accelerator cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Austin, T M; Ovtchinnikov, S; Werner, G R; Bellantoni, L

    2010-01-01

    The recently developed frequency extraction algorithm [G.R. Werner and J.R. Cary, J. Comp. Phys. 227, 5200 (2008)] that enables a simple FDTD algorithm to be transformed into an efficient eigenmode solver is applied to a realistic accelerator cavity modeled with embedded boundaries and Richardson extrapolation. Previously, the frequency extraction method was shown to be capable of distinguishing M degenerate modes by running M different simulations and to permit mode extraction with minimal post-processing effort that only requires solving a small eigenvalue problem. Realistic calculations for an accelerator cavity are presented in this work to establish the validity of the method for realistic modeling scenarios and to illustrate the complexities of the computational validation process. The method is found to be able to extract the frequencies with error that is less than a part in 10^5. The corrected experimental and computed values differ by about one parts in 10^$, which is accounted for (in largest part)...

  12. Changes in setting time of alginate impression material with different water temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decky J. Indrani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies showed that setting process of alginates can be influenced by temperature. Purpose: To determine the changes in setting time due to differences in water temperature and to determine the correlation between water temperature and the setting time. Methods: Seven groups of dough alginate were prepared by mixing alginate powder and water, each using a temperature between 13° C–28° C with a interval of 2.5° C. A sample mold (Θ = 30 mm, t = 16 mm was placed on a flat plate and filled with doug alginate. Immediately the flat end of a polished acrylic rod was placed in contact with the surface of dough alginate. Setting time of alginat was measured from the starting of the mix to the time when the alginate does not adhere to the end of the rod. Setting time alginate data were analyzed using one way ANOVA, LSD and Pearson. Results: Setting time of alginate with water temperature between 13° C–28° C were 87 to 119.4 seconds and were significantly different (p < 0.01. The setting time between group were also significantly different (p<0.01. There was an inverse correlation between water temperature and the setting time (r = -0.968. Conclusion: Water temperature between 13° C–28°C with a difference of 2.5° C produced significant differences in alginate setting time; the lower the water temperature being used the longer the setting time was produced.Latar belakang: Penelitian-penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan bahwa proses pengerasan alginat dapat dipengaruhi oleh suhu. Tujuan: Mengetahui perubahan waktu pengerasan alginat akibat perbedaan suhu air serta mengetahui hubungan antara suhu air dan waktu pengerasan. Metode: Tujuh kelompok adonan alginat yang dipersiapkan dengan mencampur bubuk alginat dan air, masingmasing menggunakan suhu antara 13°C–28° C dengan interval 2,5° C. Pengukuran waktu pengerasan alginat dilakukan sesuai dengan spesifikasi ADA no.18. Sebuah cetakan sampel terbuat dari pralon berbentuk

  13. Time and Temperature Dependent Surface Stiffness of Poly(alpha-methylstyrene)(PAMS) through Particle Embedment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Taskin; McKenna, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    In the present work, we have used the particle embedment technique with sub-micron particles to study the time dependence surface modulus of poly(alpha-methylstyrene)(PAMS) at different temperature ranging from room temperature to 1.1Tg of PAMS. The surface was found softer at room temperature and at 1.02Tg compared to the bulk film while at 1.1Tg the surface was found stiffer compared to the macroscopic modulus measured for the same PAMS. The embedment of the particle is determined from atomic force microscope measurements and the modulus was determined using the elastic analysis of Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR) with surface energy estimates of the work of adhesion as the driving force for embedment. REFERENCES 1. K. L. Johnson, K. Kendall and A. D. Roberts, P. Royal Society of Lonodon A, 324, 301-313 (1971). 2. J. H. Teichroeb and J. A. Forrest, Physical Review Letter, 91, 016104 (2003).

  14. The impact of baking time and bread storage temperature on bread crumb properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Geertrui M; Lagrain, Bert; Fierens, Ellen; Delcour, Jan A

    2013-12-15

    Two baking times (9 and 24 min) and storage temperatures (4 and 25 °C) were used to explore the impact of heat exposure during bread baking and subsequent storage on amylopectin retrogradation, water mobility, and bread crumb firming. Shorter baking resulted in less retrogradation, a less extended starch network and smaller changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. A lower storage temperature resulted in faster retrogradation, a more rigid starch network with more water inclusion and larger changes in crumb firmness and elasticity. Crumb to crust moisture migration was lower for breads baked shorter and stored at lower temperature, resulting in better plasticized biopolymer networks in crumb. Network stiffening, therefore, contributed less to crumb firmness. A negative relation was found between proton mobilities of water and biopolymers in the crumb gel network and crumb firmness. The slope of this linear function was indicative for the strength of the starch network.

  15. Temperature affects the timing of spawning and migration of North Sea mackerel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis; Gislason, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Climate change accentuates the need for knowing how temperature impacts the life history and productivity of economically and ecologically important species of fish. We examine the influence of temperature on the timing of the spawning and migrations of North Sea Mackerel using data from larvae CPR...... are shown to arrive at the feeding areas before and leave later than small mackerel and the sequential appearance of mackerel in each of the feeding areas studied supports the anecdotal evidence for an eastward post-spawning migration. Occasional commercial catches taken in winter in the Sound N, Kattegat...... and Skagerrak together with catches in the first quarter IBTS survey furthermore indicate some overwintering here. Significant relationships between temperature and North Sea mackerel spawning and migration have not been documented before. The results have implications for mackerel resource management...

  16. Time lapse microscopy of temperature control during self-assembly of 3D DNA crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Fiona W.; Jong, Michael Alexander; Tan, Andre; Tseng, Robert; Park, Eunice; Ohayon, Yoel P.; Sha, Ruojie; Mao, Chengde; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2017-10-01

    DNA nanostructures are created by exploiting the high fidelity base-pairing interactions of double-stranded branched DNA molecules. These structures present a convenient medium for the self-assembly of macroscopic 3D crystals. In some self-assemblies in this system, crystals can be formed by lowering the temperature, and they can be dissolved by raising it. The ability to monitor the formation and melting of these crystals yields information that can be used to monitor crystal formation and growth. Here, we describe the development of an inexpensive tool that enables direct observation of the crystal growth process as a function of both time and temperature. Using the hanging-drop crystallization of the well-characterized 2-turn DNA tensegrity triangle motif for our model system, its response to temperature has been characterized visually.

  17. Assessing temperature changes in cortical bone using variable flip-angle ultrashort echo-time MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Misung; Scott, Serena J.; Ozhinsky, Eugene; Salgaonakar, Vasant A.; Jones, Peter D.; Larson, Peder E. Z.; Diederich, Chris J.; Rieke, Viola; Krug, Roland

    2017-03-01

    MR-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation is a promising, noninvasive method for treatment of bone tumors and palliation of pain. During thermal therapy, temperature mapping is necessary to ensure proper heat deposition in targeted tumors as well as to prevent unnecessary heating in surrounding tissues. Conventional MR thermometry exploits the proton resonant frequency shift of water protons, which normally requires a long echo time; therefore, this method is not appropriate for cortical bone due to its short T2* relaxation time. This work demonstrates that ultrashort echo-time MRI can characterize T1 changes in cortical bone caused by temperature changes. Ex vivo experiments were performed to heat diaphysis segments of bovine femurs with an interstitial ultrasound applicator. The T1 increase in the heated parts of cortical bone was observed. The temerature dependence of T1 in cortical born was also assessed by heating bovine bone samples in a temperature-controlled water bath. T1 mapping of cortical bone enabled by ultrashort echo-time MRI might allow for more accurate characterization of thermal dose during treatment of bone tumors.

  18. Real-time finite-temperature correlators from AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Edwin; Wu, Chaolun; Arnold, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use AdS/CFT ideas in conjunction with insights from finite temperature real-time field theory formalism to compute 3-point correlators of ${\\cal N}{=}4$ super Yang-Mills operators, in real time and at finite temperature. To this end, we propose that the gravity field action is integrated only over the right and left quadrants of the Penrose diagram of the Anti de Sitter-Schwarzschild background, with a relative sign between the two terms. For concreteness we consider the case of a scalar field in the black hole background. Using the scalar field Schwinger-Keldysh bulk-to-boundary propagators, we give the general expression of a 3-point real-time Green's correlator. We then note that this particular prescription amounts to adapting the finite-temperature analog of Veltman's circling rules to tree-level Witten diagrams, and comment on the retarded and Feynman scalar bulk-to-boundary propagators. We subject our prescription to several checks: KMS identities, the largest time equation and the zer...

  19. [Real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion process by modern spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xue-tie; Wang, Jun-de; Li, Yan; Liu, Da-bing

    2003-04-01

    The combustion temperature is one of the important parameters to express flame combustion and explosion characteristics. It will effectively guide the design and manufacture of new model explosives, industrial explosive materials, and weapons. The recent developments and applications of real time diagnostics of instantaneous temperature of combustion and explosion processes by modern spectroscopic methods, such as atomic absorption-emission method, atomic emission two-line spectroscopy, atomic emission multiline spectroscopy, molecular rotation-vibration spectroscopy, coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and plane laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF), were reviewed in this paper. The maximum time resolution of atomic absorption-emission method is 25 microseconds. The time resolution of atomic emission two-line spectroscopy can reach 0.1 microsecond. These two methods can completely suit the need of real time and instantaneous temperature diagnostics of violent explosion and flame combustion. Other methods will also provide new effective research methods for the processes and characteristics of combustion, flame and explosion.

  20. Grapefruit gland oil composition is affected by wax application, storage temperature, and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, D; Petracek, P D

    1999-05-01

    The effect of wax application, storage temperature (4 or 21 degrees C), and storage time (14 or 28 days after wax application) on grapefruit gland oil composition was examined by capillary gas chromatography. Wax application decreases nonanal and nootkatone levels. beta-Pinene, alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, octanol, trans-linalool oxide, and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol levels increase, but limonene levels decrease, with temperature. Levels of alpha-pinene, limonene, linalool, citronellal, alpha-terpineol, neral, dodecanal, and alpha-humulene decrease with time. Levels of alpha-phellandrene, 3-carene, ocimene, and trans-linalool oxide increase with time. No compound level was affected by the interactive action of temperature and wax application, suggesting that these two factors cause grapefruit oil gland collapse (postharvest pitting) through means other than changing gland oil composition. Compounds that are toxic to the Caribbean fruit fly (alpha-pinene, limonene, alpha-terpineol, and some aldehydes) decrease with time, thus suggesting grapefruit becomes increasingly susceptible to the fly during storage.

  1. Degradation Kinetics of Anthocyanins from European Cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L. Fruit Extracts. Effects of Temperature, pH and Storage Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cimpoiu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available European cranberrybush (Viburnum opulus L. fruits are well known for their biological properties, of which some are due to the presence of anthocyanins in the berries. Current literature provides little information concerning these fruits. The stability of anthocyanins from Viburnum opulus fruits, in aqueous and ethanolic extracts, stored under darkness for 7 days at different temperatures (2 °C, 37 °C and 75 °C and pH values (pH = 3 and 7, was studied here. The lowest stability was showed by the anthocyanins from the water extract stored at 75 °C and pH = 7, with half-life and constant rate values of 1.98 h and 0.3488 h−1, respectively. The results showed a good correlation between the total anthocyanin content (determined using the pH differential method and the time of storage, with determination coefficients varying from R2 = 0.9298 to R2 = 0.9971. Results indicate that the storage degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics under all investigated conditions.

  2. Glass transition temperature of PIB, PDMS and PMMA from small-time simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duki, Solomon; Tsige, Mesfin; Taylor, Philip

    2009-03-01

    We have applied some new techniques to obtain predictions of the glass transition temperatures Tg of poly(isobutylene), poly(dimethyl-siloxane), and poly(methyl methacrylate) from small-time atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The different fragilities of these materials are reflected in the results of the simulations. One approach involved measurement of the apparent softening of the ``cage'' in which a monomer is bound, while another involved studying autocorrelation of a convolution of the velocity with a smoothing function in order to detect the frequency of escapes from the ``cage.'' To check the accuracy of the short-time methods, the Tg of the polymers was also found using conventional diffusion simulations in which the rate of increase of the root mean squared displacement of an atom, monomer, or molecule is measured at very long times. The economical short-time simulations yielded results for Tg that were identical to those of the computer-intensive long-time simulations.

  3. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Das, Simon K. [School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia and Marine Ecosystem Research Centre (EKOMAR), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  4. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  5. Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesil Celiktas, O.; Girgin, G.; Orhan, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Bedir, E.; Vardar Sukan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol,

  6. Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yesil Celiktas, O.; Girgin, G.; Orhan, H.; Wichers, H.J.; Bedir, E.; Vardar Sukan, F.

    2007-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol,

  7. Self-similarity matrix based slow-time feature extraction for human target in high-resolution radar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Aubry, P.; Le Chevalier, F.; Yarovoy, A.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to extract the slow-time feature of human motion in high-resolution radars. The approach is based on the self-similarity matrix (SSM) of the radar signals. The Mutual Information is used as a measure of similarity. The SSMs of different radar signals (high-resolution range

  8. Interlaboratory evaluation of different extraction and real-time PCR methods for detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, Jeroen J. H. C.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Pettersson, Annika M.; Rossen, John W. A.; Hermans, Mirjam H. A.; van Hannen, Erik J.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; de Vries, Maaike C.; Horrevorts, Alphons M.; Klaassen, Corne H. W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is an ongoing and unparalleled outbreak of Q fever. Rapid and reliable methods to identify patients infected with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, are urgently needed. We evaluated the performance of different DNA extraction methods and real-time PCR

  9. Interlaboratory evaluation of different extraction and real-time PCR methods for detection of Coxiella burnetii DNA in serum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tilburg, J.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Pettersson, A.M.; Rossen, J.W.; Hermans, M.H.; Hannen, E.J.M.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Vries, M.C. de; Horrevorts, A.M.; Klaassen, C.H.

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is an ongoing and unparalleled outbreak of Q fever. Rapid and reliable methods to identify patients infected with Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, are urgently needed. We evaluated the performance of different DNA extraction methods and real-time PCR

  10. Effect of Pouring Time and Storage Temperature on Dimensional Stability of Casts Made from Irreversible Hydrocolloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the dimensional stability of casts made from an alginate impression material poured immediately and stored after specific periods.Materials and Methods: The common alginate used in Iran (Super; Iralgin, Golchai Co.,Tehran, Iran was tested. A master model was mounted on a special device and used to obtain the impressions. These impressions were stored at 23°C (SD=1 and 4°C (SD=1 in100% relative humidity, then poured with gypsum immediately and again after 12, 25, 45 and 60 minutes. The casts were measured with a traveling microscope with the precision of 0.5 micrometer.Results: The dimensional stability of the alginate and impressions were both significantly time and temperature dependent. The impressions were dimensionally stable significantly until 12 minutes of storage at room temperature and until 45 minutes of storage at 4°C(SD=1.Conclusion: The dimensional stability of the alginate impressions was influenced by the storage time and environment temperature, but a humid environment and 4°C (SD=1temperature may delay the pouring.

  11. Effects of temperature and time on deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZON content in corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauković Marko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumonisins are Fusarium mycotoxins that occur in corn and corn-based foods and they have been implicated in several animal and human diseases. Their effect on human health is unclear, however, fumonisins are considered to be risk factors for cancer. Baking, frying, and extrusion cooking of corn at high temperatures (190°C reduce fumonisin concentrations in foods, with the amount of reduction achieved depending on cooking time, temperature, recipe, and other factors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of temperature (200 and 220 °C and time (15 and 20 min on the detoxification of corn flour deliberately contaminated with DON and ZON. After processing at 200°C for 15 min, an average of 12% and after 20 min an average of 15% of DON was lost. At 200°C ZON content was reduced by 22% (after 15 min and by 27% (after 20 min. Higher temperature (220°C did not significantly affect further reduction of DON or ZON content. The process was only partially effective in both cases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31023 i br. TR-31053

  12. The temperature in Bremen since 1803. Embedding data fragments into homogeneous time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbers, Dirk [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Over several decades the physician and astronomer Wilhelm Olbers (1758-1840) has written many manuscripts to meteorological topics. Few of his works were published, most fell into oblivion, so also Olbers' measurements of temperature and pressure from the years 1803-1822, although these meteorological observations are the first continuous and reliable measurements of this kind in Bremen. This article deals with the monthly and annually averaged temperatures from 1803 to 1822, which are taken from the literary legacy of Olbers and are partially reconstructed from his manuscripts. The linkage of this series of measurements to the well-known Bremen temperature series is discussed, which begins in 1829 and is today continued by the German Weather Service (DWD). The method we propose for the adjustment of the combined data (with a gap of 6 years 1823 to 1828) is based on the extremely high correlation which the annually averaged data of the Bremen time series has with corresponding data from other monitoring sites. Data from De Bilt, Berlin, Prague, Hohenpeissenberg and Stockholm are used. The result is a temperature time series for Bremen from 1803 to today, which may be regarded as homogeneous at least to some extent. (orig.)

  13. Effects of Low Temperature on Freezing Injury of Various Winter Wheat Cultivars at Different Sowing Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Freezing injury is one of the major disasters for the production of winter wheat in the North China Plain, which leads to a significant decrease of wheat yield. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of subfreezing temperature on freezing injury of various winter wheat cultivars at different sowing time. Three wheat cultivars, including Zhengmai 9023, Wanmai 48 and Wanmai 50, were sowed on 25 September and 5 October, respectively. Plant anatomy was applied to investi- gate the impact of subfreezing temperature on cells of three wheat cultivars, results showed that severe plasmolysis occurred in wheat sowed earlier suddenly encoun- tered subfreezing temperature without cold acclimation, compared with wheat sowed at proper sowing time. The degree of plasmolysis of different cultivars and tissues of wheat had significant differences and showed positive correlation with subfreezing temperature. Wanmai 50 had the highest cold resistance compared with Zhengmai 9023 and Wanmai 48, and there was no significant difference between Zhengmai 9023 and Wanmai 48. This study concluded that wheat cold resistance may be im- proved by adopting proper cultivars and sowing dates.

  14. Application of time-temperature superposition method in thermal aging life prediction of shipboard cables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Wen-dong; CHEN Yi-yuan

    2014-01-01

    The life of shipboard cables will decrease due to the complex aging processes. In terms of the safety perspective, remaining life prediction of the cable is essential to maintain a reliable operation. In this paper, firstly, based on Arrhenius equation, residual life of new styrene-butadiene cable is calculated;result indicates that the degradation rate which changes with time is proportional to thermal temperature. Then second order dynamic model is adopted into the residual life prediction, combined with the time-temperature superposition method (TTSP), and a new residual life model is proposed. According to the accelerated thermal aging experiment data and Arrhenius equation, TTSP method demonstrates to be an efficient way for life prediction, and life at normal temperature can be estimated by this model. In order to monitor the state of styrene-butadiene cable more accurately, an improved residual life model based on equivalent environment temperature of cable is proposed, and life of cable under real operation is analyzed. Result indicates that this model is credible and reliable, and it provides an important theoretical base for residual life of cables.

  15. Temperature Trends in the Polar Mesosphere between 2002-2007 using TIMED/SABER Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Richard A.; Kutepov, Alexander A.; Pesnell, William Dean; Latteck, Ralph; Russell, James M.

    2008-01-01

    The TIMED Satellite was launched on December 7, 2001 to study the dynamics and energy of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. The TIMED/SABER instrument is a limb scanning infrared radiometer designed to measure a large number of minor constituents as well as the temperature of the region. In this study, we have concentrated on the polar mesosphere, to investigate the temperature characteristics as a function of spatial and temporal considerations. We used the recently revised SABER dataset (1.07) that contains improved temperature retrievals in the Earth polar summer regions. Weekly averages are used to make comparisons between the winter and summer, as well as to study the variability in different quadrants of each hemisphere. For each year studied, the duration of polar summer based on temperature measurements compares favorably with the PMSE (Polar Mesospheric Summer Echoes) season measured by radar at the ALOMAR Observatory in Norway (69 N). The PMSE period should also define the summer period suitable for the occurrence of polar mesospheric clouds. The unusual short and relatively warm polar summer in the northern hemisphere

  16. Electron microscopy and microanalysis of steel weld joints after long time exposures at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, D.; Kasl, J.; Rek, A.

    2010-02-01

    The structural changes of three trial weld joints of creep resistant modified 9Cr-1Mo steels and low alloyed chromium steel after post-weld heat treatment and long-term creep tests were investigated. Smooth cross-weld specimens ruptured in different zones of the weld joints as a result of different structural changes taking place during creep exposures. The microstructure of the weld joint is heterogeneous and consequently microstructural development can be different in the weld metal, the heat affected zone, and the base material. Precipitation reactions, nucleation and growth of some particles and dissolution of others, affect the strengthening of the matrix, recovery at high temperatures, and the resulting creep resistance. Therefore, a detailed study of secondary phase's development in individual zones of weld joints can elucidate mechanism of cracks propagation in specific regions and the causes of creep failure. Type I and II fractures in the weld metal and Type IV fractures in the fine prior austenite grain heat affected zones occurred after creep tests at temperatures ranging from 525 to 625 °C and under stresses from 40 to 240 MPa. An extended metallographic study of the weld joints was carried out using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive and wave-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Carbon extraction replicas and thin foils were prepared from individual weld joint regions and quantitative evaluation of dislocation substructure and particles of secondary phases has been performed.

  17. Larvicidal, Biological and Genotoxic Effects, and Temperature-Toxicity Relationship of Some Leaf Extracts of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae on Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaurub H El-Sayed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: The present study was undertaken to study the larvicidal activity of different extracts of Nerium ole­ander leaves, and post-treatment temperature- toxicity relationship of these extracts against Culex pipiens. Further, the most potent extract was used to evaluate its biological and genotoxic activities. Methods: Crude extracts of N. oleander leaves were prepared using water, chloroform, acetone and diethyl ether as solvents. Extraction was carried out using soxhlet apparatus. Bioassay test was carried out on the larvae, and the LC50 of each extract was determined. Thus, newly hatched first instar larvae were treated, and the mortality count was recorded daily till pupation (accumulated mortality. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract, as the most potent ex­tract, was used for the further biological and genotoxic studies. Results: The results obtained indicated that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves was the most potent extract, with LC50 of 10500 mg/l. The toxicity of the four extracts, using the LC50, at 10 °C was higher than that at 35 °C. The LC50 of diethyl ether extract significantly decreased the larval duration, pupal duration, percentage of pupation, percentage of adult emergence, longevity of females, fecundity, and oviposition activity index, whereas the growth index and the percentage of development per day of larvae and pupae were significantly increased compared to non-treated insects. Moreover, treatment with this extract induced significant dominant lethality in both male and female adults.  Conclusion: It appears that diethyl ether extract of N. oleander leaves is potential control agent to Cx. pipiens. 

  18. The effect of temperature and flow rate on the clarification of the aqueous stevia-extract in a fixed-bed column with zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantovaneli I. C. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is being used as a sweetener due to its low calorific value and its taste, which is very similar to that of sucrose. After extraction from dried leaves, stevia extract is dark in colour so needs to be clarified for better acceptance by consumers. Adsorption is one of the most important processes in this clarification. In this work the clarification of extract stevia extract in fixed-bed columns with calcium zeolites was studied. Two temperatures (10ºC and 30ºC and six different flow rates (2, 5, 9, 12, 16 and 19 mL/min were studied. The results showed that the mass-transfer coeffcient increases with an increase in flow rate and the length of unused bed reaches a maximum at 9 mL/min for both temperatures. The fit of the Thomas model with the breakthrough data was not very good.

  19. Development of Aa New Time Temperature Indicator for Enzymatic Validation of Pasteurization of Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizio, Ana Paula Dutra Resem; Prentice, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the development of a new smart time-temperature indicator (TTI) of pasteurization whose operating principle is based on the complexation reaction between starch and iodine, and the subsequent action of an amylase on this complex causing its discoloration at a rate dependent on time and temperature of the medium. Laboratory simulations and tests in a manufacturing plant evaluated different enzyme concentrations in the TTI prototypes when exposed to pasteurization conditions. The results showed that the color response of the indicators was visually interpreted as adaptive to measurement using appropriate equipment, with satisfactory reliability in all conditions studied. The TTI containing 6.5% amylase was one whose best results were suited for use in validating the cooking of hams. When attached to the primary packaging of the product, this TTI indicated the pasteurization process inexpensively, easily, accurately, and nondestructively.

  20. Effect of time and temperature on grain size of V and V-Cr-Ti alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Rink, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Grain growth studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of time and temperature on the grain size of pure V, V-4 wt.%Cr-4 wt.%Ti, and V-5 wt.%Cr-5 wt.%Ti alloys. The temperatures used in the study were 500, 650, 800, and 1000{degrees}C, and exposure times ranged between 100 and {approx}5000 h. All three materials exhibited negligible grain growth at 500, 650, and 800{degrees}C, even after {approx}5000 h. At 1000{degrees}C, pure V showed substantial grain growth after only 100 h, and V-4Cr-4Ti showed growth after 2000 h, while V-5Cr-5Ti showed no grain growth after exposure for up to 2000 h.

  1. Effect of temperature and time on solvothermal synthesis of tetragonal BaTiO3

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amir Habib; Nils Stelzer; Paul Angerer; Roland Haubner

    2011-02-01

    Tetragonal BaTiO3 nanoparticles are synthesized via solvothermal route in an ethanol water mixture. Ba(OH)2.8H2O is used as Ba precursor and TiO2 (P25 Degussa ∼25 nm, 30% anatase, 70% rutile) is used as Ti precursor in the Ba : Ti molar ratio 2 : 1. Effect of temperature and time study on solvothermal synthesis of BaTiO3 revealed that a moderate reaction temperature i.e. 185°C and longer reaction time favour tetragonal phase stabilization. Dissolution–precipitation appears to be the transformation mechanism for the crystallization of BaTiO3 from particulate TiO2 precursor.

  2. Enthalpy Relaxation of a DGEBA Epoxy as a function of Time, Temperature, and Cooling Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Caitlyn M.; McCoy, John D.; Kropka, Jamie M.

    2015-03-01

    Enthalpy relaxation resulting from physical aging of a DGEBA epoxy, Epon 828, cross-linked with an amine curative, Jeffamine T-403, was studied for two isothermal aging temperatures at sequential aging times up to two weeks. Results were analyzed using the peak shift method to obtain the relaxation parameters β, δ (H*), and χ. The individual effects of cooling rate from the equilibrated state, aging time, and aging temperature were isolated to understand the initial state of the glassy epoxy and its evolution during physical aging. [Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Counting photons at low temperature with a streaming time-to-digital converter

    CERN Document Server

    Di Stefano, P C F; Onderwater, C J G; Trudeau, C; Verdier, M -A

    2012-01-01

    We present some aspects of photon counting to study scintillators at low temperatures. A time-to-digital converter (TDC) had been configured to acquire several-minute-long streams of data, simplifying the multiple photon counting coincidence technique. Results in terms of light yield and time structure of a ZnWO4 scintillator are comparable to those obtained with a fast digitizer. Streaming data also provides flexibility in analyzing the data, in terms of coincidence window between the channels, and acquisition window of individual channels. We discuss the effect of changing these parameters, and use them to confirm low-energy features in the spectra of the number of detected photons, such as the 60 keV line from 241Am in the ZnWO4 sample. We lastly use the TDC to study the transmission of the optical cryostat employed in these studies at various temperatures.

  4. Color changes in wood during heating: kinetic analysis by applying a time-temperature superposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Miyuki; Yokoyama, Misao; Umemura, Kenji; Gril, Joseph; Yano, Ken'ichiro; Kawai, Shuichi

    2010-04-01

    This paper deals with the kinetics of the color properties of hinoki ( Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.) wood. Specimens cut from the wood were heated at 90-180°C as accelerated aging treatment. The specimens completely dried and heated in the presence of oxygen allowed us to evaluate the effects of thermal oxidation on wood color change. Color properties measured by a spectrophotometer showed similar behavior irrespective of the treatment temperature with each time scale. Kinetic analysis using the time-temperature superposition principle, which uses the whole data set, was successfully applied to the color changes. The calculated values of the apparent activation energy in terms of L *, a *, b *, and Δ E^{*}_{ab} were 117, 95, 114, and 113 kJ/mol, respectively, which are similar to the values of the literature obtained for other properties such as the physical and mechanical properties of wood.

  5. Time and Temperature Dependence of CdS Nanoparticles Grown in a Polystyrene Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Antolini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Luminescent CdS nanocrystals embedded in a polystyrene matrix were successfully prepared. The in situ growth of CdS QDs was realized by thermal treatment of Cd bis(thiolate/polymer foil at different times and temperatures (240°C and 300°C of annealing, in order to evaluate their influence on the quantum dots growth process. As a general trend, the increasing of time and temperature of annealing induces a rise of the CdS nanocrystals size into the polymeric matrix. The size distribution, morphology, and structure of the CdS nanoparticles were analysed with HRTEM and XRD experiments. UV-Vis and PL data are strongly size-dependent and were used to investigate the particles' growth process, too. The CdS nanoparticles behavior in solution indicated a general trend of QDs to aggregation. This predisposition was clearly displayed by DLS measurements.

  6. Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho Filho,José Luiz S de; Arie F Blank; Péricles B. Alves; Polyana A.D. Ehlert; Alberto S. de Melo; Sócrates C. H. Cavalcanti; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; Silva-Mann,Renata

    2006-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil with high concentration of linalool is valuable in international business. O. basilicum essential oil is widely used as seasoning and in cosmetic industry. To assure proper essential oil yield and quality, it is crucial to determine which environmental and processing factors are affecting its composition. The goal of our work is to evaluate the effects of harvesting time, temperature, and drying period on the yield and chemical composition of O. basilicum ess...

  7. Real-time quantum field theory at finite temperature in an inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Bibilashvili, T M

    1995-01-01

    The method of the real time perturbative calculations of nonequilibrium averages is generalised to the case of varying chemical potential. Calculations are performed in the frame of Zubarev's nonequilibrium density matrix approach. In this approach perturbations of temperature and other thermodynamical parameters are taken into account explicitly including nonlinear terms. It differs from the Schwinger-Keldysh approach through the choice of more general initial conditions for the density matrix.

  8. On-chip electromembrane extraction for monitoring drug metabolism in real time by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nickolaj J.; Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    Sample preparation is an essential step in any bioanalytical procedure and very often the most challenging step in method development. Most of the currently used methods require a relatively large amount of sample and are time consuming. Here, we describe a new approach based on electromembrane...... extraction (EME) integrated in microfluidic polymer chips. This procedure is fast, requires only small amounts of sample, and may thus be used for monitoring drug metabolism and the formation of metabolites in real time....

  9. Extracting Micro-Doppler Radar Signatures from Rotating Targets Using Fourier-Bessel Transform and Time-Frequency Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-16

    1 Extracting micro-Doppler radar signatures from rotating targets using Fourier- Bessel Transform and Time-Frequency analysis P. Suresh1,T...kvenkataramanaiah@sssihl.edu.in Abstract In this paper, we report the efficiency of Fourier Bessel transform and time-frequency based method in conjunction with...decomposed into stationary and non-stationary components using Fourier Bessel transform in conjunction with the fractional Fourier transform. The

  10. Temperature controlled ionic liquid-based dispersive micro-extraction using two ligands, for determination of aluminium in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's patients: A multivariate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mariam S.; Arain, Salma A.; Kazi, Tasneem G.; Afridi, Hassan I.; Ali, Jamshaid; Naeemulllah; Arain, Sadaf S.; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2015-02-01

    A green and sensitive temperature controlled dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-DLLME) methodology based on the application of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim][PF6], as an extractant solvent was proposed for the preconcentration of trace levels of aluminium (Al3+) in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's (AD) patients, prior to analyzing by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Al3+ was complexed with 8-hydrooxyquinoline (oxine) (L1) and 3,5,7,2‧-4‧ pentahydroxy flavone (morin) (L2) separately and then extracted by IL at temperature (50 ± 2.0 °C). Some effective factors that influence the TIL-DLLME efficiency such as pH, ligands concentrations, volume of IL, ionic strength, and incubation time were investigated and optimized by multivariate analysis. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3 s) and enhancement factor were 0.56 μg L-1, 0.64 μg L-1 and 85, 73 for both ligands, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate determinations of 100 μg L-1 Al3+ complexed with oxine and morin were found to be 3.88% and 4.74%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material of human hair (NCSZC81002).and applied satisfactorily to the determination of Al3+ in acid digested scalp hair samples of AD patients and healthy controls. The resulted data shows significant higher level in scalp hair samples of AD male patients with related to referents of same age and socioeconomic status.

  11. Temperature controlled ionic liquid-based dispersive micro-extraction using two ligands, for determination of aluminium in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's patients: a multivariate study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Mariam S; Arain, Salma A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Ali, Jamshaid; Naeemulllah; Arain, Sadaf S; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2015-02-25

    A green and sensitive temperature controlled dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (TIL-DLLME) methodology based on the application of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, [C4mim][PF6], as an extractant solvent was proposed for the preconcentration of trace levels of aluminium (Al(3+)) in scalp hair samples of Alzheimer's (AD) patients, prior to analyzing by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Al(3+) was complexed with 8-hydrooxyquinoline (oxine) (L1) and 3,5,7,2'-4' pentahydroxy flavone (morin) (L2) separately and then extracted by IL at temperature (50±2.0°C). Some effective factors that influence the TIL-DLLME efficiency such as pH, ligands concentrations, volume of IL, ionic strength, and incubation time were investigated and optimized by multivariate analysis. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3s) and enhancement factor were 0.56 μg L(-1), 0.64 μg L(-1) and 85, 73 for both ligands, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate determinations of 100 μg L(-1) Al(3+) complexed with oxine and morin were found to be 3.88% and 4.74%, respectively. The developed method was validated by the analysis of certified reference material of human hair (NCSZC81002).and applied satisfactorily to the determination of Al(3+) in acid digested scalp hair samples of AD patients and healthy controls. The resulted data shows significant higher level in scalp hair samples of AD male patients with related to referents of same age and socioeconomic status.

  12. Nanocrystalline rutile electron extraction layer enables low-temperature solution processed perovskite photovoltaics with 13.7% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yella, Aswani; Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; Gao, Peng; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Grätzel, Michael

    2014-05-14

    We demonstrate low-temperature (70 °C) solution processing of TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 based solar cells, resulting in impressive power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 13.7%. Along with the high efficiency, a strikingly high open circuit potential (VOC) of 1110 mV was realized using this low-temperature chemical bath deposition approach. To the best of our knowledge, this is so far the highest VOC value for solution-processed TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. We deposited a nanocrystalline TiO2 (rutile) hole-blocking layer on a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conducting glass substrate via hydrolysis of TiCl4 at 70 °C, forming the electron selective contact with the photoactive CH3NH3PbI3 film. We find that the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 achieves a much better performance than a planar TiO2 (anatase) film prepared by high-temperature spin coating of TiCl4, which produces a much lower PCE of 3.7%. We attribute this to the formation of an intimate junction of large interfacial area between the nanocrystalline rutile TiO2 and the CH3NH3PbI3 layer, which is much more effective in extracting photogenerated electrons than the planar anatase film. Since the complete fabrication of the solar cell is carried out below 100 °C, this method can be easily extended to plastic substrates.

  13. Low-temperature gas from marine shales: wet gas to dry gas over experimental time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvie Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine shales exhibit unusual behavior at low temperatures under anoxic gas flow. They generate catalytic gas 300° below thermal cracking temperatures, discontinuously in aperiodic episodes, and lose these properties on exposure to trace amounts of oxygen. Here we report a surprising reversal in hydrocarbon generation. Heavy hydrocarbons are formed before light hydrocarbons resulting in wet gas at the onset of generation grading to dryer gas over time. The effect is moderate under gas flow and substantial in closed reactions. In sequential closed reactions at 100°C, gas from a Cretaceous Mowry shale progresses from predominately heavy hydrocarbons (66% C5, 2% C1 to predominantly light hydrocarbons (56% C1, 8% C5, the opposite of that expected from desorption of preexisting hydrocarbons. Differences in catalyst substrate composition explain these dynamics. Gas flow should carry heavier hydrocarbons to catalytic sites, in contrast to static conditions where catalytic sites are limited to in-place hydrocarbons. In-place hydrocarbons and their products should become lighter with conversion thus generating lighter hydrocarbon over time, consistent with our experimental results. We recognize the similarities between low-temperature gas generation reported here and the natural progression of wet gas to dry gas over geologic time. There is now substantial evidence for natural catalytic activity in source rocks. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium and the results reported here add to that evidence. Natural catalysis provides a plausible and unique explanation for the origin and evolution of gas in sedimentary basins.

  14. Weekly cycles in peak time temperatures and urban heat island intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Nick; Simmonds, Ian; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Regular diurnal and weekly cycles (WCs) in temperature provide valuable insights into the consequences of anthropogenic activity on the urban environment. Different locations experience a range of identified WCs and have very different structures. Two important sources of urban heat are those associated with the effect of large urban structures on the radiation budget and energy storage and those from the heat generated as a consequence of anthropogenic activity. The former forcing will remain relatively constant, but a WC will appear in the latter. WCs for specific times of day and the urban heat island (UHI) have not been analysed heretofore. We use three-hourly surface (2 m) temperature data to analyse the WCs of seven major Australian cities at different times of day and to determine to what extent one of our major city’s (Melbourne) UHI exhibits a WC. We show that the WC of temperature in major cities differs according to the time of day and that the UHI intensity of Melbourne is affected on a WC. This provides crucial information that can contribute toward the push for healthier urban environments in the face of a more extreme climate.

  15. The effect of pH, temperature and heating time on inulin chemical stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Glibowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inulin is a storage carbohydrate found in many plants especially in chicory root, Jerusalem artichoke and dahlia tuber. It is a prebiotic with many functional properties. In earlier research concerning chemical stability of inulin, the effect of pH on rheological properties of inulin gels was mainly analysed. In these studies, the effect of time, temperature and pH on inulin chemical stability was not analysed profoundly especially considering the inulin concentrations unable to form gel structure. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the effect of the above mentioned factors on inulin chemical stability in water solution. Material and methods. 5% (w/w inulin solutions at pH 1-12 were heated at 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100°C for 5-60 min. After the neutralisation the content of reducing sugar was analysed according to Miller’s method (1959 with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid. Results. The conducted studies showed that inulin chemical stability at pH £ 4 decreased with an increase of heating time and temperature. In a neutral and basic environment inulin was chemically stable regardless of heating time and temperature. Conclusions. Inulin application in food systems may be limited in acidic products especially when heated above 60°C during the production process. However, in products at pH ≥ 5, the degradation of this fructan does not occur even at thermal processing.

  16. Influence of Solvothermal Temperatures and Times on Crystallinity and Morphology of MOF-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ana Mulyati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available MOF-5 (metal-organic frameworks-5 have been synthesized using solvothermal method in which reaction mixtures of zinc nitrate hexahydrate and 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC in dimethylformamide (DMF were heated at various heating temperatures and times in order to observe the influence of heating temperature and time on crystallinity and morphology of the obtained MOF-5. The heating temperatures used were 105, 120 and 140 °C, respectively with heating times of 12–144 h. Determination of the best reaction conditionswas based on the observation of phase purity and crystal morphology of MOF-5 using XRD and SEM. The characterization results showed that MOF-5 crystals with a higher crystallinity were obtained when the reaction mixtures were heated at 105 °C for 144 h, 120 °C for 24 h or 140 °C for 12 h. The maximum weight of MOF-5 crystal was generated from reaction mixture heated at 120 °C for 72 h.

  17. Real-Time Thermographic-Phosphor-Based Temperature Measurements of Thermal Barrier Coating Surfaces Subjected to a High-Velocity Combustor Burner Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Jenkins, Thomas P.; Allison, Stephen W.; Cruzen, Scott; Condevaux, J. J.; Senk, J. R.; Paul, A. D.

    2011-01-01

    Surface temperature measurements were conducted on metallic specimens coated with an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coating (TBC) with a YAG:Dy phosphor layer that were subjected to an aggressive high-velocity combustor burner environment. Luminescence-based surface temperature measurements of the same TBC system have previously been demonstrated for specimens subjected to static furnace or laser heating. Surface temperatures were determined from the decay time of the luminescence signal of the YAG:Dy phosphor layer that was excited by a pulsed laser source. However, the furnace and laser heating provides a much more benign environment than that which exists in a turbine engine, where there are additional challenges of a highly radiant background and high velocity gases. As the next step in validating the suitability of luminescence-based temperature measurements for turbine engine environments, new testing was performed where heating was provided by a high-velocity combustor burner rig at Williams International. Real-time surface temperature measurements during burner rig heating were obtained from the decay of the luminescence from the YAG:Dy surface layer. The robustness of several temperature probe designs in the sonic velocity, high radiance flame environment was evaluated. In addition, analysis was performed to show whether the luminescence decay could be satisfactorily extracted from the high radiance background.

  18. Effects of Aging Time and Sintering Temperatures on Thermal, Structural and Morphological Properties of Coralline Hydroxyapatite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANINDER SINGH MEHTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic Calcium Phosphate bioceramics belong to a group of bone substitute biomaterials comprised of an intimate mixture of Hydroxyapatite (HAP and β-Tricalcium Phosphates. In the present work, Coralline Hydroxyapatite was synthesized using wet precipitation method. Powder particles were aged for 24 and 48 hours at 5. X-Ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared and Thermogravimetric spectroscopic techniques were used. Biphasic Calcium Phosphate was identified as the chief structural constitution of the synthetic powders. Weight fraction of Hydroxyapatite increased with the rise of sintering temperature. Aging time of 24 hours yielded maximum amount of hydroxyapatite, thus confirming optimum aging time for the synthesis of Coralline Hydroxyapatite.

  19. Universal short-time dynamics: Boundary functional renormalization group for a temperature quench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiocchetta, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Diehl, Sebastian; Marino, Jamir

    2016-11-01

    We present a method to calculate short-time nonequilibrium universal exponents within the functional-renormalization-group scheme. As an example, we consider the classical critical dynamics of the relaxational model A after a quench of the temperature of the system and calculate the initial-slip exponent which characterizes the nonequilibrium universal short-time behavior of both the order parameter and correlation functions. The value of this exponent is found to be consistent with the result of a perturbative dimensional expansion and of Monte Carlo simulations in three spatial dimensions.

  20. Ignition time of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis by laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈森昌; 迟彦惠; 史玉升; 黄树槐

    2002-01-01

    The ignition of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) by a laser beam has very well application, but there is lack in study on the ignition process. In order to search the rule of ignition process with laser beam, ignition time of SHS was studied in detail. First one dimension ignition model was introduced: burning is the process in which one layer is ignited by next layer. Then according to Fourier conduction equation, an equation used to calculate the ignition time was deduced. Finally a series of tests were made to verify the equation. The results prove that the change of the parameters in test agrees well with the equation.