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Sample records for extraction techniques electronic

  1. Electronic waste recycling techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardes, Andréa

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.

  2. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  3. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  4. A Numerical Technique for Removing Residual Gate-Source Capacitances When Extracting Parasitic Inductance for GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Residual Gate-source Capacitances When Extracting Parasitic Inductance for GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors ( HEMTs ) Benjamin Huebschman and Pankaj...Extracting Parasitic Inductance for GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors ( HEMTs ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...nitride ( GaN ) high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) begin to realize their performance potential, and to transition from experimental devices to

  5. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  6. ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A Survey Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karpagachelvi, S; Sivakumar, M

    2010-01-01

    ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in an ECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. This feature extraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals in the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value of P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human. Recently, numerous research and techniques have been developed for analyzing the ECG signal. The proposed schemes were mostly based on Fuzzy Logic Methods, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and other Signal Analysis techniques. All these techniques and algorithms have their advantages and limitations. This proposed paper discusses various techniques and transformations proposed earlier in literature for extracting feature from an ECG signal. In addition this paper also provides a comparative study of various methods proposed by researchers in extracting the feature from ECG signal.

  7. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  8. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  9. Absolute Electron Extraction Efficiency of Liquid Xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdin, Katayun; Mizrachi, Eli; Morad, James; Sorensen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Dual phase liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers (TPCs) currently set the world's most sensitive limits on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored dark matter candidate. These detectors rely on extracting electrons from liquid xenon into gaseous xenon, where they produce proportional scintillation. The proportional scintillation from the extracted electrons serves to internally amplify the WIMP signal; even a single extracted electron is detectable. Credible dark matter searches can proceed with electron extraction efficiency (EEE) lower than 100%. However, electrons systematically left at the liquid/gas boundary are a concern. Possible effects include spontaneous single or multi-electron proportional scintillation signals in the gas, or charging of the liquid/gas interface or detector materials. Understanding EEE is consequently a serious concern for this class of rare event search detectors. Previous EEE measurements have mostly been relative, not absolute, assuming efficiency plateaus at 100%. I will present an absolute EEE measurement with a small liquid/gas xenon TPC test bed located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  10. Environmental testing techniques for electronics and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W

    2013-01-01

    Environmental Testing Techniques for Electronics and Materials reviews environmental testing techniques for evaluating the performance of electronic equipment, components, and materials. Environmental test planning, test methods, and instrumentation are described, along with the general environmental conditions under which equipment must operate. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and begins by explaining why environmental testing is necessary and describing the environment in which electronics must operate. The next chapter considers how an environmental test plan is designed; the methods

  11. Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction Using Let Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Helen Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction (FECG identifies the congenital heart problems at the earlier stage. The major problem in the non invasive procedure is the extraction of FECG from Maternal ECG (MECG and many interferences. The proposed methods (i Combination of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference (ANFIS and Fractional spline wavelet (ii Combination of Fractional spline wavelet and ANFIS (iii Combination of ANFIS and SURE-LET and (iv Combination of SURE-LET and ANFIS remove the unwanted noises present in the FECG more effectively. This new approach extracts FECG by removing the noisy Abdominal ECG (AECG and subsequently cancels the MECG. The pure thoracic ECG (TECG or maternal ECG was used to remove noisy MECG present in the signal from abdomen signal and thereby the required noiseless FECG is extracted by means of the new approach. The excellence of the LET techniques are evaluated using Mean Square Error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. The result of combination of ANFIS and SURELET gives the best result and the closest match to the simulated FECG with high PSNR and low MSE among all the proposed methods.

  12. Quantum Phase Extraction in Isospectral Electronic Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Christopher

    2010-04-28

    Quantum phase is not a direct observable and is usually determined by interferometric methods. We present a method to map complete electron wave functions, including internal quantum phase information, from measured single-state probability densities. We harness the mathematical discovery of drum-like manifolds bearing different shapes but identical resonances, and construct quantum isospectral nanostructures possessing matching electronic structure but divergent physical structure. Quantum measurement (scanning tunneling microscopy) of these 'quantum drums' [degenerate two-dimensional electron states on the Cu(111) surface confined by individually positioned CO molecules] reveals that isospectrality provides an extra topological degree of freedom enabling robust quantum state transplantation and phase extraction.

  13. EMI filter techniques in power electronic converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredy Edimer Hoyos Velasco

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of EMI reduction techniques applied to power electronic converters. The techniques applied included shielding control and power signals, separating power system references regarding reference for instrumentation and measurement signals, implementing analog filters and configuring an appropriate switch trigger system for electronic power to decrease shifting EMI emissions to the maximum. This paper presents the results before and after applying the techniques to reduce interference. The results were also veryfied by using two real time control strategies rapid control prototyping (RCP.

  14. Security Techniques for the Electronic Health Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Smith, Brenna; Vanderlinden, Hannah; Nealand, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    The privacy of patients and the security of their information is the most imperative barrier to entry when considering the adoption of electronic health records in the healthcare industry. Considering current legal regulations, this review seeks to analyze and discuss prominent security techniques for healthcare organizations seeking to adopt a secure electronic health records system. Additionally, the researchers sought to establish a foundation for further research for security in the healthcare industry. The researchers utilized the Texas State University Library to gain access to three online databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), CINAHL, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source. These sources were used to conduct searches on literature concerning security of electronic health records containing several inclusion and exclusion criteria. Researchers collected and analyzed 25 journals and reviews discussing security of electronic health records, 20 of which mentioned specific security methods and techniques. The most frequently mentioned security measures and techniques are categorized into three themes: administrative, physical, and technical safeguards. The sensitive nature of the information contained within electronic health records has prompted the need for advanced security techniques that are able to put these worries at ease. It is imperative for security techniques to cover the vast threats that are present across the three pillars of healthcare.

  15. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

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    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  16. Handwritten Character Classification using the Hotspot Feature Extraction Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction techniques can be important in character recognition, because they can enhance the efficacy of recognition in comparison to featureless or pixel-based approaches. This study aims to investigate the novel feature extraction technique called the hotspot technique in order to use it

  17. Transport of electrons in lead oxide studied by CELIV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, O.; Juska, G.; Oelerich, J. O.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S. D.; Reznik, A.

    2017-01-01

    Although polycrystalline lead oxide (PbO) has a long history of application in optoelectronics and imaging, the transport mechanism for electrons in this material has not yet been clarified. Using the photo-generated charge extraction by linear increasing voltage (photo-CELIV) technique, we provide the temperature- and field-dependences of electron mobility in poly-PbO. It is found that electrons undergo dispersive transport, i.e. their mobility decreases in the course of time. Multiple trapping of electrons from the conduction band into the developed band tail is revealed as the dominant transport mechanism. This differs dramatically from the dispersive transport of holes in the same material, dominated by topological factors and not by energy disorder.

  18. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  19. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  20. Clinical Relationships Extraction Techniques from Patient Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Tawfik Abdel-Moneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF project was used to extract important information from medical texts by building a system for the purpose of clinical research, evidence-based healthcare and genotype-meets-phenotype informatics. The system is divided into two parts, one part concerns with the identification of relationships between clinically important entities in the text. The full parses and domain-specific grammars had been used to apply many approaches to extract the relationship. In the second part of the system, statistical machine learning (ML approaches are applied to extract relationship. A corpus of oncology narratives that hand annotated with clinical relationships can be used to train and test a system that has been designed and implemented by supervised machine learning (ML approaches. Many features can be extracted from these texts that are used to build a model by the classifier. Multiple supervised machine learning algorithms can be applied for relationship extraction. Effects of adding the features, changing the size of the corpus, and changing the type of the algorithm on relationship extraction are examined.

  1. Environmentally sound timber extracting techniques for small tree harvesting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Due to large area disturbed and great deal of energy cost during skidding operations, introducing or applying the appropriate techniques of timber extracting could significantly reduce the impact of timber extraction operations to forest environment while pursuing the reasonable operation costs. Four environmentally sound timber extraction techniques for small tree harvesting, particularly for thinning operations, were presented and introduced in this paper. The results of evaluation, test or practices indicated that these timber-extracting techniques are feasible, applicable and reasonable in small tree harvesting with a relatively low impact no environment and a moderate operation cost.

  2. Analytical Study of Feature Extraction Techniques in Opinion Mining

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    Pravesh Kumar Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although opinion mining is in a nascent stage of de velopment but still the ground is set for dense growth of researches in the field. One of the important activities of opinion mining is to extract opinions of people based on characteristics of the object under study. Feature extraction in opinion mining can be done by various ways like that of clustering, support vector machines etc. This paper is an attempt to appraise the vario us techniques of feature extraction. The first part discusses various techniques and second part m akes a detailed appraisal of the major techniques used for feature extraction.

  3. Nuclear Electronics: Superconducting Detectors and Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polushkin, Vladimir

    2004-06-01

    With the commercialisation of superconducting particles and radiation detectors set to occur in the very near future, nuclear analytical instrumentation is taking a big step forward. These new detectors have a high degree of accuracy, stability and speed and are suitable for high-density multiplex integration in nuclear research laboratories and astrophysics. Furthermore, superconducting detectors can also be successfully applied to food safety, airport security systems, medical examinations, doping tests & forensic investigations. This book is the first to address a new generation of analytical tools based on new superconductor detectors demonstrating outstanding performance unsurpassed by any other conventional devices. Presenting the latest research and development in nanometer technologies and biochemistry this book: * Discusses the development of nuclear sensing techniques. * Provides guidance on the design and use of the next generation of detectors. * Describes cryogenic detectors for nuclear measurements and spectrometry. * Covers primary detectors, front-end readout electronics and digital signal processing. * Presents applications in nanotechnology and modern biochemistry including DNA sequencing, proteinomics, microorganisms. * Features examples of two applications in X-ray electron probe nanoanalysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry. This comprehensive treatment is the ideal reference for researchers, industrial engineers and graduate students involved in the development of high precision nuclear measurements, nuclear analytical instrumentation and advanced superconductor primary sensors. This book will also appeal to physicists, electrical and electronic engineers in the nuclear industry.

  4. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediments Using Soxhlet, Ultrasonic and Accelerated Solvent Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yinhai; CAO Zhengmei; NIE Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 μg g-1 to 0.004 μg g-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (> 80.7%). With a mass selective detector,better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1: 1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  5. Electroextraction and electromembrane extraction : Advances in hyphenation to analytical techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oedit, A.; Ramautar, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Lindenburg, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Electroextraction (EE) and electromembrane extraction (EME) are sample preparation techniques that both require an electric field that is applied over a liquid-liquid system, which enables the migration of charged analytes. Furthermore, both techniques are often used to pre-concentrate analytes prio

  6. Electron extraction mechanisms of a micro-ECR neutralizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Yoshinori; Hiramoto, Kenta; Nakagawa, Yuichi; Kasagi, Yusuke; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2016-07-01

    Three-dimensional particle simulations have been conducted to analyze the mechanisms of electron extraction through the orifices of a 4.2 GHz microwave discharge microneutralizer, using a xenon electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The dimensions of the neutralizer are 20 × 20 × 4 mm3, and a ring-shaped microwave antenna and permanent magnets are employed for its discharges. The numerical model is composed of a particle-in-cell simulation with a Monte Carlo collision algorithm for charged particle motions, a finite-difference time-domain method for microwaves, and a finite element analysis for magnetostatic fields. The simulation results have shown that the electrostatic field inside the plasma source has a dominant effect on electron extraction. The extracted electrons move along the magnetic field line to the orifice entrances and the E × B drift at the orifice edge induces electron extraction.

  7. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  8. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  9. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosamuddin Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut. Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome. In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  10. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  11. Developing Assessment Techniques for Statewide Electronic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo

    1996-01-01

    Explores several methods through which to evaluate statewide electronic networks, and discusses key issues and preliminary findings that affect the successful evaluation of statewide networked services. (Author/AEF)

  12. A Review of Brain Extraction Techniques in Fetal MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Pishghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonography, Maternal Serum Screening, amniocentesis, and sampling are among the techniques utilized to examine a developing fetus and diagnose fetal abnormalities in the uterus. Despite the fact that Sonography is the main technique used for imaging and monitoring, the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to evaluate the fetus is growing. Moreover, MRI is used for further examinations in case of abnormalities diagnosed in the ultrasound scan. MRI, in comparison with other imaging techniques, provides the advantage of fetal brain study with higher precision and quality. The first step to study the fetal brain is its extraction from the MRI of the fetal brain. Since the maternal tissue is also present in the MRI of the fetal brain tissue, and due to the differences in the adult and fetus signals of brain tissue, it is not possible to use the adult brain extraction techniques for fetus. Given that semi-automatic segmentation is a time-consuming and tedious task, the need for automatic segmentation is highlighted. This is while the development of the stages of automatic segmentation of brain structures is still a challenge to overcome. In the present paper, we review the techniques for automatic segmentation or brain extraction of fetal MRI.

  13. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

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    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  14. Enhancement of Twins Fetal ECG Signal Extraction Based on Hybrid Blind Extraction Techniques

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    Ahmed Kareem Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ECG machines are noninvasive system used to measure the heartbeat signal. It’s very important to monitor the fetus ECG signals during pregnancy to check the heat activity and to detect any problem early before born, therefore the monitoring of ECG signals have clinical significance and importance. For multi-fetal pregnancy case the classical filtering algorithms are not sufficient to separate the ECG signals between mother and fetal. In this paper the mixture consists of mixing from three ECG signals, the first signal is the mother ECG (M-ECG signal, second signal the Fetal-1 ECG (F1-ECG, and third signal is the Fetal-2 ECG (F2-ECG, these signals are extracted based on modified blind source extraction (BSE techniques. The proposed work based on hybridization between two BSE techniques to ensure that the extracted signals separated well. The results demonstrate that the proposed work very efficiently to extract the useful ECG signals

  15. Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.

    1999-01-01

    Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.

  16. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

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    N. A. Haleem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF nitrogen gas discharge (10 – 100 kHz is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ∼ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 – 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  17. Arabic Keyphrase Extraction using Linguistic knowledge and Machine Learning Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    El-shishtawy, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a supervised learning technique for extracting keyphrases of Arabic documents is presented. The extractor is supplied with linguistic knowledge to enhance its efficiency instead of relying only on statistical information such as term frequency and distance. During analysis, an annotated Arabic corpus is used to extract the required lexical features of the document words. The knowledge also includes syntactic rules based on part of speech tags and allowed word sequences to extract the candidate keyphrases. In this work, the abstract form of Arabic words is used instead of its stem form to represent the candidate terms. The Abstract form hides most of the inflections found in Arabic words. The paper introduces new features of keyphrases based on linguistic knowledge, to capture titles and subtitles of a document. A simple ANOVA test is used to evaluate the validity of selected features. Then, the learning model is built using the LDA - Linear Discriminant Analysis - and training documents. Althou...

  18. Electronic test instrumentation and techniques: A compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The uses of test equipment and techniques used in space research and development programs are discussed. Modifications and adaptations to enlarge the scope of usefulness or divert the basic uses to alternate applications are analyzed. The items of equipment which have been of benefit to professional personnel in the enlargement and improvement of quality control capabilities are identified. Items which have been simplified or made more accurate in conducting measurements are described.

  19. Extraction of Information from Images using Dewrapping Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nazim S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An image containing textual information is called a document image. The textual information in document images is useful in areas like vehicle number plate reading, passport reading and cargo container reading and so on. Thus extracting useful textual information in the document image plays an important role in many applications. One of the major challenges in camera document analysis is to deal with the wrap and perspective distortions. In spite of the prevalence of dewrapping techniques, there is no standard efficient algorithm for the performance evaluation that concentrates on visualization. Wrapping is a common appearance document image before recognition. In order to capture the document images a mobile camera of 2megapixel resolution is used. A database is developed with variations in background, size and colour along with wrapped images, blurred and clean images. This database will be explored and text extraction from those document images is performed. In case of wrapped images no efficient dewrapping techniques have been implemented till date. Thus extracting the text from the wrapped images is done by maintaining a suitable template database. Further, the extracted text from the wrapped or other document images will be converted into an editable form such as Notepad or MS word document. The experimental results were corroborated on various objects of database.

  20. Advanced thermal management techniques for space power electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Angel Samuel

    1992-01-01

    Modern electronic systems used in space must be reliable and efficient with thermal management unaffected by outer space constraints. Current thermal management techniques are not sufficient for the increasing waste heat dissipation of novel electronic technologies. Many advanced thermal management techniques have been developed in recent years that have application in high power electronic systems. The benefits and limitations of emerging cooling technologies are discussed. These technologies include: liquid pumped devices, mechanically pumped two-phase cooling, capillary pumped evaporative cooling, and thermoelectric devices. Currently, liquid pumped devices offer the most promising alternative for electronics thermal control.

  1. Bio and nano packaging techniques for electron devices advances in electronic device packaging

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlach, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an overview of nanoscale components and systems comprising electronic, mechanical and optical structures, describes trends and developments in electron device packaging, and discusses application of nano and bio techniques in future solutions.

  2. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  3. Analyzing edge detection techniques for feature extraction in dental radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several dental problems can be detected using radiographs but the main issue with radiographs is that they are not very prominent. In this paper, two well known edge detection techniques have been implemented for a set of 20 radiographs and number of pixels in each image has been calculated. Further, Gaussian filter has been applied over the images to smoothen the images so as to highlight the defect in the tooth. If the images data are available in the form of pixels for both healthy and decayed tooth, the images can easily be compared using edge detection techniques and the diagnosis is much easier. Further, Laplacian edge detection technique is applied to sharpen the edges of the given image. The aim is to detect discontinuities in dental radiographs when compared to original healthy tooth. Future work includes the feature extraction on the images for the classification of dental problems.

  4. A technique for pediatric total skin electron irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Bao Qinan; Hrycushko Brian A; Dugas Joseph P; Hager Frederick H; Solberg Timothy D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a special radiotherapy technique which has generally been used for treating adult patients with mycosis fungoides. Recently, two infants presented with leukemia cutis isolated to the skin requiring TSEI. This work discusses the commissioning and quality assurance (QA) methods for implementing a modified Stanford technique using a rotating harness system to position sedated pediatric patients treated with electrons to the total skin...

  5. Automated twin identification technique for use with electron backscatter diffraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henrie, B. L. (Benjamin Lyman); Mason, T. A. (Thomas A.); Bingert, J. F. (John F.)

    2004-01-01

    Historically, twinning information has been obtained by optical microscopy, TEM, and neutron diffraction. Recent research has shown that automated electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) can be used to extract reliable twinning statistics. An automated twin identification technique for use with EBSD has facilitated a greater understanding of deformation twinning in materials. The key features of this automated framework are the use of the crystallographic definition of twin relationships, the inclination of the common K, plane at a twin boundary, and the correct identification of the parent orientation in a parent/twin pair. The complex nature of the parent/twin interactions required the use of a voting scheme to correctly identify parent orientations. In those few cases were the voting scheme was unable to determine parent orientation (< 2 pct) the algorithm allows for manual selection. Twin area fractions are categorized by operative twin systems along with secondary and tertiary twinning. These statistics are reported for {alpha}-zirconium and 316L stainless steel. These improved twin statistics can help quantify deformation processes as well as provide validation of plasticity models for materials that exhibit deformation twinning.

  6. Low-temperature electron microscopy: techniques and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Roland A

    2015-01-01

    Low-temperature electron microscopy endeavors to provide "solidification of a biological specimen by cooling with the aim of minimal displacement of its components through the use of low temperature as a physical fixation strategy" (Steinbrecht and Zierold, Cryotechniques in biological electron microscopy. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, p 293, 1987). The intention is to maintain confidence that the tissue observed retains the morphology and dimensions of the living material while also ensuring soluble cellular components are not displaced. As applied to both scanning and transmission electron microscopy, cryo-electron microscopy is a strategy whereby the application of low-temperature techniques are used to reduce or remove processing artifacts which are commonly encountered in more conventional room temperature electron microscopy techniques which rely heavily on chemical fixation and heavy metal staining. Often, cryo-electron microscopy allows direct observation of specimens, which have not been stained or chemically fixed.

  7. A Review on Feature Extraction Techniques in Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Rouhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition systems due to their significant application in the security scopes, have been of greatimportance in recent years. The existence of an exact balance between the computing cost, robustness andtheir ability for face recognition is an important characteristic for such systems. Besides, trying to designthe systems performing under different conditions (e.g. illumination, variation of pose, different expressionand etc. is a challenging problem in the feature extraction of the face recognition. As feature extraction isan important step in the face recognition operation, in the present study four techniques of featureextraction in the face recognition were reviewed, subsequently comparable results were presented, andthen the advantages and the disadvantages of these methods were discussed.

  8. DIESEL ENGINES' VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNATURE EXTRACTION BY WAVELET PACKET TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹剑; 陈进; 邹军; 耿遵敏

    2002-01-01

    Multisource unstable impulsive excitations, time-varying transmission path, concentrated mode, dispersion and reverberation that are important characteristics of reciprocating machines such as diesel engines result in wide-band non-stationary vibroacoustic responses which influence the effective extraction of vibroacoustic signatures and become a key factor to limit diesel engines' vibration diagnosis. In this paper, a serial theoretical deduction on the unstable dynamic properties of diesel engines was made; the mechanism of non-stationary vibroacoustic responses was elucidated. Based upon that, the wavelet packet technique was introduced. The reason for the existence of frequency aliasing in the Paley series from wavelet packets' decomposition was analyzed, and the wavelet packet frequency-shifting algorithm was given. Experiments on 190 serial diesel engines verify the given method's significant validity in vibroacoustic signature extraction and reciprocating machines' vibration diagnosis.

  9. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled trials and the sample size of each trial were relatively small, double blinding was not possible, and cost analysis was unavailable due to a lack of data. Our meta-analysis indicates that although

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers for on-line extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as a sorbent for different extraction methods and this is due to its high selectivity. The MIP is designed to show specificity for the analyte of interest. Moreover, MIPs show physical robustness, resistance to high temperatures and pressures, and stability in the presence of acids, bases and a wide range of organic solvents. In the present article, various novel sample preparation techniques which MIPs applied as sorbent and on-line connected with analytical instruments were highlighted and discussed. The future aspects of MIPs as well were described.

  11. Ultrasonic technique for extracting nanofibers from nature materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2007-02-01

    This letter reports a simple and versatile approach for extracting bionanofibers from natural materials using the ultrasonic technique. Bionanofibers have been fabricated from various materials, e.g., spider and silkworm silks, chitin fibers, collagen, cotton, bamboo, and ramee and hemp fibers. The obtained nanofibers have uniform diameters in the range of 25-120nm and possess the optimized hierarchical structures and superior properties of natural materials which have formed after the evolution of many millions of years. This methodology might be valuable to provide a convenient, versatile, and environmentally benign fabrication method for producing bionanofibers at an industrial scale.

  12. Electro-optic techniques in electron beam diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Tilborg, Jeroen; Toth, Csaba; Matlis, Nicholas; Plateau, Guillaume; Leemans, Wim

    2011-06-17

    Electron accelerators such as laser wakefield accelerators, linear accelerators driving free electron lasers, or femto-sliced synchrotrons, are capable of producing femtosecond-long electron bunches. Single-shot characterization of the temporal charge profile is crucial for operation, optimization, and application of such accelerators. A variety of electro-optic sampling (EOS) techniques exists for the temporal analysis. In EOS, the field profile from the electron bunch (or the field profile from its coherent radiation) will be transferred onto a laser pulse co-propagating through an electro-optic crystal. This paper will address the most common EOS schemes and will list their advantages and limitations. Strong points that all techniques share are the ultra-short time resolution (tens of femtoseconds) and the single-shot capabilities. Besides introducing the theory behind EOS, data from various research groups is presented for each technique.

  13. Combining Multiple Feature Extraction Techniques for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an OCR for Handwritten Devnagari Characters. Basic symbols are recognized by neural classifier. We have used four feature extraction techniques namely, intersection, shadow feature, chain code histogram and straight line fitting features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features, chain code histogram features and line fitting features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. Weighted majority voting technique is used for combining the classification decision obtained from four Multi Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifier. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.80% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.

  14. A Review of Electronic Devices to Assess Inhaler Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Delesha M; Roberts, Courtney A; Sage, Adam J; George, Johnson; Horne, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Multiple electronic devices exist that provide feedback on the accuracy of patient inhaler technique. Our purpose is to describe the inhaler technique feedback provided by these devices, including specific technique steps measured, how feedback is displayed, target of feedback (patient, provider, researcher), and compatibility with inhaler type (metered-dose inhaler [MDI], diskus, etc.). We identified eight devices that provide feedback on inhaler technique. Only one device assessed all evidence-based MDI technique steps. Most devices provide limited real-time feedback to patients, if any feedback at all. Technologies to assess inhaler technique are advancing and hold great potential for improving patient inhaler technique. Many devices are limited in their ability to detect all evidence-based technique steps and provide real-time user-friendly feedback to patients and providers. Usability tests with patients and providers could identify ways to improve these devices to improve their utility in clinical settings.

  15. LISA Framework for Enhancing Gravitational Wave Signal Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Framework for benchmarking and comparing signal-extraction and noise-interference-removal methods that are applicable to interferometric Gravitational Wave detector systems. The primary use is towards comparing signal and noise extraction techniques at LISA frequencies from multiple (possibly confused) ,gravitational wave sources. The Framework includes extensive hybrid learning/classification algorithms, as well as post-processing regularization methods, and is based on a unique plug-and-play (component) architecture. Published methods for signal extraction and interference removal at LISA Frequencies are being encoded, as well as multiple source noise models, so that the stiffness of GW Sensitivity Space can be explored under each combination of methods. Furthermore, synthetic datasets and source models can be created and imported into the Framework, and specific degraded numerical experiments can be run to test the flexibility of the analysis methods. The Framework also supports use of full current LISA Testbeds, Synthetic data systems, and Simulators already in existence through plug-ins and wrappers, thus preserving those legacy codes and systems in tact. Because of the component-based architecture, all selected procedures can be registered or de-registered at run-time, and are completely reusable, reconfigurable, and modular.

  16. Quantitative secondary electron imaging for work function extraction at atomic level and layer identification of graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangbo; Fox, Daniel S; Maguire, Pierce; O'Connell, Robert; Masters, Robert; Rodenburg, Cornelia; Wu, Hanchun; Dapor, Maurizio; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Hongzhou

    2016-02-16

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials usually have a layer-dependent work function, which require fast and accurate detection for the evaluation of their device performance. A detection technique with high throughput and high spatial resolution has not yet been explored. Using a scanning electron microscope, we have developed and implemented a quantitative analytical technique which allows effective extraction of the work function of graphene. This technique uses the secondary electron contrast and has nanometre-resolved layer information. The measurement of few-layer graphene flakes shows the variation of work function between graphene layers with a precision of less than 10 meV. It is expected that this technique will prove extremely useful for researchers in a broad range of fields due to its revolutionary throughput and accuracy.

  17. A Grammatical Evolution Approach for Content Extraction of Electronic Commerce Website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Qing-jin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Web content extraction, a problem of identifying and extracting interesting information from Web pages, plays an important role in integrating data from different sources for advanced information-based services. In this paper, an approach and techniques of extracting electronic commercial information from the Web pages without any given template is investigated in a way of Grammatical Evolution (GE method. Although a lot of research used the Xpath technique to extract the content of Web pages, but due to the complexity of the Xpath grammar, it is too difficult to perform the processing automatically for evolutional tools. Hence, a reduced language integrating Xpath and DOM techniques is given to generate the solution of parse in a BNF grammar form, which is used in the GE. Moreover, a fitness function evaluation method is also proposed on the fuzzy membership of the two parts in the chromosome. Finally, empirical results on several real Web pages show that the new proposed technique can segment data records and extract data from them accurately, automatically and flexibly.

  18. Comparison of Extraction Techniques with Different Solvents for DDT Analogues in Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yin-Hai; JIANG Xin; D. MARTENS; ZHAO Qi-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Four techniques, Soxhlet extraction (SOX), ultrasonic extraction (USE), fluidized-bed extraction (FBE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with different solvents (methanol, hexane/acetone and acetonitrile) were used for the extraction of DDT analogues in sediments. Results revealed that the four extraction techniques had high recoveries (>86.0%) with low standard deviations (< 12.0%) for most of DDT analogues, meaning that they could all successfully extract DDT analogues in sediments. Accelerated solvent extraction using methanol and hexane/acetone (1:1), fluidized-bed extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) and the ultrasonic extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) were comparable or better than Soxhlet extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1). Considering solvent- and time-consumption, level of automation,and environmental risk, accelerated solvent extraction with hexane/acetone (1:1) was better than the other extraction techniques.

  19. Diagnostic techniques for measuring suprathermal electron dynamics in plasmas (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, S

    2008-10-01

    Plasmas, both in the laboratory and in space, are often not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the plasma electron distribution function is accordingly non-Maxwellian. Suprathermal electron tails can be generated by external drives, such as rf waves and electric fields, or internal ones, such as instabilities and magnetic reconnection. The variety and importance of the phenomena in which suprathermal electrons play a significant role explains an enduring interest in diagnostic techniques to investigate their properties and dynamics. X-ray bremsstrahlung emission has been studied in hot magnetized plasmas for well over two decades, flanked progressively by electron-cyclotron emission in geometries favoring the high-energy end of the distribution function (high-field-side, vertical, oblique emission), by electron-cyclotron absorption, by spectroscopic techniques, and at lower temperatures, by Langmuir probes and electrostatic analyzers. Continuous progress in detector technology and in measurement and analysis techniques, increasingly sophisticated layouts (multichannel and tomographic systems, imaging geometries), and highly controlled suprathermal generation methods (e.g., perturbative rf modulation) have all been brought to bear in recent years on an increasingly detailed, although far from complete, understanding of suprathermal electron dynamics.

  20. Delayed extraction time-of-flight mass spectrometer with electron impact for PAH studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, P. K.; Kadhane, U.

    2017-03-01

    A time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometer with a pulsed electron beam as well as pulsed extraction of the recoil ions, with variable delay is reported. The effectiveness of this technique is highlighted by studying the statistical decay of mono-cations over microsecond time scales. Various details of the design and operation are discussed in the context of electron impact ionization and fragmentation of naphthalene (C10H8). The temporal behavior of acetylene (C2H2) and diacetylene (C4H2) loss is observed and compared with the associated Arrhenius decay constant, internal energy and plasmon excitation energy.

  1. Extraction of terahertz emission from a grating-coupled high-electron-mobility transistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yu; Li Xinxing; Tan Renbing; Xue Wei; Huang Yongdan; Lou Shitao; Zhang Baoshun; Qin Hua

    2013-01-01

    In a grating-coupled high-electron-mobility transistor,weak terahertz emission with wavelength around 400μm was observed by using a Fourier-transform spectrometer.The absolute terahertz emission power was extracted from a strong background blackbody emission by using a modulation technique.The power of terahertz emission is proportional to the drain-source current,while the power of blackbody emission has a distinct relation with the electrical power.The dependence on the drain-source bias and the gate voltage suggests that the terahertz emission is induced by accelerated electrons interacting with the grating.

  2. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cobzac, Simona Codruta, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: {alpha} and {beta}-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  3. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  4. Extraction of logs in forestry using operations research techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M.; Westerlund, A. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    An important and so far much neglected operative problem in the Swedish forestry is to extract roundwood from actual harvest areas to load points at forest roads. Once at the load point, logging trucks can collect it for further secondary transportation to saw- and pulp- mills. We report on a system being developed which collects geographic information by a global positioning system (GPS) about log piles and actual routing network used by the forwarder. This is stored together with related information in a geographical information system (GIS). Using operations research (OR) techniques we can find high quality routes. This provides the driver with an operative tool in finding routes. We give numerical results from a case study done for a major Swedish forest company 5 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  5. FACE RECOGNITION USING FEATURE EXTRACTION AND NEURO-FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Vyas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Face is a primary focus of attention in social intercourse, playing a major role in conveying identity and emotion. The human ability to recognize faces is remarkable. People can recognize thousands of faces learned throughout their lifetime and identify familiar faces at a glance even after years of separation. This skill is quite robust, despite large changes in the visual stimulus due to viewing conditions, expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses, beards or changes in hair style. In this work, a system is designed to recognize human faces depending on their facial features. Also to reveal the outline of the face, eyes and nose, edge detection technique has been used. Facial features are extracted in the form of distance between important feature points. After normalization, these feature vectors are learned by artificial neural network and used to recognize facial image.

  6. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  7. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  8. Antioxidant activity of Galium mollugo L. extracts obtained by different recovery techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Petar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The yield of extractive substances, antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of aqueous-ethanolic extracts obtained from aerial parts of Galium mollugo L. by different extraction techniques (maceration, reflux and ultrasonic extraction were reported. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH free radical, while the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and a colorimetric method, respectively. The Duncan’s multiple range tests were used to evaluate if there were significant differences among yields of extractive substances, total phenolics, total flavonoids and EC50 values for the extracts obtained by different extraction techniques. The extracts obtained by the reflux extraction contained higher amounts of extractive substances, as well as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained by the two other recovering techniques.

  9. Improving face image extraction by using deep learning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. R.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2016-03-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has made a collection of over a 1.2 million research articles containing 3.2 million figure images searchable using the Open-iSM multimodal (text+image) search engine. Many images are visible light photographs, some of which are images containing faces ("face images"). Some of these face images are acquired in unconstrained settings, while others are studio photos. To extract the face regions in the images, we first applied one of the most widely-used face detectors, a pre-trained Viola-Jones detector implemented in Matlab and OpenCV. The Viola-Jones detector was trained for unconstrained face image detection, but the results for the NLM database included many false positives, which resulted in a very low precision. To improve this performance, we applied a deep learning technique, which reduced the number of false positives and as a result, the detection precision was improved significantly. (For example, the classification accuracy for identifying whether the face regions output by this Viola- Jones detector are true positives or not in a test set is about 96%.) By combining these two techniques (Viola-Jones and deep learning) we were able to increase the system precision considerably, while avoiding the need to manually construct a large training set by manual delineation of the face regions.

  10. Electronics system design techniques for safety critical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sterpone, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Addresses the development of techniques for the evaluation and the hardening of designs implemented on SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays. This title presents a design methodology solving industrial designer''s needs for implementing electronic systems using SRAM-based FPGAs in critical environments, like the space or avionic ones.

  11. Three real-space discretization techniques in electronic structure calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torsti, T; Eirola, T; Enkovaara, J; Hakala, T; Havu, P; Havu, [No Value; Hoynalanmaa, T; Ignatius, J; Lyly, M; Makkonen, [No Value; Rantala, TT; Ruokolainen, J; Ruotsalainen, K; Rasanen, E; Saarikoski, H; Puska, MJ

    2006-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the state-of-the-art of real-space methods in electronic structure calculations is the diversity of the techniques used in the discretization of the relevant partial differential equations. In this context, the main approaches include finite-difference methods, various ty

  12. Electronic compensation technique to deliver a total body dose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakeman, Tara E.

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient's immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has been conventionally used to compensate for the varying thickness throughout the body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Method: Treatment plans utilizing the electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two pair of parallel opposed fields. One pair of large fields is used to encompass the majority of the patient's anatomy. The other pair are very small open fields focused only on the thin bottom portion of the patient's anatomy, which requires much less radiation than the rest of the body to reach 100% of the prescribed dose. A desirable fluence pattern was manually painted within each of the larger fields for each patient to provide a more uniform distribution. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In the electronically compensated plans, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the conventionally-compensated plans by an average of 15%, indicating a more uniform dose. The mean body doses calculated from the electronically compensated DVH remained comparable to that of the conventionally-compensated plans, indicating an accurate delivery of the prescription dose using electronic compensation. All calculated monitor units were within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not increase the beam on time beyond clinically acceptable limits while it can substantially reduce the compensator setup

  13. Ion Extraction from a Toroidal Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source: a Numerical Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliri, Claudia; Volpe, Francesco; Gammino, Santo; Mascali, David

    2013-10-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) are magnetic mirror plasmas of microwave-heated electrons and cold multi-charged ions. The ions are extracted from one end of the mirror and injected in accelerators for nuclear and particle physics studies, hadrontherapy, or neutral beam injection in fusion plasmas. ECRIS devices progressed to higher and higher ion currents and charge states by adopting stronger magnetic fields (beneficial for confinement) and proportionally higher ECR frequencies. Further improvements would require the attainment of ``triple products'' comparable with major fusion experiments. For this, we propose a new, toroidal rather than linear, ECRIS geometry, which would at the same time improve confinement and make better use of the magnetic field. Ion extraction is more complicated than from a linear device, but feasible, as our modeling indicates. Possible techniques involve charge-dependent drifts, divertors, specially designed magnetic fields and associated loss-cones, electrostatic and/or magnetic deflectors, or techniques used in accelerators to transfer particles from one storage ring or accelerator to the next. Here we present single-particle tracings assessing and comparing these extraction techniques.

  14. Testing aspects of advanced coherent electron cooling technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.; Jing, Y.; Pinayev, I.; Wang, G.; Samulyak, R.; Ratner, D.

    2015-05-03

    An advanced version of the Coherent-electron Cooling (CeC) based on the micro-bunching instability was proposed. This approach promises significant increase in the bandwidth of the CeC system and, therefore, significant shortening of cooling time in high-energy hadron colliders. In this paper we present our plans of simulating and testing the key aspects of this proposed technique using the set-up of the coherent-electron-cooling proof-of-principle experiment at BNL.

  15. Feature extraction and analysis of online reviews for the recommendation of books using opinion mining technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Saquib Sohail

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The customer's review plays an important role in deciding the purchasing behaviour for online shopping as a customer prefers to get the opinion of other customers by observing their opinion through online products’ reviews, blogs and social networking sites, etc. The customer's reviews reflect the customer's sentiments and have a substantial significance for the products being sold online including electronic gadgets, movies, house hold appliances and books. Hence, extracting the exact features of the products by analyzing the text of reviews requires a lot of efforts and human intelligence. In this paper we intend to analyze the online reviews available for books and extract book-features from the reviews using human intelligence. We have proposed a technique to categorize the features of books from the reviews of the customers. The extracted features may help in deciding the books to be recommended for readers. The ultimate goal of the work is to fulfil the requirement of the user and provide them their desired books. Thus, we have evaluated our categorization method by users themselves, and surveyed qualified persons for the concerned books. The survey results show high precision of the features categorized which clearly indicates that proposed method is very useful and appealing. The proposed technique may help in recommending the best books for concerned people and may also be generalized to recommend any product to the users.

  16. Different Image Segmentation Techniques for Dental Image Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bala Subramanyam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments and often used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves etc.. In this paper, we have proposed image segmentation techniques: Region based, Texture based, Edge based. These techniques have been implemented on dental radiographs and gained good results compare to conventional technique known as Thresholding based technique. The quantitative results show the superiority of the image segmentation technique over three proposed techniques and conventional technique.

  17. Comparison of various extraction techniques for isolation and determination of isoflavonoids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomás; Adam, Martin; Galla, Lubomír; Ventura, Karel

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the following extraction techniques have been used for extracting isoflavonoids from the species Matricaria recutita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Agrimonia eupatoria L.: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized fluid extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion, ultrasonic extraction in an ultrasonic bath (USE) and by means of an ultrasonic homogeniser (HOM), extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus (SOX), and solid phase extraction. Experimental optimization of all techniques has been carried out using a soybean flour. Subsequent analyses of the extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The maximum yields of daidzein and genistein were obtained by extraction with the SOX, USE, and HOM techniques. The maximum yields of apigenin and biochanin A from herb samples were obtained by SFE.

  18. Power electronic converters PWM strategies and current control techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Monmasson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.

  19. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  20. BEaST: brain extraction based on nonlocal segmentation technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskildsen, S.F.; Coupe, P.; Fonov, V.; Manjon, J.V.; Leung, K.K.; Guizard, N.; Wassef, S.N.; Ostergaard, L.R.; Collins, D.L.; Olde Rikkert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain extraction is an important step in the analysis of brain images. The variability in brain morphology and the difference in intensity characteristics due to imaging sequences make the development of a general purpose brain extraction algorithm challenging. To address this issue, we propose a ne

  1. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  2. A Investigation of Radiotherapy Electron Beams Using Monte Carlo Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, George X.

    1995-01-01

    Radiotherapy electron beams are more complicated than photon beams due to variations in the beam production, the scattering of low-energy electrons, and the presence contaminant photons. The detailed knowledge of a radiotherapy beam is essential to an accurate calculation of dose distribution for a treatment planning system. This investigation aims to enhance our understanding of radiotherapy beams by focusing on electron beams used in radiotherapy. It starts with a description of the Monte Carlo simulation code, BEAM, and a detailed simulation of an accelerator head to obtain realistic radiotherapy beams. The simulation covers electron beams from various accelerators, including the NRC research accelerator, the NPL (UK), accelerator, A Varian Clinac 2100C, a Philips SL75-20, a Siemens KD2, an AECL Therac 20, and a Scanditronix MM50. The beam energies range from 4 to 50 MeV. The EGS4 user code, BEAM, is extensively benchmarked against experiment by comparing calculated dose distributions with measured dose distributions in water. The simulated beams are analyzed to obtain the characteristics of various electron beams from a variety of accelerators. The simulated beams are also used as inputs to calculate the following parameters: the mean electron energy, the most probable energy, the energy-range relationships, the depth-scaling factor to convert depths in plastic to water-equivalent depths, the water-to-air stopping-power ratios, and the electron fluence correction factors used to convert dose measured in plastics to dose in water. These parameters are essential for electron beam dosimetry. The results from this study can be applied in cancer clinics to improve the accuracy of the absolute dosimetry. The simulation also provides information about the backscatter into the beam monitor chamber, and predicts the influence on the beam output factors. This investigation presents comprehensive data on the clinical electron beams, and answers many questions which could

  3. A-Survey of Feature Extraction and Classification Techniques in OCR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of feature extraction and classification techniques, which play very important role in the recognition of characters. Feature extraction provides us methods with the help of which we can identify characters uniquely and with high degree of accuracy. Feature extraction helps us to find the shape contained in the pattern. Although a number of techniques are available for feature extraction and classification, but the choice of an excellent technique decides the degree of accuracy of recognition. A lot of research has been done in this field and new techniques of extraction and classification has been developed. The objective of this paper is to review these techniques, so that the set of these techniques can be appreciated.

  4. Electron tomography based on a total variation minimization reconstruction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goris, B., E-mail: bart.goris@ua.ac.be [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Van den Broek, W. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Batenburg, K.J. [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, Science Park 123, NL-1098XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vision Lab, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Heidari Mezerji, H.; Bals, S. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2012-02-15

    The 3D reconstruction of a tilt series for electron tomography is mostly carried out using the weighted backprojection (WBP) algorithm or using one of the iterative algorithms such as the simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). However, it is known that these reconstruction algorithms cannot compensate for the missing wedge. Here, we apply a new reconstruction algorithm for electron tomography, which is based on compressive sensing. This is a field in image processing specialized in finding a sparse solution or a solution with a sparse gradient to a set of ill-posed linear equations. Therefore, it can be applied to electron tomography where the reconstructed objects often have a sparse gradient at the nanoscale. Using a combination of different simulated and experimental datasets, it is shown that missing wedge artefacts are reduced in the final reconstruction. Moreover, it seems that the reconstructed datasets have a higher fidelity and are easier to segment in comparison to reconstructions obtained by more conventional iterative algorithms. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reconstruction algorithm for electron tomography is investigated based on total variation minimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Missing wedge artefacts are reduced by this algorithm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reconstruction is easier to segment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More reliable quantitative information can be obtained.

  5. Feature extraction techniques using multivariate analysis for identification of lung cancer volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriumani, Reena; Zakaria, Ammar; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Helmy, Khaled Mohamed; Omar, Mohammad Iqbal; Jeffree, Amanina; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2017-03-01

    In this experiment, three different cell cultures (A549, WI38VA13 and MCF7) and blank medium (without cells) as a control were used. The electronic nose (E-Nose) was used to sniff the headspace of cultured cells and the data were recorded. After data pre-processing, two different features were extracted by taking into consideration of both steady state and the transient information. The extracted data are then being processed by multivariate analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to provide visualization of the clustering vector information in multi-sensor space. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier was used to test the performance of the E-Nose on determining the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of lung cancer cell line. The LDA data projection was able to differentiate between the lung cancer cell samples and other samples (breast cancer, normal cell and blank medium) effectively. The features extracted from the steady state response reached 100% of classification rate while the transient response with the aid of LDA dimension reduction methods produced 100% classification performance using PNN classifier with a spread value of 0.1. The results also show that E-Nose application is a promising technique to be applied to real patients in further work and the aid of Multivariate Analysis; it is able to be the alternative to the current lung cancer diagnostic methods.

  6. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol-water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol-water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol-water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques.

  7. Extraction of negative charges from an ion source: Transition from an electron repelling to an electron attracting plasma close to the extraction surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Christian; Fantz, Ursel

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale sources for negative hydrogen ions, capable of delivering an extracted ion current of several ten amperes, are a key component of the neutral beam injection system of the upcoming ITER fusion device. Since the created heat load of the inevitably co-extracted electrons after magnetic separation from the extracted beam limits their tolerable amount, special care must be taken for the reduction of co-extracted electrons—in particular, in deuterium operation, where the larger amount of co-extracted electrons often limits the source performance. By biasing the plasma grid (PG, first grid of the extraction system) positively with respect to the source body, the plasma sheath in front of the PG can be changed from an electron repelling towards an electron attracting sheath. In this way, the flux of charged particles onto the PG can be varied, thus changing the bias current and inverse to it the amount of co-extracted electrons. The PG bias affects also the flux of surface-produced H - towards the plasma volume as well as the plasma symmetry in front of the plasma grid, strongly influenced by an E → × B → drift. The influence of varying PG sheath potential profile on the plasma drift, the negative hydrogen ion density, and the source performance at the prototype H - source is presented, comparing hydrogen and deuterium operation. The transition in the PG sheath profile takes place in both isotopes, with a minimum of co-extracted electrons formed in case of the electron attracting PG sheath. The co-extracted electron density in deuterium operation is higher than in hydrogen operation, which is accompanied by an increased plasma density in deuterium.

  8. A scanning electron microscopic study of different caries removal techniques on human dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, A Rüya; Ozgünaltay, Gül; Dayangaç, Berrin

    2002-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluated the effect of different caries removal techniques on human dentin topography. Thirty-six extracted human carious mandibular molars were randomly assigned to six groups according to caries removal technique. Carious tissue was removed by hand excavation, bur excavation, air-abrasion, laser ablation, chemomechanical methods and sono-abrasion. The remaining dentin surfaces were replicated and gold-coated. The surfaces were examined using SEM and distinct differences in appearance were observed among specimens treated with different caries removal techniques. While hand-excavated, bur-excavated and air-abraded carious dentin surfaces were covered with a residual smear layer, sono-abrasion with patent dentinal tubules completely removed the smear layer. A few patent orifices of dentinal tubules were observed in dentin subjected to laser ablation and chemo-mechanical caries removal.

  9. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  10. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanimah Simoh

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: It was evident from the results that C. aeruginosa rhizome extracted using two different techniques of solvent extractions (MTBE and M/C contained various chemical classes of compounds including terpenoids, sterols, organic acids, fatty acids and sugars. Different methods of extraction have led to different compounds extraction for C. aeruginosa rhizome. The results also indicated that the plant was a source of phytochemical importance.

  11. Flavonoid extraction from Ficus carica leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunschi Svetlana I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Ficus carica. Dried leaves were extracted using distilled water and ethanol 70% by extraction method of maceration, microwave and stirring. Using of TLC and HPLC techniques, the rutin and kaempferol were detected. For flavonoids extraction ethanol 70% was more efficient than water. The relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol was higher by microwave methods ussing ethanol.

  12. Influence of extraction technique on the anti-oxidative potential of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) extracts in bovine muscle homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, E; O'Grady, M N; Gilroy, D; Furey, A; Quinn, N; Kerry, J P

    2014-12-01

    Six extracts were prepared from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves and flowers (HLF) and berries (HB) using solid-liquid [traditional (T) (HLFT, HBT), sonicated (S) (HLFS, HBS)] and supercritical fluid (C) extraction (HLFC, HBC) techniques. The antioxidant activities of HLF and HB extracts were characterised using in vitro antioxidant assays (TPC, DPPH, FRAP) and in 25% bovine muscle (longissimus lumborum) homogenates (lipid oxidation (TBARS), oxymyoglobin (% of total myoglobin)) after 24h storage at 4°C. Hawthorn extracts exhibited varying degrees of antioxidant potency. In vitro and muscle homogenate (TBARS) antioxidant activity followed the order: HLFS>HLFT and HBT>HBS. In supercritical fluid extracts, HLFC>HBC (in vitro antioxidant activity) and HLFC≈HBC (TBARS). All extracts (except HBS) reduced oxymyoglobin oxidation. The HLFS extract had the highest antioxidant activity in all test systems. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) exhibited potential as a technique for the manufacture of functional ingredients (antioxidants) from hawthorn for use in muscle foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our annotation is currently limited to a single

  14. A technique for pediatric total skin electron irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Qinan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI is a special radiotherapy technique which has generally been used for treating adult patients with mycosis fungoides. Recently, two infants presented with leukemia cutis isolated to the skin requiring TSEI. This work discusses the commissioning and quality assurance (QA methods for implementing a modified Stanford technique using a rotating harness system to position sedated pediatric patients treated with electrons to the total skin. Methods and Results Commissioning of pediatric TSEI consisted of absolute calibration, measurement of dosimetric parameters, and subsequent verification in a pediatric patient sized cylindrical phantom using radiographic film and optically stimulated luminance (OSL dosimeters. The depth of dose penetration under TSEI treatment condition was evaluated using radiographic film sandwiched in the phantom and demonstrated a 2 cm penetration depth with the maximum dose located at the phantom surface. Dosimetry measurements on the cylindrical phantom and in-vivo measurements from the patients suggested that, the factor relating the skin and calibration point doses (i.e., the B-factor was larger for the pediatric TSEI treatments as compared to adult TSEI treatments. Custom made equipment, including a rotating plate and harness, was fabricated and added to a standard total body irradiation stand and tested to facilitate patient setup under sedated condition. A pediatric TSEI QA program, consisting of daily output, energy, flatness, and symmetry measurements as well as in-vivo dosimetry verification for the first cycle was developed. With a long interval between pediatric TSEI cases, absolute dosimetry was also repeated as part of the QA program. In-vivo dosimetry for the first two infants showed that a dose of ± 10% of the prescription dose can be achieved over the entire patient body. Conclusion Though pediatric leukemia cutis and the subsequent need for TSEI are

  15. Comparison of extraction and clean-up techniques for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    cyclohexane, 2- propanol, methanol, acetonitrile and dichloromethane, were tested to select the most suitable solvent for ... carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon fragments are generated which can ... soxhlet) (Lopez-Avila et al., 1993) supercritical fluid extraction ... that it can produce good results within a short time with minimum ...

  16. Bispectrum-based feature extraction technique for devising a practical brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shahjahan; Prasad, Girijesh

    2011-04-01

    The extraction of distinctly separable features from electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the main challenges in designing a brain-computer interface (BCI). Existing feature extraction techniques for a BCI are mostly developed based on traditional signal processing techniques assuming that the signal is Gaussian and has linear characteristics. But the motor imagery (MI)-related EEG signals are highly non-Gaussian, non-stationary and have nonlinear dynamic characteristics. This paper proposes an advanced, robust but simple feature extraction technique for a MI-related BCI. The technique uses one of the higher order statistics methods, the bispectrum, and extracts the features of nonlinear interactions over several frequency components in MI-related EEG signals. Along with a linear discriminant analysis classifier, the proposed technique has been used to design an MI-based BCI. Three performance measures, classification accuracy, mutual information and Cohen's kappa have been evaluated and compared with a BCI using a contemporary power spectral density-based feature extraction technique. It is observed that the proposed technique extracts nearly recording-session-independent distinct features resulting in significantly much higher and consistent MI task detection accuracy and Cohen's kappa. It is therefore concluded that the bispectrum-based feature extraction is a promising technique for detecting different brain states.

  17. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO2 emissions.

  18. Segmentation techniques for extracting humans from thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian detection system for underground mine vehicles is being developed that requires the segmentation of people from thermal images in underground mine tunnels. A number of thresholding techniques are outlined and their performance on a...

  19. SPEECH/MUSIC CLASSIFICATION USING WAVELET BASED FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruvengatanadhan Ramalingam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio classification serves as the fundamental step towards the rapid growth in audio data volume. Due to the increasing size of the multimedia sources speech and music classification is one of the most important issues for multimedia information retrieval. In this work a speech/music discrimination system is developed which utilizes the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT as the acoustic feature. Multi resolution analysis is the most significant statistical way to extract the features from the input signal and in this study, a method is deployed to model the extracted wavelet feature. Support Vector Machines (SVM are based on the principle of structural risk minimization. SVM is applied to classify audio into their classes namely speech and music, by learning from training data. Then the proposed method extends the application of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM to estimate the probability density function using maximum likelihood decision methods. The system shows significant results with an accuracy of 94.5%.

  20. Nanoparticles and pop-off technique for electron microscopy: a known technique for a new purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmbecker, Annika; Rittinghausen, Susanne; Rohn, Kerstin; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Schaudien, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    Because of the size of the nanoparticles, their detection and exact anatomical localization in tissue samples are very difficult. Consequently, suitable methods are needed to prove their presence, especially co-localized to histological lesions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether nanoparticles were detectable in specimens after reprocessing samples from glass slides using the pop-off technique. Tissue slides containing agglomerates of titanium dioxide nanoparticles already visible on a light microscopic level and amorphous silicium dioxide (SiO2) particles not observable in tissue slides were reprocessed. Furthermore, cytospots of bronchoalveolar lavage acquired from rats that previously inhaled carbon nanotubes were used. After reprocessing the samples, they were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. In all the reprocessed samples, the respective nanoparticles were detectable. Even the light microscopically invisible amorphous SiO2 particles were observed as electron dense structures. Titanium and silicium were additionally confirmed in the respective nanoparticles by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In summary, the pop-off technique represents a fast and easy way to detect nanoparticles in histological sections. This enables further characterization of these particles by additional techniques such as EDX, and their direct correlation with light microscopic lesions at exactly the same location is investigated.

  1. Data-Driven Information Extraction from Chinese Electronic Medical Records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    Full Text Available This study aims to propose a data-driven framework that takes unstructured free text narratives in Chinese Electronic Medical Records (EMRs as input and converts them into structured time-event-description triples, where the description is either an elaboration or an outcome of the medical event.Our framework uses a hybrid approach. It consists of constructing cross-domain core medical lexica, an unsupervised, iterative algorithm to accrue more accurate terms into the lexica, rules to address Chinese writing conventions and temporal descriptors, and a Support Vector Machine (SVM algorithm that innovatively utilizes Normalized Google Distance (NGD to estimate the correlation between medical events and their descriptions.The effectiveness of the framework was demonstrated with a dataset of 24,817 de-identified Chinese EMRs. The cross-domain medical lexica were capable of recognizing terms with an F1-score of 0.896. 98.5% of recorded medical events were linked to temporal descriptors. The NGD SVM description-event matching achieved an F1-score of 0.874. The end-to-end time-event-description extraction of our framework achieved an F1-score of 0.846.In terms of named entity recognition, the proposed framework outperforms state-of-the-art supervised learning algorithms (F1-score: 0.896 vs. 0.886. In event-description association, the NGD SVM is superior to SVM using only local context and semantic features (F1-score: 0.874 vs. 0.838.The framework is data-driven, weakly supervised, and robust against the variations and noises that tend to occur in a large corpus. It addresses Chinese medical writing conventions and variations in writing styles through patterns used for discovering new terms and rules for updating the lexica.

  2. Electronic publications, a useful technique for astronomy outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinschi, M.; Mosoia, C.

    2012-09-01

    Thanks to modern technology, astronomy can be communicated to the public through a variety of techniques, from classic conferences (also upgraded to the video projectors, etc.) to TV, print media and social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, MySpace, etc. We are going to present advantages of electronic publishing, starting from informing the public with latest astronomy news, to providing a place for public debate. In an era of global crisis e-publishing is a must do, be it seen from the financially perspective, or the desired impact to the public. We are going to present a constant example of year electronic publication dedicated to promoting science and communication; also, the Science Communicators Network Interested in spreading the word of astronomy. The aim is to establish connections with all OEP participants with a view to know each other and try to work in common for the better message transmission to the public. Together, we might build a single platform with multiple educational results.

  3. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. PMID:27706082

  4. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  5. FUMET: A fuzzy network module extraction technique for gene expression data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyakshi Mahanta; Hasin Afzal Ahmed; Dhruba Kumar Bhattacharyya; Ashish Ghosh

    2014-06-01

    Construction of co-expression network and extraction of network modules have been an appealing area of bioinformatics research. This article presents a co-expression network construction and a biologically relevant network module extraction technique based on fuzzy set theoretic approach. The technique is able to handle both positive and negative correlations among genes. The constructed network for some benchmark gene expression datasets have been validated using topological internal and external measures. The effectiveness of network module extraction technique has been established in terms of well-known p-value, Q-value and topological statistics.

  6. A Document Imaging Technique for Implementing Electronic Loan Approval Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manikandan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The image processing is one of the leading technologies of computer applications. Image processing is a type of signal processing, the input for image processor is an image or video frame and the output will be an image or subset of image [1]. Computer graphics and computer vision process uses an image processing techniques. Image processing systems are used in various environments like medical fields, computer-aided design (CAD, research fields, crime investigation fields and military fields. In this paper, we proposed a document image processing technique, for establishing electronic loan approval process (E-LAP [2]. Loan approval process has been tedious process, the E-LAP system attempts to reduce the complexity of loan approval process. Customers have to login to fill the loan application form online with all details and submit the form. The loan department then processes the submitted form and then sends an acknowledgement mail via the E-LAP to the requested customer with the details about list of documents required for the loan approval process [3]. The approaching customer can upload the scanned copies of all required documents. All this interaction between customer and bank take place using an E-LAP system.

  7. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F. B. Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  8. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jailson F. B.; Agirre, Jon; Marti, Gerardo A.; Guérin, Diego M. A.; Silva, Marcelo Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV), a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus. PMID:23710438

  9. Phytochemical standardization of Aloe vera extract by HPTLC techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; Kanika Patel; SP Dhanabal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemical parameters of Aloe vera (A. vera) L. which can be used as a tool for its standardization. Methods: The phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis of gallic acid and berberine by HPTLC method were included in present study. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside. Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be 1.9% and 13.11%. Concentartion of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium was found to be under the limit. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas Escherichia coli (E. coli) and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Quantitative analysis through HPTLC revealed the presence of 2.74%and 0.543% w/w of berberine and gallic acid. Conclusions: The results indicate that the plant extract are rich in berberine and gallic acid implying their importance to human health. This investigation could be used as source of standard parameters which can play an important role in its standardization.

  10. Simple, Safe, and Cost-Effective Technique for Resected Stomach Extraction in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Derici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG has become a popular operation during the recent years. This procedure requires resection of 80–90% of the stomach. Extraction of gastric specimen is known to be a challenging and costly stage of the operation. In this paper, we report results of a simple and cost-effective specimen extraction technique which was applied to 137 consecutive LSG patients. Methods. Between October 2013 and October 2015, 137 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgeries were performed at Dokuz Eylul University General Surgery Department, Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit. All specimens were extracted through a 15 mm trocar site without using any special device. Results. We noticed one superficial incisional surgical site infection and treated this patient with oral antibiotics. No cases of trocar site hernia were observed. Conclusion. Different techniques have been described for specimen extraction. This simple technique allows extraction of specimen safely in a short time and does not require any special device.

  11. Porous Epoxy: Effect of Mixing Sequences (ELH versus EHL Using Toluene as Extraction Medium via Ultrasonic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noorkhartina Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous epoxy was fabricated using natural rubber latex (NRL as the void template. In this study, two mixing sequences were selected: epoxy, hardener, and then latex (EHL and epoxy, latex, and then hardener (ELH. The extraction process was carried out to extract the latex particles from the cured epoxy sample using toluene as extraction medium with ultrasonic technique for 1 hour. The formation of porous structure in epoxy system is dependent essentially on the amount of latex removed from the epoxy matrix. As expected, the density results showed lower values in the porous epoxy in ELH mixing sequences. More porous structure in epoxy was obtained which was proven by the increasing in porosity % which has led to lowering of the value in dielectric constant which is preferred for electronic packaging application. However, it also caused a decrease in flexural strength and modulus.

  12. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  13. Helicopter parameter extraction using joint Time-Frequency and Tomographic Techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cilliers, A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A technique based on time-frequency and tomographic analysis to extract helicopter blade parameters for the purposes of radar non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR) is investigated. The proposed algorithm shows that (under certain conditions...

  14. On-line coupling of supercritical fluid extraction and chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses recent advances and applications of on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled to liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and supercritical fluid chromatographic techniques. Supercritical fluids, due to their exceptional physical properties, provide unique opportunities not only during the extraction step but also in the separation process. Although supercritical fluid extraction is especially suitable for recovery of non-polar organic compounds, this technique can also be successfully applied to the extraction of polar analytes by the aid of modifiers. Supercritical fluid extraction process can be performed following "off-line" or "on-line" approaches and their main features are contrasted herein. Besides, the parameters affecting the supercritical fluid extraction process are explained and a "decision tree" is for the first time presented in this review work as a guide tool for method development. The general principles (instrumental and methodological) of the different on-line couplings of supercritical fluid extraction with chromatographic techniques are described. Advantages and shortcomings of supercritical fluid extraction as hyphenated technique are discussed. Besides, an update of the most recent applications (from 2005 up to now) of the mentioned couplings is also presented in this review.

  15. Consistency in Al/CuPc/ n-Si Heterojunction Diode Parameters Extracted Using Different Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irfan; Shah, Mutabar; Khan, Majid; Wahab, Fazal

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports fabrication and characterization of an Al/CuPc/ n-Si heterojunction diode. The heterojunction was fabricated by depositing the active organic semiconducting material copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on the n-Si substrate using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique. Electrical characterization of the fabricated heterojunction was carried out at ambient conditions. Various diode parameters, such as the ideality factor ( n), barrier height (Φ_{{b}}), and series resistance ( R s), were extracted from the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic curve. These parameters are consistent with techniques used by Cheung, Norde and Hernandez et al. Furthermore these parameters are consistent with capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization method. The conduction mechanism at the interface of CuPc and n-Si was also investigated. The surface morphology of the CuPc film was studied using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical bandgap of the CuPc film was calculated from the absorption spectrum using Tauc's law.

  16. Using text-mining techniques in electronic patient records to identify ADRs from medicine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrer, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Juhl-Jensen, Lars; Aagaard, Lise

    2012-05-01

    This literature review included studies that use text-mining techniques in narrative documents stored in electronic patient records (EPRs) to investigate ADRs. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts without restrictions from origin until July 2011. We included empirically based studies on text mining of electronic patient records (EPRs) that focused on detecting ADRs, excluding those that investigated adverse events not related to medicine use. We extracted information on study populations, EPR data sources, frequencies and types of the identified ADRs, medicines associated with ADRs, text-mining algorithms used and their performance. Seven studies, all from the United States, were eligible for inclusion in the review. Studies were published from 2001, the majority between 2009 and 2010. Text-mining techniques varied over time from simple free text searching of outpatient visit notes and inpatient discharge summaries to more advanced techniques involving natural language processing (NLP) of inpatient discharge summaries. Performance appeared to increase with the use of NLP, although many ADRs were still missed. Due to differences in study design and populations, various types of ADRs were identified and thus we could not make comparisons across studies. The review underscores the feasibility and potential of text mining to investigate narrative documents in EPRs for ADRs. However, more empirical studies are needed to evaluate whether text mining of EPRs can be used systematically to collect new information about ADRs.

  17. Novel production techniques of radioisotopes using electron accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Daniel Robert

    Non-traditional radioisotope production techniques using a compact, high power linear electron accelerator have been demonstrated and characterized for the production of 18F, 47Sc, 147 Pm, and 99mTc from a variety of target candidates. These isotopes are used extensively in the medical field as diagnostic and therapy radioisotopes, as well as the space industry as RTG's. Primary focus was placed on 99mTc as it constitutes approximately 80% of all diagnostic procedures in the medical community that use radioactive tracers. It was also the prime focus due to recent events at the Chalk River nuclear reactor, which caused global shortages of this isotope a few years ago. A Varian K15 LINAC was first used to show proof of principle in Las Vegas. Various samples were then taken to the Idaho Accelerator Center where they were activated using an electron LINAC capable of electron energies from 4 to 25 MeV at a beam power of approximately 1 kW. Production rates, cross sections, and viability studies were then performed and conducted to assess the effectiveness of the candidate target and the maximum production rate for each radioisotope. Production rates for 18F from lithium fluoride salts were shown to be ideal at 21MeV, namely 1.7 Ci per kg of LiF salt, per kW of beam current, per 10 hour irradiation time. As the typical hospital consumption of 18F is around 500 mCi per day, it is clear that a large amount of 18F can be made from a small (300 gram) sample of LiF salt. However, since there is no current separation process for 18F from 19F, the viability of this technique is limited until a separations technique is developed. Furthermore, the calculated cross section for this reaction is in good agreement with literature, which supports the techniques for the isotopes mentioned below. Production rates for 47Sc from vanadium oxide targets were shown to be a maximum at 25 MeV with a production rate of 2 mCi per day, assuming a 2 kW beam and a 10 kg target. While this

  18. Extracting the size of the cosmic electron-positron anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Auchettl, Katie; Balázs, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    We isolated the anomalous part of the cosmic electron-positron flux within a Bayesian likelihood analysis. Using 219 recent cosmic ray spectral data points, we inferred the values of selected cosmic ray propagation parameters. In the context of the propagation model coded in GalProp, we found a significant tension between the electron positron related and the rest of the fluxes. Interpreting this tension as the presence of an anomalous component in the electron-positron related data, we calcu...

  19. Face Recognition as an Authentication Technique in Electronic Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha E. El-Sayad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research a Face Detection and Recognition system (FDR used as an Authentication technique in online voting, which one of electronic is voting types, is proposed. Web based voting allows the voter to vote from any place in state or out of state. The voter’s image is captured and passed to a face detection algorithm (Eigenface or Gabor filter which is used to detect his face from the image and save it as the first matching point. The voter’s National identification card number is used to retrieve and return his saved photo from the database of the Supreme Council elections (SCE which is passed to the same detection algorithm (Eigenface or Gabor filter to detect face from it and save it as second matching point. The two matching points are used by a matching algorithm to check wither they are identical or not. If the results of the matching algorithm are two point match then checks wither this person has the right to vote or not. If he has right to vote then a voting form is presented to him. The result shows that the proposed algorithm capable of finding over 90% of the faces in database and allows their voter to vote in approximately 58 seconds.

  20. Membrane Boundary Extraction Using a Circular Shortest Path Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changming; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong; Lopez, Jamie; Ng, Yvonne; James, David

    2007-11-01

    Membrane proteins represent over 50% of known drug targets. Accordingly, several widely used assays in the High Content Analysis area rely on quantitative measures of the translocation of proteins between intracellular organelles and the cell surface. In order to increase the sensitivity of these assays, one needs to measure the signal specifically along the membrane, requiring a precise segmentation of this compartment. Doing this manually is a very time-consuming practice, limited to an academic setting. Manual tracing of the membrane compartment also confronts us with issues of objectivity and reproducibility. In this paper, we present an approach based on a circular shortest path technique that enables us to segment the membrane compartment accurately and rapidly. This feature is illustrated using cells expressing epitope-tagged membrane proteins.

  1. Spatial Domain based Image Enhancement Techniques for Scanned Electron Microscope-SEM-images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhi Chanana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The growing need for efficiently processing and analyzing the information contained in digital images is a continuous challenge in order to apply image processing. Digital images are captured from different imaging media elements like cameras, scanned electron microscopes etc. While going through the imaging process, Images get distorted in various forms resulting in extreme dark or light areas. All these things lead to the loss of information. The goal in each case is to extract useful information. In that case, Image processing extracts useful information by applying various image enhancement and algorithms. In this paper, we have discussed a practical implementation of various enhancement methods for Scanned Electron Microscope (SEM images and their experimental results. SEM images lead to very dark and light areas in an image. While imaging the information in the front scene is not only the source of information but some scenes on the dark side can also have the useful information. Before processing any further we require to enhance such images and one of the enhancement techniques i.e. Histogram Statistics comes out to be an ideal approach.

  2. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  3. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  4. Spatio-temporal feature-extraction techniques for isolated gesture recognition in Arabic sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanableh, Tamer; Assaleh, Khaled; Al-Rousan, M

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents various spatio-temporal feature-extraction techniques with applications to online and offline recognitions of isolated Arabic Sign Language gestures. The temporal features of a video-based gesture are extracted through forward, backward, and bidirectional predictions. The prediction errors are thresholded and accumulated into one image that represents the motion of the sequence. The motion representation is then followed by spatial-domain feature extractions. As such, the temporal dependencies are eliminated and the whole video sequence is represented by a few coefficients. The linear separability of the extracted features is assessed, and its suitability for both parametric and nonparametric classification techniques is elaborated upon. The proposed feature-extraction scheme was complemented by simple classification techniques, namely, K nearest neighbor (KNN) and Bayesian, i.e., likelihood ratio, classifiers. Experimental results showed classification performance ranging from 97% to 100% recognition rates. To validate our proposed technique, we have conducted a series of experiments using the classical way of classifying data with temporal dependencies, namely, hidden Markov models (HMMs). Experimental results revealed that the proposed feature-extraction scheme combined with simple KNN or Bayesian classification yields comparable results to the classical HMM-based scheme. Moreover, since the proposed scheme compresses the motion information of an image sequence into a single image, it allows for using simple classification techniques where the temporal dimension is eliminated. This is actually advantageous for both computational and storage requirements of the classifier.

  5. Advanced field-solver techniques for RC extraction of integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of ...

  6. EXTRACTING THE SIZE OF THE COSMIC ELECTRON-POSITRON ANOMALY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchettl, Katie; Balazs, Csaba [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2012-04-20

    We isolated the anomalous part of the cosmic electron-positron flux within a Bayesian likelihood analysis. Using 219 recent cosmic-ray spectral data points, we inferred the values of selected cosmic-ray propagation parameters. In the context of the propagation model coded in GalProp, we found a significant tension between the electron-positron related and the rest of the fluxes. Interpreting this tension as the presence of an anomalous component in the electron-positron related data, we calculated background predictions for PAMELA and Fermi-LAT based on the non-electron-positron related fluxes. We found a deviation between the data and the predicted background even when uncertainties, including systematics, were taken into account. We identified this deviation with the anomalous electron-positron contribution. We briefly compared this model-independent signal to some theoretical results predicting such an anomaly.

  7. Fabric phase sorptive extraction: Two practical sample pretreatment techniques for brominated flame retardants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guiqi; Dong, Sheying; Zhang, Mengfei; Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin

    2016-09-15

    Sample pretreatment is the critical section for residue monitoring of hazardous pollutants. In this paper, using the cellulose fabric as host matrix, three extraction sorbents such as poly (tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) (PDMDPS), were prepared on the surface of the cellulose fabric. Two practical extraction techniques including stir bar fabric phase sorptive extraction (stir bar-FPSE) and magnetic stir fabric phase sorptive extraction (magnetic stir-FPSE) have been designed, which allow stirring of fabric phase sorbent during the whole extraction process. In the meantime, three brominated flame retardants (BFRs) [tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bisallylether (TBBPA-BAE), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)ether (TBBPA-BDBPE)] in the water sample were selected as model analytes for the practical evaluation of the proposed two techniques using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, various experimental conditions affecting extraction process such as the type of fabric phase, extraction time, the amount of salt and elution conditions were also investigated. Due to the large sorbent loading capacity and unique stirring performance, both techniques possessed high extraction capability and fast extraction equilibrium. Under the optimized conditions, high recoveries (90-99%) and low limits of detection (LODs) (0.01-0.05 μg L(-1)) were achieved. In addition, the reproducibility was obtained by evaluating the intraday and interday precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5.1% and 6.8%, respectively. The results indicated that two pretreatment techniques were promising and practical for monitoring of hazardous pollutants in the water sample. Due to low solvent consumption and high repeated use performance, proposed techniques also could meet green analytical criteria.

  8. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power Electronics,"…

  9. Posterior Segment Intraocular Foreign Body: Extraction Surgical Techniques, Timing, and Indications for Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante A. Guevara-Villarreal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon.

  10. Coordinate space translation technique for simulation of electronic process in the ion-atom collision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hong, Xuhai; Wang, Jian; Kim, Kwang S

    2011-04-21

    Recently we developed a theoretical model of ion-atom collisions, which was made on the basis of a time-dependent density functional theory description of the electron dynamics and a classical treatment of the heavy particle motion. Taking advantage of the real-space grid method, we introduce a "coordinate space translation" technique to allow one to focus on a certain space of interest such as the region around the projectile or the target. Benchmark calculations are given for collisions between proton and oxygen over a wide range of impact energy. To extract the probability of charge transfer, the formulation of Lüdde and Dreizler [J. Phys. B 16, 3973 (1983)] has been generalized to ensemble-averaging application in the particular case of O((3)P). Charge transfer total cross sections are calculated, showing fairly good agreements between experimental data and present theoretical results.

  11. Negative-ion formation in the explosives RDX, PETN, and TNT using the Reversal Electron Attachment Detection (READ) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutijian, Ara; Boumsellek, S.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the search for high sensitivity and direct atmospheric sampling of trace species, techniques have been developed such as atmospheric-sampling, glow-discharge ionization (ASGDI), corona discharge, atmospheric pressure ionization (API), electron-capture detection (ECD), and negative-ion chemical ionization (NICI) that are capable of detecting parts-per-billion to parts-per-trillion concentrations of trace species. These techniques are based on positive- or negative-ion formation via charge-transfer to the target, or electron capture under multiple-collision conditions in a Maxwellian distribution of electron energies at the source temperature. One drawback of the high-pressure, corona- or glow-discharge devices is that they are susceptible to interferences either through indistinguishable product masses, or through undesired ion-molecule reactions. The ASGDI technique is relatively immune from such interferences, since at target concentrations of less than 1 ppm the majority of negative ions arises via electron capture rather than through ion-molecule chemistry. A drawback of the conventional ECD, and possibly of the ASGDI, is that they exhibit vanishingly small densities of electrons with energies in the range 0-10 millielectron volts (meV), as can be seen from a typical Maxwellian electron energy distribution function at T = 300 K. Slowing the electrons to these subthermal (less than 10 meV) energies is crucial, since the cross section for attachment of several large classes of molecules is known to increase to values larger than 10(exp -12) sq cm at near-zero electron energies. In the limit of zero energy these cross sections are predicted to diverge as epsilon(exp -1/2), where epsilon is the electron energy. In order to provide a better 'match' between the electron energy distribution function and attachment cross section, a new concept of attachment in an electrostatic mirror was developed. In this scheme, electrons are brought to a momentary halt by

  12. A 21st century technique for food control: Electronic noses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peris, Miguel, E-mail: mperist@qim.upv.es [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Escuder-Gilabert, Laura [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universitat de Valencia, C/Vicente Andres Estelles s/n, E-46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2009-04-06

    This work examines the main features of modern electronic noses (e-noses) and their most important applications in food control in this new century. The three components of an electronic nose (sample handling system, detection system, and data processing system) are described. Special attention is devoted to the promising mass spectrometry based e-noses, due to their advantages over the more classical gas sensors. Applications described include process monitoring, shelf-life investigation, freshness evaluation, authenticity assessment, as well as other general aspects of the utilization of electronic noses in food control. Finally, some interesting remarks concerning the strengths and weaknesses of electronic noses in food control are also mentioned.

  13. The Effect of Fragaria vesca Extract on Smear Layer Removal: A Scanning Electron Microscopic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Amin; Razavi, Sayed Alireza; Mosaddeghmehrjardi, Mohammad Hossein; Tabrizizadeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Successful endodontic treatment depends on elimination of the microorganisms through chemomechanical debridement. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry) extract (FVE) on the removal of smear layer (SL). Methods and Materials: In this analytical-observational study, 40 extracted mandibular and maxillary human teeth were selected. After canal preparation with standard step-back technique, the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigation solution: saline (negative control), 5.25% NaOCl+EDTA (positive control), FVE and FVE+EDTA. The teeth were split longitudinally so that scanning electron microscopy (SEM) photomicrographs could be taken to evaluate the amount of remnant SL in coronal, middle and apical thirds. The data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found among the groups (P<0.001). The use of NaOCl+EDTA was the most effective regimen for removing the SL followed by FVE+EDTA. FVE alone was significantly more effective than saline (P<0.001). Conclusion: FVE with and without EDTA could effectively remove the smear layer; however, compared to NaOCl group it was less effective. PMID:26526069

  14. Electron Acceleration In Impulsive Solar Flares : extract of a thesis

    CERN Document Server

    Lenters, G T

    1999-01-01

    Impulsive solar flares generate a wide range of photon and particle emissions and hence provide an excellent backyard laboratory for studying particle acceleration processes in astrophysical plasmas. The source of the acceleration remains unidentified, but the basic observations are clear: (1) Hard X-ray and gamma-ray line emission occur simultaneously, indicating that electron and ion acceleration must occur simultaneously; (2) the electron and ion precipitation rates at the foot-points of the flare must be extremely large to account for the photon emission (∼1037 electrons s −1 and ∼1035 protons s−1, respectively), which means that replenishment of the acceleration region (which contains ≈1037 fully ionized hydrogen atoms) is a crucial issue; and (3) there are enhancements of the heavy ion abundances relative to normal coronal values. The basic model proposed assumes the generation of extremely low levels of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turb...

  15. Automatic Titling of Electronic Documents with Noun Phrase Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    LOPEZ, Cédric; Prince, Violaine; Roche, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Automatic titling (i.e. providing titles) is one of key domains of Web site accessibility. This paper provides an approach allowing the automatic titling of texts (e.g. emails, fora, etc.) relying on the morphosyntactic study of human written titles in a corpus of various texts. The method is developed in four stages: Corpus acquisition, candidate sentences determination for titling, noun phrase extraction in the candidate sentences, and finally, selecting a particular...

  16. Automatic parameter extraction techniques in IC-CAP for a compact double gate MOSFET model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandy, Ghader; Gneiting, Thomas; Alius, Heidrun; Alvarado, Joaquín; Cerdeira, Antonio; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, automatic parameter extraction techniques of Agilent's IC-CAP modeling package are presented to extract our explicit compact model parameters. This model is developed based on a surface potential model and coded in Verilog-A. The model has been adapted to Trigate MOSFETs, includes short channel effects (SCEs) and allows accurate simulations of the device characteristics. The parameter extraction routines provide an effective way to extract the model parameters. The techniques minimize the discrepancy and error between the simulation results and the available experimental data for more accurate parameter values and reliable circuit simulation. Behavior of the second derivative of the drain current is also verified and proves to be accurate and continuous through the different operating regimes. The results show good agreement with measured transistor characteristics under different conditions and through all operating regimes.

  17. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power…

  18. Teaching Behavioral Modeling and Simulation Techniques for Power Electronics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of behavioral modeling of switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The methodology is oriented toward electrical engineering (EE) students at the undergraduate level, enrolled in courses such as "Power…

  19. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from fre...

  20. A feature extraction technique based on character geometry for character recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Dinesh Dileep

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a geometry based technique for feature extraction applicable to segmentation-based word recognition systems. The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character contour. This features are based on the basic line types that forms the character skeleton. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set, were then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked.

  1. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE, ultrasound (UE, agitation (AE, and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respectively. The combined-extractions: HHPE-UE and HHPE-AE, were carried out for 5 min and 15 min, respectively. The highest values found were total phenolic 129.1 mg GAE/100 g FW, antioxidant capacity by DPPH 20.6 mM TE/100 g FW, and voltammetry 141.0 mM TE/100 g FW for HHPE-UE method in free compound extraction. Regarding vitamin C content, its highest value was found by HHPE-UE (74 mg/100 g FW a combined extraction method. The phenolic compounds rutin and p-coumaric acid were found in all the extracts, both in free and bound forms, respectively. Besides, the combined techniques improved the extraction of bioactive compounds.

  2. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction and determination of antioxidants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Bajer, Tomáš; Ventura, Karel

    2014-04-01

    The following extraction techniques have been used for extracting antioxidants (apigenin, coumarin, esculetin, umbelliferone, bergapten, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin and xanthotoxin) from plant material: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonic extraction in ultrasonic bath, and by means of ultrasonic probe. The analytical method based on HPLC-UV detection for the determination of selected antioxidants was developed. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was also determined. Comparing all results the ultrasonic probe method using 0.75 g of sample extracted by 50 mL of acetonitrile in water (30%, v/v) for 25 min at room temperature and with amplitude at 60% (equal to 90 W) without pulsation was evaluated as the best tool. The most significant indicator demonstrating this statement is the antioxidant capacity expressed as gallic acid equivalent where the ultrasonic probe method showed the best results in 10 of 16 samples. Also the operability of ultrasonic probe extraction method compared to other tested methods is more favorable.

  3. Conceptual design of first toroidal electron cyclotron resonance ion source and modeling of ion extraction from it

    CERN Document Server

    Caliri, C; Volpe, F A

    2015-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRIS) progressed to higher and higher ion currents and charge states by adopting stronger magnetic fields (beneficial for confinement) and proportionally higher ECR frequencies. Further improvements would require the attainment of "triple products" of density, temperature and confinement time comparable with major fusion experiments. For this, we propose a new, toroidal rather than linear, ECRIS geometry, which would at the same time improve confinement and make better use of the magnetic field. Ion extraction is more complicated than from a linear device, but feasible, as our modelling suggests: single-particle tracings showed successful extraction by at least two techniques, making use respectively of a magnetic extractor and of ExB drifts. Additional techniques are briefly discussed.

  4. Automatic parameter extraction technique for gate leakage current modeling in double gate MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandy, Ghader; Gneiting, Thomas; Alius, Heidrun; Alvarado, Joaquín; Cerdeira, Antonio; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    Direct Tunneling (DT) and Trap Assisted Tunneling (TAT) gate leakage current parameters have been extracted and verified considering automatic parameter extraction approach. The industry standard package IC-CAP is used to extract our leakage current model parameters. The model is coded in Verilog-A and the comparison between the model and measured data allows to obtain the model parameter values and parameters correlations/relations. The model and parameter extraction techniques have been used to study the impact of parameters in the gate leakage current based on the extracted parameter values. It is shown that the gate leakage current depends on the interfacial barrier height more strongly than the barrier height of the dielectric layer. There is almost the same scenario with respect to the carrier effective masses into the interfacial layer and the dielectric layer. The comparison between the simulated results and available measured gate leakage current transistor characteristics of Trigate MOSFETs shows good agreement.

  5. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  6. Development of advanced electron holographic techniques and application to industrial materials and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Tanji, Takayoshi

    2013-06-01

    The development of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a field emission gun paved the way for electron holography to be put to practical use in various fields. In this paper, we review three advanced electron holography techniques: on-line real-time electron holography, three-dimensional (3D) tomographic holography and phase-shifting electron holography, which are becoming important techniques for materials science and device engineering. We also describe some applications of electron holography to the analysis of industrial materials and devices: GaAs compound semiconductors, solid oxide fuel cells and all-solid-state lithium ion batteries.

  7. [A technique for the vein extraction from the susceptibility weighted imaging of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Shi; Dou, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Jianrong; Huang, Xin; Qian, Lijun; Xu, Xiu

    2011-03-01

    This paper studies the vein extraction technique based on the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and introduced an improved self-adaptive threshold method based on the vessel enhancing diffusion. The approach employs the combination indicator of the local gray character, the global gray character and the tubular information of the vein. It first applies the vessel enhancing diffusion filter to enhance the continuity of the vein, increases the detection rate of tiny vein and suppresses the nucleus areas. And then it uses the improved self-adaptive threshold method to extract the vein. The results demonstrate that this approach can solve the problem above and extract the vein from the SWI image accurately.

  8. Applied feline oral anatomy and tooth extraction techniques: an illustrated guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Alexander M; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M

    2014-11-01

    Tooth extraction is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in small animal practice. The clinician must be familiar with normal oral anatomy, utilize nomenclature accepted in dentistry and oral surgery, use the modified Triadan system for numbering teeth, identify normal structures on a dental radiograph, understand the tissues that hold the teeth in the jaws, know the biomechanical principles of tooth extraction, be able to choose the most appropriate instrument for removal of a tooth, extract teeth using closed and open techniques, and create tension-free flaps for closure of extraction sites. This review is intended to familiarize both the general and referral practitioner with feline oral anatomy and tooth extraction techniques. Tooth extraction is predominantly performed in cats with tooth resorption, chronic gingivostomatitis and periodontal disease. The basic contents of a feline tooth extraction kit are explained. The guidance contained within this review is based on a combination of the published literature, the authors' personal experience and the experience of colleagues. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  9. A modified technique for extracting a dislocated lens with perfluorocarbon liquids and viscoelastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma-Weiszhausz, José; Franco-Cardenas, Valentina; Dalma, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a modified technique for extraction of a dislocated crystalline lens or large and hard lens fragments displaced into the vitreous cavity. An ophthalmic viscosurgical device was used around and on top of the heavy liquid bubble to keep the lens centered and less mobile for easier phacofragmentation or removal by the cutting-suction probe. This technique was used in 10 eyes, including cases of traumatic dislocation and Marfan syndrome, with excellent anatomical results and no complications that could be attributed to the surgical technique. The technique has also been used to retrieve and reposition dislocated intraocular lenses.

  10. A new seeded region growing technique for retinal blood vessels extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-07-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation.

  11. H- extraction from electron-cyclotron-resonance-driven multicusp volume source operated in pulsed mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svarnas, P.; Bacal, M.; Auvray, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2006-03-01

    H2 microwave (2.45GHz) pulsed plasma is produced from seven elementary electron cyclotron resonance sources installed into the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III" (École Polytechnique—Palaiseau) from which H- extraction takes place. The negative-ion and electron extracted currents are studied through electrical measurements and the plasma parameters by means of electrostatic probe under various experimental conditions. The role of the plasma electrode bias and the discharge duty cycle in the extraction process is emphasized. The gas breakdown at the beginning of every pulse gives rise to variations of the plasma characteristic parameters in comparison with those established at the later time of the pulse, where the electron temperature, the plasma potential, and the floating potential converge to the values obtained for a continuous plasma. The electron density is significantly enhanced in the pulsed mode.

  12. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Arain, Mohammad B. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A., E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan)

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As{sup 3+} and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As{sup 3+} was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As{sup 3+} and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As{sup 3+} and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40.

  13. Proposing the new Algorithm and Technique Development for Integrating Web Table Extraction and Building a Mashup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy A.G. Gultom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays, various types of data in web table can be easily extracted from the Internet, although not all of web tables are relevant to the users. As we may know, most web pages are in unstructured HTML format, making web table extraction process very time consuming and costly. HTML format only focuses on the presentation, not based on the database system. Therefore, users need a tool in dealing with that process. Approach: This research proposed an approach for implementing web table extraction and making a Mashup from HTML web pages using Xtractorz application. It is also discussed on how to collaborate and integrate a web table extraction process in the stage of building a Mashup, i.e., Data Retrieval, Data Source Modeling, Data Cleaning/ Filtering, Data Integration and Data Visualization. The main issue lies in stage of data modeling creation, in which Xtractorz must be able to automatically render Document Object Model (DOM tree in accordance to HTML tag or code of the web page from which the table is extracted. To overcome that, the Xtractorz is equipped with algorithm and rules so it can enable to specifically analyze the HTML tags and to extract the data into a new table format. The algorithm is created by using recursive technique within a user-friendly GUI of Xtractorz. Results: The approach was evaluated by conducting experiment using Xtractorz and other similar applications, such as RoboMaker and Karma. The result of experiment showed that Xtractorz is more efficient in completing the experiment tasks, since Xtractorz has fewer steps to complete the whole tasks. Conclusion: Xtractorz can give a positive contribution in terms of algorithm technique and a new approach method to web table extraction process and making a Mashup, where the core algorithm can extracts web data tables using recursive technique while rendering the DOM tree model automatically.

  14. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zara Ghodsi; Emmanuel Sirimal Silva; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  15. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  16. Prediction of PAH biodegradation in field contaminated soils using a cyclodextrin extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Apostolos; Paton, Graeme I; Reid, Brian J; Semple, Kirk T

    2007-06-01

    Biodegradation has been identified as a major loss process for organic contaminants in soils and, as a result, microbial strategies have been developed for the remediation of contaminated land. Prediction of the biodegradable fraction would be important for determining bioremediation end-points in the clean-up of contaminated land. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a cyclodextrin extraction to predict the extent to which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) would be degraded microbiologically in field contaminated soils; further testing the robustness and reproducibility of this extraction in chemically complex systems. Dichloromethane and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extractable fractions were measured together with the PAH biodegradable fraction in each of the six field contaminated soils. The amounts of PAHs degraded by the catabolic activity of the indigenous microflora in each of the soils were correlated with HPCD-extractable PAH concentrations. The regressions showed that the amounts of lower molecular weight PAHs extracted by the HPCD were not significantly (P > 0.05) different to the amounts that were degraded. However, higher molecular weight PAHs that were extracted by HPCD did differ significantly (P PAHs, overall the correlations between the HPCD extractable fraction and the microbially degradable fraction were very close, with mean values of the slope of line for the six soils equalling 1. This study further describes the robust and reproducible nature of the aqueous-based soil extraction technique reliably measuring the extent to which PAHs will be microbially degraded in soil.

  17. Information extraction and transmission techniques for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Yurovsky, L.; Watson, E.; Townsend, K.; Gardner, S.; Boberg, D.; Watson, J.; Minden, G. J.; Shanmugan, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Information extraction and transmission techniques for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery were investigated. Four interrelated problems were addressed. An optimal tonal SAR image classification algorithm was developed and evaluated. A data compression technique was developed for SAR imagery which is simple and provides a 5:1 compression with acceptable image quality. An optimal textural edge detector was developed. Several SAR image enhancement algorithms have been proposed. The effectiveness of each algorithm was compared quantitatively.

  18. Extraction and recovery technique for myxozoan parasites from the Piaractus mesopotamicus kidney embedded in paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Wilson G. [UNESP; Figueiredo,Mayra A P; Claudiano, Gustavo S.; Martins,Mauricio L.; Moraes, Flávio R.

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p263Tissues fixed and embedded in paraffin for histopathological studies keep their cell characteristics. There are several protocols for extracting genetic material from tissue embedded in paraffin, but there is no protocol for material aimed at the direct identification of parasites. The lack of techniques which describe the recovery of parasites from tissue embedded in paraffin has led us to test a technique for recovering myxosporean parasites ...

  19. Backscattered Electron Microscopy as an Advanced Technique in Petrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsley, David Henry; Manley, Curtis Robert

    1989-01-01

    Three uses of this method with sandstone, desert varnish, and granite weathering are described. Background information on this technique is provided. Advantages of this type of microscopy are stressed. (CW)

  20. Analog IC techniques for low-voltage low-power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdijn, W.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analog IC Techniques lor Low-Voltage Low Power Electronics addresses many very important, but recent, techniques which enable electronics to operate at a low supply voltage and consume a minimum amount of power. Apart from investigations at the device, circuit and system levels, the book provides a

  1. Analog IC techniques for low-voltage low-power electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serdijn, W.A.; Verhoeven, C.J.M.; Van Roermund, A.H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Analog IC Techniques lor Low-Voltage Low Power Electronics addresses many very important, but recent, techniques which enable electronics to operate at a low supply voltage and consume a minimum amount of power. Apart from investigations at the device, circuit and system levels, the book provides a

  2. Electronically steerable millimeter wave antenna techniques for space shuttle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummer, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    A large multi-function antenna aperture and related components are described which will perform electronic steering of one or more beams for two of the three applications envisioned: (1) communications, (2) radar, and (3) radiometry. The array consists of a 6-meter folded antenna that fits into two pallets. The communications frequencies are 20 and 30 GHz, while the radar is to operate at 13.9 GHz. Weight, prime power, and volumes are given parametrically; antenna designs, electronics configurations, and mechanical design were studied.

  3. Electronic structure determination using an assembly of conventional and synchrotron techniques: The case of a xanthate complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juncal, Luciana C.; Avila, José; Asensio, Maria Carmen; Della Védova, Carlos O.; Romano, Rosana M.

    2017-06-01

    The electronic properties of the coordination complex nickel (II) bis-n-propylxanthate, Ni(CH3(CH2)2OC(S)S)2, were studied by a combination of complementary experimental (both laboratory and synchrotron based techniques) and theoretical methods. Energy differences between HOMOs and LUMOs were determined from UV-visible spectroscopy. The assignment of the transitions were performed with the aid of TD-DFT calculations and based in symmetry considerations. The analysis of the Raman excitation profiles of selected vibrational modes of the complex, taken in resonance with a particular electronic transition, was found to reinforce the electronic assignment. Experimental binding energies of inner and core electrons were determined by PES measurements. Ni K-edge, S K-edge, Ni L-edge, O K-edge and C K-edge XANES spectra were interpreted in terms of the promotion of core electrons to unoccupied electronic levels. An experimental quantitative molecular orbital diagram was constructed using the information extracted from the different techniques.

  4. A novel technique using the Hendrickx centrifuge for extracting winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, J.G.N.; Berg, van den W.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Lamers, J.G.; Leeuwen, van G.C.M.; Hendrickx, G.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A zonal centrifugation method, known as the Hendrickx centrifuge technique, was tested for routine detection of winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum in soil. In four experiments the ability of the Hendrickx centrifuge to extract the sporangia from soil was compared with a method used by the

  5. Simultaneous electronic and lattice characterization using coupled femtosecond spectroscopic techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2009-09-01

    High-power electronics are central in the development of radar, solid-state lighting, and laser systems. Large powers, however, necessitate improved heat dissipation as heightened temperatures deleteriously affect both performance and reliability. Heat dissipation, in turn, is determined by the cascade of energy from the electronic to lattice system. Full characterization of the transport then requires analysis of each. In response, this four-month late start effort has developed a transient thermoreflectance (TTR) capability that probes the thermal response of electronic carriers with 100 fs resolution. Simultaneous characterization of the lattice carriers with this electronic assessment was then investigated by equipping the optical arrangement to acquire a Raman signal from radiation discarded during the TTR experiment. Initial results show only tentative acquisition of a Raman response at these timescales. Using simulations of the response, challenges responsible for these difficulties are then examined and indicate that with outlined refinements simultaneous acquisition of TTR/Raman signals remains attainable in the near term.

  6. Simultaneous electronic and lattice characterization using coupled femtosecond spectroscopic techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Hopkins, Patrick E

    2009-09-01

    High-power electronics are central in the development of radar, solid-state lighting, and laser systems. Large powers, however, necessitate improved heat dissipation as heightened temperatures deleteriously affect both performance and reliability. Heat dissipation, in turn, is determined by the cascade of energy from the electronic to lattice system. Full characterization of the transport then requires analysis of each. In response, this four-month late start effort has developed a transient thermoreflectance (TTR) capability that probes the thermal response of electronic carriers with 100 fs resolution. Simultaneous characterization of the lattice carriers with this electronic assessment was then investigated by equipping the optical arrangement to acquire a Raman signal from radiation discarded during the TTR experiment. Initial results show only tentative acquisition of a Raman response at these timescales. Using simulations of the response, challenges responsible for these difficulties are then examined and indicate that with outlined refinements simultaneous acquisition of TTR/Raman signals remains attainable in the near term.

  7. Percutaneous extraction of leads from coronary sinus vein and branch by modified techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xian-ming; GUO Ji-hong; LI Xue-bin; ZHANG Ping; WANG Long; LI Ding; LI Bing; AN Yi; LENG Min; DUAN Jiang-bo

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device and coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction are required due to the occurrence of systemic infection,malfunction,or upgrade.Relevant research of CS lead extraction is rare,especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools.We aimed to evaluate percutaneous extraction of CS leads by modified conventional techniques.Methods Of 200 patients referred for lead extraction from January 2007 to June 2011,24 (12.0%) involved CS leads (24 CS leads).We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics,optimized extraction techniques and feasibility of extraction.Results Complete procedural success was achieved in 23 patients (95.8%),and the clinical success in 24 patients (100.0%).The leading indication for CS lead extraction was infection (66.7%).Mean implant duration was (29.5±20.2)months (range,3-78 months).Sixteen CS leads (66.6%) were removed with locking stylets plus manual traction by superior transvenous approach.Mechanical dilatation and counter-traction was required to free fibrotic adhesions and extract 4 CS leads (16.7%),which had longer implant duration than other leads ((62.5±12.3) vs.(22.9±14.1) months,P<0.05).Another 4 CS (16.7%) leads were removed by modified and innovative snare techniques from femoral vein approach.Median extraction time was 11 minutes (range,3-61 minutes) per CS lead,which had significant correlation with implant duration (r =0.8,P <0.001).Sixteen patients (66.6%) were reimplanted with new devices at a median of 7.5days after extraction.Median followed-up was 23.5 months (range,8-61 months),three patients died due to sudden cardiac death (26 months),heart failure (45 and 57 months,respectively).Conclusion The modified procedure was proved to be practical for percutaneous extraction of CS leads,especially in developing countries lacking expensive powered sheaths.

  8. A tri-gram based feature extraction technique using linear probabilities of position specific scoring matrix for protein fold recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Kuldip K; Sharma, Alok; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah

    2014-03-01

    In biological sciences, the deciphering of a three dimensional structure of a protein sequence is considered to be an important and challenging task. The identification of protein folds from primary protein sequences is an intermediate step in discovering the three dimensional structure of a protein. This can be done by utilizing feature extraction technique to accurately extract all the relevant information followed by employing a suitable classifier to label an unknown protein. In the past, several feature extraction techniques have been developed but with limited recognition accuracy only. In this study, we have developed a feature extraction technique based on tri-grams computed directly from Position Specific Scoring Matrices. The effectiveness of the feature extraction technique has been shown on two benchmark datasets. The proposed technique exhibits up to 4.4% improvement in protein fold recognition accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques.

  9. Survey of Region-Based Text Extraction Techniques for Efficient Indexing of Image/Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samabia Tehsin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the dramatic increase in multimedia data, escalating trend of internet, and amplifying use of image/video capturing devices; content based indexing and text extraction is gaining more and more importance in research community. In the last decade, many techniques for text extraction are reported in the literature. Methodologies of text extraction from images/videos is generally comprises of text detection and localization, text tracking, text segmentation and optical character recognition (OCR. This paper intends to highlight the contributions and limitations of text detection, localization and tracking phases. The problem is exigent due to variations in the font styles, size and color, text orientations, animations and backgrounds. The paper can serve as the beacon-house for the novice researchers of the text extraction community.

  10. Performance Comparison between Different Feature Extraction Techniques with SVM Using Gurumukhi Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dangi,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represent the offline handwritten character recognition for Gurumukhi script. It is a major script of india. Many work has been done in many languages such as English , Chinese , Devanagri , Tamil etc. Gurumukhi is a script of Punjabi Language which is widely spoken across the globe. In this paper focus on better character recognition accuracy. The dataset include 7000 samples collected in different writing styles. These dataset divided in two set Training and Test. For Training set collect 5600 samples and 1400 as test set. The evaluated feature extraction include: Distance Profile, Diagonal feature and BDD(Background Direction Distribution. These features were classified by using SVM classifier. The Performance comparison have been made using one classifier with different feature extraction techniques. The experiment show that Diagonal feature extraction method has achieved highest recognition accuracy 95.39% than other features extraction method.

  11. Extraction techniques using isopropanol and Tenax to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioavailability in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xi; Ji, Fangying; Hu, Bibo

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium strain J1-q (Sphingomonas pseudosanguinis strain J1-q) was isolated from Yangtze River surface sediment in the downtown area of Chongqing in a previous study. Isopropanol and Tenax extraction techniques were used to characterize the bioavailability of target PAH compounds. Phenanthrene (Phe) and fluoranthene (Fluo) were the target PAHs due to their significant background concentrations in surface sediment samples. Isopropanol solutions at concentrations of 50-100% and residual Phe and Fluo concentrations in sediment were correlated, with R(2) values of 0.9846 and 0.9649, respectively. The quantities of the Phe and Fluo fractions extracted for 3days with isopropanol from sediment were closely related with the corresponding quantities of PAHs degraded by bacterial strain J1-q when the extracting concentrations were 55% and 80%, respectively. The quantity of Phe extracted by Tenax agreed with the total quantity biodegraded when the Tenax: sediment mass ratio was 0.25 and the target PAHs were degraded for 30d, whereas the extracted quantity of Fluo accounted for 93.30% of the total quantity biodegraded by the bacterium. The triphasic model was appropriate to simulate the consecutive Phe and Fluo extraction process using Tenax at various Tenax: sediment ratios, and all simulated correlation coefficients were >0.9151. A 24-h extraction period was adequate to estimate the rapidly desorbing fractions when they were extracted with Tenax. Isopropanol extraction was preferable to characterize Phe and Fluo bioavailability under the experimental conditions, whereas Tenax extraction was useful to predict bioavailability of the two target PAHs with particular selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparative Analysis of the 'Green' Techniques Applied for Polyphenols Extraction from Bioresources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2015-11-01

    From all the valuable biomass extractives, polyphenols are a widespread group of secondary metabolites found in all plants, representing the most desirable phytochemicals due to their potential to be used as additives in food industry, cosmetics, medicine, and others fields. At present, there is an increased interest to recover them from plant of spontaneous flora, cultivated plant, and wastes resulted in agricultural and food industry. That is why many efforts have been made to provide a highly sensitive, efficiently, and eco-friendly methods, for the extraction of polyphenols, according to the green chemistry and sustainable development concepts. Many extraction procedures are known with advantages and disadvantages. From these reasons, the aim of this article is to provide a comparative analysis regarding technical and economical aspects related to the most innovative extraction techniques studied in the last time: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  13. Microlens Array Laser Transverse Shaping Technique for Photoemission Electron Source

    CERN Document Server

    Halavanau, A; Qiang, G; Gai, W; Power, J; Piot, P; Wisniewski, E; Edstrom, D; Ruan, J; Santucci, J

    2016-01-01

    A common issue encountered in photoemission electron sources used in electron accelerators is distortion of the laser spot due to non ideal conditions at all stages of the amplification. Such a laser spot at the cathode may produce asymmetric charged beams that will result in degradation of the beam quality due to space charge at early stages of acceleration and fail to optimally utilize the cathode surface. In this note we study the possibility of using microlens arrays to dramatically improve the transverse uniformity of the drive laser pulse on UV photocathodes at both Fermilab Accelerator Science \\& Technology (FAST) facility and Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA). In particular, we discuss the experimental characterization of the homogeneity and periodic patterned formation at the photocathode. Finally, we compare the experimental results with the paraxial analysis, ray tracing and wavefront propagation software.

  14. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Nushrat Yeasmen; Md. Nazrul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone) and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC). The tested sample showed appreciabl...

  15. An Useful Information Extraction using Image Mining Techniques from Remotely Sensed Image (RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Jothi Venkateswaran,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Information extraction using mining techniques from remote sensing image (RSI is rapidly gaining attention among researchers and decision makers because of its potential in application oriented studies. Knowledge discovery from image poses many interesting challenges such as preprocessing the image data set, training the data and discovering useful image patterns applicable to many newapplication frontiers. In the image rich domain of RSI, image mining implies the synergy of data mining and image processing technology. Such culmination of techniques renders a valuable tool in information extraction. Also, this encompasses the problem of handling a larger data base of varied image data formats representing various levels ofinformation such as pixel, local and regional. In the present paper, various preprocessing corrections and techniques of image mining are discussed.

  16. Electron current extraction from radio frequency excited micro-dielectric barrier discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun-Chieh; Kushner, Mark J. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, 1301 Beal Ave., Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Leoni, Napoleon; Birecki, Henryk; Gila, Omer [Hewlett Packard Research Labs, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2013-01-21

    Micro dielectric barrier discharges (mDBDs) consist of micro-plasma devices (10-100 {mu}m diameter) in which the electrodes are fully or partially covered by dielectrics, and often operate at atmospheric pressure driven with radio frequency (rf) waveforms. In certain applications, it may be desirable to extract electron current out of the mDBD plasma, which necessitates a third electrode. As a result, the physical structure of the m-DBD and the electron emitting properties of its materials are important to its operation. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computer simulation of current extraction from mDBDs sustained in atmospheric pressure N{sub 2} will be discussed. The mDBDs are sandwich structures with an opening of tens-of-microns excited with rf voltage waveforms of up to 25 MHz. Following avalanche by electron impact ionization in the mDBD cavity, the plasma can be expelled from the cavity towards the extraction electrode during the part of the rf cycle when the extraction electrode appears anodic. The electron current extraction can be enhanced by biasing this electrode. The charge collection can be controlled by choice of rf frequency, rf driving voltage, and permittivity of the dielectric barrier.

  17. Handbook of multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance data and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Sushil K

    2014-01-01

    This handbook is aimed to deliver an up-to-date account of some of the recently developed experimental and theoretical methods in EPR, as well as a complete up-to-date listing of the experimentally determined values of multifrequency transition-ion spin Hamiltonian parameters by Sushil Misra, reported in the past 20 years, extending such a listing published by him in the Handbook on Electron Spin Resonance, volume 2. This extensive data tabulation makes up roughly 60% of the book`s content. It is complemented by the first full compilation of hyperfine splittings and g-factors for aminoxyl (nit

  18. Magnetic induction technique for mapping vertical conductive fractures: electronic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landt, J.A.; Koelle, A.R.; Trump, M.A.; Nickell, J.D. Jr.

    1978-09-01

    This report is the last in a series that describes the preliminary design of an instrument capable of mapping conductive fractures deep below the surface of the earth. Earlier reports dealt with theoretical analysis, the general status of the instrument development, and materials vendor searches. Here, attention is focused on the electronics design and prototype hardware to perform the mapping task. A phase-sensitive detector is described that has a sensitivity in the tens of nanovolts. Coil-switching circuitry is also described, as well as a downhole data link tailor-made for this particular instrument's needs.

  19. A 3D edge detection technique for surface extraction in computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Ontiveros, S.; Jiménez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors influence the measurement uncertainty when using computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications. One of the most critical steps is the surface extraction phase. An incorrect determination of the surface may significantly increase the measurement uncertainty. This paper...... presents an edge detection method for the surface extraction based on a 3D Canny algorithm with sub-voxel resolution. The advantages of this method are shown in comparison with the most commonly used technique nowadays, i.e. the local threshold definition. Both methods are applied to reference standards...

  20. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanimah; Simoh; Alizah; Zainal

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible phytochemical constituents of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.(C. aeruginosa) rhizome using two different techniques of direct solvent extraction. Methods: Two different techniques of direct solvent extractions, i.e. methyl tert-butyl ether(MTBE) extraction and two-phase methanol/chloroform(M/C) system, were used in this study. The analysis of the phytochemical constituents in MTBE and M/C extracts was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The mass spectra of the compounds was matched with the NIST 08 mass spectral library. Results: The present study revealed that the extraction using two-phase M/C have resulted in higher metabolite coverage compared to the extraction with MTBE. Direct solvent extraction using MTBE revealed the presence of 27 compounds; whereas, M/C allowed the extraction of 18 and 36 compounds in polar(methanol) and nonpolar(chloroform) fractions respectively. The major compounds detected in the MTBE extract that based on the peak area percentage were methenolone(16.64%), cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-(15.93%), labd-13-en-15-oic acid,8,12-epoxy-12-hydroxy-γ-lactone(10.77%), propiolic acid, 3-(1-hydroxy)-2 isopropyl-1,5-methylcyclohexyl)(7.84%), 4-oxo-β-isodamascol(5.17%), velleral(3.11%) and Z-α-farnesene(2.00%). The most prevailing major compounds identified in the polar fraction of the M/C extraction were α-D glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6 tetrakis-O-(TMS)(trimethylsilyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-(38.08%), d-glucose, 2,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(14.61%), D-fructose, 1,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(5.28%), isocitric acid(TMS)(3.06%), oxalic acid, bis(TMS) ester(2.96%), hexadecanoic acid, TMS ester(2.16%), citric acid, ethyl ester, tri-TMS(1.91%) and butanedioic acid, [(TMS) oxy]-, bis(TMS) ester(1.14%); whereas in the nonpolar extract, among the major compounds detected were cycloisolongifolene, 8, 9-dehydro-9-formyl(15

  1. Feature extraction and analysis of online reviews for the recommendation of books using opinion mining technique

    OpenAIRE

    Shahab Saquib Sohail; Jamshed Siddiqui; Rashid Ali

    2016-01-01

    The customer's review plays an important role in deciding the purchasing behaviour for online shopping as a customer prefers to get the opinion of other customers by observing their opinion through online products’ reviews, blogs and social networking sites, etc. The customer's reviews reflect the customer's sentiments and have a substantial significance for the products being sold online including electronic gadgets, movies, house hold appliances and books. Hence, extracting the exact featur...

  2. Extracting Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma from Electronic Medical Records for Genetic Association Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole A Restrepo

    Full Text Available Electronic medical records (EMRs are being widely implemented for use in genetic and genomic studies. As a phenotypic rich resource, EMRs provide researchers with the opportunity to identify disease cohorts and perform genotype-phenotype association studies. The Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE study, as part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE I study, has genotyped more than 15,000 individuals of diverse genetic ancestry in BioVU, the Vanderbilt University Medical Center's biorepository linked to a de-identified version of the EMR (EAGLE BioVU. Here we develop and deploy an algorithm utilizing data mining techniques to identify primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG in African Americans from EAGLE BioVU for genetic association studies. The algorithm described here was designed using a combination of diagnostic codes, current procedural terminology billing codes, and free text searches to identify POAG status in situations where gold-standard digital photography cannot be accessed. The case algorithm identified 267 potential POAG subjects but underperformed after manual review with a positive predictive value of 51.6% and an accuracy of 76.3%. The control algorithm identified controls with a negative predictive value of 98.3%. Although the case algorithm requires more downstream manual review for use in large-scale studies, it provides a basis by which to extract a specific clinical subtype of glaucoma from EMRs in the absence of digital photographs.

  3. Application on original two-hook technique in manual sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction under semireclining position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate two-hook technique in manual sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction under special position. METHODS: The clinical data of 25 patients(30 eyeswho were under semireclining position in manual small incision cataract surgery(ECCEin which the two-hook extraction technique was used, the related complications such as capsule rupture, corneal edema and visual acuity were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: No eyes experienced posterior capsule rupture, suspensory ligament transaction, vitreous prolapse during surgeries in 25 patients(30 eyes. Posterior chamber intraocular lens were implanted successfully, the visual acuity was improved with different extent. Transient corneal edema was noted in 1 eye and disappeared at 1wk postoperatively. Eighty-five percent have the visual acuity(≥0.5at 2mo postoperatively. CONCLUSION: The two-hook technique for nucleus extraction is safe and reliable, of high originality and can be applied in a wider range of indications other than normal cases. The technique is worthy of application in basic medical institutions.

  4. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  5. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  6. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L; Campbell, Kate M; Fox, Patricia M; Singer, David M; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E; Bargar, John R; Kent, Douglas B; Davis, James A

    2013-08-20

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  7. Optimization of polyphenols extraction from dried chokeberry using maceration as traditional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćujić, Nada; Šavikin, Katarina; Janković, Teodora; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Zdunić, Gordana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-03-01

    Traditional maceration method was used for the extraction of polyphenols from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) dried fruit, and the effects of several extraction parameters on the total phenolics and anthocyanins contents were studied. Various solvents, particle size, solid-solvent ratio and extraction time have been investigated as independent variables in two level factorial design. Among examined variables, time was not statistically important factor for the extraction of polyphenols. The optimal extraction conditions were maceration of 0.75mm size berries by 50% ethanol, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20, and predicted values were 27.7mgGAE/g for total phenolics and 0.27% for total anthocyanins. Under selected conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 27.8mgGAE/g, and total anthocyanins were 0.27%, which is in agreement with the predicted values. In addition, a complementary quantitative analysis of individual phenolic compounds was performed using HPLC method. The study indicated that maceration was effective and simple technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from chokeberry fruit.

  8. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

  9. An Electronic Engineering Curriculum Design Based on Concept-Mapping Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, S. L.; Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.; Duran, M. J.

    2007-01-01

    Curriculum design is a concern in European Universities as they face the forthcoming European Higher Education Area (EHEA). This process can be eased by the use of scientific tools such as Concept-Mapping Techniques (CMT) that extract and organize the most relevant information from experts' experience using statistics techniques, and helps a…

  10. A Novel Feature Extraction Approach Using Window Function Capturing and QPSO-SVM for Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhen Guo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel feature extraction approach which can be referred to as moving window function capturing (MWFC has been proposed to analyze signals of an electronic nose (E-nose used for detecting types of infectious pathogens in rat wounds. Meanwhile, a quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO algorithm is implemented in conjunction with support vector machine (SVM for realizing a synchronization optimization of the sensor array and SVM model parameters. The results prove the efficacy of the proposed method for E-nose feature extraction, which can lead to a higher classification accuracy rate compared to other established techniques. Meanwhile it is interesting to note that different classification results can be obtained by changing the types, widths or positions of windows. By selecting the optimum window function for the sensor response, the performance of an E-nose can be enhanced.

  11. A Novel Feature Extraction Approach Using Window Function Capturing and QPSO-SVM for Enhancing Electronic Nose Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiuzhen; Peng, Chao; Zhang, Songlin; Yan, Jia; Duan, Shukai; Wang, Lidan; Jia, Pengfei; Tian, Fengchun

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, a novel feature extraction approach which can be referred to as moving window function capturing (MWFC) has been proposed to analyze signals of an electronic nose (E-nose) used for detecting types of infectious pathogens in rat wounds. Meanwhile, a quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) algorithm is implemented in conjunction with support vector machine (SVM) for realizing a synchronization optimization of the sensor array and SVM model parameters. The results prove the efficacy of the proposed method for E-nose feature extraction, which can lead to a higher classification accuracy rate compared to other established techniques. Meanwhile it is interesting to note that different classification results can be obtained by changing the types, widths or positions of windows. By selecting the optimum window function for the sensor response, the performance of an E-nose can be enhanced.

  12. Overview of Alternative Bunching and Current-shaping Techniques for Low-Energy Electron Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piot, Philippe [Northern Illinois U.

    2015-12-01

    Techniques to bunch or shape an electron beam at low energies (E <15 MeV) have important implications toward the realization of table-top radiation sources [1] or to the design of compact multi-user free-electron lasers[2]. This paper provides an overview of alternative methods recently developed including techniques such as wakefield-based bunching, space-charge-driven microbunching via wave-breaking [3], ab-initio shaping of the electron-emission process [4], and phase space exchangers. Practical applications of some of these methods to foreseen free-electron-laser configurations are also briefly discussed [5].

  13. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique for halogenated organic pollutants in marine mammal blubber: a lipid-rich matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E M; Jia, M; Trumble, S J; Usenko, S

    2015-03-13

    Analytical methods for unique and rare samples, such as marine mammal tissue, strive to reduce opportunities for analyte loss and contamination. Historically, analytical methodologies for marine mammal tissues required an extraction followed by multiple cleanup and concentration steps. These steps increase the opportunity for analyte loss and sample contamination. Selective pressurized liquid extractions (SPLE; an analytical technique that combines PLE with in-cell adsorbent cleanup) have the potential to reduce and/or eliminate the number of steps. A SPLE method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from bowhead whale blubber. This SPLE utilized acidic silica with a fat-to-fat retainer ratio of 0.02 as well as eliminated post-extraction cleanup steps, such as size-exclusion chromatography step. In addition, neutral silica was placed beneath the acidic silica as an acid buffer, thereby preventing acid from contaminating the extraction system. Analysis was performed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ionization mode. PBDE, PCB and OCP triplicate recoveries averaged 84±1%, 83±3%, and 76±11%, respectively. Overall, measurements of NIST Whale Blubber SRM 1945 were within±30% of certified values. PBDEs were measured for the first time in bowhead whale blubber; average concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). Average OCPs and PCBs concentrations ranged from 0.4 to 37 ng g(-1)ww and 0.1 to 3.0 ng g(-1)ww, respectively, which were within one order of magnitude lower than those previously reported in bowhead whale blubber.

  14. Selective pressurized liquid extraction technique capable of analyzing dioxins, furans, and PCBs in clams and crab tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subedi, Bikram; Aguilar, Lissette; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W; Usenko, Sascha

    2014-04-01

    A selective pressurized liquid extraction technique (SPLE) was developed for the analysis of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (dl-PCBs) in clam and crab tissue. The SPLE incorporated multiple cleanup adsorbents (alumina, florisil, silica gel, celite, and carbopack) within the extraction cell. Tissue extracts were analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry. Mean recovery (n = 3) and percent relative standard deviation for PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in clam and crabs was 89 ± 2.3 and 85 ± 4.0, respectively. The SPLE method was applied to clams and crabs collected from the San Jacinto River Waste Pits, a Superfund site in Houston, TX. The dl-PCBs concentrations in clams and crabs ranged from 50 to 2,450 and 5 to 800 ng/g ww, respectively. Sample preparation time and solvents were reduced by 92 % and 65 %, respectively, as compared to USEPA method 1613.

  15. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Maryline Abert; Fernandez, Xavier; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2008-05-09

    A new process design and operation for the extraction of essential oils was developed. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is a combination of microwaves for hydrodiffusion of essential oils from the inside to the exterior of biological material and earth gravity to collect and separate. MHG is performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. MHG has been compared with a conventional technique, hydrodistillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from two aromatic herbs: spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) belonging to the Labiatae family. The essential oils extracted by MHG for 15 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 90 min. MHG also prevents pollution through potential 90% of energy saved which can lead to greenhouse gas emission benefits.

  16. Proboscidean DNA from museum and fossil specimens: an assessment of ancient DNA extraction and amplification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Golenberg, E M; Shoshani, J

    1997-06-01

    Applications of reliable DNA extraction and amplification techniques to postmortem samples are critical to ancient DNA research. Commonly used methods for isolating DNA from ancient material were tested and compared using both soft tissue and bones from fossil and contemporary museum proboscideans. DNAs isolated using three principal methods served as templates in subsequent PCR amplifications, and the PCR products were directly sequenced. Authentication of the ancient origin of obtained nucleotide sequences was established by demonstrating reproducibility under a blind testing system and by phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that ancient samples may respond differently to extraction buffers or purification procedures, and no single method was universally successful. A CTAB buffer method, modified from plant DNA extraction protocols, was found to have the highest success rate. Nested PCR was shown to be a reliable approach to amplify ancient DNA templates that failed in primary amplification.

  17. Improved Framework for Breast Cancer Detection using Hybrid Feature Extraction Technique and FFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohamed Jaber Alamin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer early detection using terminologies of image processing is suffered from the less accuracy performance in different automated medical tools. To improve the accuracy, still there are many research studies going on different phases such as segmentation, feature extraction, detection, and classification. The proposed framework is consisting of four main steps such as image preprocessing, image segmentation, feature extraction and finally classification. This paper presenting the hybrid and automated image processing based framework for breast cancer detection. For image preprocessing, both Laplacian and average filtering approach is used for smoothing and noise reduction if any. These operations are performed on 256 x 256 sized gray scale image. Output of preprocessing phase is used at efficient segmentation phase. Algorithm is separately designed for preprocessing step with goal of improving the accuracy. Segmentation method contributed for segmentation is nothing but the improved version of region growing technique. Thus breast image segmentation is done by using proposed modified region growing technique. The modified region growing technique overcoming the limitations of orientation as well as intensity. The next step we proposed is feature extraction, for this framework we have proposed to use combination of different types of features such as texture features, gradient features, 2D-DWT features with higher order statistics (HOS. Such hybrid feature set helps to improve the detection accuracy. For last phase, we proposed to use efficient feed forward neural network (FFNN. The comparative study between existing 2D-DWT feature extraction and proposed HOS-2D-DWT based feature extraction methods is proposed.

  18. A replica technique for extracting precipitates from neutron-irradiated or thermal-aged vanadium alloys for TEM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, K., E-mail: fukumoto@u-fukui.ac.jp; Iwasaki, M.

    2014-06-01

    A carbon replica technique has been developed to extract precipitates from vanadium alloys. Using this technique, precipitation phases can be extracted from neutron-irradiated or thermal-aged V–4Cr–4Ti alloys. Precipitate identification using EDS X-ray analysis and electron diffraction was facilitated. Only NaCl type of Ti(OCN) precipitate was formed in the thermal-aged V–4Cr–4Ti alloys at 600 °C for 20 h and cation sub-lattice was only occupied by Ti atoms. However, the thin plate of precipitates with NaCl type of crystallographic structure could be seen in the V–4Cr–4Ti alloys irradiated at 593 °C in the JOYO fast reactor. The precipitate contained chromium and vanadium atoms on the cation sub-lattice as well as titanium atoms. It is considered that the phase of MX type (M = Ti, V, Cr and X = O, N, C) is a metastable phase under neutron irradiation.

  19. A replica technique for extracting precipitates from neutron-irradiated or thermal-aged vanadium alloys for TEM analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, K.; Iwasaki, M.

    2014-06-01

    A carbon replica technique has been developed to extract precipitates from vanadium alloys. Using this technique, precipitation phases can be extracted from neutron-irradiated or thermal-aged V-4Cr-4Ti alloys. Precipitate identification using EDS X-ray analysis and electron diffraction was facilitated. Only NaCl type of Ti(OCN) precipitate was formed in the thermal-aged V-4Cr-4Ti alloys at 600 °C for 20 h and cation sub-lattice was only occupied by Ti atoms. However, the thin plate of precipitates with NaCl type of crystallographic structure could be seen in the V-4Cr-4Ti alloys irradiated at 593 °C in the JOYO fast reactor. The precipitate contained chromium and vanadium atoms on the cation sub-lattice as well as titanium atoms. It is considered that the phase of MX type (M = Ti, V, Cr and X = O, N, C) is a metastable phase under neutron irradiation.

  20. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palit, Mousumi [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Central Calcutta Polytechnic, Kolkata 700014 (India); Tudu, Bipan, E-mail: bt@iee.jusl.ac.in [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Bhattacharyya, Nabarun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Jana, Arun [Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Kolkata 700091 (India); Bandyopadhyay, Rajib [Department of Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700098 (India); Chatterjee, Anutosh [Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Heritage Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700107 (India)

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  1. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-08-18

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  2. A comparison of techniques for extracting emissivity information from thermal infrared data for geologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon J.; Gabell, A. R.; Green, A. A.; Kealy, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    This article evaluates three techniques developed to extract emissivity information from multispectral thermal infrared data. The techniques are the assumed Channel 6 emittance model, thermal log residuals, and alpha residuals. These techniques were applied to calibrated, atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data acquired over Cuprite, Nevada in September 1990. Results indicate that the two new techniques (thermal log residuals and alpha residuals) provide two distinct advantages over the assumed Channel 6 emittance model. First, they permit emissivity information to be derived from all six TIMS channels. The assumed Channel 6 emittance model only permits emissivity values to be derived from five of the six TIMS channels. Second, both techniques are less susceptible to noise than the assumed Channel 6 emittance model. The disadvantage of both techniques is that laboratory data must be converted to thermal log residuals or alpha residuals to facilitate comparison with similarly processed image data. An additional advantage of the alpha residual technique is that the processed data are scene-independent unlike those obtained with the other techniques.

  3. The improvement of phycocyanin stability extracted from Spirulina sp using extrusion encapsulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, Meiny; Hadiyanto, Sutanto, Heri; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Majid, Dian; Setyawan, Deny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    The stability of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae Spirulina has been evaluated and it showed that the stability of this antioxidant was affected by temperature and pH changes. The encapsulation technique was of the alternatives to overcome this stability changes. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of coating materials (alginate and chitosan) during encapsulation by using extrusion technique. The experiments were conducted with variation of alginate as coating materials. The size of each microcapsules was evaluated by using SEM/XRD for its size and homogeneity.

  4. Bunching of an Intense Electron-Beam Extracted from a Triode Gun Modulated at 1 Ghz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geer, C. A. J.; Bakker, R. J.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Gillespie, W. A.; Saxon, G.

    1991-01-01

    We present measurements of the bunch length and emittance of a high-current electron beam, which is extracted from a triode modulated at 1 GHz and subsequently compressed by means of velocity modulation in a prebuncher cavity. The prebuncher is detuned by about 1 MHz in order to ensure that the tota

  5. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr; Huwart, Laurent, E-mail: huwart.laurent@wanadoo.fr [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Radiology (France)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  6. Carbon Nanotubes Application in the Extraction Techniques of Pesticides: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubus, Aleksandra; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2017-01-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently one of the most promising groups of materials with some interesting properties, such as lightness, rigidity, high surface area, high mechanical strength in tension, good thermal conductivity or resistance to mechanical damage. These unique properties make CNTs a competitive alternative to conventional sorbents used in analytical chemistry, especially in extraction techniques. The amount of work that discusses the usefulness of CNTs as a sorbent in a variety of extraction techniques has increased significantly in recent years. In this review article, the most important feature and different applications of solid-phase extraction (SPE), including, classical SPE and dispersive SPE using CNTs for pesticides isolation from different matrices, are summarized. Because of high number of articles concerning the applicability of carbon materials to extraction of pesticides, the main aim of proposed publication is to provide updated review of the latest uses of CNTs by covering the period 2006-2015. Moreover, in this review, the recent papers and this one, which are covered in previous reviews, will be addressed and particular attention has been paid on the division of publications in terms of classes of pesticides, in order to systematize the available literature reports.

  7. An Useful Information Extraction using Image Mining Techniques from Remotely Sensed Image (RSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. C. Jothi Venkateswaran,; Murugan, S.; Dr. N. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Information extraction using mining techniques from remote sensing image (RSI) is rapidly gaining attention among researchers and decision makers because of its potential in application oriented studies. Knowledge discovery from image poses many interesting challenges such as preprocessing the image data set, training the data and discovering useful image patterns applicable to many newapplication frontiers. In the image rich domain of RSI, image mining implies the synergy of data mining and ...

  8. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE AND COMBINATION FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CERVICAL CANCER LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pradeep Kumar Kenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer affecting women especially in third world countries. The predominant reason for such alarming rate of death is primarily due to lack of awareness and proper health care. As they say, prevention is better than cure, a better strategy has to be put in place to screen a large number of women so that an early diagnosis can help in saving their lives. One such strategy is to implement an automated system. For an automated system to function properly a proper set of features have to be extracted so that the cancer cell can be detected efficiently. In this paper we compare the performances of detecting a cancer cell using a single feature versus a combination feature set technique to see which will suit the automated system in terms of higher detection rate. For this each cell is segmented using multiscale morphological watershed segmentation technique and a series of features are extracted. This process is performed on 967 images and the data extracted is subjected to data mining techniques to determine which feature is best for which stage of cancer. The results thus obtained clearly show a higher percentage of success for combination feature set with 100% accurate detection rate.

  9. A Novel Technique for Shape Feature Extraction Using Content Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoa Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology and multimedia information, digital images are increasing very quickly. Various techniques are being developed to retrieve/search digital information or data contained in the image. Traditional Text Based Image Retrieval System is not plentiful. Since it is time consuming as it require manual image annotation. Also, the image annotation differs with different peoples. An alternate to this is Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR system. It retrieves/search for image using its contents rather the text, keywords etc. A lot of exploration has been compassed in the range of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR with various feature extraction techniques. Shape is a significant image feature as it reflects the human perception. Moreover, Shape is quite simple to use by the user to define object in an image as compared to other features such as Color, texture etc. Over and above, if applied alone, no descriptor will give fruitful results. Further, by combining it with an improved classifier, one can use the positive features of both the descriptor and classifier. So, a tryout will be made to establish an algorithm for accurate feature (Shape extraction in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. The main objectives of this project are: (a To propose an algorithm for shape feature extraction using CBIR, (b To evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm and (c To compare the proposed algorithm with state of art techniques.

  10. Extraction of the spatial distribution of electron temperature and density in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion implosion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kyle; Mancini, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    We are testing polychromatic tomography to extract the spatial distribution of electron temperatures and densities in the cylindrical implosion plasmas created during MagLIF. Motivation for this technique stems from its successful application to spherical implosion core plasmas on Omega through the analysis of spatially resolved spectra (SRS) collected via pinhole imaging. In MagLIF, collections of SRS can be extracted from the images created by the slit imaging CRITR spectrometers. These spectra can be complemented with pinhole monochromatic images and spectra recorded with a spherical crystal spectrometer. One axially resolved and one radially resolved CRITR are field during MagLIF and information extracted from one of these SRS would be spatially integrated over a plane of finite thickness given by the spatial resolution of the instrument. In our method, we couple a model that creates synthetic sets of spectra, like those obtained from an experiment, with a Pareto genetic algorithm which searches in parameter space for the spatial distribution which best simultaneously and self-consistently fits the set of SRS/ Solutions obtained are used as the initial solution for a Levenberg-Marquadt minimization algorithm to provide a final ``fine-tuned'' solution. We are testing this method by creating synthetic ``experimental'' data and using the technique to search for the spatial distribution. The results of these feasibility studies will be discussed. The work is supported by a contract from Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. Water as a green solvent combined with different techniques for extraction of essential oil from lavender flowers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD),...

  12. Development of an eco-friendly agar extraction technique from the red seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Yu, Xingju; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yuanling

    2008-05-01

    The red seaweed, Gracilaria lemaneiformis growing as an aquaculture bioremediator along the coasts of Liaodong Peninsula, China, was investigated for the agar production. An eco-friendly method called agar photobleaching extraction process was developed for the benefit of workers' health and safety of the environment. The native agar (NA), alkali-modified agar (AA), chemical-bleached agar (CA) and photobleached agar (PA), which were extracted using different processes, were evaluated for their physical and chemical properties. The PA showed most desirable performances in terms of gel strength, gelling temperature, sulfate content and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose content. Among the different processed agars, PA gel strength was 1913 g/cm2, the highest among the different processed agars, which increased 8.6% on the basis of the AA. Further we applied this new technique to extract agars from Gracilaria asiatica, and similar results were obtained with that of G. lemaneiformis. This indicates that the agar photobleaching extraction process is a feasible method for Gracilaria species and has a potential application. During the whole agar photobleaching extraction process the pigment content of G. lemaneiformis declined gradually and the TOC concentration in photobleaching solution increased along with the increase in the irradiation time. The mechanism of agar photobleaching could be elucidated by the photolysis theory.

  13. Extraction by solvent using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques followed by HPLC analysis of Harpagoside from Harpagophytum procumbens and comparison with conventional solvent extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Filly, Aurore; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Mabrouki, Fathi; Chemat, Farid; Ollivier, Évelyne

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents a quick and ecofriendly technique for the extraction of harpagoside (HS), the active marker of Harpagophytum procumbens (HP), along with a comparison with conventional methods so as to propose an efficient HPLC method. HP is widely used as an anti-inflammatory in phytotherapy. The quality control of the herbal drug and extract calls for a time consuming method of conventional extraction, which involves a high consumption of solvents. In this study, HP has been ...

  14. Comparison of Conventional and Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Techniques on Mass Fraction of Phenolic Compounds from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An innovative ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is the rapid non-thermal extraction technique, which in comparison to conventional extraction (CE), offers high reproducibility in a short time with simplified manipulation, reduced solvent consumption and lower energy. Optimization of ultrasonic conditions was conducted for devices with nominal output power of 100 and 400 W, including the influence of geometrical parameters of probes regarding ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results show...

  15. Optimization of the skin total irradiation technique with electrons; Optimizacion de la tecnica de irradiacion cutanea total con electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reggio, F. [Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas (Venezuela). Escuela de Fisica; Davila, J. [Instituto Medico La Floresta, Caracas (Venezuela). Unidad de Radioterapia Oncologica GURVE

    2004-07-01

    The Total Skin Electron Irradiation (TSEI) is one of the special techniques of radiotherapy, and it allows achieving an effective Mycosis Fungoides (MF) control. The general objective of this research was to reduce the dose variations on patients surface with MF treated with the TSEI used in La Floresta Medical Institute Radiation Unit, Caracas, Venezuela. The first step was a dosimetry evaluation of the initial technique. According with these results, we proposed several modifications, which produced a great improvement about dose uniformity on the patients skin, and at the same time simplify the initial technique. (author)

  16. Herramientas y tecnicas para corregir composiciones electronicamente (Tools and Techniques for Correcting Compositions Electronically).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Although most teachers use word processors and electronic mail on a daily basis, they still depend on paper and pencil for correcting their students' compositions. This article suggests some tools and techniques for submitting, editing, and returning written work electronically. (BD) (Author/VWL)

  17. Herramientas y tecnicas para corregir composiciones electronicamente (Tools and Techniques for Correcting Compositions Electronically).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Mark D.

    2001-01-01

    Although most teachers use word processors and electronic mail on a daily basis, they still depend on paper and pencil for correcting their students' compositions. This article suggests some tools and techniques for submitting, editing, and returning written work electronically. (BD) (Author/VWL)

  18. Empirical laws of particle extraction from single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudin, S. V. [Department of Physics and Technology, V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kurchatova Ave. 31, 61108 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Rafalskyi, D. V. [Scientific Center of Physical Technologies, Svobody sq. 6, 61022 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2012-11-15

    The present research is devoted to the problem of extraction grid choice for a single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow. The paper contains detailed reference information on ion and electron extraction characteristics of 10 different grids with broad range of parameters: aperture width (0.09-0.6 mm), grid transparency (0.19-0.51), thickness (0.036-0.5 mm), and with different aperture geometry. The grids with square, circular, and slit apertures were made with different technologies: laser cutting, welding, weaving, and electrolytic erosion. The general regularities of the ion and electron extraction from the single-grid source are experimentally researched for the cases of dc and RF extraction grid biasing. A conclusion has been made that the maximum extracted ion current at low ion energy (0-200 eV) does not significantly vary for all the grids and does not exceed half of the primary ion current from plasma multiplied by the optical grid transparency. The low-energy limit of efficient ion extraction has been discovered which cannot be overcome by the aperture narrowing. A conclusion is made that the RF extraction mode is superior for all the researched grids since it is characterized by higher extracted ion current at any acceleration voltage for any grid with much more simple and smooth extraction curves behavior in comparison to the dc case as well as absence of arcing, jumps, and hysteresis of the measured curves at any RF voltages. The unique ability of the RF biased single-grid source of simultaneous ion/electron emission has been studied. The measured maximal attainable ion beam current compensation ratio is always sufficiently higher than 1 and typically varies in the range 2-6. The results obtained in the present paper demonstrate prospective of the single-grid source in space thruster applications and in modern technologies, particularly for ion beam processing of wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as GaN and SiC transistors due to inherent

  19. Calcium chloride electron injection/extraction layers in organic electronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gao, Zhi; Yang, Hongsheng; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian; Gong, Qihuang, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-01-27

    Nontoxic calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) was introduced into organic electronic devices as cathode buffer layer (CBL). The turn-on voltage and maximum luminance of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) with 1.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} was 3.5 V and 21 960 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. OLED with 1.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} possessed comparable electroluminescent characteristics to that of the commonly used LiF. Moreover, the performance of the organic photovoltaic device with 0.5 nm CaCl{sub 2} was comparable to that of the control device with LiF. Therefore, CaCl{sub 2} has the potential to be used as the CBL for organic electronic devices.

  20. Trend of Control Technique of Power Electronic Equipments for Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Noriyuki; Nakajima, Tatsuhito; Gibo, Naoki

    This paper aims to introduce recent topics about the control technique of power electronic equipments for power system. the control technique is explained from the view points of the power system control, the local system control and the converter control. The installation of STATCOM in Japan and UPFC in Korea are mentioned as the examples.

  1. A novel technique for extracting clouds base height using ground based imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The height of a cloud in the atmospheric column is a key parameter in its characterization. Several remote sensing techniques (passive and active, either ground-based or on space-borne platforms and in-situ measurements are routinely used in order to estimate top and base heights of clouds. In this article we present a novel method that combines thermal imaging from the ground and sounded wind profile in order to derive the cloud base height. This method is independent of cloud types, making it efficient for both low boundary layer and high clouds. In addition, using thermal imaging ensures extraction of clouds' features during daytime as well as at nighttime. The proposed technique was validated by comparison to active sounding by ceilometers (which is a standard ground based method, to lifted condensation level (LCL calculations, and to MODIS products obtained from space. As all passive remote sensing techniques, the proposed method extracts only the height of the lowest cloud layer, thus upper cloud layers are not detected. Nevertheless, the information derived from this method can be complementary to space-borne cloud top measurements when deep-convective clouds are present. Unlike techniques such as LCL, this method is not limited to boundary layer clouds, and can extract the cloud base height at any level, as long as sufficient thermal contrast exists between the radiative temperatures of the cloud and its surrounding air parcel. Another advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity and modest power needs, making it particularly suitable for field measurements and deployment at remote locations. Our method can be further simplified for use with visible CCD or CMOS camera (although nighttime clouds will not be observed.

  2. Robust breathing signal extraction from cone beam CT projections based on adaptive and global optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Wei, Jie; Li, Tianfang; Yuan, Yading; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of extracting respiratory signals from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections within the framework of the Amsterdam Shroud (AS) technique. Acquired prior to the radiotherapy treatment, CBCT projections were preprocessed for contrast enhancement by converting the original intensity images to attenuation images with which the AS image was created. An adaptive robust z-normalization filtering was applied to further augment the weak oscillating structures locally. From the enhanced AS image, the respiratory signal was extracted using a two-step optimization approach to effectively reveal the large-scale regularity of the breathing signals. CBCT projection images from five patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on the Clinac iX System Linear Accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were employed to assess the proposed technique. Stable breathing signals can be reliably extracted using the proposed algorithm. Reference waveforms obtained using an air bellows belt (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH) were exported and compared to those with the AS based signals. The average errors for the enrolled patients between the estimated breath per minute (bpm) and the reference waveform bpm can be as low as  -0.07 with the standard deviation 1.58. The new algorithm outperformed the original AS technique for all patients by 8.5% to 30%. The impact of gantry rotation on the breathing signal was assessed with data acquired with a Quasar phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc., London, Canada) and found to be minimal on the signal frequency. The new technique developed in this work will provide a practical solution to rendering markerless breathing signal using the CBCT projections for thoracic and abdominal patients.

  3. A feasibility study of H{sup -} beam extraction technique using YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yujiro; Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Aoki, Nobutada [Toshiba Power System Co., Ltd. (Japan); Nakagawa, Satoshi [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint project of high intensity proton accelerator, as for research and develop of the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation of the long lived radioactive nuclide, it is planed to built the Transmutation Physics Experiment Facility (TEF-P) and the Transmutation Engineering Experiment Facility (TEF-E). The TEF-P is used for the experiments for subcritical system coupled with a spallation neutron target bombarded with 600-MeV proton beam accelerated by the LINAC. To limit the maximum thermal power less than 500 W at the TEF-P, an incident beam power should be less than 10 W. On the contrary, at the TEF-E, high power beam of 200 kW is requested. Both high and low power beams are demanded for the transmutation facilities. It is difficult to deliver a low power beam to the TEF-P. Conventional beam extraction technique with a thin foil, is not desirable because the scattering of the beam at the foil requires the massive shield. Therefore, we study a new technique to extract a small portion of the beam precisely from the high intensity beam by using a laser beam. By a laser beam, H{sup -} in the beam from LINAC is partially changed to H{sup 0} beam so that a low current H{sup 0} beam can be obtained. As the cross section of the charge exchange reaction for H{sup -} ions has a peak around at a wave length of 1 {mu}m for photons, YAG laser is suitable for this charge exchange because of its 1.06 {mu}m wave length. It is derived that 10 W beam for 600-MeV proton can be extracted by the YAG laser with power of 2 J for each pulse of 25 Hz. By this technique, the pulse width for the extracted beam can be controlled by changing the time width of laser irradiation. When a charge exchanger having the beam collide point existing in straight section, a background beam current of projectile, however, will be increased due to the interaction with the residual gas in the beam duct. Thus, a charge exchanger is devised having the beam collide point in a

  4. Evaluation of growth conditions and DNA extraction techniques used in the molecular analysis of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, S; Nowakiewicz, A; Ziółkowska, G; Trościańczyk, A; Majer-Dziedzic, B; Zięba, P

    2017-05-01

    Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (4, 7 and 10 days) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium. The highest DNA concentrations were obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. The concentration of DNA extracted with the CTAB method accounted for 62·21%, for kits it corresponded from 35·53 to 15·41%. The analysis of the DNA weight yield revealed the highest isolation efficiency of the phenol-chloroform method, 1 mg of mycelium yielded 223·8 μg DNA. Lower DNA yield (by 39·32%) was obtained with the CTAB method; in the case of kits by 68·46-85·32%. In most of the techniques, the DNA yield on the solid medium was higher. In summary, the highest DNA yield was noted in the 7-day cultures and extraction with the phenol-chloroform method. Importantly, the type of culture was not relevant for the diagnostic result. Most mycoses are caused by fungi that reside in nature. The severity of the infection depends on the pathogenic attributes, socioeconomic factors and local environmental conditions. Recent diagnosis increasingly relies on not only the clinical features. Molecular identifications have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. Usually two factors have to be considered: maximize the DNA yield and ensure that the extracted DNA is susceptible to enzymatic reactions. These data suggest that phenol-chloroform methods and a 7-day culture period may be useful for validation and constitute the first step of molecular diagnosis of dermatophytes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Superelasticity of Cu-Ni-Al shape-memory fibers prepared by melt extraction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-yue Li; Shu-ling Zhang; Wei-bing Liao; Gui-hong Geng; Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, a melt extraction method was used to fabricate Cu–4Ni–14Al (wt%) fiber materials with diameters between 50 and 200 μm. The fibers exhibited superelasticity and temperature-induced martensitic transformation. The microstructures and superelasticity behavior of the fibers were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Ap-propriate heat treatment further improves the plasticity of Cu-based alloys. The serration behavior observed during the loading process is due to the multiple martensite phase transformation.

  6. Superelasticity of Cu-Ni-Al shape-memory fibers prepared by melt extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-yue; Zhang, Shu-ling; Liao, Wei-bing; Geng, Gui-hong; Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    In the paper, a melt extraction method was used to fabricate Cu-4Ni-14Al (wt%) fiber materials with diameters between 50 and 200 μm. The fibers exhibited superelasticity and temperature-induced martensitic transformation. The microstructures and superelasticity behavior of the fibers were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Appropriate heat treatment further improves the plasticity of Cu-based alloys. The serration behavior observed during the loading process is due to the multiple martensite phase transformation.

  7. Scanning Electron Microscopic study of Piper betle L. leaves extract effect against Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubaidah Haji Abdul Rahim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that Piper betle L. leaves extract inhibits the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to glass surface, suggesting its potential role in controlling dental plaque development. OBJECTIVES: In this study, the effect of the Piper betle L. extract towards S. mutans (with/without sucrose using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and on partially purifed cell-associated glucosyltransferase activity were determined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: S. mutans were allowed to adhere to glass beads suspended in 6 different Brain Heart Infusion broths [without sucrose; with sucrose; without sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1; with sucrose containing the extract (2 mg mL-1 and 4 mg mL-1]. Positive control was 0.12% chlorhexidine. The glass beads were later processed for SEM viewing. Cell surface area and appearance and, cell population of S. mutans adhering to the glass beads were determined upon viewing using the SEM. The glucosyltransferase activity (with/without extract was also determined. One- and two-way ANOVA were used accordingly. RESULTS: It was found that sucrose increased adherence and cell surface area of S. mutans (p<0.001. S. mutans adhering to 100 µm² glass surfaces (with/without sucrose exhibited reduced cell surface area, fuffy extracellular appearance and cell population in the presence of the Piper betle L. leaves extract. It was also found that the extract inhibited glucosyltransferase activity and its inhibition at 2.5 mg mL-1 corresponded to that of 0.12% chlorhexidine. At 4 mg mL-1 of the extract, the glucosyltransferase activity was undetectable and despite that, bacterial cells still demonstrated adherence capacity. CONCLUSION: The SEM analysis confrmed the inhibitory effects of the Piper betle L. leaves extract towards cell adherence, cell growth and extracellular polysaccharide formation of S. mutans visually. In bacterial cell adherence, other factors besides glucosyltransferase are

  8. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  9. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Claire M., E-mail: claire.thompson@anu.edu.au; Ellwood, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ellwood@anu.edu.au; Wille, Martin, E-mail: martin.wille@uni-tuebingen.de

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new sample preparation method for seawater copper isotopic analysis (δ{sup 65}Cu). •Solvent-extraction was used to pre-concentrate metals from seawater samples. •Anion-exchange was used to purify copper from the metal-rich extract. •δ{sup 65}Cu was measured in the north Tasman Sea. •Seawater δ{sup 65}Cu may be linked to marine biological activity. -- Abstract: Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater.

  10. Feasibility of Automatic Extraction of Electronic Health Data to Evaluate a Status Epilepticus Clinical Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, Baria; Paolicchi, Juliann; Pon, Steven; Howell, Joy D; Grinspan, Zachary M

    2016-05-01

    Status epilepticus is a common neurologic emergency in children. Pediatric medical centers often develop protocols to standardize care. Widespread adoption of electronic health records by hospitals affords the opportunity for clinicians to rapidly, and electronically evaluate protocol adherence. We reviewed the clinical data of a small sample of 7 children with status epilepticus, in order to (1) qualitatively determine the feasibility of automated data extraction and (2) demonstrate a timeline-style visualization of each patient's first 24 hours of care. Qualitatively, our observations indicate that most clinical data are well labeled in structured fields within the electronic health record, though some important information, particularly electroencephalography (EEG) data, may require manual abstraction. We conclude that a visualization that clarifies a patient's clinical course can be automatically created using the patient's electronic clinical data, supplemented with some manually abstracted data. Future work could use this timeline to evaluate adherence to status epilepticus clinical protocols.

  11. Fluorous-assisted metal chelate affinity extraction technique for analysis of protein kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Tadashi; Kiyokawa, Ena; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Imakyure, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a fluorous affinity-based extraction method for measurement of protein kinase activity. In this method, a fluorescent peptide substrate was phosphorylated by a protein kinase, and the obtained phosphopeptide was selectively captured with Fe(III)-immobilized perfluoroalkyliminodiacetic acid reagent via a metal chelate affinity technique. Next, the captured phosphopeptide was selectively extracted into a fluorous solvent mixture, tetradecafluorohexane and 1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluoro-1-n-octanol (3:1, v/v), using the specificity of fluorous affinity (fluorophilicity). In contrast, the remained substrate peptide in the aqueous (non-fluorous) phase was easily measured fluorimetrically. Finally, the enzyme activity could be assayed by measuring the decrease in fluorescence. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by applying the method for measurement of the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) using its substrate peptide (kemptide) pre-labeled with carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA).

  12. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-03-04

    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  13. Herbal Extract Incorporated Nanofiber Fabricated by an Electrospinning Technique and its Application to Antimicrobial Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongan; Yang, Byeong Joon; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-18

    Recently, with the increased attention to indoor air quality, antimicrobial air filtration techniques have been studied widely to inactivate hazardous airborne microorganisms effectively. In this study, we demonstrate herbal extract incorporated (HEI) nanofibers synthesized by an electrospinning technique and their application to antimicrobial air filtration. As an antimicrobial herbal material, an ethanolic extract of Sophora flavescens, which exhibits great antibacterial activity against pathogens, was mixed with the polymer solution for the electrospinning process. We measured various characteristics of the synthesized HEI nanofibers, such as fiber morphology, fiber size distribution, and thermal stability. For application of the electrospun HEI nanofibers, we made highly effective air filters with 99.99% filtration efficiency and 99.98% antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The pressure drop across the HEI nanofiber air filter was 4.75 mmH2O at a face air velocity of 1.79 cm/s. These results will facilitate the implementation of electrospun HEI nanofiber techniques to control air quality and protect against hazardous airborne microorganisms.

  14. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of ultrasonicated spinach leaf extracts using RAPD markers and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemimi, Ammar; Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Abu-Ghazaleh, Amer; Lightfoot, David A

    2017-08-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaves represent an important dietary source of nutrients, antioxidants and antimicrobials. As such, spinach leaves play an important role in health and have been used in the treatment of human diseases since ancient times. Here, the aims were to optimize the extraction methods for recovering antimicrobial substances of spinach leaves, determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antimicrobial substances against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus and, finally, evaluate the effects of spinach leaves' antimicrobials on bacterial DNA using central composite face-centered methods. The effect of the extracts on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial models was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and random amplification of polymorphic (bacterial) DNA (RAPD). The optimal extraction conditions were at 45 °C, ultrasound power of 44% and an extraction time of 23 min. The spinach extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities against both bacteria with MICs in the 60-100 mg/ml range. Interestingly, SEM showed that the treated bacterial cells appear damaged with a reduction in cell number. RAPD analysis of genomic DNA showed that the number and sizes of amplicons were decreased by treatments. Based on these results, it was inferred that spinach leaf extracts exert bactericidal activities by both inducing mutations in DNA and causing cell wall disruptions.

  15. High efficiency energy extraction from a relativistic electron beam in a strongly tapered undulator

    CERN Document Server

    Sudar, Nicholas; Duris, Joe; Gadjev, Ivan; Polyaniy, Mikhail; Pogorelsky, Igor; Fedurin, Mikhail; Swinson, Christina; Babzien, Marcus; Kusche, Karl; Gover, Avi

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54 cm long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30$\\%$ of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  16. High Efficiency Energy Extraction from a Relativistic Electron Beam in a Strongly Tapered Undulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudar, N.; Musumeci, P.; Duris, J.; Gadjev, I.; Polyanskiy, M.; Pogorelsky, I.; Fedurin, M.; Swinson, C.; Kusche, K.; Babzien, M.; Gover, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present results of an experiment where, using a 200 GW CO2 laser seed, a 65 MeV electron beam was decelerated down to 35 MeV in a 54-cm-long strongly tapered helical magnetic undulator, extracting over 30% of the initial electron beam energy to coherent radiation. These results, supported by simulations of the radiation field evolution, demonstrate unparalleled electro-optical conversion efficiencies for a relativistic beam in an undulator field and represent an important step in the development of high peak and average power coherent radiation sources.

  17. Extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-Soo; Bae, Myunghan; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jimin; Oh, Chang-Woo; Chang, Seunghyuk; Park, JongHo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2017-02-01

    A 3dimensional (3D) imaging is an important area which can be applied to face detection, gesture recognition, and 3D reconstruction. In this paper, extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique is presented. An active pixel sensor (APS) with in-pixel aperture has been developed for this purpose. In the conventional camera systems using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, an aperture is located behind the camera lens. However, in our proposed camera system, the aperture implemented by metal layer of CMOS process is located on the White (W) pixel which means a pixel without any color filter on top of the pixel. 4 types of pixels including Red (R), Green (G), Blue (B), and White (W) pixels were used for pixel aperture technique. The RGB pixels produce a defocused image with blur, while W pixels produce a focused image. The focused image is used as a reference image to extract the depth information for 3D imaging. This image can be compared with the defocused image from RGB pixels. Therefore, depth information can be extracted by comparing defocused image with focused image using the depth from defocus (DFD) method. Size of the pixel for 4-tr APS is 2.8 μm × 2.8 μm and the pixel structure was designed and simulated based on 0.11 μm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process. Optical performances of the pixel aperture technique were evaluated using optical simulation with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and electrical performances were evaluated using TCAD.

  18. Electronic structure and optical properties of some anthocyanins extracted from grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosub, Ion; Kajzar, Francois; Makowska-Janusik, Malgorzata; Meghea, Aurelia; Tane, Alexandrina; Rau, Ileana

    2012-08-01

    The pallet of applications of natural dyes and pigments is continuously extending as a stringent need to meet the challenges arisen from sustainable development, particularly related to replacing synthetic chemicals by eco-friendly renewable raw materials. In this respect, the well known nutritive and therapeutic properties demonstrated by anthocyanin compounds present in selective plant extracts of numerous fruits, vegetables and flowers could be largely complemented by their characteristics as chromophores and fluorophores with high potential in promising applications in bio-imaging for diagnostic and therapy, but also in electronic and photonic devices, solar cells, etc. In this context, this paper proposes an improved protocol for extraction and HPLC detection of anthocyanins from black grapes. Moreover, in order to exploit their potential to be applied as chromatic and fluorescence molecular probes, the electronic properties have been studied by correlating spectral characteristics with trichromatic parameters, combined with quantum chemistry computation.

  19. Efficient inverted polymer solar cells integrated with a compound electron extraction layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhong-Sheng; Wang, Qian-Kun; Li, Chi; Li, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Liu, Weimin; Wang, Pengfei; Tang, Jian-Xin

    2015-12-01

    We constructed an effective electron extraction layer (EEL) used for polymer solar cells by integrating one new kind of organic material of 4,4‧-(1,4-phenylene) bis(2-phenyl-6-p-tolylnicotinonitrile) (p-PPtNT) and cesium carbonate (Cs2CO3) used as a compound EEL (CEEL). The CEEL based device exhibits an ideal PCE of 4.15%, corresponding to an enhancement 220% in contrast to that of control device without EEL, which is also comparable to that of ZnO based device. Our analyses indicated that the remarkably improved PCE for CEEL based device is mainly ascribed to the Ohmic contact and the negligible electron extraction barrier at cathode/active layer by inserting CEEL.

  20. Extraction of Structure Functions from Quasielastic Electron Scattering (e,e') from Medium and Heavy Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, K S

    2005-01-01

    Using a relativistic mean-field single particle knock-out model for (e,e') reactions on nuclei, we investigate approximate treatments of Coulomb distortion effects and the extraction of longitudinal and transverse structure functions. We show that an effective momentum approximation (EMA) when coupled with a focusing factor provides a good description of the transverse contributions to the (e,e') cross sections for electron energies above 300 MeV on 208Pb. This approximation is not as good for the longitudinal contributions even for incident electron eneriges above 1 GeV and if one requires very precise extraction of longitudinal and transverse structure functions in the quasielastic region it is necessary to utilize distortion factors based on a nuclear model and a more accurate inclusion of Coulomb distortion effects.

  1. An automated ocular microtremor feature extraction using the Gabor thresholding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kalbani, M; Collins, N; Boyle, G; Hegarty, F; Foran, T; Sheahan, N; Coakley, D

    2007-01-01

    Ocular Microtremor (OMT) is a very fine continuous eye movement which has potential in monitoring and identifying a number of clinical conditions. There is a need for improved analysis and processing techniques to extract useful, quantifiable parameters from the OMT signal. A number of papers have shown the clinical significance of looking at the 'bursts' and 'baseling' patterns of the OMT signal. Analysis to date relies on visual inspection alone. This paper introduces an automated approach to burst/baseline identification based on a time-varying filter using the Gabor transform.

  2. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  3. Separation and Recovery of Precious Metals from Leach Liquors of Spent Electronic Wastes by Solvent Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Thi Hong; Wang, Lingyun; Lee, Man Seung [Mokpo National University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Solvent extraction was employed to recover precious metals (Au (III), Pd (II) and Pt (IV)) from the leach solution of spent electronic wastes containing Cu (II), Cr (III) and Fe (III). First, pure Fe (III) and Au (III) were recovered by simultaneous extraction with Cyanex 923 followed by selective stripping with HCl and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Second, Pt (IV), Pd (II) and Cu (II) were extracted by Alamine 336 from the raffinate. After the removal of Cu (II) by stripping with weak HCl, Pd (II) and Pt (IV) were separately stripped by controlling the concentration of thiourea in the mixture with HCl. A process flow sheet for the separation of precious metals was proposed.

  4. Assessment of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ag leaching from electronics waste using four extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Ashley; Keesling, Kara; Fitzwater, Kendra K; Pichtel, John; Houy, Denise

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals present in electronic components may leach upon disposal and therefore pose significant environmental hazards. The potential leaching of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ag from PC cathode ray tubes, printed circuit boards (PCBs), PC mice, TV remote controls, and mobile phones was assessed. After controlled crushing, each component was extracted using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), EPA Method 1312 (SPLP), NEN 7371 (Dutch Environmental Agency), and DIN S4 (Germany). The TCLP consistently leached the greatest amounts of Pb from all components. The SPLP, NEN 7371 and DIN S4 extracted relatively small amounts of metals compared with the TCLP and were not considered effective as leaching tests for e-waste. The smallest size fraction (< 2 mm) of CRT glass and PCBs leached significantly (p < 0.05) highest Pb via the TCLP. A modified TCLP removed 50.9% more extractable Pb compared with the conventional procedure.

  5. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time.

  6. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts for re-use in agriculture obtained by different extraction techniques: phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2014-11-12

    Vine-shoots are an important waste in all viticulture areas that should be re-used with innovative applications. The aim of this work was to produce Airén waste vine-shoot aqueous extracts by four solid-liquid extraction techniques such as conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), solid-liquid dynamic extraction (SLDE-Naviglio), microwave extraction (ME), and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Their chemical composition was studied in terms of phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds. The highest concentrated extracts corresponded to CSLE and SLDE-Naviglio, independent of the conditions tested. The CSLE extracts had the highest flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes contents. The volatile composition, quantified for first time in this work, shows that furanic compounds were the most abundant. All extracts showed an interesting mineral content, which may be assimilated by plants. These results show the agricultural potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as grape biostimulants and/or foliar fertilizer.

  7. Two Applications of Clustering Techniques to Twitter: Community Detection and Issue Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyuk Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twitter’s recent growth in the number of users has redefined its status from a simple social media service to a mass media. We deal with clustering techniques applied to Twitter network and Twitter trend analysis. When we divide and cluster Twitter network, we can find a group of users with similar inclination, called a “Community.” In this regard, we introduce the Louvain algorithm and advance a partitioned Louvain algorithm as its improved variant. In the result of the experiment based on actual Twitter data, the partitioned Louvain algorithm supplemented the performance decline and shortened the execution time. Also, we use clustering techniques for trend analysis. We use nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF, which is a convenient method to intuitively interpret and extract issues on various time scales. By cross-verifying the results using NFM, we found that it has clear correlation with the actual main issue.

  8. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  9. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  10. Speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Contaminated Aquifer Sediments Using Chemical Extraction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Crouzet, Catherine.; Bourg, Alain C. M.;

    1994-01-01

    The iron mineralogy of aquifer sediments was described by chemical extraction techniques. Single-step extractions including 1 M CaC12, NaAc, oxalate, dithionite, Ti(II1)- EDTA, 0.5 M HC1,5 M HC1, hot 6 M HC1, and a sequential extraction by HI and CrIIHC1 were tested on standard iron minerals...

  11. Investigation on traceability of 3D Scanning Electron Microscopy based on the Stereo Pair Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has a big potential as a metrology instrument for micro and nanotechnology due to its unique combination of three imaging properties: • Lateral ultimate resolution down to 2nm • Large range of possible magnification levels ranging from a few hundred times...... that addresses the performance of 3D topography calculation based on surface topography imaging using secondary electrons and the Stereo Pair Technique....

  12. Electronic Commerce and Information Technique%电子商务与信息技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏顺开

    2001-01-01

    通过介绍电子商务的概念, 从企业管理角度探讨了电子商务的实质,论述了与电子商务系统有关的信息技术。%This paper introduces the concept of electronic commerce, discusses the essence and information technique with electronic commerce.

  13. Investigation on traceability of 3D Scanning Electron Microscopy based on the Stereo Pair Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has a big potential as a metrology instrument for micro and nanotechnology due to its unique combination of three imaging properties: • Lateral ultimate resolution down to 2nm • Large range of possible magnification levels ranging from a few hundred times...... that addresses the performance of 3D topography calculation based on surface topography imaging using secondary electrons and the Stereo Pair Technique....

  14. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  15. Electrical field-induced extraction and separation techniques: promising trends in analytical chemistry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2014-03-03

    Sample preparation is an important issue in analytical chemistry, and is often a bottleneck in chemical analysis. So, the major incentive for the recent research has been to attain faster, simpler, less expensive, and more environmentally friendly sample preparation methods. The use of auxiliary energies, such as heat, ultrasound, and microwave, is one of the strategies that have been employed in sample preparation to reach the above purposes. Application of electrical driving force is the current state-of-the-art, which presents new possibilities for simplifying and shortening the sample preparation process as well as enhancing its selectivity. The electrical driving force has scarcely been utilized in comparison with other auxiliary energies. In this review, the different roles of electrical driving force (as a powerful auxiliary energy) in various extraction techniques, including liquid-, solid-, and membrane-based methods, have been taken into consideration. Also, the references have been made available, relevant to the developments in separation techniques and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) systems. All aspects of electrical driving force in extraction and separation methods are too specific to be treated in this contribution. However, the main aim of this review is to provide a brief knowledge about the different fields of analytical chemistry, with an emphasis on the latest efforts put into the electrically assisted membrane-based sample preparation systems. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches as well as the new achievements in these areas have been discussed, which might be helpful for further progress in the future.

  16. A feasibility study of H sup - beam extraction technique using YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Meigo, S I; Hasegawa, K; Ikeda, Y; Nakagawa, S; Oigawa, H

    2002-01-01

    Under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint project of high intensity proton accelerator, as for research and develop of the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation of the long lived radioactive nuclide, it is planed to built the Transmutation Physics Experiment Facility (TEF-P) and the Transmutation Engineering Experiment Facility (TEF-E). The TEF-P is used for the experiments for subcritical system coupled with a spallation neutron target bombarded with 600-MeV proton beam accelerated by the LINAC. To limit the maximum thermal power less than 500 W at the TEF-P, an incident beam power should be less than 10 W. On the contrary, at the TEF-E, high power beam of 200 kW is requested. Both high and low power beams are demanded for the transmutation facilities. It is difficult to deliver a low power beam to the TEF-P. Conventional beam extraction technique with a thin foil, is not desirable because the scattering of the beam at the foil requires the massive shield. Therefore, we study a new technique to extract a small...

  17. Comparison of extraction and work up techniques for analysis of core and intact polar tetraether lipids from sedimentary environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based intact polar lipids (IPL GDGTs) are used as biomarkers for living Archaea and are analyzed utilizing a variety of extraction and quantification techniques. Most IPL GDGT studies have used a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction method, but it has been suggest

  18. Power electronics and control techniques for maximum energy harvesting in photovoltaic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Femia, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Incentives provided by European governments have resulted in the rapid growth of the photovoltaic (PV) market. Many PV modules are now commercially available, and there are a number of power electronic systems for processing the electrical power produced by PV systems, especially for grid-connected applications. Filling a gap in the literature, Power Electronics and Control Techniques for Maximum Energy Harvesting in Photovoltaic Systems brings together research on control circuits, systems, and techniques dedicated to the maximization of the electrical power produced by a photovoltaic (PV) so

  19. Thermal Warpage Measurement of Electronic Packages by Shadow Moiré with Phase Stepping Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinyan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Phase-stepping technique is applied to the analysis of fringe patterns of shadow moiré of electronic packages.Sensitivity of the fringe pattern analysis is demonstrated to be significantly increased. Thermally induced warpage of electronic packages is successfully measured in real-time as the sample is driven through a simulated reflow process.The paper discusses the technique of phase stepping,noise filtering and its application to the shadow moiré method.Applications of the technology are presented.

  20. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  1. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  2. Image-based continental shelf habitat mapping using novel automated data extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Jan; Friedman, Ariell; Steinberg, Daniel; Barrett, Neville; Williams, Alan; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2012-08-01

    We automatically mapped the distribution of temperate continental shelf rocky reef habitats with a high degree of confidence using colour, texture, rugosity and patchiness features extracted from images in conjunction with machine-learning algorithms. This demonstrated the potential of novel automation routines to expedite the complex and time-consuming process of seabed mapping. The random forests ensemble classifier outperformed other tree-based algorithms and also offered some valuable built-in model performance assessment tools. Habitat prediction using random forests performed most accurately when all 26 image-derived predictors were included in the model. This produced an overall habitat prediction accuracy of 84% (with a kappa statistic of 0.793) when compared to nine distinct habitat classes assigned by a human annotator. Predictions for three habitat classes were all within the 95% confidence intervals, indicating close agreement between observed and predicted habitat classes. Misclassified images were mostly unevenly, partially or insufficiently illuminated and came mostly from rugged terrains and during the autonomous underwater vehicle's obstacle avoidance manoeuvres. The remaining misclassified images were wrongly or inconsistently labelled by the human annotator. This study demonstrates the suitability of autonomous underwater vehicles to effectively sample benthic habitats and the ability of automated data handling techniques to extract and reliably process large volumes of seabed image data. Our methods for image feature extraction and classification are repeatable, cost-effective and well suited to studies that require non-extractive and/or co-located sampling, e.g. in marine reserves and for monitoring the recovery from physical impacts, e.g. from bottom fishing activities. The methods are transferable to other continental shelf areas and to other disciplines such as seabed geology.

  3. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health.

  4. Deep sub electron noise readout in CCD systems using digital filtering techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Cancelo, Gustavo; Moroni, Guillermo Fernandez; Treptow, Ken; Zmuda, Ted; Diehl, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Scientific CCDs designed in thick high resistivity silicon (Si) are excellent detectors for astronomy, high energy and nuclear physics, and instrumentation. Many applications can benefit from CCDs ultra low noise readout systems. The present work shows how sub electron noise CCD images can be achieved using digital signal processing techniques. These techniques allow readout bandwidths of up to 10 K pixels per second and keep the full CCD spatial resolution and signal dynamic range.

  5. Nanostructured PLD-grown gadolinia doped ceria: Chemical and structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Katarzyna Agnieszka; Wang, Hsiang-Jen; Heiroth, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    The morphology as well as the spatially resolved elemental and chemical characterization of 10 mol% gadolinia doped ceria (CGO10) structures prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique are investigated by scanning transmission electron microscopy accompanied with electron energy loss...... spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A dense, columnar and structurally inhomogeneous CGO10 film, i.e. exhibiting grain size refinement across the film thickness, is obtained in the deposition process. The cerium M4,5 edges, used to monitor the local electronic structure of the grains...

  6. A computationally assisted spectroscopic technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients in radio frequency plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Daksha, M; Schuengel, E; Korolov, I; Derzsi, A; Koepke, M; Donko, Z; Schulze, J

    2016-01-01

    A Computationally Assisted Spectroscopic Technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients ($\\gamma$-CAST) in capacitively-coupled radio-frequency plasmas is proposed. This non-intrusive, sensitive diagnostic is based on a combination of Phase Resolved Optical Emission Spectroscopy and particle-based kinetic simulations. In such plasmas (under most conditions in electropositive gases) the spatio-temporally resolved electron-impact excitation/ionization rate features two distinct maxima adjacent to each electrode at different times within each RF period. While one maximum is the consequence of the energy gain of electrons due to sheath expansion, the second maximum is produced by secondary electrons accelerated towards the plasma bulk by the sheath electric field at the time of maximum voltage drop across the adjacent sheath. Due to these different excitation/ionization mechanisms, the ratio of the intensities of these maxima is very sensitive to the secondary electron emission coefficient $\\gamma$...

  7. A methodology for automated CPA extraction using liver biopsy image analysis and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipouras, Markos G; Giannakeas, Nikolaos; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Tsianou, Zoe E; Manousou, Pinelopi; Hall, Andrew; Tsoulos, Ioannis; Tsianos, Epameinondas

    2017-03-01

    Collagen proportional area (CPA) extraction in liver biopsy images provides the degree of fibrosis expansion in liver tissue, which is the most characteristic histological alteration in hepatitis C virus (HCV). Assessment of the fibrotic tissue is currently based on semiquantitative staging scores such as Ishak and Metavir. Since its introduction as a fibrotic tissue assessment technique, CPA calculation based on image analysis techniques has proven to be more accurate than semiquantitative scores. However, CPA has yet to reach everyday clinical practice, since the lack of standardized and robust methods for computerized image analysis for CPA assessment have proven to be a major limitation. The current work introduces a three-stage fully automated methodology for CPA extraction based on machine learning techniques. Specifically, clustering algorithms have been employed for background-tissue separation, as well as for fibrosis detection in liver tissue regions, in the first and the third stage of the methodology, respectively. Due to the existence of several types of tissue regions in the image (such as blood clots, muscle tissue, structural collagen, etc.), classification algorithms have been employed to identify liver tissue regions and exclude all other non-liver tissue regions from CPA computation. For the evaluation of the methodology, 79 liver biopsy images have been employed, obtaining 1.31% mean absolute CPA error, with 0.923 concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology is designed to (i) avoid manual threshold-based and region selection processes, widely used in similar approaches presented in the literature, and (ii) minimize CPA calculation time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind R Yadav; R S Anand; M L Dewal; Sangeeta Gupta

    2015-12-01

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as decomposition filter. Further, first-order statistics (FOS) and four variants of local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors are used to acquire distinct features of these images at various levels. The linear support vector machine (SVM), radial basis function (RBF) kernel SVM and random forest classifiers have been employed for classification. The classification accuracy obtained with state-of-the-art and DWT based hybrid texture features using various classifiers are compared. The DWT based FOS-uniform local binary pattern (DWTFOSLBPu2) texture features at the 4th level of image decomposition have produced best classification accuracy of 97.67 ± 0.79% and 98.40 ± 064% for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. Reduction in feature dataset by minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR) feature selection method is achieved and the best classification accuracy of 99.00 ± 0.79% and 99.20 ± 0.42% have been obtained for DWT based FOS-LBP histogram Fourier features (DWTFOSLBP-HF) technique at the 5th and 6th levels of image decomposition for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. The DWTFOSLBP-HF features selected with mRMR method has also established superiority amongst the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques for randomly divided database into different proportions of training and test datasets.

  9. How Laboratory Sampling Techniques and Extraction Methods Affect Reproducibility of PAH Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    Original Extraction Soxhlet US Army Corps of Engineers 4th Serial Extraction by Sonication US Army Corps of Engineers 654321 250000 200000 150000 100000...n z o ( a ) p y r e n e Scatterplot of Benzo (a) pyrene vs Extraction US Army Corps of Engineers Skeet Serial Extraction in mg/Kg Analyte...Army Corps of Engineers Field Sample Serial Extraction Analyte Sample A Sample B Benzo (a) pyrene 0.12% 0.03% Extraction Efficiency Extraction Method

  10. Electron sterilization validation techniques using the controlled depth of sterilization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleghorn, Denise A.; Nablo, Sam V.

    Many pharmaceutical products, especially parenteral drugs, cannot be sterilized with gamma rays or high energy electrons due to the concomitant product degradation. most of these products are filled under aseptic conditions so that for qualification as a sterile product, techniques are often required only for treatment of the container surfaces and package interior. Gas sterilization (ETO) is often used for this purpose but is beset with difficulties known to the reader, especially for critical "contact" products such as in the ophthalmic field. In view of the well-controlled electron energy spectrum available in modern electron processors, it is practical to deliver sterilizing doses over depths considerably less than those defining the thickness of blister-pack constructions or pharmaceutical containers. Because bremsstrahlung and x-ray production are minimized at these low electron energies and in these low Z materials, very high electron: penetrating x-ray dose ratios are possible for the application of the technique. Some of these data illustrating package: parenteral ratios of 10 5:1 have been reported (Rangwalla et al, 1985; Aaronson and Nablo, 1988). Standard techniques have been developed for the validation of the process and are reported here. Thin film dosimetric techniques have been developed utilizing radiochromic film in the 10-60 g/m 2 range for determining the surface dose distribution in occluded surface areas where direct electron illumination is not possible. Procedures for validation of the process using dried spore inoculum on the product as well as in good geometry are employed to determine the process lethality and its dependence on product surface geometry. Applications of the process to labile pharmaceuticals in glass and polystyrene syringes are reviewed. It has been applied to the sterilization of commercial sterile products since 1987, and the advantages and the natural limitations of the technique are discussed.

  11. A fast extraction instrument of a 1-GeV electron synchrotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukishima, Chihiro; Nakata, Shuhei

    1994-08-01

    A kicker magnet and a modulator were developed as a fast extraction instrument of a 1-GeV electron synchrotron. A 1-kG pulsed magnetic field was generated by the kicker magnet with the rise time of 40 ns. The ripple of the flattop of the current wave form was less than ±1%, and the shot-to-shot fluctuation of the peak current was no more than 0.1%. The modulator consists of two Blumleins in series which operate at a quarter of the charging voltage as compared to a pulse forming network (PFN) type modulator. The damped oscillating wave form of the current could decrease the residual field to be less than 0.5 G. The effect of the residual field of the kicker magnet on the dynamic aperture of the low-energy electron beam was estimated by the tracking calculation. The result shows the dynamic aperture decreases as the residual field increases. To obtain enough accelerated current, the residual field must be less than 1 G. This restriction could be satisfied by the developed kicker magnet and the modulator. Successful extraction of eight bunches out of 15 bunches in the synchrotron were measured by a wall current monitor located in the extraction transport line.

  12. Plumbagin quantification in roots of Plumbago scandens L. obtained by different extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma R. de Paiva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Plumbago genus belongs to the Plumbaginaceae family and it is known due to its variety of biological uses, most of them attributed to the presence of naphthoquinones. Plumbagin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone that can be obtained from roots of Plumbago scandens L. In order to find out the better technique for plumbagin extraction, were applied: static maceration, dynamic maceration, with assistance of ultrasonic waves and in Soxhlet apparatus. Four compounds were qualitatively detected in all extracts: the naphthoquinones plumbagin and epi-isoshinanolone, palmitic acid and sitosterol. Plumbagin was always the major component in all analyzed extracts and it was quantitatively determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Soxhlet was the most efficient extraction technique however, prolonged heating time promoted plumbagin degradation.O gênero Plumbago pertence à família Plumbaginaceae e apresenta uma variedade de atividades biológicas, a maioria atribuída à presença de naftoquinonas. Plumbagina é uma naftoquinona natural que pode ser obtida a partir de raízes de Plumbago scandens L. Na tentativa de descobrir a melhor técnica de extração dessa substância foram usadas, maceração estática, maceração dinâmica, extração com auxílio de ultrassom e extração em Soxhlet. Quatro substâncias foram detectadas qualitativamente: as naftoquinonas plumbagina e epi-isoshinanolona, o ácido palmítico e o sitosterol. Plumbagina foi sempre o componente majoritário em todos os extratos analisados e sua determinação quantitativa foi realizada através de cromatografia com fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A extração em Soxhlet foi a técnica mais eficiente para obtenção de plumbagina, entretanto a longa exposição a temperaturas elevadas favoreceu a degradação da plumbagina.

  13. Extraction and recovery technique for myxozoan parasites from the Piaractus mesopotamicus kidney embedded in paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson G. Manrique

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissues fixed and embedded in paraffin for histopathological studies keep their cell characteristics. There are several protocols for extracting genetic material from tissue embedded in paraffin, but there is no protocol for material aimed at the direct identification of parasites. The lack of techniques which describe the recovery of parasites from tissue embedded in paraffin has led us to test a technique for recovering myxosporean parasites found in Piaractus mesopotamicus kidney fragments embedded in paraffin, for a rapid, direct, and economic identification. Once the excess paraffin was removed from the kidney fragment, this was deparaffinized in xylene, hydrated in 70% alcohol, placed in an Eppendorf tube containing 70% alcohol, and left under vigorous and constant agitation in a vortex until the tissue was disintegrated. The precipitated material was mixed with the 70% alcohol and 20 μL were collected for preparing the smears, which were stained with Giemsa. Myxobolus sp. spores at many developmental stages were observed by light microscopy. The technique has proved to be useful for recovering myxosporean parasites from tissue embedded in paraffin and it constitutes an effective tool for prevalence studies when the myxosporean parasites are not detected in fresh mounts.

  14. Cell-level battery charge/discharge protection system. [electronic control techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, R. L.; Imamura, M. S.

    1977-01-01

    The paper describes three design approaches to individual cell monitoring and control for sealed secondary battery cells. One technique involves a modular strap-on single cell protector which contains all the electronics required for monitoring cell voltage, responding to external commands, and forming a bypass circuit for the cell. A second technique, the multiplexed cell protector, uses common circuitry to monitor and control each cell in a battery pack. The third technique, the computerized cell protector, by replacing the hard-wired logic of the multiplexed cell protector with a microprocessor, achieves greatest control flexibility and inherent computational capability with a minimum parts count implementation.

  15. A Technique for Temperature and Ultimate Load Calculations of Thin Targets in a Pulsed Electron Beam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen-Walther; Lundsager, Per

    1979-01-01

    A technique is presented for the calculation of transient temperature distributions and ultimate load of rotationally symmetric thin membranes with uniform lateral load and exposed to a pulsed electron beam from a linear accelerator. Heat transfer by conduction is considered the only transfer...

  16. Using text-mining techniques in electronic patient records to identify ADRs from medicine use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, Pernille; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2012-01-01

    This literature review included studies that use text-mining techniques in narrative documents stored in electronic patient records (EPRs) to investigate ADRs. We searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts without restrictions from origin until July 2011. W...

  17. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  18. Dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the electron-extraction scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iñarrea, Manuel [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Lanchares, Víctor [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Palacián, Jesús [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Pascual, Ana I. [Departamento de Matemáticas y Computación, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño, La Rioja (Spain); Salas, J. Pablo, E-mail: josepablo.salas@unirioja.es [Área de Física Aplicada, Universidad de La Rioja, Logroño (Spain); Yanguas, Patricia [Departamento de Ingeniería Matemática e Informática, Universidad Pública de Navarra, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-01-23

    We study the classical dynamics of a Rydberg hydrogen atom near a metal surface in the presence of a constant electric field in the electron-extraction situation [1], e.g., when the field attracts the electron to the vacuum. From a dynamical point of view, this field configuration provides a dynamics richer than in the usual ion-extraction scheme, because, depending on the values of field and the atom–surface distance, the atom can be ionized only towards the metal surface, only to the vacuum or to the both sides. The evolution of the phase space structure as a function of the atom–surface distance is explored in the bound regime of the atom. In the high energy regime, the ionization mechanism is also investigated. We find that the classical results of this work are in good agreement with the results obtained in the wave-packet propagation study carried out by So et al. [1]. - Highlights: • We study a classical hydrogen atom near a metal surface plus a electric field. • We explore the phase space structure as a function of the field strength. • We find most of the electronic orbits are oriented along the field direction. • We study the ionization of the atom for several atom–surface distances. • This classical study is in good agreement with the quantum results.

  19. Assessing the efficacy of citrus aurantifolia extract on smear layer removal with scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolhari, Behnam; Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Monsef Esfehani, Hamid Reza; Tavakolian, Pardis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of citrus aurantifolia (CA) extract on smear layer removal in different parts of root canals. Thirty-nine single-rooted human teeth were randomly divided into three experimental (n=12) and one control (n=3) groups. Teeth were instrumented using MTwo rotary instruments. Root canals were irrigated with NaOCl during instrumentation. The canals in each group were irrigated with one of the following: completed mixture of citrus aurantifolia extracts, 17% EDTA, and alcoholic extract of CA. Distilled water was used for the control group. The irrigants were left within the canal for 20 minutes, and then rinsed with normal saline solution. Teeth were subsequently split longitudinally into 2 halves, and the canals were examined by a scanning electron-microscope. Cleanliness was evaluated using a five point scoring system. Statistical significant difference was found between groups (Pcitrus aurantifolia extracts were not able to effectively remove smear layer compared with 17% EDTA during root canal therapy.

  20. Deriving the electron-phonon spectral density of MgB2 from optical data, using maximum entropy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, J; Carbotte, J P

    2014-04-23

    We use maximum entropy techniques to extract an electron-phonon density from optical data for the normal state at T = 45 K of MgB2. Limiting the analysis to a range of phonon energies below 110 meV, which is sufficient for capturing all phonon structures, we find a spectral function that is in good agreement with that calculated for the quasi-two-dimensional σ-band. Extending the analysis to higher energies, up to 160 meV, we find no evidence for any additional contributions to the fluctuation spectrum, but find that the data can only be understood if the density of states is taken to decrease with increasing energy.

  1. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Henderson

    Full Text Available Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However

  2. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Kittelmann, Sandra; Miri, Vahideh Heidarian; Zethof, Michael; Noel, Samantha J; Waghorn, Garry C; Janssen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data

  3. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  4. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  5. Introduction of measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics: Basic principles and recent trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Ebihara, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    Measurement — the act of measuring physical properties that we perform — has the potential to contribute to the successful advancement of sciences and society. To open doors in physics and other sciences, various measurement methods and related applications have been developed, and ultrasound has remained a useful probe, power source, and interesting measurement object for the past two centuries. In this paper, we first summarize the basic principles of ultrasound from the viewpoint of measurement techniques for readers who just have started studying or are interested in the field of ultrasonic electronics. Moreover, we also introduce recent studies — ultrasonic properties of materials, measurement techniques, piezoelectric devices, nonlinear acoustics, biomedical ultrasound, and ocean acoustics — and their trends related to measurement techniques in ultrasonic electronics to provide some ideas for related applications.

  6. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  7. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film....... Technical aspects of electromembrane extraction, important extraction parameters as well as a handful of examples of applications from different biological samples and bioanalytical areas are discussed in the paper....

  8. Automated bare earth extraction technique for complex topography in light detection and ranging surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.; Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Bradford, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital surface models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. Few existing algorithms can handle substantial terrain diversity without significant editing or user interaction. This effort presents a newly developed methodology that provides a flexible, adaptable tool capable of integrating multiple LiDAR data attributes for an accurate terrain assessment. The terrain extraction and segmentation (TEXAS) approach uses a third-order spatial derivative for each point in the digital surface model to determine the curvature of the terrain rather than rely solely on the slope. The utilization of the curvature has shown to successfully preserve ground points in areas of steep terrain as they typically exhibit low curvature. Within the framework of TEXAS, the contiguous sets of points with low curvatures are grouped into regions using an edge-based segmentation method. The process does not require any user inputs and is completely data driven. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LiDAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity.

  9. A NOVEL SHAPE BASED FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE FOR DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG DISEASES USING EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhuvaneswari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung diseases are one of the most common diseases that affect the human community worldwide. When the diseases are not diagnosed they may lead to serious problems and may even lead to transience. As an outcome to assist the medical community this study helps in detecting some of the lung diseases specifically bronchitis, pneumonia and normal lung images. In this paper, to detect the lung diseases feature extraction is done by the proposed shape based methods, feature selection through the genetics algorithm and the images are classified by the classifier such as MLP-NN, KNN, Bayes Net classifiers and their performances are listed and compared. The shape features are extracted and selected from the input CT images using the image processing techniques and fed to the classifier for categorization. A total of 300 lung CT images were used, out of which 240 are used for training and 60 images were used for testing. Experimental results show that MLP-NN has an accuracy of 86.75 % KNN Classifier has an accuracy of 85.2 % and Bayes net has an accuracy of 83.4% of classification accuracy. The sensitivity, specificity, F-measures, PPV values for the various classifiers are also computed. This concludes that the MLP-NN outperforms all other classifiers.

  10. Investigation of The Bubble Foam Separation Technique To Extract Protein From Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Matouq

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of proteins from whey; namely α- Lactoglobulin and β-Lactalbumin was obtained using the bubble foam column technique. Two types of whey were conducted in this study; yogurt whey and cheese whey. The effect of gas flow-rate and the height of the whey (liquid holdup inside the column were studied at room temperature and at constant pH of whey. Whey used here obtained from local dairy factory as waste, and was used to investigate the performance ability of bubble column to extract very low concentration portion from waste. Enrichment ratio showed that the possibility of extracting protein from whey was high. Results showed that enrichment ration was higher for yogurt whey from that of cheese whey. The results also showed that the efficiency of separation of these proteins increased with decreasing both the air flow-rate, and wheys volume inside the column. The maximum amount of protein obtained at air flow-rate = 0.2 Liter/ min at experimental condition.

  11. SU-E-T-357: Electronic Compensation Technique to Deliver Total Body Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakeman, T [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Wang, I; Podgorsak, M [State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Total body irradiation (TBI) uses large parallel-opposed radiation fields to suppress the patient’s immune system and eradicate the residual cancer cells in preparation of recipient for bone marrow transplant. The manual placement of lead compensators has conventionally been used to compensate for the varying thickness through the entire body in large-field TBI. The goal of this study is to pursue utilizing the modern electronic compensation technique to more accurately and efficiently deliver dose to patients in need of TBI. Methods: Treatment plans utilizing electronic compensation to deliver a total body dose were created retrospectively for patients for whom CT data had been previously acquired. Each treatment plan includes two, specifically weighted, pair of opposed fields. One pair of open, large fields (collimator=45°), to encompass the patient’s entire anatomy, and one pair of smaller fields (collimator=0°) focused only on the thicker midsection of the patient. The optimal fluence for each one of the smaller fields was calculated at a patient specific penetration depth. Irregular surface compensators provide a more uniform dose distribution within the smaller opposed fields. Results: Dose-volume histograms (DVH) were calculated for the evaluating the electronic compensation technique. In one case, the maximum body doses calculated from the DVH were reduced from the non-compensated 195.8% to 165.3% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more uniform dose with the region of electronic compensation. The mean body doses calculated from the DVH were also reduced from the non-compensated 120.6% to 112.7% in the electronically compensated plans, indicating a more accurate delivery of the prescription dose. All calculated monitor units were well within clinically acceptable limits. Conclusion: Electronic compensation technique for TBI will not substantially increase the beam on time while it can significantly reduce the compensator

  12. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  13. Electron Correlation Microscopy: A New Technique for Studying Local Atom Dynamics Applied to a Supercooled Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li; Zhang, Pei; Besser, Matthew F; Kramer, Matthew Joseph; Voyles, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    Electron correlation microscopy (ECM) is a new technique that utilizes time-resolved coherent electron nanodiffraction to study dynamic atomic rearrangements in materials. It is the electron scattering equivalent of photon correlation spectroscopy with the added advantage of nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We have applied ECM to a Pd40Ni40P20 metallic glass, heated inside a scanning transmission electron microscope into a supercooled liquid to measure the structural relaxation time τ between the glass transition temperature T g and the crystallization temperature, T x . τ determined from the mean diffraction intensity autocorrelation function g 2(t) decreases with temperature following an Arrhenius relationship between T g and T g +25 K, and then increases as temperature approaches T x . The distribution of τ determined from the g 2(t) of single speckles is broad and changes significantly with temperature.

  14. Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Zachary; Paz, Gil; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-10-01

    We combine constraints from analyticity with experimental electron-proton scattering data to determine the proton magnetic radius without model-dependent assumptions on the shape of the form factor. We also study the impact of including electron-neutron scattering data, and ππ→NN ¯ data. Using representative data sets we find for a cut of Q2≤0.5 GeV2, rMp=0.91-0.06+0.03±0.02 fm using just proton scattering data; rMp=0.87-0.05+0.04±0.01 fm adding neutron data; and rMp=0.87-0.02+0.02 fm adding ππ data. We also extract the neutron magnetic radius from these data sets obtaining rMn=0.89-0.03+0.03 fm from the combined proton, neutron, and ππ data.

  15. Characterization techniques for nano-electronics, with emphasis to electron microscopy. The role of the European Project ANNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armigliato, A.

    2008-07-01

    In the present and future CMOS technology, due to the ever shrinking geometries of the electronic devices, the availability of techniques capable of performing quantitative analyses of the relevant parameters (structural, chemical, mechanical) at a nanoscale is of a paramount importance. The influence of these features on the electrical performances of the nanodevices is a key issue for the nanoelectronics industry. In the recent years, a significant progress has been made in this field by a number of techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, in particular with the advent of synchrotron sources, ion-microbeam based Rutherford backscattering and channeling spectrometry, and micro Raman spectrometry. In addition, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has achieved an important role in the determination of the dopant depth profile in ultra-shallow junctions (USJs) in silicon. However, the technique which features the ultimate spatial resolution (at the nanometer scale) is scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). In this presentation it will be reported on the nanoanalysis by STEM of two very important physical quantities which need to be controlled in the fabrication processes of nanodevices: the dopant profile in the USJs and the lattice strain that is generated in the Si electrically active regions of isolation structures by the different technological steps. The former quantity is investigated by the so-called Z-contrast high-angle annular dark field (HAADF-STEM) method, whereas the mechanical strain can be two-dimensionally mapped by the convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED-STEM) method. A spatial resolution lower than one nanometer and of a few nanometers can be achieved in the two cases, respectively. To keep the pace with the scientific and technological progress an increasingly wide array of analytical techniques is necessary; their complementary role in the solution of present and future characterization problems must be exploited. Presently

  16. Four-Dimensional Ultrafast Electron Microscopy: Insights into an Emerging Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Adhikari, Aniruddha

    2016-12-15

    Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D-UEM) is a novel analytical technique that aims to fulfill the long-held dream of researchers to investigate materials at extremely short spatial and temporal resolutions by integrating the excellent spatial resolution of electron microscopes with the temporal resolution of ultrafast femtosecond laser-based spectroscopy. The ingenious use of pulsed photoelectrons to probe surfaces and volumes of materials enables time-resolved snapshots of the dynamics to be captured in a way hitherto impossible by other conventional techniques. The flexibility of 4D-UEM lies in the fact that it can be used in both the scanning (S-UEM) and transmission (UEM) modes depending upon the type of electron microscope involved. While UEM can be employed to monitor elementary structural changes and phase transitions in samples using real-space mapping, diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and tomography, S-UEM is well suited to map ultrafast dynamical events on materials surfaces in space and time. This review provides an overview of the unique features that distinguish these techniques and also illustrates the applications of both S-UEM and UEM to a multitude of problems relevant to materials science and chemistry.

  17. Four-Dimensional Ultrafast Electron Microscopy: Insights into an Emerging Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Aniruddha; Eliason, Jeffrey K; Sun, Jingya; Bose, Riya; Flannigan, David J; Mohammed, Omar F

    2017-01-11

    Four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy (4D-UEM) is a novel analytical technique that aims to fulfill the long-held dream of researchers to investigate materials at extremely short spatial and temporal resolutions by integrating the excellent spatial resolution of electron microscopes with the temporal resolution of ultrafast femtosecond laser-based spectroscopy. The ingenious use of pulsed photoelectrons to probe surfaces and volumes of materials enables time-resolved snapshots of the dynamics to be captured in a way hitherto impossible by other conventional techniques. The flexibility of 4D-UEM lies in the fact that it can be used in both the scanning (S-UEM) and transmission (UEM) modes depending upon the type of electron microscope involved. While UEM can be employed to monitor elementary structural changes and phase transitions in samples using real-space mapping, diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and tomography, S-UEM is well suited to map ultrafast dynamical events on materials surfaces in space and time. This review provides an overview of the unique features that distinguish these techniques and also illustrates the applications of both S-UEM and UEM to a multitude of problems relevant to materials science and chemistry.

  18. Extracting conformational structure information of benzene molecules via laser-induced electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Ito

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have measured the angular distributions of high energy photoelectrons of benzene molecules generated by intense infrared femtosecond laser pulses. These electrons arise from the elastic collisions between the benzene ions with the previously tunnel-ionized electrons that have been driven back by the laser field. Theory shows that laser-free elastic differential cross sections (DCSs can be extracted from these photoelectrons, and the DCS can be used to retrieve the bond lengths of gas-phase molecules similar to the conventional electron diffraction method. From our experimental results, we have obtained the C-C and C-H bond lengths of benzene with a spatial resolution of about 10 pm. Our results demonstrate that laser induced electron diffraction (LIED experiments can be carried out with the present-day ultrafast intense lasers already. Looking ahead, with aligned or oriented molecules, more complete spatial information of the molecule can be obtained from LIED, and applying LIED to probe photo-excited molecules, a “molecular movie” of the dynamic system may be created with sub-Ångström spatial and few-ten femtosecond temporal resolutions.

  19. [Cotton identification and extraction using near infrared sensor and object-oriented spectral segmentation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin-Song; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Su; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2009-07-01

    The real-time, effective and reliable method of identifying crop is the foundation of scientific management for crop in the precision agriculture. It is also one of the key techniques for the precision agriculture. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by the traditional pixel-based information extraction method with respect to complicated image processing and accurate objective identification. In the present study, visible-near infrared image of cotton was acquired using high-resolution sensor. Object-oriented segmentation technique was performed on the image to produce image objects and spatial/spectral features of cotton. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify cotton according to various features. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 96.33% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.926 7, which can meet the demand of automatic management and decision-making in precision agriculture.

  20. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum: Extraction Techniques and Urease and alpha-Amylase inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Khair-ul-Bariyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, two important medicinal plants of genus Ocimum, O. basilicum and O.sanctum have been compared in a number of phytochemical parameters. Effect of extraction techniques, solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and hydro-distillation, on the yield in different solvents have been investigated. Hydro-distillation gave a better yield of more volatile components than hexane fraction of the other two techniques. Both the plants showed good urease inhibitory activity. Hydro-distillate was stronger inhibitor than hexane or methanolic extracts of solvent or Soxhlet extractions. The extracts of O. basilicumshowed a greater urease activity than extracts of O. sanctum.Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of O. basilicum was also higher than that of O. sanctum. Notably, the synergistic effect of the extracts of the two plants was much higher than their individual efficacy against alpha-amylase. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration. Both the species had almost equal air pollution tolerance index (APTI with O. basilicum(10.558 having slightly higher value than O. sanctum (9.202.Both plants contained alkaloids and phenolics. Both the plants also had almost same nutritional values.

  2. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  3. A Centrifuge-Based Technique for Dry Extraction of Air for Ice Core Studies of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    High resolution CO2 data from the Law Dome ice core document an abrupt ~10 ppm drop in CO2 at about 1600 AD (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res Lett., v. 33, L14810), which has been attributed to changes in human activities. CO2 measurements in ice cores are difficult, however, making verification of this feature an important task. We are undertaking a high-resolution study of CO2 between 1400 and 1800 AD in the WAIS Divide (Antarctica) ice core with a new dry extraction technique. The need for a dry extraction technique as opposed to a melt-refreeze technique in studies of CO2 from ice cores arises because of the well-documented artifacts in CO2 imposed by the presence of liquid water. Three dry-extraction methods have been employed by previous workers to measure CO2: needle-crushing method, ball-bearings method, and cheese-grater method (B. Stauffer, in: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, p. 1181, Elsevier 2007). Each has limitations, and we propose a simpler dry extraction technique, based on a large-capacity refrigerated centrifuge (the "centrifuge technique"), which eliminates the need to employ cryogenic temperatures to collect extracted gas and is more compatible with high sample throughput. The technique is now being tested on ~25-gram WAIS Divide samples in conjunction with CO2 measurements with a gas chromatograph. The technique employs a Beckman J- 6B centrifuge, in which evacuated stainless steel flask is placed: the flask has a weight inside positioned directly over a tall-standing piece of ice whose cross-section is small compared to that of the flask. Upon acceleration to 3000 rpm the weight moves down and presses the ice sample into a thin tablet covering flask's bottom, yielding the air extraction efficiency of ~80%. Preliminary tests suggest that precision and accuracy can be achieved at the level of ~1 ppm once the system is fine-tuned.

  4. Continuous Electron Doping of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Films Using Inkjet Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Satoki; Nobusa, Yuki; Shimizu, Ryo; Yanagi, Kazuhiro; Kataura, Hiromichi; Takenobu, Taishi

    2012-06-01

    The fabrication of logic circuits using the inkjet technique has attracted especially strong interest owing to wide range applications such as flexible and printed electronics. Although logic circuits fabricated using the inkjet method have already been accomplished, the precise control of gate threshold voltages has not been realized yet. In this study, we have demonstrated electron doping of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films by inkjet printing of dilute poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) ink. We have successfully obtained the continuous threshold voltage shift by varying the number of doping steps, indicating that the carrier concentration in PEI ink is much lower than that of our previous work.

  5. Instrumental and analytic techniques for separating protons from electrons in the cosmic ray flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crannell, C. J.; Jones, W. V.; Kurz, R. J.; Silverberg, R. F.; Viehmann, W.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques are being investigated to aid in distinguishing between electrons and the large background of interacting protons which simulate electron-induced electromagnetic cascades. For cosmic ray primaries, incident on the HECRE ionization spectrometer, statistical criteria are employed to test the cascade curves with the incident energy and starting point as free parameters. The physical significance of the distribution of apparent cascade starting points is being studied using Monte Carlo 100-GeV protons. The proposed use of a CsI detector module (totally-active and high Z) to further discriminate against protons is described.

  6. Indium-Free Perovskite Solar Cells Enabled by Impermeable Tin-Oxide Electron Extraction Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Becker, Tim; Pourdavoud, Neda; Zhao, Jie; Brinkmann, Kai Oliver; Heiderhoff, Ralf; Gahlmann, Tobias; Huang, Zengqi; Olthof, Selina; Meerholz, Klaus; Többens, Daniel; Cheng, Baochang; Chen, Yiwang; Riedl, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Corrosive precursors used for the preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite photoactive layers prevent the application of ultrathin metal layers as semitransparent bottom electrodes in perovskite solar cells (PVSCs). This study introduces tin-oxide (SnOx ) grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), whose outstanding permeation barrier properties enable the design of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-free semitransparent bottom electrode (SnOx /Ag or Cu/SnOx ), in which the metal is efficiently protected against corrosion. Simultaneously, SnOx functions as an electron extraction layer. We unravel the spontaneous formation of a PbI2 interfacial layer between SnOx and the CH3 NH3 PbI3 perovskite. An interface dipole between SnOx and this PbI2 layer is found, which depends on the oxidant (water, ozone, or oxygen plasma) used for the ALD growth of SnOx . An electron extraction barrier between perovskite and PbI2 is identified, which is the lowest in devices based on SnOx grown with ozone. The resulting PVSCs are hysteresis-free with a stable power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 15.3% and a remarkably high open circuit voltage of 1.17 V. The ITO-free analogues still achieve a high PCE of 11%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Low temperature aqueous electrodeposited TiO(x) thin films as electron extraction layer for efficient inverted organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kim Hai; Mason, Chad William; Devaraj, Sappani; Ouyang, Jianyong; Balaya, Palani

    2014-02-26

    Organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester were fabricated with electrodeposited TiOx electron extraction layers 5-180 nm thick. Electrodeposition under ambient conditions is an attractive, facile and viable approach to prepare metal oxide interfacial layers. The TiOx films obtained displayed a linear relationship between thickness and deposition time when fabricated under ambient conditions using an aqueous air stable peroxotitanium precursor. The precursor solution was prepared from titanium isopropoxide using a chelate process, which allowed water to be used as solvent due to considerably decreased sensitivity of the precursor solution towards hydrolysis. Highly conformal TiOx films, typically observed with vacuum deposition techniques, were obtained on the indium tin oxide substrate upon electrogeneration of OH(-) ions using H2O2 additive. Conversely, significantly rougher films with spherical growths were obtained using NO3(-) additives. Low temperature annealing at 200 °C in air was found to greatly improve purity and O stoichiometry of the TiOx films, enabling efficient devices incorporating the electrodeposited TiOx to be made. Using MoOx as the hole extraction layer, the maximum power conversion efficiency obtained was 3.8% (Voc = 610 mV; Jsc = 10.6 mA/cm(2); FF = 59%) under simulated 100 mW/cm(2) (AM1.5G) solar irradiation, whereas an efficiency of 3.4% was achieved with fully solution processed interfacial layers comprising the electrodeposited TiOx films and a surfactant-modified PEDOT:PSS hole extraction layer.

  8. A novel electron beam evaporation technique for the deposition of superconducting thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M. G.; Muralidhar, G. K.; Rao, K. N.; Rao, G. M.; Mohan, S.

    1991-05-01

    Superconducting thin films of BiSrCaCuO have been deposited using a novel electron beam evaporation technique. In this technique the crucible has a groove around its circumference and rotates continuously during deposition. The source material is loaded in the form of pellets of the composite. Both oxides as well as flourides have been used in the starting material and a comparison of the film properties has been made. The best film was obtained on a MgO(100) substrate with a Tc onset at 85 K and Tc zero at 77 K using calcium flouride in the source material.

  9. New Technique for Successful Thermal Barrier Coating Specimen Preparation for Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickey; Lee

    2000-05-01

    Reliability of thermal barrier coatings (TBC) hinges on the adhesion of a thermally grown oxide scale to an insulative ceramic topcoat and an underlying metallic bondcoat. The width of the scale and its interfaces makes transmission electron microscopy (TEM) an appropriate tool for its analysis. However, specimen preparation has proven to be a challenging obstacle leading to a dearth of TEM research on TBCs. A new approach to cross-section TBC TEM specimen preparation is described. The principal advantages of this technique are reproducibility, reduced specimen damage, and time savings resulting from decreased ion milling. This technique has been successfully applied to numerous TBC specimens with various thermal histories.

  10. Assessment of phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for correction of high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A El-Helw

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A El-Helw, Ahmed M EmarahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate various phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for the incidence of intraoperative difficulties and complications.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study in which bilateral clear lens extraction was performed on 40 eyes of 20 patients, to correct high myopia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A underwent supracapsular phacoaspiration; group B were the contralateral eyes of the same patient. These patients were operated on with endocapsular phacoaspiration with the divide and conquer (D and C technique. Preoperative ocular examination data were recorded and tested for significance. Intraoperative difficulties and complications such as nucleus cracking, capsule rupture and vitreous loss, and repeated chamber collapse were recorded. Postoperative examination data were recorded.Results: Mean age was 35.65 ± 5.85 years. Mean follow-up time was 17.1 ± 8.56 months. In group A mean myopia was -17.3 ± 5.07 diopters; in group B myopia was -17.9 ± 4.20 diopters. Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 0.04 ± 0.0167, while the mean postoperative UCVA was 0.435 ± 0.1442. There was a significant difference in pre and postoperative BCVA within both groups, but not between the two groups. In both groups endothelial cell count (ECC showed a significant difference between pre- and postoperative data; however, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups in postoperative ECC. The effective phacoaspiration time for group A was 4.6 ± 1.6 seconds, and for group B 9.90 ± 2.27 seconds (P < 0.005. No cases of capsule rupture occurred in group A, but 3 cases occurred in group B (15 % (not significant, P = 0.231. Nucleus cracking did not occur in group A, but in group B 13 cases occurred (65%. Chamber collapse occurred in 4 cases (20% in group A and 5 cases (25% in group B (not

  11. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-12-17

    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase.

  12. A computationally assisted spectroscopic technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients in radio frequency plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daksha, M.; Berger, B.; Schuengel, E.; Korolov, I.; Derzsi, A.; Koepke, M.; Donkó, Z.; Schulze, J.

    2016-06-01

    A computationally assisted spectroscopic technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients (γ-CAST) in capacitively-coupled radio-frequency plasmas is proposed. This non-intrusive, sensitive diagnostic is based on a combination of phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy and particle-based kinetic simulations. In such plasmas (under most conditions in electropositive gases) the spatio-temporally resolved electron-impact excitation/ionization rate features two distinct maxima adjacent to each electrode at different times within each RF period. While one maximum is the consequence of the energy gain of electrons due to sheath expansion, the second maximum is produced by secondary electrons accelerated towards the plasma bulk by the sheath electric field at the time of maximum voltage drop across the adjacent sheath. Due to these different excitation/ionization mechanisms, the ratio of the intensities of these maxima is very sensitive to the secondary electron emission coefficient γ. This sensitvity, in turn, allows γ to be determined by comparing experimental excitation profiles and simulation data obtained with various γ-coefficients. The diagnostic, tested here in a geometrically symmetric argon discharge, yields an effective secondary electron emission coefficient of γ =0.066+/- 0.01 for stainless steel electrodes.

  13. A Biophysical Image Compositing Technique for the Global-Scale Extraction and Mapping of Barren Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram C. Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the barren lands play a key role in the interaction between land cover dynamics and climate system, an efficient methodology for the global-scale extraction and mapping of the barren lands is important. The discriminative potential of the existing soil/bareness indexes was assessed by collecting globally distributed reference data belonging to major land cover types. The existing soil/bareness indexes parameterized at the local scale did not work satisfactorily everywhere at the global level. A new technique called the Biophysical Image Composite (BIC is proposed in the research by exploiting time-series of the multi-spectral data to capture global-scale barren land attributes effectively. The BIC is a false color composite image made up of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, short wave infrared reflectance, and green reflectance, which were specially selected from the highest vegetation activity period by avoiding signals from the seasonal snowfall. The drastic contrast between the barren lands and vegetation as exhibited by the BIC provides a robust extraction and mapping of the barren lands, and facilitates its visual interpretation. Random Forests based supervised classification approach was applied on the BIC for the mapping of global barren lands. A new global barren land cover map of year 2013 was produced with high accuracy. The comparison of the resulted map with an existing map of the same year showed a substantial discrepancy between two maps due to methodological variation. To cope with this problem, the BIC based mapping methodology, with a special account of the land surface phenological changes, is suggested to standardize the global-scale estimates and mapping of the barren lands.

  14. An Automatic Building Extraction and Regularisation Technique Using LiDAR Point Cloud Data and Orthoimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Naqi Gilani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of robust and accurate methods for automatic building detection and regularisation using multisource data continues to be a challenge due to point cloud sparsity, high spectral variability, urban objects differences, surrounding complexity, and data misalignment. To address these challenges, constraints on object’s size, height, area, and orientation are generally benefited which adversely affect the detection performance. Often the buildings either small in size, under shadows or partly occluded are ousted during elimination of superfluous objects. To overcome the limitations, a methodology is developed to extract and regularise the buildings using features from point cloud and orthoimagery. The building delineation process is carried out by identifying the candidate building regions and segmenting them into grids. Vegetation elimination, building detection and extraction of their partially occluded parts are achieved by synthesising the point cloud and image data. Finally, the detected buildings are regularised by exploiting the image lines in the building regularisation process. Detection and regularisation processes have been evaluated using the ISPRS benchmark and four Australian data sets which differ in point density (1 to 29 points/m2, building sizes, shadows, terrain, and vegetation. Results indicate that there is 83% to 93% per-area completeness with the correctness of above 95%, demonstrating the robustness of the approach. The absence of over- and many-to-many segmentation errors in the ISPRS data set indicate that the technique has higher per-object accuracy. While compared with six existing similar methods, the proposed detection and regularisation approach performs significantly better on more complex data sets (Australian in contrast to the ISPRS benchmark, where it does better or equal to the counterparts.

  15. Electron energy loss spectroscopy techniques for the study of microbial chromium(VI) reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daulton, Tyrone L.; Little, Brenda J.; Lowe, Kristine; Jones-Meehan, Joanne

    2002-01-01

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) techniques were used to determine oxidation state, at high spatial resolution, of chromium associated with the metal-reducing bacteria, Shewanella oneidensis, in anaerobic cultures containing Cr(VI)O4(2-). These techniques were applied to fixed cells examined in thin section by conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) as well as unfixed, hydrated bacteria examined by environmental cell (EC)-TEM. Two distinct populations of bacteria were observed by TEM: bacteria exhibiting low image contrast and bacteria exhibiting high contrast in their cell membrane (or boundary) structure which was often encrusted with high-contrast precipitates. Measurements by EELS demonstrated that cell boundaries became saturated with low concentrations of Cr and the precipitates encrusting bacterial cells contained a reduced form of Cr in oxidation state + 3 or lower.

  16. Systematic reliability assessment techniques for the evaluation and design of mining electronic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussey, C.; Worthington, B.; Pinkard, D.

    1985-04-01

    A number of well established methods are now available to enable better evaluation of the reliability characteristics of engineering systems. For the analysis of electronic equipment, FMECA (failure mode, effect and criticality analysis) is the most widely used and is particularly useful for studying the fail-safe characteristics by considering the effect of each individual component failure on the operational characteristics of the circuit. The technique of FMECA and its application to mining electronic systems is described. The second part of the paper considers possible safety implications associated with the widespread use of microprocessor technology and outlines, by example, the need for the integration of the systematic technique of hazard and reliability assessment into the design and development phases of such systems. 17 references.

  17. Optimized Axillary Vein Technique versus Subclavian Vein Technique in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Implantation: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Liu; Yi-Feng Zhou; Peng Yang; Yan-Sha Gao; Gui-Ru Zhao; Shi-Yan Ren; Xian-Lun Li

    2016-01-01

    Background:The conventional venous access for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) is the subclavian vein,which is often accompanied by high complication rate.The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of optimized axillary vein technique.Methods:A total of 247 patients undergoing CIED implantation were included and assigned to the axillary vein group or the subclavian vein group randomly.Success rate of puncture and complications in the perioperative period and follow-ups were recorded.Results:The overall success rate (95.7% vs.96.0%) and one-time success rate (68.4% vs.66.1%) of punctures were similar between the two groups.In the subclavian vein group,pneumothorax occurred in three patients.The subclavian gaps of three patients were too tight to allow operation of the electrode lead.In contrast,there were no puncture-associated complications in the axillary vein group.In the patient follow-ups,two patients in the subclavian vein group had subclavian crush syndrome and both of them received lead replacement.The incidence of complications during the perioperative period and follow-ups of the axillary vein group and the subclavian vein group was 1.6% (2/125) and 8.2% (10/122),respectively (x2=5.813,P =0.016).Conclusion:Optimized axillary vein technique may be superior to the conventional subclavian vein technique for CIED lead placement.

  18. The Regional Electronic Commerce Development Level Evaluation Technique based on ELECTRE-IV Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAI Shan-shan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has become an effective method to enhance economic competiveness and win the resource allocation advantages for different regions, as well as a key standard to assess the economic power of one region. A novel evaluation technique based on ELECTRE-IV method is proposed to the regional electronic commerce development level. Experimental results suggest that this proposed approach is correct, feasible and efficacious.

  19. Comparison of extraction techniques and mass spectrometric ionization modes in the analysis of wine volatile carbonyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Julian; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; Cacho, Juan [Laboratory for Flavor Analysis and Enology, Institute of Engineering of Aragon, I3A, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ferreira, Vicente, E-mail: vferre@unizar.es [Laboratory for Flavor Analysis and Enology, Institute of Engineering of Aragon, I3A, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    This work presents a comparative study of the analytical characteristics of two methods for the analysis of carbonyl compounds in wine, both based on the derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA). In the first method derivatives are formed in the solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge in which the analytes have been previously isolated, while in the second method derivatives are formed in a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibre saturated with vapors of the reagent and exposed to the sample headspace. In both cases detection has been carried out by electron impact (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The possibility of determining haloanisols simultaneously has been also considered. The method based on SPE presents, in general, better analytical properties than the SPME one. Although linearity was satisfactory for both methods (R{sup 2} > 0.99), repeatability of the SPE method (RSD < 10%) was better than that obtained with SPME (9% < RSD < 20%). Detection limits obtained with EI are better for the SPE method except for trihaloanisols, while with NCI detection limits for both strategies are comparable, although the SPME strategy presents worse results for ketones and methional. Detection limits are always lower with NCI, being the improvement most notable for SPME. Recovery experiments show that in the case of SPE, uncertainties are lower than 12% in all cases, while with the SPME method the imprecision plus the existence of matrix effects make the global uncertainty to be higher than 15%.

  20. An efficient approach for the extraction of orientin and vitexin from Trollius chinensis flowers using ultrasonic circulating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Junling; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) approach was developed for effective extraction of orientin and vitexin from the flowers of Trollius chinensis successfully. In this study, some parameters potentially influencing the yields of orientin and vitexin were systematically investigated and optimized by Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design, and the optimum operational conditions obtained were 60% ethanol volume fraction, 1000r/min stirring speed, 30°C temperature, 28min ultrasonic irradiation time, 10mL/g liquid-solid ratio and 738W ultrasonic irradiation power. Satisfactory yields of orientin (6.05±0.19mg/g) and vitexin (0.96±0.03mg/g) were obtained in a relatively shorter extraction time under the derived optimum conditions, compared to other ultrasonic extraction methods and heat extraction methods. The mechanism of UCE procedure was discussed in detail, to illustrate the advantage of UCE in the extraction process. In addition, no degradation of orientin and vitexin and high reproducibility of the developed UCE method were observed under the optimum conditions. The proposed UCE technique with high-capacity and circulation function is a rapid and efficient sample extraction technique, and performs promising in large-scale sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigation of Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B coatings produced by the electron beam cladding technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimogliadova, T. A.; Drobyaz, E. A.; Golkovskii, M. G.; Bataev, V. A.; Durakov, V. G.; Cherkasova, N. Yu

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents the results of structural investigations and results of tribological and microhardness tests of the coating obtained by electron beam cladding of a Ni-Cr-Si-Fe-B self-fluxing alloy on low-carbon steel. After electron beam treatment high-quality dense layer with a thickness of 1.2-1.8 mm was obtained. The structure of the coating consisted of dendrite crystals based on y-Ni-solid solution and eutectic with complex composition. Microhardness of the coating achieves 370 HV. Wear-resistance of the coating obtained by electron-beam cladding technique was 1.6-fold higher than that of low-carbon carburized steel.

  2. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD).

  3. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Bauluz, Blanca; Canudo, José Ignacio; Gasca, José Manuel; Torcida Fernández-Baldor, Fidel

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells.

  4. Study on classification of soy sauce by electronic tongue technique combined with artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou-Yang, Qin; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Chen, Quan-Sheng; Lin, Hao; Huang, Xing-Yi

    2011-01-01

    Electronic tongue as an analytical tool coupled with pattern recognition was attempted to classify 4 different brands and 2 categories (produced by different processes) of Chinese soy sauce. An electronic tongue system was used for data acquisition of the samples. Some effective variables were extracted from electronic tongue data by principal component analysis (PCA). Backpropagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to build identification models. PCA score plots show an obvious cluster trend of different brands and different categories of soy sauce in the 2-dimensional space. The optimal BP-ANN model for different brands was achieved when principal components (PCs) were 2, and the identification rate of the discrimination model was 100% in both the calibration set and the prediction set, and the optimal BP-ANN model for different categories had the same result. This work demonstrates that electronic tongue technology combined with a suitable pattern recognition method can be successfully used in the classification of different brands and categories of soy sauce.

  5. Post mastectomy chest wall irradiation using mixed electron-photon beams with or without isocentric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H K; Zikry, M S

    2008-01-01

    To describe our technique in delivering post mastectomy radiotherapy to chest wall using electron-photon mixed beam with or without isocentric application of the tangential photon portals, and to evaluate the associated acute and delayed morbidities. Twenty-two females with invasive breast cancer were subjected to modified radical mastectomy with adequate axillary dissection. All the patients have either tumour > or = 5 cm and/ or positive axillary nodes > 3. Chest wall was irradiated by a mixed beam of 6-Mev electrons (10Gy) and opposed tangential fields using 6 Mev-photons (36 Gy) followed by 6-Mev electrons boost to the scar of mastectomy for 4 Gy/2 fractions. We randomly allocated our patients to receive the photon beam with or without the isocentric technique. The mean dose to the planned target volume (PTV) by mixed beam was 44 Gy (96%) with a mean dose of 42 Gy (91%) to the overlying skin for the whole study group. In cases with right breast disease (17 cases), the mean right lung tissue volume within the PTV was 220 ml (15%). It was relatively higher with the non-iscocentric technique, 281 ml (19%), compared to the isocentric technique of 159 ml (10.5%). In cases with left breast disease (5 cases), the mean left lung volume within the PTV was 175 ml (14%). Larger volume of the lung tissue was included with the non-isocentric technique, 197 ml (16%) compared to the isocentric technique of 153 ml (12%). The mean scattered doses to the rest of the lung tissue, the rest of the heart in left breast cases, and the contra-lateral breast for the whole study group were 2.8 Gy, 1.8 Gy, and 1.4 Gy respectively and was comparable in both treatment arms. None of the cases developed any element of acute radiation related pneumonitis. Delayed radiation induced pneumonitis was seen in 2 cases (18%), with the chest wall treated with radiation with the non-isocentric technique. This study clearly demonstrated the utility of mixed beam in irradiating the chest wall after

  6. Surface Morphology and Microstructural Characterization of KCl Crystals Grown in Halite-Sylvite Brine Solutions by Electron Backscattered Diffraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Jiban; Basu, Ritwik; Evitts, Richard William; Besant, Robert William

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a study on the ternary NaCl-KCl-H2O system was carried out by an extractive metallurgy technique from mixed brine solutions of different compositions at room temperature (23°C). The surface morphology and microstructure were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The presence of Na{ }+ was found to reduce the stability of the solutions and increase the crystallization induction period, interfacial energy, energy of formation of the nucleus and greatly reduce the nucleation rate of KCl crystal. The surface morphology of KCl crystals is significantly changed due to presence of 5 to 10% (w/w) of NaCl as impurities in the binary solutions and shows the formation of co-crystals of different crystallographic orientation of NaCl on the KCl surface. In addition X-ray diffraction studies performed on KCl crystals grown in halite-sylvite binary solutions reveals that these crystals are cubic in nature and its lattice constant is 6.2952 Å when the NaCl concentration is small.

  7. [Hand hygiene technique assessment using electronic equipment in 26 Hungarian healthcare institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotsky, Ákos; Morvai, Júlia; Szilágyi, László; Bánsághi, Száva; Benkó, Alíz; Haidegger, Tamás

    2017-07-01

    Hand hygiene is probably the most effective tool of nosocomial infection prevention, however, proper feedback and control is needed to develop the individual hand hygiene practice. Assessing the efficiency of modern education tools, and digital demonstration and verification equipment during their wide-range deployment. 1269 healthcare workers took part in a training organized by our team. The training included the assessment of the participants' hand hygiene technique to identify the most often missed areas. The hand hygiene technique was examined by a digital device. 33% of the participants disinfected their hands incorrectly. The most often missed sites are the fingertips (33% on the left hand, 37% on the right hand) and the thumbs (42% on the left hand, 32% on the right hand). The feedback has a fundamental role in the development of the hand hygiene technique. With the usage of electronic devices feedback can be provided efficiently and simply. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(29): 1143-1148.

  8. [Leaf characteristics extraction of rice under potassium stress based on static scan and spectral segmentation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-yuan; Deng, Jin-song; Chen, Li-su; Zhang, Dong-yan; Ding, Xiao-dong; Wang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    The timing, convenient and reliable method of diagnosing and monitoring crop nutrition is the foundation of scientific fertilization management. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by traditional methods, which always need excessively work on sampling, detection and analysis and even exhibit lagging timing. In the present study, stable images for potassium-stressed leaf were acquired using stationary scanning, and object-oriented segmentation technique was adopted to produce image objects. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify characteristics of potassium-stressed features. Diagnosing with image, the 3rd expanded leaves are superior to the 1st expanded leaves. In order to assess the result, 250 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. The results showed that the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient was 96.00% and 0.9453 respectively. The study offered an information extraction method for quantitative diagnosis of rice under potassium stress.

  9. Biometric analysis of the palm vein distribution by means two different techniques of feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Solís-Villarreal, J.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.

    2014-09-01

    Vein patterns can be used for accessing, identifying, and authenticating purposes; which are more reliable than classical identification way. Furthermore, these patterns can be used for venipuncture in health fields to get on to veins of patients when they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In this paper, an image acquisition system is implemented in order to acquire digital images of people hands in the near infrared. The image acquisition system consists of a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm. This radiation can penetrate and can be strongly absorbed by the desoxyhemoglobin that is presented in the blood of the veins. Our method of analysis is composed by several steps and the first one of all is the enhancement of acquired images which is implemented by spatial filters. After that, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are used in order to obtain the distribution of vein patterns. The above process is focused on the people recognition through of images of their palm-dorsal distributions obtained from the near infrared light. This work has been directed for doing a comparison of two different techniques of feature extraction as moments and veincode. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks. Two databases are used for the analysis of the performance of the algorithms. The first database used here is owned of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the second one is our own database.

  10. A LADAR bare earth extraction technique for diverse topography and complex scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.

    2012-06-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to LADAR data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. A successful approach provides a flexible methodology (adaptable for topography and/or environment) that is capable of integrating multiple ladar point cloud data attributes. A newly developed approach (TE-SiP) uses a 2nd and 3rd order spatial derivative for each point in the DEM to determine sets of contiguous regions of similar elevation. Specifically, the derivative of the central point represents the curvature of the terrain at that position. Contiguous sets of high (positive or negative) values define sharp edges such as building edges or cliffs. This method is independent of the slope, such that very steep, but continuous topography still have relatively low curvature values and are preserved in the terrain classification. Next, a recursive segmentation method identifies unique features of homogeneity on the surface separated by areas of high curvature. An iterative selection process is used to eliminate regions containing buildings or vegetation from the terrain surface. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LADAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity. The results shown here include developed and forested regions in the Dominican Republic.

  11. A Review of Physical and Perceptual Feature Extraction Techniques for Speech, Music and Environmental Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Alías

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endowing machines with sensing capabilities similar to those of humans is a prevalent quest in engineering and computer science. In the pursuit of making computers sense their surroundings, a huge effort has been conducted to allow machines and computers to acquire, process, analyze and understand their environment in a human-like way. Focusing on the sense of hearing, the ability of computers to sense their acoustic environment as humans do goes by the name of machine hearing. To achieve this ambitious aim, the representation of the audio signal is of paramount importance. In this paper, we present an up-to-date review of the most relevant audio feature extraction techniques developed to analyze the most usual audio signals: speech, music and environmental sounds. Besides revisiting classic approaches for completeness, we include the latest advances in the field based on new domains of analysis together with novel bio-inspired proposals. These approaches are described following a taxonomy that organizes them according to their physical or perceptual basis, being subsequently divided depending on the domain of computation (time, frequency, wavelet, image-based, cepstral, or other domains. The description of the approaches is accompanied with recent examples of their application to machine hearing related problems.

  12. A computationally assisted spectroscopic technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients in technological rf plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Birk; Schulze, Julian; Daksha, Manaswi; Schuengel, Edmund; Koepke, Mark; Korolov, Ihor; Derzsi, Aranka; Donko, Zoltan

    2016-09-01

    A Computationally Assisted Spectroscopic Technique to measure secondary electron emission coefficients (y-CAST) in capacitive rf plasmas is proposed. This non-intrusive, sensitive diagnostic is based on a combination of Phase Resolved Optical Emission Spectroscopy and PIC simulations. Under most conditions in electropositive plasmas the spatio-temporally resolved electron-impact excitation rate features two distinct maxima adjacent to each electrode at different times within one rf period. One maximum is the consequence of an energy gain of the electrons due to sheath expansion. The second maximum is produced by electrons accelerated towards the plasma bulk by the sheath electric field at the time of maximum voltage drop across the sheath. Due to the different excitation mechanisms the ratio of the intensities of these maxima is very sensitive to y, which allows for its determination via comparing the experimentally measured excitation profiles with corresponding simulation data obtained with various y-coefficients. This diagnostic is tested here in a geometrically symmetric reactor, for stainless steel electrodes and argon gas. An effective secondary electron emission coefficient of y = 0.067+-0.010 is obtained, which is in excellent agreement with previous experimental results.

  13. Progress in bionic information processing techniques for an electronic nose based on olfactory models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang; FU Jun; ZHANG Jia; ZHENG JunBao

    2009-01-01

    As a novel bionic analytical technique, an electronic nose, inspired by the mechanism of the biological olfactory system and integrated with modern sensing technology, electronic technology and pattern recognition technology, has been widely used in many areas. Moreover, recent basic research findings in biological olfaction combined with computational neuroscience promote its development both in methodology and application. In this review, the basic information processing principle of biological olfaction and artificial olfaction are summarized and compared, and four olfactory models and their applications to electronic noses are presented. Finally, a chaotic olfactory neural network is detailed and the utilization of several biologically oriented learning rules and its spatiotemporal dynamic prop-ties for electronic noses are discussed. The integration of various phenomena and their mechanisms for biological olfaction into an electronic nose context for information processing will not only make them more bionic, but also perform better than conventional methods. However, many problems still remain, which should be solved by further cooperation between theorists and engineers.

  14. Multi-residue quantification of veterinary drugs in milk with a novel extraction and cleanup technique: salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2014-04-11

    A quantitative liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of more than one hundred compounds belonging to a variety of veterinary drug classes in bovine milk. Salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE), a novel extraction and cleanup technique, was introduced to ensure high extraction efficiency and good sample cleanup. The high salt (ammonium sulfate) concentration in the aqueous donor phase permits supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE) with a relative polar organic acceptor phase (acetonitrile). This is different from traditional SLE, in which the need for phase separation results in the selection of organic solvents with intermediate polarities (e.g., ethyl acetate or dichloromethane). Hence, SOSLE is more efficient in recovering polar analytes than conventional SLE. SOSLE was also compared to classical approaches like solid phase extraction, QuEChERS and ultra-filtration. The proposed technique resulted in extracts of equal or superior cleanliness and with higher average recoveries than those obtained with QuEChERS or SPE. The recovery (median for all compounds) was 73% for QuEChERS, 83% for SPE and 91% for SOSLE. The most significant improvements were observed for polar analytes (penicillines, quinolones and tetracyclines) which are hardly recovered by QuEChERS. The chromatographic separation and detection was based on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap system (Q-Exactive plus). The developed analytical method has been validated (based on the commission decision 2002/957/EC) as required for quantitative veterinary drug methods.

  15. Physician assessment of disease activity in JIA subtypes. Analysis of data extracted from electronic medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Deli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Although electronic medical records (EMRs have facilitated care for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA, analyses of treatment outcomes have required paper based or manually re-entered data. We have started EMR discrete data entry for JIA patient visits, including joint examination and global assessment, by physician and patient. In this preliminary study, we extracted data from the EMR to Xenobase™ (TransMed Systems, Inc., Cupertino, CA, an application permitting cohort analyses of the relationship between global assessment to joint examination and subtype. Methods During clinic visits, data were entered into discrete fields in ambulatory visit forms in the EMR (EpicCare™, Epic Systems, Verona, WI. Data were extracted using Clarity Reports, then de-identified and uploaded for analyses to Xenobase™. Parameters included joint examination, ILAR diagnostic classification, physician global assessment, patient global assessment, and patient pain score. Data for a single visit for each of 160 patients over a 2 month period, beginning March, 2010, were analyzed. Results In systemic JIA patients, strong correlations for physician global assessment were found with pain score, joint count and patient assessment. In contrast, physician assessment for patients with persistent oligoarticular and rheumatoid factor negative patients showed strong correlation with joint counts, but only moderate correlation with pain scores and patient global assessment. Conversely, for enthesitis patients, physician assessment correlated strongly with pain scores, and moderately with joint count and patient global assessment. Rheumatoid factor positive patients, the smallest group studied, showed moderate correlation for all three measures. Patient global assessment for systemic patients showed strong correlations with pain scores and joint count, similar to data for physician assessment. For polyarticular and enthesitis patients

  16. A method for extracting electronic patient record data from practice management software systems used in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Diette, Julie S; Brennan, Marnie L; Cobb, Malcolm; Doit, Hannah; Dean, Rachel S

    2016-10-21

    Data extracted from electronic patient records (EPRs) within practice management software systems are increasingly used in veterinary research. The use of real patient data gives the potential to generate research that can readily be applied to clinical practice. The use of veterinary EPRs for research in the United Kingdom is hindered by the number of different Practice Management System (PMS) providers used by practices, as obtaining and combining data from different systems electronically can be problematic. The use of extensible mark up language (XML) to extract clinical data for research would potentially resolve the compatibility issues between systems. The aim of this study was to establish and validate a method for the extraction of small animal patient records from a veterinary PMS that could potentially be used across multiple systems. An XML schema was designed to extract clinical information from EPRs. The schema was tested and validated in a test system, and was then tested in a real small animal practice where data was extracted for 16 weeks. A 10 % sample of the extracted records was then compared to paper copies provided by the practice. All 21 fields encoded by the XML schema, from all of the records in the test system, were extracted with 100 % accuracy. Over the 18 week data collection period 4946 records, from 1279 patients, were extracted from the small animal practice. The 10 % printed records checked and compared with the XML extracted records demonstrated all required data was present. No unrequired, sensitive information e.g. costs or services/products or personal client information was extracted. This is the first time a method for data extraction from EPRs in veterinary practice using an XML schema has been reported in the United Kingdom. This is an efficient and accurate way of extracting data which could be applied to all PMSs nationally and internationally.

  17. Replacement of extracted permanent pacemaker or defibrillator leads by cannulation of veins using the femoral "drag-through" technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Staniforth

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the utility of a novel technique for reuse of thrombosed veins when extracting permanent pacemaker leads via a femoral vein approach. Background: Although lead extraction permanent pacemaker using a femoral approach has advantages over the subclavian approach, it cannot be used to provide access for a new lead using currently employed techniques. This is important because up to 23% of patients have occluded veins after permanent pacemaker implantation. Methods: The pacemaker lead to be extracted was released from the generator and retaining sutures at the implantation site. The lead was then grabbed from below using a needle-eye-snare or basket. The lead was then cut short and a drag through technique performed where a guide wire was pushed into the gap between the insulation and the coil. This guide wire was then drawn into the right atrium as the lead was pulled down from below. This guide wire was then used to introduce a sheath through which a replacement lead could be inserted. Results: A total of 34 consecutive patients (21 male, aged 63±14 years, mean±SD had 57 (1.7/patient leads extracted. Fourteen patients required implantation of a new system and were suitable for immediate lead replacement using the drag through technique. All leads were successfully extracted, with 5 partial successes (9.1% of leads. The drag-through technique was successful in all, including 4 with subclavian vein occlusion. Procedure and fluoroscopy times, including the time required for implantation of a new system, were 143±65 mins and 31±23 mins respectively. There were no complications and hospital stay was 1.6±1.2 days for patients undergoing the drag-through procedure. Conclusion: The drag-through technique can be successfully used to provide access in order to replace pacemaker leads removed using a femoral approach.

  18. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, K O; Zhao, J; Pourdavoud, N; Becker, T; Hu, T; Olthof, S; Meerholz, K; Hoffmann, L; Gahlmann, T; Heiderhoff, R; Oszajca, M F; Luechinger, N A; Rogalla, D; Chen, Y; Cheng, B; Riedl, T

    2017-01-09

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and-more importantly-it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability.

  19. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, K.O.; Zhao, J.; Pourdavoud, N.; Becker, T.; Hu, T.; Olthof, S.; Meerholz, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Gahlmann, T.; Heiderhoff, R.; Oszajca, M. F.; Luechinger, N. A.; Rogalla, D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, B.; Riedl, T

    2017-01-01

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and—more importantly—it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability. PMID:28067308

  20. Suppressed decomposition of organometal halide perovskites by impermeable electron-extraction layers in inverted solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, K. O.; Zhao, J.; Pourdavoud, N.; Becker, T.; Hu, T.; Olthof, S.; Meerholz, K.; Hoffmann, L.; Gahlmann, T.; Heiderhoff, R.; Oszajca, M. F.; Luechinger, N. A.; Rogalla, D.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, B.; Riedl, T.

    2017-01-01

    The area of thin-film photovoltaics has been overwhelmed by organometal halide perovskites. Unfortunately, serious stability concerns arise with perovskite solar cells. For example, methyl-ammonium lead iodide is known to decompose in the presence of water and, more severely, even under inert conditions at elevated temperatures. Here, we demonstrate inverted perovskite solar cells, in which the decomposition of the perovskite is significantly mitigated even at elevated temperatures. Specifically, we introduce a bilayered electron-extraction interlayer consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide and tin oxide. We evidence tin oxide grown by atomic layer deposition does form an outstandingly dense gas permeation barrier that effectively hinders the ingress of moisture towards the perovskite and--more importantly--it prevents the egress of decomposition products of the perovskite. Thereby, the overall decomposition of the perovskite is significantly suppressed, leading to an outstanding device stability.

  1. The extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine during fermentative maceration is affected by the enological technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2011-05-25

    The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction.

  2. Sodium bromide electron-extraction layers for polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Zhi; Qu, Bo, E-mail: bqu@pku.edu.cn; Xiao, Lixin; Chen, Zhijian [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); New Display Device and System Integration Collaborative Innovation Center of the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait, Fuzhou 350002 (China); Zhang, Lipei [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Gong, Qihuang [State Key Laboratory for Artificial Microstructures and Mesoscopic Physics, Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-03-10

    Inexpensive and non-toxic sodium bromide (NaBr) was introduced into polymer solar cells (PSCs) as the cathode buffer layer (CBL) and the electron extraction characteristics of the NaBr CBL were investigated in detail. The PSCs based on NaBr CBL with different thicknesses (i.e., 0 nm, 0.5 nm, 1 nm, and 1.5 nm) were prepared and studied. The optimal thickness of NaBr was 1 nm according to the photovoltaic data of PSCs. The open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}), short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the PSC with 1 nm NaBr were evaluated to be 0.58 V, 7.36 mA/cm{sup 2}, 0.63, and 2.70%, respectively, which were comparable to those of the reference device with the commonly used LiF. The optimized photovoltaic performance of PSC with 1 nm NaBr was ascribed to the improved electron transport and extraction capability of 1 nm NaBr in PSCs. In addition, the NaBr CBL could prevent the diffusion of oxygen and water vapor into the active layer and prolong the lifetime of the devices to some extent. Therefore, NaBr layer could be considered as a promising non-toxic CBL for PSCs in future.

  3. Dual use of tantalum disulfides as hole and electron extraction layers in organic photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Quyet Van; Nguyen, Thang Phan; Choi, Kyoung Soon; Cho, Yoon-Ho; Hong, Young Joon; Kim, Soo Young

    2014-12-14

    UV/ozone treated (UVO-treated) TaS2 and non-treated TaS2 nanosheets are introduced into organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) as hole extraction layers (HEL) and electron extraction layers (EEL). TaS2 nanosheets are obtained via ultrasonic vibration and size-controlled by centrifugation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images reveal that the thickness and lateral size of TaS2 nanosheets are approximately 1 and 70 nm, indicating that uniform and ultrathin TaS2 nanosheets are obtained. The work function of TaS2 increases from 4.4 eV to 4.9-5.1 eV after applying UVO treatment by forming Ta2O5. In addition, the power conversion efficiencies of normal OPV with UVO-treated TaS2 and inverted OPV with TaS2 are 3.06 and 2.73%, which are higher than those of OPV without TaS2 (1.56% for normal OPV and 0.22% for inverted OPV). These results indicate that TaS2 is a promising material for HEL and EEL layers in OPVs.

  4. Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for the rapid screening and identification of antioxidants in methanolic extracts of pharmaceutically used plants .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Fiamegos, Y.C.; Beek, van T.A.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis is an important scientific research area, which normally relies on a number of rather laborious and time-consuming techniques for compound identification. Isolation of the ingredients of plant extracts in adequate quantities for spectral and biological analysis was the basis o

  5. Assessment of the quality of dna extracted by two techniques from Mycobacterium tuberculosis for fast molecular identification and genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative study of two DNA extraction techniques, thermolysis and chemical lysis (CTAB, for molecular identification and genotyping of M. tuberculosis. Forty DNA samples were subjected to PCR and the results demonstrated that with thermolysis it is possible to obtain useful data that enables fast identification and genotyping.

  6. Adsorptive micro-extraction techniques--novel analytical tools for trace levels of polar solutes in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Silva, A R M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-11-19

    A novel enrichment technique, adsorptive μ-extraction (AμE), is proposed for trace analysis of polar solutes in aqueous media. The preparation, stability tests and development of the analytical devices using two geometrical configurations, i.e. bar adsorptive μ-extraction (BAμE) and multi-spheres adsorptive μ-extraction (MSAμE) is fully discussed. From the several sorbent materials tested, activated carbons and polystyrene divinylbenzene phases demonstrated the best stability, robustness and to be the most suitable for analytical purposes. The application of both BAμE and MSAμE devices proved remarkable performance for the determination of trace levels of polar solutes and metabolites (e.g. pesticides, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals) in water matrices and biological fluids. By comparing AμE techniques with stir bar sorptive extraction based on polydimethylsiloxane phase, great effectiveness is attained overcoming the limitations of the latter enrichment approach regarding the more polar solutes. Furthermore, convenient sensitivity and selectivity is reached through AμE techniques, since the great advantage of this new analytical technology is the possibility to choose the most suitable sorbent to each particular type of application. The enrichment techniques proposed are cost-effective, easy to prepare and work-up, demonstrating robustness and to be a remarkable analytical tool for trace analysis of priority solutes in areas of recognized importance such as environment, forensic and other related life sciences.

  7. Preliminary Phytochemical screening of the Ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa Tubers and Estimation of Diosgenin by HPTLC Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Roy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simple phytochemical screening procedures were carried out to find the various constituents present in the ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa tubers. Further,estimation of Diosgenin in Dioscorea villosa tubers, was carried out by HPTLC technique. The preliminary screening showed presence of proteins, flavonoids tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds saponins and glycosides. The extract was chromatographed on silica gel GF254 plates with Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid: Formic Acid (4: 3: 1:1 as mobile phase. Detection and quantification were performed by densitrometric scanning, at 366 nm. The average recovery of diosgenin was found to be 0.48 %. The HPTLC technique has provided a good resolution of diosgenin from other constituents present in the ethanolic extract.

  8. Block truncation coding with color clumps:A novel feature extraction technique for content based image classification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUDEEP THEPADE; RIK DAS; SAURAV GHOSH

    2016-09-01

    The paper has explored principle of block truncation coding (BTC) as a means to perform feature extraction for content based image classification. A variation of block truncation coding, named BTC with color clumps has been implemented in this work to generate feature vectors. Classification performance with the proposed technique of feature extraction has been compared to existing techniques. Two widely used publicdataset named Wang dataset and Caltech dataset have been used for analyses and comparisons of classification performances based on four different metrics. The study has established BTC with color clumps as an effective alternative for feature extraction compared to existing methods. The experiments were carried out in RGB colorspace. Two different categories of classifiers viz. K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) Classifier and RIDOR Classifier were used to measure the classification performances. A paired t test was conducted to establish the statistical significance of the findings. Evaluation of classifier algorithms were done in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v ethanol-water extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM, total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM, and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM, and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity. Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  10. Dispersive solid-phase extraction as a simplified clean-up technique for biological sample extracts. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Camargo, Alejandra; Martinez, Luis D; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2011-05-06

    Dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) is proposed for the first time as a simplified, fast and low cost clean-up technique of biological sample extracts for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determination. The combination of a traditional extraction technique, such as ultrasound-assisted leaching (USAL) with DSPE was successfully applied for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were first extracted from 1g homogenized sample in n-hexane:dichloromethane (8:2) by applying USAL technique and further cleaned-up using DSPE with 0.20 g C(18)-silica as sorbent material. Different solvent mixtures, sorbent type and amount, and lipid digestion procedures were evaluated in terms of clean-up and extraction efficiency. Under optimum conditions, the method detection limits (MDLs) for PBDEs, calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were within the range 9-44 pg g(-1) wet weight. The calibration graphs were linear within the concentration range of 53-500,000 pg g(-1), 66-500,000 pg g(-1), 89-500,000 pg g(-1) and 151-500,000 pg g(-1) for BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively; and the coefficient of determination (r(2)) exceeded 0.9992 for all analytes. The proposed methodology was compared with a reference solid-phase extraction technique. The applicability of the methodology for the screening of PBDEs has been demonstrated by analyzing spiked and real samples of biological nature (fish, egg and chicken) with different lipid content as well as reference material (WELL-WMF-01). Recovery values ranged between 75% and 114% and the measured concentrations in certified material showed a reasonable agreement with the certified ones. BDE-47, BDE-100 and BDE-99 were quantified in three of the seven analyzed samples and the concentrations ranged between 91 and 140 pg g(-1). In addition, this work is the first description of PBDEs detected in fish of Argentinean environment.

  11. Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Suitable for Studying Fatigue Damage in a Crystallized Glass Ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Shelley; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1961-01-01

    The crystals of Pyroceram are randomly oriented and highly reflective so that standard microscopy techniques are not satisfactory for studying this material. Standard replicating procedures proved difficult to use. New microscopy techniques and procedures have therefore been developed. A method for locating, orienting, and identifying specific areas to be viewed with an electron microscope is described. This method not require any special equipment. Plastic replicas were found to be unsatisfactory because of their tendency to adhere to Pryoceram. This caused them to tear when released or resulted in artifacts. Preshadowed silicon monoxide replicas were satisfactory but required a releasing agent. A method of depositing the releasing agent is described. To polish specimens without evidence of fire-polishing, it was found necessary to use a vibratory polishing technique. Chrome oxide was used as the abrasive and either water or kerosene as the lubricant. Vibratory polishing is extremely slow, but surfaces so polished show no evidence of fire polishing, even when examined by electron microscopy. The most satisfactory etching process used for Pyroceram 9608 consisted of a primary etch of 5 milliliters of hydrochloric acid (concentrated), 5 milliliters of hydrogen fluoride (45 percent), and 45 milliliters of water, and a secondary etch with methyl alcohol replacing the water. Best results were obtained with total etching times from 25 to 30 seconds. Staining of the Pyroceram surface with a Sanford's marker was found to be an expedient way to reduce the glare of reflected light.

  12. Data mining technique for a secure electronic payment transaction using MJk-RSA in mobile computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. V., Ramesh Babu; Narayana, G.; Sulaiman, A.; Padmavathamma, M.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the evolution of the Electronic Learning (E-Learning), one can easily get desired information on computer or mobile system connected through Internet. Currently E-Learning materials are easily accessible on the desktop computer system, but in future, most of the information shall also be available on small digital devices like Mobile, PDA, etc. Most of the E-Learning materials are paid and customer has to pay entire amount through credit/debit card system. Therefore, it is very important to study about the security of the credit/debit card numbers. The present paper is an attempt in this direction and a security technique is presented to secure the credit/debit card numbers supplied over the Internet to access the E-Learning materials or any kind of purchase through Internet. A well known method i.e. Data Cube Technique is used to design the security model of the credit/debit card system. The major objective of this paper is to design a practical electronic payment protocol which is the safest and most secured mode of transaction. This technique may reduce fake transactions which are above 20% at the global level.

  13. A silver-free, reflective substrate electrode for electron extraction in top-illuminated organic photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Martin S; Hutter, Oliver S; Walker, Marc; Hatton, Ross A

    2015-04-27

    The choice of metals suitable as the reflective substrate electrode for top-illuminated organic photovoltaics (OPVs) is extremely limited. Herein, we report a novel substrate electrode for this class of OPV architecture based on an Al | Cu | AlOx triple-layer structure, which offers a reflectivity comparable to that of Al over the wavelength range 400-900 nm, a work function suitable for efficient electron extraction in OPVs and high stability towards oxidation. In addition to demonstrating the advantage of this composite electrode over Al in model top-illuminated OPVs, we also present the results of a photoelectron spectroscopy study, which show that an oxidised 0.8 nm Al layer deposited by thermal evaporation onto an Al | Cu reflective substrate electrode is sufficient to block oxidation of the underlying Cu by air or during deposition of a ZnO1-x electron-transport layer. This is remarkable given that the self-limiting oxide thickness on Al metal is greater than 2 nm.

  14. Metal Extraction Processes for Electronic Waste and Existing Industrial Routes: A Review and Australian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Khaliq

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The useful life of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE has been shortened as a consequence of the advancement in technology and change in consumer patterns. This has resulted in the generation of large quantities of electronic waste (e-waste that needs to be managed. The handling of e-waste including combustion in incinerators, disposing in landfill or exporting overseas is no longer permitted due to environmental pollution and global legislations. Additionally, the presence of precious metals (PMs makes e-waste recycling attractive economically. In this paper, current metallurgical processes for the extraction of metals from e-waste, including existing industrial routes, are reviewed. In the first part of this paper, the definition, composition and classifications of e-wastes are described. In the second part, separation of metals from e-waste using mechanical processing, hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical routes are critically analyzed. Pyrometallurgical routes are comparatively economical and eco-efficient if the hazardous emissions are controlled. Currently, pyrometallurgical routes are used initially for the segregation and upgrading of PMs (gold and silver into base metals (BMs (copper, lead and nickel and followed by hydrometallurgical and electrometallurgical processing for the recovery of pure base and PMs. For the recycling of e-waste in Australia, challenges such as collection, transportation, liberation of metal fractions, and installation of integrated smelting and refining facilities are identified.

  15. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  16. Extracting the Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation Rate from Ion Stopping Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Paul E.; Frenje, Johan A.; Benedict, Lorin X.

    2016-10-01

    Direct measurement of i-e equilibration rates at ICF-relevant conditions is a big challenge, as it is difficult to differentiate from other sinks and sources of energy, such as heat conduction and pdV work. Another method is to use information from ion stopping experiments. Such experiments at the OMEGA laser have made precision energy loss measurements of fusion products at these conditions. Combined with the multimonochromatic x-ray imager technique, which gives temporally and spatially resolved electron temperature and density, we have a robust stopping experiment. We propose to use such stopping measurements to assess the i-e temperature relaxation rate, since both processes involve energy exchange between electrons and ions. We require that the fusion products are 1) much faster than the thermal ions so that i-i collisions are negligible compared to i-e collisions and 2) slower than the thermal electrons so that the stopping obeys a linear friction law. Then the Coulomb logarithms associated with ion stopping and i-e temperature relaxation rate are identical and a measurement of the former provides the latter. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Application of hybrid microwave thermal extraction techniques for mulberry root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cheng-Chi; Yau Her-Terng

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is the extraction of compounds from the mulberry root bark using a hybrid microwave thermal process. The shearing mechanism and an integrated circulation system, which increases the rate of contact between the solvent and extractive, are studied. The results are analyzed by the Taguchi method and verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the optimal operating parameters of the extraction of mulberry root b...

  18. Novel modified ultrasonication technique for the extraction of lycopene from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eh, Alice Lee-Sie; Teoh, Siang-Guan

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene extraction was carried out via the ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) with response surface methodology (RSM). Sonication enhanced the efficiency of relative lycopene yield (enhancement of 26% extraction yield of lycopene in 6 replications at 40.0 min, 40.0 °C and 70.0% v/w in the presence of ultrasound), lowered the extraction temperature and shortened the total extraction time. The extraction was applied with the addition of oxygen-free nitrogen flow and change of water route during water bath sonication. The highest relative yield of lycopene obtained was 100% at 45.0 °C with total extraction time of 50.0 min (30:10:10) and ratio of solvent to freeze-dried tomato sample (v/w) of 80.0:1. Optimisation of the lycopene extraction had been performed, giving the average relative lycopene yield of 99% at 45.6 min, 47.6 °C and ratio of solvent to freeze-dried tomato sample (v/w) of 74.4:1. From the optimised model, the average yield of all-trans lycopene obtained was 5.11±0.27 mg/g dry weight. The all-trans lycopene obtained from the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatograms was 96.81±0.81% with 3.19±0.81% of cis-lycopenes. The purity of total-lycopene obtained was 98.27±0.52% with β-carotene constituted 1.73±0.52% of the extract. The current improved, UAE of lycopene from tomatoes with the aid of RSM also enhanced the extraction yield of trans-lycopene by 75.93% compared to optimised conventional method of extraction. Hence, the current, improved UAE of lycopene promotes the extraction yield of lycopene and at the same time, minimises the degradation and isomerisation of lycopene.

  19. Applying machine learning and image feature extraction techniques to the problem of cerebral aneurysm rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steren Chabert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by a bulging in a weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. It is relevant to understand the mechanisms leading to the apparition of aneurysms, their growth and, more important, leading to their rupture. The purpose of this study is to study the impact on aneurysm rupture of the combination of different parameters, instead of focusing on only one factor at a time as is frequently found in the literature, using machine learning and feature extraction techniques. This discussion takes relevance in the context of the complex decision that the physicians have to take to decide which therapy to apply, as each intervention bares its own risks, and implies to use a complex ensemble of resources (human resources, OR, etc. in hospitals always under very high work load. This project has been raised in our actual working team, composed of interventional neuroradiologist, radiologic technologist, informatics engineers and biomedical engineers, from Valparaiso public Hospital, Hospital Carlos van Buren, and from Universidad de Valparaíso – Facultad de Ingeniería and Facultad de Medicina. This team has been working together in the last few years, and is now participating in the implementation of an “interdisciplinary platform for innovation in health”, as part of a bigger project leaded by Universidad de Valparaiso (PMI UVA1402. It is relevant to emphasize that this project is made feasible by the existence of this network between physicians and engineers, and by the existence of data already registered in an orderly manner, structured and recorded in digital format. The present proposal arises from the description in nowadays literature that the actual indicators, whether based on morphological description of the aneurysm, or based on characterization of biomechanical factor or others, these indicators were shown not to provide sufficient information in order

  20. Designing an ELISA Technique for H.pylori Antibody Detection Using Water Extracted Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khafri

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available H.pylori infection stimulates immune responses. These responses at the mucosal level are predominantly of IgA types, while circulating antibodies against this microorganism are predominantly IgG classes. IgM antibodies are rarely found and seem to be non-specific for this bacterium. In this research, water extract antigen, from three strains of H.pylori (isolated from patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer and normal human was investigated for the detection of serum IgG antibodies against H.pylori by an indirect ELISA technique. Antibody titers against H.pylori were measured in 72 patients of whom 64 cases were H.pylori positive and 8 cases were H.pylori negative (confirmed by culture and urease tests. In this test, those titers that were more than 1/6400 indicated the rising of IgG titers and serum positive, being in testee, and the titers, which were equal or less than 1/6400 indicated the serum negative, being in individuals. Our ELISA results indicated that between 64 H.pylori positive individuals, 61 cases were serum positive and between 8 H.pylori negative patients, 5 individuals were serum negative; thus, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the test were, 62.5%, 95.31%, 95.31%, 62.5%, respectively. The high level of sensitivity is because of using 3 different strains for preparing of antigens. But the reasons of low specificity are probably using of semi purified antigen.

  1. A Novel Technique for Fetal ECG Extraction Using Single-Channel Abdominal Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive fetal electrocardiograms (FECGs are an alternative method to standard means of fetal monitoring which permit long-term continual monitoring. However, in abdominal recording, the FECG amplitude is weak in the temporal domain and overlaps with the maternal electrocardiogram (MECG in the spectral domain. Research in the area of non-invasive separations of FECG from abdominal electrocardiograms (AECGs is in its infancy and several studies are currently focusing on this area. An adaptive noise canceller (ANC is commonly used for cancelling interference in cases where the reference signal only correlates with an interference signal, and not with a signal of interest. However, results from some existing studies suggest that propagation of electrocardiogram (ECG signals from the maternal heart to the abdomen is nonlinear, hence the adaptive filter approach may fail if the thoracic and abdominal MECG lack strict waveform similarity. In this study, singular value decomposition (SVD and smooth window (SW techniques are combined to build a reference signal in an ANC. This is to avoid the limitation that thoracic MECGs recorded separately must be similar to abdominal MECGs in waveform. Validation of the proposed method with r01 and r07 signals from a public dataset, and a self-recorded private dataset showed that the proposed method achieved F1 scores of 99.61%, 99.28% and 98.58%, respectively for the detection of fetal QRS. Compared with four other single-channel methods, the proposed method also achieved higher accuracy values of 99.22%, 98.57% and 97.21%, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the proposed method could potentially aid accurate extraction of FECG from MECG recordings in both clinical and commercial applications.

  2. Analysis of human breath with micro extraction techniques and continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2006-08-01

    The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath can be useful for the clinical routine diagnosis of several diseases in a non-invasive manner. Traditional methods of breath analysis have some major technical problems and limitations. Membrane extraction with a sorbent interface (MESI), however, has many advantages over current methods, including good selectivity and sensitivity, and is well suited for breath analysis. The aim of this project was to develop a simple and reproducible sampling device and method based on the MESI system for breath analysis. The feasibility and validity of the MESI system was tested with real human breath samples. Internal standard calibration methods were used for the quantitative analysis of various breath samples. Calibration curves for some main components (target analytes such as acetone and pentane) were determined in the research. The optimized stripping-side and feeding-side gas velocities were determined. The use of breath CO2 as an internal standard for the analysis of breath VOCs is an effective method to solve the difficulties associated with variations in the target analyte concentrations in a sample, which are attributed to mass losses and different breathing patterns of different subjects. In this study, the concentration of breath acetone was successfully expressed normalized to CO2 as in the alveolar air. Breath acetone of healthy males and females profiled at different times of the day was plotted using the MESI system, and results were consistent with the literature. This technique can be used for monitoring breath acetone concentrations of diabetic patients and for applications with other biomarker monitoring.

  3. A Novel Technique for Fetal ECG Extraction Using Single-Channel Abdominal Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhang, Jinyong; Li, Hui; Mumini, Omisore Olatunji; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Ivanov, Kamen; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiograms (FECGs) are an alternative method to standard means of fetal monitoring which permit long-term continual monitoring. However, in abdominal recording, the FECG amplitude is weak in the temporal domain and overlaps with the maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) in the spectral domain. Research in the area of non-invasive separations of FECG from abdominal electrocardiograms (AECGs) is in its infancy and several studies are currently focusing on this area. An adaptive noise canceller (ANC) is commonly used for cancelling interference in cases where the reference signal only correlates with an interference signal, and not with a signal of interest. However, results from some existing studies suggest that propagation of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from the maternal heart to the abdomen is nonlinear, hence the adaptive filter approach may fail if the thoracic and abdominal MECG lack strict waveform similarity. In this study, singular value decomposition (SVD) and smooth window (SW) techniques are combined to build a reference signal in an ANC. This is to avoid the limitation that thoracic MECGs recorded separately must be similar to abdominal MECGs in waveform. Validation of the proposed method with r01 and r07 signals from a public dataset, and a self-recorded private dataset showed that the proposed method achieved F1 scores of 99.61%, 99.28% and 98.58%, respectively for the detection of fetal QRS. Compared with four other single-channel methods, the proposed method also achieved higher accuracy values of 99.22%, 98.57% and 97.21%, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the proposed method could potentially aid accurate extraction of FECG from MECG recordings in both clinical and commercial applications. PMID:28245585

  4. Dosimetric evaluation using the diode measurements for total skin electron therapy technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ehab M.Attalla; Nashaat A.Deiab; Walaa S.Abd Elgawad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present the dosimetric study and evaluation the dose delivered to the skin tumor by using diode detector with total skin electron therapy (TSET).Methods: The total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) technique was used to treat ten patients with histological confirmed mycosis fungoides according to the Stanford staging system at the Radiotherapy Department, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Egypt. High dose rate electron beams with low electron energy 5 MeV from a Siemens linear accelerator were used for treatment. Diodes were calibrated at TSET distance 300 cm and field size (35 x 35) cm2.Results:The result of diodes measurements showed the dose to flat surface of the body was within ±10 % from the prescribed dose. Special areas of the body such as the perineum & eyelid showed large deviation up to 30% variation from the prescription dose.Conclusion:The diode results of this study wil be used as a quality assurance check for al new patients treated with TSET and to compare it to the prescribed dose delivered to the patients. It is recommends to evaluate the diodes measurements for al patients throughout the ful treatment cycle and to identify individu-aly the boost dose areas.

  5. Decay pathways after Xe 3d inner shell ionization using a multi-electron coincidence technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, I H; Nakano, M; Ito, K [Photon Factory, IMSS, KEK, Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Hikosaka, Y; Soejima, K [Department of Environmental Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Shigemasa, E [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Lablanquie, P; Penent, F [UPMC, Universite Paris 06, LCPMR, 11 rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Kouchi, N, E-mail: suzukii@post.kek.jp [Department of Chemistry, Tokyo Institute of Technology, O-okayama, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan)

    2011-04-14

    Cascade Auger electron emission following Xe 3d photoionization has been investigated using a multi-electron coincidence technique, which utilizes an electron spectrometer of magnetic bottle type. It has been found that the Xe{sup 2+} states of the 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} configuration, formed by the Auger decay of the Xe{sup +} 3d{sub 3/2,5/2}{sup -1} states, dominantly turn into triply charged states of the 4d{sup -2}5p{sup -1}/4d{sup -2}5s{sup -1} configurations. The Xe{sup 2+} 4s{sup -1}4d{sup -1} states, formed by the 3d Auger decay, yield the 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1}5p{sup -1} states as well as the 4d{sup -3} states. From the coincidence spectrum among three Auger electrons, it is suggested that the Xe{sup 2+} 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} states give rise to the following cascade processes: 4p{sup -1}4d{sup -1} {yields} 4d{sup -2}5p{sup -1} {yields} 4d{sup -1}5p{sup -3}.

  6. Experimental Study on Rebar Corrosion Using the Galvanic Sensor Combined with the Electronic Resistance Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunze; Li, Kaiqiang; Liu, Liang; Yang, Lujia; Wang, Xiaona; Huang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new kind of carbon steel (CS) and stainless steel (SS) galvanic sensor system was developed for the study of rebar corrosion in different pore solution conditions. Through the special design of the CS and SS electronic coupons, the electronic resistance (ER) method and zero resistance ammeter (ZRA) technique were used simultaneously for the measurement of both the galvanic current and the corrosion depth. The corrosion processes in different solution conditions were also studied by linear polarization resistance (LPR) and the measurements of polarization curves. The test result shows that the galvanic current noise can provide detailed information of the corrosion processes. When localized corrosion occurs, the corrosion rate measured by the ER method is lower than the real corrosion rate. However, the value measured by the LPR method is higher than the real corrosion rate. The galvanic current and the corrosion current measured by the LPR method shows linear correlation in chloride-containing saturated Ca(OH)2 solution. The relationship between the corrosion current differences measured by the CS electronic coupons and the galvanic current between the CS and SS electronic coupons can also be used to evaluate the localized corrosion in reinforced concrete. PMID:27618054

  7. Characterization of Inx Ga1-x As-GaAs heterostructures via electron beam techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Barojas, Estela; Silva-Gonzalez, Rutilo; Serrano-Rojas, Rosa Maria; Vidal-Borbolla, Miguel Angel

    2005-03-01

    In the case of strained superlattices abrupt heterointerfaces are required because compositional fluctuations at heterointerfaces results in uncertainty in both composition and lattice constant. The aim of this work is to study exsitu the surface morphology, the periodicity and elemental composition of a set of 3 InGaAs-GaAs heterostructures grown on GaAs (100) substrates by a molecular beam epitaxy system. The heterostructures are formed by 10 periods of InGaAs-GaAs epitaxially grown on GaAs substrates with nominal thickness of 500 and 1000 å, respectively. The techniques used for this purpose are the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The In content in the heterostructures is determined from corresponding Auger depth profiles. This work has been supported by VIEP-BUAP, Project No. II53G02.

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  9. Combined Use of Electron and Light Microscopy Techniques Reveals False Secondary Shell Units in Megaloolithidae Eggshells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Moreno-Azanza

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in the histo- and ultrastructure of the amniote eggshell are often related to diverse factors, such as ambient stress during egg formation, pathologies altering the physiology of the egg-laying females, or evolutionarily selected modifications of the eggshell structure that vary the physical properties of the egg, for example increasing its strength so as to avoid fracture during incubation. When dealing with fossil materials, all the above hypotheses are plausible, but a detailed taphonomical study has to be performed to rule out the possibility that secondary processes of recrystallization have occurred during fossilization. Traditional analyses, such as optical microscopy inspection and cathodoluminescence, have proven not to be enough to understand the taphonomic story of some eggshells. Recently, electron backscatter diffraction has been used, in combination with other techniques, to better understand the alteration of fossil eggshells. Here we present a combined study using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, cathodoluminescence and electron backscatter diffraction of eggshell fragments assigned to Megaloolithus cf. siruguei from the Upper Cretaceous outcrops of the Cameros Basin. We focus our study on the presence of secondary shell units that mimic most aspects of the ultrastructure of the eggshell mammillae, but grow far from the inner surface of the eggshell. We call these structures extra-spherulites, describe their crystal structure and demonstrate their secondary origin. Our study has important implications for the interpretation of secondary shell units as biological or pathological structures. Thus, electron backscatter diffraction complements other microscope techniques as a useful tool for understanding taphonomical alterations in fossil eggshells.

  10. A novel technique for electronic phasing of high power fiber amplifier arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, T. M.; Baker, J. T.; Sanchez, Anthony D.; Robin, C. A.; Vergien, C. L.; Zeringue, C.; Gallant, D.; Lu, Chunte A.; Pulford, Benjamin; Bronder, T. J.; Lucero, Arthur

    2009-06-01

    We report high power phase locked fiber amplifier array using the Self-Synchronous Locking of Optical Coherence by Single-detector Electronic-frequency Tagging technique. We report the first experimental results for a five element amplifier array with a total locked power of more than 725-W. We will report on experimental measurements of the phase fluctuations versus time when the control loop is closed. The rms phase error was measured to be λ/60. Recent results will be reported. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the highest fiber laser power to be coherently combined.

  11. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  12. Analysis on the Metrics used in Optimizing Electronic Business based on Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina-Steliana STAN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a methodology of analyzing the metrics related to electronic business. The drafts of the optimizing models include KPIs that can highlight the business specific, if only they are integrated by using learning-based techniques. Having set the most important and high-impact elements of the business, the models should get in the end the link between them, by automating business flows. The human resource will be found in the situation of collaborating more and more with the optimizing models which will translate into high quality decisions followed by profitability increase.

  13. Acronym Disambiguation in Spanish Electronic Health Narratives Using Machine Learning Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-López, Ignacio; Costumero, Roberto; Ambit, Héctor; Gonzalo-Martín, Consuelo; Menasalvas, Ernestina; Rodríguez González, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are now being massively used in hospitals what has motivated current developments of new methods to process clinical narratives (unstructured data) making it possible to perform context-based searches. Current approaches to process the unstructured texts in EHRs are based in applying text mining or natural language processing (NLP) techniques over the data. In particular Named Entity Recognition (NER) is of paramount importance to retrieve specific biomedical concepts from the text providing the semantic type of the concept retrieved. However, it is very common that clinical notes contain lots of acronyms that cannot be identified by NER processes and even if they are identified, an acronym may correspond to several meanings, so disambiguation of the found term is needed. In this work we provide an approach to perform acronym disambiguation in Spanish EHR using machine learning techniques.

  14. Specialized detector techniques and electronics of the ERNE instrument onboard SOHO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtonen, E.; Peltonen, J.; Eronen, T.; Louhola, M.; Lumme, M.; Riihonen, E.; Teittinen, M.; Torsti, J. [Turku Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Physics

    1998-02-01

    ERNE is designed to study the composition and energy spectra of particles encountered in interplanetary space in the energy range from 1 MeV/n to well beyond 500 MeV/n. Several innovative ideas had to be incorporated in the design of the instrument in order to fulfill the scientific requirements. Position-sensitive strip detectors are used in the high energy detector (HED) for determining particle trajectories. Integrated interstrip capacitances were designed to allow for a very simple read-out technique from the two edges of each detector. The event recognition, signal multiplexing and control of the pulse height analysis are based on a gate array technique. The versatility of the gate array also allowed an elegant realization of a number of other functions and instrument control tasks. By using the gate array a very compact structure of the digital control electronics was achieved. (orig.). 2 refs.

  15. Super-resolution phase reconstruction technique in electron holography with a stage-scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dan; Mitsuishi, Kazutaka; Harada, Ken; Shimojo, Masayuki; Ju, Dongying; Takeguchi, Masaki

    2014-02-01

    Super-resolution image reconstruction is a digital signal processing technique that allows creating a high-resolution image from multiple low-resolution images taken at slightly different positions. We introduce the super-resolution image reconstruction technique into electron holography for reconstructing phase images as follows: the studied specimen is shifted step-wise with a high-precision piezo holder, and a series of holograms is recorded. When the step size is not a multiple of the CCD pixel size, processing of the acquired series results in a higher pixel density and spatial resolution as compared to the phase image obtained with conventional holography. The final resolution exceeds the limit of the CCD pixel size divided by the magnification.

  16. [Classification technique for hyperspectral image based on subspace of bands feature extraction and LS-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Heng-zhen; Wan, Jian-wei; Zhu, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Li-bao; Nian, Yong-jian

    2011-05-01

    The present paper proposes a novel hyperspectral image classification algorithm based on LS-SVM (least squares support vector machine). The LS-SVM uses the features extracted from subspace of bands (SOB). The maximum noise fraction (MNF) method is adopted as the feature extraction method. The spectral correlations of the hyperspectral image are used in order to divide the feature space into several SOBs. Then the MNF is used to extract characteristic features of the SOBs. The extracted features are combined into the feature vector for classification. So the strong bands correlation is avoided and the spectral redundancies are reduced. The LS-SVM classifier is adopted, which replaces inequality constraints in SVM by equality constraints. So the computation consumption is reduced and the learning performance is improved. The proposed method optimizes spectral information by feature extraction and reduces the spectral noise. The classifier performance is improved. Experimental results show the superiorities of the proposed algorithm.

  17. Text Character Extraction Implementation from Captured Handwritten Image to Text Conversionusing Template Matching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barate Seema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Images contain various types of useful information that should be extracted whenever required. A various algorithms and methods are proposed to extract text from the given image, and by using that user will be able to access the text from any image. Variations in text may occur because of differences in size, style,orientation, alignment of text, and low image contrast, composite backgrounds make the problem during extraction of text. If we develop an application that extracts and recognizes those texts accurately in real time, then it can be applied to many important applications like document analysis, vehicle license plate extraction, text- based image indexing, etc and many applications have become realities in recent years. To overcome the above problems we develop such application that will convert the image into text by using algorithms, such as bounding box, HSV model, blob analysis,template matching, template generation.

  18. Evaluation of DNA extraction techniques for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in Asian elephant trunk wash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Meagan K; Linke, Lyndsey; Triantis, Joni; Salman, M D; Larsen, R Scott

    2011-02-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays for the detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in elephants are lacking. DNA extraction with PCR analysis is useful for tuberculosis screening in many species but has not been validated on elephant trunk wash samples. We estimated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of three DNA extraction methods to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in trunk wash specimens. A ZR soil microbe DNA kit (ZR) and a traditional salt and ethanol precipitation (TSEP) approach were evaluated under three different treatment conditions: heat treatment, phenol treatment, and contamination with Mycobacterium avium. A third approach, using a column filtration method, was evaluated for samples contaminated with soil. Trunk wash samples from uninfected elephants were spiked with various concentrations of M. bovis cells and subjected to the described treatment conditions prior to DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was amplified using IS6110-targeted PCR analysis. The ZR and TSEP methods detected as low as 1 to 5 M. bovis cells and 10 M. bovis cells, respectively, per 1.5 ml of trunk wash under all three conditions. Depending on the amount of soil present, the column filtration method detected as low as 5 to 50 M. bovis cells per 1.5 ml of trunk wash. Analytical specificity was assessed by DNA extraction from species of nontuberculous mycobacteria and amplification using the same PCR technique. Only M. bovis DNA was amplified, indicating 100% analytical specificity of this PCR technique. Our results indicate that these DNA extraction techniques offer promise as useful tests for detection of M. tuberculosis complex organisms in elephant trunk wash specimens.

  19. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    The popularity of implanting electronic devices such as transmitters and data loggers into captive and free-ranging animals has increased greatly in the past two decades. The devices have become smaller, more reliable, and more capable (Printz 2004; Wilson and Gifford 2005; Metcalfe et al. 2012). Compared with externally mounted devices, implanted devices are largely invisible to external viewers such as tourists and predators; exist in a physically protected, thermally stable environment in mammals and birds; and greatly reduce drag and risk of entanglement. An implanted animal does not outgrow its device or attachment method as can happen with collars and harnesses, which allows young animals to be more safely equipped. However, compared with mounting external devices, implantation requires greater technical ability to perform the necessary anesthesia, analgesia, and surgery. More than 83% of publications in the 1990s that used radiotelemetry on animals assumed that there were no adverse effects on the animal (Godfrey and Bryant 2003). It is likely that some studies using implanted electronic devices have not been published due to a high level of unexpected mortality or to aberrant behavior or disappearance of the implanted animals, a phenomenon known as the “file drawer” problem (Rosenthal 1979; Scargle 2000). The near absence of such studies from the published record may be providing a false sense of security that procedures being used are more innocuous than they actually are. Similarly, authors sometimes state that it was unlikely that device implantation was problematic because study animals appeared to behave normally, or authors state that previous investigators used the same technique and saw no problems. Such statements are suppositions if no supporting data are provided or if the animals were equipped because there was no other way to follow their activity. Moreover, such suppositions ignore other adverse effects that affect behavior indirectly, and

  20. Extraction Mechanism of Rare Earths with Sec-Octylphenoxy Acetic Acid by Two-Phase Titration Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐善堂; 廖伍平; 李德谦; 苏锵

    2002-01-01

    The compositions of the extracted complexes of La, Gd, Er and Y with sec-octyl-phenoxy acetic acid in heptane and the related apparent extraction equilibrium constants KM were determined using two-phase titration technique. The stoichiometric compounds for La, Gd, Er and Y should be LaA3*2.5HA, GdA3*3HA, ErA3*3.1HA and YA3*4.3HA respectively. And their pKM are 3.43, 3.46, 3.08 and 2.58 respectively.

  1. Feasibility of extracting data from electronic medical records for research: an international comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Mastellos, Nikolaos; Majeed, Azeem; O'Donoghue, John; Car, Josip

    2016-07-13

    Electronic medical records (EMR) offer a major potential for secondary use of data for research which can improve the safety, quality and efficiency of healthcare. They also enable the measurement of disease burden at the population level. However, the extent to which this is feasible in different countries is not well known. This study aimed to: 1) assess information governance procedures for extracting data from EMR in 16 countries; and 2) explore the extent of EMR adoption and the quality and consistency of EMR data in 7 countries, using management of diabetes type 2 patients as an exemplar. We included 16 countries from Australia, Asia, the Middle East, and Europe to the Americas. We undertook a multi-method approach including both an online literature review and structured interviews with 59 stakeholders, including 25 physicians, 23 academics, 7 EMR providers, and 4 information commissioners. Data were analysed and synthesised thematically considering the most relevant issues. We found that procedures for information governance, levels of adoption and data quality varied across the countries studied. The required time and ease of obtaining approval also varies widely. While some countries seem ready for secondary uses of data from EMR, in other countries several barriers were found, including limited experience with using EMR data for research, lack of standard policies and procedures, bureaucracy, confidentiality, data security concerns, technical issues and costs. This is the first international comparative study to shed light on the feasibility of extracting EMR data across a number of countries. The study will inform future discussions and development of policies that aim to accelerate the adoption of EMR systems in high and middle income countries and seize the rich potential for secondary use of data arising from the use of EMR solutions.

  2. Development of electronic nose and near infrared spectroscopy analysis techniques to monitor the critical time in SSF process of feed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-10-17

    In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF) industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  3. Development of Electronic Nose and Near Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Techniques to Monitor the Critical Time in SSF Process of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to assure the consistency of the final product quality, a fast and effective process monitoring is a growing need in solid state fermentation (SSF industry. This work investigated the potential of non-invasive techniques combined with the chemometrics method, to monitor time-related changes that occur during SSF process of feed protein. Four fermentation trials conducted were monitored by an electronic nose device and a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS spectrometer. Firstly, principal component analysis (PCA and independent component analysis (ICA were respectively applied to the feature extraction and information fusion. Then, the BP_AdaBoost algorithm was used to develop the fused model for monitoring of the critical time in SSF process of feed protein. Experimental results showed that the identified results of the fusion model are much better than those of the single technique model both in the training and validation sets, and the complexity of the fusion model was also less than that of the single technique model. The overall results demonstrate that it has a high potential in online monitoring of the critical moment in SSF process by use of integrating electronic nose and NIRS techniques, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve the monitoring performance of SSF process.

  4. Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

  5. Comments on advanced, time-resolved imaging techniques for free-electron laser (FEL) experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1992-11-01

    An extensive set of time-resolved imaging experiments has been performed on rf-linac driven free-electron lasers (FELs) over the past few years. These experiments have addressed both micropulse and macropulse timescales on both the charged-particle beam and the wiggler/undulator outputs (spontaneous emission and lasing). A brief review of first measurements on photoinjecter micropulse elongation, submacropulse phase slew in drive lasers, submacropulse wavelength shifts in lasers, etc. is presented. This is followed by discussions of new measurements of 35-MeV electron beam micropulse bunch length (<10 ps) using optical transition radiation, some of the first single bend synchrotron radiation beam profile measurements at gamma <80, and comments on the low-jitter synchroscan streak camera tuner. These techniques will be further developed on the 200-650 MeV linac test stand at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the next few years. Such techniques should be adaptable to many of the present FEL designs and to some aspects of the next generation of light sources.

  6. High Electron Mobility Transistor Structures on Sapphire Substrates Using CMOS Compatible Processing Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carl; Alterovitz, Samuel; Croke, Edward; Ponchak, George

    2004-01-01

    System-on-a-chip (SOC) processes are under intense development for high-speed, high frequency transceiver circuitry. As frequencies, data rates, and circuit complexity increases, the need for substrates that enable high-speed analog operation, low-power digital circuitry, and excellent isolation between devices becomes increasingly critical. SiGe/Si modulation doped field effect transistors (MODFETs) with high carrier mobilities are currently under development to meet the active RF device needs. However, as the substrate normally used is Si, the low-to-modest substrate resistivity causes large losses in the passive elements required for a complete high frequency circuit. These losses are projected to become increasingly troublesome as device frequencies progress to the Ku-band (12 - 18 GHz) and beyond. Sapphire is an excellent substrate for high frequency SOC designs because it supports excellent both active and passive RF device performance, as well as low-power digital operations. We are developing high electron mobility SiGe/Si transistor structures on r-plane sapphire, using either in-situ grown n-MODFET structures or ion-implanted high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures. Advantages of the MODFET structures include high electron mobilities at all temperatures (relative to ion-implanted HEMT structures), with mobility continuously improving to cryogenic temperatures. We have measured electron mobilities over 1,200 and 13,000 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature and 0.25 K, respectively in MODFET structures. The electron carrier densities were 1.6 and 1.33 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm at room and liquid helium temperature, respectively, denoting excellent carrier confinement. Using this technique, we have observed electron mobilities as high as 900 sq cm/V-sec at room temperature at a carrier density of 1.3 x 10(exp 12)/sq cm. The temperature dependence of mobility for both the MODFET and HEMT structures provides insights into the mechanisms that allow for enhanced

  7. Alignment signal extraction of the optically degenerate RSE interferometer using the wave front sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S.; Kawamura, S.

    2008-07-01

    The alignment sensing and control scheme of the resonant sideband extraction interferometer is still an unsettled issue for the next-generation gravitational wave antennas. The issue is that it is difficult to extract separate error signals for all 12 angular degrees of freedom, which is mainly arising from the complexity of the optical system and cavity 'degeneracy'. We have suggested a new sensing scheme giving reasonably separated signals which is fully compatible with the length sensing scheme. The key of this idea is to resolve the 'degeneracy' of the optical cavities. By choosing an appropriate Gouy phase for the degenerate cavities, alignment error signals with much less admixtures can be extracted.

  8. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Hu, Jia; Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na; Tao, Jing; Zhou, Yi-Kai

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n=6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n=142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg(-1) in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg(-1) in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P<0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r(2)=0.944, P<0.01) and the industrialized area (r(2)=0.860, P<0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization.

  9. Extracting antipsychotic polypharmacy data from electronic health records: developing and evaluating a novel process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadra, Giouliana; Stewart, Robert; Shetty, Hitesh; Jackson, Richard G; Greenwood, Mark A; Roberts, Angus; Chang, Chin-Kuo; MacCabe, James H; Hayes, Richard D

    2015-07-22

    Antipsychotic prescription information is commonly derived from structured fields in clinical health records. However, utilising diverse and comprehensive sources of information is especially important when investigating less frequent patterns of medication prescribing such as antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP). This study describes and evaluates a novel method of extracting APP data from both structured and free-text fields in electronic health records (EHRs), and its use for research purposes. Using anonymised EHRs, we identified a cohort of patients with serious mental illness (SMI) who were treated in South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust mental health care services between 1 January and 30 June 2012. Information about antipsychotic co-prescribing was extracted using a combination of natural language processing and a bespoke algorithm. The validity of the data derived through this process was assessed against a manually coded gold standard to establish precision and recall. Lastly, we estimated the prevalence and patterns of antipsychotic polypharmacy. Individual instances of antipsychotic prescribing were detected with high precision (0.94 to 0.97) and moderate recall (0.57-0.77). We detected baseline APP (two or more antipsychotics prescribed in any 6-week window) with 0.92 precision and 0.74 recall and long-term APP (antipsychotic co-prescribing for 6 months) with 0.94 precision and 0.60 recall. Of the 7,201 SMI patients receiving active care during the observation period, 338 (4.7 %; 95 % CI 4.2-5.2) were identified as receiving long-term APP. Two second generation antipsychotics (64.8 %); and first -second generation antipsychotics were most commonly co-prescribed (32.5 %). These results suggest that this is a potentially practical tool for identifying polypharmacy from mental health EHRs on a large scale. Furthermore, extracted data can be used to allow researchers to characterize patterns of polypharmacy over time including different drug

  10. Electronic conductivity of mechanochemically synthesized nanocrystalline Ag1-CuI system using DC polarization technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Bharathi Mohan; C S Sunandana

    2006-08-01

    A study of electronic conductivity using the DC polarization technique has been carried out for AgI and Ag1-CuI (where = 0.05, 0.15, 0.25) solid solutions over a range of temperatures from 300 K to 473 K. A diode-like current-voltage characteristics arises from microscopic p-n junctions and an enhanced electronic conductivity of the order of 10-3A is observed for undoped AgI and Cu-doped AgI. Activation energies (a) for electronic conductivity obtained from log (-1 cm-1) vs. 1000/(K-1) were 0.48, 0.6, 0.74 and 1.01 eV for AgI, Ag0.95Cu0.05I, Ag0.85Cu0.15I and Ag0.75Cu0.25I solid solutions respectively. The near-twofold increase in activation energy (1.01 eV) observed upon 25% Cu doping is due to the substantial concentration of current carriers/holes injected by Cu while replacing Ag+ in AgI.

  11. Application of the Electronic Nose Technique to Differentiation between Model Mixtures with COPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Namieśnik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the potential of an electronic nose technique in the field of fast diagnostics of patients suspected of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD. The investigations were performed using a simple electronic nose prototype equipped with a set of six semiconductor sensors manufactured by FIGARO Co. They were aimed at verification of a possibility of differentiation between model reference mixtures with potential COPD markers (N,N-dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide. These mixtures contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs such as acetone, isoprene, carbon disulphide, propan-2-ol, formamide, benzene, toluene, acetonitrile, acetic acid, dimethyl ether, dimethyl sulphide, acrolein, furan, propanol and pyridine, recognized as the components of exhaled air. The model reference mixtures were prepared at three concentration levels—10 ppb, 25 ppb, 50 ppb v/v—of each component, except for the COPD markers. Concentration of the COPD markers in the mixtures was from 0 ppb to 100 ppb v/v. Interpretation of the obtained data employed principal component analysis (PCA. The investigations revealed the usefulness of the electronic device only in the case when the concentration of the COPD markers was twice as high as the concentration of the remaining components of the mixture and for a limited number of basic mixture components.

  12. Positron Annihilation Induced Auger Electron Spectroscopy of Inner Shell Transitions Using Time-Of Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuping; Jiang, Neng; Weiss, A. H.

    2003-03-01

    Positron annihilation induced Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) has been shown to have unique advantages over conventional electron collision induced Auger techniques, including the ability to eliminate the secondary electron background and selectively probe the top-most atomic layer on the sample surface. Here we report on the development of a new time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer which combines features high efficiency magnetic transport and parrallel energy measurment with high resolution by using an innovative timing method. The new TOF-PAES system, was used to make the first quantitative comparative measurements of the Auger intensities associated with the annihilation of positrons with the deep core levels (1s) of S KLL (180eV), C KLL (270eV), N KLL (360eV), and O KLL (510eV). Experimental results of Auger probabilities at outer core level (3s, 3P) of Cu M2,3VV (60eV), M1VV (105eV) are compared with the theoretical value of Jensen and Weiss. Quantitatively study the surface adsorbate process on Cu is performed and concentration changes of surface components are obtained. These results demonstrate that TOF-PAES can be used to obtain quantitative,top-layer specific, information from chemically important elements including those with relatively deep core levels (e.g. C and O).

  13. Microwave techniques for electron density measurements in low pressure RF plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheltukhin, Viktor; Gafarov, Ildar; Shemakhin, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Results of the experimental studying of RF plasma jet at low pressure in the range of 10 - 300 Pa is presented. The electron density distribution both in inductive and in capacitive coupled RF discharges was measured at 1.76 MHz and 13.56 MHz consequently. We used three independent microwave diagnostic techniques such as free space (the ``two-frequency'' and ``on the cut-off signal'') and a resonator. It is found that the electron density in the RF plasma jets is by 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than in the decaying plasma jet, and by 1-2 orders of magnitude less than in the RF plasma torch. Thus the RF plasma jet is similar to the additional discharge between the electrodes or the coil and the vacuum chamber walls. As a consequence, the formation of the positive charge sheath near the specimen placed in plasma stream is observed. It is found that the maximum of ionization degree as well as more uniform electron density distribution across the stream is observed in the range of the gas flow rate Gg = 0 . 06 - 0 . 12 g/s and the discharge power Pd = 0 . 5 - 2 . 5 kW. The work was funded by RFBR, according to the research projects No. 16-31-60081 mol_a_dk.

  14. Cytotoxicity evaluation of electronic cigarette vapor extract on cultured mammalian fibroblasts (ClearStream-LIFE): comparison with tobacco cigarette smoke extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagna, Giorgio; Allifranchini, Elena; Bocchietto, Elena; Todeschi, Stefano; Esposito, Mara; Farsalinos, Konstantinos E

    2013-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (ECs) are used as alternatives to smoking; however, data on their cytotoxic potential are scarce. To evaluate the cytotoxic potential of 21 EC liquids compared to the effects of cigarette smoke (CS). Cytotoxicity was evaluated according to UNI EN ISO 10993-5 standard. By activating an EC device, 200 mg of liquid was evaporated and was extracted in 20 ml of culture medium. CS extract from one cigarette was also produced. The extracts, undiluted (100%) and in five dilutions (50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25% and 3.125%), were applied to cultured murine fibroblasts (3T3), and viability was measured after 24-hour incubation by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Viability of less than 70% was considered cytotoxic. CS extract showed cytotoxic effects at extract concentrations above 12.5% (viability: 89.1 ± 3.5% at 3.125%, 77.8 ± 1.8% at 6.25%, 72.8 ± 9.7% at 12.5%, 5.9 ± 0.9% at 25%, 9.4 ± 5.3% at 50% and 5.7 ± 0.7% at 100% extract concentration). Range of fibroblast viability for EC vapor extracts was 88.5-117.8% at 3.125%, 86.4-115.3% at 6.25%, 85.8-111.7% at 12.5%, 78.1-106.2% at 25%, 79.0-103.7% at 50% and 51.0-102.2% at 100% extract concentration. One vapor extract was cytotoxic at 100% extract concentration only (viability: 51.0 ± 2.6%). However, even for that liquid, viability was 795% higher relative to CS extract. This study indicates that EC vapor is significantly less cytotoxic compared tobacco CS. These results should be validated by clinical studies.

  15. Blind Biobanking of the Prostatectomy Specimen: Critical Evaluation of the Existing Techniques and Development of the New 4-Level Tissue Extraction Model With High Sampling Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkach, Yuri; Eminaga, Okyaz; Wötzel, Fabian; Huss, Sebastian; Bettendorf, Olaf; Eltze, Elke; Abbas, Mahmoud; Imkamp, Florian; Semjonow, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Fresh tissue is mandatory to perform high-quality translation studies. Several models for tissue extraction from prostatectomy specimens without guidance by frozen sections are already introduced. However, little is known about the sampling efficacy of these models, which should provide representative tissue in adequate volumes, account for multifocality and heterogeneity of tumor, not violate the routine final pathological examination, and perform quickly without frozen section-based histological control. The aim of the study was to evaluate the sampling efficacy of the existing tissue extraction models without guidance by frozen sections ("blind") and to develop an optimized model for tissue extraction. Five hundred thirty-three electronic maps of the tumor distribution in prostates from a single-center cohort of the patients subjected to radical prostatectomy were used for analysis. Six available models were evaluated in silico for their sampling efficacy. Additionally, a novel model achieving the best sampling efficacy was developed. The available models showed high efficacies for sampling "any part" from the tumor (up to 100%), but were uniformly low in efficacy to sample all tumor foci from the specimens (with the best technique sampling only 51.6% of the all tumor foci). The novel 4-level extraction model achieved a sampling efficacy of 93.1% for all tumor foci. The existing "blind" tissue extraction models from prostatectomy specimens without frozen sections control are suitable to target tumor tissues but these tissues do not represent the whole tumor. The novel 4-level model provides the highest sampling efficacy and a promising potential for integration into routine. Prostate 77: 396-405, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Contributions from the data samples in NOC technique on the extracting of the Sq variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingyan; Xu, Wenyao

    2015-04-01

    The solar quiet daily variation, Sq, a rather regular variation is usually observed at mid-low latitudes on magnetic quiet days or less-disturbed days. It is mainly resulted from the dynamo currents in the ionospheric E region, which are driven by the atmospheric tidal wind and different processes and flow as two current whorls in each of the northern and southern hemispheres[1]. The Sq exhibits a conspicuous day-to-day (DTD) variability in daily range (or strength), shape (or phase) and its current focus. This variability is mainly attributed to changes in the ionospheric conductivity and tidal winds, varying with solar radiation and ionospheric conditions. Furthermore, it presents a seasonal variation and solar cycle variation[2-4]. In generally, Sq is expressed with the average value of the five international magnetic quiet days. Using data from global magnetic stations, equivalent current system of daily variation can be constructed to reveal characteristics of the currents[5]. In addition, using the differences of H component at two stations on north and south side of the Sq currents of focus, Sq is extracted much better[6]. Recently, the method of Natural Orthoganal Components (NOC) is used to decompose the magnetic daily variation and express it as the summation of eigenmodes, and indicate the first NOC eigenmode as the solar quiet daily variation, the second as the disturbance daily variation[7-9]. As we know, the NOC technique can help reveal simpler patterns within a complex set of variables, without designed basic-functions such as FFT technique. But the physical explanation of the NOC eigenmodes is greatly depends on the number of data samples and data regular-quality. Using the NOC method, we focus our present study on the analysis of the hourly means of the H component at BMT observatory in China from 2001 to 2008. The contributions of the number and the regular-quality of the data samples on which eigenmode corresponds to the Sq are analyzed, by

  17. N-type polymers as electron extraction layers in hybrid perovskite solar cells with improved ambient stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, S.; Chen, Z.; Fang, H. -H.; ten Brink, G. H.; Bartesaghi, D.; Adjokatse, S.; Koster, L. J. A.; Kooi, B. J.; Facchetti, A.; Loi, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied three n-type polymers of the naphthalenediimide-bithiophene family as electron extraction layers (EELs) in hybrid perovskite solar cells. The recombination mechanism in these devices is found to be heavily influenced by the EEL transport properties. The maximum efficiency of the devices u

  18. Computerized extraction of information on the quality of diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a computerized method for extracting numeric clinical measurements related to diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records (EPR) of general practitioners. Design and Measurements: Accuracy of this number-oriented approach was compared to manual chart

  19. Computerized extraction of information on the quality of diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a computerized method for extracting numeric clinical measurements related to diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records (EPR) of general practitioners. Design and Measurements: Accuracy of this number-oriented approach was compared to manual chart abs

  20. AUTO-EXTRACTING TECHNIQUE OF DYNAMIC CHAOS FEATURES FOR NONLINEAR TIME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of nonlinear time series analysis is based on the rebuilding theory of phase space, and to study how to transform the response signal to rebuilt phase space in order to extract dynamic feature information, and to provide effective approach for nonlinear signal analysis and fault diagnosis of nonlinear dynamic system. Now, it has already formed an important offset of nonlinear science. But, traditional method cannot extract chaos features automatically, and it needs man's participation in the whole process. A new method is put forward, which can implement auto-extracting of chaos features for nonlinear time series. Firstly, to confirm time delay τ by autocorrelation method; Secondly, to compute embedded dimension m and correlation dimension D;Thirdly, to compute the maximum Lyapunov index λmax; Finally, to calculate the chaos degree Dch of features extracting has important meaning to fault diagnosis of nonlinear system based on nonlinear chaos features. Examples show validity of the proposed method.

  1. Electric field measurements on Cluster: comparing the double-probe and electron drift techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Eriksson

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The four Cluster satellites each carry two instruments designed for measuring the electric field: a double-probe instrument (EFW and an electron drift instrument (EDI. We compare data from the two instruments in a representative sample of plasma regions. The complementary merits and weaknesses of the two techniques are illustrated. EDI operations are confined to regions of magnetic fields above 30 nT and where wave activity and keV electron fluxes are not too high, while EFW can provide data everywhere, and can go far higher in sampling frequency than EDI. On the other hand, the EDI technique is immune to variations in the low energy plasma, while EFW sometimes detects significant nongeophysical electric fields, particularly in regions with drifting plasma, with ion energy (in eV below the spacecraft potential (in volts. We show that the polar cap is a particularly intricate region for the double-probe technique, where large nongeophysical fields regularly contaminate EFW measurments of the DC electric field. We present a model explaining this in terms of enhanced cold plasma wake effects appearing when the ion flow energy is higher than the thermal energy but below the spacecraft potential multiplied by the ion charge. We suggest that these conditions, which are typical of the polar wind and occur sporadically in other regions containing a significant low energy ion population, cause a large cold plasma wake behind the spacecraft, resulting in spurious electric fields in EFW data. This interpretation is supported by an analysis of the direction of the spurious electric field, and by showing that use of active potential control alleviates the situation.

  2. Development of bioassay techniques with extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, T.L.; White, P.; Mackay, D.; Metcalfe, C. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program

    1995-12-31

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), consisting of polyethylene bags filled with triolein, have been used to monitor for lipophilic organic contaminants in water. Although extracts from SPMDs have most often been analyzed for concentrations of organic contaminants, there is also the potential to monitor the toxicity of these extracts using in vitro and in vivo bioassays. SPMDs were deployed for four weeks at several sites along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie to monitor the distribution of toxic organic contaminants in the water. Analysis of the extracts from the SPMDs for concentrations of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicated that the regions in the Detroit River within the Trenton Channel and near Zug Island were the most highly contaminated. Bioassays conducted with extracts from the SPMDs included the in vitro SOS Chromotest for genotoxic activity, an acute lethality test with Daphnia magna, and a fish embryotoxicity test with embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These bioassay data generally indicated that the toxicity and concentrations of organic contaminants in the SPMD extracts were correlated. This study indicates that there is potential to use short-term bioassays of extracts from SPMDs to monitor for in situ contamination in the aquatic environment.

  3. DNA extraction technique for different rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Kapilan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of DNA is very important nowadays in bio-molecular researches. Extracted DNA should be purified and the quality of DNA should also be very high. The objective of the study was to develop a simple efficient method to isolate DNA from the rice varieties in an open laboratory environment, and to eliminate the usage of expensive chemicals and tools. The DNA extraction methods developed by the DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN, Cheng et al., Doyle et al. and Michiels et al. were applied to five different rice varieties grown in different parts of Sri Lanka. Based on the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA tested by measuring the absorbance of DNA at 260 nm using Nanodrop® ND-1000 spectrophotometer and measuring the ratio of A260 / A280 and gel running on agarose, the efficiency of the extraction method chosen varied among rice varieties. Among the methods used, the methods introduced by DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN and Cheng et al, yielded good and amplifiable quality DNA with satisfactory concentration for all the rice varieties tested. Therefore the modified method of Cheng et al, 1987 could be used to extract DNA from rice varieties instead of the commercially available expensive and hazardous DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN.

  4. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  5. Design patterns for the development of electronic health record-driven phenotype extraction algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Thompson, Will K; Pacheco, Jennifer A; Kho, Abel N; Carrell, David S; Pathak, Jyotishman; Peissig, Peggy L; Tromp, Gerard; Denny, Joshua C; Starren, Justin B

    2014-10-01

    Design patterns, in the context of software development and ontologies, provide generalized approaches and guidance to solving commonly occurring problems, or addressing common situations typically informed by intuition, heuristics and experience. While the biomedical literature contains broad coverage of specific phenotype algorithm implementations, no work to date has attempted to generalize common approaches into design patterns, which may then be distributed to the informatics community to efficiently develop more accurate phenotype algorithms. Using phenotyping algorithms stored in the Phenotype KnowledgeBase (PheKB), we conducted an independent iterative review to identify recurrent elements within the algorithm definitions. We extracted and generalized recurrent elements in these algorithms into candidate patterns. The authors then assessed the candidate patterns for validity by group consensus, and annotated them with attributes. A total of 24 electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) phenotypes available in PheKB as of 1/25/2013 were downloaded and reviewed. From these, a total of 21 phenotyping patterns were identified, which are available as an online data supplement. Repeatable patterns within phenotyping algorithms exist, and when codified and cataloged may help to educate both experienced and novice algorithm developers. The dissemination and application of these patterns has the potential to decrease the time to develop algorithms, while improving portability and accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative-ion formation in the explosives RDX, PETN, and TNT by using the reversal electron attachment detection technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumsellek, S.; Alajajian, S. H.; Chutjian, A.

    1992-01-01

    First results of a beam-beam, single-collision study of negative-ion mass spectra produced by attachment of zero-energy electrons to the molecules of the explosives RDX, PETN, and TNT are presented. The technique used is reversal electron attachment detection (READ) wherein the zero-energy electrons are produced by focusing an intense electron beam into a shaped electrostatic field which reverses the trajectory of electrons. The target beam is introduced at the reversal point, and attachment occurs because the electrons have essentially zero longitudinal and radial velocity. The READ technique is used to obtain the 'signature' of molecular ion formation and/or fragmentation for each explosive. Present data are compared with results from atmospheric-pressure ionization and negative-ion chemical ionization methods.

  7. Measurements of electron drift velocity in isobutane using the pulsed Townsend technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivaldini, Tulio C.; Lima, Iara B.; Goncalves, Josemary A.C.; Botelho, Suzana; Tobias, Carmen C.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ridenti, Marco A.; Pascholati, Paulo R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Lab. do Acelerador Linear; Fonte, Paulo; Mangiarotti, Alessio [Universidade de Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. de Fisica. Lab. de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas

    2010-07-01

    Full text. The electron drift velocity characterizes the electric conductivity of weakly ionized gases and is one of the most important transport parameters for simulation and modeling of radiation detectors and plasma discharges. This work presents the results of electron drift velocity as a function of the reduced electric field obtained in nitrogen and isobutane by the Pulsed Townsend technique. Due to its excellent timing properties, isobutane is a common component of standard mixtures used in RPCs (Resistive Plate Chambers), however, at moderate electric fields strength (50 Td <= E/N <= 200 Td), there are insufficient data available in literature for this gas. In our experimental apparatus, electrons are liberated from an aluminum cathode (40mm diameter) due to the incidence of a nitrogen laser beam (MNL202-LD LTB) and are accelerated by the applied electric field toward the anode, made of a high resistivity glass (2 x 10{sup 10} {Omega}{center_dot}m). The fast electric signals generated is amplified and were digitalized in a 1 GHz bandwidth oscilloscope to measure the electrons transit time and to calculate the electron drift velocity in different gaps between anode and cathode. As the timing information presented in the fast electric signal originated in the anode is significant in our application, the amplifier circuit had to hold special features in order to preserve the signal shape. The linear amplifier used, based on the BGM1013 integrated circuit (Philips R), reaches up to 2.1 GHz bandwidth with 35.5 dB gain and was developed and built at Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particles Physics/Portugal. In order to validate this method, measurements were initially carried out in pure nitrogen, in reduced electric fields ranging from 148 to 194 Td. These results showed good agreement with those found in the literature for this largely investigated gas. The measurements of electron drift velocities in pure isobutane were performed as a function

  8. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-il [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Kyung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun-Jin [Graduate school of Food and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 146-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: sjwlee@kaeri.re.kr

    2009-07-15

    Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  9. Comparison of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation on extraction yield, morphological and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from tamarind seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jong-il; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Srinivasan, Periasamy; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Hyun-Jin; Byun, Myung-Woo; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2009-07-01

    Tamarind ( Tamarindus indica L) seed polysaccharide (TSP) is of great important due to its various biological activities. The present investigation was carried out to compare extraction yield, morphological characteristics, average molecular weights and antioxidant activities of TSP from gamma- and electron beam (EB)-irradiated tamarind kernel powder. The tamarind kernel powder was irradiated with 0, 5 and 10 kGy by gamma ray (GR) and electron beam, respectively. The extraction yield of TSP was increased significantly by EB and GR irradiation, but there was no significant difference between irradiation types. Morphological studies by scanning electron microscope showed that TSP from GR-irradiated tamarind seed had a fibrous structure, different from that of EB irradiated with a particle structures. The average molecular weight of TSP was decreased by the irradiation, and EB treatment degraded more severely than GR. Superoxide radical scavenging ability and total antioxidant capacity of EB-treated TSP showed higher than those of GR-treated TSP.

  10. Bioaerosol DNA Extraction Technique from Air Filters Collected from Marine and Freshwater Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, M.; Crandall, S. G.; Barnes, A.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols are composed of microorganisms suspended in air. Among these organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, and protists. Microbes introduced into the atmosphere can drift, primarily by wind, into natural environments different from their point of origin. Although bioaerosols can impact atmospheric dynamics as well as the ecology and biogeochemistry of terrestrial systems, very little is known about the composition of bioaerosols collected from marine and freshwater environments. The first step to determine composition of airborne microbes is to successfully extract environmental DNA from air filters. We asked 1) can DNA be extracted from quartz (SiO2) air filters? and 2) how can we optimize the DNA yield for downstream metagenomic sequencing? Aerosol filters were collected and archived on a weekly basis from aquatic sites (USA, Bermuda, Israel) over the course of 10 years. We successfully extracted DNA from a subsample of ~ 20 filters. We modified a DNA extraction protocol (Qiagen) by adding a beadbeating step to mechanically shear cell walls in order to optimize our DNA product. We quantified our DNA yield using a spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000). Results indicate that DNA can indeed be extracted from quartz filters. The additional beadbeating step helped increase our yield - up to twice as much DNA product was obtained compared to when this step was omitted. Moreover, bioaerosol DNA content does vary across time. For instance, the DNA extracted from filters from Lake Tahoe, USA collected near the end of June decreased from 9.9 ng/μL in 2007 to 3.8 ng/μL in 2008. Further next-generation sequencing analysis of our extracted DNA will be performed to determine the composition of these microbes. We will also model the meteorological and chemical factors that are good predictors for microbial composition for our samples over time and space.

  11. Estimation of visibility of phase contrast with extraction voltages for field emission gun electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xing

    2017-02-01

    Estimation was made for visibility of phase contrast with varying extraction voltages. The resulting decay rates of visibility show that images with low image contrast from cryo EM will be seriously impacted with high extraction voltages.

  12. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V; Küchler, D

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  13. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivanen, V., E-mail: ville.aleksi.toivanen@cern.ch; Küchler, D. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  14. Studies of the beam extraction system of the GTS-LHC electron cyclotron resonance ion source at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, V.; Küchler, D.

    2016-02-01

    The 14.5 GHz GTS-LHC Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) provides multiply charged heavy ion beams for the CERN experimental program. The GTS-LHC beam formation has been studied extensively with lead, argon, and xenon beams with varied beam extraction conditions using the ion optical code IBSimu. The simulation model predicts self-consistently the formation of triangular and hollow beam structures which are often associated with ECRIS ion beams, as well as beam loss patterns which match the observed beam induced markings in the extraction region. These studies provide a better understanding of the properties of the extracted beams and a way to diagnose the extraction system performance and limitations, which is otherwise challenging due to the lack of direct diagnostics in this region and the limited availability of the ion source for development work.

  15. Small-signal modeling with direct parameter extraction for impact ionization effect in high-electron-mobility transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, He; Lv, Hongliang; Guo, Hui, E-mail: hguan@stu.xidian.edu.cn; Zhang, Yuming [Key Laboratory of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Materials and Devices, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2015-11-21

    Impact ionization affects the radio-frequency (RF) behavior of high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have narrow-bandgap semiconductor channels, and this necessitates complex parameter extraction procedures for HEMT modeling. In this paper, an enhanced small-signal equivalent circuit model is developed to investigate the impact ionization, and an improved method is presented in detail for direct extraction of intrinsic parameters using two-step measurements in low-frequency and high-frequency regimes. The practicability of the enhanced model and the proposed direct parameter extraction method are verified by comparing the simulated S-parameters with published experimental data from an InAs/AlSb HEMT operating over a wide frequency range. The results demonstrate that the enhanced model with optimal intrinsic parameter values that were obtained by the direct extraction approach can effectively characterize the effects of impact ionization on the RF performance of HEMTs.

  16. Chemical variability and biological activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils depending on geographic variation and extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Souhila, Terfi; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. GC and GC-MS analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  18. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  19. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lozano-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to diode array detection (DAD and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product, secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones, flavones (luteolin and apigenin and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  20. Exploring the style-technique interaction in extractive summarization of broadcast news

    OpenAIRE

    Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Christensen, Heidi; Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we seek to explore the interaction between the style of a broadcast news story and its summarization technique. We report the performance of three different summarization techniques on broadcast news stories, which are split into planned speech and spontaneous speech. The initial results indicate that some summarization techniques work better for the documents with spontaneous speech than for those with planned speech. Even for human beings some documents are inherently difficul...

  1. Study on Extracting Low Concentration Cadmium from Zinc Hydrometallurgy System by Liquid Membrane Crystallizing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of low concentration cadmium from a system containing high concentration zinc was studied and got CdS product directly. A new liquid membrane system taking DIPSA, TIBPS as carriers, (NH4)2S as precipitating agent was reported. Precipitating Cd2+ in the internal aq. phase that is used to treat sulfuric acid leaching solution of zinc oxide in zinc hydrometallurgy has gotten satisfied results of extracting cadmium from high concentration zinc. After one-stage of batch process under the optimum liquid membrane conditions, 98.6% transferring rate and 98.1% extracting rate of cadmium was obtained with only less than 1.0% transferring rate of zinc, and the feed solution can be purified very well.

  2. Closer to the native state. Critical evaluation of cryo-techniques for Transmission Electron Microscopy: preparation of biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielanczyk, Lukasz; Matysiak, Natalia; Michalski, Marek; Buldak, Rafal; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    Over the years Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) has evolved into a powerful technique for the structural analysis of cells and tissues at various levels of resolution. However, optimal sample preservation is required to achieve results consistent with reality. During the last few decades, conventional preparation methods have provided most of the knowledge about the ultrastructure of organelles, cells and tissues. Nevertheless, some artefacts can be introduced at all stagesofstandard electron microscopy preparation technique. Instead, rapid freezing techniques preserve biological specimens as close as possible to the native state. Our review focuses on different cryo-preparation approaches, starting from vitrification methods dependent on sample size. Afterwards, we discuss Cryo-Electron Microscopy Of VItreous Sections (CEMOVIS) and the main difficulties associated with this technique. Cryo-Focused Ion Beam (cryo-FIB) is described as a potential alternative for CEMOVIS. Another post-processing route for vitrified samples is freeze substitution and embedding in resin for structural analysis or immunolocalization analysis. Cryo-sectioning according to Tokuyasu is a technique dedicated to high efficiency immunogold labelling. Finally, we introduce hybrid techniques, which combine advantages of primary techniques originally dedicated to different approaches. Hybrid approaches permit to perform the study of difficult-to-fix samples and antigens or help optimize the sample preparation protocol for the integrated Laser and Electron Microscopy (iLEM) technique.

  3. Time-Frequency Feature Extraction of Newborn EEG Seizure Using SVD-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hassanpour

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonstationary and multicomponent nature of newborn EEG seizures tends to increase the complexity of the seizure detection problem. In dealing with this type of problems, time-frequency-based techniques were shown to outperform classical techniques. This paper presents a new time-frequency-based EEG seizure detection technique. The technique uses an estimate of the distribution function of the singular vectors associated with the time-frequency distribution of an EEG epoch to characterise the patterns embedded in the signal. The estimated distribution functions related to seizure and nonseizure epochs were used to train a neural network to discriminate between seizure and nonseizure patterns.

  4. High Electron Mobility Ge n-Channel Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors Fabricated by the Gate-Last Process with the Solid Source Diffusion Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Tatsuro; Morita, Yukinori; Takagi, Shinichi

    2010-06-01

    We fabricate high-k/Ge n-channel metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs) by the gate-last process with the thermal solid source diffusion to achieve both of high quality source/drain (S/D) and gate stack. The n+/p junction formed by solid source diffusion technique of Sb dopant shows the excellent diode characteristics of ˜1.5×105 on/off ratio between +1 and -1 V and the quite low reverse current density of ˜4.1×10-4 A/cm2 at +1 V after the fabrication of high-k/Ge n-channel MISFETs that enable us to observe well-behaved transistor performances. The extracted electron mobility with the peak of 891 cm2/(V.s) is high enough to be superior to the Si universal electron mobility especially in low Eeff.

  5. Characterization of the electronic properties of magnetic and semiconductor devices using scanning probe techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaadt, Daniel Maria

    In the first part of this dissertation, scanning probe techniques are used in the study of localized charge deposition and subsequent transport in Co nanoclusters embedded in a SiO2 matrix are presented, and the application of this material in a hybrid magneto-electronic device for magnetic field sensing is described. Co nanoclusters are charged by applying a bias voltage pulse between a conductive tip and the sample, and electrostatic force microscopy is used to image charged areas. An exponential decay in the peak charge density is observed with decay times dependent on the nominal Co film thickness and on the sign of the deposited charge. The results are interpreted as a consequence of Coulomb-blockade effects. This study leads to the design of a hybrid magneto-electronic device, in which Co nanoclusters embedded in SiO2 are incorporated into the gate of a Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. Current flow through the Co nanoclusters leads to a buildup of electronic charge within the gate, and consequently to a transistor threshold voltage shift that varies with applied external magnetic field. The shift in threshold voltage results in an exponential change in subthreshold current and a quadratic change in saturation current. A detailed analysis of the device operation is presented. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the characterization of electronic properties of GaN-based heterostructure devices. Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and spectroscopy (SCS) are used to investigate lateral variations in the transistor threshold voltage and the frequency-dependent response of surface charges and of charge in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). The technique is described in detail, electrostatic simulations performed to study the influence of the probe tip geometry on the measured dC/dV spectra are presented, and the limitations of the SCS technique in a variety of applications are evaluated. Features in SCM images and maps of

  6. Improved angular resolution in electron backscatter diffraction analysis by use of image correlation techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI HY; Andrew GODFREY; WANG W

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method for improving the angular resolution of the electron backscatter diffraction(EBSD)technique based on a correlative matching of EBSD patterns.Standard image interpolation methods are used to detect shifts between selected regions of the EBSD patterns to an accuracy of one tenth of a pixel.Simulated data sets are used to show that such accuracy,combined with a small angle approximation in calculation of the rotation angle,allows determination of the misorientation between patterns to an accuracy of 0.01 degrees.The method is tested on samples of both single crystal aluminum and recrystallized nickel.The results demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the new method compared to the conventional method.

  7. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.

  8. Scanning electron microscope technique for measuring electrical conductivity: application to tetrathiafulvalene--tetracyanoquinodimethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, James Peter [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A new technique for measuring the electrical conductivity of small samples and its application to the organic conductor tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ) is reported. A movable current source provided by the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope is used to map out the potential distribution on crystal faces containing the a-b crystallographic axes. Silver paint contacts are used to return the beam current to ground and measure voltage changes as the beam position is moved. The results of the new technique are confirmed and complemented by the conventional movable contact method and the extension of both methods to low temperature is discussed. The potential distributions for our samples reveal frequently occurring irregularities in current flow which are attributable to sample imperfections and inhomogeneities in the silver paint contacts. Methods are presented whereby the commonly reported conductivities sigmaa and sigmab can be determined despite the presence of certain current flow irrgularities; room temperature values are found to be: sigmab = 490 ± 80 (Ωcm)-1 and sigmaa = 1.21 ± 0.15 (Ωcm)-1. The relationship of sigmaa/ and sigmab to the elements of the correctly expressed conductivity tensor for TTF-TCNQ is clarified. The influence of contact inhomogeneities on four-probe measurements of the temperature dependence of the b-axis conductivity as determined with an electrolytic tank model are also presented. It is found that there is a large probability of slightly underestimating conductivity, but that it is possible in a small number of cases to greatly overestimate conductivity.

  9. Composite Biofilms grown in Acidic Mining Lakes and assessed by Electron Microscopy and Molecular Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luensdorf, Heinrich; Wenderoth, Dirk F.; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer [GBF, German Research Center for Biotechnology, Department Environmental Microbiology (Germany)], E-mail: wab@gbf.de

    2002-05-15

    Microbial consortia of composite biofilms, grown in surface water of acidicmining lakes near Lauchhammer, Germany, were investigated. The red-brown colored lake water was acidic (pH 2.5), had high concentrations of Fe(III), Al(III), and sulphate and low concentrations of dissolved organic matter. As a result the abundance of bacteria in the lake is with 10{sup 4} cells mL{sup -1} rather low. One input of organic material into the lake are autumnal leaves from trees, growing in the lakeside area. From aliquots of unfixed birch leave biofilms the 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR and community fingerprints were determined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. Specific bands within the fingerprints were extracted from SSCP gels and sequenced for the taxonomical affiliation.These results were compared with those from the second type of biofilms which were grown on sterile substrata, floating submersed in surface waters of the lakes. By excising the bands from the gel and sequencing the individual bands bacterial taxa, common to both types of biofilms, were found but also some, which were only present in one type of biofilm. Ultrathin sectioned biofilms often showed bacteria associated with electron dense particles as main inorganic constituents. Elemental microanalysis by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) revealed them to contain iron, sulfur and oxygen as main elemental fractions and electron diffraction ring pattern analysis classified them to be schwertmannite. These bacteria and their interactions with each other as well as with the inorganic minerals formed in this lake generally is of great interest, in order to use these results for bioremediation applications.

  10. Failure modes and effects analysis of total skin electron irradiation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez-Rosello, B; Bautista, J A; Bonaque, J; Perez-Calatayud, J; Gonzalez-Sanchis, A; Lopez-Torrecilla, J; Brualla-Gonzalez, L; Garcia-Hernandez, T; Vicedo-Gonzalez, A; Granero, D; Serrano, A; Borderia, B; Solera, C; Rosello, J

    2017-08-04

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) is a radiotherapy technique which consists of an homogeneous body surface irradiation by electrons. This treatment requires very strict technical and dosimetric conditions, requiring the implementation of multiple controls. Recently, the Task Group 100 report of the AAPM has recommended adapting the quality assurance program of the facility to the risks of their processes. A multidisciplinary team evaluated the potential failure modes (FMs) of every process step, regardless of the management tools applied in the installation. For every FM, occurrence (O), severity (S) and detectability (D) by consensus was evaluated, which resulted in the risk priority number (RPN), which permitted the ranking of the FMs. Subsequently, all the management tools used, related to the TSEI process, were examined and the FMs were reevaluated, to analyze the effectiveness of these tools and to propose new management tools to cover the greater risk FMs. 361 FMs were identified, 103 of which had RPN ≥80, initially, and 41 had S ≥ 8. Taking this into account the quality management tools FMs were reevaluated and only 30 FMs had RPN ≥80. The study of these 30 FMs emphasized that the FMs that involved greater risk were related to the diffuser screen placement and the patient's position during treatment. The quality assurance program of the facility has been adapted to the risk of this treatment process, following the guidelines proposed by the TG-100. However, clinical experience continually reveals new FMs, so the need for periodic risk analysis is required.

  11. Denoising of electron beam Monte Carlo dose distributions using digital filtering techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Joseph O.

    2000-07-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has long been viewed as the ultimate dose distribution computational technique. The inherent stochastic dose fluctuations (i.e. noise), however, have several important disadvantages: noise will affect estimates of all the relevant dosimetric and radiobiological indices, and noise will degrade the resulting dose contour visualizations. We suggest the use of a post-processing denoising step to reduce statistical fluctuations and also improve dose contour visualization. We report the results of applying four different two-dimensional digital smoothing filters to two-dimensional dose images. The Integrated Tiger Series MC code was used to generate 10 MeV electron beam dose distributions at various depths in two different phantoms. The observed qualitative effects of filtering include: (a) the suppression of voxel-to-voxel (high-frequency) noise and (b) the resulting contour plots are visually more comprehensible. Drawbacks include, in some cases, slight blurring of penumbra near the surface and slight blurring of other very sharp real dosimetric features. Of the four digital filters considered here, one, a filter based on a local least-squares principle, appears to suppress noise with negligible degradation of real dosimetric features. We conclude that denoising of electron beam MC dose distributions is feasible and will yield improved dosimetric reliability and improved visualization of dose distributions.

  12. Denoising of electron beam Monte Carlo dose distributions using digital filtering techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deasy, Joseph O. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, 510 So. Kingshighway Blvd, St Louis, MO 63110 (United States). E-mail: deasy at radonc.wustl.edu

    2000-07-01

    The Monte Carlo (MC) method has long been viewed as the ultimate dose distribution computational technique. The inherent stochastic dose fluctuations (i.e. noise), however, have several important disadvantages: noise will affect estimates of all the relevant dosimetric and radiobiological indices, and noise will degrade the resulting dose contour visualizations. We suggest the use of a post-processing denoising step to reduce statistical fluctuations and also improve dose contour visualization. We report the results of applying four different two-dimensional digital smoothing filters to two-dimensional dose images. The Integrated Tiger Series MC code was used to generate 10 MeV electron beam dose distributions at various depths in two different phantoms. The observed qualitative effects of filtering include: (a) the suppression of voxel-to-voxel (high-frequency) noise and (b) the resulting contour plots are visually more comprehensible. Drawbacks include, in some cases, slight blurring of penumbra near the surface and slight blurring of other very sharp real dosimetric features. Of the four digital filters considered here, one, a filter based on a local least-squares principle, appears to suppress noise with negligible degradation of real dosimetric features. We conclude that denoising of electron beam MC dose distributions is feasible and will yield improved dosimetric reliability and improved visualization of dose distributions. (author)

  13. Institutional experience with a rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) technique-A three decade review (1981-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Michael D C; Hudon, Christine; Podgorsak, Ervin B; Freeman, Carolyn R

    2014-03-01

    Total skin electron irradiation (TSEI) for patients with cutaneous lymphomas is technically challenging, and numerous approaches have been developed to overcome the many field matching problems associated with such a large and complex treatment volume. Since 1981 we have delivered TSEI using a rotational total skin electron irradiation (RTSEI) technique in conjunction with patch, treat and boost fields in order to provide complete skin and dose coverage. Initially we used a 6 MeV electron beam at an extended source-skin distance (SSD) on a modified linear accelerator. More recently we began using a high dose rate electron mode on a commercially available linear accelerator. The RTSEI technique allows the delivery of a seamless surface dose to the majority of the patient's skin surface in a single treatment. In this review paper we present our three-decade experience with the technical development, dosimetry, treatment delivery and clinical outcomes of our RTSEI technique.

  14. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  15. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenster, M; Buurman, J; Liu, P; Peters, J F; Chang, P J

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their "temporality". The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data.

  16. Scattering-parameter extraction and calibration techniques for RF free-space material characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniecki, M.; Saenz, E.; Rolo, L.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for material characterization (permittivity, permeability, loss tangent) based on the scattering parameters. The performance of the extraction algorithm will be shown for modelled and measured data. The measurements were carried out at the European Space Agency us...

  17. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, J.; Liu, P.; Peters, J.F.; Chang, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. Objectives The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their “temporality”. Methods The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. Results The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. Conclusions The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data. PMID:26448801

  18. Laser stripe extraction method in industrial environments utilizing self-adaptive convolution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Qia; Tao, Wei; Feng, Yi-Yang; Gao, Qiang; He, Qiao-Zhi; Zhao, Hui

    2017-04-01

    A line-structured laser scanner is widely applied for 3D reconstruction in industrial environments with ubiquitous various luminance, complicated background, diverse objects, and instable lasers. These elements will show up as noise in the obtained laser stripe images. Therefore, the basic and key point for a line-structured laser scanner is to accurately extract the laser stripe from noise. This paper proposes an effective laser stripe extraction procedure with two steps. First, a novel laser stripe center extraction method based on the geometry information and correlation in the laser stripe, is designed to significantly eliminate noise and accurately extract the laser stripe centers. In addition, the robustness, speed, and accuracy of this method are respectively analyzed in detail. Second, piecewise fitting is adopted to acquire a smooth and continuous laser stripe centerline. In order to select the optimal fitting method, the characteristics of two spline methods, Akima spline and cubic Hermite spline, are deeply analyzed and compared. Finally, an experiment is carried out by using a rough metal step and a line-structured laser scanning system. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed self-adaptive convolution-mass method can significantly eliminate noise in industrial environments. In addition, the cubic Hermite spline is a better choice for 3D reconstruction, rather than the Akima spline.

  19. Lower incisor extraction treatment with the Invisalign® technique: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Garino, Francesco; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of a lower incisor can lead to satisfactory orthodontic results for patients with moderate to severe lower incisor crowding. Invisalign(®) is a treatment modality for such treatments, moving teeth with precision and reducing inconvenience for the patient. Three case reports are presented in this article supporting the above statements.

  20. Simplified technique for easy extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth using guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ok Hyung; Lee, Hyeonjong; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul

    2017-01-01

    Most mesiodens remain impacted and can affect the growth and development of adjacent permanent teeth. Impacted mesiodens are usually located in an intraosseous position associated with complicated anatomical structures, necessitating minimally invasive surgical approaches. This article demonstrates a simple customized surgical stent for extraction of impacted mesiodens. Its use and advantages are described.

  1. Study on the effects of electron beam irradiation on tooth extraction wound healing in rats. With special reference to irradiation after extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Akiyoshi (Nihon Univ., Tokyo. School of Dentistry)

    1983-11-01

    The wound of the upper jaw 3 days after the first molar tooth extraction in female rats was exposed to 1,500 rads (Group 2) and 2,000 rads (Group 3) of the 10 MeV electron beams, and its pathohistological changes were compared with those of rats with the tooth extraction alone (control group). In the control group, the tooth extraction wound was covered with epithelium 10 days later and new bones were formed 17 days later. Wound healing with the epithelium was seen in all irradiated rats 24 days later. The formation of the new teeth was seen 24 days later in the Group 2 and 38 days later in Group 3. Cell infiltration under the epithelial layers was still observed in some of the Group 3, although the wound was covered with epithelium, and the new bone covering the extraction wound was formed 38 days later. Healing was prolonged in Group 3, as compared with that in Group 2.

  2. Cadmium phytoavailability in soils and evaluation of extractant effectiveness using an isotope technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of land are nowadays contaminated by heavy metals and, it is therefore, important to monitor their levels in soils. Vegetables act as transfer mechanisms of such contaminants from soils to higher levels in the food chain. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical extractants by the L-value method for Cd phytoavailability using the 109Cd radionuclide. In a greenhouse experiment, rocket plants (Eruca sativa L. were cultivated in pots with samples from Typic Hapludox and Typic Quartzipsamment soils. Cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 16 mg kg-1 were added to a 200 mL solution containing 148 kBq 109Cd. The available Cd in the soil was extracted by DTPA, Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, and a mixture of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and oxalic acids. Cd concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 109Cd radionuclide activity was measured by low-level β-counting. The dry matter yield was not influenced by Cd rates, but the Cd content and accumulation in shoots had a positive linear correlation. Generally, Cd was extracted in higher quantities by Mehlich-1 followed by DTPA, Mehlich-3, and organic acids. A linear correlation was found between the chemical extractants and Cd accumulation in shoots for both soils. According to the L Ratio, the extractants based on strong acids and chelating agents presented low efficiency regarding Cd phytoavailability. The organic acids, which presented values close to the L-value, may provide a promising method for evaluating environmental contaminants.

  3. Advancing extraction techniques : new technologies vie for a piece of the growing in situ pie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, P.

    2010-09-15

    This article described 3 technologies that rely on heat to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. According to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, in situ extraction is projected to soon surpass mining as the primary source of bitumen production in the region. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), to a lesser extent, are set to lead the industry. Interest is also growing in other technologies, including toe-to-heel air injection (THAI), combustion overhead gravity drainage (COGD) and enhanced solvent extraction. These processes were all developed by Calgary-based organizations and claim to offer economic, environmental or operational improvements over traditional in situ extraction technologies. This article described the different methods they use to heat the reservoirs and the amount of heat required to recover the bitumen. The THAI technology uses combustion initiated from vertical air injection wells to heat the reservoir, and gravity to collect the oil in the horizontal production wells to recover heavy oil and bitumen. The COGD technology uses a set of vertical air injector ignition wells above a horizontal production well that is located at the base of the bitumen pay zone. A multi-step pre-ignition heating cycle that uses steam prepares the cold bitumen in the reservoir for ignition and makes it more mobile. The enhanced solvent method builds upon the SAGD technology whereby heated propane vapour is injected at moderate pressures into the gravity drainage chamber. The vapour flows from the injection well to the colder perimeter of the chamber where it condenses, delivering heat and fresh solvent directly to the bitumen extraction interface. 2 figs.

  4. Fabrication of superconducting MgB2 nanostructures by an electron beam lithography-based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portesi, C.; Borini, S.; Amato, G.; Monticone, E.

    2006-03-01

    In this work, we present the results obtained in fabrication and characterization of magnesium diboride nanowires realized by an electron beam lithography (EBL)-based method. For fabricating MgB2 thin films, an all in situ technique has been used, based on the coevaporation of B and Mg by means of an e-gun and a resistive heater, respectively. Since the high temperatures required for the fabrication of good quality MgB2 thin films do not allow the nanostructuring approach based on the lift-off technique, we structured the samples combining EBL, optical lithography, and Ar milling. In this way, reproducible nanowires 1 μm long have been obtained. To illustrate the impact of the MgB2 film processing on its superconducting properties, we measured the temperature dependence of the resistance on a nanowire and compared it to the original magnesium diboride film. The electrical properties of the films are not degraded as a consequence of the nanostructuring process, so that superconducting nanodevices may be obtained by this method.

  5. A Novel Semi-Supervised Electronic Nose Learning Technique: M-Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengfei Jia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When an electronic nose (E-nose is used to distinguish different kinds of gases, the label information of the target gas could be lost due to some fault of the operators or some other reason, although this is not expected. Another fact is that the cost of getting the labeled samples is usually higher than for unlabeled ones. In most cases, the classification accuracy of an E-nose trained using labeled samples is higher than that of the E-nose trained by unlabeled ones, so gases without label information should not be used to train an E-nose, however, this wastes resources and can even delay the progress of research. In this work a novel multi-class semi-supervised learning technique called M-training is proposed to train E-noses with both labeled and unlabeled samples. We employ M-training to train the E-nose which is used to distinguish three indoor pollutant gases (benzene, toluene and formaldehyde. Data processing results prove that the classification accuracy of E-nose trained by semi-supervised techniques (tri-training and M-training is higher than that of an E-nose trained only with labeled samples, and the performance of M-training is better than that of tri-training because more base classifiers can be employed by M-training.

  6. A hybrid material as a sorbent phase for the disposable pipette extraction technique enhances efficiency in the determination of phenolic endocrine-disrupting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Gabriela; Merib, Josias; Magosso, Hérica A; Bittencourt, Otávio R; Carasek, Eduardo

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the hybrid material 3-n-propyl(3-methylpyridinium) silsesquioxane chloride (Si3Py(+)Cl(-)) was synthesized and investigated as a novel sorbent phase for the disposable pipette extraction (DPX) technique coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-florescence detection. This sorbent phase was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Aqueous samples containing the phenolic endocrine-disrupting compounds bisphenol A (BPA), 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), 4-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) were subjected to DPX procedures and a series of optimizations was performed to determine the ideal extraction conditions using this approach. The proposed sorbent phase exhibited higher extraction efficiency than DPX-RP (reversed phase tips containing styrene-divinylbenzene), commonly used for the determination of the phenolic endocrine- disrupting-compounds under study. Satisfactory analytical performance was achieved with linear ranges from 2 to 100μgL(-1) for 4-t-OP and 1-100μgL(-1) for the other analytes. Limits of detection of 0.60μgL(-1) for 4-t-OP and 0.30μgL(-1) for other analytes, RSDs ranging from 1 to 20% and relative recoveries of 83-116% were obtained. Based on these satisfactory results, this sorbent phase represents a valuable alternative for the extraction of compounds with polar moieties in their structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth: comparison of three different materials using injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, A; Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Shrestha, P

    2010-04-01

    This in vitro study compared the reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth taken by silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin using an injection technique to determine which material produced fewer voids. Twenty impressions/patterns using this technique were made for each material and compared with each other on the basis of number, location and size of voids. Length of each dowel impression/ pattern was also compared. The percentage of void free surfaces using silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin were 90%, 100% and 85% respectively. Most of the voids were less than 1mm in size and situated in the middle third of the impression/pattern. There was no significant difference in the length of the impression/ pattern taken by the three materials. Using the injection technique to reproduce the intra-radicular anatomy of the dowel space, all three materials will show predictably good results.

  8. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong; Zhang, Fu-Shen

    2012-06-30

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E&E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90°C, 2h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  9. Removal of brominated flame retardant from electrical and electronic waste plastic by solvothermal technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Cong-Cong [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhang, Fu-Shen, E-mail: fszhang@rcees.ac.cn [Research Center For Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2012-06-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A process for brominated flame retardants (BFRs) removal in plastic was established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The plastic became bromine-free with the structure maintained after this treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BFRs transferred into alcohol solvent were easily debrominated by metallic copper. - Abstract: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in electrical and electronic (E and E) waste plastic are toxic, bioaccumulative and recalcitrant. In the present study, tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) contained in this type of plastic was tentatively subjected to solvothermal treatment so as to obtain bromine-free plastic. Methanol, ethanol and isopropanol were examined as solvents for solvothermal treatment and it was found that methanol was the optimal solvent for TBBPA removal. The optimum temperature, time and liquid to solid ratio for solvothermal treatment to remove TBBPA were 90 Degree-Sign C, 2 h and 15:1, respectively. After the treatment with various alcohol solvents, it was found that TBBPA was finally transferred into the solvents and bromine in the extract was debrominated catalyzed by metallic copper. Bisphenol A and cuprous bromide were the main products after debromination. The morphology and FTIR properties of the plastic were generally unchanged after the solvothermal treatment indicating that the structure of the plastic maintained after the process. This work provides a clean and applicable process for BFRs-containing plastic disposal.

  10. A compact model and direct parameters extraction techniques For amorphous gallium-indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Oana; Castro-Carranza, Alejandra; Cerdeira, Antonio; Estrada, Magali; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira; Miljakovic, Slobodan; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2016-12-01

    An advanced compact and analytical drain current model for the amorphous gallium indium zinc oxide (GIZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is proposed. Its output saturation behavior is improved by introducing a new asymptotic function. All model parameters were extracted using an adapted version of the Universal Method and Extraction Procedure (UMEM) applied for the first time for GIZO devices in a simple and direct form. We demonstrate the correct behavior of the model for negative VDS, a necessity for a complete compact model. In this way we prove the symmetry of source and drain electrodes and extend the range of applications to both signs of VDS. The model, in Verilog-A code, is implemented in Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools, such as Smart Spice, and compared with measurements of TFTs. It describes accurately the experimental characteristics in the whole range of GIZO TFTs operation, making the model suitable for the design of circuits using these types of devices.

  11. The Use of an Electron Microchannel as a Self-Extracting and Focusing Plasma Cathode Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, S.; Khachan, J.

    2016-02-01

    A new and simple type of electron gun is presented. Unlike conventional electron guns, which require a heated filament or extractor, accelerator and focusing electrodes, this gun uses the collimated electron microchannels of an inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) discharge to achieve the same outcome. A cylindrical cathode is placed coaxially within a cylindrical anode to create the discharge. Collimated beams of electrons and fast neutrals emerge along the axis of the cylindrical cathode. This geometry isolates one of the microchannels that emerge in a negatively biased IEC grid. The internal operating pressure range of the gun is 35-190 mTorr. A small aperture separates the gun from the main vacuum chamber in order to achieve a pressure differential. The chamber was operated at pressures of 4-12 mTorr. The measured current produced by the gun was 0.1-3 mA (0.2-14 mA corrected measurement) for discharge currents of 1-45 mA and discharge voltages of 0.5-12 kV. The collimated electron beam emerges from the aperture into the vacuum chamber. The performance of the gun is unaffected by the pressure differential between the vacuum chamber and the gun. This allows the aperture to be removed and the chamber pressure to be equal to the gun pressure if required.

  12. Technique to assess the alveolar bone width for immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Chandraker

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This technique will help the surgeon understand the thickness of labial plate especially the apical region without reflecting the flap, also aid in selection of proper dimension of dental implant, and if bone graft is needed.

  13. Research Progress of Extraction Techniques of Essential Oils from Onion%洋葱精油提取技术的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石鑫光; 廖传华; 陈海军; 朱跃钊

    2014-01-01

    The principles of water extraction,solvent extraction and supercritical fluid extraction techniques are expounded;the application of various methods for onion essential oils extraction is introduced.Aiming at the existing problems of various extraction methods,the relevant intensified extraction techniques are put forward to achieve the efficient extraction of onion essential oils.%阐述了水提法、溶剂提取法、超临界流体萃取技术的原理,介绍了各种方法在洋葱精油提取中的应用。针对各提取方法存在的问题,提出了相关的强化提取技术,为实现洋葱精油的高效提取提供指导。

  14. Chemical mutagenesis--a promising technique to increase metal concentration and extraction in sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehnevajova, Erika; Herzig, Rolf; Federer, Guido; Erismann, Karl-Hans; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    Since most of the metal-hyperaccumulating wild plants only produce very low biomass and many high-yielding crops accumulate only moderate amounts of metals, the current research is mainly focused on overcoming these limitations and the optimization of metal phytoextraction. The main goal of the present study was the improvement of metal concentration and extraction properties of Helianthus annuus L by chemical mutagenesis (the non-GMO approach). Sunflowers--hybrid cultivar Salut and inbred lines-were treated with the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The effect of chemical mutagenesis on metal concentration in and extraction by new sunflower M1 and M2 mutants was directly assessed on a metal-contaminated field in Raft, Switzerland. Mutants of the M2 generation showed a 2-3 times higher metal shoot concentration than the control plants. The best M2 sunflower "giant mutant" 14/185/04 showed a significantly enhanced metal extraction ability: 7.5 times for Cd, 9.2 times for Zn, and 8.2 times for Pb in aboveground parts, as compared to the control plants. Theoretical calculations for the phytoextraction potential of new sunflower variants note that the best sunflower mutant can produce up to 26 t dry matter per hectare and remove 13.3 kg Zn per hectare and year at the sewage sludge contaminated site of Raft; that is a gain factor of 9 compared to Zn extraction by sunflower controls. Furthermore, the use of sunflower oil and biomass for technical purposes (lubricants, biodiesel, biogas) should produce an additional value and improve the economical balance of phytoextraction.

  15. ONTOLOGY EXTRACTION FOR AGRICULTURE DOMAIN IN MARATHI LANGUAGE USING NLP TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Dalvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontology is defined as shared specification of conceptual vocabulary used for formulating knowledge-level theories about a domain of discourse. Dataset is created by manually collecting information about different diseases related to crops. Ontology modeling is used for knowledge representation of various domains. India is an agricultural based economic country. Majority of Indian population relies on farming but the technologies are sparsely used for the aid of farmers. Ontology based modeling for agricultural knowledge can change this scenario. The farmers can understand it easily in their native language. We proposed a system which will model and extract knowledge in Marathi language. In this paper, we review various existing agriculture ontology’s along with some of Natural Language Processing (NLP models. Model ontology for agriculture domain system aims to retrieve relevant answers to the farmer’s query. We explored Rule-Based and Conditional Random Fields based models for Ontology extraction. The extraction methods and preprocessing phases of proposed system is discussed.

  16. Microdialysis as a New Technique for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzu, Gianfranco; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The amount and composition of the phenolic components play a major role in determining the quality of olive oil. The traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method requires a time-consuming sample preparation to obtain the "phenolic profile" of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed to develop a microdialysis extraction (MDE) as an alternative to the LLE method to evaluate the phenolic components of EVOO. To this purpose, a microdialysis device and dialysis procedure were developed. "Dynamic-oil" microdialysis was performed using an extracting solution (80:20 methanol/water) flow rate of 2 μL min(-1) and a constant EVOO stream of 4 μL min(-1). The results indicated a strong positive correlation between MDE and the LLE method, providing a very similar phenolic profile obtained with traditional LLE. In conclusion, the MDE approach, easier and quicker in comparison to LLE, provided a reliable procedure to determine the phenolic components used as a marker of the quality and traceability of EVOO.

  17. Feature extraction and classification for EEG signals using wavelet transform and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Badruddin, Nasreen; Kamel, Nidal; Hussain, Muhammad; Chooi, Weng-Tink

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a discrete wavelet transform-based feature extraction scheme for the classification of EEG signals. In this scheme, the discrete wavelet transform is applied on EEG signals and the relative wavelet energy is calculated in terms of detailed coefficients and the approximation coefficients of the last decomposition level. The extracted relative wavelet energy features are passed to classifiers for the classification purpose. The EEG dataset employed for the validation of the proposed method consisted of two classes: (1) the EEG signals recorded during the complex cognitive task--Raven's advance progressive metric test and (2) the EEG signals recorded in rest condition--eyes open. The performance of four different classifiers was evaluated with four performance measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision values. The accuracy was achieved above 98 % by the support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and the K-nearest neighbor classifiers with approximation (A4) and detailed coefficients (D4), which represent the frequency range of 0.53-3.06 and 3.06-6.12 Hz, respectively. The findings of this study demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction approach has the potential to classify the EEG signals recorded during a complex cognitive task by achieving a high accuracy rate.

  18. A refined technique for extraction of extracellular matrices from bacterial biofilms and its applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Akio; Sugimoto, Shinya; Sato, Fumiya; Hori, Seiji; Mizunoe, Yoshimitsu

    2015-05-01

    Biofilm-forming bacteria embedded in polymeric extracellular matrices (ECMs) that consist of polysaccharides, proteins and/or extracellular DNAs (eDNAs) acquire high resistance to antimicrobial agents and host immune systems. To understand molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation and maintenance and to develop therapeutic countermeasures against chronic biofilm-associated infections, reliable methods to isolate ECMs are inevitable. In this study, we refined the ECM extraction method recently reported and evaluated its applicability. Using three Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in which proteins, polysaccharides or eDNAs are major contributors to their integrity, ECMs were extracted using salts and detergents. We found that extraction with 1.5 M sodium chloride (NaCl) could be optimum for not only ECM proteins but also polysaccharides and eDNAs. In addition, long-time incubation was not necessary for efficient ECM isolation. Lithium chloride (LiCl) was comparative to NaCl but is more expensive. In contrast to SDS, NaCl hardly caused leakage of intracellular proteins and did not affect viability of bacterial cells within biofilms. Furthermore, this method is applicable to other bacteria such as Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, this refined method is very simple, rapid, low cost and non-invasive and could be used for a broad range of applications.

  19. ENCAPSULATION OF EXTRACT FROM WINERY INDUSTRY RESIDUE USING THE SUPERCRITICAL ANTI-SOLVENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mezzomo

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace (seed, skin and stem is a winery byproduct with high levels of biologically active compounds, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials, that could be converted into high added-value products. Since these components are easily degraded by oxygen, light and high temperature exposure, stabilization is important, for instance, by a microencapsulation process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence on the particle characteristics of the operational conditions applied in the Supercritical Anti-Solvent (SAS process for the co-precipitation of grape pomace extract and poly(-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The morphology and size of the particles formed, their stability and thermal profile were evaluated, and also the co-precipitation efficiency. The conditions studied allowed the production of microparticles with spherical shape for all operational conditions, with estimated particle size between 4 ± 2 and 11 ± 5 µm, and very good co-precipitation efficiencies (up to 94.4 ± 0.6%. The co-precipitated extract presented higher stability compared to the crude extract, indicating the effectiveness of the co-precipitation process and coating material against degradation processes.

  20. Extraction method enhancement techniques for the analysis of PCDDS and PCDFS in meat sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Tae-Uk [Gyeonsang National Univ., Jinju (Korea). Division of Applied Life Science]|[National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (Korea). Busan Regional Office; Kwon, Jin-Wook [National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service (Korea). Anyang city

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins are the most concerned persistent organic pollutants(POPs) to human beings and being fat soluble tend to accumulate in higher animals including humans. Dioxins has 75 congeners of PCDD and 135 congeners of PCDF, but generally only 7 congeners of PCDD and 10 congeners of PCDF are analyzed because of their toxicity, stability and so on. Since dioxins contamination is regarded as a global issue, a large amount of samples have been analyzed, and various methods for measuring dioxins have been developed and improved. Dioxins analysis needs very complicated analytical procedure including extraction, cleanup and instrument analysis. Because analytical procedure is very complicated and needs many steps, conventional analytical procedure are very time consuming and use large volumes of solvents. So current methods are time consuming and very expensive. In this study, speedy and cost reducing methods without reducing recovery and stability should be focused. So to present the new extraction method to simplify and stabilize of extraction method, the recovery and stability of 7 congeners of PCDD and 10 congeners of PCDF using soxhlet, forced convection dry oven and microwave oven were compared.

  1. Hyphenated technique for the extraction and determination of isoflavones in algae: ultrasound-assisted supercritical fluid extraction followed by fast chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klejdus, B; Lojková, L; Plaza, M; Snóblová, M; Stěrbová, D

    2010-12-17

    New hyphenated technique for the extraction and determination of isoflavones in sea and freshwater algae and cyanobacteria was developed. The method consists of sonication sample pretreatment, extraction by supercritical CO(2) modified by 3% (v/v) of MeOH/H(2)O mixture (9:1, v/v) at 35 MPa and 40°C for 60 min, fast chromatography analysis by the means of Agilent 1200 Series Rapid Resolution and MS/MS determination. Agilent 1200 Series RRLC was used with Zorbax SB-CN chromatographic column (100 mm × 2.1mm, particle size 3.5 μm), 3μl injection volume, mobile phase consisting of 0.2% (v/v) acetic acid in water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) and used with linear gradient (30% B at 0 min, from 0 min to 3 min up to 50% B, from 3 to 6 min up to 80% B and from 6 to 10 min down to 30% B). The flow-rate was 0.4 mL/min, column oven temperature 35°C. MS detector Agilent Technologies 6460 Triple quadrupole LC/MS with Agilent Jet Stream was used in a negative ESI mode under following conditions: gas temperature 350°C, gas flow 13 L/min, nebulizer gas pressure 50 psi, sheath gas temperature 400°C, sheath gas flow 12L/min, capillary voltage was 4 kV. Samples were analysed in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Eight isoflavone compounds were found for the first time in seven real samples of sea algae and in three control samples of freshwater algae and cyanobacteria. Usual optimisation study of extraction parameters was performed. Pressure and temperature optima for algae matrix are different from those obtained sooner for other matrices for most of the analytes, but the results of modifier optimisation study are in good accordance with those obtained sooner for spiked samples and red clover matrix. It seems that matrix has very small or no effect on the modifier selection. Two different approaches of sonication pretreatment were tested: sonication bath and the thorn instrument. In longer extraction time experiments, thorn sonication was more efficient

  2. What Online Communities Can Tell Us About Electronic Cigarettes and Hookah Use: A Study Using Text Mining and Visualization Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Annie T; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Conway, Mike

    2015-09-29

    The rise in popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and hookah over recent years has been accompanied by some confusion and uncertainty regarding the development of an appropriate regulatory response towards these emerging products. Mining online discussion content can lead to insights into people's experiences, which can in turn further our knowledge of how to address potential health implications. In this work, we take a novel approach to understanding the use and appeal of these emerging products by applying text mining techniques to compare consumer experiences across discussion forums. This study examined content from the websites Vapor Talk, Hookah Forum, and Reddit to understand people's experiences with different tobacco products. Our investigation involves three parts. First, we identified contextual factors that inform our understanding of tobacco use behaviors, such as setting, time, social relationships, and sensory experience, and compared the forums to identify the ones where content on these factors is most common. Second, we compared how the tobacco use experience differs with combustible cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Third, we investigated differences between e-cigarette and hookah use. In the first part of our study, we employed a lexicon-based extraction approach to estimate prevalence of contextual factors, and then we generated a heat map based on these estimates to compare the forums. In the second and third parts of the study, we employed a text mining technique called topic modeling to identify important topics and then developed a visualization, Topic Bars, to compare topic coverage across forums. In the first part of the study, we identified two forums, Vapor Talk Health & Safety and the Stopsmoking subreddit, where discussion concerning contextual factors was particularly common. The second part showed that the discussion in Vapor Talk Health & Safety focused on symptoms and comparisons of combustible cigarettes and e

  3. Upgraded millimeter-wave interferometer for measuring the electron density during the beam extraction in the negative ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuzawa, T.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tsumori, K.; Ito, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.

    2016-11-01

    The upgraded millimeter-wave interferometer with the frequency of 70 GHz is installed on a large-scaled negative ion source. Measurable line-averaged electron density is from 2 × 1015 to 3 × 1018 m-3 in front of the plasma grid. Several improvements such as the change to shorter wavelength probing with low noise, the installation of special ordered horn antenna, the signal modulation for a high accuracy digital phase detection, the insertion of insulator, and so on, are carried out for the measurement during the beam extraction by applying high voltage. The line-averaged electron density is successfully measured and it is found that it increases linearly with the arc power and drops suddenly at the beam extraction.

  4. Selective Processing Techniques for Electronics and Opto-Electronic Applications: Quantum-Well Devices and Integrated Optic Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-10

    conventionally 11. LASER FABRICATION OF RIB.LIKE WAVEGUIDES fabricated devices. Experimental results are described by simple theoretical models. The technique...the and important issue which laser fabrication techniques may be experiment for the range of angles used. capable of addressing, Finally, the

  5. 超声波辅助法提取中国对虾虾青素%Extracting Technique of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Astaxanthin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙协军; 胡浩; 李秀霞; 赵爽; 吴科阳; 张凯

    2015-01-01

    Abstrat:A gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)was developed for the detection of astaxanthin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis.Develosil C30 column was used as analytical column,methanol-ace-tonitrile (80∶20,v /v)as mobile phase,analyzed by diode array detector (DAD),quantified by external stand-ard method;and the extracting technique assisted by ultrasound assisted extraction method of astaxanthin from Fenneropenaeus chinensis shell and head was optimized.The results showed that free astaxanthin was the mainly form exists in Fenneropenaeus chinensis shell and head,the linear range of astaxanthin was 1 ~32 μg/mL (r2 =0.9993).The extraction technique of ultrasound assisted Fenneropenaeus chinensis astaxanthin extraction was optimized by response surface methodology,the optimal condition for extraction technique was that L/S 430 mL/g,ultrasonic power 450 W,ultrasonic time 8.5 min,under the optimal condition,the predicted astaxanthin yield was 14.02 μg/g,the measured value was 13.89 μg/g,predictive value of relative error was 0.9%,and the predicted results were basically consistent with the result of predicted.%建立了中国对虾虾青素液相色谱检测方法,采用 Develosil C30色谱柱为分析柱,甲醇∶乙腈(80∶20,v /v)为流动相,采用二极管阵列检测器(DAD)分析,外标法定量,同时对虾头和虾壳虾青素的超声波提取工艺进行了优化研究。结果表明,中国对虾虾青素主要是以游离形式存在,虾青素在1~32μg/mL 范围内线性良好,相关系数为0.9993。通过响应面试验对超声波提取虾青素的工艺进行了优化,得到超声波辅助提取虾青素的最佳条件为:液固比430 mL/g、超声波功率450 W、超声时间8.5 min,虾青素得率的预测值为14.02μg/g,在优化条件下,虾青素得率测定值为13.89μg/g,相对误差为0.9%,与预测结果基本相符。

  6. Rapid and Semi-Automated Extraction of Neuronal Cell Bodies and Nuclei from Electron Microscopy Image Stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, Paul S.; Morehead, Michael; Doretto, Gianfranco; Chen, Peter; Berg, Stuart; Plaza, Stephen; Spirou, George

    2016-01-01

    Connectomics—the study of how neurons wire together in the brain—is at the forefront of modern neuroscience research. However, many connectomics studies are limited by the time and precision needed to correctly segment large volumes of electron microscopy (EM) image data. We present here a semi-automated segmentation pipeline using freely available software that can significantly decrease segmentation time for extracting both nuclei and cell bodies from EM image volumes. PMID:27259933

  7. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-10-01

    Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction.The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus.We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar.The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials.We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise.A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75-5.52, P included randomized controlled trials and the sample size of each trial were relatively small, double blinding was not possible, and cost analysis was unavailable due to a lack of data.Our meta-analysis indicates that although patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time

  8. Endoscopic extraction of adjustable gastric bands after intragastric migration as a complication of bariatric surgery: technique and advice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Pacheco, David; Rábago-Torre, Luis Ramon; Arias-Rivera, Maria; Ortega-Carbonel, Alejandro; Olivares-Valles, Ana; Alonso-Prada, Alicia; Vázquez-Echarri, Jaime; Herrera-Merino, Norberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Surgery has been the method most widely used to manage the extraction of gastric bands with inclusion as a late complication of bariatric surgery; however, surgical extraction entails morbidity and limits future surgical procedures. The development of endoscopic techniques has provided an important means of improving the treatment of this complication, enabling minimally invasive and safe procedures that have a high success rate. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted of patients who had laparoscopic gastric banding complicated by intragastric migration and were treated endoscopically. A technique already described for managing this complication was employed. An MTW Endoskopie Dormia basket for mechanical lithotripsy or a standard 0.0035-in guidewire was placed around the band, and an MTW Endoskopie emergency lithotripter was used to section it, after which the band was extracted with a standard polypectomy snare. Also analyzed were the initial symptoms of patients with this complication, the mean time from surgery to development of the event, the success rate of endoscopic treatment, and complications, Results: A total of 127 patients had undergone gastric banding surgery in our Bariatric Surgery Center; of these, 12 patients (9.4 %) developed a complication such as intragastric migration of the band. Weight gain and pain were the main symptoms in 11 patients (92 %), and the mean time to the development of symptoms was 51.3 months. A single endoscopic treatment was successful in 7 of 9 patients (78 %). Only 1 complication, involving ventilation during anesthesia, occurred; no other adverse events were recorded. Conclusions: The endoscopic extraction of bands with inclusion is feasible and can be performed easily and successfully. The procedure is available in all hospitals and has a low incidence of related complications, so that unnecessary surgical procedures can be avoided. PMID:27556077

  9. Analysis of buccolingual dimensional changes of the extraction socket using the "ice cream cone" flapless grafting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan-Chu, Jocelyn H P; Tuminelli, Frank J; Kurtz, Kenneth S; Tarnow, Dennis P

    2014-01-01

    The socket or ridge preservation approach known as the "ice cream cone" technique was used in type 2 sockets in this retrospective analysis of 11 extraction sites. A type 2 extraction socket is defined as having the presence of facial soft tissue with a partial or complete dehiscence of the buccal bone plate. All teeth were extracted atraumatically without flap elevation. A resorbable collagen membrane was contoured into an ice cream cone- shape, placed into the socket defect, and grafted with human freeze-dried bone allograft. Buccolingual dimensional changes were measured manually with a digital caliper sensitive to 0.01 mm on pre- and posttreatment casts using an acrylic template and a three-dimensional (3D) digital scanner, as well as radiographically with pre- and post-cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. All implants were placed 6 months after socket preservation and achieved primary stability with a minimum torque value of 35 Ncm with a mean buccal-lingual dimensional loss of 1.32 mm. The dimensional change of the ridge from pre- to postextraction reflective of the healed grafted site ranged from a loss of 0.46 to 2.25 mm with a mean of 1.28 mm (CBCT), 0.31 to 2.71 mm with a mean of 1.36 mm (digital calipers), and 0.21 to 2.80 mm with a mean of 1.32 mm (3D digital scanner). All 11 implants were immobile and clinically osseointegrated. The so-called ice cream cone technique allows for the reconstruction of a buccal plate dehiscence to enable the placement of an implant; however, the ridge dimension was diminished by 1.32 mm compared with the width of the extraction socket prior to tooth removal.

  10. Design of the extraction arc for the 2{sup nd} beam line of the free-electron laser FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, Matthias

    2014-01-15

    In this thesis, I deal with the design of the extraction arc for the second beam line of FLASH, an FEL (Free-Electron Laser) user facility at DESY Hamburg. Both beam lines will use the same linear accelerator and their separation will take place behind the last accelerating module. I present the constraints for the extraction arc given by the beam line layout of the existing machine, by the building environment of the new beam line and in particular, by coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR). The impact from CSR is presented, and I show how to mitigate these effects and what that means for the beam line design. The optimization of the extraction arc was done applying the downhill simplex algorithm which is presented, first in its basic form to explain the operation principle and then in a more advanced version as used in the applied program. I introduce in this thesis the final layout of the extraction arc including the following matching section. This layout fulfills all given constraints and can provide the required electron beam quality for FEL operation. In order to prove this, I present start-to-end simulations for different bunch charges and for two different wavelengths.

  11. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbeddoses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements...... that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component,which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured...

  12. Note: fast and reliable fracture strain extraction technique applied to silicon at nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Vikram; Bhaskar, Umesh; Pardoen, Thomas; Sodervall, Ulf; Nilsson, Bengt; Petersson, Goran; Hagberg, Mats; Raskin, Jean-Pierre

    2011-11-01

    Simple fabrication process and extraction procedure to determine the fracture strain of monocrystalline silicon are demonstrated. Nanowires/nanoribbons in silicon are fabricated and subjected to uniaxial tensile stress along the complete length of the beams. Large strains up to 5% are measured for nanowires presenting a cross section of 50 nm × 50 nm and a length of 2.5 μm. An increase in fracture strain for silicon nanowires (NWs) with the downscaling of their volume is observed, highlighting the reduction of the defects probability as volume is decreased.

  13. Studies of extraction solvent technique. Application in a practice case; Estudios de tratabilidad de la tecnologia de extraccion por solvente. Aplicacion a un caso practico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susaeta, I.; Salas, O.; Gorostiza, I.; Bargos, Tx.

    1999-11-01

    The extraction for solvent is a technique that consists in an use a solvent in order to separate organic dangerous pollutants of floors, silts and residuals. The extraction for solvent dons`t destroy the pollutants but rather concentrates them so that it is easier and economically more attractive their hind destruction. A process of extraction for solvent would undertake the following steps: Preparation of the material to extract. Extraction properly happiness. Separation of the concentrated pollutants of the solvent. Recovery of the residual solvent. Treatment of the separate pollutants. (Author) 12 refs.

  14. In-port derivatization coupled to different extraction techniques for the determination of alkylphenols in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalheiro, J; Monperrus, M; Amouroux, D; Preud'Homme, H; Prieto, A; Zuloaga, O

    2014-05-01

    Large volume injection (LVI)-in port silylation coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the determination of alkylphenols (APs) in water samples applying four different extraction approaches was evaluated. Among the variables studied for in-port derivatization, vent time, cryo-focusing temperature and the ratio solvent volume/N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) volume were optimized using an experimental design approach. Regarding the extraction techniques, different approaches previously optimized in the research group were tested. On the one hand different polymeric materials were tested: silicon rod (SR), polyethersulfone (PES) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), the latter in the stir-bar sorptive extraction format (SBSE-PDMS). PES was chosen among the polymeric materials due to the higher recoveries (compared with SR) and lower price (compared to PDMS in the stir-bar sorptive extraction, SBSE-PDMS). Both MASE and PES protocols were selected at this point for further method validation and application to real samples. Finally, the developed methods were validated and applied to the determination of target analytes in various aqueous environmental matrices, including estuarine water and wastewater. Acceptable repeatability in the case of MASE (5-17%) and PES (7-21%) procedures and method detection limits (MDLs, 5-123 and 28-328 ng L(-1) for PES and MASE, respectively) were obtained for most analytes. In terms of apparent recoveries in the presence of matrix, estuarine and effluent samples showed no significant matrix effect (apparent recoveries in the 73-121% for PES and 74-128% for MASE), while a stronger matrix effect was observed for influent wastewater samples (98-132% for PES and 65-156% for MASE). Both MASE and PES extractions combined with LVI-in-port derivatization-GC-MS were applied to the determination of APs in the estuary of Bilbao (Gulf of Biscay, Spain).

  15. Influence of extraction techniques on physical-chemical characteristics and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Maria Grazia; De Cunzo, Fausta; Siano, Francesco; Paolucci, Marina; Barbarisi, Costantina; Cammarota, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three types of extraction methods of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) from the same cultivar (Ortice olive cultivar): traditional or pressing (T) system, decanter centrifugation (DC) system and a patented horizontal axis decanter centrifugation (HADC) system. Oil samples were subjected to chemical analyses: free acidity, peroxide value, ultraviolet light absorption K232 and K270, total polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, volatile compounds and olfactory characteristics by electronic nose. The two centrifugation systems showed better free acidity and peroxides value but total polyphenol content was particularly high in extra virgin olive oil produced by patented HADC system. Same volatile substances that positively characterize the oil aroma were found in higher amount in the two centrifugation systems, although some differences have been detected between DC and HADC system, other were found in higher amount in extra virgin olive oil produced by T system. The electronic nose analysis confirmed these results, principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation matrix showed the major differences between EVOO produced by T and HADC system. Taken together the results showed that DC and HADC systems produce EVOO with better characteristics than T system and patented HADC is the best extraction system.

  16. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  17. Biliary Interventions: Tools and Techniques of the Trade, Access, Cholangiography, Biopsy, Cholangioscopy, Cholangioplasty, Stenting, Stone Extraction, and Brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Osman; Mathevosian, Sipan; Arslan, Bulent

    2016-12-01

    Therapeutic access to the biliary system is generally limited to endoscopic or percutaneous approaches. A variety of percutaneous transhepatic biliary interventions are applicable for the diagnosis and treatment of biliary system pathologies, the majority of which may be performed in conjunction with one another. The backbone of nearly all of these interventions is percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for opacification of the biliary tree, after which any number of therapeutic or diagnostic modalities may be pursued. We describe an overview of the instrumentation and technical approaches for several fundamental interventional procedures, including percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and internal/external biliary drainage, endobiliary biopsy techniques, cholangioscopy, cholangioplasty and biliary stenting, biliary stone extraction, and intraluminal brachytherapy.

  18. Spin and Time-Reversal Symmetries of Superconducting Electron Pairs Probed by the Muon Spin Rotation and Relaxation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higemoto, Wataru; Aoki, Yuji; MacLaughlin, Douglas E.

    2016-09-01

    Unconventional superconductivity based on the strong correlation of electrons is one of the central issues of solid-state physics. Although many experimental techniques are appropriate for investigating unconventional superconductivity, a complete perspective has not been established yet. The symmetries of electron pairs are crucial properties for understanding the essential state of unconventional superconductivity. In this review, we discuss the investigation of the time-reversal and spin symmetries of superconducting electron pairs using the muon spin rotation and relaxation technique. By detecting a spontaneous magnetic field under zero field and/or the temperature dependence of the muon Knight shift in the superconducting phase, the time-reversal symmetry and spin parity of electron pairs have been determined for several unconventional superconductors.

  19. Characterization of green-tissue protein extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exploiting a 3-D technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Oscar; Glatz, Charles E; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2009-09-01

    There is a growing interest of pharmaceutical companies for plant-based production systems. To facilitate the general acceptance of plants as bioreactors, the establishment of efficient downstream operations is critical. It has been proposed that a better understanding of the properties of the contaminant proteins can benefit downstream processing design and operation. The coupled application of 2-DE with aqueous two-phase partitioning has been suggested as a practical 3-D method to characterize potential contaminant proteins from plant extracts. The application of this novel 3-D approach to a complex protein extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) containing a model recombinant protein (human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF)) resulted in the quantification of 55 protein spots. The 3-D properties (M(r), pI, and K(p)) obtained for 17 proteins comprising 69% of the alfalfa proteins, allowed the proposal of a prefractionation step as well as the identification of the target molecule (rG-CSF) from bulk of alfalfa proteins. The information obtained from this experimental approach was useful for the identification of the potential contaminant proteins that will occur in alfalfa when this plant is used as a host for recombinant proteins. Additionally, this method will assist in the design of adequate purification strategies for recombinant proteins expressed in alfalfa green tissue.

  20. Feature Extraction for the Analysis of Multi-Channel EEG Signals Using Hilbert- Huang Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research article seeks to propose a Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT based novel feature extraction approach for the analysis of multi-channel EEG signals using its local time scale features. The applicability of this recently developed HHT based new features has been investigated in the analysis of multi-channel EEG signals for classifying a small set of non-motor cognitive task. HHT is combination of multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD and Hilbert transform (HT. At the first stage, multi-channel EEG signals (6 channels per trial per task per subject corresponding to a small set of nonmotor mental task were decomposed by using MEMD algorithm. This gives rise to adaptive i.e. data driven decomposition of the data into twelve mono component oscillatory modes known as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and one residue function. These generated intrinsic mode functions (IMFs are multivariate i.e. mode aligned and narrowband. From the generated IMFs, most sensitive IMF has been chosen by analysing their power spectrum. Since IMFs are amplitude and frequency modulated, the chosen IMF has been analysed through their instantaneous amplitude (IA and instantaneous frequency (IF i.e. local features extracted by applying Hilbert transform on them. Finally, the discriminatory power of these local features has been investigated through statistical significance test using paired t-test. The analysis results clearly support the potential of these local features for classifying different cognitive task in EEG based Brain –Computer Interface (BCI system.

  1. A New Feature Extraction Technique for Person Identification Using Multimodal Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Malathy

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Unimodal biometric systems when compared with multimodal systems can be easily spoofed and may get affected by noisy data. Due to the limitations faced by unimodal systems, the need for multimodal biometric systems has rapidly increased. Multimodal systems are more reliable as it uses more than one independent biometric trait to recognize a person. These systems are more secured and have less enrollment problems compared to unimodal systems. A new Enhanced Local Line Binary Pattern (ELLBP method is devised to extract features from ear and fingerprint so as to improve recognition rate and to provide a more reliable and secured multimodal system. The features extracted are stored in the database and compared with the test features for matching. Hamming distance is used as the metric for identification. Experiments were conducted with publicly available databases and were observed that this enhanced method provides excellent results compared to earlier methods. The method was analyzed for performance with Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Line Binary Pattern (LLBP and Local Ternary Pattern (LTP. The results of our multimodal system were compared with individual biometric traits and also with ear and fingerprint fused together using enhanced LLPD and other earlier methods. It is observed that our method outperforms earlier methods.

  2. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR THE EXTRACTION OF CHARACTERISTIC VIEWS FOR 2D/3D INDEXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El far,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The tridimensional models are increasingly used in applications that require visualizing realistic objects (CAD/CAO, medical simulations, games, virtual reality, etc.. Therefore, the management of collecting 3D data of big size is becoming a significant field.For example, the indexation of these data allows a designer to easily retrieve the data that are visually and semantically similar to a featured query object. To that effect, two main approaches exist: searching by using a 3D model directly and searching by using a 2D view of the 3D query object. In our case/study, we are interested by this last approach and we emphasize on the extraction of haracteristic views of 3D models using the Datamining Algorithms “Apriori and extraction of association rules” from a description ofcharacteristic views based on the moments of Zernike. Moreover, the featured system relies on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. We present the obtained results in a set of 120 3D models of the rinceton benchmark. Then we compare them to results obtained using classical methods

  3. Evaluation and optimisation of bacterial genomic DNA extraction for no-culture techniques applied to vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Hidalgo, Claudio; Torija, María-Jesús; Gullo, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Direct genomic DNA extraction from vinegars was set up and suitability for PCR assays performed by PCR/DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The method was tested on 12 intermediary products of special vinegars, fruit vinegars and condiments produced from different raw materials and procedures. DNAs extraction was performed on pellets by chemical, enzymatic, resin mediated methods and their modifications. Suitable yield and DNA purity were obtained by modification of a method based on the use of PVP/CTAB to remove polyphenolic components and esopolysaccharides. By sequencing of bands from DGGE gel, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Acetobacter malorum/cerevisiae and Acetobacter orleanensis were detected as main species in samples having more than 4% of acetic acid content. From samples having no acetic acid content, sequences retrieved from excised bands revealed high similarity with prokaryotes with no function on vinegar fermentation: Burkholderia spp., Cupriavidus spp., Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The method was suitable to be applied for no-culture study of vinegars containing polyphenols and esopolysaccharides allowing a more complete assessment of vinegar bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Group separation of rare earth substances utilizing supercritical fluid extraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Ki Pung; Joung, Seung Nam; Kim, Sun Hee; Jeon, Seong Ho; Choi, Eun Hyun [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea)

    1998-04-01

    The solubilities of TBP and DEHPA in supercritical CO{sub 2} were measured at various equilibrium temperatures(i.e., 313.15, 323.15, 333.15K) and pressures(i.e., 10, 15, 20, 25MPa). It is observed that both the solubilities of TBP and DEHPA are increasing wit increasing temperatures and pressures(ant, thus the density). In general TBP showed higher solubility than DEHPA in CO{sub 2}. were carried out for recovering rare earth elements from the aqueous acidic feed waste solutions. We found that the level of Nd extraction with such supercritically mixed solvent tends to decreasing with increasing HNO{sub 3} and tends to uniform with increasing temperature and pressures. Also, extraction of rare earth TPPO, and TOPO in supercritical CO{sub 2}. For example, the SFE of Nd by these supercritical CO{sub 2}-containing organic solvents showed that the case of TBPO was higher than that of any other organic solvent. (author). 46 refs., 36 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Analysis of phthalate esters in soils near an electronics manufacturing facility and from a non-industrialized area by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Hu, Jia [Suzhou Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Suzhou, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Jinqi; Chen, Xuerong; Yao, Na [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Tao, Jing, E-mail: jingtao1982@126.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zhou, Yi-Kai, E-mail: zhouyk@mails.tjmu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environment and Health, Institute of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2015-03-01

    Here, a novel technique is described for the extraction and quantitative determination of six phthalate esters (PAEs) from soils by gas purge microsyringe extraction and gas chromatography. Recovery of PAEs ranged from 81.4% to 120.3%, and the relative standard deviation (n = 6) ranged from 5.3% to 10.5%. Soil samples were collected from roadsides, farmlands, residential areas, and non-cultivated areas in a non-industrialized region, and from the same land-use types within 1 km of an electronics manufacturing facility (n = 142). Total PAEs varied from 2.21 to 157.62 mg kg{sup −1} in non-industrialized areas and from 8.63 to 171.64 mg kg{sup −1} in the electronics manufacturing area. PAE concentrations in the non-industrialized area were highest in farmland, followed (in decreasing order) by roadsides, residential areas, and non-cultivated soil. In the electronics manufacturing area, PAE concentrations were highest in roadside soils, followed by residential areas, farmland, and non-cultivated soils. Concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), and di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP) differed significantly (P < 0.01) between the industrial and non-industrialized areas. Principal component analysis indicated that the strongest explanatory factor was related to DMP and DnBP in non-industrialized soils and to butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) and DMP in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility. Congener-specific analysis confirmed that diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was a predictive indication both in the non-industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.944, P < 0.01) and the industrialized area (r{sup 2} = 0.860, P < 0.01). The higher PAE contents in soils near the electronics manufacturing facility are of concern, considering the large quantities of electronic wastes generated with ongoing industrialization. - Highlights: • A new method for determining phthalate esters in soil samples was developed. • Investigate six phthalates near an industry and a

  6. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WEB INFORMATION EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES DEEP LEARNING vs. NAÏVE BAYES vs. BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORKS IN WEB DOCUMENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Web mining related exploration is getting the chance to be more essential these days in view of the reason that a lot of information is overseen through the web. Web utilization is expanding in an uncontrolled way. A particular framework is required for controlling such extensive measure of information in the web space. Web mining is ordered into three noteworthy divisions: Web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining. Tak-Lam Wong has proposed a web content mining methodology in the exploration with the aid of Bayesian Networks (BN. In their methodology, they were learning on separating the web data and characteristic revelation in view of the Bayesian approach. Roused from their investigation, we mean to propose a web content mining methodology, in view of a Deep Learning Algorithm. The Deep Learning Algorithm gives the interest over BN on the basis that BN is not considered in any learning architecture planning like to propose system. The main objective of this investigation is web document extraction utilizing different grouping algorithm and investigation. This work extricates the data from the web URL. This work shows three classification algorithms, Deep Learning Algorithm, Bayesian Algorithm and BPNN Algorithm. Deep Learning is a capable arrangement of strategies for learning in neural system which is connected like computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing and biometrics framework. Deep Learning is one of the simple classification technique and which is utilized for subset of extensive field furthermore Deep Learning has less time for classification. Naive Bayes classifiers are a group of basic probabilistic classifiers in view of applying Bayes hypothesis with concrete independence assumptions between the features. At that point the BPNN algorithm is utilized for classification. Initially training and testing dataset contains more URL. We extract the content presently from the dataset. The

  7. Characterization of ITO/CdO/glass thin films evaporated by electron beam technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdel-Hafez Mohamed and Hazem Mahmoud Ali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A thin buffer layer of cadmium oxide (CdO was used to enhance the optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO films prepared by an electron-beam evaporation technique. The effects of the thickness and heat treatment of the CdO layer on the structural, optical and electrical properties of ITO films were carried out. It was found that the CdO layer with a thickness of 25 nm results in an optimum transmittance of 70% in the visible region and an optimum resistivity of 5.1×10−3 Ω cm at room temperature. The effect of heat treatment on the CdO buffer layer with a thickness of 25 nm was considered to improve the optoelectronic properties of the formed ITO films. With increasing annealing temperature, the crystallinity of ITO films seemed to improve, enhancing some physical properties, such as film transmittance and conductivity. ITO films deposited onto a CdO buffer layer heated at 450 °C showed a maximum transmittance of 91% in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum associated with the highest optical energy gap of 3.61 eV and electrical resistivity of 4.45×10−4 Ω cm at room temperature. Other optical parameters, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient, dielectric constant, dispersion energy, single effective oscillator energy, packing density and free carrier concentration, were also studied.

  8. Drying techniques for the visualisation of agarose-based chromatography media by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Mauryn C; Turmaine, Mark; McCartney, R Graham; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2017-03-01

    The drying of chromatography resins prior to scanning electron microscopy is critical to image resolution and hence understanding of the bead structure at sub-micron level. Achieving suitable drying conditions is especially important with agarose-based chromatography resins, as over-drying may cause artefact formation, bead damage and alterations to ultrastructural properties; and under-drying does not provide sufficient resolution for visualization under SEM. This paper compares and contrasts the effects of two drying techniques, critical point drying and freeze drying, on the morphology of two agarose based resins (MabSelect™/dw ≈85 µm and Capto™ Adhere/dw ≈75 µm) and provides a complete method for both. The results show that critical point drying provides better drying and subsequently clearer ultrastructural visualization of both resins under SEM. Under this protocol both the polymer fibers (thickness ≈20 nm) and the pore sizes (diameter ≈100 nm) are clearly visible. Freeze drying is shown to cause bead damage to both resins, but to different extents. MabSelect resin encounters extensive bead fragmentation, whilst Capto Adhere resin undergoes partial bead disintegration, corresponding with the greater extent of agarose crosslinking and strength of this resin. While freeze drying appears to be the less favorable option for ultrastructural visualization of chromatography resin, it should be noted that the extent of fracturing caused by the freeze drying process may provide some insight into the mechanical properties of agarose-based chromatography media.

  9. Cure and mechanical behaviors of cycloaliphatic/DGEBA epoxy blend system using electron-beam technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.R.; Heo, G.Y.; Park, S.J. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-05-01

    4-Vinyl-1- cyclohexene diepoxide (VCE)/ diglycidyl ether of bisphenol -A(DGEBA) epoxy blends with benzylquinoxalinium hexafluoroanti-monate were cured using an electron-beam technique. the effect of DGEBA content to VCE on cure behavior, thermal stabilities, and mechanical properties was investigated. The composition of VCE/DGEBA blend system varied within 100:0, 80:20, 60:40. 40:60 20:80, and 0:100wt%. The cure behavior and thermal stability of the cured specimens was monited by near-infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Also, the critical stress intensity factor (K{sub 1C}) test of the cured specimens was performed to study the mechanical interfacial properties. As a result, the decreases of short side-chide structure and chain scission were observed in NIR measurements as the DGEBA content increases, resulting in varying the hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. And, the initial decomposition temperature (IDT), temperature of maximum weight loss (T{sub max}), and decomposition activation energy (E{sub d}) as thermal stability factors were increased with increasing the DGEBA content. These results could be explained by mean of decreasing viscosity, stable aromatic ring structure, and grafted interpenetrating polymer network with increasing of DGEBA content. Also, the maximum K{sub 1C} value showed at mixing ratio of 40:60 wt% in this blend system. (author). 22 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  10. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  11. Approximation and Filtering Techniques for Navigation Data in Time-critical Electronic Warfare Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a holistic solution to the navigation requirements in a time critical electronic warfare systems like missile warning systems (MWS. In a passive MWS using IR sensors the efficiency of the system is determined by attributes such as low false alarm rate, minimal response time and ability to track different IR radiating objects by association and correlation of consecutive detections through time. Such a system is required to be supported by a navigation system capable of accurate estimation of the aircraft position, attitude angles and altitude. In this paper, estimation techniques used to accurately calculate aircraft navigation data at the time of capture of IR frames are discussed. The paper discusses about synchronization of INGPS, IR sensors & Processor on to same timeline. The paper also intends to evaluate the performance of wavelet transform filter in effective elimination of noise in navigation parameters like acceleration and attitude angle rates for a better estimation of position and attitude.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.204-209, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4265

  12. Drift velocities of excess electrons in 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane and tetramethylsilane: A fast drift technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faidas, H.; Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.

    1989-11-01

    A new fast drift technique for the measurement of short drift times for excess electrons is dielectric liquids is described. The technique was used to measure the drift velocities of excess electrons in 2,2,4,4-tetramethylpentane and tetramethylsilane as a function of the applied uniform electric field E up to respectively 11.5 × 10 4 and 12.3 × 10 4 V cm -1; at these maximum values of E, the drift velocities are 2.6 × 10 6 and 7.4 × 10 6 cm s -1, respectively.

  13. Foreign body extraction from soft tissue by using CT and fluoroscopic guidance: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Lesbats-Jacquot, Virginie; Fonquerne, Marie-Eve; Maratos, Yvonne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Radiology Department, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Unite d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, CHU de Bordeaux (France); Hovorka, Istvan; Boileau, Pascal [Centre Hopitalier Universitaire de Nice, Orthopaedic Department, Nice (France)

    2010-01-15

    We report on a new minimally invasive technique for the retrieval of a surgical pin fragment after accidental migration into the soft tissue of the shoulder in two patients. The technique is performed under local anaesthesia and uses combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance. The materials used were simple, combining a bone biopsy needle and an endoscopy clamp. Pin displacement was confirmed under fluoroscopic guidance and the clamp was used to withdraw the pin to the cutaneous entry point under CT (step-by-step) guidance. The CT slices provide perfect visualisation of the vascular or nervous structures as well as perfect positioning of the extremity of the trocar relative to the material to be removed. This intervention avoids a second surgical intervention with a longer incision and avoided repeated general anaesthesia. (orig.)

  14. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creatin...

  15. A new mathematical modelling based shape extraction technique for Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jaffino; A, Banumathi; Gurunathan, Ulaganathan; B, Vijayakumari; J, Prabin Jose

    2017-02-28

    Forensic Odontology is a specific means for identifying a person in which deceased, and particularly in fatality incidents. The algorithm can be proposed to identify a person by comparing both postmortem (PM) and antemortem (AM) dental radiographs and photographs. This work aims to introduce a new mathematical algorithm for photographs in addition with radiographs. Isoperimetric graph partitioning method is used to extract the shape of dental images in forensic identification. Shape matching is done by comparing AM and PM dental images using both similarity and distance measures. Experimental results prove that the higher matching distance is observed by distance metric rather than similarity measures. The results of this algorithm show that a high hit rate is observed for distance based performance measures and it is well suited for forensic odontologist to identify a person.

  16. Low Energy Consumption Technique for Processing Rapeseed with Two—phase Extraction System without Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiMeiren; QinJinping; 等

    2000-01-01

    The mother liquid of methanol phase obtained from rapeseed two-phase extraction process can directly be reused in large amounts to process rapeseed again together with some fresh methanol phase,so long as it is treated with a litter of proper additives in advance.The ratio of the reused mother liquid may be more than 3/4 of the total amount of the methanol phase needed for processing rapeseed,so the energy consumption can be decreased tremendously.The meal obtained by use of the reused mother liquid keeps the quality as good as those obtained by use of totally fresh methanol phase with light color,weak taste,crispness,good palatability,high protein content,and a low level of glu-cosinolates much more less than that stipulated by the State for the fodder of grade A.

  17. Low Energy Consumption Technique for Processing Rapeseed with Two-phase Extraction System without Ammonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Meiren; Qin Jinping; SQian Renyuan

    2000-01-01

    the mother liquid of methanol phase obtained from rapeseed two-phase extraction process can directly be reused in large amounts to process rapeseed again together with some fresh methanol phase, so long as it is treated with a litter of proper additives in advance. The ratio of the reused mother liquid may be more than 3/ 4 of the total amount of the methanol phase needed for processing rapeseed, so the energy consumption can be decreased tremendously. The meal obtained by use of the reused mother liquid keeps the quality as good as those obtained by use of totally fresh methanol phase with light color, weak taste, crispness, good palatability, high protein content, and a low level of glucosinolates much more less than that stipulated by the State for the fodder of grade A.

  18. Preconditioning techniques for constrained vector potential integral equations, with application to 3-D magnetoquasistatic analysis of electronic packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamon, M.; Phillips, J.R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper techniques are presented for preconditioning equations generated by discretizing constrained vector integral equations associated with magnetoquasistatic analysis. Standard preconditioning approaches often fail on these problems. The authors present a specialized preconditioning technique and prove convergence bounds independent of the constraint equations and electromagnetic excitation frequency. Computational results from analyzing several electronic packaging examples are given to demonstrate that the new preconditioning approach can sometimes reduce the number of GMRES iterations by more than an order of magnitude.

  19. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  20. Combined supercritical fluid extraction/solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane cartridges as a sample preparation technique for the ultratrace analysis of a drug metabolite in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Cooper, L M; Raynie, D E; Pinkston, J D; Wehmeyer, K R

    1992-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction was coupled with solid-phase extraction using octadecylsilane cartridges for the selective isolation of ultratrace levels of a drug metabolite, mebeverine alcohol, from plasma. Plasma was directly applied to the extraction cartridge, the cartridge was washed to remove protein and then extracted under supercritical conditions using CO2/5% methanol. The effluent from the extraction cell was bubbled through a small volume of 2-propanol to trap the extracted mebeverine alcohol. The effects of extraction pressure and temperature on analyte recovery were examined. The absolute recovery, selectivity, precision, and accuracy of the combined supercritical fluid extraction/solid-phase extraction approach were compared to those of conventional solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode. Mebeverine alcohol was used as a model compound, and dog plasma was employed as the biological matrix for these studies.