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Sample records for extraction technique based

  1. Enhancement of Twins Fetal ECG Signal Extraction Based on Hybrid Blind Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kareem Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ECG machines are noninvasive system used to measure the heartbeat signal. It’s very important to monitor the fetus ECG signals during pregnancy to check the heat activity and to detect any problem early before born, therefore the monitoring of ECG signals have clinical significance and importance. For multi-fetal pregnancy case the classical filtering algorithms are not sufficient to separate the ECG signals between mother and fetal. In this paper the mixture consists of mixing from three ECG signals, the first signal is the mother ECG (M-ECG signal, second signal the Fetal-1 ECG (F1-ECG, and third signal is the Fetal-2 ECG (F2-ECG, these signals are extracted based on modified blind source extraction (BSE techniques. The proposed work based on hybridization between two BSE techniques to ensure that the extracted signals separated well. The results demonstrate that the proposed work very efficiently to extract the useful ECG signals

  2. SPEECH/MUSIC CLASSIFICATION USING WAVELET BASED FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiruvengatanadhan Ramalingam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio classification serves as the fundamental step towards the rapid growth in audio data volume. Due to the increasing size of the multimedia sources speech and music classification is one of the most important issues for multimedia information retrieval. In this work a speech/music discrimination system is developed which utilizes the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT as the acoustic feature. Multi resolution analysis is the most significant statistical way to extract the features from the input signal and in this study, a method is deployed to model the extracted wavelet feature. Support Vector Machines (SVM are based on the principle of structural risk minimization. SVM is applied to classify audio into their classes namely speech and music, by learning from training data. Then the proposed method extends the application of Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM to estimate the probability density function using maximum likelihood decision methods. The system shows significant results with an accuracy of 94.5%.

  3. BEaST: brain extraction based on nonlocal segmentation technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskildsen, S.F.; Coupe, P.; Fonov, V.; Manjon, J.V.; Leung, K.K.; Guizard, N.; Wassef, S.N.; Ostergaard, L.R.; Collins, D.L.; Olde Rikkert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Brain extraction is an important step in the analysis of brain images. The variability in brain morphology and the difference in intensity characteristics due to imaging sequences make the development of a general purpose brain extraction algorithm challenging. To address this issue, we propose a ne

  4. Bispectrum-based feature extraction technique for devising a practical brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Shahjahan; Prasad, Girijesh

    2011-04-01

    The extraction of distinctly separable features from electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the main challenges in designing a brain-computer interface (BCI). Existing feature extraction techniques for a BCI are mostly developed based on traditional signal processing techniques assuming that the signal is Gaussian and has linear characteristics. But the motor imagery (MI)-related EEG signals are highly non-Gaussian, non-stationary and have nonlinear dynamic characteristics. This paper proposes an advanced, robust but simple feature extraction technique for a MI-related BCI. The technique uses one of the higher order statistics methods, the bispectrum, and extracts the features of nonlinear interactions over several frequency components in MI-related EEG signals. Along with a linear discriminant analysis classifier, the proposed technique has been used to design an MI-based BCI. Three performance measures, classification accuracy, mutual information and Cohen's kappa have been evaluated and compared with a BCI using a contemporary power spectral density-based feature extraction technique. It is observed that the proposed technique extracts nearly recording-session-independent distinct features resulting in significantly much higher and consistent MI task detection accuracy and Cohen's kappa. It is therefore concluded that the bispectrum-based feature extraction is a promising technique for detecting different brain states.

  5. A feature extraction technique based on character geometry for character recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gaurav, Dinesh Dileep

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a geometry based technique for feature extraction applicable to segmentation-based word recognition systems. The proposed system extracts the geometric features of the character contour. This features are based on the basic line types that forms the character skeleton. The system gives a feature vector as its output. The feature vectors so generated from a training set, were then used to train a pattern recognition engine based on Neural Networks so that the system can be benchmarked.

  6. A novel technique for extracting clouds base height using ground based imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The height of a cloud in the atmospheric column is a key parameter in its characterization. Several remote sensing techniques (passive and active, either ground-based or on space-borne platforms and in-situ measurements are routinely used in order to estimate top and base heights of clouds. In this article we present a novel method that combines thermal imaging from the ground and sounded wind profile in order to derive the cloud base height. This method is independent of cloud types, making it efficient for both low boundary layer and high clouds. In addition, using thermal imaging ensures extraction of clouds' features during daytime as well as at nighttime. The proposed technique was validated by comparison to active sounding by ceilometers (which is a standard ground based method, to lifted condensation level (LCL calculations, and to MODIS products obtained from space. As all passive remote sensing techniques, the proposed method extracts only the height of the lowest cloud layer, thus upper cloud layers are not detected. Nevertheless, the information derived from this method can be complementary to space-borne cloud top measurements when deep-convective clouds are present. Unlike techniques such as LCL, this method is not limited to boundary layer clouds, and can extract the cloud base height at any level, as long as sufficient thermal contrast exists between the radiative temperatures of the cloud and its surrounding air parcel. Another advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity and modest power needs, making it particularly suitable for field measurements and deployment at remote locations. Our method can be further simplified for use with visible CCD or CMOS camera (although nighttime clouds will not be observed.

  7. MIPCE: An MI-based protein complex extraction technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyakshi Mahanta; Dhruba K R Bhattacharyya; Ashish Ghosh

    2015-10-01

    Protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks are believed to be important sources of information related to biological processes and complex metabolic functions of the cell. Identifying protein complexes is of great importance for understanding cellular organization and functions of organisms. In this work, a method is proposed, referred to as MIPCE, to find protein complexes in a PPI network based on mutual information. MIPCE has been biologically validated by GO-based score and satisfactory results have been obtained. We have also compared our method with some well-known methods and obtained better results in terms of various parameters such as precession, recall and F-measure.

  8. Survey of Region-Based Text Extraction Techniques for Efficient Indexing of Image/Video Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samabia Tehsin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the dramatic increase in multimedia data, escalating trend of internet, and amplifying use of image/video capturing devices; content based indexing and text extraction is gaining more and more importance in research community. In the last decade, many techniques for text extraction are reported in the literature. Methodologies of text extraction from images/videos is generally comprises of text detection and localization, text tracking, text segmentation and optical character recognition (OCR. This paper intends to highlight the contributions and limitations of text detection, localization and tracking phases. The problem is exigent due to variations in the font styles, size and color, text orientations, animations and backgrounds. The paper can serve as the beacon-house for the novice researchers of the text extraction community.

  9. A Novel Technique for Shape Feature Extraction Using Content Based Image Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanoa Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology and multimedia information, digital images are increasing very quickly. Various techniques are being developed to retrieve/search digital information or data contained in the image. Traditional Text Based Image Retrieval System is not plentiful. Since it is time consuming as it require manual image annotation. Also, the image annotation differs with different peoples. An alternate to this is Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR system. It retrieves/search for image using its contents rather the text, keywords etc. A lot of exploration has been compassed in the range of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR with various feature extraction techniques. Shape is a significant image feature as it reflects the human perception. Moreover, Shape is quite simple to use by the user to define object in an image as compared to other features such as Color, texture etc. Over and above, if applied alone, no descriptor will give fruitful results. Further, by combining it with an improved classifier, one can use the positive features of both the descriptor and classifier. So, a tryout will be made to establish an algorithm for accurate feature (Shape extraction in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. The main objectives of this project are: (a To propose an algorithm for shape feature extraction using CBIR, (b To evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm and (c To compare the proposed algorithm with state of art techniques.

  10. A tri-gram based feature extraction technique using linear probabilities of position specific scoring matrix for protein fold recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Kuldip K; Sharma, Alok; Lyons, James; Dehzangi, Abdollah

    2014-03-01

    In biological sciences, the deciphering of a three dimensional structure of a protein sequence is considered to be an important and challenging task. The identification of protein folds from primary protein sequences is an intermediate step in discovering the three dimensional structure of a protein. This can be done by utilizing feature extraction technique to accurately extract all the relevant information followed by employing a suitable classifier to label an unknown protein. In the past, several feature extraction techniques have been developed but with limited recognition accuracy only. In this study, we have developed a feature extraction technique based on tri-grams computed directly from Position Specific Scoring Matrices. The effectiveness of the feature extraction technique has been shown on two benchmark datasets. The proposed technique exhibits up to 4.4% improvement in protein fold recognition accuracy compared to the state-of-the-art feature extraction techniques.

  11. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-03-04

    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  12. Robust breathing signal extraction from cone beam CT projections based on adaptive and global optimization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming; Wei, Jie; Li, Tianfang; Yuan, Yading; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Lo, Yeh-Chi

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of extracting respiratory signals from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections within the framework of the Amsterdam Shroud (AS) technique. Acquired prior to the radiotherapy treatment, CBCT projections were preprocessed for contrast enhancement by converting the original intensity images to attenuation images with which the AS image was created. An adaptive robust z-normalization filtering was applied to further augment the weak oscillating structures locally. From the enhanced AS image, the respiratory signal was extracted using a two-step optimization approach to effectively reveal the large-scale regularity of the breathing signals. CBCT projection images from five patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on the Clinac iX System Linear Accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were employed to assess the proposed technique. Stable breathing signals can be reliably extracted using the proposed algorithm. Reference waveforms obtained using an air bellows belt (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH) were exported and compared to those with the AS based signals. The average errors for the enrolled patients between the estimated breath per minute (bpm) and the reference waveform bpm can be as low as  -0.07 with the standard deviation 1.58. The new algorithm outperformed the original AS technique for all patients by 8.5% to 30%. The impact of gantry rotation on the breathing signal was assessed with data acquired with a Quasar phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc., London, Canada) and found to be minimal on the signal frequency. The new technique developed in this work will provide a practical solution to rendering markerless breathing signal using the CBCT projections for thoracic and abdominal patients.

  13. Hardwood species classification with DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arvind R Yadav; R S Anand; M L Dewal; Sangeeta Gupta

    2015-12-01

    In this work, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques have been used to categorize the microscopic images of hardwood species into 75 different classes. Initially, the DWT has been employed to decompose the image up to 7 levels using Daubechies (db3) wavelet as decomposition filter. Further, first-order statistics (FOS) and four variants of local binary pattern (LBP) descriptors are used to acquire distinct features of these images at various levels. The linear support vector machine (SVM), radial basis function (RBF) kernel SVM and random forest classifiers have been employed for classification. The classification accuracy obtained with state-of-the-art and DWT based hybrid texture features using various classifiers are compared. The DWT based FOS-uniform local binary pattern (DWTFOSLBPu2) texture features at the 4th level of image decomposition have produced best classification accuracy of 97.67 ± 0.79% and 98.40 ± 064% for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. Reduction in feature dataset by minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR) feature selection method is achieved and the best classification accuracy of 99.00 ± 0.79% and 99.20 ± 0.42% have been obtained for DWT based FOS-LBP histogram Fourier features (DWTFOSLBP-HF) technique at the 5th and 6th levels of image decomposition for grayscale and RGB images, respectively, using linear SVM classifier. The DWTFOSLBP-HF features selected with mRMR method has also established superiority amongst the DWT based hybrid texture feature extraction techniques for randomly divided database into different proportions of training and test datasets.

  14. Image-based continental shelf habitat mapping using novel automated data extraction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Jan; Friedman, Ariell; Steinberg, Daniel; Barrett, Neville; Williams, Alan; Holbrook, Neil J.

    2012-08-01

    We automatically mapped the distribution of temperate continental shelf rocky reef habitats with a high degree of confidence using colour, texture, rugosity and patchiness features extracted from images in conjunction with machine-learning algorithms. This demonstrated the potential of novel automation routines to expedite the complex and time-consuming process of seabed mapping. The random forests ensemble classifier outperformed other tree-based algorithms and also offered some valuable built-in model performance assessment tools. Habitat prediction using random forests performed most accurately when all 26 image-derived predictors were included in the model. This produced an overall habitat prediction accuracy of 84% (with a kappa statistic of 0.793) when compared to nine distinct habitat classes assigned by a human annotator. Predictions for three habitat classes were all within the 95% confidence intervals, indicating close agreement between observed and predicted habitat classes. Misclassified images were mostly unevenly, partially or insufficiently illuminated and came mostly from rugged terrains and during the autonomous underwater vehicle's obstacle avoidance manoeuvres. The remaining misclassified images were wrongly or inconsistently labelled by the human annotator. This study demonstrates the suitability of autonomous underwater vehicles to effectively sample benthic habitats and the ability of automated data handling techniques to extract and reliably process large volumes of seabed image data. Our methods for image feature extraction and classification are repeatable, cost-effective and well suited to studies that require non-extractive and/or co-located sampling, e.g. in marine reserves and for monitoring the recovery from physical impacts, e.g. from bottom fishing activities. The methods are transferable to other continental shelf areas and to other disciplines such as seabed geology.

  15. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  16. A NOVEL SHAPE BASED FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUE FOR DIAGNOSIS OF LUNG DISEASES USING EVOLUTIONARY APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhuvaneswari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lung diseases are one of the most common diseases that affect the human community worldwide. When the diseases are not diagnosed they may lead to serious problems and may even lead to transience. As an outcome to assist the medical community this study helps in detecting some of the lung diseases specifically bronchitis, pneumonia and normal lung images. In this paper, to detect the lung diseases feature extraction is done by the proposed shape based methods, feature selection through the genetics algorithm and the images are classified by the classifier such as MLP-NN, KNN, Bayes Net classifiers and their performances are listed and compared. The shape features are extracted and selected from the input CT images using the image processing techniques and fed to the classifier for categorization. A total of 300 lung CT images were used, out of which 240 are used for training and 60 images were used for testing. Experimental results show that MLP-NN has an accuracy of 86.75 % KNN Classifier has an accuracy of 85.2 % and Bayes net has an accuracy of 83.4% of classification accuracy. The sensitivity, specificity, F-measures, PPV values for the various classifiers are also computed. This concludes that the MLP-NN outperforms all other classifiers.

  17. [Classification technique for hyperspectral image based on subspace of bands feature extraction and LS-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Heng-zhen; Wan, Jian-wei; Zhu, Zhen-zhen; Wang, Li-bao; Nian, Yong-jian

    2011-05-01

    The present paper proposes a novel hyperspectral image classification algorithm based on LS-SVM (least squares support vector machine). The LS-SVM uses the features extracted from subspace of bands (SOB). The maximum noise fraction (MNF) method is adopted as the feature extraction method. The spectral correlations of the hyperspectral image are used in order to divide the feature space into several SOBs. Then the MNF is used to extract characteristic features of the SOBs. The extracted features are combined into the feature vector for classification. So the strong bands correlation is avoided and the spectral redundancies are reduced. The LS-SVM classifier is adopted, which replaces inequality constraints in SVM by equality constraints. So the computation consumption is reduced and the learning performance is improved. The proposed method optimizes spectral information by feature extraction and reduces the spectral noise. The classifier performance is improved. Experimental results show the superiorities of the proposed algorithm.

  18. Time-Frequency Feature Extraction of Newborn EEG Seizure Using SVD-Based Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Hassanpour

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The nonstationary and multicomponent nature of newborn EEG seizures tends to increase the complexity of the seizure detection problem. In dealing with this type of problems, time-frequency-based techniques were shown to outperform classical techniques. This paper presents a new time-frequency-based EEG seizure detection technique. The technique uses an estimate of the distribution function of the singular vectors associated with the time-frequency distribution of an EEG epoch to characterise the patterns embedded in the signal. The estimated distribution functions related to seizure and nonseizure epochs were used to train a neural network to discriminate between seizure and nonseizure patterns.

  19. A Centrifuge-Based Technique for Dry Extraction of Air for Ice Core Studies of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    High resolution CO2 data from the Law Dome ice core document an abrupt ~10 ppm drop in CO2 at about 1600 AD (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res Lett., v. 33, L14810), which has been attributed to changes in human activities. CO2 measurements in ice cores are difficult, however, making verification of this feature an important task. We are undertaking a high-resolution study of CO2 between 1400 and 1800 AD in the WAIS Divide (Antarctica) ice core with a new dry extraction technique. The need for a dry extraction technique as opposed to a melt-refreeze technique in studies of CO2 from ice cores arises because of the well-documented artifacts in CO2 imposed by the presence of liquid water. Three dry-extraction methods have been employed by previous workers to measure CO2: needle-crushing method, ball-bearings method, and cheese-grater method (B. Stauffer, in: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, p. 1181, Elsevier 2007). Each has limitations, and we propose a simpler dry extraction technique, based on a large-capacity refrigerated centrifuge (the "centrifuge technique"), which eliminates the need to employ cryogenic temperatures to collect extracted gas and is more compatible with high sample throughput. The technique is now being tested on ~25-gram WAIS Divide samples in conjunction with CO2 measurements with a gas chromatograph. The technique employs a Beckman J- 6B centrifuge, in which evacuated stainless steel flask is placed: the flask has a weight inside positioned directly over a tall-standing piece of ice whose cross-section is small compared to that of the flask. Upon acceleration to 3000 rpm the weight moves down and presses the ice sample into a thin tablet covering flask's bottom, yielding the air extraction efficiency of ~80%. Preliminary tests suggest that precision and accuracy can be achieved at the level of ~1 ppm once the system is fine-tuned.

  20. Block truncation coding with color clumps:A novel feature extraction technique for content based image classification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SUDEEP THEPADE; RIK DAS; SAURAV GHOSH

    2016-09-01

    The paper has explored principle of block truncation coding (BTC) as a means to perform feature extraction for content based image classification. A variation of block truncation coding, named BTC with color clumps has been implemented in this work to generate feature vectors. Classification performance with the proposed technique of feature extraction has been compared to existing techniques. Two widely used publicdataset named Wang dataset and Caltech dataset have been used for analyses and comparisons of classification performances based on four different metrics. The study has established BTC with color clumps as an effective alternative for feature extraction compared to existing methods. The experiments were carried out in RGB colorspace. Two different categories of classifiers viz. K Nearest Neighbor (KNN) Classifier and RIDOR Classifier were used to measure the classification performances. A paired t test was conducted to establish the statistical significance of the findings. Evaluation of classifier algorithms were done in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) space.

  1. Single Epoch GPS Deformation Signals Extraction and Gross Error Detection Technique Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; GAO Jingxiang; XU Changhui

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet theory is efficient as an adequate tool for analyzing single epoch GPS deformation signal. Wavelet analysis technique on gross error detection and recovery is advanced. Criteria of wavelet function choosing and Mallat decomposition levels decision are discussed. An effective deformation signal extracting method is proposed, that is wavelet noise reduction technique considering gross error recovery, which combines wavelet multi-resolution gross error detection results. Time position recognizing of gross errors and their repairing performance are realized. In the experiment, compactly supported orthogonal wavelet with short support block is more efficient than the longer one when discerning gross errors, which can obtain more finely analyses. And the shape of discerned gross error of short support wavelet is simpler than that of the longer one. Meanwhile, the time scale is easier to identify.

  2. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  3. [Leaf characteristics extraction of rice under potassium stress based on static scan and spectral segmentation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan-yuan; Deng, Jin-song; Chen, Li-su; Zhang, Dong-yan; Ding, Xiao-dong; Wang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    The timing, convenient and reliable method of diagnosing and monitoring crop nutrition is the foundation of scientific fertilization management. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by traditional methods, which always need excessively work on sampling, detection and analysis and even exhibit lagging timing. In the present study, stable images for potassium-stressed leaf were acquired using stationary scanning, and object-oriented segmentation technique was adopted to produce image objects. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify characteristics of potassium-stressed features. Diagnosing with image, the 3rd expanded leaves are superior to the 1st expanded leaves. In order to assess the result, 250 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. The results showed that the overall accuracy and kappa coefficient was 96.00% and 0.9453 respectively. The study offered an information extraction method for quantitative diagnosis of rice under potassium stress.

  4. A new mathematical modelling based shape extraction technique for Forensic Odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Jaffino; A, Banumathi; Gurunathan, Ulaganathan; B, Vijayakumari; J, Prabin Jose

    2017-02-28

    Forensic Odontology is a specific means for identifying a person in which deceased, and particularly in fatality incidents. The algorithm can be proposed to identify a person by comparing both postmortem (PM) and antemortem (AM) dental radiographs and photographs. This work aims to introduce a new mathematical algorithm for photographs in addition with radiographs. Isoperimetric graph partitioning method is used to extract the shape of dental images in forensic identification. Shape matching is done by comparing AM and PM dental images using both similarity and distance measures. Experimental results prove that the higher matching distance is observed by distance metric rather than similarity measures. The results of this algorithm show that a high hit rate is observed for distance based performance measures and it is well suited for forensic odontologist to identify a person.

  5. ECG Feature Extraction Techniques - A Survey Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Karpagachelvi, S; Sivakumar, M

    2010-01-01

    ECG Feature Extraction plays a significant role in diagnosing most of the cardiac diseases. One cardiac cycle in an ECG signal consists of the P-QRS-T waves. This feature extraction scheme determines the amplitudes and intervals in the ECG signal for subsequent analysis. The amplitudes and intervals value of P-QRS-T segment determines the functioning of heart of every human. Recently, numerous research and techniques have been developed for analyzing the ECG signal. The proposed schemes were mostly based on Fuzzy Logic Methods, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and other Signal Analysis techniques. All these techniques and algorithms have their advantages and limitations. This proposed paper discusses various techniques and transformations proposed earlier in literature for extracting feature from an ECG signal. In addition this paper also provides a comparative study of various methods proposed by researchers in extracting the feature from ECG signal.

  6. A Discrete Wavelet Based Feature Extraction and Hybrid Classification Technique for Microarray Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaison Bennet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer classification by doctors and radiologists was based on morphological and clinical features and had limited diagnostic ability in olden days. The recent arrival of DNA microarray technology has led to the concurrent monitoring of thousands of gene expressions in a single chip which stimulates the progress in cancer classification. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid approach for microarray data classification based on nearest neighbor (KNN, naive Bayes, and support vector machine (SVM. Feature selection prior to classification plays a vital role and a feature selection technique which combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT and moving window technique (MWT is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional classifiers like support vector machine, nearest neighbor, and naive Bayes. Experiments have been conducted on both real and benchmark datasets and the results indicate that the ensemble approach produces higher classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. This paper serves as an automated system for the classification of cancer and can be applied by doctors in real cases which serve as a boon to the medical community. This work further reduces the misclassification of cancers which is highly not allowed in cancer detection.

  7. Lead extraction. Indications and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, C L; Schwartz, S J; Hedin, N

    1992-11-01

    Each of the extraction techniques and their ancillary tools was reported as used successfully; however, until now, no technique has been successful when used in more than a few isolated instances. The technique for intravascular countertraction and the associated tools described in this paper were devised and selected in an attempt to develop one technique to be used on all patients, with all types of leads, and with a very low complication rate. Its versatility permitted single or multiple lead extractions combined with the precision of selecting and extracting a specific lead. In our experience, as well as the experience of others, the techniques described in this paper have proved to be superior by minimizing the inherent risk and morbidity, allowing us to expand the indications for lead removal beyond septicemia and free-floating leads, to include infection, abandonment of pockets, and replacement of malfunctioning or fractured leads. Intravascular countertraction was a consistently safe and efficacious method of removing transvenous pacemaker leads regardless of the duration of the implant, thus permitting extractions in patients not considered candidates for a more extensive surgical procedure. Intravascular countertraction encompasses surgical and fluoroscopic techniques possessed by most physicians experienced in pacemaker and automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator implants. However, there is a learning curve, predicating caution for the inexperienced physician. In addition, advanced surgical skills may be needed in handling associated conditions such as debridement and primary closure of chronically inflamed tissues, especially in submuscular pockets and sinus tracts in the neck. Although the potential for a cardiovascular complication is small, it does exist, and cardiovascular surgical backup is a recommended precaution.

  8. Search Using N-gram Technique Based Statistical Analysis for Knowledge Extraction in Case Based Reasoning Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, M. N.; Davis, Moshe

    2004-01-01

    Searching techniques for Case Based Reasoning systems involve extensive methods of elimination. In this paper, we look at a new method of arriving at the right solution by performing a series of transformations upon the data. These involve N-gram based comparison and deduction of the input data with the case data, using Morphemes and Phonemes as the deciding parameters. A similar technique for eliminating possible errors using a noise removal function is performed. The error tracking and elim...

  9. Signal Feature Extraction and Quantitative Evaluation of Metal Magnetic Memory Testing for Oil Well Casing Based on Data Preprocessing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal magnetic memory (MMM technique is an effective method to achieve the detection of stress concentration (SC zone for oil well casing. It can provide an early diagnosis of microdamages for preventive protection. MMM is a natural space domain signal which is weak and vulnerable to noise interference. So, it is difficult to achieve effective feature extraction of MMM signal especially under the hostile subsurface environment of high temperature, high pressure, high humidity, and multiple interfering sources. In this paper, a method of median filter preprocessing based on data preprocessing technique is proposed to eliminate the outliers point of MMM. And, based on wavelet transform (WT, the adaptive wavelet denoising method and data smoothing arithmetic are applied in testing the system of MMM. By using data preprocessing technique, the data are reserved and the noises of the signal are reduced. Therefore, the correct localization of SC zone can be achieved. In the meantime, characteristic parameters in new diagnostic approach are put forward to ensure the reliable determination of casing danger level through least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM and nonlinear quantitative mapping relationship. The effectiveness and feasibility of this method are verified through experiments.

  10. Functional nanocrystal-based memories with extraction of nanocrystals properties by charge pumping technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, R.; Grisolia, J.; Pecassou, B.; Shalchian, M.; BenAssayag, G.

    2013-04-01

    2D arrays of Si nanocrystals embedded in the gate oxide (⩽10 nm) of NVRAM-like transistors are synthesized by ultra-low-energy ion implantation (ULE-II). As we have shown previously, characteristics of trapping centers responsible for the memory performance such as type, depth location into the oxide, effective size and density could be obtained by using the two-level charge pumping (CP) technique performed versus frequency. It has also been demonstrated clearly that these trapping centers are the Si-NCs. However, in order to enhance the memory performances (i.e. charge retention and endurance to cycling), the synthesis of the Si-NCs must be carefully tuned, especially by adjusting the annealing conditions. In this paper, we demonstrate both that the Si-NCs are still responsible for the charge trapping while transistors are fabricated with strong NCs annealing conditions and that some memory performances recommended by the ITRS, more specifically the endurance criteria, are satisfied, with more than 106 erase/write cycles without degradation of the memory window. Therefore, our synthesis technique could provide high-performances non-volatile memories, ensuring the charge trapping in NCs.

  11. A fast and robust new pore-network extraction method based on hybrid median axis and maximal inscribed ball techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofey, Sizonenko; Karsanina, Marina; Byuk, Irina; Gerke, Kirill

    2016-04-01

    To characterize pore structure relevant to single and multi-phase flow modelling it is of special interest to extract topology of the pore space. This is usually achieved using so-called pore-network models. Such models are useful not only to characterize pore space and pore size distributions, but also provide means to simulate flow and transport with very limited computational resources compared to other pore-scale modelling techniques. The main drawback of the pore-network approach is that they have first to simplify the pore space geometry. This crucial step is both time consuming and prone to numerous errors. Two most popular methods based on median axis or inscribed maximal balls have their own strong sides and disadvantages. To address aforementioned problems related to pore-network extraction here we propose a novel method utilizing the advantages of both popular approaches. Combining two algorithms resulted in much faster and robust extraction methodology. Moreover, we have found that accurate topology representation requires extension of the conventional pore-body and pore-throat classification. We test our new methodology using pore structures with "analytical solutions" such as different sphere packs. In addition, we rigorously compare it against inscribed maximal balls methodology's results using numerous 3D images of sandstone and carbonate rocks, soils and some other porous materials. Another verification includes permeability calculations which are also compared both against lab data and voxel based pore-scale modelling simulations. This work was partially supported by RFBR grant 15-34-20989 (X-ray tomography and image fusion) and RSF grant 14-17-00658 (image segmentation and pore-scale modelling).

  12. Handwritten Character Classification using the Hotspot Feature Extraction Technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surinta, Olarik; Schomaker, Lambertus; Wiering, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Feature extraction techniques can be important in character recognition, because they can enhance the efficacy of recognition in comparison to featureless or pixel-based approaches. This study aims to investigate the novel feature extraction technique called the hotspot technique in order to use it

  13. Speciation and cysteine-simplified physiological-based extraction technique (SBET) bioaccesibility of heavy metals in biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongesayi, Tsanangurayi; Dasilva, Patricia; Dilger, Katharine; Hollingsworth, Tristan; Mooney, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine residues on proteins have a high affinity for metals yet formulations used to determine bioaccessibility do not contain cysteine or thiol-containing molecules. As a result, we used a cysteine-simplified physiological-based extraction technique (SBET) and, the conventional glycine-SBET to determine bioaccesibility of selected heavy metals in biosolids and compared the data. We also determined speciation of the selected metals in the biosolids to assess further the health risk posed the use of biosolids as a soil amendment in agricultural soils. Samples, including a certified reference standard were analyzed using x-ray fluorescence and flame atomic absorption. Bioaccessibility was higher in cysteine-SBET than glycine-SBET, and regression data show that the two methods give different sets of results. We proposed a bioaccessibility model that involves cysteine and the hydrogen ion complementing each other to dissolve metals. The model also includes a three mode-bioavailability mechanism: absorption of free metal ions; ligand-mediated transport of metal ions from solution; and ligand-mediated transport of metal ions directly from the biosolids into the cell. Low pH in the gut increases bioaccessibility but reduces bioavailability due to protonation of receptor ligands. With the exception of Fe, bioaccessibility was directly correlated to the sequential extraction availability which followed the order: Mn(90.3 %)>Zn(50.3 %)>Cd(26.5 %)>Cu(24.9 %)>Fe(0.367 %). We calculated bioavailability from bioaccessibility using literature estimates of percent bioavailabilities. The order of abundance of the analyzed metals in the biosolids was as follows: Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd.

  14. Extraction treatment using Invisalign Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Greco, Mario; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2006-01-01

    The Invisalign method is gaining an increasing interest as an alternative treatment option in adult patients and in difficult orthodontic cases. The aim of this work is to show a class II malocclusion with severe crowding in the upper and lower arches treated with the extraction of the upper first premolars performed by means of Invisalign. The alignment phase was successfully completed but the space closure achieved with crown tipping and without correct root inclination making a further fixed appliance phase necessary.

  15. Web-Based Information Extraction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Information extraction techniques on the Web are the current research hotspot. Now many information extraction techniques based on different principles have appeared and have different capabilities. We classify the existing information extraction techniques by the principle of information extraction and analyze the methods and principles of semantic information adding, schema defining,rule expression, semantic items locating and object locating in the approaches. Based on the above survey and analysis,several open problems are discussed.

  16. Analytical Study of Feature Extraction Techniques in Opinion Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravesh Kumar Singh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although opinion mining is in a nascent stage of de velopment but still the ground is set for dense growth of researches in the field. One of the important activities of opinion mining is to extract opinions of people based on characteristics of the object under study. Feature extraction in opinion mining can be done by various ways like that of clustering, support vector machines etc. This paper is an attempt to appraise the vario us techniques of feature extraction. The first part discusses various techniques and second part m akes a detailed appraisal of the major techniques used for feature extraction.

  17. Solid Phase Extraction Technique Based on Electrospun Nanofibrous%基于电纺纳米纤维的固相萃取技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓晴; 刘静静; 祁菲菲; 杨碧漪; 田甜; 许茜

    2016-01-01

    Nanofibers have been considered as a potential kind of sorbent for solid phase extraction, accordingly nanofiber-based solid phase extraction ( Nanofibers based solid phase extraction, NFs-SPE ) becomes a popular research point of sample pretreatment technique. This article reviewed in and abroad research status of practical application in food, environmental and biological sample preparation based on nanofibers mat, and proposed that there was a dual “structure”-“activity” relationship between target adsorption efficiency and the two structures ( nanometer morphological structure and molecular structure ) of nanofibers, which would be the key breakthrough to explore adsorption mechanism.%纳米纤维极具优越固相萃取介质的潜质,基于纳米纤维的固相萃取法( Nanofibers based solid phase extraction, NFs-SPE)已成为新兴的样品预处理技术。本文在评述NFs-SPE在食品、环境样品、生物样品等实际样品检测应用的相关研究基础上,提出纳米纤维的分子结构和形态结构与目标物吸附效能之间存在着“结构”-“效应”关系,这将是明确纳米纤维高效吸附目标物的机理的关键突破口。

  18. New extraction techniques on bioseparations: 1. Reactive extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cascaval Dan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of downstream processes for biosynthetic products constitutes a particularity of industrial biotechnologies, especially because of the biosynthetic product high dilution in fermentation broth, their chemical and thermal liability and the presence of secondary products. For these reasons, new separation techniques have been developed and applied to bioseparations. Among them, reactive extraction, pertraction (extraction and transport through liquid membranes and direct extraction from broths have considerable potential and are required for the further development of many biotechnologies. This review is structured on two parts and presents our original results of the studies on the separation of some biosynthetic products (antibiotics, carboxylic acids, amino acids, alcohols by reactive extraction in the first part, and by pertraction and direct extraction from broths without biomass filtration in the second. For all the analyzed cases, these extraction techniques simplify the technologies by reducing material and energy consumption, by avoiding product inhibition, by increasing the separation selectivity, therefore decreasing the overall cost of the product.

  19. Implantable defibrillator lead extraction with optimized standard extraction techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Ming Chu; Xue-Bin Li; Ping Zhang; Yi An; Jiang-Bo Duan; Long Wang; Ding Li; Bing Li; Ji-Hong Guo

    2013-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads might not be extracted especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools. We aimed to evaluate transvenous extraction of ICD leads using optimized standard techniques. Methods We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics, optimized extraction techniques and the feasibility of extraction for 40 patients (33 males; mean age 47.9 ± 16.1 years) with 42 ICD leads. Results Complete procedural success rate was 95.2% (40/42), and the clinical success rate was 97.6% (41/42). One ICD lead required cardiothoracic surgery. Minor complications occurred in three cases (7.5%), and no major complications or death occurred. Locking stylets were used to extract most leads (34, 81.0%) and almost half of the leads (20, 47.6%) required mechanical dilatation to free fibrotic adhesions; these leads had been implanted for a longer period of time than the others (43.7 ± 18.2 vs. 18.4 ± 13.4 months, P < 0.05). Three-quarters of the leads (30, 71.4%) were extracted with locking stylets plus manual traction (12, 28.6%), or mechanical dilatation with counter-traction (18, 42.8%) by the superior vena cava approach and one-quarter of the leads (11, per lead. Linear regression analysis showed that the extraction time was significantly correlated with implant duration (r = 0.70, P < 0.001). optimized procedure for transvenous extraction of ICD leads provides a practical and low-cost method for standard procedures.

  20. Ambient Mass Spectrometry Imaging Using Direct Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskin, Julia; Lanekoff, Ingela

    2015-11-13

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a powerful analytical technique that enables label-free spatial localization and identification of molecules in complex samples.1-4 MSI applications range from forensics5 to clinical research6 and from understanding microbial communication7-8 to imaging biomolecules in tissues.1, 9-10 Recently, MSI protocols have been reviewed.11 Ambient ionization techniques enable direct analysis of complex samples under atmospheric pressure without special sample pretreatment.3, 12-16 In fact, in ambient ionization mass spectrometry, sample processing (e.g., extraction, dilution, preconcentration, or desorption) occurs during the analysis.17 This substantially speeds up analysis and eliminates any possible effects of sample preparation on the localization of molecules in the sample.3, 8, 12-14, 18-20 Venter and co-workers have classified ambient ionization techniques into three major categories based on the sample processing steps involved: 1) liquid extraction techniques, in which analyte molecules are removed from the sample and extracted into a solvent prior to ionization; 2) desorption techniques capable of generating free ions directly from substrates; and 3) desorption techniques that produce larger particles subsequently captured by an electrospray plume and ionized.17 This review focuses on localized analysis and ambient imaging of complex samples using a subset of ambient ionization methods broadly defined as “liquid extraction techniques” based on the classification introduced by Venter and co-workers.17 Specifically, we include techniques where analyte molecules are desorbed from solid or liquid samples using charged droplet bombardment, liquid extraction, physisorption, chemisorption, mechanical force, laser ablation, or laser capture microdissection. Analyte extraction is followed by soft ionization that generates ions corresponding to intact species. Some of the key advantages of liquid extraction techniques include the ease

  1. Clinical Relationships Extraction Techniques from Patient Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Tawfik Abdel-Moneim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Clinical E-Science Framework (CLEF project was used to extract important information from medical texts by building a system for the purpose of clinical research, evidence-based healthcare and genotype-meets-phenotype informatics. The system is divided into two parts, one part concerns with the identification of relationships between clinically important entities in the text. The full parses and domain-specific grammars had been used to apply many approaches to extract the relationship. In the second part of the system, statistical machine learning (ML approaches are applied to extract relationship. A corpus of oncology narratives that hand annotated with clinical relationships can be used to train and test a system that has been designed and implemented by supervised machine learning (ML approaches. Many features can be extracted from these texts that are used to build a model by the classifier. Multiple supervised machine learning algorithms can be applied for relationship extraction. Effects of adding the features, changing the size of the corpus, and changing the type of the algorithm on relationship extraction are examined.

  2. Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction Using Let Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Helen Prabha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction (FECG identifies the congenital heart problems at the earlier stage. The major problem in the non invasive procedure is the extraction of FECG from Maternal ECG (MECG and many interferences. The proposed methods (i Combination of Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference (ANFIS and Fractional spline wavelet (ii Combination of Fractional spline wavelet and ANFIS (iii Combination of ANFIS and SURE-LET and (iv Combination of SURE-LET and ANFIS remove the unwanted noises present in the FECG more effectively. This new approach extracts FECG by removing the noisy Abdominal ECG (AECG and subsequently cancels the MECG. The pure thoracic ECG (TECG or maternal ECG was used to remove noisy MECG present in the signal from abdomen signal and thereby the required noiseless FECG is extracted by means of the new approach. The excellence of the LET techniques are evaluated using Mean Square Error (MSE and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. The result of combination of ANFIS and SURELET gives the best result and the closest match to the simulated FECG with high PSNR and low MSE among all the proposed methods.

  3. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Hosamuddin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut). Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome). In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs) are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  4. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosamuddin Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut. Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome. In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  5. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  6. Arabic Keyphrase Extraction using Linguistic knowledge and Machine Learning Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    El-shishtawy, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a supervised learning technique for extracting keyphrases of Arabic documents is presented. The extractor is supplied with linguistic knowledge to enhance its efficiency instead of relying only on statistical information such as term frequency and distance. During analysis, an annotated Arabic corpus is used to extract the required lexical features of the document words. The knowledge also includes syntactic rules based on part of speech tags and allowed word sequences to extract the candidate keyphrases. In this work, the abstract form of Arabic words is used instead of its stem form to represent the candidate terms. The Abstract form hides most of the inflections found in Arabic words. The paper introduces new features of keyphrases based on linguistic knowledge, to capture titles and subtitles of a document. A simple ANOVA test is used to evaluate the validity of selected features. Then, the learning model is built using the LDA - Linear Discriminant Analysis - and training documents. Althou...

  7. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  8. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  9. Environmentally sound timber extracting techniques for small tree harvesting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Due to large area disturbed and great deal of energy cost during skidding operations, introducing or applying the appropriate techniques of timber extracting could significantly reduce the impact of timber extraction operations to forest environment while pursuing the reasonable operation costs. Four environmentally sound timber extraction techniques for small tree harvesting, particularly for thinning operations, were presented and introduced in this paper. The results of evaluation, test or practices indicated that these timber-extracting techniques are feasible, applicable and reasonable in small tree harvesting with a relatively low impact no environment and a moderate operation cost.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymers for on-line extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mohammad M; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in the use of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as a sorbent for different extraction methods and this is due to its high selectivity. The MIP is designed to show specificity for the analyte of interest. Moreover, MIPs show physical robustness, resistance to high temperatures and pressures, and stability in the presence of acids, bases and a wide range of organic solvents. In the present article, various novel sample preparation techniques which MIPs applied as sorbent and on-line connected with analytical instruments were highlighted and discussed. The future aspects of MIPs as well were described.

  11. DIESEL ENGINES' VIBROACOUSTIC SIGNATURE EXTRACTION BY WAVELET PACKET TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹剑; 陈进; 邹军; 耿遵敏

    2002-01-01

    Multisource unstable impulsive excitations, time-varying transmission path, concentrated mode, dispersion and reverberation that are important characteristics of reciprocating machines such as diesel engines result in wide-band non-stationary vibroacoustic responses which influence the effective extraction of vibroacoustic signatures and become a key factor to limit diesel engines' vibration diagnosis. In this paper, a serial theoretical deduction on the unstable dynamic properties of diesel engines was made; the mechanism of non-stationary vibroacoustic responses was elucidated. Based upon that, the wavelet packet technique was introduced. The reason for the existence of frequency aliasing in the Paley series from wavelet packets' decomposition was analyzed, and the wavelet packet frequency-shifting algorithm was given. Experiments on 190 serial diesel engines verify the given method's significant validity in vibroacoustic signature extraction and reciprocating machines' vibration diagnosis.

  12. [Determination of estrogen residues in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction based on sol-gel technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Su, Min; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Yana; Wang, Minmin; He, Jinxing

    2014-02-01

    A method for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES), hexestrol (HEX) and dienestrol (DS) residues in drinking water was established by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The material synthesized on the base of sol-gel technology was employed as adsorbent. This material was prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent, and acetic acid as the initiator. The synthesized adsorbent showed outstanding property for the estrogen extraction. The estrogen can be caught effectively from water samples and the extraction can be achieved rapidly. Some important parameters, such as pH of sample solution, eluent solvents, loading flow rate, which might influence extraction efficiency, were optimized. The results indicated that the limit of detection (S/N = 3) of the developed method could reach 0.07-0.13 microg/L under the conditions of pH 7.0 of sample solution, methanol and 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the eluent solvent and the loading flow rate of 2 mL/min. The recoveries of the three estrogens from the water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.31% to 99.43% with RSD of 1.61%-7.15%. The method was simple, rapid, and suitable to detect the trace residues of estrogens in drinking water.

  13. Different Image Segmentation Techniques for Dental Image Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bala Subramanyam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple segments and often used to locate objects and boundaries (lines, curves etc.. In this paper, we have proposed image segmentation techniques: Region based, Texture based, Edge based. These techniques have been implemented on dental radiographs and gained good results compare to conventional technique known as Thresholding based technique. The quantitative results show the superiority of the image segmentation technique over three proposed techniques and conventional technique.

  14. Application of RDX extraction techniques from waste NC-based propellants%从NC基推进剂中提取RDX等有效成分的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾林; 张林军; 张冬梅; 杜姣姣; 王琼; 杨彩宁; 王明

    2014-01-01

    In order to recycle and utilize useful component cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine ( RDX) in waste nitrocellulose( NC)⁃based propellant, the extraction methods of ultra sound⁃assisted extraction ( UAE ) , open⁃focus⁃microwave⁃assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), soxlet's extraction (SE) and organic⁃solvent⁃dissolve⁃water⁃precipitation (SDWP) were studied in lab. The results, which were characterized by HPLC and IR, show that the method of PLE, in which CH2 Cl2 is used as extractant is efficient and time⁃saving compared with the other methods. In the method of PLE, the high pressure can pre⁃vent the volatilzation and decomposition of nitroglycerin (NG).The completely different dissolving performance of RDX and NC in CH2Cl2 is beneficial to seperation of them. PLE is expected to be practically applied to recycle and utilization of useful component RDX from a lot of waste NC based propellant.%为了对退役硝化棉( NC)基固体推进剂中黑索今( RDX)等有效成分进行回收再利用,研究了实验室级别的现代超声辅助提取法( UAE)、开放式聚焦微波辅助提取法( MAE)、加压加热提取法( PLE)及传统的索式提取法( SE)、溶剂溶解水析出法(SDWP),用液相色谱法、红外光谱法对提取效果进行表征。结果表明,PLE的高压可防止硝化甘油(NG)的挥发和分解,用CH2 Cl2作提取剂,能很好溶解RDX等待测物、完全不溶解NC,使得提取物和NC容易分离,提取效率高、时间短,优于其他方法,有望实际应用于大量的退役NC基推进剂中RDX等有效组分的回收利用。

  15. Combining Multiple Feature Extraction Techniques for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Arora, Sandhya; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an OCR for Handwritten Devnagari Characters. Basic symbols are recognized by neural classifier. We have used four feature extraction techniques namely, intersection, shadow feature, chain code histogram and straight line fitting features. Shadow features are computed globally for character image while intersection features, chain code histogram features and line fitting features are computed by dividing the character image into different segments. Weighted majority voting technique is used for combining the classification decision obtained from four Multi Layer Perceptron(MLP) based classifier. On experimentation with a dataset of 4900 samples the overall recognition rate observed is 92.80% as we considered top five choices results. This method is compared with other recent methods for Handwritten Devnagari Character Recognition and it has been observed that this approach has better success rate than other methods.

  16. LISA Framework for Enhancing Gravitational Wave Signal Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Framework for benchmarking and comparing signal-extraction and noise-interference-removal methods that are applicable to interferometric Gravitational Wave detector systems. The primary use is towards comparing signal and noise extraction techniques at LISA frequencies from multiple (possibly confused) ,gravitational wave sources. The Framework includes extensive hybrid learning/classification algorithms, as well as post-processing regularization methods, and is based on a unique plug-and-play (component) architecture. Published methods for signal extraction and interference removal at LISA Frequencies are being encoded, as well as multiple source noise models, so that the stiffness of GW Sensitivity Space can be explored under each combination of methods. Furthermore, synthetic datasets and source models can be created and imported into the Framework, and specific degraded numerical experiments can be run to test the flexibility of the analysis methods. The Framework also supports use of full current LISA Testbeds, Synthetic data systems, and Simulators already in existence through plug-ins and wrappers, thus preserving those legacy codes and systems in tact. Because of the component-based architecture, all selected procedures can be registered or de-registered at run-time, and are completely reusable, reconfigurable, and modular.

  17. Extraction of Organochlorine Pesticides in Sediments Using Soxhlet, Ultrasonic and Accelerated Solvent Extraction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yinhai; CAO Zhengmei; NIE Xinhua

    2005-01-01

    The application of soxhlet, ultrasonic and accelerated solvent extraction techniques to the analysis of six organochlorine pesticides (α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT and p, p'-DDE) in Taihu Lake sediment samples is described. It was found that the limits of quantification ranged from 0.002 μg g-1 to 0.004 μg g-1, and the recoveries of organochlorine pesticides with the three extraction techniques were acceptable (> 80.7%). With a mass selective detector,better results were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction using hexane-acetone (1: 1) as compared with soxhlet and ultrasonic extraction. It was shown that the accelerated solvent extraction was the optimum technique for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in sediments. The general features of the three extraction techniques are also presented.

  18. Helicopter parameter extraction using joint Time-Frequency and Tomographic Techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cilliers, A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A technique based on time-frequency and tomographic analysis to extract helicopter blade parameters for the purposes of radar non-cooperative target recognition (NCTR) is investigated. The proposed algorithm shows that (under certain conditions...

  19. Determination of salicylic acid using a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure followed by an online concentration technique through micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Huang, Chang-Wei; Fu, Shih-Feng; Wu, Mei-Yao; Wu, Tsunghsueh; Lin, Yang-Wei

    2017-01-06

    In this study, a magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle-based solid-phase extraction procedure combined with the online concentration and separation of salicylic acid (SA) through micellar electrokinetic chromatography-UV detection (MEKC-UV) was developed. Under optimal experimental conditions, a good linearity in the range of 0.01-100μmolL(-1) was obtained with a coefficient of correlation of 0.9999. The detection sensitivity of the proposed method exhibited an approximately 1026-fold improvement compared with a single MEKC method without online concentration, and the detection limit (S/N=3) was 3.80nmolL(-1). The repeatability of the method was evaluated using intraday and interday RSDs (11.5% and 17.0%, respectively). The method was used to determine SA concentrations in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) from the NN genotype, nn genotype, and Nt-NahG mutant strains, as well as in shampoo and ointment samples. Rapid extraction and separation (<50min), acceptable repeatability (RSD<17.0%), and high spiked recoveries (95.8%-102.4%) were observed for plants, detergents, and pharmaceuticals.

  20. Electroextraction and electromembrane extraction : Advances in hyphenation to analytical techniques.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oedit, A.; Ramautar, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Lindenburg, P.W.

    2016-01-01

    Electroextraction (EE) and electromembrane extraction (EME) are sample preparation techniques that both require an electric field that is applied over a liquid-liquid system, which enables the migration of charged analytes. Furthermore, both techniques are often used to pre-concentrate analytes prio

  1. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO2 emissions.

  2. FUMET: A fuzzy network module extraction technique for gene expression data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Priyakshi Mahanta; Hasin Afzal Ahmed; Dhruba Kumar Bhattacharyya; Ashish Ghosh

    2014-06-01

    Construction of co-expression network and extraction of network modules have been an appealing area of bioinformatics research. This article presents a co-expression network construction and a biologically relevant network module extraction technique based on fuzzy set theoretic approach. The technique is able to handle both positive and negative correlations among genes. The constructed network for some benchmark gene expression datasets have been validated using topological internal and external measures. The effectiveness of network module extraction technique has been established in terms of well-known p-value, Q-value and topological statistics.

  3. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  4. MATRIX BASED INDEXING TECHNIQUE FOR VIDEO DATA

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Due to increasing the usage of media, the utilization of video play central role as it supports various applications. Video is the particular media which contains complex collection of objects like audio, motion, text, color and picture. Due to the rapid growth of this information video indexing process is mandatory for fast and effective retrieval. Many current indexing techniques fails to extract the needed image from the stored data set, based on the users query. Urgent attention in the fi...

  5. Statistical feature extraction based iris recognition system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ATUL BANSAL; RAVINDER AGARWAL; R K SHARMA

    2016-05-01

    Iris recognition systems have been proposed by numerous researchers using different feature extraction techniques for accurate and reliable biometric authentication. In this paper, a statistical feature extraction technique based on correlation between adjacent pixels has been proposed and implemented. Hamming distance based metric has been used for matching. Performance of the proposed iris recognition system (IRS) has been measured by recording false acceptance rate (FAR) and false rejection rate (FRR) at differentthresholds in the distance metric. System performance has been evaluated by computing statistical features along two directions, namely, radial direction of circular iris region and angular direction extending from pupil tosclera. Experiments have also been conducted to study the effect of number of statistical parameters on FAR and FRR. Results obtained from the experiments based on different set of statistical features of iris images show thatthere is a significant improvement in equal error rate (EER) when number of statistical parameters for feature extraction is increased from three to six. Further, it has also been found that increasing radial/angular resolution,with normalization in place, improves EER for proposed iris recognition system

  6. A Review of Brain Extraction Techniques in Fetal MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Pishghadam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sonography, Maternal Serum Screening, amniocentesis, and sampling are among the techniques utilized to examine a developing fetus and diagnose fetal abnormalities in the uterus. Despite the fact that Sonography is the main technique used for imaging and monitoring, the use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI to evaluate the fetus is growing. Moreover, MRI is used for further examinations in case of abnormalities diagnosed in the ultrasound scan. MRI, in comparison with other imaging techniques, provides the advantage of fetal brain study with higher precision and quality. The first step to study the fetal brain is its extraction from the MRI of the fetal brain. Since the maternal tissue is also present in the MRI of the fetal brain tissue, and due to the differences in the adult and fetus signals of brain tissue, it is not possible to use the adult brain extraction techniques for fetus. Given that semi-automatic segmentation is a time-consuming and tedious task, the need for automatic segmentation is highlighted. This is while the development of the stages of automatic segmentation of brain structures is still a challenge to overcome. In the present paper, we review the techniques for automatic segmentation or brain extraction of fetal MRI.

  7. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac.

  8. Effect of Extraction Solvent/Technique on the Antioxidant Activity of Selected Medicinal Plant Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Sultana

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW, total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW; reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91, DPPH. scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%, and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%. Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker.

  9. Spatio-temporal feature-extraction techniques for isolated gesture recognition in Arabic sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanableh, Tamer; Assaleh, Khaled; Al-Rousan, M

    2007-06-01

    This paper presents various spatio-temporal feature-extraction techniques with applications to online and offline recognitions of isolated Arabic Sign Language gestures. The temporal features of a video-based gesture are extracted through forward, backward, and bidirectional predictions. The prediction errors are thresholded and accumulated into one image that represents the motion of the sequence. The motion representation is then followed by spatial-domain feature extractions. As such, the temporal dependencies are eliminated and the whole video sequence is represented by a few coefficients. The linear separability of the extracted features is assessed, and its suitability for both parametric and nonparametric classification techniques is elaborated upon. The proposed feature-extraction scheme was complemented by simple classification techniques, namely, K nearest neighbor (KNN) and Bayesian, i.e., likelihood ratio, classifiers. Experimental results showed classification performance ranging from 97% to 100% recognition rates. To validate our proposed technique, we have conducted a series of experiments using the classical way of classifying data with temporal dependencies, namely, hidden Markov models (HMMs). Experimental results revealed that the proposed feature-extraction scheme combined with simple KNN or Bayesian classification yields comparable results to the classical HMM-based scheme. Moreover, since the proposed scheme compresses the motion information of an image sequence into a single image, it allows for using simple classification techniques where the temporal dimension is eliminated. This is actually advantageous for both computational and storage requirements of the classifier.

  10. Extraction of Information from Images using Dewrapping Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Nazim S. A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An image containing textual information is called a document image. The textual information in document images is useful in areas like vehicle number plate reading, passport reading and cargo container reading and so on. Thus extracting useful textual information in the document image plays an important role in many applications. One of the major challenges in camera document analysis is to deal with the wrap and perspective distortions. In spite of the prevalence of dewrapping techniques, there is no standard efficient algorithm for the performance evaluation that concentrates on visualization. Wrapping is a common appearance document image before recognition. In order to capture the document images a mobile camera of 2megapixel resolution is used. A database is developed with variations in background, size and colour along with wrapped images, blurred and clean images. This database will be explored and text extraction from those document images is performed. In case of wrapped images no efficient dewrapping techniques have been implemented till date. Thus extracting the text from the wrapped images is done by maintaining a suitable template database. Further, the extracted text from the wrapped or other document images will be converted into an editable form such as Notepad or MS word document. The experimental results were corroborated on various objects of database.

  11. [A technique for the vein extraction from the susceptibility weighted imaging of the brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Shi; Dou, Feifei; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Jianrong; Huang, Xin; Qian, Lijun; Xu, Xiu

    2011-03-01

    This paper studies the vein extraction technique based on the susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) and introduced an improved self-adaptive threshold method based on the vessel enhancing diffusion. The approach employs the combination indicator of the local gray character, the global gray character and the tubular information of the vein. It first applies the vessel enhancing diffusion filter to enhance the continuity of the vein, increases the detection rate of tiny vein and suppresses the nucleus areas. And then it uses the improved self-adaptive threshold method to extract the vein. The results demonstrate that this approach can solve the problem above and extract the vein from the SWI image accurately.

  12. Extraction Techniques of Eugenol Based on Fluorimetry%基于荧光分析法的丁香酚提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓霞

    2011-01-01

    We extract eugenol from Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb under different extraction condition.By comparing the fluorescence intensity at maximum emission wavelength 315 nm and excitation wavelengths at 280 nm,we find the effect is best by methanol,and methanol%几种不同提取条件下对丁香中丁香酚进行提取,比较提取后丁香酚溶液在发射波长为315 nm,激发波长为280 nm处的荧光强度,发现用无水甲醇作为溶剂提取效果最好,而且无水甲醇自身的荧光强度很弱,不影响用荧光分析方法对丁香酚定量研究;超声波提取方法效果最好,用无水甲醇做溶剂超声5 min即可从丁香药材中将丁香酚全部提取出.

  13. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  14. Analyzing edge detection techniques for feature extraction in dental radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Lakhani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several dental problems can be detected using radiographs but the main issue with radiographs is that they are not very prominent. In this paper, two well known edge detection techniques have been implemented for a set of 20 radiographs and number of pixels in each image has been calculated. Further, Gaussian filter has been applied over the images to smoothen the images so as to highlight the defect in the tooth. If the images data are available in the form of pixels for both healthy and decayed tooth, the images can easily be compared using edge detection techniques and the diagnosis is much easier. Further, Laplacian edge detection technique is applied to sharpen the edges of the given image. The aim is to detect discontinuities in dental radiographs when compared to original healthy tooth. Future work includes the feature extraction on the images for the classification of dental problems.

  15. Bio-refinery of orange peels waste: a new concept based on integrated green and solvent free extraction processes using ultrasound and microwave techniques to obtain essential oil, polyphenols and pectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukroufa, Meryem; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Petigny, Loïc; Rakotomanomana, Njara; Chemat, Farid

    2015-05-01

    In this study, extraction of essential oil, polyphenols and pectin from orange peel has been optimized using microwave and ultrasound technology without adding any solvent but only "in situ" water which was recycled and used as solvent. The essential oil extraction performed by Microwave Hydrodiffusion and Gravity (MHG) was optimized and compared to steam distillation extraction (SD). No significant changes in yield were noticed: 4.22 ± 0.03% and 4.16 ± 0.05% for MHG and SD, respectively. After extraction of essential oil, residual water of plant obtained after MHG extraction was used as solvent for polyphenols and pectin extraction from MHG residues. Polyphenols extraction was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and conventional extraction (CE). Response surface methodology (RSM) using central composite designs (CCD) approach was launched to investigate the influence of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). The statistical analysis revealed that the optimized conditions of ultrasound power and temperature were 0.956 W/cm(2) and 59.83°C giving a polyphenol yield of 50.02 mgGA/100 g dm. Compared with the conventional extraction (CE), the UAE gave an increase of 30% in TPC yield. Pectin was extracted by conventional and microwave assisted extraction. This technique gives a maximal yield of 24.2% for microwave power of 500 W in only 3 min whereas conventional extraction gives 18.32% in 120 min. Combination of microwave, ultrasound and the recycled "in situ" water of citrus peels allow us to obtain high added values compounds in shorter time and managed to make a closed loop using only natural resources provided by the plant which makes the whole process intensified in term of time and energy saving, cleanliness and reduced waste water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Study on the extraction technique of Rhodiola crenulata based on the multiple index comprehensive evaluation%基于多指标综合评价的红景天提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛瑞; 郭东艳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To optimize the extraction technique of Rhodiola crenulata by an orthogonal experiment, and to choose the suitable process parameters. Methods Orthogonal test was employed for selecting the optimal extraction technique with the contents of salidroside and tyrosol,and extract rate as the comprehensive index. Results The optimal extraction technique was 70% alcohol with 6 folds volume of drugs,and extraction time of 3 times with 2 hours for each time. Conclusion The extraction technique is objective, feasible, stable and reasonable. This study provides a experimental basis for the industrial production of Rhodiola crenulata preparations.%目的 通过正交设计优选红景天的提取工艺,筛选出最佳工艺参数.方法 以提取液中红景天苷含量、酪醇含量及出膏率的加和进行综合评价,采用正交实验优选最佳提取工艺.结果 最佳提取工艺为:药材用6倍量体积分数70%乙醇提取3次,每次提取2 h.结论 该提取工艺参数客观可行、稳定合理,可为工业化生产提供实验依据.

  17. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction and determination of antioxidants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Bajer, Tomáš; Ventura, Karel

    2014-04-01

    The following extraction techniques have been used for extracting antioxidants (apigenin, coumarin, esculetin, umbelliferone, bergapten, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin and xanthotoxin) from plant material: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonic extraction in ultrasonic bath, and by means of ultrasonic probe. The analytical method based on HPLC-UV detection for the determination of selected antioxidants was developed. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was also determined. Comparing all results the ultrasonic probe method using 0.75 g of sample extracted by 50 mL of acetonitrile in water (30%, v/v) for 25 min at room temperature and with amplitude at 60% (equal to 90 W) without pulsation was evaluated as the best tool. The most significant indicator demonstrating this statement is the antioxidant capacity expressed as gallic acid equivalent where the ultrasonic probe method showed the best results in 10 of 16 samples. Also the operability of ultrasonic probe extraction method compared to other tested methods is more favorable.

  18. MATRIX BASED INDEXING TECHNIQUE FOR VIDEO DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devarj Saravanan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing the usage of media, the utilization of video play central role as it supports various applications. Video is the particular media which contains complex collection of objects like audio, motion, text, color and picture. Due to the rapid growth of this information video indexing process is mandatory for fast and effective retrieval. Many current indexing techniques fails to extract the needed image from the stored data set, based on the users query. Urgent attention in the field of video indexing and image retrieval is the need of the hour. Here a new matrix based indexing technique for image retrieval has been proposed. The proposed method provide better result, experimental results prove this.

  19. A Review on Feature Extraction Techniques in Face Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Rouhi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition systems due to their significant application in the security scopes, have been of greatimportance in recent years. The existence of an exact balance between the computing cost, robustness andtheir ability for face recognition is an important characteristic for such systems. Besides, trying to designthe systems performing under different conditions (e.g. illumination, variation of pose, different expressionand etc. is a challenging problem in the feature extraction of the face recognition. As feature extraction isan important step in the face recognition operation, in the present study four techniques of featureextraction in the face recognition were reviewed, subsequently comparable results were presented, andthen the advantages and the disadvantages of these methods were discussed.

  20. Automatic parameter extraction techniques in IC-CAP for a compact double gate MOSFET model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandy, Ghader; Gneiting, Thomas; Alius, Heidrun; Alvarado, Joaquín; Cerdeira, Antonio; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, automatic parameter extraction techniques of Agilent's IC-CAP modeling package are presented to extract our explicit compact model parameters. This model is developed based on a surface potential model and coded in Verilog-A. The model has been adapted to Trigate MOSFETs, includes short channel effects (SCEs) and allows accurate simulations of the device characteristics. The parameter extraction routines provide an effective way to extract the model parameters. The techniques minimize the discrepancy and error between the simulation results and the available experimental data for more accurate parameter values and reliable circuit simulation. Behavior of the second derivative of the drain current is also verified and proves to be accurate and continuous through the different operating regimes. The results show good agreement with measured transistor characteristics under different conditions and through all operating regimes.

  1. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P trismus in the piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled trials and the sample size of each trial were relatively small, double blinding was not possible, and cost analysis was unavailable due to a lack of data. Our meta-analysis indicates that although

  2. Ultrasonic technique for extracting nanofibers from nature materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Ping; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Gao, Huajian

    2007-02-01

    This letter reports a simple and versatile approach for extracting bionanofibers from natural materials using the ultrasonic technique. Bionanofibers have been fabricated from various materials, e.g., spider and silkworm silks, chitin fibers, collagen, cotton, bamboo, and ramee and hemp fibers. The obtained nanofibers have uniform diameters in the range of 25-120nm and possess the optimized hierarchical structures and superior properties of natural materials which have formed after the evolution of many millions of years. This methodology might be valuable to provide a convenient, versatile, and environmentally benign fabrication method for producing bionanofibers at an industrial scale.

  3. Automatic parameter extraction technique for gate leakage current modeling in double gate MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbandy, Ghader; Gneiting, Thomas; Alius, Heidrun; Alvarado, Joaquín; Cerdeira, Antonio; Iñiguez, Benjamin

    2013-11-01

    Direct Tunneling (DT) and Trap Assisted Tunneling (TAT) gate leakage current parameters have been extracted and verified considering automatic parameter extraction approach. The industry standard package IC-CAP is used to extract our leakage current model parameters. The model is coded in Verilog-A and the comparison between the model and measured data allows to obtain the model parameter values and parameters correlations/relations. The model and parameter extraction techniques have been used to study the impact of parameters in the gate leakage current based on the extracted parameter values. It is shown that the gate leakage current depends on the interfacial barrier height more strongly than the barrier height of the dielectric layer. There is almost the same scenario with respect to the carrier effective masses into the interfacial layer and the dielectric layer. The comparison between the simulated results and available measured gate leakage current transistor characteristics of Trigate MOSFETs shows good agreement.

  4. A new seeded region growing technique for retinal blood vessels extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Atefeh Sadat; Sabzpoushan, Seyed Hojat

    2014-07-01

    Distribution of retinal blood vessels (RBVs) in retinal images has an important role in the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of diseases, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Therefore, detection of the exact location of RBVs is very important for Ophthalmologists. One of the frequently used techniques for extraction of these vessels is region growing-based Segmentation. In this paper, we propose a new region growing (RG) technique for RBVs extraction, called cellular automata-based segmentation. RG techniques often require manually seed point selection, that is, human intervention. However, due to the complex structure of vessels in retinal images, manual tracking of them is very difficult. Therefore, to make our proposed technique full automatic, we use an automatic seed point selection method. The proposed RG technique was tested on Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction database for three different initial seed sets and evaluated against the manual segmentation of retinal images available at this database. Three quantitative criteria including accuracy, true positive rate and false positive rate, were considered to evaluate this method. The visual scrutiny of the segmentation results and the quantitative criteria show that, using cellular automata for extracting the blood vessels is promising. However, the important point at here is that the correct initial seeds have an effective role on the final results of segmentation.

  5. Comparison of Extraction Techniques with Different Solvents for DDT Analogues in Sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Yin-Hai; JIANG Xin; D. MARTENS; ZHAO Qi-Guo

    2005-01-01

    Four techniques, Soxhlet extraction (SOX), ultrasonic extraction (USE), fluidized-bed extraction (FBE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with different solvents (methanol, hexane/acetone and acetonitrile) were used for the extraction of DDT analogues in sediments. Results revealed that the four extraction techniques had high recoveries (>86.0%) with low standard deviations (< 12.0%) for most of DDT analogues, meaning that they could all successfully extract DDT analogues in sediments. Accelerated solvent extraction using methanol and hexane/acetone (1:1), fluidized-bed extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) and the ultrasonic extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1) were comparable or better than Soxhlet extraction using hexane/acetone (1:1). Considering solvent- and time-consumption, level of automation,and environmental risk, accelerated solvent extraction with hexane/acetone (1:1) was better than the other extraction techniques.

  6. Applied feline oral anatomy and tooth extraction techniques: an illustrated guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Alexander M; Soltero-Rivera, Maria M

    2014-11-01

    Tooth extraction is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures in small animal practice. The clinician must be familiar with normal oral anatomy, utilize nomenclature accepted in dentistry and oral surgery, use the modified Triadan system for numbering teeth, identify normal structures on a dental radiograph, understand the tissues that hold the teeth in the jaws, know the biomechanical principles of tooth extraction, be able to choose the most appropriate instrument for removal of a tooth, extract teeth using closed and open techniques, and create tension-free flaps for closure of extraction sites. This review is intended to familiarize both the general and referral practitioner with feline oral anatomy and tooth extraction techniques. Tooth extraction is predominantly performed in cats with tooth resorption, chronic gingivostomatitis and periodontal disease. The basic contents of a feline tooth extraction kit are explained. The guidance contained within this review is based on a combination of the published literature, the authors' personal experience and the experience of colleagues. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.

  7. Exploring the potentialities of an improved ultrasound-assisted quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe-based extraction technique combined with ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection for determination of Zearalenone in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Camacho, Irene; Câmara, José S

    2015-08-21

    Zearalenone (ZEA), a secondary metabolite from Fusarium graminearum fungi that invade crops and grow during blooming in moist cool field conditions, is a nonsteroidal oestrogen, biologically very potent, although hardly toxic. Different analytical methods, among which a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) strategy, combined with or liquid chromatography, have been proposed for ZEA determination in foods. However, this extraction procedure has the disadvantage of using large amount of organic solvents, partitioning salts and sample volume, which limits the technique application on the fields where the sample amount is critical. Therefore in this work an improved sample preparation step based on the original QuEChERS (O-QuEChERS) approach, the μ-QuEChERS, combined with ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis with fluorescence detection (FLR) is proposed for the sensitive and high-throughput quantification of ZEA in cereals. The proposed analytical strategy, μ-QuEChERSUSAE, uses up to 32 times lower amounts of partitioning salts, lower sample amount and lower extraction solvents, in comparison with O-QuEChERS technique. The performance of the analytical approach was assessed by studying the selectivity, specificity, limits of detection and quantification, linear dynamic range, matrix effect and precision. Good linearity (r(2)>0.99) was achieved for ZEA, and limits of detection (LOD=3.4μgkg(-1)) and limits of quantification (LOQ=4.7μgkg(-1)) were found below the tolerance levels set by European Commission. Good recoveries were obtained with different spiked concentrations, ranged from 80.2% to 109.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSD) lower than 5.0%. The comparison of the analytical performance of the proposed μ-QuEChERSUSAE with O-QuEChERS showed the powerful ability of the proposed strategy since it gives comparable results but using lower amounts of sample, partitioning

  8. Pattern Based Term Extraction Using ACABIT System

    CERN Document Server

    Takeuchi, Koichi; Koyama, Teruo; Daille, Béatrice; Romary, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a pattern-based term extraction approach for Japanese, applying ACABIT system originally developed for French. The proposed approach evaluates termhood using morphological patterns of basic terms and term variants. After extracting term candidates, ACABIT system filters out non-terms from the candidates based on log-likelihood. This approach is suitable for Japanese term extraction because most of Japanese terms are compound nouns or simple phrasal patterns.

  9. Prediction of PAH biodegradation in field contaminated soils using a cyclodextrin extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Apostolos; Paton, Graeme I; Reid, Brian J; Semple, Kirk T

    2007-06-01

    Biodegradation has been identified as a major loss process for organic contaminants in soils and, as a result, microbial strategies have been developed for the remediation of contaminated land. Prediction of the biodegradable fraction would be important for determining bioremediation end-points in the clean-up of contaminated land. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of a cyclodextrin extraction to predict the extent to which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) would be degraded microbiologically in field contaminated soils; further testing the robustness and reproducibility of this extraction in chemically complex systems. Dichloromethane and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extractable fractions were measured together with the PAH biodegradable fraction in each of the six field contaminated soils. The amounts of PAHs degraded by the catabolic activity of the indigenous microflora in each of the soils were correlated with HPCD-extractable PAH concentrations. The regressions showed that the amounts of lower molecular weight PAHs extracted by the HPCD were not significantly (P > 0.05) different to the amounts that were degraded. However, higher molecular weight PAHs that were extracted by HPCD did differ significantly (P PAHs, overall the correlations between the HPCD extractable fraction and the microbially degradable fraction were very close, with mean values of the slope of line for the six soils equalling 1. This study further describes the robust and reproducible nature of the aqueous-based soil extraction technique reliably measuring the extent to which PAHs will be microbially degraded in soil.

  10. Wavelet Based Image Denoising Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin D Ruikar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes different approaches of wavelet based image denoising methods. The search for efficient image denoising methods is still a valid challenge at the crossing of functional analysis and statistics. In spite of the sophistication of the recently proposed methods, most algorithms have not yet attained a desirable level of applicability. Wavelet algorithms are useful tool for signal processing such as image compression and denoising. Multi wavelets can be considered as an extension of scalar wavelets. The main aim is to modify the wavelet coefficients in the new basis, the noise can be removed from the data. In this paper, we extend the existing technique and providing a comprehensive evaluation of the proposed method. Results based on different noise, such as Gaussian, Poisson’s, Salt and Pepper, and Speckle performed in this paper. A signal to noise ratio as a measure of the quality of denoising was preferred.

  11. Web Template Extraction Based on Hyperlink Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Alarte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Web templates are one of the main development resources for website engineers. Templates allow them to increase productivity by plugin content into already formatted and prepared pagelets. For the final user templates are also useful, because they provide uniformity and a common look and feel for all webpages. However, from the point of view of crawlers and indexers, templates are an important problem, because templates usually contain irrelevant information such as advertisements, menus, and banners. Processing and storing this information is likely to lead to a waste of resources (storage space, bandwidth, etc.. It has been measured that templates represent between 40% and 50% of data on the Web. Therefore, identifying templates is essential for indexing tasks. In this work we propose a novel method for automatic template extraction that is based on similarity analysis between the DOM trees of a collection of webpages that are detected using menus information. Our implementation and experiments demonstrate the usefulness of the technique.

  12. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cobzac, Simona Codruta, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: {alpha} and {beta}-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  13. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredana Soran, Maria; Codruta Cobzac, Simona; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  14. Extraction of logs in forestry using operations research techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Dick [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden); Roennqvist, M.; Westerlund, A. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    An important and so far much neglected operative problem in the Swedish forestry is to extract roundwood from actual harvest areas to load points at forest roads. Once at the load point, logging trucks can collect it for further secondary transportation to saw- and pulp- mills. We report on a system being developed which collects geographic information by a global positioning system (GPS) about log piles and actual routing network used by the forwarder. This is stored together with related information in a geographical information system (GIS). Using operations research (OR) techniques we can find high quality routes. This provides the driver with an operative tool in finding routes. We give numerical results from a case study done for a major Swedish forest company 5 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  15. FACE RECOGNITION USING FEATURE EXTRACTION AND NEURO-FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Vyas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Face is a primary focus of attention in social intercourse, playing a major role in conveying identity and emotion. The human ability to recognize faces is remarkable. People can recognize thousands of faces learned throughout their lifetime and identify familiar faces at a glance even after years of separation. This skill is quite robust, despite large changes in the visual stimulus due to viewing conditions, expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses, beards or changes in hair style. In this work, a system is designed to recognize human faces depending on their facial features. Also to reveal the outline of the face, eyes and nose, edge detection technique has been used. Facial features are extracted in the form of distance between important feature points. After normalization, these feature vectors are learned by artificial neural network and used to recognize facial image.

  16. Proposing the new Algorithm and Technique Development for Integrating Web Table Extraction and Building a Mashup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy A.G. Gultom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Nowadays, various types of data in web table can be easily extracted from the Internet, although not all of web tables are relevant to the users. As we may know, most web pages are in unstructured HTML format, making web table extraction process very time consuming and costly. HTML format only focuses on the presentation, not based on the database system. Therefore, users need a tool in dealing with that process. Approach: This research proposed an approach for implementing web table extraction and making a Mashup from HTML web pages using Xtractorz application. It is also discussed on how to collaborate and integrate a web table extraction process in the stage of building a Mashup, i.e., Data Retrieval, Data Source Modeling, Data Cleaning/ Filtering, Data Integration and Data Visualization. The main issue lies in stage of data modeling creation, in which Xtractorz must be able to automatically render Document Object Model (DOM tree in accordance to HTML tag or code of the web page from which the table is extracted. To overcome that, the Xtractorz is equipped with algorithm and rules so it can enable to specifically analyze the HTML tags and to extract the data into a new table format. The algorithm is created by using recursive technique within a user-friendly GUI of Xtractorz. Results: The approach was evaluated by conducting experiment using Xtractorz and other similar applications, such as RoboMaker and Karma. The result of experiment showed that Xtractorz is more efficient in completing the experiment tasks, since Xtractorz has fewer steps to complete the whole tasks. Conclusion: Xtractorz can give a positive contribution in terms of algorithm technique and a new approach method to web table extraction process and making a Mashup, where the core algorithm can extracts web data tables using recursive technique while rendering the DOM tree model automatically.

  17. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  18. FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EMG BASED PROSTHESES CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aishwarya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of prosthetic limb would be more effective if it is based on Surface Electromyogram (SEMG signals from remnant muscles. The analysis of SEMG signals depend on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time- and frequency-domain properties. Time series analysis using Auto Regressive (AR model and Mean frequency which is tolerant to white Gaussian noise are used as feature extraction techniques. EMG Histogram is used as another feature vector that was seen to give more distinct classification. The work was done with SEMG dataset obtained from the NINAPRO DATABASE, a resource for bio robotics community. Eight classes of hand movements hand open, hand close, Wrist extension, Wrist flexion, Pointing index, Ulnar deviation, Thumbs up, Thumb opposite to little finger are taken into consideration and feature vectors are extracted. The feature vectors can be given to an artificial neural network for further classification in controlling the prosthetic arm which is not dealt in this paper.

  19. Antioxidant activity of Galium mollugo L. extracts obtained by different recovery techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Petar S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The yield of extractive substances, antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of aqueous-ethanolic extracts obtained from aerial parts of Galium mollugo L. by different extraction techniques (maceration, reflux and ultrasonic extraction were reported. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested by measuring their ability to scavenge a stable DPPH free radical, while the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and a colorimetric method, respectively. The Duncan’s multiple range tests were used to evaluate if there were significant differences among yields of extractive substances, total phenolics, total flavonoids and EC50 values for the extracts obtained by different extraction techniques. The extracts obtained by the reflux extraction contained higher amounts of extractive substances, as well as phenolic and flavonoid compounds, and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained by the two other recovering techniques.

  20. Improving face image extraction by using deep learning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. R.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2016-03-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has made a collection of over a 1.2 million research articles containing 3.2 million figure images searchable using the Open-iSM multimodal (text+image) search engine. Many images are visible light photographs, some of which are images containing faces ("face images"). Some of these face images are acquired in unconstrained settings, while others are studio photos. To extract the face regions in the images, we first applied one of the most widely-used face detectors, a pre-trained Viola-Jones detector implemented in Matlab and OpenCV. The Viola-Jones detector was trained for unconstrained face image detection, but the results for the NLM database included many false positives, which resulted in a very low precision. To improve this performance, we applied a deep learning technique, which reduced the number of false positives and as a result, the detection precision was improved significantly. (For example, the classification accuracy for identifying whether the face regions output by this Viola- Jones detector are true positives or not in a test set is about 96%.) By combining these two techniques (Viola-Jones and deep learning) we were able to increase the system precision considerably, while avoiding the need to manually construct a large training set by manual delineation of the face regions.

  1. An Useful Information Extraction using Image Mining Techniques from Remotely Sensed Image (RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C. Jothi Venkateswaran,

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Information extraction using mining techniques from remote sensing image (RSI is rapidly gaining attention among researchers and decision makers because of its potential in application oriented studies. Knowledge discovery from image poses many interesting challenges such as preprocessing the image data set, training the data and discovering useful image patterns applicable to many newapplication frontiers. In the image rich domain of RSI, image mining implies the synergy of data mining and image processing technology. Such culmination of techniques renders a valuable tool in information extraction. Also, this encompasses the problem of handling a larger data base of varied image data formats representing various levels ofinformation such as pixel, local and regional. In the present paper, various preprocessing corrections and techniques of image mining are discussed.

  2. Comparison of extraction and work up techniques for analysis of core and intact polar tetraether lipids from sedimentary environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based intact polar lipids (IPL GDGTs) are used as biomarkers for living Archaea and are analyzed utilizing a variety of extraction and quantification techniques. Most IPL GDGT studies have used a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction method, but it has been suggest

  3. A 3D edge detection technique for surface extraction in computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Ontiveros, S.; Jiménez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors influence the measurement uncertainty when using computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications. One of the most critical steps is the surface extraction phase. An incorrect determination of the surface may significantly increase the measurement uncertainty. This paper...... presents an edge detection method for the surface extraction based on a 3D Canny algorithm with sub-voxel resolution. The advantages of this method are shown in comparison with the most commonly used technique nowadays, i.e. the local threshold definition. Both methods are applied to reference standards...

  4. Chinese Term Extraction Based on PAT Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; FAN Xiao-zhong; XU Yun

    2006-01-01

    A new method of automatic Chinese term extraction is proposed based on Patricia (PAT) tree. Mutual information is calculated based on prefix searching in PAT tree of domain corpus to estimate the internal associative strength between Chinese characters in a string. It can improve the speed of term candidate extraction largely compared with methods based on domain corpus directly. Common collocation suffix, prefix bank are constructed and term part of speech (POS) composing rules are summarized to improve the precision of term extraction. Experiment results show that the F-measure is 74.97 %.

  5. An Automated Video Object Extraction System Based on Spatiotemporal Independent Component Analysis and Multiscale Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiao-Ping

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Video content analysis is essential for efficient and intelligent utilizations of vast multimedia databases over the Internet. In video sequences, object-based extraction techniques are important for content-based video processing in many applications. In this paper, a novel technique is developed to extract objects from video sequences based on spatiotemporal independent component analysis (stICA and multiscale analysis. The stICA is used to extract the preliminary source images containing moving objects in video sequences. The source image data obtained after stICA analysis are further processed using wavelet-based multiscale image segmentation and region detection techniques to improve the accuracy of the extracted object. An automated video object extraction system is developed based on these new techniques. Preliminary results demonstrate great potential for the new stICA and multiscale-segmentation-based object extraction system in content-based video processing applications.

  6. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana [Department of Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamrin, D M [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-02-15

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  7. Interrogating Bronchoalveolar Lavage Samples via Exclusion-Based Analyte Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Jacob J; Warrick, Jay W; Guckenberger, David J; Sperger, Jamie M; Lang, Joshua M; Ferguson, J Scott; Beebe, David J

    2017-06-01

    Although average survival rates for lung cancer have improved, earlier and better diagnosis remains a priority. One promising approach to assisting earlier and safer diagnosis of lung lesions is bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), which provides a sample of lung tissue as well as proteins and immune cells from the vicinity of the lesion, yet diagnostic sensitivity remains a challenge. Reproducible isolation of lung epithelia and multianalyte extraction have the potential to improve diagnostic sensitivity and provide new information for developing personalized therapeutic approaches. We present the use of a recently developed exclusion-based, solid-phase-extraction technique called SLIDE (Sliding Lid for Immobilized Droplet Extraction) to facilitate analysis of BAL samples. We developed a SLIDE protocol for lung epithelial cell extraction and biomarker staining of patient BALs, testing both EpCAM and Trop2 as capture antigens. We characterized captured cells using TTF1 and p40 as immunostaining biomarkers of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively. We achieved up to 90% (EpCAM) and 84% (Trop2) extraction efficiency of representative tumor cell lines. We then used the platform to process two patient BAL samples in parallel within the same sample plate to demonstrate feasibility and observed that Trop2-based extraction potentially extracts more target cells than EpCAM-based extraction.

  8. Towards Task-Based Temporal Extraction and Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahn, D.D.; Fissaha Adafre, S.; de Rijke, M.

    2005-01-01

    We seek to improve the robustness and portability of temporal information extraction systems by incorporating data-driven techniques. We present two sets of experiments pointing us in this direction. The first shows that machine-learning-based recognition of temporal expressions not only achieves

  9. Knowledge-based Approach for Event Extraction from Arabic Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AL-Smadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tweets provide a continuous update on current events. However, Tweets are short, personalized and noisy, thus raises more challenges for event extraction and representation. Extracting events out of Arabic tweets is a new research domain where few examples – if any – of previous work can be found. This paper describes a knowledge-based approach for fostering event extraction out of Arabic tweets. The approach uses an unsupervised rule-based technique for event extraction and provides a named entity disambiguation of event related entities (i.e. person, organization, and location. Extracted events and their related entities are populated to the event knowledge base where tagged tweets’ entities are linked to their corresponding entities represented in the knowledge base. Proposed approach was evaluated on a dataset of 1K Arabic tweets covering different types of events (i.e. instant events and interval events. Results show that the approach has an accuracy of, 75.9% for event trigger extraction, 87.5% for event time extraction, and 97.7% for event type identification.

  10. Comparison of various extraction techniques for isolation and determination of isoflavonoids in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomás; Adam, Martin; Galla, Lubomír; Ventura, Karel

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper, the following extraction techniques have been used for extracting isoflavonoids from the species Matricaria recutita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare, and Agrimonia eupatoria L.: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), pressurized fluid extraction, matrix solid phase dispersion, ultrasonic extraction in an ultrasonic bath (USE) and by means of an ultrasonic homogeniser (HOM), extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus (SOX), and solid phase extraction. Experimental optimization of all techniques has been carried out using a soybean flour. Subsequent analyses of the extracts were carried out by liquid chromatography with UV detection. The maximum yields of daidzein and genistein were obtained by extraction with the SOX, USE, and HOM techniques. The maximum yields of apigenin and biochanin A from herb samples were obtained by SFE.

  11. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Improved Framework for Breast Cancer Detection using Hybrid Feature Extraction Technique and FFNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohamed Jaber Alamin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer early detection using terminologies of image processing is suffered from the less accuracy performance in different automated medical tools. To improve the accuracy, still there are many research studies going on different phases such as segmentation, feature extraction, detection, and classification. The proposed framework is consisting of four main steps such as image preprocessing, image segmentation, feature extraction and finally classification. This paper presenting the hybrid and automated image processing based framework for breast cancer detection. For image preprocessing, both Laplacian and average filtering approach is used for smoothing and noise reduction if any. These operations are performed on 256 x 256 sized gray scale image. Output of preprocessing phase is used at efficient segmentation phase. Algorithm is separately designed for preprocessing step with goal of improving the accuracy. Segmentation method contributed for segmentation is nothing but the improved version of region growing technique. Thus breast image segmentation is done by using proposed modified region growing technique. The modified region growing technique overcoming the limitations of orientation as well as intensity. The next step we proposed is feature extraction, for this framework we have proposed to use combination of different types of features such as texture features, gradient features, 2D-DWT features with higher order statistics (HOS. Such hybrid feature set helps to improve the detection accuracy. For last phase, we proposed to use efficient feed forward neural network (FFNN. The comparative study between existing 2D-DWT feature extraction and proposed HOS-2D-DWT based feature extraction methods is proposed.

  13. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  14. Technique of key-frame extraction and motion editing based on wavelet transform%基于小波变换的关键帧提取及运动编辑技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁加红; 李可; 李猛; 胡应龙

    2013-01-01

    For the problems of large motion capture data and the difficulty of editing key frames,the paper proposed a technique to introduce wavelet transform into key frames extraction and motion editing.The proposed technique deals with the motion capture data as signal processing,decomposes the signal into high frequency signals and low frequency signals,and disposes the coefficients by semi-soft threshold function,and extracts key frames through setting different threshold.After extracting the key frames,the key frames animation is reconstructed by the interpolation technique in order to generate new human motion sequence.In motion editing,the high frequency signals are adjusted so as to enhance the characteristics of motion,further improving the technique of motion editing.The experiment demonstrates this technique is of good application,the extracted key frames have recapitulation,and after the motion editing,the reality of motion can be ensured to some extent.%针对当前运动捕捉数据量大、关键帧难编辑的问题,提出将小波变换引入到关键帧的提取及运动编辑的技术.将运动捕捉数据作为信号进行处理,通过小波变换的方法将人体运动信号分解成高频信号和低频信号,利用半软阈值函数处理小波系数,通过设定不同的阈值,实现对关键帧的提取.提取关键帧后,利用插值技术重建关键帧动画,可生成新的人体运动序列.在运动编辑中,通过调整运动的高频信号,实现了运动特征的增强,进一步丰富了运动编辑的方法.实验结果表明,小波变换对关键帧的提取具有一定的适用性,所提取的关键帧有较强的概括力,对运动进行编辑后,一定程度上保证了运动的真实性.

  15. Object Extraction Based on Evolutionary Morphological Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; PAN Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel technique for object detection using genetic algorithms and morphological processing. The method employs a kind of object oriented structure element, which is derived by genetic algorithms. The population of morphological filters is iteratively evaluated according to a statistical performance index corresponding to object extraction ability, and evolves into an optimal structuring element using the evolution principles of genetic search. Experimental results of road extraction from high resolution satellite images are presented to illustrate the merit and feasibility of the proposed method.

  16. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanimah; Simoh; Alizah; Zainal

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the possible phytochemical constituents of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb.(C. aeruginosa) rhizome using two different techniques of direct solvent extraction. Methods: Two different techniques of direct solvent extractions, i.e. methyl tert-butyl ether(MTBE) extraction and two-phase methanol/chloroform(M/C) system, were used in this study. The analysis of the phytochemical constituents in MTBE and M/C extracts was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. The mass spectra of the compounds was matched with the NIST 08 mass spectral library. Results: The present study revealed that the extraction using two-phase M/C have resulted in higher metabolite coverage compared to the extraction with MTBE. Direct solvent extraction using MTBE revealed the presence of 27 compounds; whereas, M/C allowed the extraction of 18 and 36 compounds in polar(methanol) and nonpolar(chloroform) fractions respectively. The major compounds detected in the MTBE extract that based on the peak area percentage were methenolone(16.64%), cycloisolongifolene, 8,9-dehydro-9-formyl-(15.93%), labd-13-en-15-oic acid,8,12-epoxy-12-hydroxy-γ-lactone(10.77%), propiolic acid, 3-(1-hydroxy)-2 isopropyl-1,5-methylcyclohexyl)(7.84%), 4-oxo-β-isodamascol(5.17%), velleral(3.11%) and Z-α-farnesene(2.00%). The most prevailing major compounds identified in the polar fraction of the M/C extraction were α-D glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6 tetrakis-O-(TMS)(trimethylsilyl)-β-D-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-(38.08%), d-glucose, 2,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(14.61%), D-fructose, 1,3,4,5,6-pentakis-O-(TMS)-, O-methyloxime(5.28%), isocitric acid(TMS)(3.06%), oxalic acid, bis(TMS) ester(2.96%), hexadecanoic acid, TMS ester(2.16%), citric acid, ethyl ester, tri-TMS(1.91%) and butanedioic acid, [(TMS) oxy]-, bis(TMS) ester(1.14%); whereas in the nonpolar extract, among the major compounds detected were cycloisolongifolene, 8, 9-dehydro-9-formyl(15

  17. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class...

  18. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  19. Membrane Boundary Extraction Using a Circular Shortest Path Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changming; Vallotton, Pascal; Wang, Dadong; Lopez, Jamie; Ng, Yvonne; James, David

    2007-11-01

    Membrane proteins represent over 50% of known drug targets. Accordingly, several widely used assays in the High Content Analysis area rely on quantitative measures of the translocation of proteins between intracellular organelles and the cell surface. In order to increase the sensitivity of these assays, one needs to measure the signal specifically along the membrane, requiring a precise segmentation of this compartment. Doing this manually is a very time-consuming practice, limited to an academic setting. Manual tracing of the membrane compartment also confronts us with issues of objectivity and reproducibility. In this paper, we present an approach based on a circular shortest path technique that enables us to segment the membrane compartment accurately and rapidly. This feature is illustrated using cells expressing epitope-tagged membrane proteins.

  20. A-Survey of Feature Extraction and Classification Techniques in OCR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Verma

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a set of feature extraction and classification techniques, which play very important role in the recognition of characters. Feature extraction provides us methods with the help of which we can identify characters uniquely and with high degree of accuracy. Feature extraction helps us to find the shape contained in the pattern. Although a number of techniques are available for feature extraction and classification, but the choice of an excellent technique decides the degree of accuracy of recognition. A lot of research has been done in this field and new techniques of extraction and classification has been developed. The objective of this paper is to review these techniques, so that the set of these techniques can be appreciated.

  1. Nontraditional manufacturing technique-Nano machining technique based on SPM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG; Shen; YAN; Yongda; SUN; Tao; LIANG; Yingchun; CHENG

    2004-01-01

    Nano machining based on SPM is a novel, nontraditional advanced manufacturing technique. There are three main machining methods based on SPM, i.e.single atom manipulation, surface modification using physical or chemical actions and mechanical scratching. The current development of this technique is summarized. Based on the analysis of mechanical scratching mechanism, a 5 μm micro inflation hole is fabricated on the surface of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) target. The processing technique is optimized. The machining properties of brittle material, single crystal Ge, are investigated. A micro machining system combining SPM and a high accuracy stage is developed. Some 2D and 3D microstructures are fabricated using the system. This method has broad applications in the field of nano machining.

  2. Feature Extraction with Ordered Mean Values for Content Based Image Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeep Thepade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Categorization of images into meaningful classes by efficient extraction of feature vectors from image datasets has been dependent on feature selection techniques. Traditionally, feature vector extraction has been carried out using different methods of image binarization done with selection of global, local, or mean threshold. This paper has proposed a novel technique for feature extraction based on ordered mean values. The proposed technique was combined with feature extraction using discrete sine transform (DST for better classification results using multitechnique fusion. The novel methodology was compared to the traditional techniques used for feature extraction for content based image classification. Three benchmark datasets, namely, Wang dataset, Oliva and Torralba (OT-Scene dataset, and Caltech dataset, were used for evaluation purpose. Performance measure after evaluation has evidently revealed the superiority of the proposed fusion technique with ordered mean values and discrete sine transform over the popular approaches of single view feature extraction methodologies for classification.

  3. xScraper:Bulk-and Deep-extracting Non-structured Web Information Based on Web-Harvest Techniques%xScraper:基于Web-Harvest技术批量与深度获取无结构化Web信息

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱焱; 朱凯

    2012-01-01

    通过分析Web-Harvest数据提取规则的设计原理,设计实现了一个xScraper系统.该系统的主要功能有:(1)定制设计满足不同需求的Web数据提取规则模板,驱动Web-Harvest内核进行无结构化信息提取;(2)批量可控提取同一网址中的Web信息(含图像);(3)跨网站深度提取主题相关信息;(4)提取Web信息元数据并将其转换为XML标签;(5)实现无结构化多媒体信息的数据库管理.应用结果表明,系统提供了超出Web-Harvest的加值功能,可满足不同的信息提取需求,其简单实用,便于扩展.%A system named xScraper was developed based on the data extraction rules investigation in Web-Harvest. 5 main functions of this system are (1) flexible specification of extraction rules to meet different application requirements; (2) controllable bulk non-structured data (incl. Images) extraction from the same Web sites (3) deep extraction of topic-related information across many Web sites; (4) extraction of metadata from Web sites and transformation in to XML tags; (5) non-structured multi-media information management in databases. xScraper is a simple,practical and extendable system. It provides value-added services over Web-Harvest and can meet different requirements of Web information extraction.

  4. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film....... Technical aspects of electromembrane extraction, important extraction parameters as well as a handful of examples of applications from different biological samples and bioanalytical areas are discussed in the paper....

  5. Influence of extraction techniques on antioxidant properties and bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfanian, Mojtaba; Esmaeilzadeh Kenari, Reza; Sahari, Mohammad Ali

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the bioactive compounds of loquat fruit (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) skin and pulp extracted by two extraction methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with three solvents (ethanol, water and ethanol-water) were compared to supercritical fluid extraction. The antioxidant activities of skin and pulp extracts were evaluated and compared to tertiary butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙) radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching, and the Rancimat assays. In DPPH assay solvent extracts of skin by ethanol (SSE) and ethanol-water (SSEW) showed strong inhibitory activity. The SSEW also showed the highest inhibition percentage of 85.58% by the β-carotene bleaching assay and longest induction time of 4.78 h by the Rancimat method. The large amount of tocopherols and phenolics contained in the skin extract may cause its strong antioxidant ability. The results indicated that the solvent extraction with ethanol-water produced the maximum extraction yield of phenolic and tocopherol compounds from loquat fruit skin and pulp. Furthermore, solvent extraction was the most effective in antioxidant activity of the extracts compared to other extraction techniques.

  6. Optimization study of Chromalaena odorata essential oil extracted using solventless extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasshorudin, Dalila; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Rosli, Suraya

    2015-05-01

    Solventless extraction process of Chromalaena odorata using reduced pressure and temperature has been investigated. The percentage yield of essential oil produce was calculated for every experiment with different experimental condition. The effect of different parameters, such as temperature and extraction time on the yield was investigated using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) through Central Composite Design (CCD). The temperature and extraction time were found to have significant effect on the yield of extract. A final essential oil yield was 0.095% could be extracted under the following optimized conditions; a temperature of 80 °C and a time of 8 hours.

  7. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... construction based on root extracting. As an example of this, we modify Cramer-Shoup signature scheme such that it becomes a genericm algorithm. We discuss then implementing it in RSA groups without the original restriction that the modulus must be a product of safe primes. It can also be implemented in class......,  providing a currently acceptable level of security. This allows us to propose the rst practical blind signature scheme provably secure, without relying on heuristics called random oracle model (ROM). We obtain the protocol for issuing blind signatures by implementing our modi ed Fischlin's signing algorithm...

  8. Chemical profiling of Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. rhizome using different techniques of solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanimah Simoh

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: It was evident from the results that C. aeruginosa rhizome extracted using two different techniques of solvent extractions (MTBE and M/C contained various chemical classes of compounds including terpenoids, sterols, organic acids, fatty acids and sugars. Different methods of extraction have led to different compounds extraction for C. aeruginosa rhizome. The results also indicated that the plant was a source of phytochemical importance.

  9. Flavonoid extraction from Ficus carica leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunschi Svetlana I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Ficus carica. Dried leaves were extracted using distilled water and ethanol 70% by extraction method of maceration, microwave and stirring. Using of TLC and HPLC techniques, the rutin and kaempferol were detected. For flavonoids extraction ethanol 70% was more efficient than water. The relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol was higher by microwave methods ussing ethanol.

  10. Image analysis techniques associated with automatic data base generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.; Atkinson, R. J.; Hodges, B. C.; Thomas, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    This paper considers some basic problems relating to automatic data base generation from imagery, the primary emphasis being on fast and efficient automatic extraction of relevant pictorial information. Among the techniques discussed are recursive implementations of some particular types of filters which are much faster than FFT implementations, a 'sequential similarity detection' technique of implementing matched filters, and sequential linear classification of multispectral imagery. Several applications of the above techniques are presented including enhancement of underwater, aerial and radiographic imagery, detection and reconstruction of particular types of features in images, automatic picture registration and classification of multiband aerial photographs to generate thematic land use maps.

  11. An Authentication Technique Based on Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel watermarking approach based on classification for authentication, in which a watermark is embedded into the host image. When the marked image is modified, the extracted watermark is also different to the original watermark, and different kinds of modification lead to different extracted watermarks. In this paper, different kinds of modification are considered as classes, and we used classification algorithm to recognize the modifications with high probability. Simulation results show that the proposed method is potential and effective.

  12. Influence of extraction technique on the anti-oxidative potential of hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) extracts in bovine muscle homogenates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortle, E; O'Grady, M N; Gilroy, D; Furey, A; Quinn, N; Kerry, J P

    2014-12-01

    Six extracts were prepared from hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) leaves and flowers (HLF) and berries (HB) using solid-liquid [traditional (T) (HLFT, HBT), sonicated (S) (HLFS, HBS)] and supercritical fluid (C) extraction (HLFC, HBC) techniques. The antioxidant activities of HLF and HB extracts were characterised using in vitro antioxidant assays (TPC, DPPH, FRAP) and in 25% bovine muscle (longissimus lumborum) homogenates (lipid oxidation (TBARS), oxymyoglobin (% of total myoglobin)) after 24h storage at 4°C. Hawthorn extracts exhibited varying degrees of antioxidant potency. In vitro and muscle homogenate (TBARS) antioxidant activity followed the order: HLFS>HLFT and HBT>HBS. In supercritical fluid extracts, HLFC>HBC (in vitro antioxidant activity) and HLFC≈HBC (TBARS). All extracts (except HBS) reduced oxymyoglobin oxidation. The HLFS extract had the highest antioxidant activity in all test systems. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) exhibited potential as a technique for the manufacture of functional ingredients (antioxidants) from hawthorn for use in muscle foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selective electromembrane extraction based on isoelectric point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, selective isolation of a target peptide based on the isoelectric point (pI) was achieved using a two-step electromembrane extraction (EME) approach with a thin flat membrane-based EME device. In this approach, step #1 was an extraction process, where both the target peptide...... angiotensin II antipeptide (AT2 AP, pI=5.13) and the matrix peptides (pI>5.13) angiotensin II (AT2), neurotensin (NT), angiotensin I (AT1) and leu-enkephalin (L-Enke) were all extracted as net positive species from the sample (pH 3.50), through a supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 1-nonanol diluted with 2......, and the target remained in the acceptor solution. The acceptor solution pH, the SLM composition, the extraction voltage, and the extraction time during the clean-up process (step #2) were important factors influencing the separation performance. An acceptor solution pH of 5.25 for the clean-up process slightly...

  14. An automated ocular microtremor feature extraction using the Gabor thresholding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kalbani, M; Collins, N; Boyle, G; Hegarty, F; Foran, T; Sheahan, N; Coakley, D

    2007-01-01

    Ocular Microtremor (OMT) is a very fine continuous eye movement which has potential in monitoring and identifying a number of clinical conditions. There is a need for improved analysis and processing techniques to extract useful, quantifiable parameters from the OMT signal. A number of papers have shown the clinical significance of looking at the 'bursts' and 'baseling' patterns of the OMT signal. Analysis to date relies on visual inspection alone. This paper introduces an automated approach to burst/baseline identification based on a time-varying filter using the Gabor transform.

  15. Fluorous-assisted metal chelate affinity extraction technique for analysis of protein kinase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Tadashi; Kiyokawa, Ena; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Imakyure, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a fluorous affinity-based extraction method for measurement of protein kinase activity. In this method, a fluorescent peptide substrate was phosphorylated by a protein kinase, and the obtained phosphopeptide was selectively captured with Fe(III)-immobilized perfluoroalkyliminodiacetic acid reagent via a metal chelate affinity technique. Next, the captured phosphopeptide was selectively extracted into a fluorous solvent mixture, tetradecafluorohexane and 1H,1H,2H,2H-tridecafluoro-1-n-octanol (3:1, v/v), using the specificity of fluorous affinity (fluorophilicity). In contrast, the remained substrate peptide in the aqueous (non-fluorous) phase was easily measured fluorimetrically. Finally, the enzyme activity could be assayed by measuring the decrease in fluorescence. The feasibility of this method was demonstrated by applying the method for measurement of the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) using its substrate peptide (kemptide) pre-labeled with carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA).

  16. Comparison of extraction and clean-up techniques for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    cyclohexane, 2- propanol, methanol, acetonitrile and dichloromethane, were tested to select the most suitable solvent for ... carbon dioxide, hydrocarbon fragments are generated which can ... soxhlet) (Lopez-Avila et al., 1993) supercritical fluid extraction ... that it can produce good results within a short time with minimum ...

  17. Bases en technique du vide

    CERN Document Server

    Rouviere, Nelly

    2017-01-01

    Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...

  18. Facial Feature Extraction Method Based on Coefficients of Variances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng-Xi Song; David Zhang; Cai-Kou Chen; Jing-Yu Yang

    2007-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) are two popular feature ex- traction techniques in statistical pattern recognition field. Due to small sample size problem LDA cannot be directly applied to appearance-based face recognition tasks. As a consequence, a lot of LDA-based facial feature extraction techniques are proposed to deal with the problem one after the other. Nullspace Method is one of the most effective methods among them. The Nullspace Method tries to find a set of discriminant vectors which maximize the between-class scatter in the null space of the within-class scatter matrix. The calculation of its discriminant vectors will involve performing singular value decomposition on a high-dimensional matrix. It is generally memory- and time-consuming. Borrowing the key idea in Nullspace method and the concept of coefficient of variance in statistical analysis we present a novel facial feature extraction method, i.e., Discriminant based on Coefficient of Variance (DCV) in this paper. Experimental results performed on the FERET and AR face image databases demonstrate that DCV is a promising technique in comparison with Eigenfaces, Nullspace Method, and other state-of-the-art facial feature extraction methods.

  19. Segmentation techniques for extracting humans from thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian detection system for underground mine vehicles is being developed that requires the segmentation of people from thermal images in underground mine tunnels. A number of thresholding techniques are outlined and their performance on a...

  20. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. PMID:27706082

  1. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  2. Two Applications of Clustering Techniques to Twitter: Community Detection and Issue Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Hyuk Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twitter’s recent growth in the number of users has redefined its status from a simple social media service to a mass media. We deal with clustering techniques applied to Twitter network and Twitter trend analysis. When we divide and cluster Twitter network, we can find a group of users with similar inclination, called a “Community.” In this regard, we introduce the Louvain algorithm and advance a partitioned Louvain algorithm as its improved variant. In the result of the experiment based on actual Twitter data, the partitioned Louvain algorithm supplemented the performance decline and shortened the execution time. Also, we use clustering techniques for trend analysis. We use nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF, which is a convenient method to intuitively interpret and extract issues on various time scales. By cross-verifying the results using NFM, we found that it has clear correlation with the actual main issue.

  3. Distributed Parallel Endmember Extraction of Hyperspectral Data Based on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing dimensionality and volume of remotely sensed hyperspectral data, the development of acceleration techniques for massive hyperspectral image analysis approaches is a very important challenge. Cloud computing offers many possibilities of distributed processing of hyperspectral datasets. This paper proposes a novel distributed parallel endmember extraction method based on iterative error analysis that utilizes cloud computing principles to efficiently process massive hyperspectral data. The proposed method takes advantage of technologies including MapReduce programming model, Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS, and Apache Spark to realize distributed parallel implementation for hyperspectral endmember extraction, which significantly accelerates the computation of hyperspectral processing and provides high throughput access to large hyperspectral data. The experimental results, which are obtained by extracting endmembers of hyperspectral datasets on a cloud computing platform built on a cluster, demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the proposed method.

  4. A methodology for automated CPA extraction using liver biopsy image analysis and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipouras, Markos G; Giannakeas, Nikolaos; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Tsianou, Zoe E; Manousou, Pinelopi; Hall, Andrew; Tsoulos, Ioannis; Tsianos, Epameinondas

    2017-03-01

    Collagen proportional area (CPA) extraction in liver biopsy images provides the degree of fibrosis expansion in liver tissue, which is the most characteristic histological alteration in hepatitis C virus (HCV). Assessment of the fibrotic tissue is currently based on semiquantitative staging scores such as Ishak and Metavir. Since its introduction as a fibrotic tissue assessment technique, CPA calculation based on image analysis techniques has proven to be more accurate than semiquantitative scores. However, CPA has yet to reach everyday clinical practice, since the lack of standardized and robust methods for computerized image analysis for CPA assessment have proven to be a major limitation. The current work introduces a three-stage fully automated methodology for CPA extraction based on machine learning techniques. Specifically, clustering algorithms have been employed for background-tissue separation, as well as for fibrosis detection in liver tissue regions, in the first and the third stage of the methodology, respectively. Due to the existence of several types of tissue regions in the image (such as blood clots, muscle tissue, structural collagen, etc.), classification algorithms have been employed to identify liver tissue regions and exclude all other non-liver tissue regions from CPA computation. For the evaluation of the methodology, 79 liver biopsy images have been employed, obtaining 1.31% mean absolute CPA error, with 0.923 concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology is designed to (i) avoid manual threshold-based and region selection processes, widely used in similar approaches presented in the literature, and (ii) minimize CPA calculation time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  6. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F. B. Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  7. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jailson F. B.; Agirre, Jon; Marti, Gerardo A.; Guérin, Diego M. A.; Silva, Marcelo Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV), a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus. PMID:23710438

  8. Electrical field-induced extraction and separation techniques: promising trends in analytical chemistry--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Rezazadeh, Maryam

    2014-03-03

    Sample preparation is an important issue in analytical chemistry, and is often a bottleneck in chemical analysis. So, the major incentive for the recent research has been to attain faster, simpler, less expensive, and more environmentally friendly sample preparation methods. The use of auxiliary energies, such as heat, ultrasound, and microwave, is one of the strategies that have been employed in sample preparation to reach the above purposes. Application of electrical driving force is the current state-of-the-art, which presents new possibilities for simplifying and shortening the sample preparation process as well as enhancing its selectivity. The electrical driving force has scarcely been utilized in comparison with other auxiliary energies. In this review, the different roles of electrical driving force (as a powerful auxiliary energy) in various extraction techniques, including liquid-, solid-, and membrane-based methods, have been taken into consideration. Also, the references have been made available, relevant to the developments in separation techniques and Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) systems. All aspects of electrical driving force in extraction and separation methods are too specific to be treated in this contribution. However, the main aim of this review is to provide a brief knowledge about the different fields of analytical chemistry, with an emphasis on the latest efforts put into the electrically assisted membrane-based sample preparation systems. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches as well as the new achievements in these areas have been discussed, which might be helpful for further progress in the future.

  9. Phytochemical standardization of Aloe vera extract by HPTLC techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh K Patel; Kanika Patel; SP Dhanabal

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the phytochemical parameters of Aloe vera (A. vera) L. which can be used as a tool for its standardization. Methods: The phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis of gallic acid and berberine by HPTLC method were included in present study. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside. Total flavonoid and phenol content was found to be 1.9% and 13.11%. Concentartion of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium was found to be under the limit. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas Escherichia coli (E. coli) and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Quantitative analysis through HPTLC revealed the presence of 2.74%and 0.543% w/w of berberine and gallic acid. Conclusions: The results indicate that the plant extract are rich in berberine and gallic acid implying their importance to human health. This investigation could be used as source of standard parameters which can play an important role in its standardization.

  10. Extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byoung-Soo; Bae, Myunghan; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jimin; Oh, Chang-Woo; Chang, Seunghyuk; Park, JongHo; Lee, Sang-Jin; Shin, Jang-Kyoo

    2017-02-01

    A 3dimensional (3D) imaging is an important area which can be applied to face detection, gesture recognition, and 3D reconstruction. In this paper, extraction of depth information for 3D imaging using pixel aperture technique is presented. An active pixel sensor (APS) with in-pixel aperture has been developed for this purpose. In the conventional camera systems using a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor, an aperture is located behind the camera lens. However, in our proposed camera system, the aperture implemented by metal layer of CMOS process is located on the White (W) pixel which means a pixel without any color filter on top of the pixel. 4 types of pixels including Red (R), Green (G), Blue (B), and White (W) pixels were used for pixel aperture technique. The RGB pixels produce a defocused image with blur, while W pixels produce a focused image. The focused image is used as a reference image to extract the depth information for 3D imaging. This image can be compared with the defocused image from RGB pixels. Therefore, depth information can be extracted by comparing defocused image with focused image using the depth from defocus (DFD) method. Size of the pixel for 4-tr APS is 2.8 μm × 2.8 μm and the pixel structure was designed and simulated based on 0.11 μm CMOS image sensor (CIS) process. Optical performances of the pixel aperture technique were evaluated using optical simulation with finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and electrical performances were evaluated using TCAD.

  11. Simple, Safe, and Cost-Effective Technique for Resected Stomach Extraction in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Derici

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG has become a popular operation during the recent years. This procedure requires resection of 80–90% of the stomach. Extraction of gastric specimen is known to be a challenging and costly stage of the operation. In this paper, we report results of a simple and cost-effective specimen extraction technique which was applied to 137 consecutive LSG patients. Methods. Between October 2013 and October 2015, 137 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgeries were performed at Dokuz Eylul University General Surgery Department, Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit. All specimens were extracted through a 15 mm trocar site without using any special device. Results. We noticed one superficial incisional surgical site infection and treated this patient with oral antibiotics. No cases of trocar site hernia were observed. Conclusion. Different techniques have been described for specimen extraction. This simple technique allows extraction of specimen safely in a short time and does not require any special device.

  12. Model-based Bayesian signal extraction algorithm for peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Thomas E.; Dweiri, Yazan M.; McCallum, Grant A.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time. Approach. To validate this algorithm, a saline benchtop setup was created to allow the precise placement of artificial sources within a cuff and interference sources outside the cuff. The artificial source was taken from five seconds of chronic neural activity to replicate realistic recordings. The proposed algorithm, hybrid Bayesian signal extraction (HBSE), is then compared to previous algorithms, beamforming and a Bayesian spatial filtering method, on this test data. An example chronic neural recording is also analyzed with all three algorithms. Main results. The proposed algorithm improved the signal to noise and signal to interference ratio of extracted test signals two to three fold, as well as increased the correlation coefficient between the original and recovered signals by 10-20%. These improvements translated to the chronic recording example and increased the calculated bit rate between the recovered signals and the recorded motor activity. Significance. HBSE significantly outperforms previous algorithms in extracting realistic neural signals, even in the presence of external noise sources. These results demonstrate the feasibility of extracting dynamic motor signals from a multi-fascicled intact nerve trunk, which in turn could extract motor command signals from an amputee for the end goal of

  13. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  14. A Block-Based Multi-Scale Background Extraction Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed H. Davarpanah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: To extract the moving objects, vision-based surveillance systems subtract the current image from a predefined background image. The efficiency of these systems mainly depends on accuracy of the extracted background image. It should be able to adapt to the changes continuously. In addition, especially in real-time applications the time complexity of this adaptation is a critical matter. Approach: In this study, to extract an adaptive background, a combination of blocking and multi-scale methods is presented. Because of being less sensitive to local movements, block-based techniques are proper to control the non-stationary objects’ movements, especially in outdoor applications. They can be useful to reduce the effect of these objects on the extracted background. We also used the blocking method to intelligently select the regions which the temporal filtering has to be applied on. In addition, an amended multi-scale algorithm is introduced. This algorithm is a hybrid algorithm, a combination of some nonparametric and parametric filters. It uses a nonparametric filter in the spatial domain to initiate two primary backgrounds. In continue two adapted two-dimensional filters will be used to extract the final background. Results: The qualitative and quantitative results of our experiments certify not only the quality of the final extracted background is acceptable, but also its time consumption is approximately half in compare to the similar methods. Conclusion: Using Multi scaling filtering and applying the filters just to some selected nonoverlapped blocks reduce the time consumption of the extracting background algorithm.

  15. On-line coupling of supercritical fluid extraction and chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Camargo, Andrea Del Pilar; Parada-Alfonso, Fabián; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes and discusses recent advances and applications of on-line supercritical fluid extraction coupled to liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, and supercritical fluid chromatographic techniques. Supercritical fluids, due to their exceptional physical properties, provide unique opportunities not only during the extraction step but also in the separation process. Although supercritical fluid extraction is especially suitable for recovery of non-polar organic compounds, this technique can also be successfully applied to the extraction of polar analytes by the aid of modifiers. Supercritical fluid extraction process can be performed following "off-line" or "on-line" approaches and their main features are contrasted herein. Besides, the parameters affecting the supercritical fluid extraction process are explained and a "decision tree" is for the first time presented in this review work as a guide tool for method development. The general principles (instrumental and methodological) of the different on-line couplings of supercritical fluid extraction with chromatographic techniques are described. Advantages and shortcomings of supercritical fluid extraction as hyphenated technique are discussed. Besides, an update of the most recent applications (from 2005 up to now) of the mentioned couplings is also presented in this review.

  16. Extracting Answer in QA System: Learning Based

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Mishra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Converting questions to effective queries is crucial to open-domain question answering systems. In this paper, we present a web-based unsupervised learning approach for transforming a given natural-language question to an effective query. The method involves querying a search engine for web passages that contain the answer to the question, extracting patterns that characterize fine-grained classification for answers. Independent evaluation on a set of questions shows that the proposed approach outperforms a naive keyword based approach.

  17. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings or citat......Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...

  18. EEG signal features extraction based on fractal dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finotello, Francesca; Scarpa, Fabio; Zanon, Mattia

    2015-01-01

    The spread of electroencephalography (EEG) in countless applications has fostered the development of new techniques for extracting synthetic and informative features from EEG signals. However, the definition of an effective feature set depends on the specific problem to be addressed and is currently an active field of research. In this work, we investigated the application of features based on fractal dimension to a problem of sleep identification from EEG data. We demonstrated that features based on fractal dimension, including two novel indices defined in this work, add valuable information to standard EEG features and significantly improve sleep identification performance.

  19. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our annotation is currently limited to a single

  20. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  1. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  2. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  3. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  4. Membrane-based microextraction techniques in analytical chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasek, Eduardo; Merib, Josias

    2015-06-23

    The use of membrane-based sample preparation techniques in analytical chemistry has gained growing attention from the scientific community since the development of miniaturized sample preparation procedures in the 1990s. The use of membranes makes the microextraction procedures more stable, allowing the determination of analytes in complex and "dirty" samples. This review describes some characteristics of classical membrane-based microextraction techniques (membrane-protected solid-phase microextraction, hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction and hollow-fiber renewal liquid membrane) as well as some alternative configurations (thin film and electromembrane extraction) used successfully for the determination of different analytes in a large variety of matrices, some critical points regarding each technique are highlighted.

  5. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  6. Advanced field-solver techniques for RC extraction of integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of ...

  7. Remote sensing techniques of apple orchard information extraction based on linear spectral unmixing with measured data%基于实测光谱混合像元分解的苹果园地遥感提取技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董芳; 赵庚星; 王凌; 朱西存; 常春艳

    2012-01-01

    Taking Qixia City, Shandong Province of China as the research region, and by using pixel unmixing for the TM image at apple flowering stage, the apple orchard information was extracted. Based on the measured spectral end-members, wavelet transform was adopted to improve the linear unmixing model. The improved linear spectral unmixing model, measured end-member based linear spectral unmixing model, and TM image end-member based linear spectral unmixing model were employed to extract the apple orchard information, and the ALOS data were used for accuracy estimation. After the accurate atmospheric and topographic correction, it was feasible to use the measured spectral end-members for pixel unmixing, and the area precision of apple orchard information acquisition was greater than 97%. The regression analysis on the NDVI of abundance image and the average NDVI of ALOS data showed that the R2 was higher than 0. 8. Therefore, using wavelet transform to improve the linear spectral unmixing model could improve the unmixing accuracy to a certain degree.%以山东省栖霞市为研究区,对苹果花期的TM影像进行混合像元分解,提取苹果园地信息.基于实测地物光谱端元,利用小波变换对线性分解模型进行改进,采用实测端元改进后线性分解模型、实测端元线性分解模型、TM影像端元线性分解模型分别提取研究区苹果园地信息,并以ALOS数据进行精度评价.结果表明:经过精确的大气及地形校正后,可以利用实测光谱端元进行混合像元分解,面积精度>97%,对丰度图像的归一化植被指数(NDVI)值与ALOS数据的平均NDVI值进行回归分析,R2>0.8;利用小波变换对线性分解模型进行改进,可在一定程度上提高分解精度.

  8. Fabric phase sorptive extraction: Two practical sample pretreatment techniques for brominated flame retardants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guiqi; Dong, Sheying; Zhang, Mengfei; Zhang, Haihan; Huang, Tinglin

    2016-09-15

    Sample pretreatment is the critical section for residue monitoring of hazardous pollutants. In this paper, using the cellulose fabric as host matrix, three extraction sorbents such as poly (tetrahydrofuran) (PTHF), poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (dimethyldiphenylsiloxane) (PDMDPS), were prepared on the surface of the cellulose fabric. Two practical extraction techniques including stir bar fabric phase sorptive extraction (stir bar-FPSE) and magnetic stir fabric phase sorptive extraction (magnetic stir-FPSE) have been designed, which allow stirring of fabric phase sorbent during the whole extraction process. In the meantime, three brominated flame retardants (BFRs) [tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), tetrabromobisphenol A bisallylether (TBBPA-BAE), tetrabromobisphenol A bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)ether (TBBPA-BDBPE)] in the water sample were selected as model analytes for the practical evaluation of the proposed two techniques using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Moreover, various experimental conditions affecting extraction process such as the type of fabric phase, extraction time, the amount of salt and elution conditions were also investigated. Due to the large sorbent loading capacity and unique stirring performance, both techniques possessed high extraction capability and fast extraction equilibrium. Under the optimized conditions, high recoveries (90-99%) and low limits of detection (LODs) (0.01-0.05 μg L(-1)) were achieved. In addition, the reproducibility was obtained by evaluating the intraday and interday precisions with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 5.1% and 6.8%, respectively. The results indicated that two pretreatment techniques were promising and practical for monitoring of hazardous pollutants in the water sample. Due to low solvent consumption and high repeated use performance, proposed techniques also could meet green analytical criteria.

  9. Building Extraction from LIDAR Based Semantic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jie; YANG Haiquan; TAN Ming; ZHANG Guoning

    2006-01-01

    Extraction of buildings from LIDAR data has been an active research field in recent years. A scheme for building detection and reconstruction from LIDAR data is presented with an object-oriented method which is based on the buildings' semantic rules. Two key steps are discussed: how to group the discrete LIDAR points into single objects and how to establish the buildings' semantic rules. In the end, the buildings are reconstructed in 3D form and three common parametric building models (flat, gabled, hipped) are implemented.

  10. PAH determination based on a rapid and novel gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) technique in road dust of Shanghai, China: Characterization, source apportionment, and health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xin; Yang, Yi; Liu, Min; Yu, Yingpeng; Zhou, John L; Li, Donghao

    2016-07-01

    A novel cleanup technique termed as gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) was evaluated and applied for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) determination in road dust samples. A total of 68 road dust samples covering almost the entire Shanghai area were analyzed for 16 priority PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results indicate that the total PAH concentrations over the investigated sites ranged from 1.04μg/g to 134.02μg/g dw with an average of 13.84μg/g. High-molecular-weight compounds (4-6 rings PAHs) were significantly dominant in the total mass of PAHs, and accounted for 77.85% to 93.62%. Diagnostic ratio analysis showed that the road dust PAHs were mainly from the mixture of petroleum and biomass/coal combustions. Principal component analysis in conjunction with multiple linear regression indicated that the two major origins of road dust PAHs were vehicular emissions and biomass/fossil fuel combustions, which contributed 66.7% and 18.8% to the total road dust PAH burden, respectively. The concentration of benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) varied from 0.16μg/g to 24.47μg/g. The six highly carcinogenic PAH species (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene) accounted for 98.57% of the total BaPeq concentration. Thus, the toxicity of PAHs in road dust was highly associated with high-molecular-weight compounds.

  11. Posterior Segment Intraocular Foreign Body: Extraction Surgical Techniques, Timing, and Indications for Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante A. Guevara-Villarreal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon.

  12. Stimulant Paste Preparation and Bark Streak Tapping Technique for Pine Oleoresin Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Lima, Júlio César; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    Tapping technique comprises the extraction of pine oleoresin, a non-wood forest product consisting of a complex mixture of mono, sesqui, and diterpenes biosynthesized and exuded as a defense response to wounding. Oleoresin is used to produce gum rosin, turpentine, and their multiple derivatives. Oleoresin yield and quality are objects of interest in pine tree biotechnology, both in terms of environmental and genetic control. Monitoring these parameters in individual trees grown in the field provides a means to examine the control of terpene production in resin canals, as well as the identification of genetic-based differences in resinosis. A typical method of tapping involves the removal of bark and application of a chemical stimulant on the wounded area. Here we describe the methods for preparing the resin-stimulant paste with different adjuvants, as well as the bark streaking process in adult pine trees.

  13. A Shape Based Image Search Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aratrika Sarkar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an interactive application we have developed based on shaped-based image retrieval technique. The key concepts described in the project are, imatching of images based on contour matching; iimatching of images based on edge matching; iiimatching of images based on pixel matching of colours. Further, the application facilitates the matching of images invariant of transformations like i translation ; ii rotation; iii scaling. The key factor of the system is, the system shows the percentage unmatched of the image uploaded with respect to the images already existing in the database graphically, whereas, the integrity of the system lies on the unique matching techniques used for optimum result. This increases the accuracy of the system. For example, when a user uploads an image say, an image of a mango leaf, then the application shows all mango leaves present in the database as well other leaves matching the colour and shape of the mango leaf uploaded.

  14. Multi-residue quantification of veterinary drugs in milk with a novel extraction and cleanup technique: salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2014-04-11

    A quantitative liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of more than one hundred compounds belonging to a variety of veterinary drug classes in bovine milk. Salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE), a novel extraction and cleanup technique, was introduced to ensure high extraction efficiency and good sample cleanup. The high salt (ammonium sulfate) concentration in the aqueous donor phase permits supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE) with a relative polar organic acceptor phase (acetonitrile). This is different from traditional SLE, in which the need for phase separation results in the selection of organic solvents with intermediate polarities (e.g., ethyl acetate or dichloromethane). Hence, SOSLE is more efficient in recovering polar analytes than conventional SLE. SOSLE was also compared to classical approaches like solid phase extraction, QuEChERS and ultra-filtration. The proposed technique resulted in extracts of equal or superior cleanliness and with higher average recoveries than those obtained with QuEChERS or SPE. The recovery (median for all compounds) was 73% for QuEChERS, 83% for SPE and 91% for SOSLE. The most significant improvements were observed for polar analytes (penicillines, quinolones and tetracyclines) which are hardly recovered by QuEChERS. The chromatographic separation and detection was based on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap system (Q-Exactive plus). The developed analytical method has been validated (based on the commission decision 2002/957/EC) as required for quantitative veterinary drug methods.

  15. Adsorptive micro-extraction techniques--novel analytical tools for trace levels of polar solutes in aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, N R; Silva, A R M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-11-19

    A novel enrichment technique, adsorptive μ-extraction (AμE), is proposed for trace analysis of polar solutes in aqueous media. The preparation, stability tests and development of the analytical devices using two geometrical configurations, i.e. bar adsorptive μ-extraction (BAμE) and multi-spheres adsorptive μ-extraction (MSAμE) is fully discussed. From the several sorbent materials tested, activated carbons and polystyrene divinylbenzene phases demonstrated the best stability, robustness and to be the most suitable for analytical purposes. The application of both BAμE and MSAμE devices proved remarkable performance for the determination of trace levels of polar solutes and metabolites (e.g. pesticides, disinfection by-products, drugs of abuse and pharmaceuticals) in water matrices and biological fluids. By comparing AμE techniques with stir bar sorptive extraction based on polydimethylsiloxane phase, great effectiveness is attained overcoming the limitations of the latter enrichment approach regarding the more polar solutes. Furthermore, convenient sensitivity and selectivity is reached through AμE techniques, since the great advantage of this new analytical technology is the possibility to choose the most suitable sorbent to each particular type of application. The enrichment techniques proposed are cost-effective, easy to prepare and work-up, demonstrating robustness and to be a remarkable analytical tool for trace analysis of priority solutes in areas of recognized importance such as environment, forensic and other related life sciences.

  16. Music snippet extraction via melody-based repeated pattern discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU JiePing; ZHAO Yang; CHEN Zhe; LIU ZiLi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a complete set of procedures to automatically extract a music snippet, defined as the most representative or the highlighted excerpt of a music clip. We first generate a modified and compact similarity matrix based on selected features and distance metrics, and then several improved techniques for music repeated pattern discovery are utilized because a music snippet is usually a part of the repeated melody, main theme or chorus. During the process, redundant and wrongly detected patterns are discarded, boundaries are corrected using beat information, and final clusters are also further sorted according to the occurrence frequency and energy information. Subsequently, following our methods, we designed a music snippet extraction system which allows users to detect snippets. Experiments performed on the system show the superiority of our proposed approach.

  17. Fourier transform profilometry based on mean envelope extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Shujun; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Zonghua

    2017-02-01

    Based on an image pre-processing algorithm, a three-dimensional (3D) object measurement method is proposed by combining time domain and frequency domain analysis. Firstly, extreme points of sinusoidal fringes under the disturbance of noise are accurately extracted. Secondly, mean envelope of the fringe is obtained through appropriate interpolation method and then removed. Thirdly, phase information is extracted by using specific filtering in Fourier spectrum of the pre-processed fringe pattern. Finally, simulated and experimental results show a good property of the proposed method in accuracy and measurement range. The proposed method can achieve 3D shape of objects having large slopes and/or discontinuous surfaces from one-shot acquisition by using color fringe projection technique and will have wide applications in the fields of fast measurement.

  18. Location Fingerprint Extraction for Magnetic Field Magnitude Based Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone based indoor positioning has greatly helped people in finding their positions in complex and unfamiliar buildings. One popular positioning method is by utilizing indoor magnetic field, because this feature is stable and infrastructure-free. In this method, the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone measures indoor magnetic field and queries its position. However, the environments of the magnetometer are rather harsh. This harshness mainly consists of coarse-grained hard/soft-iron calibrations and sensor electronic noise. The two kinds of interferences decrease the position distinguishability of the magnetic field. Therefore, it is important to extract location features from magnetic fields to reduce these interferences. This paper analyzes the main interference sources of the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone. In addition, we present a feature distinguishability measurement technique to evaluate the performance of different feature extraction methods. Experiments revealed that selected fingerprints will improve position distinguishability.

  19. 基于标记树对象抽取技术的Hidden Web获取研究%Research on the Hidden Web Retrieval with Tag-Tree-based Object Extraction Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晖; 张岭; 叶允明; 马范援

    2002-01-01

    目前标准的搜索引擎能够检索的仅仅是World Wide Web提供的小部分称为可索引的Web信息.大量的Hidden Web信息(估计容量是可索引Web的500倍)对这些搜索引擎是不可见的.这些信息隐藏在Web页面的搜索表单后面,保存在大型的动态数据库中.该文提出了一套检索Hidden Web信息的方法,给出了系统的框架结构,并详细讨论了实现的关键技术.系统采用新的基于标记树的对象抽取(Tag-Tree-based Object Extraction)方法自动地从Web页面中抽取Hidden Web信息,然后在此基础上给出了结构化的Hidden Web信息查询算法.文章最后对实验结果进行了讨论.

  20. Intercomparison of Lab-Based Soil Water Extraction Methods for Stable Water Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D.; Orlowski, N.; McDonnell, J.

    2016-12-01

    The effect of pore water extraction technique on resultant isotopic signature is poorly understood. Here we present results of an intercomparison of five common lab-based soil water extraction techniques: high pressure mechanical squeezing, centrifugation, direct vapor equilibration, microwave extraction, and cryogenic extraction. We applied five extraction methods to two physicochemically different standard soil types (silty sand and clayey loam) that were oven-dried and rewetted with water of known isotopic composition at three different gravimetric water contents (8, 20, and 30%). We tested the null hypothisis that all extraction techniques would provide the same isotopic result independent from soil type and water content. Our results showed that the extraction technique had a significant effect on the soil water isotopic composition. Each method exhibited deviations from spiked reference water, with soil type and water content showing a secondary effect. Cryogenic extraction showed the largest deviations from the reference water, whereas mechanical squeezing and centrifugation provided the closest match to the reference water for both soil types. We also compared results for each extraction technique that produced liquid water on both an OA-ICOS and IRMS; differences between them were negligible.

  1. Automated bare earth extraction technique for complex topography in light detection and ranging surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.; Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Bradford, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital surface models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. Few existing algorithms can handle substantial terrain diversity without significant editing or user interaction. This effort presents a newly developed methodology that provides a flexible, adaptable tool capable of integrating multiple LiDAR data attributes for an accurate terrain assessment. The terrain extraction and segmentation (TEXAS) approach uses a third-order spatial derivative for each point in the digital surface model to determine the curvature of the terrain rather than rely solely on the slope. The utilization of the curvature has shown to successfully preserve ground points in areas of steep terrain as they typically exhibit low curvature. Within the framework of TEXAS, the contiguous sets of points with low curvatures are grouped into regions using an edge-based segmentation method. The process does not require any user inputs and is completely data driven. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LiDAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity.

  2. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Background Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from fre...

  3. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  4. Extraction Techniques for Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity Determination of Chilean Papaya (Vasconcellea pubescens Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Uribe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to assess and compare different extraction methods by using high hydrostatic pressure (HHPE, ultrasound (UE, agitation (AE, and their combinations for the extraction of bioactive compounds of Chilean papaya. Extract antioxidant capacity was evaluated by three methods (i.e., DPPH, FRAP, and Voltammetry and phenolic compounds and vitamin C were determined by HPLC. Papaya sample extraction was performed by HHPE at 500 MPa for 10 min and UE and AE for 30 min, respectively. The combined-extractions: HHPE-UE and HHPE-AE, were carried out for 5 min and 15 min, respectively. The highest values found were total phenolic 129.1 mg GAE/100 g FW, antioxidant capacity by DPPH 20.6 mM TE/100 g FW, and voltammetry 141.0 mM TE/100 g FW for HHPE-UE method in free compound extraction. Regarding vitamin C content, its highest value was found by HHPE-UE (74 mg/100 g FW a combined extraction method. The phenolic compounds rutin and p-coumaric acid were found in all the extracts, both in free and bound forms, respectively. Besides, the combined techniques improved the extraction of bioactive compounds.

  5. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  6. Rapid Tooling Technique Based on Stereolithograph Prototype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁浩; 狄平; 顾伟生; 朱世根

    2001-01-01

    Rapid tooling technique based on the sterelithograph prototype is investigated. The epoxy tooling technological process was elucidated. It is analyzed in detail that the epoxy resin formula is easy to cast, curing process, and release agents. The transitional plaster model is also proposed. The mold to encrust mutual.inductors with epoxy and mold to inject plastic soapboxes was made with the technique The tooling needs very little time and cost, for the process is only to achieve the nice replica of the prototype. It is benefit for the trial and small batch of production.

  7. Language Based Techniques for Systems Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henrik

    on the π calculus fragment of BioAmbients. In both cases the analyses compute very precise estimates of the temporal structure of the underlying pathways; hence they are applicable across a family of widely used bio-ware languages that descend from Milner’s Calculus of Communicating Systems. The presented...... calculi have similarly been used for the study of bio-chemical reactive systems. In this dissertation it is argued that techniques rooted in the theory and practice of programming languages, language based techniques if you will, constitute a strong basis for the investigation of models of biological...

  8. Wavelet-based technique for target segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadjadi, Firooz A.

    1995-07-01

    Segmentation of targets embedded in clutter obtained by IR imaging sensors is one of the challenging problems in automatic target recognition (ATR). In this paper a new texture-based segmentation technique is presented that uses the statistics of 2D wavelet decomposition components of the lcoal sections of the image. A measure of statistical similarity is then used to segment the image and separate the target from the background. This technique is applied on a set of real sequential IR imagery and has shown to produce a high degree of segmentation accuracy across varying ranges.

  9. A modified technique for extracting a dislocated lens with perfluorocarbon liquids and viscoelastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalma-Weiszhausz, José; Franco-Cardenas, Valentina; Dalma, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe a modified technique for extraction of a dislocated crystalline lens or large and hard lens fragments displaced into the vitreous cavity. An ophthalmic viscosurgical device was used around and on top of the heavy liquid bubble to keep the lens centered and less mobile for easier phacofragmentation or removal by the cutting-suction probe. This technique was used in 10 eyes, including cases of traumatic dislocation and Marfan syndrome, with excellent anatomical results and no complications that could be attributed to the surgical technique. The technique has also been used to retrieve and reposition dislocated intraocular lenses.

  10. Rare earth element enrichment using membrane based solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertiharta, I. G. B. N.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.; Zunita, M.; Wenten, I. G.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical, catalytic, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of rare earth elements are required in broad applications. Rare earth elements have similar physical and chemical properties thus it is difficult to separate one from each other. Rare earth element is relatively abundant in earth's crust but rarely occur in high concentrated deposits. Traditionally, ion-exchange and solvent extraction techniques have been developed to separate and purify single rare earth solutions or compounds. Recently, membrane starts to gain attention for rare earth separation by combining membrane and proven technologies such as solvent extraction. Membrane-based process offers selective, reliable, energy efficient and easy to scale up separation. During membrane-based separation process, one phase passes through membrane pores while the other phase is rejected. There is no direct mixing of two phases thus the solvent loss is very low. Membrane can also lower solvent physical properties requirement (viscosity, density) and backmixing, eliminate flooding phenomenon and provide large interfacial area for mass transfer. This paper will summarize research efforts in developing membrane technology for rare earth element separation. Special attention will be given to solvent extraction related process as the commonly used method for rare earth element separation. Furthermore, membrane configuration and its potentials will also be discussed.

  11. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baig, Jameel A., E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Arain, Mohammad B. [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A., E-mail: gakandhro@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan); Khan, Sumaira, E-mail: skhanzai@gmail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080, Sindh (Pakistan)

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As{sup 3+} and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As{sup 3+} was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As{sup 3+} and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As{sup 3+} and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40.

  12. [Cotton identification and extraction using near infrared sensor and object-oriented spectral segmentation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin-Song; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Su; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2009-07-01

    The real-time, effective and reliable method of identifying crop is the foundation of scientific management for crop in the precision agriculture. It is also one of the key techniques for the precision agriculture. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by the traditional pixel-based information extraction method with respect to complicated image processing and accurate objective identification. In the present study, visible-near infrared image of cotton was acquired using high-resolution sensor. Object-oriented segmentation technique was performed on the image to produce image objects and spatial/spectral features of cotton. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify cotton according to various features. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 96.33% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.926 7, which can meet the demand of automatic management and decision-making in precision agriculture.

  13. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  14. Bicoid Signal Extraction with a Selection of Parametric and Nonparametric Signal Processing Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zara Ghodsi; Emmanuel Sirimal Silva; Hossein Hassani

    2015-01-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  15. Bicoid signal extraction with a selection of parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodsi, Zara; Silva, Emmanuel Sirimal; Hassani, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    The maternal segmentation coordinate gene bicoid plays a significant role during Drosophila embryogenesis. The gradient of Bicoid, the protein encoded by this gene, determines most aspects of head and thorax development. This paper seeks to explore the applicability of a variety of signal processing techniques at extracting bicoid expression signal, and whether these methods can outperform the current model. We evaluate the use of six different powerful and widely-used models representing both parametric and nonparametric signal processing techniques to determine the most efficient method for signal extraction in bicoid. The results are evaluated using both real and simulated data. Our findings show that the Singular Spectrum Analysis technique proposed in this paper outperforms the synthesis diffusion degradation model for filtering the noisy protein profile of bicoid whilst the exponential smoothing technique was found to be the next best alternative followed by the autoregressive integrated moving average.

  16. Information extraction and transmission techniques for spaceborne synthetic aperture radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, V. S.; Yurovsky, L.; Watson, E.; Townsend, K.; Gardner, S.; Boberg, D.; Watson, J.; Minden, G. J.; Shanmugan, K. S.

    1984-01-01

    Information extraction and transmission techniques for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery were investigated. Four interrelated problems were addressed. An optimal tonal SAR image classification algorithm was developed and evaluated. A data compression technique was developed for SAR imagery which is simple and provides a 5:1 compression with acceptable image quality. An optimal textural edge detector was developed. Several SAR image enhancement algorithms have been proposed. The effectiveness of each algorithm was compared quantitatively.

  17. Extraction and recovery technique for myxozoan parasites from the Piaractus mesopotamicus kidney embedded in paraffin

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Wilson G. [UNESP; Figueiredo,Mayra A P; Claudiano, Gustavo S.; Martins,Mauricio L.; Moraes, Flávio R.

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p263Tissues fixed and embedded in paraffin for histopathological studies keep their cell characteristics. There are several protocols for extracting genetic material from tissue embedded in paraffin, but there is no protocol for material aimed at the direct identification of parasites. The lack of techniques which describe the recovery of parasites from tissue embedded in paraffin has led us to test a technique for recovering myxosporean parasites ...

  18. Interactive early warning technique based on SVDD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing current researches on early warning,it is found that"bad" data of some systems is not easy to obtain,which makes methods proposed by these researches unsuitable for monitored systems.An interactive early warning technique based on SVDD(support vector data description)is proposed to adopt"good" data as samples to overcome the difficulty in obtaining the"bad"data.The process consists of two parts:(1)A hypersphere is fitted on"good"data using SVDD.If the data object are outside the hypersphere,it would be taken as"suspicious";(2)A group of experts would decide whether the suspicious data is"bad"or"good",early warning messages would be issued according to the decisions.And the detailed process of implementation is proposed.At last,an experiment based on data of a macroeconomic system is conducted to verify the proposed technique.

  19. 三电平NPC逆变器的一种空间分区矢量提取的SHEPWM调制策略%A Kind of Three-level NPC Inverter SHEPWM Technique Based on Space Division and Vector Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周熙炜; 梅芳; 陈金平; 林海

    2016-01-01

    深入分析基本空间矢量SV与特定谐波消去SHEPWM之间的内在联系,提出三电平NPC逆变器的一种基于空间分区矢量提取的SHEPWM调制策略,推导出空间电压矢量PWM的三相等效调制波规则采样的开关角矩阵,得出基本空间矢量SV的选用与规则采样的运算关系以及SHEPWM的脉冲状态由基本SV组成的矢量序列特殊解。在此基础上,在三电平NPC逆变器的矢量空间六边形所分区的两电平六边形中,研究SHEPWM脉冲序列的空间电压矢量组成的扇区分布,并提取相应的基本SV,求解作用时间。 SHEPWM的脉冲状态由空间分区提取的基本SV矢量序列运算合成而实现,避开了其开关角非线性超越方程组的求解,并具有同样的消谐效果且便于实现。%According to the studies of internal relation for the basic space vector(SV) and the selective harmonic elimination PWM (SHEPWM), this paper puts forward a kind of SHEPWM implementation strategy based on the space partition vector SV extraction to the three-level NPC inverter, deduces the space voltage vector switch angle matrix of the three-phase equivalent modulation wave regulation sampling and the operation relationship. So, on the basis of the switch angle trajectory characteristics of SHEPWM and its realization by regulation sampling, the SHEPWM waveform pulse state can be gained by the vectors sequence special solution which composed of basic SV vector. To the three-level inverter, on the Two level small hexagon which be partitioned from space vector hexagon, the work sector allocation of SHEPWM pulse state be researched, and the corresponding basic SV vector and its action time also be achieved by the experiment and FFT analysis. This method avoid the solution of SHEPWM switch angle nonlinear transcendental equations, and it has the same effect of harmonic elimination and to facilitate online implementation.

  20. Formal Verification Techniques Based on Boolean Satisfiability Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wei Li; Guang-Hui Li; Ming Shao

    2005-01-01

    This paper exploits Boolean satisfiability problem in equivalence checking and model checking respectively. A combinational equivalence checking method based on incremental satisfiability is presented. This method chooses the can didate equivalent pairs with some new techniques, and uses incremental satisfiability algorithm to improve its performance. By substituting the internal equivalent pairs and converting the equivalence relations into conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas, this approach can avoid the false negatives, and reduce the search space of SAT procedure. Experimental results on ISCAS'85 benchmark circuits show that, the presented approach is faster and more robust than those existed in literature.This paper also presents an algorithm for extracting of unsatisfiable core, which has an important application in abstraction and refinement for model checking to alleviate the state space explosion bottleneck. The error of approximate extraction is analyzed by means of simulation. An analysis reveals that an interesting phenomenon occurs, with the increasing density of the formula, the average error of the extraction is decreasing. An exact extraction approach for MU subformula, referred to as pre-assignment algorithm, is proposed. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that it is more efficient.

  1. A Biophysical Image Compositing Technique for the Global-Scale Extraction and Mapping of Barren Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram C. Sharma

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the barren lands play a key role in the interaction between land cover dynamics and climate system, an efficient methodology for the global-scale extraction and mapping of the barren lands is important. The discriminative potential of the existing soil/bareness indexes was assessed by collecting globally distributed reference data belonging to major land cover types. The existing soil/bareness indexes parameterized at the local scale did not work satisfactorily everywhere at the global level. A new technique called the Biophysical Image Composite (BIC is proposed in the research by exploiting time-series of the multi-spectral data to capture global-scale barren land attributes effectively. The BIC is a false color composite image made up of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, short wave infrared reflectance, and green reflectance, which were specially selected from the highest vegetation activity period by avoiding signals from the seasonal snowfall. The drastic contrast between the barren lands and vegetation as exhibited by the BIC provides a robust extraction and mapping of the barren lands, and facilitates its visual interpretation. Random Forests based supervised classification approach was applied on the BIC for the mapping of global barren lands. A new global barren land cover map of year 2013 was produced with high accuracy. The comparison of the resulted map with an existing map of the same year showed a substantial discrepancy between two maps due to methodological variation. To cope with this problem, the BIC based mapping methodology, with a special account of the land surface phenological changes, is suggested to standardize the global-scale estimates and mapping of the barren lands.

  2. Multiview video codec based on KTA techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jungdong; Kim, Donghyun; Ryu, Seungchul; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2011-03-01

    Multi-view video coding (MVC) is a video coding standard developed by MPEG and VCEG for multi-view video. It showed average PSNR gain of 1.5dB compared with view-independent coding by H.264/AVC. However, because resolutions of multi-view video are getting higher for more realistic 3D effect, high performance video codec is needed. MVC adopted hierarchical B-picture structure and inter-view prediction as core techniques. The hierarchical B-picture structure removes the temporal redundancy, and the inter-view prediction reduces the inter-view redundancy by compensated prediction from the reconstructed neighboring views. Nevertheless, MVC has inherent limitation in coding efficiency, because it is based on H.264/AVC. To overcome the limit, an enhanced video codec for multi-view video based on Key Technology Area (KTA) is proposed. KTA is a high efficiency video codec by Video Coding Expert Group (VCEG), and it was carried out for coding efficiency beyond H.264/AVC. The KTA software showed better coding gain than H.264/AVC by using additional coding techniques. The techniques and the inter-view prediction are implemented into the proposed codec, which showed high coding gain compared with the view-independent coding result by KTA. The results presents that the inter-view prediction can achieve higher efficiency in a multi-view video codec based on a high performance video codec such as HEVC.

  3. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiong; He Gui-ming; Zhang Yun

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characteristic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  4. Fingerprint Feature Extraction Based on Macroscopic Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Xiong; He; Gui-Ming; 等

    2003-01-01

    In the Automatic Fingerprint Identification System(AFIS), extracting the feature of fingerprint is very important. The local curvature of ridges of fingerprint is irregular, so people have the barrier to effectively extract the fingerprint curve features to describe fingerprint. This article proposes a novel algorithm; it embraces information of few nearby fingerprint ridges to extract a new characterstic which can describe the curvature feature of fingerprint. Experimental results show the algorithm is feasible, and the characteristics extracted by it can clearly show the inner macroscopic curve properties of fingerprint. The result also shows that this kind of characteristic is robust to noise and pollution.

  5. A novel technique using the Hendrickx centrifuge for extracting winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, J.G.N.; Berg, van den W.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Lamers, J.G.; Leeuwen, van G.C.M.; Hendrickx, G.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A zonal centrifugation method, known as the Hendrickx centrifuge technique, was tested for routine detection of winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum in soil. In four experiments the ability of the Hendrickx centrifuge to extract the sporangia from soil was compared with a method used by the

  6. Percutaneous extraction of leads from coronary sinus vein and branch by modified techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xian-ming; GUO Ji-hong; LI Xue-bin; ZHANG Ping; WANG Long; LI Ding; LI Bing; AN Yi; LENG Min; DUAN Jiang-bo

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device and coronary sinus (CS) lead extraction are required due to the occurrence of systemic infection,malfunction,or upgrade.Relevant research of CS lead extraction is rare,especially in developing countries because of the high cost and lack of specialized tools.We aimed to evaluate percutaneous extraction of CS leads by modified conventional techniques.Methods Of 200 patients referred for lead extraction from January 2007 to June 2011,24 (12.0%) involved CS leads (24 CS leads).We prospectively analyzed clinical characteristics,optimized extraction techniques and feasibility of extraction.Results Complete procedural success was achieved in 23 patients (95.8%),and the clinical success in 24 patients (100.0%).The leading indication for CS lead extraction was infection (66.7%).Mean implant duration was (29.5±20.2)months (range,3-78 months).Sixteen CS leads (66.6%) were removed with locking stylets plus manual traction by superior transvenous approach.Mechanical dilatation and counter-traction was required to free fibrotic adhesions and extract 4 CS leads (16.7%),which had longer implant duration than other leads ((62.5±12.3) vs.(22.9±14.1) months,P<0.05).Another 4 CS (16.7%) leads were removed by modified and innovative snare techniques from femoral vein approach.Median extraction time was 11 minutes (range,3-61 minutes) per CS lead,which had significant correlation with implant duration (r =0.8,P <0.001).Sixteen patients (66.6%) were reimplanted with new devices at a median of 7.5days after extraction.Median followed-up was 23.5 months (range,8-61 months),three patients died due to sudden cardiac death (26 months),heart failure (45 and 57 months,respectively).Conclusion The modified procedure was proved to be practical for percutaneous extraction of CS leads,especially in developing countries lacking expensive powered sheaths.

  7. Performance Comparison between Different Feature Extraction Techniques with SVM Using Gurumukhi Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Dangi,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper represent the offline handwritten character recognition for Gurumukhi script. It is a major script of india. Many work has been done in many languages such as English , Chinese , Devanagri , Tamil etc. Gurumukhi is a script of Punjabi Language which is widely spoken across the globe. In this paper focus on better character recognition accuracy. The dataset include 7000 samples collected in different writing styles. These dataset divided in two set Training and Test. For Training set collect 5600 samples and 1400 as test set. The evaluated feature extraction include: Distance Profile, Diagonal feature and BDD(Background Direction Distribution. These features were classified by using SVM classifier. The Performance comparison have been made using one classifier with different feature extraction techniques. The experiment show that Diagonal feature extraction method has achieved highest recognition accuracy 95.39% than other features extraction method.

  8. Extraction techniques using isopropanol and Tenax to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons bioavailability in sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Xi; Ji, Fangying; Hu, Bibo

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium strain J1-q (Sphingomonas pseudosanguinis strain J1-q) was isolated from Yangtze River surface sediment in the downtown area of Chongqing in a previous study. Isopropanol and Tenax extraction techniques were used to characterize the bioavailability of target PAH compounds. Phenanthrene (Phe) and fluoranthene (Fluo) were the target PAHs due to their significant background concentrations in surface sediment samples. Isopropanol solutions at concentrations of 50-100% and residual Phe and Fluo concentrations in sediment were correlated, with R(2) values of 0.9846 and 0.9649, respectively. The quantities of the Phe and Fluo fractions extracted for 3days with isopropanol from sediment were closely related with the corresponding quantities of PAHs degraded by bacterial strain J1-q when the extracting concentrations were 55% and 80%, respectively. The quantity of Phe extracted by Tenax agreed with the total quantity biodegraded when the Tenax: sediment mass ratio was 0.25 and the target PAHs were degraded for 30d, whereas the extracted quantity of Fluo accounted for 93.30% of the total quantity biodegraded by the bacterium. The triphasic model was appropriate to simulate the consecutive Phe and Fluo extraction process using Tenax at various Tenax: sediment ratios, and all simulated correlation coefficients were >0.9151. A 24-h extraction period was adequate to estimate the rapidly desorbing fractions when they were extracted with Tenax. Isopropanol extraction was preferable to characterize Phe and Fluo bioavailability under the experimental conditions, whereas Tenax extraction was useful to predict bioavailability of the two target PAHs with particular selectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R

    2011-01-01

    This thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible and managea

  10. A Comparative Analysis of the 'Green' Techniques Applied for Polyphenols Extraction from Bioresources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmaciu, Adina Iulia; Volf, Irina; Popa, Valentin I

    2015-11-01

    From all the valuable biomass extractives, polyphenols are a widespread group of secondary metabolites found in all plants, representing the most desirable phytochemicals due to their potential to be used as additives in food industry, cosmetics, medicine, and others fields. At present, there is an increased interest to recover them from plant of spontaneous flora, cultivated plant, and wastes resulted in agricultural and food industry. That is why many efforts have been made to provide a highly sensitive, efficiently, and eco-friendly methods, for the extraction of polyphenols, according to the green chemistry and sustainable development concepts. Many extraction procedures are known with advantages and disadvantages. From these reasons, the aim of this article is to provide a comparative analysis regarding technical and economical aspects related to the most innovative extraction techniques studied in the last time: microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  11. A Review of Physical and Perceptual Feature Extraction Techniques for Speech, Music and Environmental Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Alías

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Endowing machines with sensing capabilities similar to those of humans is a prevalent quest in engineering and computer science. In the pursuit of making computers sense their surroundings, a huge effort has been conducted to allow machines and computers to acquire, process, analyze and understand their environment in a human-like way. Focusing on the sense of hearing, the ability of computers to sense their acoustic environment as humans do goes by the name of machine hearing. To achieve this ambitious aim, the representation of the audio signal is of paramount importance. In this paper, we present an up-to-date review of the most relevant audio feature extraction techniques developed to analyze the most usual audio signals: speech, music and environmental sounds. Besides revisiting classic approaches for completeness, we include the latest advances in the field based on new domains of analysis together with novel bio-inspired proposals. These approaches are described following a taxonomy that organizes them according to their physical or perceptual basis, being subsequently divided depending on the domain of computation (time, frequency, wavelet, image-based, cepstral, or other domains. The description of the approaches is accompanied with recent examples of their application to machine hearing related problems.

  12. Spectrum based feature extraction using spectrum intensity ratio for SSVEP detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Akitoshi; Funase, Arao

    2012-01-01

    Recent years, a Steady-State Visual Evoked Potential (SSVEP) is used as a basis for Brain Computer Interface (BCI)[1]. Various feature extraction and classification techniques are proposed to achieve BCI based on SSVEP. The feature extraction of SSVEP is developed in the frequency domain regardless of the limitation in flickering frequency of visual stimulus caused by hardware architecture. We introduce here the feature extraction using a spectrum intensity ratio. Results show that the detection ratio reaches 84% by using a spectrum intensity ratio with unsupervised classification. It also indicates the SSVEP is enhanced by proposed feature extraction with second harmonic.

  13. A review on solid phase extraction of actinides and lanthanides with amide based extractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Seraj A; Mohapatra, Prasanta K

    2017-05-26

    Solid phase extraction is gaining attention from separation scientists due to its high chromatographic utility. Though both grafted and impregnated forms of solid phase extraction resins are popular, the later is easy to make by impregnating a given organic extractant on to an inert solid support. Solid phase extraction on an impregnated support, also known as extraction chromatography, combines the advantages of liquid-liquid extraction and the ion exchange chromatography methods. On the flip side, the impregnated extraction chromatographic resins are less stable against leaching out of the organic extractant from the pores of the support material. Grafted resins, on the other hand, have a higher stability, which allows their prolong use. The goal of this article is a brief literature review on reported actinide and lanthanide separation methods based on solid phase extractants of both the types, i.e., (i) ligand impregnation on the solid support or (ii) ligand functionalized polymers (chemically bonded resins). Though the literature survey reveals an enormous volume of studies on the extraction chromatographic separation of actinides and lanthanides using several extractants, the focus of the present article is limited to the work carried out with amide based ligands, viz. monoamides, diamides and diglycolamides. The emphasis will be on reported applied experimental results rather than on data pertaining fundamental metal complexation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) seed

    OpenAIRE

    Nushrat Yeasmen; Md. Nazrul Islam

    2015-01-01

    The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone) and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP) and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC). The tested sample showed appreciabl...

  15. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chang-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Zhang; Tao, Ran

    2016-01-15

    In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), ultraviolet (UV), thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA), pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL) acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE) and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  16. Analysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Ginkgo biloba Leaves after Enzymolysis Based Ultrasound Extraction and Soxhlet Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Wei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, ultraviolet (UV, thermagravimetric analyzer (TGA, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS, and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used as measurement techniques, contents of chemical composition, pyrolytic products, thermal stability, morphological characterization of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBL acted as the index, and physicochemical properties of GBL after enzymolysis based ultrasound extraction (EBUE and Soxhlet extraction were studied. The detection results of chemical composition revealed that contents of general flavone, soluble protein, soluble total sugar and protein in the GBL declined significantly after EBUE, and contents of polyprenols and crude fat obviously reduced as well after Soxhlet extraction. Py-GC-MS results indicated that total GC contents of micromolecules with carbon less than 12 from 54.0% before EBUE decline to 8.34% after EBUE. Total GC contents of long-chain fatty acids with carbon less than 20 from 43.0% before EBUE reduced to 27.0% after Soxhlet extraction. Thermal stability results showed that GBL after Soxhlet extraction was easier to decompose than GBL before EBUE. SEM results illustrated that surface structure of GBL was damaged severely after EBUE, compared with GBL before EBUE, while organic solvent extraction had little influence on the morphological characterization of GBL after Soxhlet extraction compared with GBL after EBUE.

  17. Text Character Extraction Implementation from Captured Handwritten Image to Text Conversionusing Template Matching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barate Seema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Images contain various types of useful information that should be extracted whenever required. A various algorithms and methods are proposed to extract text from the given image, and by using that user will be able to access the text from any image. Variations in text may occur because of differences in size, style,orientation, alignment of text, and low image contrast, composite backgrounds make the problem during extraction of text. If we develop an application that extracts and recognizes those texts accurately in real time, then it can be applied to many important applications like document analysis, vehicle license plate extraction, text- based image indexing, etc and many applications have become realities in recent years. To overcome the above problems we develop such application that will convert the image into text by using algorithms, such as bounding box, HSV model, blob analysis,template matching, template generation.

  18. Knowledge-based techniques in software engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jairam, B.N.; Agarwal, A.; Emrich, M.L.

    1988-05-04

    Recent trends in software engineering research focus on the incorporation of AI techniques. The feasibility of an overlap between AI and software engineering is examined. The benefits of merging the two fields are highlighted. The long-term goal is to automate the software development process. Some projects being undertaken towards the attainment of this goal are presented as examples. Finally, research on the Oak Ridge Reservation aimed at developing a knowledge-based software project management aid is presented. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions.

  20. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  1. Application on original two-hook technique in manual sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction under semireclining position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate two-hook technique in manual sutureless extracapsular cataract extraction under special position. METHODS: The clinical data of 25 patients(30 eyeswho were under semireclining position in manual small incision cataract surgery(ECCEin which the two-hook extraction technique was used, the related complications such as capsule rupture, corneal edema and visual acuity were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: No eyes experienced posterior capsule rupture, suspensory ligament transaction, vitreous prolapse during surgeries in 25 patients(30 eyes. Posterior chamber intraocular lens were implanted successfully, the visual acuity was improved with different extent. Transient corneal edema was noted in 1 eye and disappeared at 1wk postoperatively. Eighty-five percent have the visual acuity(≥0.5at 2mo postoperatively. CONCLUSION: The two-hook technique for nucleus extraction is safe and reliable, of high originality and can be applied in a wider range of indications other than normal cases. The technique is worthy of application in basic medical institutions.

  2. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  3. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L; Campbell, Kate M; Fox, Patricia M; Singer, David M; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E; Bargar, John R; Kent, Douglas B; Davis, James A

    2013-08-20

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  4. Optimization of polyphenols extraction from dried chokeberry using maceration as traditional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćujić, Nada; Šavikin, Katarina; Janković, Teodora; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Zdunić, Gordana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-03-01

    Traditional maceration method was used for the extraction of polyphenols from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) dried fruit, and the effects of several extraction parameters on the total phenolics and anthocyanins contents were studied. Various solvents, particle size, solid-solvent ratio and extraction time have been investigated as independent variables in two level factorial design. Among examined variables, time was not statistically important factor for the extraction of polyphenols. The optimal extraction conditions were maceration of 0.75mm size berries by 50% ethanol, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20, and predicted values were 27.7mgGAE/g for total phenolics and 0.27% for total anthocyanins. Under selected conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 27.8mgGAE/g, and total anthocyanins were 0.27%, which is in agreement with the predicted values. In addition, a complementary quantitative analysis of individual phenolic compounds was performed using HPLC method. The study indicated that maceration was effective and simple technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from chokeberry fruit.

  5. AUTO-EXTRACTING TECHNIQUE OF DYNAMIC CHAOS FEATURES FOR NONLINEAR TIME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Guo

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of nonlinear time series analysis is based on the rebuilding theory of phase space, and to study how to transform the response signal to rebuilt phase space in order to extract dynamic feature information, and to provide effective approach for nonlinear signal analysis and fault diagnosis of nonlinear dynamic system. Now, it has already formed an important offset of nonlinear science. But, traditional method cannot extract chaos features automatically, and it needs man's participation in the whole process. A new method is put forward, which can implement auto-extracting of chaos features for nonlinear time series. Firstly, to confirm time delay τ by autocorrelation method; Secondly, to compute embedded dimension m and correlation dimension D;Thirdly, to compute the maximum Lyapunov index λmax; Finally, to calculate the chaos degree Dch of features extracting has important meaning to fault diagnosis of nonlinear system based on nonlinear chaos features. Examples show validity of the proposed method.

  6. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenoghena, C. O.; Emagbetere, J. O.; Aibinu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out.

  7. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  8. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity, a new technique for extraction of essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Maryline Abert; Fernandez, Xavier; Visinoni, Franco; Chemat, Farid

    2008-05-09

    A new process design and operation for the extraction of essential oils was developed. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is a combination of microwaves for hydrodiffusion of essential oils from the inside to the exterior of biological material and earth gravity to collect and separate. MHG is performed at atmospheric pressure without adding any solvent or water. MHG has been compared with a conventional technique, hydrodistillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from two aromatic herbs: spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) belonging to the Labiatae family. The essential oils extracted by MHG for 15 min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydrodistillation for 90 min. MHG also prevents pollution through potential 90% of energy saved which can lead to greenhouse gas emission benefits.

  9. Proboscidean DNA from museum and fossil specimens: an assessment of ancient DNA extraction and amplification techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Golenberg, E M; Shoshani, J

    1997-06-01

    Applications of reliable DNA extraction and amplification techniques to postmortem samples are critical to ancient DNA research. Commonly used methods for isolating DNA from ancient material were tested and compared using both soft tissue and bones from fossil and contemporary museum proboscideans. DNAs isolated using three principal methods served as templates in subsequent PCR amplifications, and the PCR products were directly sequenced. Authentication of the ancient origin of obtained nucleotide sequences was established by demonstrating reproducibility under a blind testing system and by phylogenetic analysis. Our results indicate that ancient samples may respond differently to extraction buffers or purification procedures, and no single method was universally successful. A CTAB buffer method, modified from plant DNA extraction protocols, was found to have the highest success rate. Nested PCR was shown to be a reliable approach to amplify ancient DNA templates that failed in primary amplification.

  10. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  11. A comparison of techniques for extracting emissivity information from thermal infrared data for geologic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, Simon J.; Gabell, A. R.; Green, A. A.; Kealy, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    This article evaluates three techniques developed to extract emissivity information from multispectral thermal infrared data. The techniques are the assumed Channel 6 emittance model, thermal log residuals, and alpha residuals. These techniques were applied to calibrated, atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data acquired over Cuprite, Nevada in September 1990. Results indicate that the two new techniques (thermal log residuals and alpha residuals) provide two distinct advantages over the assumed Channel 6 emittance model. First, they permit emissivity information to be derived from all six TIMS channels. The assumed Channel 6 emittance model only permits emissivity values to be derived from five of the six TIMS channels. Second, both techniques are less susceptible to noise than the assumed Channel 6 emittance model. The disadvantage of both techniques is that laboratory data must be converted to thermal log residuals or alpha residuals to facilitate comparison with similarly processed image data. An additional advantage of the alpha residual technique is that the processed data are scene-independent unlike those obtained with the other techniques.

  12. The improvement of phycocyanin stability extracted from Spirulina sp using extrusion encapsulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzery, Meiny; Hadiyanto, Sutanto, Heri; Soetrisnanto, Danny; Majid, Dian; Setyawan, Deny; Azizah, Nur

    2015-12-01

    The stability of phycocyanin extracted from microalgae Spirulina has been evaluated and it showed that the stability of this antioxidant was affected by temperature and pH changes. The encapsulation technique was of the alternatives to overcome this stability changes. The objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of coating materials (alginate and chitosan) during encapsulation by using extrusion technique. The experiments were conducted with variation of alginate as coating materials. The size of each microcapsules was evaluated by using SEM/XRD for its size and homogeneity.

  13. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas, E-mail: amorettinicolas@yahoo.fr; Huwart, Laurent, E-mail: huwart.laurent@wanadoo.fr [Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Nice, Department of Radiology (France)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  14. Carbon Nanotubes Application in the Extraction Techniques of Pesticides: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubus, Aleksandra; Paszkiewicz, Monika; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2017-01-02

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are currently one of the most promising groups of materials with some interesting properties, such as lightness, rigidity, high surface area, high mechanical strength in tension, good thermal conductivity or resistance to mechanical damage. These unique properties make CNTs a competitive alternative to conventional sorbents used in analytical chemistry, especially in extraction techniques. The amount of work that discusses the usefulness of CNTs as a sorbent in a variety of extraction techniques has increased significantly in recent years. In this review article, the most important feature and different applications of solid-phase extraction (SPE), including, classical SPE and dispersive SPE using CNTs for pesticides isolation from different matrices, are summarized. Because of high number of articles concerning the applicability of carbon materials to extraction of pesticides, the main aim of proposed publication is to provide updated review of the latest uses of CNTs by covering the period 2006-2015. Moreover, in this review, the recent papers and this one, which are covered in previous reviews, will be addressed and particular attention has been paid on the division of publications in terms of classes of pesticides, in order to systematize the available literature reports.

  15. An Useful Information Extraction using Image Mining Techniques from Remotely Sensed Image (RSI)

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. C. Jothi Venkateswaran,; Murugan, S.; Dr. N. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Information extraction using mining techniques from remote sensing image (RSI) is rapidly gaining attention among researchers and decision makers because of its potential in application oriented studies. Knowledge discovery from image poses many interesting challenges such as preprocessing the image data set, training the data and discovering useful image patterns applicable to many newapplication frontiers. In the image rich domain of RSI, image mining implies the synergy of data mining and ...

  16. Algebraic processing technique for extracting frequency-dependent shear-wave splitting parameters in an anisotropic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kai-Feng; Zeng, Xin-Wu

    2011-06-01

    Based on the dual source cumulative rotation technique in the time-domain proposed by Zeng and MacBeth (1993), a new algebraic processing technique for extracting shear-wave splitting parameters from multi-component VSP data in frequency-dependent medium has been developed. By using this dual source cumulative rotation technique in the frequency-domain (DCTF), anisotropic parameters, including polarization direction of the shear-waves and timedelay between the fast and slow shear-waves, can be estimated for each frequency component in the frequency domain. It avoids the possible error which comes from using a narrow-band filter in the current commonly used method. By using synthetic seismograms, the feasibility and validity of the technique was tested and a comparison with the currently used method was also given. The results demonstrate that the shear-wave splitting parameters frequency dependence can be extracted directly from four-component seismic data using the DCTF. In the presence of larger scale fractures, substantial frequency dependence would be found in the seismic frequency range, which implies that dispersion would occur at seismic frequencies. Our study shows that shear-wave anisotropy decreases as frequency increases.

  17. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE AND COMBINATION FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CERVICAL CANCER LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pradeep Kumar Kenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer affecting women especially in third world countries. The predominant reason for such alarming rate of death is primarily due to lack of awareness and proper health care. As they say, prevention is better than cure, a better strategy has to be put in place to screen a large number of women so that an early diagnosis can help in saving their lives. One such strategy is to implement an automated system. For an automated system to function properly a proper set of features have to be extracted so that the cancer cell can be detected efficiently. In this paper we compare the performances of detecting a cancer cell using a single feature versus a combination feature set technique to see which will suit the automated system in terms of higher detection rate. For this each cell is segmented using multiscale morphological watershed segmentation technique and a series of features are extracted. This process is performed on 967 images and the data extracted is subjected to data mining techniques to determine which feature is best for which stage of cancer. The results thus obtained clearly show a higher percentage of success for combination feature set with 100% accurate detection rate.

  18. Water as a green solvent combined with different techniques for extraction of essential oil from lavender flowers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD),...

  19. Development of an eco-friendly agar extraction technique from the red seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Yu, Xingju; Jin, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yuanling

    2008-05-01

    The red seaweed, Gracilaria lemaneiformis growing as an aquaculture bioremediator along the coasts of Liaodong Peninsula, China, was investigated for the agar production. An eco-friendly method called agar photobleaching extraction process was developed for the benefit of workers' health and safety of the environment. The native agar (NA), alkali-modified agar (AA), chemical-bleached agar (CA) and photobleached agar (PA), which were extracted using different processes, were evaluated for their physical and chemical properties. The PA showed most desirable performances in terms of gel strength, gelling temperature, sulfate content and 3,6-anhydro-l-galactose content. Among the different processed agars, PA gel strength was 1913 g/cm2, the highest among the different processed agars, which increased 8.6% on the basis of the AA. Further we applied this new technique to extract agars from Gracilaria asiatica, and similar results were obtained with that of G. lemaneiformis. This indicates that the agar photobleaching extraction process is a feasible method for Gracilaria species and has a potential application. During the whole agar photobleaching extraction process the pigment content of G. lemaneiformis declined gradually and the TOC concentration in photobleaching solution increased along with the increase in the irradiation time. The mechanism of agar photobleaching could be elucidated by the photolysis theory.

  20. Applying machine learning and image feature extraction techniques to the problem of cerebral aneurysm rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steren Chabert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by a bulging in a weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. It is relevant to understand the mechanisms leading to the apparition of aneurysms, their growth and, more important, leading to their rupture. The purpose of this study is to study the impact on aneurysm rupture of the combination of different parameters, instead of focusing on only one factor at a time as is frequently found in the literature, using machine learning and feature extraction techniques. This discussion takes relevance in the context of the complex decision that the physicians have to take to decide which therapy to apply, as each intervention bares its own risks, and implies to use a complex ensemble of resources (human resources, OR, etc. in hospitals always under very high work load. This project has been raised in our actual working team, composed of interventional neuroradiologist, radiologic technologist, informatics engineers and biomedical engineers, from Valparaiso public Hospital, Hospital Carlos van Buren, and from Universidad de Valparaíso – Facultad de Ingeniería and Facultad de Medicina. This team has been working together in the last few years, and is now participating in the implementation of an “interdisciplinary platform for innovation in health”, as part of a bigger project leaded by Universidad de Valparaiso (PMI UVA1402. It is relevant to emphasize that this project is made feasible by the existence of this network between physicians and engineers, and by the existence of data already registered in an orderly manner, structured and recorded in digital format. The present proposal arises from the description in nowadays literature that the actual indicators, whether based on morphological description of the aneurysm, or based on characterization of biomechanical factor or others, these indicators were shown not to provide sufficient information in order

  1. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography MS/MS method for the determination of parabens in compost from sewage sludge: comparison of the efficiency of two extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Villalba, Julio César; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Dorival-García, Noemí; Camino-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Cantarero, Samuel; Vílchez, José Luis

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency of two extraction techniques--ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction--are compared and evaluated in the determination of parabens in compost samples. The extraction parameters for each technique were accurately optimized. The selected compounds were detected and quantified using ultra-performance LC MS/MS, operating in negative ESI and in SRM mode. The analytes were separated in less than 5 min. Ethylparaben (ring-(13)C6 labeled) was used as an internal standard. Two selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical methods were developed and validated. The LODs of the methods ranged from 3 to 7 ng/g and the LOQs from 10 to 23 ng/g, while inter- and intraday variability was under 6% in all cases. The methods were validated separately by using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94.0 to 105.0%. Compost samples were taken from different composting plants. Although the statistical comparison demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the two extraction techniques, the method based on pressurized liquid extraction was more sensitive than the ultrasound extraction based method.

  2. Extraction by solvent using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques followed by HPLC analysis of Harpagoside from Harpagophytum procumbens and comparison with conventional solvent extraction methods

    OpenAIRE

    Filly, Aurore; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Petitcolas, Emmanuel; Mabrouki, Fathi; Chemat, Farid; Ollivier, Évelyne

    2016-01-01

    This research paper presents a quick and ecofriendly technique for the extraction of harpagoside (HS), the active marker of Harpagophytum procumbens (HP), along with a comparison with conventional methods so as to propose an efficient HPLC method. HP is widely used as an anti-inflammatory in phytotherapy. The quality control of the herbal drug and extract calls for a time consuming method of conventional extraction, which involves a high consumption of solvents. In this study, HP has been ...

  3. Comparison of Conventional and Ultrasound-assisted Extraction Techniques on Mass Fraction of Phenolic Compounds from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An innovative ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) is the rapid non-thermal extraction technique, which in comparison to conventional extraction (CE), offers high reproducibility in a short time with simplified manipulation, reduced solvent consumption and lower energy. Optimization of ultrasonic conditions was conducted for devices with nominal output power of 100 and 400 W, including the influence of geometrical parameters of probes regarding ultrasound-assisted extraction. The results show...

  4. Vision-Based Faint Vibration Extraction Using Singular Value Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujun Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration measurement is important for understanding the behavior of engineering structures. Unlike conventional contact-type measurements, vision-based methodologies have attracted a great deal of attention because of the advantages of remote measurement, nonintrusive characteristic, and no mass introduction. It is a new type of displacement sensor which is convenient and reliable. This study introduces the singular value decomposition (SVD methods for video image processing and presents a vibration-extracted algorithm. The algorithms can successfully realize noncontact displacement measurements without undesirable influence to the structure behavior. SVD-based algorithm decomposes a matrix combined with the former frames to obtain a set of orthonormal image bases while the projections of all video frames on the basis describe the vibration information. By means of simulation, the parameters selection of SVD-based algorithm is discussed in detail. To validate the algorithm performance in practice, sinusoidal motion tests are performed. Results indicate that the proposed technique can provide fairly accurate displacement measurement. Moreover, a sound barrier experiment showing how the high-speed rail trains affect the sound barrier nearby is carried out. It is for the first time to be realized at home and abroad due to the challenge of measuring environment.

  5. Selective extraction of triazine herbicides from food samples based on a combination of a liquid membrane and molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaka, Byron; Cukrowska, Ewa; Bui, Bernadette Tse Sum; Ramström, Olof; Haupt, Karsten; Tutu, Hlanganani; Chimuka, Luke

    2009-10-02

    A selective extraction technique based on the combination of liquid membrane (microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction) and molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) was applied to triazines herbicides in food samples. Simazine, atrazine and propazine were extracted from aqueous food samples through the hydrophobic porous membrane that was impregnated with toluene, which also formed part of the acceptor phase. In the acceptor phase, the compounds were re-extracted onto MIP particles. The extraction technique was optimised for the amount of molecularly imprinted polymers particles in the organic acceptor phase, extraction time, and type of organic acceptor solvent and desorption solvent. An extraction time of 90 min and 50mg of MIP were found to be optimum parameters. Toluene as the acceptor phase was found to give higher triazines binding onto MIP particles compared to hexane and combinations of diethyl ether and hexane. 90% methanol in water was found to be the best desorption solvent compared to acetonitrile, methanol and water. The selectivity of the technique was demonstrated by extracting spiked lettuce and apple extracts where clean chromatograms were obtained compared to liquid membrane extraction alone or to the microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction - non-imprinted polymer combination. The MIP showed a certain degree of group specificity and the extraction efficiency in lettuce extract was 79% (0.72) for simazine, 98% (1.55) for atrazine and 86% (3.08) for propazine.

  6. DNA extraction technique for different rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Kapilan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of DNA is very important nowadays in bio-molecular researches. Extracted DNA should be purified and the quality of DNA should also be very high. The objective of the study was to develop a simple efficient method to isolate DNA from the rice varieties in an open laboratory environment, and to eliminate the usage of expensive chemicals and tools. The DNA extraction methods developed by the DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN, Cheng et al., Doyle et al. and Michiels et al. were applied to five different rice varieties grown in different parts of Sri Lanka. Based on the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA tested by measuring the absorbance of DNA at 260 nm using Nanodrop® ND-1000 spectrophotometer and measuring the ratio of A260 / A280 and gel running on agarose, the efficiency of the extraction method chosen varied among rice varieties. Among the methods used, the methods introduced by DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN and Cheng et al, yielded good and amplifiable quality DNA with satisfactory concentration for all the rice varieties tested. Therefore the modified method of Cheng et al, 1987 could be used to extract DNA from rice varieties instead of the commercially available expensive and hazardous DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN.

  7. An Adequate Approach to Image Retrieval Based on Local Level Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaira Muhammad Hayat Khan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Image retrieval based on text annotation has become obsolete and is no longer interesting for scientists because of its high time complexity and low precision in results. Alternatively, increase in the amount of digital images has generated an excessive need for an accurate and efficient retrieval system. This paper proposes content based image retrieval technique at a local level incorporating all the rudimentary features. Image undergoes the segmentation process initially and each segment is then directed to the feature extraction process. The proposed technique is also based on image?s content which primarily includes texture, shape and color. Besides these three basic features, FD (Fourier Descriptors and edge histogram descriptors are also calculated to enhance the feature extraction process by taking hold of information at the boundary. Performance of the proposed method is found to be quite adequate when compared with the results from one of the best local level CBIR (Content Based Image Retrieval techniques.

  8. A feasibility study of H{sup -} beam extraction technique using YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yujiro; Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Aoki, Nobutada [Toshiba Power System Co., Ltd. (Japan); Nakagawa, Satoshi [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint project of high intensity proton accelerator, as for research and develop of the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation of the long lived radioactive nuclide, it is planed to built the Transmutation Physics Experiment Facility (TEF-P) and the Transmutation Engineering Experiment Facility (TEF-E). The TEF-P is used for the experiments for subcritical system coupled with a spallation neutron target bombarded with 600-MeV proton beam accelerated by the LINAC. To limit the maximum thermal power less than 500 W at the TEF-P, an incident beam power should be less than 10 W. On the contrary, at the TEF-E, high power beam of 200 kW is requested. Both high and low power beams are demanded for the transmutation facilities. It is difficult to deliver a low power beam to the TEF-P. Conventional beam extraction technique with a thin foil, is not desirable because the scattering of the beam at the foil requires the massive shield. Therefore, we study a new technique to extract a small portion of the beam precisely from the high intensity beam by using a laser beam. By a laser beam, H{sup -} in the beam from LINAC is partially changed to H{sup 0} beam so that a low current H{sup 0} beam can be obtained. As the cross section of the charge exchange reaction for H{sup -} ions has a peak around at a wave length of 1 {mu}m for photons, YAG laser is suitable for this charge exchange because of its 1.06 {mu}m wave length. It is derived that 10 W beam for 600-MeV proton can be extracted by the YAG laser with power of 2 J for each pulse of 25 Hz. By this technique, the pulse width for the extracted beam can be controlled by changing the time width of laser irradiation. When a charge exchanger having the beam collide point existing in straight section, a background beam current of projectile, however, will be increased due to the interaction with the residual gas in the beam duct. Thus, a charge exchanger is devised having the beam collide point in a

  9. Feature extraction and analysis of online reviews for the recommendation of books using opinion mining technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Saquib Sohail

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The customer's review plays an important role in deciding the purchasing behaviour for online shopping as a customer prefers to get the opinion of other customers by observing their opinion through online products’ reviews, blogs and social networking sites, etc. The customer's reviews reflect the customer's sentiments and have a substantial significance for the products being sold online including electronic gadgets, movies, house hold appliances and books. Hence, extracting the exact features of the products by analyzing the text of reviews requires a lot of efforts and human intelligence. In this paper we intend to analyze the online reviews available for books and extract book-features from the reviews using human intelligence. We have proposed a technique to categorize the features of books from the reviews of the customers. The extracted features may help in deciding the books to be recommended for readers. The ultimate goal of the work is to fulfil the requirement of the user and provide them their desired books. Thus, we have evaluated our categorization method by users themselves, and surveyed qualified persons for the concerned books. The survey results show high precision of the features categorized which clearly indicates that proposed method is very useful and appealing. The proposed technique may help in recommending the best books for concerned people and may also be generalized to recommend any product to the users.

  10. Evaluation of growth conditions and DNA extraction techniques used in the molecular analysis of dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnat, S; Nowakiewicz, A; Ziółkowska, G; Trościańczyk, A; Majer-Dziedzic, B; Zięba, P

    2017-05-01

    Recent molecular methods for diagnosis of superficial mycoses have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. The aim of study was to determine growth conditions and techniques of DNA extraction for Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. verrucosum. Samples were prepared of each of the DNA extraction methods (phenol-chloroform, CTAB and four different kits) for all of the incubation periods (4, 7 and 10 days) of the cultures on the solid and in the liquid medium. The highest DNA concentrations were obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. The concentration of DNA extracted with the CTAB method accounted for 62·21%, for kits it corresponded from 35·53 to 15·41%. The analysis of the DNA weight yield revealed the highest isolation efficiency of the phenol-chloroform method, 1 mg of mycelium yielded 223·8 μg DNA. Lower DNA yield (by 39·32%) was obtained with the CTAB method; in the case of kits by 68·46-85·32%. In most of the techniques, the DNA yield on the solid medium was higher. In summary, the highest DNA yield was noted in the 7-day cultures and extraction with the phenol-chloroform method. Importantly, the type of culture was not relevant for the diagnostic result. Most mycoses are caused by fungi that reside in nature. The severity of the infection depends on the pathogenic attributes, socioeconomic factors and local environmental conditions. Recent diagnosis increasingly relies on not only the clinical features. Molecular identifications have determined the need for a rapid and easy method of extracting DNA. Usually two factors have to be considered: maximize the DNA yield and ensure that the extracted DNA is susceptible to enzymatic reactions. These data suggest that phenol-chloroform methods and a 7-day culture period may be useful for validation and constitute the first step of molecular diagnosis of dermatophytes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Analysis of human breath with micro extraction techniques and continuous monitoring of carbon dioxide concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei; Liu, Xinyu; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2006-08-01

    The detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in human breath can be useful for the clinical routine diagnosis of several diseases in a non-invasive manner. Traditional methods of breath analysis have some major technical problems and limitations. Membrane extraction with a sorbent interface (MESI), however, has many advantages over current methods, including good selectivity and sensitivity, and is well suited for breath analysis. The aim of this project was to develop a simple and reproducible sampling device and method based on the MESI system for breath analysis. The feasibility and validity of the MESI system was tested with real human breath samples. Internal standard calibration methods were used for the quantitative analysis of various breath samples. Calibration curves for some main components (target analytes such as acetone and pentane) were determined in the research. The optimized stripping-side and feeding-side gas velocities were determined. The use of breath CO2 as an internal standard for the analysis of breath VOCs is an effective method to solve the difficulties associated with variations in the target analyte concentrations in a sample, which are attributed to mass losses and different breathing patterns of different subjects. In this study, the concentration of breath acetone was successfully expressed normalized to CO2 as in the alveolar air. Breath acetone of healthy males and females profiled at different times of the day was plotted using the MESI system, and results were consistent with the literature. This technique can be used for monitoring breath acetone concentrations of diabetic patients and for applications with other biomarker monitoring.

  12. Scattering-parameter extraction and calibration techniques for RF free-space material characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniecki, M.; Saenz, E.; Rolo, L.;

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for material characterization (permittivity, permeability, loss tangent) based on the scattering parameters. The performance of the extraction algorithm will be shown for modelled and measured data. The measurements were carried out at the European Space Agency us...

  13. Ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique preserved the antioxidant properties of tamarind (Tamarindus indica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Yeasmen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two extraction solvents (ethanol and acetone and two extraction techniques i.e., hot extraction at 400C and cold extraction at 260C were investigated on the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica seed. The antioxidant activity of T. indica was determined by evaluating 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity, ferric reducing power assay (FRAP and ascorbic acid equivalent content (AAC. The tested sample showed appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (51.45-71.68 mg GAE/gm of dry extract, DPPH scavenging capacity (61.18-71.17%, IC50 values (98.30-248.60, reducing power (0.6377-0.7702 and total antioxidant capacity (22.75-43.80 AAE/gm at different solvents and techniques. Current study data shown higher extract yields, phenolic contents, scavenging activity, reducing power and antioxidant activity using ethanol solvent compared to the respective acetone solvent. In addition, higher extract yields and other properties were obtained by hot extraction at 400C compared to the cold extraction at 260C. Present study suggests that ethanol as a solvent and hot extraction technique could be better to preserve the antioxidant properties of tamarind seed. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2015; 2(3.000: 332-337

  14. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Claire M., E-mail: claire.thompson@anu.edu.au; Ellwood, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ellwood@anu.edu.au; Wille, Martin, E-mail: martin.wille@uni-tuebingen.de

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new sample preparation method for seawater copper isotopic analysis (δ{sup 65}Cu). •Solvent-extraction was used to pre-concentrate metals from seawater samples. •Anion-exchange was used to purify copper from the metal-rich extract. •δ{sup 65}Cu was measured in the north Tasman Sea. •Seawater δ{sup 65}Cu may be linked to marine biological activity. -- Abstract: Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater.

  15. Speckle affected fringe detection based on three envelope extraction for self-mixing displacement measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Huang; Chengwei, Li; Songquan, Li; Zhenghe, Zhang; Dongyu, Li

    2017-06-01

    Speckle is an especially relevant issue as far as self-mixing interferometry works onto diffusive targets and for large displacements sensing. This article proposed a new signal processing technique, based on three envelope extraction transition detection algorithm, to correctly extract and processes self-mixing signals corrupted by speckle. The algorithm also discriminates the direction of the target movement for different self-mixing regimes. The validity of the proposed method was demonstrated by means of simulated signals and confirmed by several experimental measurements with envelope variation of a decade in amplitude. The use of this technique effectively removes the need for optical/electro-mechanical component and strict sampling number determination.

  16. Hash Based Least Significant Bit Technique For Video Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. P. R. Deshmukh ,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hash Based Least Significant Bit Technique For Video Steganography deals with hiding secret message or information within a video.Steganography is nothing but the covered writing it includes process that conceals information within other data and also conceals the fact that a secret message is being sent.Steganography is the art of secret communication or the science of invisible communication. In this paper a Hash based least significant bit technique for video steganography has been proposed whose main goal is to embed a secret information in a particular video file and then extract it using a stego key or password. In this Least Significant Bit insertion method is used for steganography so as to embed data in cover video with change in the lower bit.This LSB insertion is not visible.Data hidding is the process of embedding information in a video without changing its perceptual quality. The proposed method involve with two terms that are Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and the Mean Square Error (MSE .This two terms measured between the original video files and steganographic video files from all video frames where a distortion is measured using PSNR. A hash function is used to select the particular position for insertion of bits of secret message in LSB bits.

  17. Herbal Extract Incorporated Nanofiber Fabricated by an Electrospinning Technique and its Application to Antimicrobial Air Filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeongan; Yang, Byeong Joon; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Jung, Jae Hee

    2015-11-18

    Recently, with the increased attention to indoor air quality, antimicrobial air filtration techniques have been studied widely to inactivate hazardous airborne microorganisms effectively. In this study, we demonstrate herbal extract incorporated (HEI) nanofibers synthesized by an electrospinning technique and their application to antimicrobial air filtration. As an antimicrobial herbal material, an ethanolic extract of Sophora flavescens, which exhibits great antibacterial activity against pathogens, was mixed with the polymer solution for the electrospinning process. We measured various characteristics of the synthesized HEI nanofibers, such as fiber morphology, fiber size distribution, and thermal stability. For application of the electrospun HEI nanofibers, we made highly effective air filters with 99.99% filtration efficiency and 99.98% antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. The pressure drop across the HEI nanofiber air filter was 4.75 mmH2O at a face air velocity of 1.79 cm/s. These results will facilitate the implementation of electrospun HEI nanofiber techniques to control air quality and protect against hazardous airborne microorganisms.

  18. An Effective History-based Background Extraction System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Khalid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In many visions-based surveillance systems, the first step is accomplished by detecting moving objects resulted from subtraction of the current captured frame from the extracted background. So, the results of these systems mainly depend on the accuracy of the background image. Approach: In this study, a proposed background extraction system is presented to model the background using a simple method, to initialize the model, to extract the moving objects and to construct the final background. Our model saves the history of each pixel separately. It uses the saved information to extract the background using a probability-based method. It updates the history of the pixel consequently and according to the value of that pixel in the current captured image. Results: Results of the experiments certify that not only the quality of the final extracted background is the best between four recently re-implemented methods, but also the time consumption of the extraction is acceptable. Conclusion: Since History-based methods use temporal information extracted from the several previous frames, they are less sensitive to noise and sudden changes for extracting the background image.

  19. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  20. A Karnaugh-Map based fingerprint minutiae extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the most promising method among all the biometric techniques and has been used for thepersonal authentication for a long time because of its wide acceptance and reliability. Features (Minutiae are extracted fromthe fingerprint in question and are compared with the features already stored in the database for authentication. Crossingnumber (CN is the most commonly used minutiae extraction method for fingerprints. In this paper, a new Karnaugh-Mapbased fingerprint minutiae extraction method has been proposed and discussed. In the proposed algorithm the 8 neighborsof a pixel in a 33 window are arranged as 8 bits of a byte and corresponding hexadecimal (hex value is calculated. Thesehex values are simplified using standard Karnaugh-Map (K-map technique to obtain the minimized logical expression.Experiments conducted on the FVC2002/Db1_a database reveals that the developed method is better than the crossingnumber (CN method.

  1. On Bitstream Based Edge Detection Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Rafael C. Gonzalez and Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing , Addison-Wesley...Longman Publishing Co., Inc., Boston, MA, USA, 2001. [6] William K Pratt, Digital image processing , Wiley, New York :, 1991. [7] Miguel Segui Prieto and...bitstream processing 1. INTRODUCTION Edge detection is a vital part of image processing , which is used for extracting important features from an image

  2. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  3. Exploiting the spontaneous potential of the electrodes used in the capacitive mixing technique for the extraction of energy from salinity difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogioli, D.; Ziano, R.; Rica, R.A.; Salerno, D.; Kozynchenko, O.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Mantegazza, F.

    2012-01-01

    The "capacitive mixing" (CAPMIX) technique is aimed at the extraction of energy from the salinity difference between the sea and rivers. It is based on the voltage rise that takes place at the electrodes when changing the salt concentration of the solution in which the two electrodes are dipped. In

  4. Driver’s Fatigue Detection Based on Yawning Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawal Alioua

    2014-01-01

    a real danger on road since it reduces driver capacity to react and analyze information. In this paper we propose an efficient and nonintrusive system for monitoring driver fatigue using yawning extraction. The proposed scheme uses face extraction based support vector machine (SVM and a new approach for mouth detection, based on circular Hough transform (CHT, applied on mouth extracted regions. Our system does not require any training data at any step or special cameras. Some experimental results showing system performance are reported. These experiments are applied over real video sequences acquired by low cost web camera and recorded in various lighting conditions.

  5. A Robust Digital Watermark Extracting Method Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOLihua; YANGShutang; LIJianhua

    2003-01-01

    Since watermark removal software, such as StirMark, has succeeded in washing watermarks away for most of the known watermarking systems, it is necessary to improve the robustness of watermarking systems. A watermark extracting method based on the error Back propagation (BP) neural network is presented in this paper, which can efficiently improve the robustness of watermarking systems. Experiments show that even if the watermarking systems are attacked by the StirMark software, the extracting method based on neural network can still efficiently extract the whole watermark information.

  6. Extraction of Textual Causal Relationships based on Natural Language Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Jamshidi-Nejad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing is a highly important subcategory in the wide area of artificial intelligence. Employing appropriate computational algorithms on sophisticated linguistic operations is the aim of natural language processing to extract and create computational theories from languages. In order to achieve this goal, the knowledge of linguists is needed in addition to computer science. In the field of linguistics, the syntactic and semantic relation of words and phrases and the extraction of causation is very significant which the latter is an information retrieval challenge. Recently, there is an increased attention towards the automatic extraction of causation from textual data sets. Although, previous research extracted the casual relations from uninterrupted data sets by using knowledge-based inference technologies and manual coding. Recently, finding comprehensive approaches for detection and extractions of causal arguments is a research area in the field of natural language processing.In this paper, a three-stepped approach is established through which, the position of words with syntax trees is obtained by extracting causation from causal and non-causal sentences of Web text. The arguments of events were extracted according to the dependency tree of phrases implemented by Python packages. Then potential causal relations were extracted by the extraction of specific nodes of the tree. In the final step, a statistical model is introduced for measuring the potential causal relations. Experimental results and evaluations with Recall, Precision and F-measure metrics show the accuracy and efficiency of the suggested model.

  7. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time.

  8. Vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts for re-use in agriculture obtained by different extraction techniques: phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gómez, Rosario; Zalacain, Amaya; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2014-11-12

    Vine-shoots are an important waste in all viticulture areas that should be re-used with innovative applications. The aim of this work was to produce Airén waste vine-shoot aqueous extracts by four solid-liquid extraction techniques such as conventional solid-liquid extraction (CSLE), solid-liquid dynamic extraction (SLDE-Naviglio), microwave extraction (ME), and pressurized solvent extraction (PSE). Their chemical composition was studied in terms of phenolic, volatile, and mineral compounds. The highest concentrated extracts corresponded to CSLE and SLDE-Naviglio, independent of the conditions tested. The CSLE extracts had the highest flavanols, phenolic acids, and stilbenes contents. The volatile composition, quantified for first time in this work, shows that furanic compounds were the most abundant. All extracts showed an interesting mineral content, which may be assimilated by plants. These results show the agricultural potential of Airén vine-shoot waste aqueous extracts to be used as grape biostimulants and/or foliar fertilizer.

  9. Minimally invasive surgical technique integrating multiple procedures with large specimen extraction via inguinal hernia orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Vishnu R.; Ahmed, Leaque

    2015-01-01

    While laparoscopic surgery can be performed using small skin incisions, any resected specimen must still be able to fit through these opening. For procedures, such as cholecystectomies and appendectomies, this is not usually a problem; however, for large specimens such as bowel or large tumors, this becomes problematic. Currently, the standard technique is to attempt piecemeal removal of the specimen or enlarge one of the laparoscopic incisions, effectively creating a mini laparotomy. Creating a larger incision adds many of the drawbacks of open laparotomy and should be avoided whenever possible. In this article, we present a new technique of combining the repair of an inguinal hernia, umbilical hernia with a duodenal tumor resection in order to extract the specimen through the inguinal hernia orifice. PMID:26703927

  10. Dynamics-based Nondestructive Structural Monitoring Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    in the practice of non- destructive evaluation ( NDE ) and structural health monitoring (SHM). Guided wave techniques have several advantages over...conventional bulk wave ultrasonic NDE /SHM techniques. Some of these advantages are outlined in Table I. However, in addition to the advantages of...PVDF transducers for SHM applications with controlled guided wave modes and frequencies [7]. Wilcox used EMATs with circular coils in a guided wave

  11. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  12. Web entity extraction based on entity attribute classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan-Xi; Chen, Peng; Wang, Ru-Jing; Su, Ya-Ru

    2011-12-01

    The large amount of entity data are continuously published on web pages. Extracting these entities automatically for further application is very significant. Rule-based entity extraction method yields promising result, however, it is labor-intensive and hard to be scalable. The paper proposes a web entity extraction method based on entity attribute classification, which can avoid manual annotation of samples. First, web pages are segmented into different blocks by algorithm Vision-based Page Segmentation (VIPS), and a binary classifier LibSVM is trained to retrieve the candidate blocks which contain the entity contents. Second, the candidate blocks are partitioned into candidate items, and the classifiers using LibSVM are performed for the attributes annotation of the items and then the annotation results are aggregated into an entity. Results show that the proposed method performs well to extract agricultural supply and demand entities from web pages.

  13. ONTOLOGY EXTRACTION FOR AGRICULTURE DOMAIN IN MARATHI LANGUAGE USING NLP TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Dalvi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ontology is defined as shared specification of conceptual vocabulary used for formulating knowledge-level theories about a domain of discourse. Dataset is created by manually collecting information about different diseases related to crops. Ontology modeling is used for knowledge representation of various domains. India is an agricultural based economic country. Majority of Indian population relies on farming but the technologies are sparsely used for the aid of farmers. Ontology based modeling for agricultural knowledge can change this scenario. The farmers can understand it easily in their native language. We proposed a system which will model and extract knowledge in Marathi language. In this paper, we review various existing agriculture ontology’s along with some of Natural Language Processing (NLP models. Model ontology for agriculture domain system aims to retrieve relevant answers to the farmer’s query. We explored Rule-Based and Conditional Random Fields based models for Ontology extraction. The extraction methods and preprocessing phases of proposed system is discussed.

  14. Feature extraction techniques using multivariate analysis for identification of lung cancer volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriumani, Reena; Zakaria, Ammar; Hashim, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun; Helmy, Khaled Mohamed; Omar, Mohammad Iqbal; Jeffree, Amanina; Adom, Abdul Hamid; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md; Kamarudin, Latifah Munirah

    2017-03-01

    In this experiment, three different cell cultures (A549, WI38VA13 and MCF7) and blank medium (without cells) as a control were used. The electronic nose (E-Nose) was used to sniff the headspace of cultured cells and the data were recorded. After data pre-processing, two different features were extracted by taking into consideration of both steady state and the transient information. The extracted data are then being processed by multivariate analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) to provide visualization of the clustering vector information in multi-sensor space. The Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) classifier was used to test the performance of the E-Nose on determining the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of lung cancer cell line. The LDA data projection was able to differentiate between the lung cancer cell samples and other samples (breast cancer, normal cell and blank medium) effectively. The features extracted from the steady state response reached 100% of classification rate while the transient response with the aid of LDA dimension reduction methods produced 100% classification performance using PNN classifier with a spread value of 0.1. The results also show that E-Nose application is a promising technique to be applied to real patients in further work and the aid of Multivariate Analysis; it is able to be the alternative to the current lung cancer diagnostic methods.

  15. Speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Contaminated Aquifer Sediments Using Chemical Extraction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Crouzet, Catherine.; Bourg, Alain C. M.;

    1994-01-01

    The iron mineralogy of aquifer sediments was described by chemical extraction techniques. Single-step extractions including 1 M CaC12, NaAc, oxalate, dithionite, Ti(II1)- EDTA, 0.5 M HC1,5 M HC1, hot 6 M HC1, and a sequential extraction by HI and CrIIHC1 were tested on standard iron minerals...

  16. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  17. A feasibility study of H sup - beam extraction technique using YAG laser

    CERN Document Server

    Meigo, S I; Hasegawa, K; Ikeda, Y; Nakagawa, S; Oigawa, H

    2002-01-01

    Under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint project of high intensity proton accelerator, as for research and develop of the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation of the long lived radioactive nuclide, it is planed to built the Transmutation Physics Experiment Facility (TEF-P) and the Transmutation Engineering Experiment Facility (TEF-E). The TEF-P is used for the experiments for subcritical system coupled with a spallation neutron target bombarded with 600-MeV proton beam accelerated by the LINAC. To limit the maximum thermal power less than 500 W at the TEF-P, an incident beam power should be less than 10 W. On the contrary, at the TEF-E, high power beam of 200 kW is requested. Both high and low power beams are demanded for the transmutation facilities. It is difficult to deliver a low power beam to the TEF-P. Conventional beam extraction technique with a thin foil, is not desirable because the scattering of the beam at the foil requires the massive shield. Therefore, we study a new technique to extract a small...

  18. Surface Electromyography Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Akhavan Mahdavi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the vast variety of EMG signal applications such as rehabilitation of people suffering from some mobility limitations, scientists have done much research on EMG control system. In this regard, feature extraction of EMG signal has been highly valued as a significant technique to extract the desired information of EMG signal and remove unnecessary parts. In this study, Wavelet Transform (WT has been applied as the main technique to extract Surface EMG (SEMG features because WT is consistent with the nature of EMG as a nonstationary signal. Furthermore, two evaluation criteria, namely, RES index (the ratio of a Euclidean distance to a standard deviation and scatter plot are recruited to investigate the efficiency of wavelet feature extraction. The results illustrated an improvement in class separability of hand movements in feature space. Accordingly, it has been shown that only the SEMG features extracted from first and second level of WT decomposition by second order of Daubechies family (db2 yielded the best class separability.

  19. Advancing extraction techniques : new technologies vie for a piece of the growing in situ pie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulfield, P.

    2010-09-15

    This article described 3 technologies that rely on heat to extract bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. According to the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, in situ extraction is projected to soon surpass mining as the primary source of bitumen production in the region. Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS), to a lesser extent, are set to lead the industry. Interest is also growing in other technologies, including toe-to-heel air injection (THAI), combustion overhead gravity drainage (COGD) and enhanced solvent extraction. These processes were all developed by Calgary-based organizations and claim to offer economic, environmental or operational improvements over traditional in situ extraction technologies. This article described the different methods they use to heat the reservoirs and the amount of heat required to recover the bitumen. The THAI technology uses combustion initiated from vertical air injection wells to heat the reservoir, and gravity to collect the oil in the horizontal production wells to recover heavy oil and bitumen. The COGD technology uses a set of vertical air injector ignition wells above a horizontal production well that is located at the base of the bitumen pay zone. A multi-step pre-ignition heating cycle that uses steam prepares the cold bitumen in the reservoir for ignition and makes it more mobile. The enhanced solvent method builds upon the SAGD technology whereby heated propane vapour is injected at moderate pressures into the gravity drainage chamber. The vapour flows from the injection well to the colder perimeter of the chamber where it condenses, delivering heat and fresh solvent directly to the bitumen extraction interface. 2 figs.

  20. A Comparative Study of Three Vibration Based Damage Assessment Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    Three different vibration based damage assessment techniques have been compared. One of the techniques uses the ratios between changes in experimentally and theoretically estimated natural frequencies, respectively, to locate a damage. The second technique relies on updating of an FEM based...

  1. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  2. Extraction technique for the determination of oxygen-18 in water using preevacuated glass vials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Karlsson, H. R.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    The need for a rapid, inexpensive technique for routine 18O/16O extraction from water has arisen recently through applications in the medical sciences and in hydrology. The traditional experimental technique for determining the oxygen isotope composition of water, the CO2-H2O equilibration method, is tedious, time consuming, and involves the use of custom-made glass apparatus. Furthermore, because of potential memory effects from one sample to the next, the glassware needs to be thoroughly cleaned between runs. A few attempts have been made to improve upon the method. Attempts to analyze water directly in the source of the mass spectrometer produced large memory effects and questionable results. Commercially available apparatus for automated extraction of 18O/16O from water is generally prohibitively expensive and often is designed to interface only with the manufacturer's own mass spectrometer. The method described in this paper utilizes inexpensive, off-the-shelf, preevacuated, glass vials. Preevacuated vials have been used by others for the isotopic analysis of breath CO2 and are well tested. The vials can be purchased in bulk from scientific apparatus suppliers at a relatively low cost. These are coupled with a simplified extraction line consisting of a stainless steel syringe needle and a glass cold trap. Vials are filled with CO2 and H2O and shaken in a constant-temperature water bath for at least 90 min. Since the vials are discarded after use, no cleaning is necessary, essentially eliminating any memory effect. Reproducibility is generally better than +/- 0.05%. The only reagents required are gaseous CO2 for equilibration, a dry ice/alcohol mixture for trapping water, and liquid nitrogen for transferring the CO2.

  3. Flood alert system based on bayesian techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Z.; Herrero, J.; Viesca, C.; Polo, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    The problem of floods in the Mediterranean regions is closely linked to the occurrence of torrential storms in dry regions, where even the water supply relies on adequate water management. Like other Mediterranean basins in Southern Spain, the Guadalhorce River Basin is a medium sized watershed (3856 km2) where recurrent yearly floods occur , mainly in autumn and spring periods, driven by cold front phenomena. The torrential character of the precipitation in such small basins, with a concentration time of less than 12 hours, produces flash flood events with catastrophic effects over the city of Malaga (600000 inhabitants). From this fact arises the need for specific alert tools which can forecast these kinds of phenomena. Bayesian networks (BN) have been emerging in the last decade as a very useful and reliable computational tool for water resources and for the decision making process. The joint use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and BN have served us to recognize and simulate the two different types of hydrological behaviour in the basin: natural and regulated. This led to the establishment of causal relationships between precipitation, discharge from upstream reservoirs, and water levels at a gauging station. It was seen that a recurrent ANN model working at an hourly scale, considering daily precipitation and the two previous hourly values of reservoir discharge and water level, could provide R2 values of 0.86. BN's results slightly improve this fit, but contribute with uncertainty to the prediction. In our current work to Design a Weather Warning Service based on Bayesian techniques the first steps were carried out through an analysis of the correlations between the water level and rainfall at certain representative points in the basin, along with the upstream reservoir discharge. The lower correlation found between precipitation and water level emphasizes the highly regulated condition of the stream. The autocorrelations of the variables were also

  4. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevenster, M; Buurman, J; Liu, P; Peters, J F; Chang, P J

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their "temporality". The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data.

  5. Natural Language Processing Techniques for Extracting and Categorizing Finding Measurements in Narrative Radiology Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buurman, J.; Liu, P.; Peters, J.F.; Chang, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Accumulating quantitative outcome parameters may contribute to constructing a healthcare organization in which outcomes of clinical procedures are reproducible and predictable. In imaging studies, measurements are the principal category of quantitative para meters. Objectives The purpose of this work is to develop and evaluate two natural language processing engines that extract finding and organ measurements from narrative radiology reports and to categorize extracted measurements by their “temporality”. Methods The measurement extraction engine is developed as a set of regular expressions. The engine was evaluated against a manually created ground truth. Automated categorization of measurement temporality is defined as a machine learning problem. A ground truth was manually developed based on a corpus of radiology reports. A maximum entropy model was created using features that characterize the measurement itself and its narrative context. The model was evaluated in a ten-fold cross validation protocol. Results The measurement extraction engine has precision 0.994 and recall 0.991. Accuracy of the measurement classification engine is 0.960. Conclusions The work contributes to machine understanding of radiology reports and may find application in software applications that process medical data. PMID:26448801

  6. Laser stripe extraction method in industrial environments utilizing self-adaptive convolution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Qia; Tao, Wei; Feng, Yi-Yang; Gao, Qiang; He, Qiao-Zhi; Zhao, Hui

    2017-04-01

    A line-structured laser scanner is widely applied for 3D reconstruction in industrial environments with ubiquitous various luminance, complicated background, diverse objects, and instable lasers. These elements will show up as noise in the obtained laser stripe images. Therefore, the basic and key point for a line-structured laser scanner is to accurately extract the laser stripe from noise. This paper proposes an effective laser stripe extraction procedure with two steps. First, a novel laser stripe center extraction method based on the geometry information and correlation in the laser stripe, is designed to significantly eliminate noise and accurately extract the laser stripe centers. In addition, the robustness, speed, and accuracy of this method are respectively analyzed in detail. Second, piecewise fitting is adopted to acquire a smooth and continuous laser stripe centerline. In order to select the optimal fitting method, the characteristics of two spline methods, Akima spline and cubic Hermite spline, are deeply analyzed and compared. Finally, an experiment is carried out by using a rough metal step and a line-structured laser scanning system. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed self-adaptive convolution-mass method can significantly eliminate noise in industrial environments. In addition, the cubic Hermite spline is a better choice for 3D reconstruction, rather than the Akima spline.

  7. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health.

  8. Machine learning based sample extraction for automatic speech recognition using dialectal Assamese speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwalla, Swapna; Sarma, Kandarpa Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Automatic Speaker Recognition (ASR) and related issues are continuously evolving as inseparable elements of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). With assimilation of emerging concepts like big data and Internet of Things (IoT) as extended elements of HCI, ASR techniques are found to be passing through a paradigm shift. Oflate, learning based techniques have started to receive greater attention from research communities related to ASR owing to the fact that former possess natural ability to mimic biological behavior and that way aids ASR modeling and processing. The current learning based ASR techniques are found to be evolving further with incorporation of big data, IoT like concepts. Here, in this paper, we report certain approaches based on machine learning (ML) used for extraction of relevant samples from big data space and apply them for ASR using certain soft computing techniques for Assamese speech with dialectal variations. A class of ML techniques comprising of the basic Artificial Neural Network (ANN) in feedforward (FF) and Deep Neural Network (DNN) forms using raw speech, extracted features and frequency domain forms are considered. The Multi Layer Perceptron (MLP) is configured with inputs in several forms to learn class information obtained using clustering and manual labeling. DNNs are also used to extract specific sentence types. Initially, from a large storage, relevant samples are selected and assimilated. Next, a few conventional methods are used for feature extraction of a few selected types. The features comprise of both spectral and prosodic types. These are applied to Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) and Fully Focused Time Delay Neural Network (FFTDNN) structures to evaluate their performance in recognizing mood, dialect, speaker and gender variations in dialectal Assamese speech. The system is tested under several background noise conditions by considering the recognition rates (obtained using confusion matrices and manually) and computation time

  9. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kandioller@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Six thiosalicylate-based ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) were newly synthesized. • ILs showed good extraction of cadmium, copper, and zinc. • Phosphonium ILs showed better extraction efficiencies than their ammonium counterparts. - Abstract: This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1–24 h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P{sub 66614}][BTB] exclusively.

  10. Efficient sparse kernel feature extraction based on partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanjal, Charanpal; Gunn, Steve R; Shawe-Taylor, John

    2009-08-01

    The presence of irrelevant features in training data is a significant obstacle for many machine learning tasks. One approach to this problem is to extract appropriate features and, often, one selects a feature extraction method based on the inference algorithm. Here, we formalize a general framework for feature extraction, based on Partial Least Squares, in which one can select a user-defined criterion to compute projection directions. The framework draws together a number of existing results and provides additional insights into several popular feature extraction methods. Two new sparse kernel feature extraction methods are derived under the framework, called Sparse Maximal Alignment (SMA) and Sparse Maximal Covariance (SMC), respectively. Key advantages of these approaches include simple implementation and a training time which scales linearly in the number of examples. Furthermore, one can project a new test example using only k kernel evaluations, where k is the output dimensionality. Computational results on several real-world data sets show that SMA and SMC extract features which are as predictive as those found using other popular feature extraction methods. Additionally, on large text retrieval and face detection data sets, they produce features which match the performance of the original ones in conjunction with a Support Vector Machine.

  11. Behavior Based Social Dimensions Extraction for Multi-Label Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Xu, Junyi; Xiao, Weidong; Ge, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Classification based on social dimensions is commonly used to handle the multi-label classification task in heterogeneous networks. However, traditional methods, which mostly rely on the community detection algorithms to extract the latent social dimensions, produce unsatisfactory performance when community detection algorithms fail. In this paper, we propose a novel behavior based social dimensions extraction method to improve the classification performance in multi-label heterogeneous networks. In our method, nodes' behavior features, instead of community memberships, are used to extract social dimensions. By introducing Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) to model the network generation process, nodes' connection behaviors with different communities can be extracted accurately, which are applied as latent social dimensions for classification. Experiments on various public datasets reveal that the proposed method can obtain satisfactory classification results in comparison to other state-of-the-art methods on smaller social dimensions.

  12. A Robust Non-Blind Watermarking Technique for Color Video Based on Combined DWT-DFT Transforms and SVD Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeesh B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The rise of popularity of Digital video in the past decade has been tremendous thereby leading to malicious copying and distribution. So the need for preservation of ownership and in tackling copyright issues has become an imminent issue. Digital Video Watermarking has been in existence as a solution for this. The paper proposes a non-blind watermarking technique based on combined DWT-DFT transforms using singular values of SVD matrix in YCbCr color space. The technique uses Fibonacci series for selection of frames to enhance security and thereby maintaining quality of original video. Watermark encryption is done by scrambling the watermark using Arnold transform. Geometric and non-geometric attacks on watermarked video have been performed to test the robustness of the proposed technique. Quality of watermarked video is measured using PSNR and NC gives the similarity between extracted and the original watermark.

  13. How Laboratory Sampling Techniques and Extraction Methods Affect Reproducibility of PAH Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    Original Extraction Soxhlet US Army Corps of Engineers 4th Serial Extraction by Sonication US Army Corps of Engineers 654321 250000 200000 150000 100000...n z o ( a ) p y r e n e Scatterplot of Benzo (a) pyrene vs Extraction US Army Corps of Engineers Skeet Serial Extraction in mg/Kg Analyte...Army Corps of Engineers Field Sample Serial Extraction Analyte Sample A Sample B Benzo (a) pyrene 0.12% 0.03% Extraction Efficiency Extraction Method

  14. Perceptual Object Extraction Based on Saliency and Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaorong Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Object-based visual attention has received an increasing interest in recent years. Perceptual object is the basic attention unit of object-based visual attention. The definition and extraction of perceptual objects is one of the key technologies in object-based visual attention computation model. A novel perceptual object definition and extraction method is proposed in this paper. Based on Gestalt theory and visual feature integration theory, perceptual object is defined using homogeneity region, salient region and edges. An improved saliency map generating algorithm is employed first. Based on the saliency map, salient edges are extracted. Then graph-based clustering algorithm is introduced to get homogeneity regions in the image. Finally an integration strategy is adopted to combine salient edges and homogeneity regions to extract perceptual objects. The proposed perceptual object extraction method has been tested on lots of natural images. Experiment results and analysis are presented in this paper also. Experiment results show that the proposed method is reasonable and valid.

  15. Extraction of convective cloud parameters from Doppler Weather Radar MAX(Z) product using Image Processing Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, M. S.; Puli, Anil; Anuradha, B.

    2016-07-01

    In the present work continuous extraction of convective cloud optical information and reflectivity (MAX(Z) in dBZ) using online retrieval technique for time series data production from Doppler Weather Radar (DWR) located at Indian Meteorological Department, Chennai has been developed in MATLAB. Reflectivity measurements for different locations within the DWR range of 250 Km radii of circular disc area can be retrieved using this technique. It gives both time series reflectivity of point location and also Range Time Intensity (RTI) maps of reflectivity for the corresponding location. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) developed for the cloud reflectivity is user friendly; it also provides the convective cloud optical information such as cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud optical depth (COD). This technique is also applicable for retrieving other DWR products such as Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ), Plan Position Indicator (Z, in dBZ)-Close Range, Volume Velocity Processing (V, in knots), Plan Position Indicator (V, in m/s), Surface Rainfall Intensity (SRI, mm/hr), Precipitation Accumulation (PAC) 24 hrs at 0300UTC. Keywords: Reflectivity, cloud top height, cloud base, cloud optical depth

  16. PDGI-BASED REGULAR SWEPT SURFACE EXTRACTION FROM POINT CLOUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiangxiong; KE Yinglin; LI An; ZHU Weidong

    2006-01-01

    A principal direction Gaussian image (PDGI)-based algorithm is proposed to extract the regular swept surface from point cloud. Firstly, the PDGI of the regular swept surface is constructed from point cloud, then the bounding box of the Gaussian sphere is uniformly partitioned into a number of small cubes (3D grids) and the PDGI points on the Gaussian sphere are associated with the corresponding 3D grids. Secondly, cluster analysis technique is used to sort out a group of 3D grids containing more PDGI points among the 3D grids. By the connected-region growing algorithm, the congregation point or the great circle is detected from the 3D grids. Thus the translational direction is determined by the congregation point and the direction of the rotational axis is determined by the great circle. In addition, the positional point of the rotational axis is obtained by the intersection of all the projected normal lines of the rotational surface on the plane being perpendicular to the estimated direction of the rotational axis. Finally, a pattern search method is applied to optimize the translational direction and the rotational axis. Some experiments are used to illustrate the feasibility of the above algorithm.

  17. Moving Target Information Extraction Based on Single Satellite Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Shihu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and time variant effects in high resolution satellite push broom imaging are analyzed. A spatial and time variant imaging model is established. A moving target information extraction method is proposed based on a single satellite remote sensing image. The experiment computes two airplanes' flying speed using ZY-3 multispectral image and proves the validity of spatial and time variant model and moving information extracting method.

  18. Cadmium phytoavailability in soils and evaluation of extractant effectiveness using an isotope technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guerra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of land are nowadays contaminated by heavy metals and, it is therefore, important to monitor their levels in soils. Vegetables act as transfer mechanisms of such contaminants from soils to higher levels in the food chain. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of chemical extractants by the L-value method for Cd phytoavailability using the 109Cd radionuclide. In a greenhouse experiment, rocket plants (Eruca sativa L. were cultivated in pots with samples from Typic Hapludox and Typic Quartzipsamment soils. Cadmium concentrations ranging from 0 to 16 mg kg-1 were added to a 200 mL solution containing 148 kBq 109Cd. The available Cd in the soil was extracted by DTPA, Mehlich-1, Mehlich-3, and a mixture of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and oxalic acids. Cd concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and 109Cd radionuclide activity was measured by low-level β-counting. The dry matter yield was not influenced by Cd rates, but the Cd content and accumulation in shoots had a positive linear correlation. Generally, Cd was extracted in higher quantities by Mehlich-1 followed by DTPA, Mehlich-3, and organic acids. A linear correlation was found between the chemical extractants and Cd accumulation in shoots for both soils. According to the L Ratio, the extractants based on strong acids and chelating agents presented low efficiency regarding Cd phytoavailability. The organic acids, which presented values close to the L-value, may provide a promising method for evaluating environmental contaminants.

  19. Plumbagin quantification in roots of Plumbago scandens L. obtained by different extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma R. de Paiva

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The Plumbago genus belongs to the Plumbaginaceae family and it is known due to its variety of biological uses, most of them attributed to the presence of naphthoquinones. Plumbagin is a naturally occurring naphthoquinone that can be obtained from roots of Plumbago scandens L. In order to find out the better technique for plumbagin extraction, were applied: static maceration, dynamic maceration, with assistance of ultrasonic waves and in Soxhlet apparatus. Four compounds were qualitatively detected in all extracts: the naphthoquinones plumbagin and epi-isoshinanolone, palmitic acid and sitosterol. Plumbagin was always the major component in all analyzed extracts and it was quantitatively determined by gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer. Soxhlet was the most efficient extraction technique however, prolonged heating time promoted plumbagin degradation.O gênero Plumbago pertence à família Plumbaginaceae e apresenta uma variedade de atividades biológicas, a maioria atribuída à presença de naftoquinonas. Plumbagina é uma naftoquinona natural que pode ser obtida a partir de raízes de Plumbago scandens L. Na tentativa de descobrir a melhor técnica de extração dessa substância foram usadas, maceração estática, maceração dinâmica, extração com auxílio de ultrassom e extração em Soxhlet. Quatro substâncias foram detectadas qualitativamente: as naftoquinonas plumbagina e epi-isoshinanolona, o ácido palmítico e o sitosterol. Plumbagina foi sempre o componente majoritário em todos os extratos analisados e sua determinação quantitativa foi realizada através de cromatografia com fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A extração em Soxhlet foi a técnica mais eficiente para obtenção de plumbagina, entretanto a longa exposição a temperaturas elevadas favoreceu a degradação da plumbagina.

  20. Extraction and recovery technique for myxozoan parasites from the Piaractus mesopotamicus kidney embedded in paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson G. Manrique

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tissues fixed and embedded in paraffin for histopathological studies keep their cell characteristics. There are several protocols for extracting genetic material from tissue embedded in paraffin, but there is no protocol for material aimed at the direct identification of parasites. The lack of techniques which describe the recovery of parasites from tissue embedded in paraffin has led us to test a technique for recovering myxosporean parasites found in Piaractus mesopotamicus kidney fragments embedded in paraffin, for a rapid, direct, and economic identification. Once the excess paraffin was removed from the kidney fragment, this was deparaffinized in xylene, hydrated in 70% alcohol, placed in an Eppendorf tube containing 70% alcohol, and left under vigorous and constant agitation in a vortex until the tissue was disintegrated. The precipitated material was mixed with the 70% alcohol and 20 μL were collected for preparing the smears, which were stained with Giemsa. Myxobolus sp. spores at many developmental stages were observed by light microscopy. The technique has proved to be useful for recovering myxosporean parasites from tissue embedded in paraffin and it constitutes an effective tool for prevalence studies when the myxosporean parasites are not detected in fresh mounts.

  1. Social network extraction and analysis based on multimodal dyadic interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalera, Sergio; Baró, Xavier; Vitrià, Jordi; Radeva, Petia; Raducanu, Bogdan

    2012-01-01

    Social interactions are a very important component in people's lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times' Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links' weights are a measure of the "influence" a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  2. Social Network Extraction and Analysis Based on Multimodal Dyadic Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Raducanu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Social interactions are a very important component in people’s lives. Social network analysis has become a common technique used to model and quantify the properties of social interactions. In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to explore the characteristics of a social network extracted from multimodal dyadic interactions. For our study, we used a set of videos belonging to New York Times’ Blogging Heads opinion blog. The Social Network is represented as an oriented graph, whose directed links are determined by the Influence Model. The links’ weights are a measure of the “influence” a person has over the other. The states of the Influence Model encode automatically extracted audio/visual features from our videos using state-of-the art algorithms. Our results are reported in terms of accuracy of audio/visual data fusion for speaker segmentation and centrality measures used to characterize the extracted social network.

  3. Extracting Objects and Events from MPEG Videos for Highlight-based Indexing and Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchang Ren

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of highlights from videos is a fundamental and challenging problem for content-based indexing and retrieval applications. In this paper, we propose techniques to solve this problem using knowledge supported extraction of semantics, and compressed-domain processing is employed for efficiency. Firstly, knowledgebased rules are utilized for shot detection on extracted DCimages, and statistical skin detection is applied for human object detection. Secondly, through filtering outliers in motion vectors, improved detection of camera motions like zooming, panning and tilting are achieved. Video highlight high-level semantics are then automatically extracted via low-level analysis in the detection of human objects and camera motion events, and finally these highlights are taken for shot-level annotation, indexing and retrieval. Results using a large test video data set have demonstrated the accuracy and robustness of the proposed techniques.

  4. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples.

  5. Level Sets and Voronoi based Feature Extraction from any Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, O.; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2012-01-01

    Polygon features are of interest in many GEOProcessing applications like shoreline mapping, boundary delineation, change detection, etc. This paper presents a unique new GPU-based methodology to automate feature extraction combining level sets, or mean shift based segmentation together with Voronoi...

  6. Comparative studies of the static and dynamic headspace extraction of saturated short chain aldehydes from cellulose-based packaging materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzl, T; Lankmayr, E P

    2002-03-01

    Aldehydes in cellulose-based materials such as cardboard are derived from lipid degradation. Depending on the production- and storage conditions of the cardboard, the aldehyde content changes. Owing to their sensorial properties, accurate control of their content is obligatory. The cardboard usually exhibits strong and even varying matrix effects and considerable inhomogeneity. The comparability of results of analysis after static and dynamic headspace extraction of short chained saturated aldehydes from cellulose-based matrices was studied. In the case of the static extraction technique, special attention was given to the establishment of the headspace equilibrium, which could be reached by the addition of water as a displacer. For dynamic headspace extraction, the volatiles were purged from the matrix by an inert gas and enriched on an adsorbent trap. In theory, the extraction yield should be 100%. Since there are no certified reference materials for verification of the extraction efficiency available, confirmation was achieved by determining the total amount of analytes in the sample by means of multiple headspace extraction.In comparison to the static operation mode, the major drawbacks of the dynamic technique were found to be based on a more complex parameter string and on limitations to the extractable sample quantities, which may result in enhanced uncertainty of the measurements. Nevertheless, the results of analysis pointed out that both headspace extraction techniques are suitable for the determination of volatile aldehydes from cellulose-based materials.

  7. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  8. Apect-Based Opinion Extraction From Customer Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amani K Samha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Text is the main method of communicating informatio n in the digital age. Messages, blogs, news articles, reviews, and opinionated information abounds on the Internet. People commonly purchase products online and post their opinions ab out purchased items. This feedback is displayed publicly to assist others with their purc hasing decisions, creating the need for a mechanism with which to extract and summarize usefu l information for enhancing the decision- making process. Our contribution is to improve the accuracy of extraction by combining different techniques from three major areas, namedD ata Mining, Natural Language Processing techniques and Ontologies. The proposed framework sequentially mines product’s aspects and users’ opinions, groups representative aspects by s imilarity, and generates an output summary. This paper focuses on the task of extracting produc t aspects and users’ opinions by extracting all possible aspects and opinions from reviews usin g natural language, ontology, and frequent “tag”sets. The proposed framework, when compared w ith an existing baseline model, yielded promising results.

  9. Phase extraction based on sinusoidal extreme strip phase shifting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Mei; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Zhao, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    Multiple synthetic aperture imaging can enlarge pupil diameter of optical systems, and increase system resolution. Multiple synthetic aperture imaging is a cutting-edge topic and research focus in recent years, which is prospectively widely applied in fields like astronomical observations and aerospace remote sensing. In order to achieve good imaging quality, synthetic aperture imaging system requires phase extraction of each sub-aperture and co-phasing of whole aperture. In the project, an in-depth study about basic principles and methods of segments phase extraction was done. The study includes: application of sinusoidal extreme strip light irradiation phase shift method to extract the central dividing line to get segment phase extraction information, and the use of interference measurement to get the aperture phase extraction calibration coefficients of spherical surface. Study about influence of sinusoidal extreme strip phase shift on phase extraction, and based on sinusoidal stripe phase shift from multiple linear light sources of the illumination reflected image, to carry out the phase shift error for inhibiting the effect in the phase extracted frame.

  10. Review of Physical Based Monitoring Techniques for Condition Assessment of Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the condition of steel corrosion in reinforced concrete (RC is imperative for structural durability. In the past decades, many electrochemistry based techniques have been developed for monitoring steel corrosion. However, these electrochemistry techniques can only assess steel corrosion through monitoring the surrounding concrete medium. As alternative tools, some physical based techniques have been proposed for accurate condition assessment of steel corrosion through direct measurements on embedded steels. In this paper, some physical based monitoring techniques developed in the last decade for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are reviewed. In particular, techniques based on ultrasonic guided wave (UGW and Fiber Bragg grating (FBG are emphasized. UGW based technique is first reviewed, including important characters of UGW, corrosion monitoring mechanism and feature extraction, monitoring corrosion induced deboning, pitting, interface roughness, and influence factors. Subsequently, FBG for monitoring corrosion in RC is reviewed. The studies and application of the FBG based corrosion sensor developed by the authors are presented. Other physical techniques for monitoring corrosion in RC are also introduced. Finally, the challenges and future trends in the development of physical based monitoring techniques for condition assessment of steel corrosion in RC are put forward.

  11. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Henderson

    Full Text Available Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However

  12. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Kittelmann, Sandra; Miri, Vahideh Heidarian; Zethof, Michael; Noel, Samantha J; Waghorn, Garry C; Janssen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However, comparison of data

  13. Model-based detector and extraction of weak signal frequencies from chaotic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangtao; Cai, Tianxing; Heng Lai, Choy; Wang, Xingang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2008-03-01

    Detecting a weak signal from chaotic time series is of general interest in science and engineering. In this work we introduce and investigate a signal detection algorithm for which chaos theory, nonlinear dynamical reconstruction techniques, neural networks, and time-frequency analysis are put together in a synergistic manner. By applying the scheme to numerical simulation and different experimental measurement data sets (Henon map, chaotic circuit, and NH(3) laser data sets), we demonstrate that weak signals hidden beneath the noise floor can be detected by using a model-based detector. Particularly, the signal frequencies can be extracted accurately in the time-frequency space. By comparing the model-based method with the standard denoising wavelet technique as well as supervised principal components analysis detector, we further show that the nonlinear dynamics and neural network-based approach performs better in extracting frequencies of weak signals hidden in chaotic time series.

  14. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  15. Path Based Mapping Technique for Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiraj Dhawan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explore a new way of autonomous mapping. Current systems using perception techniques like LAZER or SONAR use probabilistic methods and have a drawback of allowing considerable uncertainty in the mapping process. Our approach is to break down the environment, specifically indoor, into reachable areas and objects, separated by boundaries, and identifying their shape, to render various navigable paths around them. This is a novel method to do away with uncertainties, as far as possible, at the cost of temporal efficiency. Also this system demands only minimum and cheap hardware, as it relies on only Infra-Red sensors to do the job.

  16. PIE: A Dynamic Failure-Based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic technique for statistically estimating three program characteristics that affect a program's computational behavior: (1) the probability that a particular section of a program is executed, (2) the probability that the particular section affects the data state, and (3) the probability that a data state produced by that section has an effect on program output. These three characteristics can be used to predict whether faults are likely to be uncovered by software testing. Index Terms: Software testing, data state, fault, failure, testability. 1 Introduction

  17. Feature extraction for deep neural networks based on decision boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Seongyoun; Lee, Chulhee

    2017-05-01

    Feature extraction is a process used to reduce data dimensions using various transforms while preserving the discriminant characteristics of the original data. Feature extraction has been an important issue in pattern recognition since it can reduce the computational complexity and provide a simplified classifier. In particular, linear feature extraction has been widely used. This method applies a linear transform to the original data to reduce the data dimensions. The decision boundary feature extraction method (DBFE) retains only informative directions for discriminating among the classes. DBFE has been applied to various parametric and non-parametric classifiers, which include the Gaussian maximum likelihood classifier (GML), the k-nearest neighbor classifier, support vector machines (SVM) and neural networks. In this paper, we apply DBFE to deep neural networks. This algorithm is based on the nonparametric version of DBFE, which was developed for neural networks. Experimental results with the UCI database show improved classification accuracy with reduced dimensionality.

  18. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuanxue; Ming, Chengguo; Qin, Yueting

    A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed.

  19. Investigation of The Bubble Foam Separation Technique To Extract Protein From Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Matouq

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Separation of proteins from whey; namely α- Lactoglobulin and β-Lactalbumin was obtained using the bubble foam column technique. Two types of whey were conducted in this study; yogurt whey and cheese whey. The effect of gas flow-rate and the height of the whey (liquid holdup inside the column were studied at room temperature and at constant pH of whey. Whey used here obtained from local dairy factory as waste, and was used to investigate the performance ability of bubble column to extract very low concentration portion from waste. Enrichment ratio showed that the possibility of extracting protein from whey was high. Results showed that enrichment ration was higher for yogurt whey from that of cheese whey. The results also showed that the efficiency of separation of these proteins increased with decreasing both the air flow-rate, and wheys volume inside the column. The maximum amount of protein obtained at air flow-rate = 0.2 Liter/ min at experimental condition.

  20. Systematic comparison of RNA extraction techniques from frozen and fresh lung tissues: checkpoint towards gene expression studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifart Carola

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliability of gene expression profiling-based technologies to detect transcriptional differences representative of the original samples is affected by the quality of the extracted RNA. It strictly depends upon the technique that has been employed. Hence, the present study aimed at systematically comparing silica-gel column (SGC and guanidine isothiocyanate (GTC techniques of RNA isolation to answer the question which technique is preferable when frozen, long-term stored or fresh lung tissues have to be evaluated for the downstream molecular analysis. Methods Frozen lungs (n = 3 were prepared by long-term storage (2.5 yrs in -80°C while fresh lungs (n = 3 were harvested and processed immediately. The purity and quantification of RNA was determined with a spectrophotometer whereas the total amounted copy numbers of target sequences were determined with iCycler detection system for assessment of RNA intactness (28S and 18S and fragment sizes, i.e. short (GAPDH-3' UTR, medium (GAPDH, and long (PBGD with 200 bp, 700 bp, and 1400 bp distance to the 3'ends of mRNA motif, respectively. Results Total yield of RNA was higher with GTC than SGC technique in frozen as well as fresh tissues while the purity of RNA remained comparable. The quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction data revealed that higher mean copy numbers of 28S and a longer fragment (1400 bp were obtained from RNA isolated with SGC than GTC technique using fresh as well as frozen tissues. Additionally, a high mean copy number of 18S and medium fragment (700 bp were obtained in RNA isolated with SGC technique from fresh tissues, only. For the shorter fragment, no significant differences between both techniques were noticed. Conclusion Our data demonstrated that although the GTC technique has yielded a higher amount of RNA, the SGC technique was much more superior with respect to the reliable generation of an intact RNA and effectively amplified

  1. Comparison of Vibration-Based Damage Assessment Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Rytter, A.

    1995-01-01

    Three different vibration-based damage assessment techniques have been compared. One of the techniques uses the ratios between changes in experimentally and theoretically estimated natural frequencies, respectively, to locate a damage. The second technique relies on updating of a finite element m...

  2. Feature extraction and classification for EEG signals using wavelet transform and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hafeez Ullah; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Badruddin, Nasreen; Kamel, Nidal; Hussain, Muhammad; Chooi, Weng-Tink

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a discrete wavelet transform-based feature extraction scheme for the classification of EEG signals. In this scheme, the discrete wavelet transform is applied on EEG signals and the relative wavelet energy is calculated in terms of detailed coefficients and the approximation coefficients of the last decomposition level. The extracted relative wavelet energy features are passed to classifiers for the classification purpose. The EEG dataset employed for the validation of the proposed method consisted of two classes: (1) the EEG signals recorded during the complex cognitive task--Raven's advance progressive metric test and (2) the EEG signals recorded in rest condition--eyes open. The performance of four different classifiers was evaluated with four performance measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and precision values. The accuracy was achieved above 98 % by the support vector machine, multi-layer perceptron and the K-nearest neighbor classifiers with approximation (A4) and detailed coefficients (D4), which represent the frequency range of 0.53-3.06 and 3.06-6.12 Hz, respectively. The findings of this study demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction approach has the potential to classify the EEG signals recorded during a complex cognitive task by achieving a high accuracy rate.

  3. In vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation of antiviral medicinal plants using a vector-based assay technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esimone, C O; Grunwald, T; Wildner, O; Nchinda, G; Tippler, B; Proksch, P; Uberla, K

    2005-01-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly being projected as suitable alternative sources of antiviral agents. The development of a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic screening technique could contribute to rapid identification of potential bioactive plants and also to the standardization and/or pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic profiling of the bioactive components. Recombinant viral vectors (lentiviral, retroviral and adenoviral) transferring the firefly luciferase gene were constructed and the inhibition of viral vector infectivity by various concentrations of plant extracts was evaluated in HeLa or Hep2 cells by measuring the changes in luciferase activity. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated in parallel on HeLa or Hep2 cells stably expressing luciferase. Amongst the 15 extracts screened, only the methanol (ME) and the ethyl acetate (ET) fractions of the lichen, Ramalina farinacea specifically reduced lentiviral and adenoviral infectivity in a dose-dependent manner. Further, chromatographic fractionation of ET into four fractions (ET1-ET4) revealed only ET4 to be selectively antiviral with an IC50 in the 20 microg ml(-1) range. Preliminary mechanistic studies based on the addition of the extracts at different time points in the viral infection cycle (kinetic studies) revealed that the inhibitory activity was highest if extract and vectors were preincubated prior to infection, suggesting that early steps in the lentiviral or adenoviral replication cycle could be the major target of ET4. Inhibition of wild-type HIV-1 was also observed at a 10-fold lower concentration of the extract. The vector-based assay is a suitable in vitro pharmacodynamic evaluation technique for antiviral medicinal plants. The technique has successfully demonstrated the presence of antiviral principles in R. farinacea. Potential anti-HIV medicinal plants could rapidly be evaluated with the reported vector-based technique. The lichen, R. farinacea could represent a lead source of antiviral

  4. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Zaixiang; Wang, Hongxin; Zhu, Song; Chen, Shangwei; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Zhouping

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5h to 30s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  5. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lou Zaixiang, E-mail: louzaixiang@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Wang Hongxin, E-mail: whx200720082009@yahoo.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China); Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi 214122 (China)

    2012-02-24

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid-liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8-17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  6. Superelasticity of Cu-Ni-Al shape-memory fibers prepared by melt extraction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-yue Li; Shu-ling Zhang; Wei-bing Liao; Gui-hong Geng; Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, a melt extraction method was used to fabricate Cu–4Ni–14Al (wt%) fiber materials with diameters between 50 and 200 μm. The fibers exhibited superelasticity and temperature-induced martensitic transformation. The microstructures and superelasticity behavior of the fibers were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Ap-propriate heat treatment further improves the plasticity of Cu-based alloys. The serration behavior observed during the loading process is due to the multiple martensite phase transformation.

  7. Superelasticity of Cu-Ni-Al shape-memory fibers prepared by melt extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-yue; Zhang, Shu-ling; Liao, Wei-bing; Geng, Gui-hong; Zhang, Yong

    2016-08-01

    In the paper, a melt extraction method was used to fabricate Cu-4Ni-14Al (wt%) fiber materials with diameters between 50 and 200 μm. The fibers exhibited superelasticity and temperature-induced martensitic transformation. The microstructures and superelasticity behavior of the fibers were studied via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and a dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA), respectively. Appropriate heat treatment further improves the plasticity of Cu-based alloys. The serration behavior observed during the loading process is due to the multiple martensite phase transformation.

  8. Feature Extraction for the Analysis of Multi-Channel EEG Signals Using Hilbert- Huang Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahipal Singh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research article seeks to propose a Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT based novel feature extraction approach for the analysis of multi-channel EEG signals using its local time scale features. The applicability of this recently developed HHT based new features has been investigated in the analysis of multi-channel EEG signals for classifying a small set of non-motor cognitive task. HHT is combination of multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD and Hilbert transform (HT. At the first stage, multi-channel EEG signals (6 channels per trial per task per subject corresponding to a small set of nonmotor mental task were decomposed by using MEMD algorithm. This gives rise to adaptive i.e. data driven decomposition of the data into twelve mono component oscillatory modes known as intrinsic mode functions (IMFs and one residue function. These generated intrinsic mode functions (IMFs are multivariate i.e. mode aligned and narrowband. From the generated IMFs, most sensitive IMF has been chosen by analysing their power spectrum. Since IMFs are amplitude and frequency modulated, the chosen IMF has been analysed through their instantaneous amplitude (IA and instantaneous frequency (IF i.e. local features extracted by applying Hilbert transform on them. Finally, the discriminatory power of these local features has been investigated through statistical significance test using paired t-test. The analysis results clearly support the potential of these local features for classifying different cognitive task in EEG based Brain –Computer Interface (BCI system.

  9. Extracting clinical information to support medical decision based on standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoi, Valentin; Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Stoicu-Tivadar, Vasile

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a method connecting medical databases to a medical decision system, and describes a service created to extract the necessary information that is transferred based on standards. The medical decision can be improved based on many inputs from different medical locations. The developed solution is described for a concrete case concerning the management for chronic pelvic pain, based on the information retrieved from diverse healthcare databases.

  10. A HOS-based Blind Signal Extraction Method for Chaotic MIMO Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yun-rui; HE Di; HE Chen; JIANG Ling-ge

    2008-01-01

    A novel method to extract multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) chaotic signals was pro-posed using the blind neural algorithm after transmitting in nonideal channel. The MIMO scheme with different chaotic signal generators was presented. In order to separate the chaotic source signals only by using the sensor signals at receivers, a blind neural extraction algorithm based on higher-order statistic (HOS) technique was used to recover the primary chaotic signals. Simulation results show that the proposed approach has good performance in separating the primary chaotic signals even under nonideal channel.

  11. A theoretical extraction scheme of transport information based on exclusion models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua; Du Lei; Qu Cheng-Li; Li Wei-Hua; He Liang; Chen Wen-Hao; Sun Peng

    2010-01-01

    In order to explore how to extract more transport information from current fluctuation, a theoretical extraction scheme is presented in a single barrier structure based on exclusion models, which include counter-flows model and tunnel model. The first four cumulants of these two exclusion models are computed in a single barrier structure, and their characteristics are obtained. A scheme with the help of the first three cumulants is devised to check a transport process to follow the counter-flows model, the tunnel model or neither of them. Time series generated by Monte Carlo techniques is adopted to validate the abstraction procedure, and the result is reasonable.

  12. Consistency in Al/CuPc/ n-Si Heterojunction Diode Parameters Extracted Using Different Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Irfan; Shah, Mutabar; Khan, Majid; Wahab, Fazal

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports fabrication and characterization of an Al/CuPc/ n-Si heterojunction diode. The heterojunction was fabricated by depositing the active organic semiconducting material copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) on the n-Si substrate using the thermal vacuum evaporation technique. Electrical characterization of the fabricated heterojunction was carried out at ambient conditions. Various diode parameters, such as the ideality factor ( n), barrier height (Φ_{{b}}), and series resistance ( R s), were extracted from the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic curve. These parameters are consistent with techniques used by Cheung, Norde and Hernandez et al. Furthermore these parameters are consistent with capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterization method. The conduction mechanism at the interface of CuPc and n-Si was also investigated. The surface morphology of the CuPc film was studied using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The optical bandgap of the CuPc film was calculated from the absorption spectrum using Tauc's law.

  13. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Ocimum basilicum and Ocimum sanctum: Extraction Techniques and Urease and alpha-Amylase inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *S. Khair-ul-Bariyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, two important medicinal plants of genus Ocimum, O. basilicum and O.sanctum have been compared in a number of phytochemical parameters. Effect of extraction techniques, solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and hydro-distillation, on the yield in different solvents have been investigated. Hydro-distillation gave a better yield of more volatile components than hexane fraction of the other two techniques. Both the plants showed good urease inhibitory activity. Hydro-distillate was stronger inhibitor than hexane or methanolic extracts of solvent or Soxhlet extractions. The extracts of O. basilicumshowed a greater urease activity than extracts of O. sanctum.Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of O. basilicum was also higher than that of O. sanctum. Notably, the synergistic effect of the extracts of the two plants was much higher than their individual efficacy against alpha-amylase. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration. Both the species had almost equal air pollution tolerance index (APTI with O. basilicum(10.558 having slightly higher value than O. sanctum (9.202.Both plants contained alkaloids and phenolics. Both the plants also had almost same nutritional values.

  15. The base line problem in DLTS technique

    OpenAIRE

    G. Couturier; Thabti, A.; Barrière, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a solution to suppress the base line problem in DLTS spectroscopy using a lock-in amplifier. The method has been used to characterize deep levels in a GaAs Schottky diode. Comparison with the classical method based on the use of a capacitance meter in the differential mode is established. The electric field dependence of the DLTS signal in a weakly doped semiconductor is also reported and proves the efficiency of the method. Finally, the data process is discussed.

  16. Synergistic extraction and separation of Co(II)/Ni(II) by solvent extraction technique using TIOA/TOPO as carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okatan, Ahmet; Eyüpoǧlu, Volkan; Kumbasar, Recep Ali; Turgut, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Cobalt and its compounds have wide range applications in some industrial and technological fields. These metals show excellent resistance to oxidation and corrosion under extreme conditions. However, these metals found together within metal ores in nature. This situation makes their separation difficult from each other. They have very similar physical and chemical properties making them very hard to be purified with using traditional separation pathways. Moreover, increasing supply-demand gap between them and decreasing valuable ores because of limited deposit in earth crust have been limited the sources of them. Under the light of this knowledge, one of the practical solutions should be produced to recycle cobalt and nickel from solid and liquid waste containing trace amounts of them. In this study, we investigated the selective and the synergistic cobalt extraction from acidic aqueous solutions by solvent extraction using tri-iso-octylamine (TIOA) and Tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO) as carriers. The effective parameters on the extraction and the stripping of the cobalt were investigated, and optimum synergistic extraction and stripping conditions were identified. The cobalt extraction from aqueous Co/Ni solutions in various molar concentrations was examined in the optimum conditions to determine the synergism between TIOA and TOPO.

  17. 加速溶剂萃取技术分析谷物中的油脂含量综合研究型实验%A comprehensive experiment of analysing oil content in soy food based on accelerated solvent extraction technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶佳; 杭义萍; 龚华清

    2016-01-01

    从研究型教学的理念出发,开设了“加速溶剂萃取技术分析谷物中的油脂含量”综合研究型实验。阐述了实验选题的目的和意义、实验设计的原理、内容以及实验结果。该实验选题新颖、具有较强的实用性,学生的参与热情较高,能够帮助学生全方位学习实际样品的前处理的原理与分析方法,拓宽学生的视野,培养学生的工程意识。该实验样品成本较低、安全性较高,可作为大学综合化学实验进行推广。%Considering the requirements of high quality food in modern life and the concept of research‐based teaching ,this paper proposes a comprehensive research experiment focused on “The analysis of oil content in soy food based on the accelerated solvent extraction technique ,” the designed mechanism ,content and results are discussed in detail . The teaching practice shows that this novel experiments have not only a strong practicability ,but also a great appeal for students .This lesson could assist the students in studying the pre‐treatment of real samples ,analytical methods and data processing software comprehensively .In addition ,it could broaden students’ horizons and cultivates the students’ engineering consciousness . The sample in experiments is low cost and high safety ,it is suitable to be used as the teaching content of comprehensive analytical chemistry experiment .

  18. Ionic liquid-based ultrasonic/microwave-assisted extraction combined with UPLC-MS-MS for the determination of tannins in Galla chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunxia; Wang, Hongxin; Lv, Wenping; Ma, Chaoyang; Lou, Zaixiang; Xie, Jun; Liu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid was used as extraction solvents and applied to the extraction of tannins from Galla chinensis in the simultaneous ultrasonic- and microwave-assisted extraction (UMAE) technique. Several parameters of UMAE were optimised, and the results were compared with of the conventional extraction techniques. Under optimal conditions, the content of tannins was 630.2 ± 12.1 mg g⁻¹. Compared with the conventional heat-reflux extraction, maceration extraction, regular ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (11.7-22.0% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 6 h to 1 min). The tannins were then identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. This study suggests that ionic liquid-based UMAE is an efficient, rapid, simple and green sample preparation technique.

  19. Identification of threats using linguistics-based knowledge extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A.

    2008-09-01

    One of the challenges increasingly facing intelligence analysts, along with professionals in many other fields, is the vast amount of data which needs to be reviewed and converted into meaningful information, and ultimately into rational, wise decisions by policy makers. The advent of the world wide web (WWW) has magnified this challenge. A key hypothesis which has guided us is that threats come from ideas (or ideology), and ideas are almost always put into writing before the threats materialize. While in the past the 'writing' might have taken the form of pamphlets or books, today's medium of choice is the WWW, precisely because it is a decentralized, flexible, and low-cost method of reaching a wide audience. However, a factor which complicates matters for the analyst is that material published on the WWW may be in any of a large number of languages. In 'Identification of Threats Using Linguistics-Based Knowledge Extraction', we have sought to use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and other similar text analysis techniques to map documents from the WWW, in whatever language they were originally written, to a common language-independent vector-based representation. This then opens up a number of possibilities. First, similar documents can be found across language boundaries. Secondly, a set of documents in multiple languages can be visualized in a graphical representation. These alone offer potentially useful tools and capabilities to the intelligence analyst whose knowledge of foreign languages may be limited. Finally, we can test the over-arching hypothesis--that ideology, and more specifically ideology which represents a threat, can be detected solely from the words which express the ideology--by using the vector-based representation of documents to predict additional features (such as the ideology) within a framework based on supervised learning. In this report, we present the results of a three-year project of the same name. We believe

  20. Fault Detection of a Wheelset Bearing Based on Appropriately Sparse Impulse Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Convolution sparse representation (CSR is a novel compressive sensing technique proposed in 2016 and provides an excellent framework for extracting the impulses induced by bearing faults and the unevenness of wheel tread. However, its sparsity performance on extracting impulses is sensitive to the improper penalty parameter. So, a novel fault detection method, appropriately sparse impulse extraction, is proposed based on the combination of CSR, estimating the number of atom types (ENA, and crest factor. The type of atoms embedded in vibration signals is estimated by ENA. Aiming at the different types of atoms, the impulses with different sparse characteristic are spanned by CSR with different penalty parameters. The appropriately sparse impulses are selected for fault detection based on the maximal crest factor. The simulation validation, experiment verification, and practical application are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed appropriately sparse impulses extraction. These results show that the proposed appropriately sparse impulse extraction not only can obtain fault-characteristic frequency and its harmonics for fault judgment but also describes the dynamic behaviour between elementary defects and their matching surfaces. In addition, the proposed appropriately sparse impulse extraction can isolate the impulses with different types of atoms and is very suitable for detecting the wheelset bearing faults.

  1. Extraction of Micronutrient Metals from Peat-based Media Using Various Chelate-ligand and Iron-source Extractants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of the study were to determine effects of chelate-ligand (experiment 1) and iron-source (experiment 2) unbuffrered extractant solutions on substrate pH and Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn extraction from peat-based media. Chelate-ligand extractants consisted of 5 mM solutions of ethylenediaminedisucc...

  2. Wavelet-Based Techniques for the Gamma-Ray Sky

    CERN Document Server

    McDermott, Samuel D; Cholis, Ilias; Lee, Samuel K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the image analysis technique of wavelet decomposition can be applied to the gamma-ray sky to separate emission on different angular scales. New structures on scales that differ from the scales of the conventional astrophysical foreground and background uncertainties can be robustly extracted, allowing a model-independent characterization with no presumption of exact signal morphology. As a test case, we generate mock gamma-ray data to demonstrate our ability to extract extended signals without assuming a fixed spatial template. For some point source luminosity functions, our technique also allows us to differentiate a diffuse signal in gamma-rays from dark matter annihilation and extended gamma-ray point source populations in a data-driven way.

  3. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  4. Development of a flat membrane based device for electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Eibak, Lars Erik Eng; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a single-well electromembrane extraction (EME) device was developed based on a thin (100μm) and flat porous membrane of polypropylene supporting a liquid membrane. The new EME device was operated with a relatively large acceptor solution volume to promote a high recovery. Using this...

  5. Improving information extraction using a probability-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, K.

    2007-01-01

    or retire. It is becoming essential to retrieve vital information from archived product documents, if it is available. There is, therefore, great interest in ways of extracting relevant and sharable information from documents. A keyword-based search is commonly used, but studies have shown...

  6. Evaluation of Sorghum bicolor leaf base extract for gastrointestinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... The effects of acetylcholine and the leaf base extract were tested on the strips of ..... (0.04 - 5.12 mg/ml) contracted the smooth muscles of rat stomach ... motility drugs such as loperamide block the actions of castor oil and are ...

  7. Assessment of phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for correction of high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A El-Helw

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A El-Helw, Ahmed M EmarahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate various phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for the incidence of intraoperative difficulties and complications.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study in which bilateral clear lens extraction was performed on 40 eyes of 20 patients, to correct high myopia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A underwent supracapsular phacoaspiration; group B were the contralateral eyes of the same patient. These patients were operated on with endocapsular phacoaspiration with the divide and conquer (D and C technique. Preoperative ocular examination data were recorded and tested for significance. Intraoperative difficulties and complications such as nucleus cracking, capsule rupture and vitreous loss, and repeated chamber collapse were recorded. Postoperative examination data were recorded.Results: Mean age was 35.65 ± 5.85 years. Mean follow-up time was 17.1 ± 8.56 months. In group A mean myopia was -17.3 ± 5.07 diopters; in group B myopia was -17.9 ± 4.20 diopters. Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 0.04 ± 0.0167, while the mean postoperative UCVA was 0.435 ± 0.1442. There was a significant difference in pre and postoperative BCVA within both groups, but not between the two groups. In both groups endothelial cell count (ECC showed a significant difference between pre- and postoperative data; however, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups in postoperative ECC. The effective phacoaspiration time for group A was 4.6 ± 1.6 seconds, and for group B 9.90 ± 2.27 seconds (P < 0.005. No cases of capsule rupture occurred in group A, but 3 cases occurred in group B (15 % (not significant, P = 0.231. Nucleus cracking did not occur in group A, but in group B 13 cases occurred (65%. Chamber collapse occurred in 4 cases (20% in group A and 5 cases (25% in group B (not

  8. Gas purge-microsyringe extraction: a rapid and exhaustive direct microextraction technique of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Yang, Cui; Li, Huijie; Piao, Xiangfan; Li, Donghao

    2013-12-17

    Gas purge-microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE) is a rapid and exhaustive microextraction technique for volatile and semivolatile compounds. In this study, a theoretical system of GP-MSE was established by directly extracting and analyzing 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from plant samples. On the basis of theoretical consideration, a full factorial experimental design was first used to evaluate the main effects and interactions of the experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency. Further experiments were carried out to determine the extraction kinetics and desorption temperature-dependent. The results indicated that three factors, namely desorption temperature (temperature of sample phase) Td, extraction time t, and gas flow rate u, had a significantly positive effect on the extraction efficiency of GP-MSE for PAHs. Extraction processes of PAHs in plant samples followed by first-order kinetics (relative coefficient R(2) of simulation curves were 0.731-1.000, with an average of 0.958 and 4.06% relative standard deviation), and obviously depended on the desorption temperature. Furthermore, the effect of the matrix was determined from the difference in Eapp,d. Finally, satisfactory recoveries of 16 PAHs were obtained using optimal parameters. The study demonstrated that GP-MSE could provide a rapid and exhaustive means of direct extraction of PAHs from plant samples. The extraction kinetics were similar that of the inverse process of the desorption kinetics of the sample phase.

  9. An Automatic Building Extraction and Regularisation Technique Using LiDAR Point Cloud Data and Orthoimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Naqi Gilani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of robust and accurate methods for automatic building detection and regularisation using multisource data continues to be a challenge due to point cloud sparsity, high spectral variability, urban objects differences, surrounding complexity, and data misalignment. To address these challenges, constraints on object’s size, height, area, and orientation are generally benefited which adversely affect the detection performance. Often the buildings either small in size, under shadows or partly occluded are ousted during elimination of superfluous objects. To overcome the limitations, a methodology is developed to extract and regularise the buildings using features from point cloud and orthoimagery. The building delineation process is carried out by identifying the candidate building regions and segmenting them into grids. Vegetation elimination, building detection and extraction of their partially occluded parts are achieved by synthesising the point cloud and image data. Finally, the detected buildings are regularised by exploiting the image lines in the building regularisation process. Detection and regularisation processes have been evaluated using the ISPRS benchmark and four Australian data sets which differ in point density (1 to 29 points/m2, building sizes, shadows, terrain, and vegetation. Results indicate that there is 83% to 93% per-area completeness with the correctness of above 95%, demonstrating the robustness of the approach. The absence of over- and many-to-many segmentation errors in the ISPRS data set indicate that the technique has higher per-object accuracy. While compared with six existing similar methods, the proposed detection and regularisation approach performs significantly better on more complex data sets (Australian in contrast to the ISPRS benchmark, where it does better or equal to the counterparts.

  10. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2010-09-01

    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  11. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  12. An efficient approach for the extraction of orientin and vitexin from Trollius chinensis flowers using ultrasonic circulating technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Junling; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) approach was developed for effective extraction of orientin and vitexin from the flowers of Trollius chinensis successfully. In this study, some parameters potentially influencing the yields of orientin and vitexin were systematically investigated and optimized by Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken design, and the optimum operational conditions obtained were 60% ethanol volume fraction, 1000r/min stirring speed, 30°C temperature, 28min ultrasonic irradiation time, 10mL/g liquid-solid ratio and 738W ultrasonic irradiation power. Satisfactory yields of orientin (6.05±0.19mg/g) and vitexin (0.96±0.03mg/g) were obtained in a relatively shorter extraction time under the derived optimum conditions, compared to other ultrasonic extraction methods and heat extraction methods. The mechanism of UCE procedure was discussed in detail, to illustrate the advantage of UCE in the extraction process. In addition, no degradation of orientin and vitexin and high reproducibility of the developed UCE method were observed under the optimum conditions. The proposed UCE technique with high-capacity and circulation function is a rapid and efficient sample extraction technique, and performs promising in large-scale sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Segmentation of Color Images Based on Different Segmentation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnashti Bhosale

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an Color image segmentation algorithm based on different segmentation techniques. We recognize the background objects such as the sky, ground, and trees etc based on the color and texture information using various methods of segmentation. The study of segmentation techniques by using different threshold methods such as global and local techniques and they are compared with one another so as to choose the best technique for threshold segmentation. Further segmentation is done by using clustering method and Graph cut method to improve the results of segmentation.

  14. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD).

  15. Approach to extracting hot topics based on network traffic content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yadong ZHOU; Xiaohong GUAN; Qindong SUN; Wei LI; Jing TAO

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the formal definition and description of popular topics on the Internet,analyzes the relationship between popular words and topics,and finally introduces a method that uses statistics and correlation of the popular words in traffic content and network flow characteristics as input for extracting popular topics on the Internet.Based on this,this article adapts a clustering algorithm to extract popular topics and gives formalized results.The test results show that this method has an accuracy of 16.7% in extracting popular topics on the Internet.Compared with web mining and topic detection and tracking (TDT),it can provide a more suitable data source for effective recovery of Internet public opinions.

  16. Overlaid caption extraction in news video based on SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Manman; Su, Yuting; Ji, Zhong

    2007-11-01

    Overlaid caption in news video often carries condensed semantic information which is key cues for content-based video indexing and retrieval. However, it is still a challenging work to extract caption from video because of its complex background and low resolution. In this paper, we propose an effective overlaid caption extraction approach for news video. We first scan the video key frames using a small window, and then classify the blocks into the text and non-text ones via support vector machine (SVM), with statistical features extracted from the gray level co-occurrence matrices, the LH and HL sub-bands wavelet coefficients and the orientated edge intensity ratios. Finally morphological filtering and projection profile analysis are employed to localize and refine the candidate caption regions. Experiments show its high performance on four 30-minute news video programs.

  17. Characterization of green-tissue protein extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) exploiting a 3-D technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Oscar; Glatz, Charles E; Rito-Palomares, Marco

    2009-09-01

    There is a growing interest of pharmaceutical companies for plant-based production systems. To facilitate the general acceptance of plants as bioreactors, the establishment of efficient downstream operations is critical. It has been proposed that a better understanding of the properties of the contaminant proteins can benefit downstream processing design and operation. The coupled application of 2-DE with aqueous two-phase partitioning has been suggested as a practical 3-D method to characterize potential contaminant proteins from plant extracts. The application of this novel 3-D approach to a complex protein extract from alfalfa (Medicago sativa) containing a model recombinant protein (human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (hG-CSF)) resulted in the quantification of 55 protein spots. The 3-D properties (M(r), pI, and K(p)) obtained for 17 proteins comprising 69% of the alfalfa proteins, allowed the proposal of a prefractionation step as well as the identification of the target molecule (rG-CSF) from bulk of alfalfa proteins. The information obtained from this experimental approach was useful for the identification of the potential contaminant proteins that will occur in alfalfa when this plant is used as a host for recombinant proteins. Additionally, this method will assist in the design of adequate purification strategies for recombinant proteins expressed in alfalfa green tissue.

  18. A NEW TECHNIQUE FOR THE EXTRACTION OF CHARACTERISTIC VIEWS FOR 2D/3D INDEXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El far,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The tridimensional models are increasingly used in applications that require visualizing realistic objects (CAD/CAO, medical simulations, games, virtual reality, etc.. Therefore, the management of collecting 3D data of big size is becoming a significant field.For example, the indexation of these data allows a designer to easily retrieve the data that are visually and semantically similar to a featured query object. To that effect, two main approaches exist: searching by using a 3D model directly and searching by using a 2D view of the 3D query object. In our case/study, we are interested by this last approach and we emphasize on the extraction of haracteristic views of 3D models using the Datamining Algorithms “Apriori and extraction of association rules” from a description ofcharacteristic views based on the moments of Zernike. Moreover, the featured system relies on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. We present the obtained results in a set of 120 3D models of the rinceton benchmark. Then we compare them to results obtained using classical methods

  19. Evaluation and optimisation of bacterial genomic DNA extraction for no-culture techniques applied to vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, Dhouha; Hidalgo, Claudio; Torija, María-Jesús; Gullo, Maria

    2011-10-01

    Direct genomic DNA extraction from vinegars was set up and suitability for PCR assays performed by PCR/DGGE and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The method was tested on 12 intermediary products of special vinegars, fruit vinegars and condiments produced from different raw materials and procedures. DNAs extraction was performed on pellets by chemical, enzymatic, resin mediated methods and their modifications. Suitable yield and DNA purity were obtained by modification of a method based on the use of PVP/CTAB to remove polyphenolic components and esopolysaccharides. By sequencing of bands from DGGE gel, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Acetobacter malorum/cerevisiae and Acetobacter orleanensis were detected as main species in samples having more than 4% of acetic acid content. From samples having no acetic acid content, sequences retrieved from excised bands revealed high similarity with prokaryotes with no function on vinegar fermentation: Burkholderia spp., Cupriavidus spp., Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The method was suitable to be applied for no-culture study of vinegars containing polyphenols and esopolysaccharides allowing a more complete assessment of vinegar bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. ICA Based Speckle Filtering for Target Extraction in SAR Images Using Adaptive Space Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yu-tong; ZHOU Yue; YANG Lei

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach based on independent component analysis (ICA) for speckle filtering and target extraction of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is proposed using adaptive space separation with weighted information entropy (WIE) incorporated. First the basis and the independent components are respectively obtained by ICA technique, and WIE of the image is computed; then based on the threshold computed from function T-WIE (threshold versus weighted-information-entropy), independent components are adaptively separated and the bases are classified accordingly. Thus, the image space is separated into two subspaces: "clean" and "noise". Then, a proposed nonlinear operator ABO is applied on each component of the 'clean' subspace for further optimization. Finally, recovery image is obtained reconstructing this subspace and target is easily extracted with binarisation. Note that here T-WIE is an interpolated function based on several representative target SAR images using proposed space separation algorithm.

  1. Earthquake Analysis of Structure by Base Isolation Technique in SAP

    OpenAIRE

    T. Subramani; J. Jothi

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the present state of base isolation techniques with special emphasis and a brief on other techniques developed world over for mitigating earthquake forces on the structures. The dynamic analysis procedure for isolated structures is briefly explained. The provisions of FEMA 450 for base isolated structures are highlighted. The effects of base isolation on structures located on soft soils and near active faults are given in brief. Simple case s...

  2. A comparison of protein extraction methods suitable for gel-based proteomic studies of aphid proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilia, M; Fish, T; Yang, X; McLaughlin, M; Thannhauser, T W; Gray, S

    2009-09-01

    Protein extraction methods can vary widely in reproducibility and in representation of the total proteome, yet there are limited data comparing protein isolation methods. The methodical comparison of protein isolation methods is the first critical step for proteomic studies. To address this, we compared three methods for isolation, purification, and solubilization of insect proteins. The aphid Schizaphis graminum, an agricultural pest, was the source of insect tissue. Proteins were extracted using TCA in acetone (TCA-acetone), phenol, or multi-detergents in a chaotrope solution. Extracted proteins were solubilized in a multiple chaotrope solution and examined using 1-D and 2-D electrophoresis and compared directly using 2-D Difference Gel Electrophoresis (2-D DIGE). Mass spectrometry was used to identify proteins from each extraction type. We were unable to ascribe the differences in the proteins extracted to particular physical characteristics, cell location, or biological function. The TCA-acetone extraction yielded the greatest amount of protein from aphid tissues. Each extraction method isolated a unique subset of the aphid proteome. The TCA-acetone method was explored further for its quantitative reliability using 2-D DIGE. Principal component analysis showed that little of the variation in the data was a result of technical issues, thus demonstrating that the TCA-acetone extraction is a reliable method for preparing aphid proteins for a quantitative proteomics experiment. These data suggest that although the TCA-acetone method is a suitable method for quantitative aphid proteomics, a combination of extraction approaches is recommended for increasing proteome coverage when using gel-based separation techniques.

  3. A novel technique to extract Bi from mechanochemically prepared Bi-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozaffari, M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of) and Nanophysics Research Group, Research Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: mozafari@sci.ui.ac.ir; Amighian, J. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanophysics Research Group, Research Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hasanpour, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Isfahan University, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nanophysics Research Group, Research Center for Nanosciences and Nanotechnology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-01-31

    The solid-state reduction of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} to bismuth (Bi) nanoparticles by high-energy ball milling of raw materials (Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe) in air and argon atmospheres has been described. XRD results show that in addition to bismuth, a second phase of nanocrystalline magnetite is also formed. This is due to the formation of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and the subsequent change to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the course of ball milling. Mean particle sizes of the obtained Bi and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles were 22 and 18 nm, respectively, using Scherrer's formula. A saturation magnetization of 80 emu/g is achieved for magnetic phase (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). As both Bi and magnetite were nanosized particles, it was not possible to separate these two phases by the magnetic separation technique. A novel technique based on different thermal expansions of the Bi and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was then used to extract metallic Bi from the as-milled powders.

  4. Biometric analysis of the palm vein distribution by means two different techniques of feature extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ortega, R.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Solís-Villarreal, J.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Castro-Ramos, J.

    2014-09-01

    Vein patterns can be used for accessing, identifying, and authenticating purposes; which are more reliable than classical identification way. Furthermore, these patterns can be used for venipuncture in health fields to get on to veins of patients when they cannot be seen with the naked eye. In this paper, an image acquisition system is implemented in order to acquire digital images of people hands in the near infrared. The image acquisition system consists of a CCD camera and a light source with peak emission in the 880 nm. This radiation can penetrate and can be strongly absorbed by the desoxyhemoglobin that is presented in the blood of the veins. Our method of analysis is composed by several steps and the first one of all is the enhancement of acquired images which is implemented by spatial filters. After that, adaptive thresholding and mathematical morphology operations are used in order to obtain the distribution of vein patterns. The above process is focused on the people recognition through of images of their palm-dorsal distributions obtained from the near infrared light. This work has been directed for doing a comparison of two different techniques of feature extraction as moments and veincode. The classification task is achieved using Artificial Neural Networks. Two databases are used for the analysis of the performance of the algorithms. The first database used here is owned of the Hong Kong Polytechnic University and the second one is our own database.

  5. A LADAR bare earth extraction technique for diverse topography and complex scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Amy L.; Stevenson, Terry H.; Magruder, Lori A.

    2012-06-01

    Bare earth extraction is an important component to LADAR data analysis in terms of terrain classification. The challenge in providing accurate digital models is augmented when there is diverse topography within the data set or complex combinations of vegetation and built structures. A successful approach provides a flexible methodology (adaptable for topography and/or environment) that is capable of integrating multiple ladar point cloud data attributes. A newly developed approach (TE-SiP) uses a 2nd and 3rd order spatial derivative for each point in the DEM to determine sets of contiguous regions of similar elevation. Specifically, the derivative of the central point represents the curvature of the terrain at that position. Contiguous sets of high (positive or negative) values define sharp edges such as building edges or cliffs. This method is independent of the slope, such that very steep, but continuous topography still have relatively low curvature values and are preserved in the terrain classification. Next, a recursive segmentation method identifies unique features of homogeneity on the surface separated by areas of high curvature. An iterative selection process is used to eliminate regions containing buildings or vegetation from the terrain surface. This technique was tested on a variety of existing LADAR surveys, each with varying levels of topographic complexity. The results shown here include developed and forested regions in the Dominican Republic.

  6. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  7. Inverter-based circuit design techniques for low supply voltages

    CERN Document Server

    Palani, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes intuitive analog design approaches using digital inverters, providing filter architectures and circuit techniques enabling high performance analog circuit design. The authors provide process, supply voltage and temperature (PVT) variation-tolerant design techniques for inverter based circuits. They also discuss various analog design techniques for lower technology nodes and lower power supply, which can be used for designing high performance systems-on-chip.    .

  8. A Fast Feature Extraction Method Based on Integer Wavelet Transform for Hyperspectral Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUYanfeng; ZHANGYe; YUShanshan

    2004-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing provides high-resolution spectral data and the potential for remote discrimination between subtle differences in ground covers. However, the high-dimensional data space generated by the hyperspectral sensors creates a new challenge for conventional spectral data analysis techniques. A challenging problem in using hyperspectral data is to eliminate redundancy and preserve useful spectral information for applications. In this paper, a Fast feature extraction (FFE) method based on integer wavelet transform is proposed to extract useful features and reduce dimensionality of hyperspectral images. The FFE method can be directly used to extract useful features from spectral vector of each pixel resident in the hyperspectral images. The FFE method has two main merits: high computational efficiency and good ability to extract spectral features. In order to better testify the effectiveness and the performance of the proposed method, classification experiments of hyperspectral images are performed on two groups of AVIRIS (Airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer) data respectively. In addition, three existing methods for feature extraction of hyperspectral images, i.e. PCA, SPCT and Wavelet Transform, are performed on the same data for comparison with the proposed method. The experimental investigation shows that the efficiency of the FFE method for feature extraction outclasses those of the other three methods mentioned above.

  9. Replacement of extracted permanent pacemaker or defibrillator leads by cannulation of veins using the femoral "drag-through" technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Staniforth

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the utility of a novel technique for reuse of thrombosed veins when extracting permanent pacemaker leads via a femoral vein approach. Background: Although lead extraction permanent pacemaker using a femoral approach has advantages over the subclavian approach, it cannot be used to provide access for a new lead using currently employed techniques. This is important because up to 23% of patients have occluded veins after permanent pacemaker implantation. Methods: The pacemaker lead to be extracted was released from the generator and retaining sutures at the implantation site. The lead was then grabbed from below using a needle-eye-snare or basket. The lead was then cut short and a drag through technique performed where a guide wire was pushed into the gap between the insulation and the coil. This guide wire was then drawn into the right atrium as the lead was pulled down from below. This guide wire was then used to introduce a sheath through which a replacement lead could be inserted. Results: A total of 34 consecutive patients (21 male, aged 63±14 years, mean±SD had 57 (1.7/patient leads extracted. Fourteen patients required implantation of a new system and were suitable for immediate lead replacement using the drag through technique. All leads were successfully extracted, with 5 partial successes (9.1% of leads. The drag-through technique was successful in all, including 4 with subclavian vein occlusion. Procedure and fluoroscopy times, including the time required for implantation of a new system, were 143±65 mins and 31±23 mins respectively. There were no complications and hospital stay was 1.6±1.2 days for patients undergoing the drag-through procedure. Conclusion: The drag-through technique can be successfully used to provide access in order to replace pacemaker leads removed using a femoral approach.

  10. The extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine during fermentative maceration is affected by the enological technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2011-05-25

    The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction.

  11. Single-trial subspace-based approach for VEP extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Nidal; Yusoff, Mohd Zuki; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil Mohamad

    2011-05-01

    A signal subspace approach for extracting visual evoked potentials (VEPs) from the background electroencephalogram (EEG) colored noise without the need for a prewhitening stage is proposed. Linear estimation of the clean signal is performed by minimizing signal distortion while maintaining the residual noise energy below some given threshold. The generalized eigendecomposition of the covariance matrices of a VEP signal and brain background EEG noise is used to transform them jointly to diagonal matrices. The generalized subspace is then decomposed into signal subspace and noise subspace. Enhancement is performed by nulling the components in the noise subspace and retaining the components in the signal subspace. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested with simulated and real data, and compared with the recently proposed signal subspace techniques. With the simulated data, the algorithms are used to estimate the latencies of P(100), P(200), and P(300) of VEP signals corrupted by additive colored noise at different values of SNR. With the real data, the VEP signals are collected at Selayang Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and the capability of the proposed algorithm in detecting the latency of P(100) is obtained and compared with other subspace techniques. The ensemble averaging technique is used as a baseline for this comparison. The results indicated significant improvement by the proposed technique in terms of better accuracy and less failure rate.

  12. Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for the rapid screening and identification of antioxidants in methanolic extracts of pharmaceutically used plants .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Fiamegos, Y.C.; Beek, van T.A.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis is an important scientific research area, which normally relies on a number of rather laborious and time-consuming techniques for compound identification. Isolation of the ingredients of plant extracts in adequate quantities for spectral and biological analysis was the basis o

  13. Assessment of the quality of dna extracted by two techniques from Mycobacterium tuberculosis for fast molecular identification and genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a comparative study of two DNA extraction techniques, thermolysis and chemical lysis (CTAB, for molecular identification and genotyping of M. tuberculosis. Forty DNA samples were subjected to PCR and the results demonstrated that with thermolysis it is possible to obtain useful data that enables fast identification and genotyping.

  14. Curvelet Transform-Based Denoising Method for Doppler Frequency Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shu-juan; WU Si-liang

    2007-01-01

    A novel image denoising method based on curvelet transform is proposed in order to improve the performance of Doppler frequency extraction in low signal-noise-ratio (SNR) environment. The echo can be represented as a gray image with spectral intensity as its gray values by time-frequency transform. And the curvelet coefficients of the image are computed. Then an adaptive soft-threshold scheme based on dual-median operation is implemented in curvelet domain. After that, the image is reconstructed by inverse curvelet transform and the Doppler curve is extracted by a curve detection scheme. Experimental results show the proposed method can improve the detection of Doppler frequency in low SNR environment.

  15. Feature Extraction based Face Recognition, Gender and Age Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal K R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face recognition system with large sets of training sets for personal identification normally attains good accuracy. In this paper, we proposed Feature Extraction based Face Recognition, Gender and Age Classification (FEBFRGAC algorithm with only small training sets and it yields good results even with one image per person. This process involves three stages: Pre-processing, Feature Extraction and Classification. The geometric features of facial images like eyes, nose, mouth etc. are located by using Canny edge operator and face recognition is performed. Based on the texture and shape information gender and age classification is done using Posteriori Class Probability and Artificial Neural Network respectively. It is observed that the face recognition is 100%, the gender and age classification is around 98% and 94% respectively.

  16. The use of continuous improvement techniques: A survey-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... The use of continuous improvement techniques: A survey-based study of current practices ... Prior research has focused mainly on the effect of continuous improvement practices ...

  17. Preliminary Phytochemical screening of the Ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa Tubers and Estimation of Diosgenin by HPTLC Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Roy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, simple phytochemical screening procedures were carried out to find the various constituents present in the ethanolic extract of Dioscorea villosa tubers. Further,estimation of Diosgenin in Dioscorea villosa tubers, was carried out by HPTLC technique. The preliminary screening showed presence of proteins, flavonoids tannins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds saponins and glycosides. The extract was chromatographed on silica gel GF254 plates with Toluene: Ethyl Acetate: Acetic Acid: Formic Acid (4: 3: 1:1 as mobile phase. Detection and quantification were performed by densitrometric scanning, at 366 nm. The average recovery of diosgenin was found to be 0.48 %. The HPTLC technique has provided a good resolution of diosgenin from other constituents present in the ethanolic extract.

  18. Alteration Information Extraction by Applying Synthesis Processing Techniques to Landsat ETM+Data: Case Study of Zhaoyuan Gold Mines,Shandong Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fujiang; Wu Xincai; Sun Huashan; Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing data are usually used to analyze the spatial distribution pattern of geological structures and generally serve as a significant means for the identification of alteration zones. Based on the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) data, which have better spectral resolution (8 bands) and spatial resolution (15 m in PAN band), the synthesis processing techniques were presented to fulfill alteration information extraction: data preparation, vegetation indices and band ratios, and expert classifier-based classification. These techniques have been implemented in the MapGIS-RSP software (version 1.0), developed by the Wuhan Zondy Cyber Technology Co., Ltd,China. In the study area application of extracting alteration information in the Zhaoyuan (招远) gold mines, Shandong (山东) Province, China, several hydorthermally altered zones (included two new sites) were found after satellite imagery interpretation coupled with field surveys. It is concluded that these synthesis processing techniques are useful approaches and are applicable to a wide range of gold-mineralized alteration information extraction.

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v ethanol-water extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM, total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM, and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM, and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity. Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  20. Dispersive solid-phase extraction as a simplified clean-up technique for biological sample extracts. Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Ariel R; Camargo, Alejandra; Martinez, Luis D; Altamirano, Jorgelina C

    2011-05-06

    Dispersive solid-phase extraction (DSPE) is proposed for the first time as a simplified, fast and low cost clean-up technique of biological sample extracts for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determination. The combination of a traditional extraction technique, such as ultrasound-assisted leaching (USAL) with DSPE was successfully applied for sample preparation prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) analysis. The analytes were first extracted from 1g homogenized sample in n-hexane:dichloromethane (8:2) by applying USAL technique and further cleaned-up using DSPE with 0.20 g C(18)-silica as sorbent material. Different solvent mixtures, sorbent type and amount, and lipid digestion procedures were evaluated in terms of clean-up and extraction efficiency. Under optimum conditions, the method detection limits (MDLs) for PBDEs, calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) were within the range 9-44 pg g(-1) wet weight. The calibration graphs were linear within the concentration range of 53-500,000 pg g(-1), 66-500,000 pg g(-1), 89-500,000 pg g(-1) and 151-500,000 pg g(-1) for BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-99 and BDE-153, respectively; and the coefficient of determination (r(2)) exceeded 0.9992 for all analytes. The proposed methodology was compared with a reference solid-phase extraction technique. The applicability of the methodology for the screening of PBDEs has been demonstrated by analyzing spiked and real samples of biological nature (fish, egg and chicken) with different lipid content as well as reference material (WELL-WMF-01). Recovery values ranged between 75% and 114% and the measured concentrations in certified material showed a reasonable agreement with the certified ones. BDE-47, BDE-100 and BDE-99 were quantified in three of the seven analyzed samples and the concentrations ranged between 91 and 140 pg g(-1). In addition, this work is the first description of PBDEs detected in fish of Argentinean environment.

  1. Evaluating a Pivot-Based Approach for Bilingual Lexicon Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hoon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A pivot-based approach for bilingual lexicon extraction is based on the similarity of context vectors represented by words in a pivot language like English. In this paper, in order to show validity and usability of the pivot-based approach, we evaluate the approach in company with two different methods for estimating context vectors: one estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word association between source words (resp., target words and pivot words and the other estimates them from two parallel corpora based on word alignment tools for statistical machine translation. Empirical results on two language pairs (e.g., Korean-Spanish and Korean-French have shown that the pivot-based approach is very promising for resource-poor languages and this approach observes its validity and usability. Furthermore, for words with low frequency, our method is also well performed.

  2. Arduino-based automation of a DNA extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Won; Lee, Mi-So; Ryu, Mun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies to detect infectious diseases with the molecular genetic method. This study presents an automation process for a DNA extraction system based on microfluidics and magnetic bead, which is part of a portable molecular genetic test system. This DNA extraction system consists of a cartridge with chambers, syringes, four linear stepper actuators, and a rotary stepper actuator. The actuators provide a sequence of steps in the DNA extraction process, such as transporting, mixing, and washing for the gene specimen, magnetic bead, and reagent solutions. The proposed automation system consists of a PC-based host application and an Arduino-based controller. The host application compiles a G code sequence file and interfaces with the controller to execute the compiled sequence. The controller executes stepper motor axis motion, time delay, and input-output manipulation. It drives the stepper motor with an open library, which provides a smooth linear acceleration profile. The controller also provides a homing sequence to establish the motor's reference position, and hard limit checking to prevent any over-travelling. The proposed system was implemented and its functionality was investigated, especially regarding positioning accuracy and velocity profile.

  3. The detection of bulk explosives using nuclear-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado, R.E.; Gozani, T.; Seher, C.C.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 we presented a rationale for the detection of bulk explosives based on nuclear techniques that addressed the requirements of civil aviation security in the airport environment. Since then, efforts have intensified to implement a system based on thermal neutron activation (TNA), with new work developing in fast neutron and energetic photon reactions. In this paper we will describe these techniques and present new results from laboratory and airport testing. Based on preliminary results, we contended in our earlier paper that nuclear-based techniques did provide sufficiently penetrating probes and distinguishable detectable reaction products to achieve the FAA operational goals; new data have supported this contention. The status of nuclear-based techniques for the detection of bulk explosives presently under investigation by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is reviewed. These include thermal neutron activation (TNA), fast neutron activation (FNA), the associated particle technique, nuclear resonance absorption, and photoneutron activation. The results of comprehensive airport testing of the TNA system performed during 1987-88 are summarized. From a technical point of view, nuclear-based techniques now represent the most comprehensive and feasible approach for meeting the operational criteria of detection, false alarms, and throughput. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  5. Comparison of extraction techniques and mass spectrometric ionization modes in the analysis of wine volatile carbonyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Julian; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; Cacho, Juan [Laboratory for Flavor Analysis and Enology, Institute of Engineering of Aragon, I3A, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ferreira, Vicente, E-mail: vferre@unizar.es [Laboratory for Flavor Analysis and Enology, Institute of Engineering of Aragon, I3A, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    This work presents a comparative study of the analytical characteristics of two methods for the analysis of carbonyl compounds in wine, both based on the derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA). In the first method derivatives are formed in the solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge in which the analytes have been previously isolated, while in the second method derivatives are formed in a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibre saturated with vapors of the reagent and exposed to the sample headspace. In both cases detection has been carried out by electron impact (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The possibility of determining haloanisols simultaneously has been also considered. The method based on SPE presents, in general, better analytical properties than the SPME one. Although linearity was satisfactory for both methods (R{sup 2} > 0.99), repeatability of the SPE method (RSD < 10%) was better than that obtained with SPME (9% < RSD < 20%). Detection limits obtained with EI are better for the SPE method except for trihaloanisols, while with NCI detection limits for both strategies are comparable, although the SPME strategy presents worse results for ketones and methional. Detection limits are always lower with NCI, being the improvement most notable for SPME. Recovery experiments show that in the case of SPE, uncertainties are lower than 12% in all cases, while with the SPME method the imprecision plus the existence of matrix effects make the global uncertainty to be higher than 15%.

  6. Application of hybrid microwave thermal extraction techniques for mulberry root bark

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Cheng-Chi; Yau Her-Terng

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is the extraction of compounds from the mulberry root bark using a hybrid microwave thermal process. The shearing mechanism and an integrated circulation system, which increases the rate of contact between the solvent and extractive, are studied. The results are analyzed by the Taguchi method and verified by high performance liquid chromatography. Furthermore, the optimal operating parameters of the extraction of mulberry root b...

  7. Novel modified ultrasonication technique for the extraction of lycopene from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eh, Alice Lee-Sie; Teoh, Siang-Guan

    2012-01-01

    Lycopene extraction was carried out via the ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) with response surface methodology (RSM). Sonication enhanced the efficiency of relative lycopene yield (enhancement of 26% extraction yield of lycopene in 6 replications at 40.0 min, 40.0 °C and 70.0% v/w in the presence of ultrasound), lowered the extraction temperature and shortened the total extraction time. The extraction was applied with the addition of oxygen-free nitrogen flow and change of water route during water bath sonication. The highest relative yield of lycopene obtained was 100% at 45.0 °C with total extraction time of 50.0 min (30:10:10) and ratio of solvent to freeze-dried tomato sample (v/w) of 80.0:1. Optimisation of the lycopene extraction had been performed, giving the average relative lycopene yield of 99% at 45.6 min, 47.6 °C and ratio of solvent to freeze-dried tomato sample (v/w) of 74.4:1. From the optimised model, the average yield of all-trans lycopene obtained was 5.11±0.27 mg/g dry weight. The all-trans lycopene obtained from the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatograms was 96.81±0.81% with 3.19±0.81% of cis-lycopenes. The purity of total-lycopene obtained was 98.27±0.52% with β-carotene constituted 1.73±0.52% of the extract. The current improved, UAE of lycopene from tomatoes with the aid of RSM also enhanced the extraction yield of trans-lycopene by 75.93% compared to optimised conventional method of extraction. Hence, the current, improved UAE of lycopene promotes the extraction yield of lycopene and at the same time, minimises the degradation and isomerisation of lycopene.

  8. Designing an ELISA Technique for H.pylori Antibody Detection Using Water Extracted Antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Khafri

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available H.pylori infection stimulates immune responses. These responses at the mucosal level are predominantly of IgA types, while circulating antibodies against this microorganism are predominantly IgG classes. IgM antibodies are rarely found and seem to be non-specific for this bacterium. In this research, water extract antigen, from three strains of H.pylori (isolated from patients with gastritis, duodenal ulcer and normal human was investigated for the detection of serum IgG antibodies against H.pylori by an indirect ELISA technique. Antibody titers against H.pylori were measured in 72 patients of whom 64 cases were H.pylori positive and 8 cases were H.pylori negative (confirmed by culture and urease tests. In this test, those titers that were more than 1/6400 indicated the rising of IgG titers and serum positive, being in testee, and the titers, which were equal or less than 1/6400 indicated the serum negative, being in individuals. Our ELISA results indicated that between 64 H.pylori positive individuals, 61 cases were serum positive and between 8 H.pylori negative patients, 5 individuals were serum negative; thus, specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of the test were, 62.5%, 95.31%, 95.31%, 62.5%, respectively. The high level of sensitivity is because of using 3 different strains for preparing of antigens. But the reasons of low specificity are probably using of semi purified antigen.

  9. A Novel Technique for Fetal ECG Extraction Using Single-Channel Abdominal Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive fetal electrocardiograms (FECGs are an alternative method to standard means of fetal monitoring which permit long-term continual monitoring. However, in abdominal recording, the FECG amplitude is weak in the temporal domain and overlaps with the maternal electrocardiogram (MECG in the spectral domain. Research in the area of non-invasive separations of FECG from abdominal electrocardiograms (AECGs is in its infancy and several studies are currently focusing on this area. An adaptive noise canceller (ANC is commonly used for cancelling interference in cases where the reference signal only correlates with an interference signal, and not with a signal of interest. However, results from some existing studies suggest that propagation of electrocardiogram (ECG signals from the maternal heart to the abdomen is nonlinear, hence the adaptive filter approach may fail if the thoracic and abdominal MECG lack strict waveform similarity. In this study, singular value decomposition (SVD and smooth window (SW techniques are combined to build a reference signal in an ANC. This is to avoid the limitation that thoracic MECGs recorded separately must be similar to abdominal MECGs in waveform. Validation of the proposed method with r01 and r07 signals from a public dataset, and a self-recorded private dataset showed that the proposed method achieved F1 scores of 99.61%, 99.28% and 98.58%, respectively for the detection of fetal QRS. Compared with four other single-channel methods, the proposed method also achieved higher accuracy values of 99.22%, 98.57% and 97.21%, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the proposed method could potentially aid accurate extraction of FECG from MECG recordings in both clinical and commercial applications.

  10. A Novel Technique for Fetal ECG Extraction Using Single-Channel Abdominal Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Zhang, Jinyong; Li, Hui; Mumini, Omisore Olatunji; Samuel, Oluwarotimi Williams; Ivanov, Kamen; Wang, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive fetal electrocardiograms (FECGs) are an alternative method to standard means of fetal monitoring which permit long-term continual monitoring. However, in abdominal recording, the FECG amplitude is weak in the temporal domain and overlaps with the maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) in the spectral domain. Research in the area of non-invasive separations of FECG from abdominal electrocardiograms (AECGs) is in its infancy and several studies are currently focusing on this area. An adaptive noise canceller (ANC) is commonly used for cancelling interference in cases where the reference signal only correlates with an interference signal, and not with a signal of interest. However, results from some existing studies suggest that propagation of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals from the maternal heart to the abdomen is nonlinear, hence the adaptive filter approach may fail if the thoracic and abdominal MECG lack strict waveform similarity. In this study, singular value decomposition (SVD) and smooth window (SW) techniques are combined to build a reference signal in an ANC. This is to avoid the limitation that thoracic MECGs recorded separately must be similar to abdominal MECGs in waveform. Validation of the proposed method with r01 and r07 signals from a public dataset, and a self-recorded private dataset showed that the proposed method achieved F1 scores of 99.61%, 99.28% and 98.58%, respectively for the detection of fetal QRS. Compared with four other single-channel methods, the proposed method also achieved higher accuracy values of 99.22%, 98.57% and 97.21%, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the proposed method could potentially aid accurate extraction of FECG from MECG recordings in both clinical and commercial applications. PMID:28245585

  11. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  12. Key frame extraction based on spatiotemporal motion trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunzuo; Tao, Ran; Zhang, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Spatiotemporal motion trajectory can accurately reflect the changes of motion state. Motivated by this observation, this letter proposes a method for key frame extraction based on motion trajectory on the spatiotemporal slice. Different from the well-known motion related methods, the proposed method utilizes the inflexions of the motion trajectory on the spatiotemporal slice of all the moving objects. Experimental results show that although a similar performance is achieved in the single-objective screen, by comparing the proposed method to that achieved with the state-of-the-art methods based on motion energy or acceleration, the proposed method shows a better performance in a multiobjective video.

  13. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry.

  14. Analysis techniques and performance of the Domino Ring Sampler version 4 based readout for the MAGIC telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Sitarek, Julian; Mazin, Daniel; Paoletti, Riccardo; Tescaro, Diego

    2013-01-01

    Recently the readout of the MAGIC telescopes has been upgraded to a new system based on the Domino Ring Sampler version 4 chip. We present the analysis techniques and the signal extraction performance studies of this system. We study the behaviour of the baseline, the noise, the cross-talk, the linearity and the time resolution. We investigate also the optimal signal extraction. In addition we show some of the analysis techniques specific to the readout based on the Domino Ring Sampler version 2 chip, previously used in the MAGIC II telescope.

  15. A NOVEL WRAPPING CURVELET TRANSFORMATION BASED ANGULAR TEXTURE PATTERN (WCTATP EXTRACTION METHOD FOR WEED IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Apparently weed is a major menace in crop production as it competes with crop for nutrients, moisture, space and light which resulting in poor growth and development of the crop and finally yield. Yield loss accounts for even more than 70% when crops are frown under unweeded condition with severe weed infestation. Weed management is the most significant process in the agricultural applications to improve the crop productivity rate and reduce the herbicide application cost. Existing weed detection techniques does not yield better performance due to the complex background, illumination variation and crop and weed overlapping in the agricultural field image. Hence, there arises a need for the development of effective weed identification technique. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel Wrapping Curvelet Transformation Based Angular Texture Pattern Extraction Method (WCTATP for weed identification. In our proposed work, Global Histogram Equalization (GHE is used improve the quality of the image and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF is used for filtering the impulse noise from the image. Plant image identification is performed using green pixel extraction and k-means clustering. Wrapping Curvelet transform is applied to the plant image. Feature extraction is performed to extract the angular texture pattern of the plant image. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based Differential Evolution Feature Selection (DEFS approach is applied to select the optimal features. Then, the selected features are learned and passed through an RVM based classifier to find out the weed. Edge detection and contouring is performed to identify the weed in the plant image. The Fuzzy rule-based approach is applied to detect the low, medium and high levels of the weed patchiness. From the experimental results, it is clearly observed that the accuracy of the proposed approach is higher than the existing Support Vector Machine (SVM based approaches. The proposed approach

  16. Region-Based Building Rooftop Extraction and Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Metzlaff, L.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic extraction of building changes is important for many applications like disaster monitoring and city planning. Although a lot of research work is available based on 2D as well as 3D data, an improvement in accuracy and efficiency is still needed. The introducing of digital surface models (DSMs) to building change detection has strongly improved the resulting accuracy. In this paper, a post-classification approach is proposed for building change detection using satellite stereo imagery. Firstly, DSMs are generated from satellite stereo imagery and further refined by using a segmentation result obtained from the Sobel gradients of the panchromatic image. Besides the refined DSMs, the panchromatic image and the pansharpened multispectral image are used as input features for mean-shift segmentation. The DSM is used to calculate the nDSM, out of which the initial building candidate regions are extracted. The candidate mask is further refined by morphological filtering and by excluding shadow regions. Following this, all segments that overlap with a building candidate region are determined. A building oriented segments merging procedure is introduced to generate a final building rooftop mask. As the last step, object based change detection is performed by directly comparing the building rooftops extracted from the pre- and after-event imagery and by fusing the change indicators with the roof-top region map. A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the proposed approach is provided by using WorldView-2 satellite data from Istanbul, Turkey.

  17. REGION-BASED BUILDING ROOFTOP EXTRACTION AND CHANGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic extraction of building changes is important for many applications like disaster monitoring and city planning. Although a lot of research work is available based on 2D as well as 3D data, an improvement in accuracy and efficiency is still needed. The introducing of digital surface models (DSMs to building change detection has strongly improved the resulting accuracy. In this paper, a post-classification approach is proposed for building change detection using satellite stereo imagery. Firstly, DSMs are generated from satellite stereo imagery and further refined by using a segmentation result obtained from the Sobel gradients of the panchromatic image. Besides the refined DSMs, the panchromatic image and the pansharpened multispectral image are used as input features for mean-shift segmentation. The DSM is used to calculate the nDSM, out of which the initial building candidate regions are extracted. The candidate mask is further refined by morphological filtering and by excluding shadow regions. Following this, all segments that overlap with a building candidate region are determined. A building oriented segments merging procedure is introduced to generate a final building rooftop mask. As the last step, object based change detection is performed by directly comparing the building rooftops extracted from the pre- and after-event imagery and by fusing the change indicators with the roof-top region map. A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the proposed approach is provided by using WorldView-2 satellite data from Istanbul, Turkey.

  18. Motion feature extraction scheme for content-based video retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chuan; He, Yuwen; Zhao, Li; Zhong, Yuzhuo

    2001-12-01

    This paper proposes the extraction scheme of global motion and object trajectory in a video shot for content-based video retrieval. Motion is the key feature representing temporal information of videos. And it is more objective and consistent compared to other features such as color, texture, etc. Efficient motion feature extraction is an important step for content-based video retrieval. Some approaches have been taken to extract camera motion and motion activity in video sequences. When dealing with the problem of object tracking, algorithms are always proposed on the basis of known object region in the frames. In this paper, a whole picture of the motion information in the video shot has been achieved through analyzing motion of background and foreground respectively and automatically. 6-parameter affine model is utilized as the motion model of background motion, and a fast and robust global motion estimation algorithm is developed to estimate the parameters of the motion model. The object region is obtained by means of global motion compensation between two consecutive frames. Then the center of object region is calculated and tracked to get the object motion trajectory in the video sequence. Global motion and object trajectory are described with MPEG-7 parametric motion and motion trajectory descriptors and valid similar measures are defined for the two descriptors. Experimental results indicate that our proposed scheme is reliable and efficient.

  19. Spindle extraction method for ISAR image based on Radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xia; Zheng, Sheng; Zeng, Xiangyun; Zhu, Daoyuan; Xu, Gaogui

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a method of spindle extraction of target in inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) image is proposed which depends on Radon Transform. Firstly, utilizing Radon Transform to detect all straight lines which are collinear with these line segments in image. Then, using Sobel operator to detect image contour. Finally, finding all intersections of each straight line and image contour, the two intersections which have maximum distance between them is the two ends of this line segment and the longest line segment of all line segments is spindle of target. According to the proposed spindle extraction method, one hundred simulated ISAR images which are respectively rotated 0 degrees, 10 degrees, 20 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees in counterclockwise are used to do experiment and the proposed method and the detection results are more close to the real spindle of target than the method based on Hough Transform .

  20. Ground extraction from airborne laser data based on wavelet analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Yang, Yan; Jiang, Bowen; Li, Jia

    2007-11-01

    With the advantages of high resolution and accuracy, airborne laser scanning data are widely used in topographic mapping. In order to generate a DTM, measurements from object features such as buildings, vehicles and vegetation have to be classified and removed. However, the automatic extraction of bare earth from point clouds acquired by airborne laser scanning equipment remains a problem in LIDAR data filtering nowadays. In this paper, a filter algorithm based on wavelet analysis is proposed. Relying on the capability of detecting discontinuities of continuous wavelet transform and the feature of multi-resolution analysis, the object points can be removed, while ground data are preserved. In order to evaluate the performance of this approach, we applied it to the data set used in the ISPRS filter test in 2003. 15 samples have been tested by the proposed approach. Results showed that it filtered most of the objects like vegetation and buildings, and extracted a well defined ground model.

  1. Modification of evidence theory based on feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Feng; SHI Wen-kang; DENG Yong

    2005-01-01

    Although evidence theory has been widely used in information fusion due to its effectiveness of uncertainty reasoning, the classical DS evidence theory involves counter-intuitive behaviors when high conflict information exists. Many modification methods have been developed which can be classified into the following two kinds of ideas, either modifying the combination rules or modifying the evidence sources. In order to make the modification more reasonable and more effective, this paper gives a thorough analysis of some typical existing modification methods firstly, and then extracts the intrinsic feature of the evidence sources by using evidence distance theory. Based on the extracted features, two modified plans of evidence theory according to the corresponding modification ideas have been proposed. The results of numerical examples prove the good performance of the plans when combining evidence sources with high conflict information.

  2. Features Extraction for Object Detection Based on Interest Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohamed Ahsan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In computer vision, object detection is an essential process for further processes such as object tracking, analyzing and so on. In the same context, extraction features play important role to detect the object correctly. In this paper we present a method to extract local features based on interest point which is used to detect key-points within an image, then, compute histogram of gradient (HOG for the region surround that point. Proposed method used speed-up robust feature (SURF method as interest point detector and exclude the descriptor. The new descriptor is computed by using HOG method. The proposed method got advantages of both mentioned methods. To evaluate the proposed method, we used well-known dataset which is Caltech101. The initial result is encouraging in spite of using a small data for training.

  3. Ontology-Based Information Extraction for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggion, Horacio; Funk, Adam; Maynard, Diana; Bontcheva, Kalina

    Business Intelligence (BI) requires the acquisition and aggregation of key pieces of knowledge from multiple sources in order to provide valuable information to customers or feed statistical BI models and tools. The massive amount of information available to business analysts makes information extraction and other natural language processing tools key enablers for the acquisition and use of that semantic information. We describe the application of ontology-based extraction and merging in the context of a practical e-business application for the EU MUSING Project where the goal is to gather international company intelligence and country/region information. The results of our experiments so far are very promising and we are now in the process of building a complete end-to-end solution.

  4. Remote Sensing Image Feature Extracting Based Multiple Ant Colonies Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhi-long

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel feature extraction method for remote sensing imagery based on the cooperation of multiple ant colonies. First, multiresolution expression of the input remote sensing imagery is created, and two different ant colonies are spread on different resolution images. The ant colony in the low-resolution image uses phase congruency as the inspiration information, whereas that in the high-resolution image uses gradient magnitude. The two ant colonies cooperate to detect features in the image by sharing the same pheromone matrix. Finally, the image features are extracted on the basis of the pheromone matrix threshold. Because a substantial amount of information in the input image is used as inspiration information of the ant colonies, the proposed method shows higher intelligence and acquires more complete and meaningful image features than those of other simple edge detectors.

  5. Evaluation of DNA extraction techniques for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in Asian elephant trunk wash samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Meagan K; Linke, Lyndsey; Triantis, Joni; Salman, M D; Larsen, R Scott

    2011-02-01

    Rapid and sensitive diagnostic assays for the detection of tuberculous mycobacteria in elephants are lacking. DNA extraction with PCR analysis is useful for tuberculosis screening in many species but has not been validated on elephant trunk wash samples. We estimated the analytical sensitivity and specificity of three DNA extraction methods to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms in trunk wash specimens. A ZR soil microbe DNA kit (ZR) and a traditional salt and ethanol precipitation (TSEP) approach were evaluated under three different treatment conditions: heat treatment, phenol treatment, and contamination with Mycobacterium avium. A third approach, using a column filtration method, was evaluated for samples contaminated with soil. Trunk wash samples from uninfected elephants were spiked with various concentrations of M. bovis cells and subjected to the described treatment conditions prior to DNA extraction. Extracted DNA was amplified using IS6110-targeted PCR analysis. The ZR and TSEP methods detected as low as 1 to 5 M. bovis cells and 10 M. bovis cells, respectively, per 1.5 ml of trunk wash under all three conditions. Depending on the amount of soil present, the column filtration method detected as low as 5 to 50 M. bovis cells per 1.5 ml of trunk wash. Analytical specificity was assessed by DNA extraction from species of nontuberculous mycobacteria and amplification using the same PCR technique. Only M. bovis DNA was amplified, indicating 100% analytical specificity of this PCR technique. Our results indicate that these DNA extraction techniques offer promise as useful tests for detection of M. tuberculosis complex organisms in elephant trunk wash specimens.

  6. Power system stabilizers based on modern control techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, O.P.; Chen, G.P.; Zhang, Y.; El-Metwally, K. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Developments in digital technology have made it feasible to develop and implement improved controllers based on sophisticated control techniques. Power system stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and artificial networks are being developed. Each of these control techniques possesses unique features and strengths. In this paper, the relative performance of power systems stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and neural network, both in simulation studies and real time tests on a physical model of a power system, is presented and compared to that of a fixed parameter conventional power system stabilizer. (author) 16 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. An Improved Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on Ensemble Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yan; HUANG Cong-ming

    2006-01-01

    An improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm based on ensemble technique is presented. The algorithm combines some previous best positions (pbest) of the particles to get an ensemble position (Epbest), which is used to replace the global best position (gbest). It is compared with the standard PSO algorithm invented by Kennedy and Eberhart and some improved PSO algorithms based on three different benchmark functions. The simulation results show that the improved PSO based on ensemble technique can get better solutions than the standard PSO and some other improved algorithms under all test cases.

  8. Efficient Plant Supervision Strategy Using NN Based Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; Rolle, Jose Luis Calvo; Castelo, Francisco Javier Perez

    Most of non-linear type one and type two control systems suffers from lack of detectability when model based techniques are applied on FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. In general, all types of processes suffer from lack of detectability also due to the ambiguity to discriminate the process, sensors and actuators in order to isolate any given fault. This work deals with a strategy to detect and isolate faults which include massive neural networks based functional approximation procedures associated to recursive rule based techniques applied to a parity space approach.

  9. Extraction Mechanism of Rare Earths with Sec-Octylphenoxy Acetic Acid by Two-Phase Titration Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐善堂; 廖伍平; 李德谦; 苏锵

    2002-01-01

    The compositions of the extracted complexes of La, Gd, Er and Y with sec-octyl-phenoxy acetic acid in heptane and the related apparent extraction equilibrium constants KM were determined using two-phase titration technique. The stoichiometric compounds for La, Gd, Er and Y should be LaA3*2.5HA, GdA3*3HA, ErA3*3.1HA and YA3*4.3HA respectively. And their pKM are 3.43, 3.46, 3.08 and 2.58 respectively.

  10. An Agent Communication Framework Based on XML and SOAP Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓瑜

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introducing XML technology and SOAP technology,present an agent communication fi-amework based on XML and SOAP technique,and analyze the principle,architecture,function and benefit of it. At the end, based on KQML communication primitive lan- guages.

  11. Decomposition Techniques and Effective Algorithms in Reliability-Based Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1995-01-01

    The common problem of an extensive number of limit state function calculations in the various formulations and applications of reliability-based optimization is treated. It is suggested to use a formulation based on decomposition techniques so the nested two-level optimization problem can be solved...

  12. Data Mining and Neural Network Techniques in Case Based System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper first puts forward a case-based system framework basedon data mining techniques. Then the paper examines the possibility of using neural n etworks as a method of retrieval in such a case-based system. In this system we propose data mining algorithms to discover case knowledge and other algorithms.

  13. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  14. A Hough Transform based Technique for Text Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Satadal; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kr

    2010-01-01

    Text segmentation is an inherent part of an OCR system irrespective of the domain of application of it. The OCR system contains a segmentation module where the text lines, words and ultimately the characters must be segmented properly for its successful recognition. The present work implements a Hough transform based technique for line and word segmentation from digitized images. The proposed technique is applied not only on the document image dataset but also on dataset for business card reader system and license plate recognition system. For standardization of the performance of the system the technique is also applied on public domain dataset published in the website by CMATER, Jadavpur University. The document images consist of multi-script printed and hand written text lines with variety in script and line spacing in single document image. The technique performs quite satisfactorily when applied on mobile camera captured business card images with low resolution. The usefulness of the technique is verifie...

  15. Segmentation techniques evaluation based on a single compact breast mass classification scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheus, Bruno R. N.; Marcomini, Karem D.; Schiabel, Homero

    2016-03-01

    In this work some segmentation techniques are evaluated by using a simple centroid-based classification system regarding breast mass delineation in digital mammography images. The aim is to determine the best one for future CADx developments. Six techniques were tested: Otsu, SOM, EICAMM, Fuzzy C-Means, K-Means and Level-Set. All of them were applied to segment 317 mammography images from DDSM database. A single compact set of attributes was extracted and two centroids were defined, one for malignant and another for benign cases. The final classification was based on proximity with a given centroid and the best results were presented by the Level-Set technique with a 68.1% of Accuracy, which indicates this method as the most promising for breast masses segmentation aiming a more precise interpretation in schemes CADx.

  16. Single trial somatosensory evoked potential extraction with ARX filtering for a combined spinal cord intraoperative neuromonitoring technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merzagora Anna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When spinal cord functional integrity is at risk during surgery, intraoperative neuromonitoring is recommended. Tibial Single Trial Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SEPs and H-reflex are here used in a combined neuromonitoring method: both signals monitor the spinal cord status, though involving different nervous pathways. However, SEPs express a trial-to-trial variability that is difficult to track because of the intrinsic low signal-to-noise ratio. For this reason single trial techniques are needed to extract SEPs from the background EEG. Methods The analysis is performed off line on data recorded in eight scoliosis surgery sessions during which the spinal cord was simultaneously monitored through classical SEPs and H-reflex responses elicited by the same tibial nerve electrical stimulation. The single trial extraction of SEPs from the background EEG is here performed through AutoRegressive filter with eXogenous input (ARX. The electroencephalographic recording can be modeled as the sum of the background EEG, which can be described as an autoregressive process not related to the stimulus, and the evoked potential (EP, which can be viewed as a filtered version of a reference signal related to the stimulus. The choice of the filter optimal orders is based on the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC. The reference signal used as exogenous input in the ARX model is a weighted average of the previous SEPs trials with exponential forgetting behavior. Results The moving average exponentially weighted, used as reference signal for the ARX model, shows a better sensibility than the standard moving average in tracking SEPs fast inter-trial changes. The ability to promptly detect changes allows highlighting relations between waveform changes and surgical maneuvers. It also allows a comparative study with H-reflex trends: in particular, the two signals show different fall and recovery dynamics following stressful conditions for the spinal

  17. A novel method: ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of polyphenols from Chinese purple yam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhong; Zong, Aizhen; Xu, Tongcheng; Zhan, Ping; Liu, Lina; Qiu, Bin; Liu, Wei; Jia, Min; Du, Fangling; Tian, Honglei

    2017-08-24

    Chinese purple yam is famous for therapeutic and nutritional values in lowering blood glucose, blood pressure and even preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases. However, traditional extraction techniques for the functional polyphenolic compounds mostly utilise unfriendly organic solvent and easily cause degradation of polyphenols. In this study, a novel ionic liquid-based ultrasound-assisted extraction (IL-UAE) technique was utilised to obtain polyphenols. The optimal extraction condition included: solid-liquid ratio (0.05 g/mL), ionic liquid concentration (1.05 M), extraction temperature (67°C) and ultrasonic time (37 min). The maximum free radical scavenging activity (86.21%) and total antioxidant activity (2.21 mM) were achieved and matched well with the predicted values, superior to that of the extract from regular ethanol-based UAE. IL-UAE could be a rapid and green technique for efficient extraction of polyphenols from purple yam with low solvent consumption and few structural deterioration, exhibiting application potential in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  18. DSPI system based on spatial carrier phase shifting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghong; Li, Junrui; Sun, Jianfei; Yang, Lianxiang

    2013-10-01

    Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI) is an optical method for measuring small displacement and deformation. It allows whole field, non-contacting measurement of micro deformation. Traditional Temporal phase shifting has been used for quantitative analyses in DSPI. The technique requires the recording of at least three phase-shifted interferograms, which must be taken sequentially. This can lead to disturbances by thermal and mechanical fluctuations during the required recording time. In addition, fast object deformations cannot be detected. In this paper a DSPI system using Spatial Carrier Phase Shifting (SCPS) technique is introduced, which is useful for extracting quantitative displacement data from the system with only two interferograms. The sensitive direction of this system refers to the illumination direction and observation direction. The frequencies of the spatial carrier relates to the angle between reference light and observation direction. Fourier transform is adopted in the digital evaluation to filter out the frequencies links to the deformation of testing object. The phase is obtained from the complex matrix formed by inverse Fourier transform, and the phase difference and deformation are calculated subsequently. Comparing with conventional temporal phase shifting, the technique can achieve measuring the vibration and transient deformation of testing object. Experiment set-ups and results are presented in this paper, and the experiment results have shown the effectiveness and advantages of the SCPS technique.

  19. FEATURE EXTRACTION OF BONES AND SKIN BASED ON ULTRASONIC SCANNING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Shuxian; Zhao Wanhua; Lu Bingheng; Zhao Zhao

    2005-01-01

    In the prosthetic socket design, aimed at the high cost and radiation deficiency caused by CT scanning which is a routine technique to obtain the cross-sectional image of the residual limb, a new ultrasonic scanning method is developed to acquire the bones and skin contours of the residual limb. Using a pig fore-leg as the scanning object, an overlapping algorithm is designed to reconstruct the 2D cross-sectional image, the contours of the bone and skin are extracted using edge detection algorithm and the 3D model of the pig fore-leg is reconstructed by using reverse engineering technology. The results of checking the accuracy of the image by scanning a cylinder work pieces show that the extracted contours of the cylinder are quite close to the standard circumference. So it is feasible to get the contours of bones and skin by ultrasonic scanning. The ultrasonic scanning system featuring no radiation and low cost is a kind of new means of cross section scanning for medical images.

  20. Extraction Techniques of Krill Oils Optimized with Response Surface Methodology%响应面法优化南极磷虾油提取工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杰; 李富威; 顾杨娟; 俞所银; 李越华; 包建强

    2014-01-01

    研究南极磷虾油有机溶剂提取工艺,探讨不同冻藏温度、提取剂比例、提取时间、干燥温度和料液比对南极磷虾油提取率的影响在单因素试验基础上,通过响应面法分析确定最佳的提取工艺条件:冻藏温度为-38.5℃、料液比为1 g∶6.7 ml干燥温度是66.8℃,此时南极磷虾油提取率为13.71%。%The research explored the extraction techniques of organic solvents of Antarctic kril oil and the effects of freezing temperature, extractant proportion, ex-traction time, drying temperature and ratio of material and liquid on extraction ratio of Antarctic kril oil. Based on single-factor experiments, optimal extraction conditions were concluded as per response surface methodology, as fol ows: freezing tempera-ture at -38.5 ℃, the ratio of material and liquid at 1 g:6.7 ml, and drying tempera-ture at 66.8 ℃, where the yield rate of crude oil reached 13.71%.

  1. 菊芋中菊粉提取工艺优化研究%Optimizing of extraction techniques on inulin from Helianthus tuberosus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨振; 杨富民; 王雪燕

    2009-01-01

    Helianthus tuberosus L. was used as the raw material for extracting inulin with extraction of hot water. On the base of single factor screening, such as temperature, time, volume of adding water, pH and times of extraction, the uniform design was adopted for getting the optimal mixed technique parameters, and was verified by experiment. The result indicated that extraction rate of inulin reached 16. 04 % with temperature at 68℃,for 70 minutes, 1:21 of ratio of liquid to material and 2 times of extraction.%以菊芋为原料,采用热水浸提法提取菊粉,在提取温度、时间、料液比、pH值和提取次数等单因素试验的基础上,采用均匀设计对热水提取菊粉的工艺参数进行优选,并进行了验证试验.结果表明,在提取温度68 ℃,提取时间70 min,料液比1∶21,提取次数2次的条件下,菊粉提取率可达到16.04 %.

  2. Memory Based Machine Intelligence Techniques in VLSI hardware

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    We briefly introduce the memory based approaches to emulate machine intelligence in VLSI hardware, describing the challenges and advantages. Implementation of artificial intelligence techniques in VLSI hardware is a practical and difficult problem. Deep architectures, hierarchical temporal memories and memory networks are some of the contemporary approaches in this area of research. The techniques attempt to emulate low level intelligence tasks and aim at providing scalable solutions to high ...

  3. Bond strength with custom base indirect bonding techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Arndt; Shi, Jianmin; Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Bismayer, Ulrich

    2003-04-01

    Different types of adhesives for indirect bonding techniques have been introduced recently. But there is limited information regarding bond strength with these new materials. In this in vitro investigation, stainless steel brackets were bonded to 100 permanent bovine incisors using the Thomas technique, the modified Thomas technique, and light-cured direct bonding for a control group. The following five groups of 20 teeth each were formed: (1) modified Thomas technique with thermally cured base composite (Therma Cure) and chemically cured sealant (Maximum Cure), (2) Thomas technique with thermally cured base composite (Therma Cure) and chemically cured sealant (Custom I Q), (3) Thomas technique with light-cured base composite (Transbond XT) and chemically cured sealant (Sondhi Rapid Set), (4) modified Thomas technique with chemically cured base adhesive (Phase II) and chemically cured sealant (Maximum Cure), and (5) control group directly bonded with light-cured adhesive (Transbond XT). Mean bond strengths in groups 3, 4, and 5 were 14.99 +/- 2.85, 15.41 +/- 3.21, and 13.88 +/- 2.33 MPa, respectively, and these groups were not significantly different from each other. Groups 1 (mean bond strength 7.28 +/- 4.88 MPa) and 2 (mean bond strength 7.07 +/- 4.11 MPa) showed significantly lower bond strengths than groups 3, 4, and 5 and a higher probability of bond failure. Both the original (group 2) and the modified (group 1) Thomas technique were able to achieve bond strengths comparable to the light-cured direct bonded control group.

  4. Memory Based Machine Intelligence Techniques in VLSI hardware

    CERN Document Server

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    We briefly introduce the memory based approaches to emulate machine intelligence in VLSI hardware, describing the challenges and advantages. Implementation of artificial intelligence techniques in VLSI hardware is a practical and difficult problem. Deep architectures, hierarchical temporal memories and memory networks are some of the contemporary approaches in this area of research. The techniques attempt to emulate low level intelligence tasks and aim at providing scalable solutions to high level intelligence problems such as sparse coding and contextual processing.

  5. Alignment signal extraction of the optically degenerate RSE interferometer using the wave front sensing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S.; Kawamura, S.

    2008-07-01

    The alignment sensing and control scheme of the resonant sideband extraction interferometer is still an unsettled issue for the next-generation gravitational wave antennas. The issue is that it is difficult to extract separate error signals for all 12 angular degrees of freedom, which is mainly arising from the complexity of the optical system and cavity 'degeneracy'. We have suggested a new sensing scheme giving reasonably separated signals which is fully compatible with the length sensing scheme. The key of this idea is to resolve the 'degeneracy' of the optical cavities. By choosing an appropriate Gouy phase for the degenerate cavities, alignment error signals with much less admixtures can be extracted.

  6. Image and Video based double watermark extraction spread spectrum watermarking in low variance region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mriganka Gogoi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking plays a very important role in copyright protection. It is one of the techniques which are used for safeguarding the origins of the image, audio and video by protecting it against Piracy. This paper proposes a low variance based spread spectrum watermarking for image and video in which the watermark is obtained twice in the receiver. The watermark to be added is a binary image of comparatively smaller size than the Cover Image. Cover Image is divided into number of 8x8 blocks and transform into frequency domain using Discrete Cosine Transform. A gold sequence is added as well as subtracted in each block for each watermark bit. In most cases, researchers has generally used algorithms for extracting single watermark and also it is seen that finding the location of the distorted bit of the watermark due to some attacks is one of the most challenging task. However, in this paper the same watermark is embedded as well as extracted twice with gold code without much distortion of the image and comparing these two watermarks will help in finding the distorted bit. Another feature is that as this algorithm is based on embedding of watermark in low variance region, therefore proper extraction of the watermark is obtained at a lesser modulating factor. The proposed algorithm is very much useful in applications like real-time broad casting, image and video authentication and secure camera system. The experimental results show that the watermarking technique is robust against various attacks.

  7. MPPT Technique Based on Current and Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreira Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new maximum power point tracking (MPPT method based on the measurement of temperature and short-circuit current, in a simple and efficient approach. These measurements, which can precisely define the maximum power point (MPP, have not been used together in other existing techniques. The temperature is measured with a low cost sensor and the solar irradiance is estimated through the relationship of the measured short-circuit current and its reference. Fast tracking speed and stable steady-state operation are advantages of this technique, which presents higher performance when compared to other well-known techniques.

  8. Agarose- and alginate-based biopolymers for sample preparation: Excellent green extraction tools for this century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanagi, Mohd Marsin; Loh, Saw Hong; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Nazihah; Pourmand, Neda; Salisu, Ahmed; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Aini; Ali, Imran

    2016-03-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the use of miniaturized sample preparation techniques before the chromatographic monitoring of the analytes in unknown complex compositions. The use of biopolymer-based sorbents in solid-phase microextraction techniques has achieved a good reputation. A great variety of polysaccharides can be extracted from marine plants or microorganisms. Seaweeds are the major sources of polysaccharides such as alginate, agar, agarose, as well as carrageenans. Agarose and alginate (green biopolymers) have been manipulated for different microextraction approaches. The present review is focused on the classification of biopolymer and their applications in multidisciplinary research. Besides, efforts have been made to discuss the state-of-the-art of the new microextraction techniques that utilize commercial biopolymer interfaces such as agarose in liquid-phase microextraction and solid-phase microextraction.

  9. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  10. Analogy between gambling and measurement-based work extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Dror A.; Permuter, Haim H.; Merhav, Neri

    2016-04-01

    In information theory, one area of interest is gambling, where mutual information characterizes the maximal gain in wealth growth rate due to knowledge of side information; the betting strategy that achieves this maximum is named the Kelly strategy. In the field of physics, it was recently shown that mutual information can characterize the maximal amount of work that can be extracted from a single heat bath using measurement-based control protocols, i.e. using ‘information engines’. However, to the best of our knowledge, no relation between gambling and information engines has been presented before. In this paper, we briefly review the two concepts and then demonstrate an analogy between gambling, where bits are converted into wealth, and information engines, where bits representing measurements are converted into energy. From this analogy follows an extension of gambling to the continuous-valued case, which is shown to be useful for investments in currency exchange rates or in the stock market using options. Moreover, the analogy enables us to use well-known methods and results from one field to solve problems in the other. We present three such cases: maximum work extraction when the probability distributions governing the system and measurements are unknown, work extraction when some energy is lost in each cycle, e.g. due to friction, and an analysis of systems with memory. In all three cases, the analogy enables us to use known results in order to obtain new ones.

  11. Mechanism of gold solvent extraction from aurocyanide solution by quaternary amines: models of extracting species based on hydrogen bonding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of gold solvent extraction from KAu(CN)2 solution was investigated by means of FTIR, EXAFS, ICP and radioactive tracer methods. Two extraction systems were studied, namely N263-tributyl phosphate(TBP)-n-dodecane and N263-iso-octanol-n-dodecane. High-reso- lution FT IR spectroscopy indicated that the CN stretching vibrations of the two extraction systems differred greatly. In order to interpret the significant difference in CN stretching vibrations, two extracting species models are proposed supramolecular structures based on the formation of hydrogen bonds between Au(CN)2- and modifiers such as TBP and iso-octanol.

  12. Accelerated solvent extraction for GC-based tobacco fingerprinting and its comparison with simultaneous distillation and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Pang, Tao; Guo, Ziming; Li, Yanli; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Jianhua; Zhong, Kejun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2010-04-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure has been developed as a pretreatment method for chemical fingerprinting of volatile and semi-volatile components in cut tobacco. The ASE extraction conditions including temperature, operation pressure and extraction cycles were optimized to maximize extraction yield. The method was validated with repeatability, recovery and linearity. Compared with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), ASE provides higher extraction yields, less extraction time, lower solvent consumption and less labor time, and is more suitable for tobacco sample preparation. A typical ASE extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 305 components with signal-to-noise ratio higher than 100 were tentatively identified by NIST05 and Wiley database. Finally, 36 cigarette samples from six cigarette brands were analyzed using the developed chemical fingerprinting method. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis shows good discrimination of different cigarette brands. The results indicate that ASE method can serve as high-throughput sample preparation technique for cigarette chemical fingerprint analysis.

  13. Contributions from the data samples in NOC technique on the extracting of the Sq variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingyan; Xu, Wenyao

    2015-04-01

    The solar quiet daily variation, Sq, a rather regular variation is usually observed at mid-low latitudes on magnetic quiet days or less-disturbed days. It is mainly resulted from the dynamo currents in the ionospheric E region, which are driven by the atmospheric tidal wind and different processes and flow as two current whorls in each of the northern and southern hemispheres[1]. The Sq exhibits a conspicuous day-to-day (DTD) variability in daily range (or strength), shape (or phase) and its current focus. This variability is mainly attributed to changes in the ionospheric conductivity and tidal winds, varying with solar radiation and ionospheric conditions. Furthermore, it presents a seasonal variation and solar cycle variation[2-4]. In generally, Sq is expressed with the average value of the five international magnetic quiet days. Using data from global magnetic stations, equivalent current system of daily variation can be constructed to reveal characteristics of the currents[5]. In addition, using the differences of H component at two stations on north and south side of the Sq currents of focus, Sq is extracted much better[6]. Recently, the method of Natural Orthoganal Components (NOC) is used to decompose the magnetic daily variation and express it as the summation of eigenmodes, and indicate the first NOC eigenmode as the solar quiet daily variation, the second as the disturbance daily variation[7-9]. As we know, the NOC technique can help reveal simpler patterns within a complex set of variables, without designed basic-functions such as FFT technique. But the physical explanation of the NOC eigenmodes is greatly depends on the number of data samples and data regular-quality. Using the NOC method, we focus our present study on the analysis of the hourly means of the H component at BMT observatory in China from 2001 to 2008. The contributions of the number and the regular-quality of the data samples on which eigenmode corresponds to the Sq are analyzed, by

  14. Automatic Road Extraction Based on Integration of High Resolution LIDAR and Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, S.; Arefi, H.; Bahmanyar, R.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the rapid increase in the demand for road information together with the availability of large volumes of high resolution Earth Observation (EO) images, have drawn remarkable interest to the use of EO images for road extraction. Among the proposed methods, the unsupervised fully-automatic ones are more efficient since they do not require human effort. Considering the proposed methods, the focus is usually to improve the road network detection, while the roads' precise delineation has been less attended to. In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised fully-automatic road extraction method, based on the integration of the high resolution LiDAR and aerial images of a scene using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This method discriminates the existing roads in a scene; and then precisely delineates them. Hough transform is then applied to the integrated information to extract straight lines; which are further used to segment the scene and discriminate the existing roads. The roads' edges are then precisely localized using a projection-based technique, and the round corners are further refined. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed method extracts and delineates the roads with a high accuracy.

  15. Midsagittal plane extraction from brain images based on 3D SIFT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huisi; Wang, Defeng; Shi, Lin; Wen, Zhenkun; Ming, Zhong

    2014-03-21

    Midsagittal plane (MSP) extraction from 3D brain images is considered as a promising technique for human brain symmetry analysis. In this paper, we present a fast and robust MSP extraction method based on 3D scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT). Unlike the existing brain MSP extraction methods, which mainly rely on the gray similarity, 3D edge registration or parameterized surface matching to determine the fissure plane, our proposed method is based on distinctive 3D SIFT features, in which the fissure plane is determined by parallel 3D SIFT matching and iterative least-median of squares plane regression. By considering the relative scales, orientations and flipped descriptors between two 3D SIFT features, we propose a novel metric to measure the symmetry magnitude for 3D SIFT features. By clustering and indexing the extracted SIFT features using a k-dimensional tree (KD-tree) implemented on graphics processing units, we can match multiple pairs of 3D SIFT features in parallel and solve the optimal MSP on-the-fly. The proposed method is evaluated by synthetic and in vivo datasets, of normal and pathological cases, and validated by comparisons with the state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results demonstrated that our method has achieved a real-time performance with better accuracy yielding an average yaw angle error below 0.91° and an average roll angle error no more than 0.89°.

  16. Reliable image straight-line extraction based on the integration of intensity discontinuity and edge continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun

    2009-10-01

    This paper describes general framework of extraction of image straight-line segments based on the integration of intensity discontinuity and edge continuity in digital image. First, multiple "edge contours" are traced out from digital image by implementing classic LOG algorithm and contour tracing principle. In this step, Zero-Cross points are detected without implementing traditional 'edge labeling' procedure and thus, the continuity between adjacent edge points are maintained for the convenience of edge linking and can take advantage of contour tracing principle; After that, Houghbased heuristic linking algorithm is developed to extract initial straight-line segments from "edge contour" respectively. In this step, important prior knowledge, e.g., "seed" point and direction of straight-line segments, is deduced from Hough transformation and based on the knowledge, possible straight-line segments contained in each "edge contour" are extracted through heuristic linking via adjacent continuity again; Finally, initial straight-line segments are testified and improved with Least Squares Template Matching (LSTM) technique by estimating the similarity of intensity distribution between initial straight-line segment and its ideal intensity template. The experiment of extracting straight-line segments from aerial or ground image respectively, for building 3D reconstruction demonstrates that the proposed approach is robust and effective. Contributions are concluded as well.

  17. Study on the Extraction of Polysaccharides from Daylily by Ultrasonic Technique%黄花菜多糖超声波提取技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周纪东; 李余动

    2014-01-01

    研究以祁东黄花菜为原料应用超声波技术提取黄花菜多糖的新工艺,在单因素试验的基础上,通过正交试验确定最佳提取工艺条件。结果表明,黄花菜多糖最佳提取条件为超声波功率150W,液固比20:1,提取时间70min,提取2次。按此提取,多糖得率为28.23%,多糖含量为16.74%。与水提醇沉法相比,超声波提取黄花菜多糖的每次提取时间由3h 减少至70min,而多糖含量则提高了9.55%,故该法可作为黄花菜多糖提取的一种优选方法。%A new method of ultrasonic technique was used to extract the polysaccharides from Daylily of QiDong. Based on the results of single factor tests, the optimum parameters of polysaccharides extraction were studied by orthogonal tests. The results showed that the optimal ultrasound power, extracting time, the ratio of liquid to solid and extracting times were 150W, 70min, 20:1 and 2 times, respectively. Under this extraction method, the average rate of polysaccharides extraction was 28.23%, the average content of polysaccharides was 16.74%. Compared with water extraction and alcohol precipitation, ultrasonic extraction time from 3 h was reduced to 70min and the content of polysaccharides was increased 9.55% . The results indicated that the ultrasonic technique is a better method for extracting the polysaccharides in Daylily.

  18. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  19. Phase shift extraction algorithm based on Euclidean matrix norm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Wang, Hankun; Zhang, Desi; Zhong, Liyun; Fan, Jinping; Lu, Xiaoxu

    2013-05-01

    In this Letter, the character of Euclidean matrix norm (EMN) of the intensity difference between phase-shifting interferograms, which changes in sinusoidal form with the phase shifts, is presented. Based on this character, an EMN phase shift extraction algorithm is proposed. Both the simulation calculation and experimental research show that the phase shifts with high precision can be determined with the proposed EMN algorithm easily. Importantly, the proposed EMN algorithm will supply a powerful tool for the rapid calibration of the phase shifts.

  20. Automatic Foreground Extraction Based on Difference of Gaussian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yubo Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel algorithm for automatic foreground extraction based on difference of Gaussian (DoG is presented. In our algorithm, DoG is employed to find the candidate keypoints of an input image in different color layers. Then, a keypoints filter algorithm is proposed to get the keypoints by removing the pseudo-keypoints and rebuilding the important keypoints. Finally, Normalized cut (Ncut is used to segment an image into several regions and locate the foreground with the number of keypoints in each region. Experiments on the given image data set demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  1. Kernel-Based Learning for Domain-Specific Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Roberto; Giannone, Cristina; Del Vescovo, Chiara; Moschitti, Alessandro; Naggar, Paolo

    In a specific process of business intelligence, i.e. investigation on organized crime, empirical language processing technologies can play a crucial role. The analysis of transcriptions on investigative activities, such as police interrogatories, for the recognition and storage of complex relations among people and locations is a very difficult and time consuming task, ultimately based on pools of experts. We discuss here an inductive relation extraction platform that opens the way to much cheaper and consistent workflows. The presented empirical investigation shows that accurate results, comparable to the expert teams, can be achieved, and parametrization allows to fine tune the system behavior for fitting domain-specific requirements.

  2. Probabilistic contour extraction based on shape prior model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Xin; LIANG De-qun

    2005-01-01

    Statistical shape prior model is employed to construct the dynamics in probabilistic contour estimation.By applying principal component analysis,plausible shape samples are efficiently generated to predict contour samples.Based on the shape-dependent dynamics and probabilistic image model,a particle filter is used to estimate the contour with a specific shape.Compared with the deterministic approach with shape information,the proposed method is simple yet more effective in extracting contours from images with shape variations and occlusion.

  3. A window-based time series feature extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu-Öztürk, Deniz; Güvenir, H Altay; Ravens, Ursula; Baykal, Nazife

    2017-08-09

    This study proposes a robust similarity score-based time series feature extraction method that is termed as Window-based Time series Feature ExtraCtion (WTC). Specifically, WTC generates domain-interpretable results and involves significantly low computational complexity thereby rendering itself useful for densely sampled and populated time series datasets. In this study, WTC is applied to a proprietary action potential (AP) time series dataset on human cardiomyocytes and three precordial leads from a publicly available electrocardiogram (ECG) dataset. This is followed by comparing WTC in terms of predictive accuracy and computational complexity with shapelet transform and fast shapelet transform (which constitutes an accelerated variant of the shapelet transform). The results indicate that WTC achieves a slightly higher classification performance with significantly lower execution time when compared to its shapelet-based alternatives. With respect to its interpretable features, WTC has a potential to enable medical experts to explore definitive common trends in novel datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. VISUAL ATTENTION BASED KEYFRAMES EXTRACTION AND VIDEO SUMMARIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Geetha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in digital video and drastic increase of internet use have increased the amount of people searching and watching videos online. In order to make the search of the videos easy, Summary of the video may be provided along with each video. The video summary provided thus should be effective so that the user would come to know the content of the video without having to watch it fully. The summary produced should consists of the key frames that effectively express the content and context of the video. This work suggests a method to extract key frames which express most of the information in the video. This is achieved by quantifying Visual attention each frame commands. Visual attention of each frame is quantified using a descriptor called Attention quantifier. This quantification of visual attention is based on the human attention mechanism that indicates color conspicuousness and the motion involved seek more attention. So based on the color conspicuousness and the motion involved each frame is given a Attention parameter. Based on the attention quantifier value the key frames are extracted and are summarized adaptively. This framework suggests a method to produces meaningful video summary.

  5. The determination of organochlorine pesticides based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ligang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Ding Lan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)]. E-mail: analchem@jlu.edu.cn; Jin Haiyan [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Song Daqian [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang Huarong [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Li Jiantao [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang Kun [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Yutang [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China); Zhang Hanqi [College of Chemistry, Jilin University, 2699 Qianjin Street, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2007-04-25

    A rapid technique based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography (DMAE-SPE-HPLC) has been developed. A TM{sub 010} microwave resonance cavity built in the laboratory was applied to concentrate the microwave energy. The sample placed in the zone of microwave irradiation was extracted with 95% acetonitrile (ACN) aqueous solution which was driven by a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min{sup -1}. The extraction can be completed in a recirculating system in 10 min. When a number of extraction cycles were completed, the extract (1 mL) was diluted on-line with water. Then the extract was loaded into an SPE column where the analytes were retained while the unretained matrix components were washed away. Subsequently, the analytes were automatically transferred from the SPE column to the analytical column and determined by UV detector at 238 nm. The technique was used for determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in grains, including wheat, rice, corn and bean. The limits of detection of OCPs are in the range of 19-37 ng g{sup -1}. The recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked grain samples are in the range of 86-105%, whereas the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values are <8.7% ranging from 1.2 to 8.7%. Our method was demonstrated to be fast, accurate, and precise. In addition, only small quantities of solvent and sample were required.

  6. Development of bioassay techniques with extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, T.L.; White, P.; Mackay, D.; Metcalfe, C. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program

    1995-12-31

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), consisting of polyethylene bags filled with triolein, have been used to monitor for lipophilic organic contaminants in water. Although extracts from SPMDs have most often been analyzed for concentrations of organic contaminants, there is also the potential to monitor the toxicity of these extracts using in vitro and in vivo bioassays. SPMDs were deployed for four weeks at several sites along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie to monitor the distribution of toxic organic contaminants in the water. Analysis of the extracts from the SPMDs for concentrations of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicated that the regions in the Detroit River within the Trenton Channel and near Zug Island were the most highly contaminated. Bioassays conducted with extracts from the SPMDs included the in vitro SOS Chromotest for genotoxic activity, an acute lethality test with Daphnia magna, and a fish embryotoxicity test with embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These bioassay data generally indicated that the toxicity and concentrations of organic contaminants in the SPMD extracts were correlated. This study indicates that there is potential to use short-term bioassays of extracts from SPMDs to monitor for in situ contamination in the aquatic environment.

  7. Porous Epoxy: Effect of Mixing Sequences (ELH versus EHL Using Toluene as Extraction Medium via Ultrasonic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Noorkhartina Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Porous epoxy was fabricated using natural rubber latex (NRL as the void template. In this study, two mixing sequences were selected: epoxy, hardener, and then latex (EHL and epoxy, latex, and then hardener (ELH. The extraction process was carried out to extract the latex particles from the cured epoxy sample using toluene as extraction medium with ultrasonic technique for 1 hour. The formation of porous structure in epoxy system is dependent essentially on the amount of latex removed from the epoxy matrix. As expected, the density results showed lower values in the porous epoxy in ELH mixing sequences. More porous structure in epoxy was obtained which was proven by the increasing in porosity % which has led to lowering of the value in dielectric constant which is preferred for electronic packaging application. However, it also caused a decrease in flexural strength and modulus.

  8. Runtime Monitoring Technique to handle Tautology based SQL Injection Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Dharam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Software systems, like web applications, are often used to provide reliable online services such as banking, shopping, social networking, etc., to users. The increasing use of such systems has led to a high need for assuring confidentiality, integrity, and availability of user data. SQL Injection Attacks (SQLIAs is one of the major security threats to web applications. It allows attackers to get unauthorized access to the back-end database consisting of confidential user information. In this paper we present and evaluate a Runtime Monitoring Technique to detect and prevent tautology based SQLIAs in web applications. Our technique monitors the behavior of the application during its post- deployment to identify all the tautology based SQLIAs. A framework called Runtime Monitoring Framework, that implements our technique, is used in the development of runtime monitors. The framework uses two pre-deployment testing techniques, such as basis-path and data-flow to identify a minimal set of all legal/valid execution paths of the application. Runtime monitors are then developed and integrated to perform runtime monitoring of the application, during its post-deployment for the identified valid/legal execution paths. For evaluation we targeted a subject application with a large number of both legitimate inputs and illegitimate tautology based inputs, and measured the performance of the proposed technique. The results of our study show that runtime monitor developed for the application was successfully able to detect all the tautology based attacks without generating any false positives.

  9. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie, Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2010-09-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (+/-5 microm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing.

  10. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T [Biomedical Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Huang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY (United States); Chrisey, Douglas B, E-mail: schien@rpi.ed, E-mail: chrisd@rpi.ed [Material Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location ({+-}5 {mu}m) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  11. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  12. PCA Based Rapid and Real Time Face Recognition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Chandrashekar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Economical and efficient that is used in various applications is face Biometric which has been a popular form biometric system. Face recognition system is being a topic of research for last few decades. Several techniques are proposed to improve the performance of face recognition system. Accuracy is tested against intensity, distance from camera, and pose variance. Multiple face recognition is another subtopic which is under research now a day. Speed at which the technique works is a parameter under consideration to evaluate a technique. As an example a support vector machine performs really well for face recognition but the computational efficiency degrades significantly with increase in number of classes. Eigen Face technique produces quality features for face recognition but the accuracy is proved to be comparatively less to many other techniques. With increase in use of core processors in personal computers and application demanding speed in processing and multiple face detection and recognition system (for example an entry detection system in shopping mall or an industry, demand for such systems are cumulative as there is a need for automated systems worldwide. In this paper we propose a novel system of face recognition developed with C# .Net that can detect multiple faces and can recognize the faces parallel by utilizing the system resources and the core processors. The system is built around Haar Cascade based face detection and PCA based face recognition system with C#.Net. Parallel library designed for .Net is used to aide to high speed detection and recognition of the real time faces. Analysis of the performance of the proposed technique with some of the conventional techniques reveals that the proposed technique is not only accurate, but also is fast in comparison to other techniques.

  13. A Knowledge—Based Specification Technique for Protocol Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张尧学; 史美林; 等

    1993-01-01

    is paper proposes a knowledge-based specification technique(KST)for protocol development.This technique semi-automatically translates a protocol described in an informal description(natural languages or graphs)into one described in forml specifications(Estells and SDL).The translation processes are suported by knowledge stored in the knowledge base.This paper discusses the concept,the specification control mechanism of KST and the rules and algorithms for production of FSM's which is the basis of Estelle and SDL.

  14. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Elizabeth M. [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Moore, David Roger [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Li, Li [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-05-28

    Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a

  15. Bioaerosol DNA Extraction Technique from Air Filters Collected from Marine and Freshwater Locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, M.; Crandall, S. G.; Barnes, A.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols are composed of microorganisms suspended in air. Among these organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, and protists. Microbes introduced into the atmosphere can drift, primarily by wind, into natural environments different from their point of origin. Although bioaerosols can impact atmospheric dynamics as well as the ecology and biogeochemistry of terrestrial systems, very little is known about the composition of bioaerosols collected from marine and freshwater environments. The first step to determine composition of airborne microbes is to successfully extract environmental DNA from air filters. We asked 1) can DNA be extracted from quartz (SiO2) air filters? and 2) how can we optimize the DNA yield for downstream metagenomic sequencing? Aerosol filters were collected and archived on a weekly basis from aquatic sites (USA, Bermuda, Israel) over the course of 10 years. We successfully extracted DNA from a subsample of ~ 20 filters. We modified a DNA extraction protocol (Qiagen) by adding a beadbeating step to mechanically shear cell walls in order to optimize our DNA product. We quantified our DNA yield using a spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000). Results indicate that DNA can indeed be extracted from quartz filters. The additional beadbeating step helped increase our yield - up to twice as much DNA product was obtained compared to when this step was omitted. Moreover, bioaerosol DNA content does vary across time. For instance, the DNA extracted from filters from Lake Tahoe, USA collected near the end of June decreased from 9.9 ng/μL in 2007 to 3.8 ng/μL in 2008. Further next-generation sequencing analysis of our extracted DNA will be performed to determine the composition of these microbes. We will also model the meteorological and chemical factors that are good predictors for microbial composition for our samples over time and space.

  16. Chemical variability and biological activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils depending on geographic variation and extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Souhila, Terfi; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. GC and GC-MS analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-02

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation.

  18. Fault Based Techniques for Testing Boolean Expressions: A Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Badhera, Usha; Taruna, S

    2012-01-01

    Boolean expressions are major focus of specifications and they are very much prone to introduction of faults, this survey presents various fault based testing techniques. It identifies that the techniques differ in their fault detection capabilities and generation of test suite. The various techniques like Cause effect graph, meaningful impact strategy, Branch Operator Strategy (BOR), BOR+MI, MUMCUT, Modified Condition/ Decision Coverage (MCDC) has been considered. This survey describes the basic algorithms and fault categories used by these strategies for evaluating their performance. Finally, it contains short summaries of the papers that use Boolean expressions used to specify the requirements for detecting faults. These techniques have been empirically evaluated by various researchers on a simplified safety related real time control system.

  19. Least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution technique

    CERN Document Server

    Nam, Wooseok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of multipath channel estimation for direct sequence spread spectrum signals. To resolve multipath components arriving within a short interval, we propose a new algorithm called the least-squares based iterative multipath super-resolution (LIMS). Compared to conventional super-resolution techniques, such as the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) and the estimation of signal parameters via rotation invariance techniques (ESPRIT), our algorithm has several appealing features. In particular, even in critical situations where the conventional super-resolution techniques are not very powerful due to limited data or the correlation between path coefficients, the LIMS algorithm can produce successful results. In addition, due to its iterative nature, the LIMS algorithm is suitable for recursive multipath tracking, whereas the conventional super-resolution techniques may not be. Through numerical simulations, we show that the LIMS algorithm can resolve the first arrival path amo...

  20. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  1. Recovering bioactive compounds from olive oil filter cake by advanced extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-09-15

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  2. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Lozano-Sánchez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled to diode array detection (DAD and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product, secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones, flavones (luteolin and apigenin and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals.

  3. Extracting Communities of Interests for Semantics-Based Graph Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuji, Makoto; Tanaka, Akimichi; Uchiyama, Toshio; Fujimura, Ko

    Users recently find their interests by checking the contents published or mentioned by their immediate neighbors in social networking services. We propose semantics-based link navigation; links guide the active user to potential neighbors who may provide new interests. Our method first creates a graph that has users as nodes and shared interests as links. Then it divides the graph by link pruning to extract practical numbers, that the active user can navigate, of interest-sharing groups, i.e. communities of interests (COIs). It then attaches a different semantic tag to the link to each representative user, which best reflects the interests of COIs that they are included in, and to the link to each immediate neighbor of the active user. It finally calculates link attractiveness by analyzing the semantic tags on links. The active user can select the link to access by checking the semantic tags and link attractiveness. User interests extracted from large scale actual blog-entries are used to confirm the efficiency of our proposal. Results show that navigation based on link attractiveness and representative users allows the user to find new interests much more accurately than is otherwise possible.

  4. Object-based Analysis for Extraction of Dominant Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiyun; SHAO; Xia; JING; Lu; WANG

    2015-01-01

    As forest is of great significance for our whole development and the sustainable plan is so focus on it. It is very urgent for us to have the whole distribution,stock volume and other related information about that. So the forest inventory program is on our schedule. Aiming at dealing with the problem in extraction of dominant tree species,we tested the highly hot method-object-based analysis. Based on the ALOS image data,we combined multi-resolution in e Cognition software and fuzzy classification algorithm. Through analyzing the segmentation results,we basically extract the spruce,the pine,the birch and the oak of the study area. Both the spectral and spatial characteristics were derived from those objects,and with the help of GLCM,we got the differences of each species. We use confusion matrix to do the Classification accuracy assessment compared with the actual ground data and this method showed a comparatively good precision as 87% with the kappa coefficient 0. 837.

  5. Data Clustering Analysis Based on Wavelet Feature Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIANYuntao; TANGYuanyan

    2003-01-01

    A novel wavelet-based data clustering method is presented in this paper, which includes wavelet feature extraction and cluster growing algorithm. Wavelet transform can provide rich and diversified information for representing the global and local inherent structures of dataset. therefore, it is a very powerful tool for clustering feature extraction. As an unsupervised classification, the target of clustering analysis is dependent on the specific clustering criteria. Several criteria that should be con-sidered for general-purpose clustering algorithm are pro-posed. And the cluster growing algorithm is also con-structed to connect clustering criteria with wavelet fea-tures. Compared with other popular clustering methods,our clustering approach provides multi-resolution cluster-ing results,needs few prior parameters, correctly deals with irregularly shaped clusters, and is insensitive to noises and outliers. As this wavelet-based clustering method isaimed at solving two-dimensional data clustering prob-lem, for high-dimensional datasets, self-organizing mapand U-matrlx method are applied to transform them intotwo-dimensional Euclidean space, so that high-dimensional data clustering analysis,Results on some sim-ulated data and standard test data are reported to illus-trate the power of our method.

  6. Urban vegetation cover extraction from hyperspectral imagery and geographic information system spatial analysis techniques: case of Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petropoulos, George P.; Kalivas, Dionissios P.; Georgopoulou, Iro A.; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the performance of two different pixel-based classifiers [spectral angle mapper (SAM) and support vector machines (SVMs)] in discriminating different land-cover classes in a typical urban setting, focusing particularly on urban vegetation cover by utilizing hyperspectral (EO-1 Hyperion) data. As a case study, the city of Athens, Greece, was used. Validation of urban vegetation predictions was based on the error matrix statistics. Additionally, the final urban vegetation cover maps were compared at a municipality level against reference urban vegetation cover estimates derived from the digitization of very high-resolution imagery. To ensure consistency and comparability of the results, the same training and validation points dataset were used to compare the different classifiers. The results showed that SVMs outperformed SAM in terms of both classification and urban vegetation cover mapping with an overall accuracy of 86.53% and Kappa coefficient 0.823, whereas for SAM classification, the accuracy statistics obtained were 75.13% and 0.673, respectively. Our results confirmed the ability of both techniques, when combined with Hyperion imagery, to extract urban vegetation cover for the case of a densely populated city with complex urban features, such as Athens. Our findings offer significant information at the local scale as regards to the presence of open green spaces in the urban environment of Athens. Such information is vital for successful infrastructure development, urban landscape planning, and improvement of urban environment. More widely, this study also contributes significantly toward an objective assessment of Hyperion in detecting and mapping urban vegetation cover.

  7. Video summarization using descriptors of motion activity: a motion activity based approach to key-frame extraction from video shots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakaran, Ajay; Radhakrishnan, Regunathan; Peker, Kadir A.

    2001-10-01

    We describe a video summarization technique that uses motion descriptors computed in the compressed domain. It can either speed up conventional color-based video summarization techniques, or rapidly generate a key-frame based summary by itself. The basic hypothesis of the work is that the intensity of motion activity of a video segment is a direct indication of its `summarizability,' which we experimentally verify using the MPEG-7 motion activity descriptor and the fidelity measure proposed in H. S. Chang, S. Sull, and S. U. Lee, `Efficient video indexing scheme for content-based retrieval,' IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. Video Technol. 9(8), (1999). Note that the compressed domain extraction of motion activity intensity is much simpler than the color-based calculations. We are thus able to quickly identify easy to summarize segments of a video sequence since they have a low intensity of motion activity. We are able to easily summarize these segments by simply choosing their first frames. We can then apply conventional color-based summarization techniques to the remaining segments. We thus speed up color-based summarization by reducing the number of segments processed. Our results also motivate a simple and novel key-frame extraction technique that relies on a motion activity based nonuniform sampling of the frames. Our results indicate that it can either be used by itself or to speed up color-based techniques as explained earlier.

  8. Extraction and purification methods in downstream processing of plant-based recombinant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łojewska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Tomasz; Olejniczak, Szymon; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, the production of recombinant proteins in plant systems has been receiving increased attention. Currently, proteins are considered as the most important biopharmaceuticals. However, high costs and problems with scaling up the purification and isolation processes make the production of plant-based recombinant proteins a challenging task. This paper presents a summary of the information regarding the downstream processing in plant systems and provides a comprehensible overview of its key steps, such as extraction and purification. To highlight the recent progress, mainly new developments in the downstream technology have been chosen. Furthermore, besides most popular techniques, alternative methods have been described.

  9. Exploring the style-technique interaction in extractive summarization of broadcast news

    OpenAIRE

    Kolluru, BalaKrishna; Christensen, Heidi; Gotoh, Yoshihiko; Renals, Steve

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we seek to explore the interaction between the style of a broadcast news story and its summarization technique. We report the performance of three different summarization techniques on broadcast news stories, which are split into planned speech and spontaneous speech. The initial results indicate that some summarization techniques work better for the documents with spontaneous speech than for those with planned speech. Even for human beings some documents are inherently difficul...

  10. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat.

  11. A Novel Nanofabrication Technique of Silicon-Based Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingkuan; He, Xiaobin; Gao, Jianfeng; Li, Junjie; Wei, Yayi; Yan, Jiang

    2016-11-01

    A novel nanofabrication technique which can produce highly controlled silicon-based nanostructures in wafer scale has been proposed using a simple amorphous silicon (α-Si) material as an etch mask. SiO2 nanostructures directly fabricated can serve as nanotemplates to transfer into the underlying substrates such as silicon, germanium, transistor gate, or other dielectric materials to form electrically functional nanostructures and devices. In this paper, two typical silicon-based nanostructures such as nanoline and nanofin have been successfully fabricated by this technique, demonstrating excellent etch performance. In addition, silicon nanostructures fabricated above can be further trimmed to less than 10 nm by combing with assisted post-treatment methods. The novel nanofabrication technique will be expected a new emerging technology with low process complexity and good compatibility with existing silicon integrated circuit and is an important step towards the easy fabrication of a wide variety of nanoelectronics, biosensors, and optoelectronic devices.

  12. Study on Extracting Low Concentration Cadmium from Zinc Hydrometallurgy System by Liquid Membrane Crystallizing Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    The extraction of low concentration cadmium from a system containing high concentration zinc was studied and got CdS product directly. A new liquid membrane system taking DIPSA, TIBPS as carriers, (NH4)2S as precipitating agent was reported. Precipitating Cd2+ in the internal aq. phase that is used to treat sulfuric acid leaching solution of zinc oxide in zinc hydrometallurgy has gotten satisfied results of extracting cadmium from high concentration zinc. After one-stage of batch process under the optimum liquid membrane conditions, 98.6% transferring rate and 98.1% extracting rate of cadmium was obtained with only less than 1.0% transferring rate of zinc, and the feed solution can be purified very well.

  13. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explicit formulation of the model can be deduced. The proposed technique takes suitable method of selecting sample points, which are used to calculate the values of the model parameters. By comparing with the Quasi-Newton method, the results verify accuracy and reliability of this method.

  14. Hybrid Feature Extraction-based Approach for Facial Parts Representation and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouabhia, C.; Tebbikh, H.

    2008-06-01

    Face recognition is a specialized image processing which has attracted a considerable attention in computer vision. In this article, we develop a new facial recognition system from video sequences images dedicated to person identification whose face is partly occulted. This system is based on a hybrid image feature extraction technique called ACPDL2D (Rouabhia et al. 2007), it combines two-dimensional principal component analysis and two-dimensional linear discriminant analysis with neural network. We performed the feature extraction task on the eyes and the nose images separately then a Multi-Layers Perceptron classifier is used. Compared to the whole face, the results of simulation are in favor of the facial parts in terms of memory capacity and recognition (99.41% for the eyes part, 98.16% for the nose part and 97.25 % for the whole face).

  15. Localized Segment Based Processing for Automatic Building Extraction from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, G.; Rajan, K. S.

    2017-05-01

    The current methods of object segmentation and extraction and classification of aerial LiDAR data is manual and tedious task. This work proposes a technique for object segmentation out of LiDAR data. A bottom-up geometric rule based approach was used initially to devise a way to segment buildings out of the LiDAR datasets. For curved wall surfaces, comparison of localized surface normals was done to segment buildings. The algorithm has been applied to both synthetic datasets as well as real world dataset of Vaihingen, Germany. Preliminary results show successful segmentation of the buildings objects from a given scene in case of synthetic datasets and promissory results in case of real world data. The advantages of the proposed work is non-dependence on any other form of data required except LiDAR. It is an unsupervised method of building segmentation, thus requires no model training as seen in supervised techniques. It focuses on extracting the walls of the buildings to construct the footprint, rather than focussing on roof. The focus on extracting the wall to reconstruct the buildings from a LiDAR scene is crux of the method proposed. The current segmentation approach can be used to get 2D footprints of the buildings, with further scope to generate 3D models. Thus, the proposed method can be used as a tool to get footprints of buildings in urban landscapes, helping in urban planning and the smart cities endeavour.

  16. An efficient method of key-frame extraction based on a cluster algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Yu, Shao-Pei; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Wei, Xiao-Peng

    2013-12-18

    This paper proposes a novel method of key-frame extraction for use with motion capture data. This method is based on an unsupervised cluster algorithm. First, the motion sequence is clustered into two classes by the similarity distance of the adjacent frames so that the thresholds needed in the next step can be determined adaptively. Second, a dynamic cluster algorithm called ISODATA is used to cluster all the frames and the frames nearest to the center of each class are automatically extracted as key-frames of the sequence. Unlike many other clustering techniques, the present improved cluster algorithm can automatically address different motion types without any need for specified parameters from users. The proposed method is capable of summarizing motion capture data reliably and efficiently. The present work also provides a meaningful comparison between the results of the proposed key-frame extraction technique and other previous methods. These results are evaluated in terms of metrics that measure reconstructed motion and the mean absolute error value, which are derived from the reconstructed data and the original data.

  17. Innovative separation and preconcentration technique of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction exploiting graphene oxide nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazaghi, Mehri [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35131-19111, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Hassan Zavvar, E-mail: hzmousavi@semnan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35131-19111, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Ali Morad [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Entrance Blvd., Olympic Village, P.O. Box: 14857-33111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirkhanloo, Hamid [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center (OEHRC), Iranian Petroleum Industry Health Research Institute (IPIHRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Entrance Blvd., Olympic Village, P.O. Box: 14857-33111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Research and Development, Sharif Ultrahigh Nanotechnologists (SUN) Company, P.O. Box: 13488-96394, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    A uniquely novel, fast, and facile technique is introduced for the first time in which a scant amount of graphene oxide (GO), without modification, has been utilized in dispersive mode of solid phase extraction (SPE) for an efficient yet simple separation. The proposed method of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction (CHD-µSPE) is based on coagulation of homogeneous GO solution with the aid of polyetheneimine (PEI). CHD-µSPE use full adsorption capacity of GO because in this method was used GO solution obtained from synthesis process without drying step and stacking nanosheets. In optimized condition, 30 µL GO solution (7 mg mL{sup −1}), obtained in synthesis process, was injected into 1.5 mL the sample solution followed by immediate injection of 53 µL PEI solution (1 mg mL{sup −1}). After inserting PEI, GO sheets aggregate and can be readily separated by centrifugation. PEI not only cause aggregation of GO, but also form three-dimensional network of GO with easy handling in following separation steps. Lead, cadmium, and chromium were selected as model analytes and the effecting parameters including the amount of GO, concentration of PEI, sample pH, extraction time, and type of desorption solvent were investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the proposed CHD-µSPE method can be successfully applied GO in dispersive mode of SPE without effecting on good capability adsorption of GO. The novel method was applied in determination of lead, cadmium, and chromium in water, human saliva, and urine samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits are as low as 0.035, 0.005, and 0.012 µg L{sup −1} for Pb, Cd, and Cr respectively. The intra-day precisions (RSDs) were lower than 3.8%. CHD-µSPE method showed a good linear ranges of 0.24–15.6, 0.015–0.95 and 0.039–2.33 µg L{sup −1} for Pb, Cd and Cr respectively. Method performance was investigated by determination of mentioned

  18. Image encryption techniques based on the fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennelly, B. M.; Sheridan, J. T.

    2003-11-01

    The fractional Fourier transform, (FRT), is a generalisation of the Fourier transform which allows domains of mixed spatial frequency and spatial information to be examined. A number of method have recently been proposed in the literature for the encryption of two dimensional information using optical systems based on the FRT. Typically, these methods require random phase screen keys to decrypt the data, which must be stored at the receiver and must be carefully aligned with the received encrypted data. We have proposed a new technique based on a random shifting or Jigsaw transformation. This method does not require the use of phase keys. The image is encrypted by juxtaposition of sections of the image in various FRT domains. The new method has been compared numerically with existing methods and shows comparable or superior robustness to blind decryption. An optical implementation is also proposed and the sensitivity of the various encryption keys to blind decryption is quantified. We also present a second image encryption technique, which is based on a recently proposed method of optical phase retrieval using the optical FRT and one of its discrete counterparts. Numerical simulations of the new algorithm indicates that the sensitivity of the keys is much greater than any of the techniques currently available. In fact the sensitivity appears to be so high that optical implementation, based on existing optical signal processing technology, may be impossible. However, the technique has been shown to be a powerful method of 2-D image data encryption.

  19. Full-duplex MIMO system based on antenna cancellation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Franek, Ondrej; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an antenna cancellation technique for a multiple-input– multiple-output (MIMO) full-duplex system that is based on null-steering beamforming and antenna polarization diversity is investigated. A practical implementation of a symmetric antenna topology comprising three dual-pola...

  20. A comparative study on change vector analysis based change detection techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sartajvir Singh; Rajneesh Talwar

    2014-12-01

    Detection of Earth surface changes are essential to monitor regional climatic, snow avalanche hazard analysis and energy balance studies that occur due to air temperature irregularities. Geographic Information System (GIS) enables such research activities to be carried out through change detection analysis. From this viewpoint, different change detection algorithms have been developed for land-use land-cover (LULC) region. Among the different change detection algorithms, change vector analysis (CVA) has level headed capability of extracting maximuminformation in terms of overall magnitude of change and the direction of change between multispectral bands from multi-temporal satellite data sets. Since past two–three decades, many effective CVA based change detection techniques e.g., improved change vector analysis (ICVA), modified change vector analysis (MCVA) and change vector analysis posterior-probability space (CVAPS), have been developed to overcome the difficulty that exists in traditional change vector analysis (CVA). Moreover, many integrated techniques such as cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) based CVA. CVA uses enhanced principal component analysis (PCA) and inverse triangular (IT) function, hyper-spherical direction cosine (HSDC), and median CVA (m-CVA), as an effective LULC change detection tools. This paper comprises a comparative analysis on CVA based change detection techniques such as CVA, MCVA, ICVA and CVAPS. This paper also summarizes the necessary integrated CVA techniques along with their characteristics, features and shortcomings. Based on experiment outcomes, it has been evaluated that CVAPS technique has greater potential than other CVA techniques to evaluate the overall transformed information over three differentMODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data sets of different regions. Results of this study are expected to be potentially useful for more accurate analysis of LULC changes which will, in turn

  1. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  2. Feature based sliding window technique for face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad Younus; Mohsin, Syed Maajid; Anjum, Muhammad Almas

    2010-02-01

    Human beings are commonly identified by biometric schemes which are concerned with identifying individuals by their unique physical characteristics. The use of passwords and personal identification numbers for detecting humans are being used for years now. Disadvantages of these schemes are that someone else may use them or can easily be forgotten. Keeping in view of these problems, biometrics approaches such as face recognition, fingerprint, iris/retina and voice recognition have been developed which provide a far better solution when identifying individuals. A number of methods have been developed for face recognition. This paper illustrates employment of Gabor filters for extracting facial features by constructing a sliding window frame. Classification is done by assigning class label to the unknown image that has maximum features similar to the image stored in the database of that class. The proposed system gives a recognition rate of 96% which is better than many of the similar techniques being used for face recognition.

  3. Research of building information extraction and evaluation based on high-resolution remote-sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiong; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Wang, Lang

    2016-09-01

    Building extraction currently is important in the application of high-resolution remote sensing imagery. At present, quite a few algorithms are available for detecting building information, however, most of them still have some obvious disadvantages, such as the ignorance of spectral information, the contradiction between extraction rate and extraction accuracy. The purpose of this research is to develop an effective method to detect building information for Chinese GF-1 data. Firstly, the image preprocessing technique is used to normalize the image and image enhancement is used to highlight the useful information in the image. Secondly, multi-spectral information is analyzed. Subsequently, an improved morphological building index (IMBI) based on remote sensing imagery is proposed to get the candidate building objects. Furthermore, in order to refine building objects and further remove false objects, the post-processing (e.g., the shape features, the vegetation index and the water index) is employed. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, the omission errors (OE), commission errors (CE), the overall accuracy (OA) and Kappa are used at final. The proposed method can not only effectively use spectral information and other basic features, but also avoid extracting excessive interference details from high-resolution remote sensing images. Compared to the original MBI algorithm, the proposed method reduces the OE by 33.14% .At the same time, the Kappa increase by 16.09%. In experiments, IMBI achieved satisfactory results and outperformed other algorithms in terms of both accuracies and visual inspection

  4. Grid Based Techniques for Visualization in the Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollig, E. F.; Sowell, B.; Lu, Z.; Erlebacher, G.; Yuen, D. A.

    2005-12-01

    As experiments and simulations in the geosciences grow larger and more complex, it has become increasingly important to develop methods of processing and sharing data in a distributed computing environment. In recent years, the scientific community has shown growing interest in exploiting the powerful assets of Grid computing to this end, but the complexity of the Grid has prevented many scientists from converting their applications and embracing this possibility. We are investigating methods for development and deployment of data extraction and visualization services across the NaradaBrokering [1] Grid infrastructure. With the help of gSOAP [2], we have developed a series of C/C++ services for wavelet transforms, earthquake clustering, and basic 3D visualization. We will demonstrate the deployment and collaboration of these services across a network of NaradaBrokering nodes, concentrating on the challenges faced in inter-service communication, service/client division, and particularly web service visualization. Renderings in a distributed environment can be handled in three ways: 1) the data extraction service computes and renders everything locally and sends results to the client as a bitmap image, 2) the data extraction service sends results to a separate visualization service for rendering, which in turn sends results to a client as a bitmap image, and 3) the client itself renders images locally. The first two options allow for large visualizations in a distributed and collaborative environment, but limit interactivity of the client. To address this problem we are investigating the advantages of the JOGL OpenGL library [3] to perform renderings on the client side using the client's hardware for increased performance. We will present benchmarking results to ascertain the relative advantage of the three aforementioned techniques as a function of datasize and visualization task. [1] The NaradaBrokering Project, http://www.naradabrokering.org [2] gSOAP: C/C++ Web

  5. Vision-based system identification technique for building structures using a motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Byung Kwan; Hwang, Jin Woo; Kim, Yousok; Cho, Tongjun; Park, Hyo Seon

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a new vision-based system identification (SI) technique for building structures by using a motion capture system (MCS). The MCS with outstanding capabilities for dynamic response measurements can provide gage-free measurements of vibrations through the convenient installation of multiple markers. In this technique, from the dynamic displacement responses measured by MCS, the dynamic characteristics (natural frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio) of building structures are extracted after the processes of converting the displacement from MCS to acceleration and conducting SI by frequency domain decomposition. A free vibration experiment on a three-story shear frame was conducted to validate the proposed technique. The SI results from the conventional accelerometer-based method were compared with those from the proposed technique and showed good agreement, which confirms the validity and applicability of the proposed vision-based SI technique for building structures. Furthermore, SI directly employing MCS measured displacements to FDD was performed and showed identical results to those of conventional SI method.

  6. Web image retrieval using an effective topic and content-based technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ching-Cheng; Prabhakara, Rashmi

    2005-03-01

    There has been an exponential growth in the amount of image data that is available on the World Wide Web since the early development of Internet. With such a large amount of information and image available and its usefulness, an effective image retrieval system is thus greatly needed. In this paper, we present an effective approach with both image matching and indexing techniques that improvise on existing integrated image retrieval methods. This technique follows a two-phase approach, integrating query by topic and query by example specification methods. In the first phase, The topic-based image retrieval is performed by using an improved text information retrieval (IR) technique that makes use of the structured format of HTML documents. This technique consists of a focused crawler that not only provides for the user to enter the keyword for the topic-based search but also, the scope in which the user wants to find the images. In the second phase, we use query by example specification to perform a low-level content-based image match in order to retrieve smaller and relatively closer results of the example image. From this, information related to the image feature is automatically extracted from the query image. The main objective of our approach is to develop a functional image search and indexing technique and to demonstrate that better retrieval results can be achieved.

  7. Face Veins Based MCMT Technique for Personal Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamta Nath Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Face veins based personal identification is a challenging task in the field of identity verification of a person. It is because many other techniques are not identifying the uniqueness of a person in the universe. This research paper finds the uniqueness of a person on the basis of face veins based technique. In this paper five different persons face veins images have been used with different rotation angles (left/right 900 to 2700 and 3150 . For each person, eight different images at different rotations were used and for each of these images the same minimum cost minutiae tree (MCMT is obtained. Here, Prim‟s or Kruskal‟s algorithm is used for finding the MCMT from a minutiae graph. The MCMT is traversed in pre-order to generate the unique string of vertices and edge lengths. We deviated the edge lengths of each MCMT by five pixels in positive and negative directions for robustness testing. It is observed in our experiments that the traversed string which consists of vertices and edge lengths of MCMT is unique for each person and this unique sequence is correctly identifying a person with an accuracy of above 95%. Further, we have compared the performance of our proposed technique with other standard techniques and it is observed that the proposed technique is giving the promising result.

  8. The Real-Time Image Processing Technique Based on DSP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Chang; CHEN Yue-hua; HUANG Tian-shu

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel real-time image processing technique based on digital singnal processor (DSP). At the aspect of wavelet transform(WT) algorithm, the technique uses algorithm of second generation wavelet transform-lifting scheme WT that has low calculation complexity property for the 2-D image data processing. Since the processing effect of lifting scheme WT for 1-D data is better than the effect of it for 2-D data obviously, this paper proposes a reformative processing method: Transform 2-D image data to 1-D data sequence by linearization method, then process the 1-D data sequence by algorithm of lifting scheme WT. The method changes the image convolution mode,which based on the cross filtering of rows and columns. At the aspect of hardware realization, the technique optimizes the program structure of DSP to exert the operation power with the in-chip memorizer of DSP. The experiment results show that the real-time image processing technique proposed in this paper can meet the real-time requirement of video-image transmitting in the video surveillance system of electric power. So the technique is a feasible and efficient DSP solution.

  9. Classification Technique for Hyperspectral Image Based on Subspace of Bands Feature Extraction and LS-SVM%基于波段子集特征提取的最小二乘支持向量机高光谱图像分类技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高恒振; 万建伟; 朱珍珍; 王力宝; 粘永健

    2011-01-01

    The present paper proposes a novel hyperspectral image classification algorithm based on LS-SVM (least squares support vector machine). The LS-SVM uses the features extracted from subspace of bands (SOB). The maximum noise fraction (MNF) method is adopted as the feature extraction method. The spectral correlations of the hyperspectral image are used in order to divide the feature space into several SOBs. Then the MNF is used to extract characteristic features of the SOBs. The extracted features are combined into the feature vector for classification. So the strong bands correlation is avoided and the spectral redundancies are reduced. The LS-SVM classifier is adopted, which replaces inequality constraints in SVM by equality constraints. So the computation consumption is reduced and the learning performance is improved. The proposed method optimizes spectral information by feature extraction and reduces the spectral noise. The classifier performance is improved. Experimental results show the superiorities of the proposed algorithm.%针对高光谱图像分类,文章提出一种基于波段子集最大噪声分量特征提取的最小二乘支持向量机的高光谱图像分类算法.利用高光谱图像的谱间相关性将原始光谱波段划分为若干个波段子集,并在各个子集上采用最大噪声分量方法进行特征提取,将提取的特征合成为分类的组合特征矢量,避免了高光谱图像较强的波段相关性,减少了谱间冗余.并且采用了最小二乘支持向量机,用等式约束取代了支持向量机中的不等式约束,降低了运算量,提高了学习效率.该方法利用特征提取优化了光谱信息,降低了谱间噪声,提高了分类器的性能.实验结果证明了本文算法的优越性.

  10. Lower incisor extraction treatment with the Invisalign® technique: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancotti, Aldo; Garino, Francesco; Mampieri, Gianluca

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of a lower incisor can lead to satisfactory orthodontic results for patients with moderate to severe lower incisor crowding. Invisalign(®) is a treatment modality for such treatments, moving teeth with precision and reducing inconvenience for the patient. Three case reports are presented in this article supporting the above statements.

  11. Simplified technique for easy extraction of impacted supernumerary teeth using guided surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ok Hyung; Lee, Hyeonjong; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Hyo-Seol; Choi, Sung Chul

    2017-01-01

    Most mesiodens remain impacted and can affect the growth and development of adjacent permanent teeth. Impacted mesiodens are usually located in an intraosseous position associated with complicated anatomical structures, necessitating minimally invasive surgical approaches. This article demonstrates a simple customized surgical stent for extraction of impacted mesiodens. Its use and advantages are described.

  12. Automatic layout feature extraction for lithography hotspot detection based on deep neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunawa, Tetsuaki; Nojima, Shigeki; Kotani, Toshiya

    2016-03-01

    Lithography hotspot detection in the physical verification phase is one of the most important techniques in today's optical lithography based manufacturing process. Although lithography simulation based hotspot detection is widely used, it is also known to be time-consuming. To detect hotspots in a short runtime, several machine learning based methods have been proposed. However, it is difficult to realize highly accurate detection without an increase in false alarms because an appropriate layout feature is undefined. This paper proposes a new method to automatically extract a proper layout feature from a given layout for improvement in detection performance of machine learning based methods. Experimental results show that using a deep neural network can achieve better performance than other frameworks using manually selected layout features and detection algorithms, such as conventional logistic regression or artificial neural network.

  13. A Feature Extraction Method Based on Information Theory for Fault Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaqing; Chen, Peng

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a feature extraction method based on information theory for fault diagnosis of reciprocating machinery. A method to obtain symptom parameter waves is defined in the time domain using the vibration signals, and an information wave is presented based on information theory, using the symptom parameter waves. A new way to determine the difference spectrum of envelope information waves is also derived, by which the feature spectrum can be extracted clearly and machine faults can be effectively differentiated. This paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional Hilbert-transform-based envelope detection and with a wavelet analysis technique. Practical examples of diagnosis for a rolling element bearing used in a diesel engine are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the bearing faults that typically occur in rolling element bearings, such as outer-race, inner-race, and roller defects, can be effectively identified by the proposed method, while these bearing faults are difficult to detect using either of the other techniques it was compared to. PMID:22574021

  14. A Feature Extraction Method Based on Information Theory for Fault Diagnosis of Reciprocating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqing Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a feature extraction method based on information theory for fault diagnosis of reciprocating machinery. A method to obtain symptom parameter waves is defined in the time domain using the vibration signals, and an information wave is presented based on information theory, using the symptom parameter waves. A new way to determine the difference spectrum of envelope information waves is also derived, by which the feature spectrum can be extracted clearly and machine faults can be effectively differentiated. This paper also compares the proposed method with the conventional Hilbert-transform-based envelope detection and with a wavelet analysis technique. Practical examples of diagnosis for a rolling element bearing used in a diesel engine are provided to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The verification results show that the bearing faults that typically occur in rolling element bearings, such as outer-race, inner-race, and roller defects, can be effectively identified by the proposed method, while these bearing faults are difficult to detect using either of the other techniques it was compared to.

  15. Reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth: comparison of three different materials using injection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, A; Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Shrestha, P

    2010-04-01

    This in vitro study compared the reproduction of intra-radicular surface anatomy of extracted human teeth taken by silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin using an injection technique to determine which material produced fewer voids. Twenty impressions/patterns using this technique were made for each material and compared with each other on the basis of number, location and size of voids. Length of each dowel impression/ pattern was also compared. The percentage of void free surfaces using silicon, inlay casting wax and acrylic resin were 90%, 100% and 85% respectively. Most of the voids were less than 1mm in size and situated in the middle third of the impression/pattern. There was no significant difference in the length of the impression/ pattern taken by the three materials. Using the injection technique to reproduce the intra-radicular anatomy of the dowel space, all three materials will show predictably good results.

  16. Proposing a Wiki-Based Technique for Collaborative Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Ortiz Navarrete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a technique for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task. Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique when writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a base computer mediated collaboration. Within this context, the students’ role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained.

  17. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  18. Line Search-Based Inverse Lithography Technique for Mask Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As feature size is much smaller than the wavelength of illumination source of lithography equipments, resolution enhancement technology (RET has been increasingly relied upon to minimize image distortions. In advanced process nodes, pixelated mask becomes essential for RET to achieve an acceptable resolution. In this paper, we investigate the problem of pixelated binary mask design in a partially coherent imaging system. Similar to previous approaches, the mask design problem is formulated as a nonlinear program and is solved by gradient-based search. Our contributions are four novel techniques to achieve significantly better image quality. First, to transform the original bound-constrained formulation to an unconstrained optimization problem, we propose a new noncyclic transformation of mask variables to replace the wellknown cyclic one. As our transformation is monotonic, it enables a better control in flipping pixels. Second, based on this new transformation, we propose a highly efficient line search-based heuristic technique to solve the resulting unconstrained optimization. Third, to simplify the optimization, instead of using discretization regularization penalty technique, we directly round the optimized gray mask into binary mask for pattern error evaluation. Forth, we introduce a jump technique in order to jump out of local minimum and continue the search.

  19. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y. [Forming Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore); Lee, M.W. [Food Innovation and Resource Centre, Singapore Polytechnic (Singapore); Thian, E.S., E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  20. A Survey on Statistical Based Single Channel Speech Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunnydayal. V

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Speech enhancement is a long standing problem with various applications like hearing aids, automatic recognition and coding of speech signals. Single channel speech enhancement technique is used for enhancement of the speech degraded by additive background noises. The background noise can have an adverse impact on our ability to converse without hindrance or smoothly in very noisy environments, such as busy streets, in a car or cockpit of an airplane. Such type of noises can affect quality and intelligibility of speech. This is a survey paper and its object is to provide an overview of speech enhancement algorithms so that enhance the noisy speech signal which is corrupted by additive noise. The algorithms are mainly based on statistical based approaches. Different estimators are compared. Challenges and Opportunities of speech enhancement are also discussed. This paper helps in choosing the best statistical based technique for speech enhancement