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Sample records for extraction technique based

  1. Enhancement of Twins Fetal ECG Signal Extraction Based on Hybrid Blind Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kareem Abdullah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ECG machines are noninvasive system used to measure the heartbeat signal. It’s very important to monitor the fetus ECG signals during pregnancy to check the heat activity and to detect any problem early before born, therefore the monitoring of ECG signals have clinical significance and importance. For multi-fetal pregnancy case the classical filtering algorithms are not sufficient to separate the ECG signals between mother and fetal. In this paper the mixture consists of mixing from three ECG signals, the first signal is the mother ECG (M-ECG signal, second signal the Fetal-1 ECG (F1-ECG, and third signal is the Fetal-2 ECG (F2-ECG, these signals are extracted based on modified blind source extraction (BSE techniques. The proposed work based on hybridization between two BSE techniques to ensure that the extracted signals separated well. The results demonstrate that the proposed work very efficiently to extract the useful ECG signals

  2. BEaST: brain extraction based on nonlocal segmentation technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eskildsen, Simon F.; Coupé, Pierrick; Fonov, Vladimir; Manjón, José V.; Leung, Kelvin K.; Guizard, Nicolas; Wassef, Shafik N.; Østergaard, Lasse Riis; Collins, D. Louis; Saradha, A.; Abdi, Hervé; Abdulkadir, Ahmed; Acharya, Deepa; Achuthan, Anusha; Adluru, Nagesh; Aghajanian, Jania; Agrusti, Antonella; Agyemang, Alex; Ahdidan, Jamila; Ahmad, Duaa; Ahmed, Shiek; Aisen, Paul; Akhondi-Asl, Alireza; Aksu, Yaman; Alberca, Roman; Alcauter, Sarael; Alexander, Daniel; Alin, Aylin; Almeida, Fabio; Alvarez-Linera, Juan; Amlien, Inge; Anand, Shyam; Anderson, Dallas; Ang, Amma; Angersbach, Steve; Ansarian, Reza; Aoyama, Eiji; Appannah, Arti; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Armor, Tom; Arrighi, Michael; Arumughababu, S. Vethanayaki; Arunagiri, Vidhya; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Ashford, Wes; Le Page, Aurelie; Avants, Brian; Chen, Wei; Richard, Edo; Schmand, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Brain extraction is an important step in the analysis of brain images. The variability in brain morphology and the difference in intensity characteristics due to imaging sequences make the development of a general purpose brain extraction algorithm challenging. To address this issue, we propose a

  3. A novel technique for extracting clouds base height using ground based imaging

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    E. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The height of a cloud in the atmospheric column is a key parameter in its characterization. Several remote sensing techniques (passive and active, either ground-based or on space-borne platforms and in-situ measurements are routinely used in order to estimate top and base heights of clouds. In this article we present a novel method that combines thermal imaging from the ground and sounded wind profile in order to derive the cloud base height. This method is independent of cloud types, making it efficient for both low boundary layer and high clouds. In addition, using thermal imaging ensures extraction of clouds' features during daytime as well as at nighttime. The proposed technique was validated by comparison to active sounding by ceilometers (which is a standard ground based method, to lifted condensation level (LCL calculations, and to MODIS products obtained from space. As all passive remote sensing techniques, the proposed method extracts only the height of the lowest cloud layer, thus upper cloud layers are not detected. Nevertheless, the information derived from this method can be complementary to space-borne cloud top measurements when deep-convective clouds are present. Unlike techniques such as LCL, this method is not limited to boundary layer clouds, and can extract the cloud base height at any level, as long as sufficient thermal contrast exists between the radiative temperatures of the cloud and its surrounding air parcel. Another advantage of the proposed method is its simplicity and modest power needs, making it particularly suitable for field measurements and deployment at remote locations. Our method can be further simplified for use with visible CCD or CMOS camera (although nighttime clouds will not be observed.

  4. A novel murmur-based heart sound feature extraction technique using envelope-morphological analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hao-Dong; Ma, Jia-Li; Fu, Bin-Bin; Wang, Hai-Yang; Dong, Ming-Chui

    2015-07-01

    Auscultation of heart sound (HS) signals serves as an important primary approach to diagnose cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) for centuries. Confronting the intrinsic drawbacks of traditional HS auscultation, computer-aided automatic HS auscultation based on feature extraction technique has witnessed explosive development. Yet, most existing HS feature extraction methods adopt acoustic or time-frequency features which exhibit poor relationship with diagnostic information, thus restricting the performance of further interpretation and analysis. Tackling such a bottleneck problem, this paper innovatively proposes a novel murmur-based HS feature extraction method since murmurs contain massive pathological information and are regarded as the first indications of pathological occurrences of heart valves. Adapting discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and Shannon envelope, the envelope-morphological characteristics of murmurs are obtained and three features are extracted accordingly. Validated by discriminating normal HS and 5 various abnormal HS signals with extracted features, the proposed method provides an attractive candidate in automatic HS auscultation.

  5. A Novel Technique for Shape Feature Extraction Using Content Based Image Retrieval

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    Dhanoa Jaspreet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology and multimedia information, digital images are increasing very quickly. Various techniques are being developed to retrieve/search digital information or data contained in the image. Traditional Text Based Image Retrieval System is not plentiful. Since it is time consuming as it require manual image annotation. Also, the image annotation differs with different peoples. An alternate to this is Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR system. It retrieves/search for image using its contents rather the text, keywords etc. A lot of exploration has been compassed in the range of Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR with various feature extraction techniques. Shape is a significant image feature as it reflects the human perception. Moreover, Shape is quite simple to use by the user to define object in an image as compared to other features such as Color, texture etc. Over and above, if applied alone, no descriptor will give fruitful results. Further, by combining it with an improved classifier, one can use the positive features of both the descriptor and classifier. So, a tryout will be made to establish an algorithm for accurate feature (Shape extraction in Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. The main objectives of this project are: (a To propose an algorithm for shape feature extraction using CBIR, (b To evaluate the performance of proposed algorithm and (c To compare the proposed algorithm with state of art techniques.

  6. A Novel Feature Extraction Technique Using Binarization of Bit Planes for Content Based Image Classification

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    Sudeep Thepade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of techniques have been proposed earlier for feature extraction using image binarization. Efficiency of the techniques was dependent on proper threshold selection for the binarization method. In this paper, a new feature extraction technique using image binarization has been proposed. The technique has binarized the significant bit planes of an image by selecting local thresholds. The proposed algorithm has been tested on a public dataset and has been compared with existing widely used techniques using binarization for extraction of features. It has been inferred that the proposed method has outclassed all the existing techniques and has shown consistent classification performance.

  7. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-03-04

    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  8. Robust breathing signal extraction from cone beam CT projections based on adaptive and global optimization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Ming; Yuan, Yading; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E; Lo, Yeh-Chi; Wei, Jie; Li, Tianfang

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of extracting respiratory signals from cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) projections within the framework of the Amsterdam Shroud (AS) technique. Acquired prior to the radiotherapy treatment, CBCT projections were preprocessed for contrast enhancement by converting the original intensity images to attenuation images with which the AS image was created. An adaptive robust z-normalization filtering was applied to further augment the weak oscillating structures locally. From the enhanced AS image, the respiratory signal was extracted using a two-step optimization approach to effectively reveal the large-scale regularity of the breathing signals. CBCT projection images from five patients acquired with the Varian Onboard Imager on the Clinac iX System Linear Accelerator (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) were employed to assess the proposed technique. Stable breathing signals can be reliably extracted using the proposed algorithm. Reference waveforms obtained using an air bellows belt (Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH) were exported and compared to those with the AS based signals. The average errors for the enrolled patients between the estimated breath per minute (bpm) and the reference waveform bpm can be as low as  −0.07 with the standard deviation 1.58. The new algorithm outperformed the original AS technique for all patients by 8.5% to 30%. The impact of gantry rotation on the breathing signal was assessed with data acquired with a Quasar phantom (Modus Medical Devices Inc., London, Canada) and found to be minimal on the signal frequency. The new technique developed in this work will provide a practical solution to rendering markerless breathing signal using the CBCT projections for thoracic and abdominal patients. (paper)

  9. A histogram-based technique for rapid vector extraction from PIV photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A new analysis technique, performed totally in the image plane, is proposed which rapidly extracts all available vectors from individual interrogation regions on PIV photographs. The technique avoids the need for using Fourier transforms with the associated computational burden. The data acquisition and analysis procedure is described, and results of a preliminary simulation study to evaluate the accuracy of the technique are presented. Recently obtained PIV photographs are analyzed.

  10. Gearbox fault diagnosis based on time-frequency domain synchronous averaging and feature extraction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, Jiong

    2016-04-01

    Gearbox is one of the most vulnerable subsystems in wind turbines. Its healthy status significantly affects the efficiency and function of the entire system. Vibration based fault diagnosis methods are prevalently applied nowadays. However, vibration signals are always contaminated by noise that comes from data acquisition errors, structure geometric errors, operation errors, etc. As a result, it is difficult to identify potential gear failures directly from vibration signals, especially for the early stage faults. This paper utilizes synchronous averaging technique in time-frequency domain to remove the non-synchronous noise and enhance the fault related time-frequency features. The enhanced time-frequency information is further employed in gear fault classification and identification through feature extraction algorithms including Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA), Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA), and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). Results show that the LLE approach is the most effective to classify and identify different gear faults.

  11. Singular value decomposition based feature extraction technique for physiological signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cheng-Ding; Wang, Chien-Chih; Jiang, Bernard C

    2012-06-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) is one of the popular techniques to calculate and describe the complexity of the physiological signal. Many studies use this approach to detect changes in the physiological conditions in the human body. However, MSE results are easily affected by noise and trends, leading to incorrect estimation of MSE values. In this paper, singular value decomposition (SVD) is adopted to replace MSE to extract the features of physiological signals, and adopt the support vector machine (SVM) to classify the different physiological states. A test data set based on the PhysioNet website was used, and the classification results showed that using SVD to extract features of the physiological signal could attain a classification accuracy rate of 89.157%, which is higher than that using the MSE value (71.084%). The results show the proposed analysis procedure is effective and appropriate for distinguishing different physiological states. This promising result could be used as a reference for doctors in diagnosis of congestive heart failure (CHF) disease.

  12. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoshang Kolivand

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost.

  13. An expert botanical feature extraction technique based on phenetic features for identifying plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Bong Mei; Rahim, Mohd Shafry Mohd; Sulong, Ghazali; Baker, Thar; Tully, David

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new method to recognise the leaf type and identify plant species using phenetic parts of the leaf; lobes, apex and base detection. Most of the research in this area focuses on the popular features such as the shape, colour, vein, and texture, which consumes large amounts of computational processing and are not efficient, especially in the Acer database with a high complexity structure of the leaves. This paper is focused on phenetic parts of the leaf which increases accuracy. Detecting the local maxima and local minima are done based on Centroid Contour Distance for Every Boundary Point, using north and south region to recognise the apex and base. Digital morphology is used to measure the leaf shape and the leaf margin. Centroid Contour Gradient is presented to extract the curvature of leaf apex and base. We analyse 32 leaf images of tropical plants and evaluated with two different datasets, Flavia, and Acer. The best accuracy obtained is 94.76% and 82.6% respectively. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed technique without considering the commonly used features with high computational cost. PMID:29420568

  14. A thresholding based technique to extract retinal blood vessels from fundus images

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    Jyotiprava Dash

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinal imaging has become the significant tool among all the medical imaging technology, due to its capability to extract many data which is linked to various eye diseases. So, the accurate extraction of blood vessel is necessary that helps the eye care specialists and ophthalmologist to identify the diseases at the early stages. In this paper, we have proposed a computerized technique for extraction of blood vessels from fundus images. The process is conducted in three phases: (i pre-processing where the image is enhanced using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and median filter, (ii segmentation using mean-C thresholding to extract retinal blood vessels, (iii post-processing where morphological cleaning operation is used to remove isolated pixels. The performance of the proposed method is tested on and experimental results show that our method achieve an accuracies of 0.955 and 0.954 on Digital retinal images for vessel extraction (DRIVE and Child heart and health study in England (CHASE_DB1 databases respectively.

  15. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Water-Based Extraction of Substances from Dry Tea Leaves with the Use of Magnetic Field Assisted Extraction Techniques

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    Grzegorz Zaguła

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the findings of a study investigating the feasibility of using a magnetic field assisted technique for the water-based extraction of mineral components, polyphenols, and caffeine from dry black and green tea leaves. The authors present a concept of applying constant and variable magnetic fields in the process of producing water-based infusions from selected types of tea. Analyses investigating the effectiveness of the proposed technique in comparison with conventional infusion methods assessed the contents of selected mineral components—i.e., Al, Ca, Cu, K, Mg, P, S, and Zn—which were examined with the use of ICP-OES. The contents of caffeine and polyphenolic compounds were assessed using the HPLC. A changing magnetic field permitted an increased effectiveness of extraction of the mineral components, caffeine, and polyphenols. The findings support the conclusion that a changing magnetic field assisted extraction method is useful for obtaining biologically valuable components from tea infusions.

  16. Depth extraction method with high accuracy in integral imaging based on moving array lenslet technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-yao; Zhang, Juan; Zhao, Xue-wei; Song, Li-pei; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Xing

    2018-03-01

    In order to improve depth extraction accuracy, a method using moving array lenslet technique (MALT) in pickup stage is proposed, which can decrease the depth interval caused by pixelation. In this method, the lenslet array is moved along the horizontal and vertical directions simultaneously for N times in a pitch to get N sets of elemental images. Computational integral imaging reconstruction method for MALT is taken to obtain the slice images of the 3D scene, and the sum modulus (SMD) blur metric is taken on these slice images to achieve the depth information of the 3D scene. Simulation and optical experiments are carried out to verify the feasibility of this method.

  17. A robust technique based on VLM and Frangi filter for retinal vessel extraction and denoising.

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    Khan Bahadar Khan

    Full Text Available The exploration of retinal vessel structure is colossally important on account of numerous diseases including stroke, Diabetic Retinopathy (DR and coronary heart diseases, which can damage the retinal vessel structure. The retinal vascular network is very hard to be extracted due to its spreading and diminishing geometry and contrast variation in an image. The proposed technique consists of unique parallel processes for denoising and extraction of blood vessels in retinal images. In the preprocessing section, an adaptive histogram equalization enhances dissimilarity between the vessels and the background and morphological top-hat filters are employed to eliminate macula and optic disc, etc. To remove local noise, the difference of images is computed from the top-hat filtered image and the high-boost filtered image. Frangi filter is applied at multi scale for the enhancement of vessels possessing diverse widths. Segmentation is performed by using improved Otsu thresholding on the high-boost filtered image and Frangi's enhanced image, separately. In the postprocessing steps, a Vessel Location Map (VLM is extracted by using raster to vector transformation. Postprocessing steps are employed in a novel way to reject misclassified vessel pixels. The final segmented image is obtained by using pixel-by-pixel AND operation between VLM and Frangi output image. The method has been rigorously analyzed on the STARE, DRIVE and HRF datasets.

  18. Using Web-Based Knowledge Extraction Techniques to Support Cultural Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Paul R.; Sieck, Winston R.; Shadbolt, Nigel R.

    The World Wide Web is a potentially valuable source of information about the cognitive characteristics of cultural groups. However, attempts to use the Web in the context of cultural modeling activities are hampered by the large-scale nature of the Web and the current dominance of natural language formats. In this paper, we outline an approach to support the exploitation of the Web for cultural modeling activities. The approach begins with the development of qualitative cultural models (which describe the beliefs, concepts and values of cultural groups), and these models are subsequently used to develop an ontology-based information extraction capability. Our approach represents an attempt to combine conventional approaches to information extraction with epidemiological perspectives of culture and network-based approaches to cultural analysis. The approach can be used, we suggest, to support the development of models providing a better understanding of the cognitive characteristics of particular cultural groups.

  19. New extraction technique for alkaloids

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    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  20. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, M A; Armenise, E; White, R P; Hirsch, P R; Goulding, K W T

    2013-12-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colorimetric technique based on the Lowry assay (frequently used to measure protein and humic substances as distinct pools in microbial biofilms). The accuracies of both the Bradford assay and a modified Lowry microplate method were compared in factorial combination. Protein was quantified in soil-extracts (extracted with citrate), including standard additions of model protein (BSA) and polyphenol (Sigma H1675-2). Using the Lowry microplate assay described, no interfering effects of citrate were detected even with concentrations up to 5 times greater than are typically used to extract soil protein. Moreover, the Bradford assay was found to be highly susceptible to two simultaneous and confounding artefacts: 1) the colour development due to added protein was greatly inhibited by polyphenol concentration, and 2) substantial colour development was caused directly by the polyphenol addition. In contrast, the Lowry method enabled distinction between colour development from protein and non-protein origin, providing a more accurate quantitative analysis. These results suggest that the modified-Lowry method is a more suitable measure of extract protein (defined by standard equivalents) because it is less confounded by the high polyphenolic content which is so typical of soil extracts.

  1. A Discrete Wavelet Based Feature Extraction and Hybrid Classification Technique for Microarray Data Analysis

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    Jaison Bennet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer classification by doctors and radiologists was based on morphological and clinical features and had limited diagnostic ability in olden days. The recent arrival of DNA microarray technology has led to the concurrent monitoring of thousands of gene expressions in a single chip which stimulates the progress in cancer classification. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid approach for microarray data classification based on nearest neighbor (KNN, naive Bayes, and support vector machine (SVM. Feature selection prior to classification plays a vital role and a feature selection technique which combines discrete wavelet transform (DWT and moving window technique (MWT is used. The performance of the proposed method is compared with the conventional classifiers like support vector machine, nearest neighbor, and naive Bayes. Experiments have been conducted on both real and benchmark datasets and the results indicate that the ensemble approach produces higher classification accuracy than conventional classifiers. This paper serves as an automated system for the classification of cancer and can be applied by doctors in real cases which serve as a boon to the medical community. This work further reduces the misclassification of cancers which is highly not allowed in cancer detection.

  2. Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Aljanabi, S M; Martinez, I

    1997-01-01

    A very simple, fast, universally applicable and reproducible method to extract high quality megabase genomic DNA from different organisms is described. We applied the same method to extract high quality complex genomic DNA from different tissues (wheat, barley, potato, beans, pear and almond leaves as well as fungi, insects and shrimps' fresh tissue) without any modification. The method does not require expensive and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be performed even i...

  3. Study on methods and techniques of aeroradiometric weak information extraction for sandstone-hosted uranium deposits based on GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shaoyang; Ke Dan; Hou Huiqun

    2005-01-01

    The weak information extraction is one of the important research contents in the current sandstone-type uranium prospecting in China. This paper introduces the connotation of aeroradiometric weak information extraction, and discusses the formation theories of aeroradiometric weak information extraction, and discusses the formation theories of aeroradiometric weak information and establishes some effective mathematic models for weak information extraction. Models for weak information extraction are realized based on GIS software platform. Application tests of weak information extraction are realized based on GIS software platform. Application tests of weak information extraction are completed in known uranium mineralized areas. Research results prove that the prospective areas of sandstone-type uranium deposits can be rapidly delineated by extracting aeroradiometric weak information. (authors)

  4. Solid-Phase Extraction Coupled to a Paper-Based Technique for Trace Copper Detection in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Casey W; Cate, David M; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel D; Reilly, Thomas; Volckens, John; Henry, Charles S

    2018-03-20

    Metal contamination of natural and drinking water systems poses hazards to public and environmental health. Quantifying metal concentrations in water typically requires sample collection in the field followed by expensive laboratory analysis that can take days to weeks to obtain results. The objective of this work was to develop a low-cost, field-deployable method to quantify trace levels of copper in drinking water by coupling solid-phase extraction/preconcentration with a microfluidic paper-based analytical device. This method has the advantages of being hand-powered (instrument-free) and using a simple "read by eye" quantification motif (based on color distance). Tap water samples collected across Fort Collins, CO, were tested with this method and validated against ICP-MS. We demonstrate the ability to quantify the copper content of tap water within 30% of a reference technique at levels ranging from 20 to 500 000 ppb. The application of this technology, which should be sufficient as a rapid screening tool, can lead to faster, more cost-effective detection of soluble metals in water systems.

  5. A Method to Extract the Intrinsic Mechanical Properties of Soft Metallic Thin Films Based on Nanoindentation Continuous Stiffness Measurement Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X Y; Jiang, Z D; Wang, H R; Zhu, Q

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine accurately the intrinsic hardness of the soft metallic thin film on a hard substrate using nanoindentation, a proper methodology irrespective of several important effects the Oliver-Pharr method concerns is described. First, the original analysis data such as the load, P, and contact stiffness, S, as a function of the indentation depth, h, are acquired by means of the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique. By CSM, the complicating effects including indentation creep behaviour of metal materials as well as thermal drift on the measured results are avoided effectively. Then, the hardness of film-only is calculated via a material characteristic parameter, P/S 2 , which is independent of the contact area, A, based on the constant modulus assumption method. In this way, the influences of the substrate contribution and material pile-up behaviour needn't be accounted for. Guided by above ideas, moreover, a 504 nm Au film on the glass substrate system was chosen to study. The results show that the hardness of Au thin film is 1.6±1 GPa, which agree well with the literature. While the composite hardness measured by Oliver-Pharr method is between 2∼3GPa, obviously, which is overestimated. This implies the present methodology is a more accurate and simple way for extracting the true hardness of the soft metallic thin films

  6. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Redmile-Gordon, M.A.; Armenise, E.; White, R.P.; Hirsch, P.R.; Goulding, K.W.T.

    2013-01-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colori...

  7. Injection and extraction techniques in circular accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyu

    2008-01-01

    Injection and extraction are usually the key systems in circular accelerators. They play important roles in transferring the beam from one stage acceleration to the other or to experimental stations. It is also in the injection and extraction regions where beam losses happen mostly. Due to the tight space and to reduce the perturbation to the circulating orbit, the devices are usually designed to meet special requirements such as compactness, small stray field, fast rise time or fall time, etc. Usual injection and extraction devices include septum magnets, kicker magnets, electrostatic deflectors, slow bump magnets and strippers. In spite of different accelerators and specification for the injection and extraction devices, many techniques are shared in the design and manufacturing. This paper gives a general review on the techniques employed in the major circular accelerators in China. (authors)

  8. Computer-Assisted Technique for Surgical Tooth Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosamuddin Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Surgical tooth extraction is a common procedure in dentistry. However, numerous extraction cases show a high level of difficulty in practice. This difficulty is usually related to inadequate visualization, improper instrumentation, or other factors related to the targeted tooth (e.g., ankyloses or presence of bony undercut. Methods. In this work, the author presents a new technique for surgical tooth extraction based on 3D imaging, computer planning, and a new concept of computer-assisted manufacturing. Results. The outcome of this work is a surgical guide made by 3D printing of plastics and CNC of metals (hybrid outcome. In addition, the conventional surgical cutting tools (surgical burs are modified with a number of stoppers adjusted to avoid any excessive drilling that could harm bone or other vital structures. Conclusion. The present outcome could provide a minimally invasive technique to overcome the routine complications facing dental surgeons in surgical extraction procedures.

  9. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  10. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  11. Research on feature extraction techniques of Hainan Li brocade pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuping; Chen, Fuqiang; Zhou, Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    Hainan Li brocade skills has been listed as world non-material cultural heritage preservation, therefore, the research on Hainan Li brocade patterns plays an important role in Li brocade culture inheritance. The meaning of Li brocade patterns was analyzed and the shape feature extraction techniques to original Li brocade patterns were advanced in this paper, based on the contour tracking algorithm. First, edge detection was made on the design patterns, and then the morphological closing operation was used to smooth the image, and finally contour tracking was used to extract the outer contours of Li brocade patterns. The extracted contour features were processed by means of morphology, and digital characteristics of contours are obtained by invariant moments. At last, different patterns of Li brocade design are briefly analyzed according to the digital characteristics. The results showed that the pattern extraction method to Li brocade pattern shapes is feasible and effective according to above method.

  12. Enviromentally Sound Timber Extracting Techniques for Small Tree Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lihai Wang

    1999-01-01

    Due to large area disturbed and great deal of energy cost during-its operations, introducing or applying the appropriate timber extracting techniques could significantly reduce the impact of timber extraction operations to forest environment while pursuing the reasonable operation costs. Four environmentally sound timber extraction techniques for small tree harvesting...

  13. Accelerated Solvent Extraction: An Innovative Sample Extraction Technique for Natural Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazlina Ahmad Hassali; Azfar Hanif Abd Aziz; Rosniza Razali

    2015-01-01

    Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is one of the novel techniques that have been developed for the extraction of phytochemicals from plants in order to shorten the extraction time, decrease the solvent consumption, increase the extraction yield and enhance the quality of extracts. This technique combines elevated temperatures and pressure with liquid solvents. This paper gives a brief overview of accelerated solvent extraction technique for sample preparation and its application to the extraction of natural products. Through practical examples, the effects of operational parameters such as temperature, volume of solvent used, extraction time and extraction yields on the performance of ASE are discussed. It is demonstrated that ASE technique allows reduced solvent consumption and shorter extraction time, while the extraction yields are even higher than those obtained with conventional methods. (author)

  14. [Platelet rich plasma (PRP): potentialities and techniques of extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; Casella, F; Maggiore, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the various techniques of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extraction codified in recent years and their use potential is evaluated. PRP is one of the techniques with which at the moment it is attempted to modulate and facilitate the cure of a wound. The use of PRP is based on the theoretical premise that by concentrating platelets the effects of the growth factors (PDGF, TGF-beta, IGF-I and -II) so released will be increased. Marx's original technique is described above all. This prescribes the sampling of a unit of blood (450-500 ml) and the use of a cell separator. We then analysed the technique of Marx and Hannon in which the quantity of blood sampled is reduced to 150 ml, and the two simplified techniques of the Sacchi and Bellanda group. Finally, a new PRP extraction technique is described. We conclude that platelet gel allows access to autologous growth factors which by definition are neither toxic nor immunogenic and are capable of accelerating the normal processes of bone regeneration. PRP can thus be considered a useful instrument for increasing the quality and final quantity of regenerated bone in oral and maxillo-facial surgery operations.

  15. DNA Extraction Techniques for Use in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, R. P.; Arblaster, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    DNA extraction provides a hands-on introduction to DNA and enables students to gain real life experience and practical knowledge of DNA. Students gain a sense of ownership and are more enthusiastic when they use their own DNA. A cost effective, simple protocol for DNA extraction and visualization was devised. Buccal mucosal epithelia provide a…

  16. High intensity pulsed electric field as an innovative technique for extraction of bioactive compounds-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liang-Gong; He, Lang; Xi, Jun

    2017-09-02

    How to extract bioactive compounds safely and efficiently is one of the problems for the food and pharmaceutical industry. In recent years, several novel extraction techniques have been proposed. To pursue a more efficient method for industrial production, high intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) extraction technique has been developed. HIPEF extraction technique, which is based on the conventional pulsed electric field (PEF), provided higher electric field intensity and a special continuous extraction system, and it has confirmed less extraction time, higher extraction yield, and mild processing temperature. So this innovative technique is promising for application of industrial production. This review was devoted to introducing the recent achievement of HIPEF extraction technique, including novel HIPEF continuous extraction system, principles and mechanisms; the critical process factors influencing its performance applications; and comparison of HIPEF extraction with other extraction techniques. In the end, the defects and future trends of HIPEF extraction were also discussed.

  17. Task Oriented Evaluation of Module Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Ignazio; Tamma, Valentina; Payne, Terry; Doran, Paul

    Ontology Modularization techniques identify coherent and often reusable regions within an ontology. The ability to identify such modules, thus potentially reducing the size or complexity of an ontology for a given task or set of concepts is increasingly important in the Semantic Web as domain ontologies increase in terms of size, complexity and expressivity. To date, many techniques have been developed, but evaluation of the results of these techniques is sketchy and somewhat ad hoc. Theoretical properties of modularization algorithms have only been studied in a small number of cases. This paper presents an empirical analysis of a number of modularization techniques, and the modules they identify over a number of diverse ontologies, by utilizing objective, task-oriented measures to evaluate the fitness of the modules for a number of statistical classification problems.

  18. Modeling and prediction of extraction profile for microwave-assisted extraction based on absorbed microwave energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng

    2013-09-01

    A modeling technique based on absorbed microwave energy was proposed to model microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of antioxidant compounds from cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) leaves. By adapting suitable extraction model at the basis of microwave energy absorbed during extraction, the model can be developed to predict extraction profile of MAE at various microwave irradiation power (100-600 W) and solvent loading (100-300 ml). Verification with experimental data confirmed that the prediction was accurate in capturing the extraction profile of MAE (R-square value greater than 0.87). Besides, the predicted yields from the model showed good agreement with the experimental results with less than 10% deviation observed. Furthermore, suitable extraction times to ensure high extraction yield at various MAE conditions can be estimated based on absorbed microwave energy. The estimation is feasible as more than 85% of active compounds can be extracted when compared with the conventional extraction technique. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction as a novel technique for coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from biological fluids and waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharinezhad, Ali Akbar; Mollazadeh, Narges; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Mirbabaei, Fatemeh; Shekari, Nafiseh

    2014-04-18

    The coextraction of acidic and basic drugs from different samples is a considerable and disputable concept in sample preparation strategies. In this study, for the first time, simultaneous extraction of acidic and basic drugs with magnetic nanoparticles based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction followed by high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was introduced. Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-coated Fe3O4@decanoic acid as an efficient sorbent was successfully applied to adsorb diclofenac (DIC) as an acidic and diphenhydramine (DPH) as a basic model compound. First, appropriate amount of synthetic Fe3O4@decanoic acid nanoparticles was added to aqueous solution of drugs. After adjusting the pH of the solution, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to the mixture being stirred at a constant rate. After the adsorption of drugs and decantation of supernatant with a magnetic field, the sorbent was eluted with methanol by fierce vortex. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized and obtained as: pH of the sample=9, concentration of CTAB=0.2mmolL(-1), amount of sorbent=10mg, extraction time=5min, no salt addition to sample, type and volume of the eluent=50μL methanol, and desorption time=1min. Under the optimum conditions detection limits and linear dynamic ranges were achieved in the range of 1.8-3.0, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DPH and 1.5-3.5, 5-1500μgL(-1) for DIC, respectively. The percent of extraction recovery and relative standard deviations (n=5) were in the range of 47.3-60, 5.2-9.0 for DPH and 64-76.7, 5.1-5.8 for DIC, respectively. Ultimately, the applicability of the method was successfully confirmed by the extraction and determination of DIC and DPH in human urine, plasma and waste water samples in the range of microgram per liter and satisfactory results were obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Soil solution extraction techniques for microbial ecotoxicity testing: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiensing, T; Preston, S; Strachan, N; Paton, G I

    2001-02-01

    The suitability of two different techniques (centrifugation and Rhizon sampler) for obtaining the interstitial pore water of soil (soil solution), integral to the ecotoxicity assessment of metal contaminated soil, were investigated by combining chemical analyses and a luminescence-based microbial biosensor. Two different techniques, centrifugation and Rhizon sampler, were used to extract the soil solution from Insch (a loamy sand) and Boyndie (a sandy loam) soils, which had been amended with different concentrations of Zn and Cd. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major anions (F- , CI-, NO3, SO4(2-)) and major cations (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) in the soil solutions varied depending on the extraction technique used. Overall, the concentrations of Zn and Cd were significantly higher in the soil solution extracted using the centrifugation technique compared with that extracted using the Rhizon sampler technique. Furthermore, the differences observed between the two extraction techniques depended on the type of soil from which the solution was being extracted. The luminescence-based biosensor Escherichia coli HB101 pUCD607 was shown to respond to the free metal concentrations in the soil solutions and showed that different toxicities were associated with each soil, depending on the technique used to extract the soil solution. This study highlights the need to characterise the type of extraction technique used to obtain the soil solution for ecotoxicity testing in order that a representative ecotoxicity assessment can be carried out.

  1. New Trend for Acceleration Solid Phase Extraction Process Based on Using Magnetic Nano-adsorbents along with Surface Functionalization through Microwave Assisted Solvent-free Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Salwa A; Soliman, Ezzat M

    2015-01-01

    The use of a microwave assisted solvent-free technique for silica coating of iron magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4-MNPs) and their functionalization with three aliphatic diamines: 1,2-ethylenediamine (1,2EDA), 1,5-pentanediamine (1,5PDA) and 1.8-octanediamine (1,8-ODA), were successfully achieved in a very short time. Only 60 min were needed for the nano-adsorbent modification as compared with more than 1000 min using conventional methods under reflux conditions. Their surface characteristics (observed by TEM, XRD and FT-IR), in addition to Cu(II) adsorption capacities (1.805, 1.928 and 2.116 mmol g(-1)) and time of equilibration (5 s) were almost the same. Thus, the time required to accomplish the solid phase extraction process is greatly reduced. On the other hand, the phenomenon of the fast equilibration kinetics was successfully extended on using the functionalized aliphatic diamines magnetic nano-adsorbents as precursors for further microwave treatment. Three selective magnetic nano-adsorbents (Fe3O4-MNPs-SiO2-1,2EDA-3FSA, Fe3O4-MNPs-SiO2-1,5PDA-3FSA and Fe3O4-MNPs-SiO2-1,8ODA-3FSA) were obtained via the reaction with 3-formayl salicylic acid (3FSA) as a selective reagent for Fe(III). At 5 s contact time, they exhibited maximum Fe(III) uptake equal to 4.512, 4.987 and 5.367 mmol g(-1), respectively. Furthermore, modeling of values of metal uptake capacity obtained at different shaking time intervals supports pseudo-second order kinetics.

  2. Comparaison de quelques techniques d'extraction pour l ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectif: La présente étude vise à améliorer la technique d'extraction du jus de la pomme cajou au Bénin. Cette technique peu efficiente consiste à presser les pommes de cajou fraiches à l'aide d'une presse à vis simple mais une quantité non négligeable de liquide reste emprisonnée dans la matrice. Méthodologie et ...

  3. An alternative gallbladder extraction technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C N; Wong, D C T

    2006-05-01

    In this era of minimally invasive surgery, the challenge remains in finding techniques to reduce access trauma in terms of fewer and smaller size trocar ports. Our new described technique will allow a smaller subxiphoid port to be used to achieve extraction of the gallbladder without the need to change to a 5 mm laparoscope. We believe this method is easy to learn, safe and with no observable complications from our experience.

  4. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry and Radiochemistry Consultant Group, Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs.

  5. Hydrophilic actinide complexation studied by solvent extraction radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydberg, J.

    1996-10-01

    Actinide migration in the ground water is enhanced by the formation of water soluble complexes. It is essential to the risk analysis of a wet repository to know the concentration of central atoms and the ligands in the ground water, and the stability of complexes formed between them. Because the chemical behavior at trace concentrations often differ from that at macro concentrations, it is important to know the chemical behavior of actinides at trace concentrations in ground water. One method used for such investigations is the solvent extraction radiotracer (SXRT) technique. This report describes the SXRT technique in some detail. A particular reason for this analysis is the claim that complex formation constants obtained by SXRT are less reliable than results obtained by other techniques. It is true that several difficulties are encountered in the application of SXRT technique to actinide solution, such as redox instability, hydrophilic complexation by side reactions and sorption, but it is also shown that a careful application of the SXRT technique yields results as reliable as by any other technique. The report contains a literature survey on solvent extraction studies of actinide complexes formed in aqueous solutions, particularly by using the organic reagent thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA) dissolved in benzene or chloroform. Hydrolysis constants obtained by solvent extraction are listed as well as all actinide complexes studied by SX with inorganic and organic ligands. 116 refs, 11 tabs

  6. A novel extraction technique based on carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid microextraction for the measurement of piroxicam and diclofenac combined with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yue; Shi, Yan-Ping; Chen, Juan

    2012-10-15

    A novel design of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid/liquid phase microextraction (CNTs-HF-SLPME) was developed to determine piroxicam and diclofenac in different real water samples. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were held in the pores of hollow fiber with sol-gel technology. The pores and lumen of carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber were subsequently filled with a μL volume of organic solvent (1-octanol), and then the whole assembly was used for the extraction of the target analytes in direct immersion sampling mode. The target analytes were extracted from the sample by two extractants, one of which is organic solvent placed inside the pores and lumen of hollow fiber and the other one is CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber. After extraction, the analytes were desorbed in acetonitrile and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography. This novel extraction mode showed more excellent extraction performance in comparison with conventional hollow fiber liquid microextraction (without adding CNTs) and carbon nanotubes reinforced hollow fiber solid microextraction (CNTs held in the pores of hollow fiber, but no organic solvents placed inside the lumen of hollow fiber) under the respective optimum conditions. This method provided 47- and 184-fold enrichment factors for piroxicam and diclofenac, respectively, good inter-fiber repeatability and batch-to-batch reproducibility. Linearity was observed in the range of 20-960 μg L(-1) for piroxicam, and 10-2560 μg L(-1) for diclofenac, with correlation coefficients of 0.9985 and 0.9989, respectively. The limits of detection were 4.58 μg L(-1) for piroxicam and 0.40 μg L(-1) for diclofenac. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrolysis studies of thorium using solvent extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engkvist, I.; Albinsson, Y.

    1992-01-01

    The Swedish concept for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel is focused on a repository in crystalline rock at a depth of 500 m. In order to calculate migration rates from such a repository, chemical speciation becomes important. A method for determining complexation of actinides and lanthanides with inorganic ligands using solvent extraction has been developed. The apparatus used is called AKUFVE and the used technique can measure distribution values in a two liquid phase system in the range 10 -5 to 10 5 , pH 1 to 11. Hydrolysis of thorium has been studied in 1 M NaClO 4 in inert atmosphere. Th-234 separated from U-238 was extracted with 0.01-1 M 2,4-pentanedione (HAa) in toluene. From extraction data, calculations of hydrolysis constants have been made, regarding hydroxide complexes as competing and nonextractable. As a result we conclude that the constant for tri- and tetrahydroxide complexes are overestimated. (orig.)

  8. RED WINE EXTRACT OBTAINED BY MEMBRANE-BASED SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION: PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to obtain an extract from red wine by using membrane-based supercritical fluid extraction. This technique involves the use of porous membranes as contactors during the dense gas extraction process from liquid matrices. In this work, a Cabernet Sauvignon wine extract was obtained from supercritical fluid extraction using pressurized carbon dioxide as solvent and a hollow fiber contactor as extraction setup. The process was continuously conducted at pressures between 12 and 18 MPa and temperatures ranged from 30 to 50ºC. Meanwhile, flow rates of feed wine and supercritical CO2 varied from 0.1 to 0.5 mL min-1 and from 60 to 80 mL min-1 (NCPT, respectively. From extraction assays, the highest extraction percentage value obtained from the total amount of phenolic compounds was 14% in only one extraction step at 18MPa and 35ºC. A summarized chemical characterization of the obtained extract is reported in this work; one of the main compounds in this extract could be a low molecular weight organic acid with aromatic structure and methyl and carboxyl groups. Finally, this preliminary characterization of this extract shows a remarkable ORAC value equal to 101737 ± 5324 µmol Trolox equivalents (TE per 100 g of extract.

  9. Using geoelectrochemical technique to extract uranium and other metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yulong

    1990-10-01

    The geoelectrochemical extraction technique, which is a direct deep exploring method, is one of the geoelectrochemical exploring methods. It is developed recently to explore basic metals, precious metals, rare metals and some nonmetal mineral products. It is also a combination of electrical surveying and geochemical surveying. This method is more useful in the seeking of gold ore deposit. The principle and technique of this method and the results in seeking gold, uranium, lead, nickel and tin ore deposits are introduced. The equipment and instruments used in this method are also given

  10. Direct hair transplantation: A modified follicular unit extraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Sethi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In hair transplantation, the survival rate of harvested grafts depends upon many factors like maintenance of hydration, cold temperature, reduced mechanical handling and asepsis. All these factors are favourably improved if time out of body is reduced significantly. We have tried a modification called direct hair transplantation in the existing follicular unit extraction technique, in which the follicular unit grafts are implanted as soon as they are harvested. In this article, we have described the detailed methodology and a series of 29 patients who underwent direct hair transplantation. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of direct hair transplantation. Subjects and Methods: The patients willing to undergo hair transplantation by the technique of follicular unit extraction were enrolled for the surgery. After administration of local anaesthesia, the recipient sites were created. Thereafter, the processes of scoring the skin with a motorized punch, graft extraction and implantation were performed simultaneously. These patients were followed up to look for the time period of initiation of hair growth, the growth achieved at the end of 6-8 months and any adverse events. The results of patients with noticeable improvement in the photographs and reduction in baldness grade were taken as ′good′, whereas, in other patients, it was classified as ′poor′. Results: All patients were males with age ranging from 21 to 66 years (median 30 years. Twenty-six patients had androgenetic alopecia, 1 patient had traction alopecia and 2 patients had scarring alopecia. Twenty-seven patients showed ′good′ results, whereas 2 patients showed ′poor′ results. Conclusion: Direct hair transplantation is a simple and feasible modification in the follicular unit extraction technique. It is an efficacious surgical treatment modality for baldness.

  11. SEM-based characterization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    The scanning electron microscope is now a common instrument in materials characterization laboratories. The basic role of the SEM as a topographic imaging system has steadily been expanding to include a variety of SEM-based analytical techniques. These techniques cover the range of basic semiconductor materials characterization to live-time device characterization of operating LSI or VLSI devices. This paper introduces many of the more commonly used techniques, describes the modifications or additions to a conventional SEM required to utilize the techniques, and gives examples of the use of such techniques. First, the types of signals available from a sample being irradiated by an electron beam are reviewed. Then, where applicable, the type of spectroscopy or microscopy which has evolved to utilize the various signal types are described. This is followed by specific examples of the use of such techniques to solve problems related to semiconductor technology. Techniques emphasized include: x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, electron beam induced current (EBIC), stroboscopic voltage analysis, cathodoluminescnece and electron beam IC metrology. Current and future trends of some of the these techniques, as related to the semiconductor industry are discussed

  12. Validation of the Berlese-funnel technique for thrips extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteels, H; Witters, J; De Bondt, G; Desamblanx, J

    2009-01-01

    In order to get the accreditation EN ISO/IEC 17025 for Thrips palmi the Berlese-funnel technique, which is used for the isolation of quarantine insects out of plant material, was validated. Following parameters were investigated: cleaning of the funnel, temperature during isolation, detection limit and duration of the isolation period. Thrips fuscipennis was collected from heavily infected rosehip and used as target organism. Besides orchids, artificially contaminated maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) were used for the validation. Results showed that thrips and other organisms can be present alive or dead in the funnel after removing the treated plants and can contaminate the next sample or isolate. Cleaning of the funnel with a vacuum cleaner and compressed-air apparatus is necessary before running a new extraction. Contamination of the recipient is also possible from the environment. This can be avoided by closing the opening between the funnel and the recipient. To reach an optimal temperature for isolation of the thrips a 60 Watt bulb is necessary. The results showed that the maximum temperature doesn't reach a temperature above 51 degrees C, the average temperatures were situated between 35, 74 degrees C and 39, 38 degrees C. A 40 Watt bulb doesn't create enough heat to guarantee an efficient isolation of the thrips; the average temperature was 34, 74 degrees C and the maximum temperature 36, 80 degrees C. Based on the results we can conclude that an isolation time of 20 hours is necessary to obtain accurate data. Dependent on the number of thrips in the artificially infected samples 87 to 95% is isolated after 20 hours. The detection limit is 1 thrips with a probability of 95% being isolated after 20 hours.

  13. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction. The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus. We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar. The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials. We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise. A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75–5.52, P piezosurgery groups. The number of included randomized controlled trials and the sample size of each trial were relatively small, double blinding was not possible, and cost analysis was unavailable due to a lack of data. Our meta-analysis indicates that although patients

  14. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction and determination of antioxidants in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Bajer, Tomáš; Ventura, Karel

    2014-04-01

    The following extraction techniques have been used for extracting antioxidants (apigenin, coumarin, esculetin, umbelliferone, bergapten, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin and xanthotoxin) from plant material: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonic extraction in ultrasonic bath, and by means of ultrasonic probe. The analytical method based on HPLC-UV detection for the determination of selected antioxidants was developed. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was also determined. Comparing all results the ultrasonic probe method using 0.75 g of sample extracted by 50 mL of acetonitrile in water (30%, v/v) for 25 min at room temperature and with amplitude at 60% (equal to 90 W) without pulsation was evaluated as the best tool. The most significant indicator demonstrating this statement is the antioxidant capacity expressed as gallic acid equivalent where the ultrasonic probe method showed the best results in 10 of 16 samples. Also the operability of ultrasonic probe extraction method compared to other tested methods is more favorable. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Electronic techniques for subsea oil exploration and extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Subsea oil exploration and extraction is becoming increasingly difficult, costly, and dangerous. Electronics is contributing to make offshore work easier and safer. It is used for positioning ships or oil rigs, for remotely controlling well-heads and tool reentry operations, for pipelaying operations, and for monitoring underwater equipment. It is also tending to replace men in diving operations. The specific achievements of THOMPSON--CSF in this field are described. Fully automated operation of the winches on the ETPM 1601 barge proved successful during a recent pipelaying operation. The technique used by THOMPSON--CSF in this venture allowed a single operator to control all the maneuvers. These are briefly described. (MCW)

  16. Impact of extraction techniques on antioxidant capacities and phytochemical composition of polyphenol-rich extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-López, Cecilia; Ventura-Sobrevilla, Janeth M; González-Hernández, María D; Rojas, Romeo; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar, Cristóbal N; Martínez-Ávila, Guillermo C G

    2017-12-15

    In this work, impact of extraction methods (maceration, decoction, MAE, and UAE) on TPC, antioxidant activity, and the mass fraction of phenolics in several plant extracts (Punica granatum, Juglans regia, Moringa oleifera, and Cassia fistula) was investigated. The results showed that, despite the nature of matrix, the highest values of TPC in all samples were obtained by MAE as follows: PP (18.92±0.11), ML (15.19±0.11), HL (12.69±0.16), and WS (12.80±0.11) mg GAEg -1 respectively, and exhibited potent antioxidant activity (from 0.28±0.01 to 5.34±0.02mgGAEg -1 ), representing sources of powerful antioxidants. The LC-MS 2 analysis revealed a wide range of phenolics, highlighting their content in phenolic acids, flavonoids and lignans. The presence of different phenol molecules demonstrated that the extraction method had influence on phytochemical profile. Finally, due to its high extraction efficiency, MAE was the more effective extraction technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO 2 emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR EMG BASED PROSTHESES CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aishwarya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of prosthetic limb would be more effective if it is based on Surface Electromyogram (SEMG signals from remnant muscles. The analysis of SEMG signals depend on a number of factors, such as amplitude as well as time- and frequency-domain properties. Time series analysis using Auto Regressive (AR model and Mean frequency which is tolerant to white Gaussian noise are used as feature extraction techniques. EMG Histogram is used as another feature vector that was seen to give more distinct classification. The work was done with SEMG dataset obtained from the NINAPRO DATABASE, a resource for bio robotics community. Eight classes of hand movements hand open, hand close, Wrist extension, Wrist flexion, Pointing index, Ulnar deviation, Thumbs up, Thumb opposite to little finger are taken into consideration and feature vectors are extracted. The feature vectors can be given to an artificial neural network for further classification in controlling the prosthetic arm which is not dealt in this paper.

  19. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations

  20. Comparison of extraction and clean-up techniques for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ultrasonication and mechanical shaking used in the extraction of a low-level PAH soil certified ... hydrocarbons (PAHs), soil, solid phase extraction (SPE), soxhlet extraction, ultrasonication. ... soxhlet) (Lopez-Avila et al., 1993) supercritical fluid.

  1. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cobzac, Simona Codruta, E-mail: loredana.soran@itim-cj.r [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2009-08-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: {alpha} and {beta}-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  2. The extraction and chromatographic determination of the essentials oils from Ocimum basilicum L. by different techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soran, Maria Loredana; Varodi, Codruta; Lung, Ildiko; Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Cobzac, Simona Codruta

    2009-01-01

    Three different techniques (maceration, sonication and extraction in microwave field) were used for extraction of essential oils from Ocimum basilicum L. The extracts were analyzed by TLC/HPTLC technique and the fingerprint informations were obtained. The GC-FID was used to characterized the extraction efficiency and for identify the terpenic bioactive compounds. The most efficient extraction technique was maceration followed by microwave and ultrasound. The best extraction solvent system was ethyl ether + ethanol (1:1, v/v). The main compounds identified in Ocimum basilicum L. extracts were: α and β-pinene (mixture), limonene, citronellol, and geraniol.

  3. Bases of technique of sprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Druz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the biomechanical consistent patterns of a movement of a body providing the highest speed of sprinting. Material and Methods: the analysis of scientific and methodical literature on the considered problem, the anthropometrical characteristics of the surveyed contingent of sportsmen, the analysis of high-speed shootings of the leading runners of the world. Results: the biomechanical bases of technique of sprinting make dispersal and movement of the general center of body weight of the sportsman on a parabolic curve in a start phase taking into account the initial height of its stay in a pose of a low start. Its further movement happens on a cycloidal trajectory which is formed due to a pendulum movement of the extremities creating the lifting power which provides flight duration more in a running step, than duration of a basic phase. Conclusions: the received biomechanical regularities of technique of sprinting allow increasing the efficiency of training of sportsmen in sprinting.

  4. Comparative screening of the anti-oxidant and antimicrobial activities of Sempervivum marmoreum L. extracts obtained by various extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASA S. STOJICEVIC

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activities, total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in extracts obtained from houseleek (Sempervivum marmoreum L. leaves by the classical (maceration, ultrasonic and Soxhlet extraction (CE, UE and SE, respectively. The extract obtained by the CE contained higher amounts of phenolic and flavonoid compounds and showed a better antioxidant activity than those obtained using other two techniques. All the extracts, independent of the extraction technique applied, showed antimicrobial activities against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans only but not against the tested bacteria.

  5. Improving face image extraction by using deep learning technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. R.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.

    2016-03-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has made a collection of over a 1.2 million research articles containing 3.2 million figure images searchable using the Open-iSM multimodal (text+image) search engine. Many images are visible light photographs, some of which are images containing faces ("face images"). Some of these face images are acquired in unconstrained settings, while others are studio photos. To extract the face regions in the images, we first applied one of the most widely-used face detectors, a pre-trained Viola-Jones detector implemented in Matlab and OpenCV. The Viola-Jones detector was trained for unconstrained face image detection, but the results for the NLM database included many false positives, which resulted in a very low precision. To improve this performance, we applied a deep learning technique, which reduced the number of false positives and as a result, the detection precision was improved significantly. (For example, the classification accuracy for identifying whether the face regions output by this Viola- Jones detector are true positives or not in a test set is about 96%.) By combining these two techniques (Viola-Jones and deep learning) we were able to increase the system precision considerably, while avoiding the need to manually construct a large training set by manual delineation of the face regions.

  6. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana [Department of Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamrin, D M [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-02-15

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  7. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana; Zamrin, D M; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  8. A 3D edge detection technique for surface extraction in computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Ontiveros, S.; Jiménez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors influence the measurement uncertainty when using computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications. One of the most critical steps is the surface extraction phase. An incorrect determination of the surface may significantly increase the measurement uncertainty. This paper...... presents an edge detection method for the surface extraction based on a 3D Canny algorithm with sub-voxel resolution. The advantages of this method are shown in comparison with the most commonly used technique nowadays, i.e. the local threshold definition. Both methods are applied to reference standards...

  9. Comparison of extraction and work up techniques for analysis of core and intact polar tetraether lipids from sedimentary environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lengger, S.K.; Hopmans, E.C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Schouten, S.

    2012-01-01

    Glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based intact polar lipids (IPL GDGTs) are used as biomarkers for living Archaea and are analyzed utilizing a variety of extraction and quantification techniques. Most IPL GDGT studies have used a modified Bligh-Dyer extraction method, but it has been

  10. Extraction of intracellular protein from Chlorella pyrenoidosa using a combination of ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruilin; Chen, Jian; Zhang, Xuewu

    2018-01-01

    Due to the rigid cell wall of Chlorella species, it is still challenging to effectively extract significant amounts of protein. Mass methods were used for the extraction of intracellular protein from microalgae with biological, mechanical and chemical approaches. In this study, based on comparison of different extraction methods, a new protocol was established to maximize extract amounts of protein, which was involved in ethanol soaking, enzyme digest, ultrasonication and homogenization techniques. Under the optimized conditions, 72.4% of protein was extracted from the microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which should contribute to the research and development of Chlorella protein in functional food and medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recognition techniques for extracting information from semistructured documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ventura, Anna; Gagliardi, Isabella; Zonta, Bruna

    2000-12-01

    Archives of optical documents are more and more massively employed, the demand driven also by the new norms sanctioning the legal value of digital documents, provided they are stored on supports that are physically unalterable. On the supply side there is now a vast and technologically advanced market, where optical memories have solved the problem of the duration and permanence of data at costs comparable to those for magnetic memories. The remaining bottleneck in these systems is the indexing. The indexing of documents with a variable structure, while still not completely automated, can be machine supported to a large degree with evident advantages both in the organization of the work, and in extracting information, providing data that is much more detailed and potentially significant for the user. We present here a system for the automatic registration of correspondence to and from a public office. The system is based on a general methodology for the extraction, indexing, archiving, and retrieval of significant information from semi-structured documents. This information, in our prototype application, is distributed among the database fields of sender, addressee, subject, date, and body of the document.

  12. Data Extraction Based on Page Structure Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Yichao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The information we need has some confusing problems such as dispersion and different organizational structure. In addition, because of the existence of unstructured data like natural language and images, extracting local content pages is extremely difficult. In the light of of the problems above, this article will apply a method combined with page structure analysis algorithm and page data extraction algorithm to accomplish the gathering of network data. In this way, the problem that traditional complex extraction model behave poorly when dealing with large-scale data is perfectly solved and the page data extraction efficiency is also boosted to a new level. In the meantime, the article will also make a comparison about pages and content of different types between the methods of DOM structure based on the page and HTML regularities of distribution. After all of those, we may find a more efficient extract method.

  13. Comparison of extraction and clean-up techniques for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Six different extraction solvents: acetone, cyclohexane, 2- propanol, methanol, acetonitrile and dichloromethane, were tested to select the most suitable solvent for the extraction of the 16 PAHs from the certified soil reference material. The results were compared to determine the method with the highest extraction efficiency.

  14. Statistical techniques to extract information during SMAP soil moisture assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, J.; Reichle, R. H.; Liu, Q.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Statistical techniques permit the retrieval of soil moisture estimates in a model climatology while retaining the spatial and temporal signatures of the satellite observations. As a consequence, the need for bias correction prior to an assimilation of these estimates is reduced, which could result in a more effective use of the independent information provided by the satellite observations. In this study, a statistical neural network (NN) retrieval algorithm is calibrated using SMAP brightness temperature observations and modeled soil moisture estimates (similar to those used to calibrate the SMAP Level 4 DA system). Daily values of surface soil moisture are estimated using the NN and then assimilated into the NASA Catchment model. The skill of the assimilation estimates is assessed based on a comprehensive comparison to in situ measurements from the SMAP core and sparse network sites as well as the International Soil Moisture Network. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to significantly improve the model skill, particularly in areas where the model does not represent processes related to agricultural practices. Additionally, the NN method is compared to assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to more effectively use the independent information provided by SMAP resulting in larger model skill improvements than assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques.

  15. Towards a more appropriate water based extraction for the assessment of organic contaminant availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, Zachary A.; Reid, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    This study correlated extractabilities of 37 d aged phenanthrene residues in four dissimilar soils with the fraction that was available for earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) accumulation and microorganism (Pseudomonas sp.) mineralisation. Extractability was determined using two established techniques, namely (1) a water based extraction using CO 2 equilibrated water and (2) an aqueous based hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction. Results showed no relationship between earthworm accumulation and phenanthrene extractability using either HPCD (r 2 =0.07; slope=-4.76; n=5) or the water based extraction (r 2 =0.31; slope=-5.34; n=5). Earthworm accumulation was overestimated by both techniques. In contrast, the fraction of phenanthrene extractable using both the HPCD technique and the water based extraction correlated strongly with microbial mineralisation. However, the slopes of these linear relationships were 0.48 (r 2 =0.96; n=10), and 0.99 (r 2 =0.88; n=10) for the water based extraction and HPCD, respectively. Thus, the HPCD extraction provided values that were numerically close to the mineralisation values, whilst the water based extraction values were approximately half the mineralisation values. It is submitted that HPCD extraction provided an appropriate method of assessing the fraction of contaminant available for microbial mineralisation in these dissimilar soils. - No significant difference was found between microbially mineralised phenanthrene and extractability using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin in four dissimilar soils; the water-only extraction removed half of this fraction

  16. The Best Extraction Technique for Kaempferol and Quercetin Isolation from Guava Leaves (Psidium guajava)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Suparto, I. H.; Wulandari, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    Guava leaves contain various compounds that have biological activity such as kaempferol and quercetin as anticancer. Twelve extraction techniques were performed to obtain the best extraction technique to isolate kaempferol and quercetin from the guava leaves. Toxicity of extracts was tested against Artemia salina larvae. All extracts were toxic (LC50 value less than 1000 ppm) except extract of direct soxhletation on guava leaves, and extract of sonication and soxhletation using n-hexane. The extract with high content of total phenols and total flavonoids, low content of tannins, intense color of spot on thin layer chromatogram was selected for high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Direct sonication of guava leaves was chosen as the best extraction technique with kampferol and quercetin content of 0.02% and 2.15%, respectively. In addition to high content of kaempferol and quercetin, direct sonication was chosen due to the shortest extraction time, lesser impurities and high toxicity.

  17. Liquid membrane extraction techniques for trace metal analysis and speciation in environmental and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndungu, Kuria

    1999-04-01

    In this thesis, liquid-membrane-based methods for the analysis of trace metal species in samples of environmental and biological origin were developed. By incorporating extracting reagents in the membrane liquid, trace metal ions were selectively separated from humic-rich natural waters and urine samples, prior to their determination using various instrumental techniques. The extractions were performed in closed flow systems thus allowing easy automation of both the sample clean-up and enrichment. An acidic organophosphorus reagent (DEHPA) and a basic tetraalkylammonium reagent (Aliquat-336) were used as extractants in the membrane liquid to selectively extract and enrich cationic and anionic metal species respectively. A speciation method for chromium species was developed that allowed the determination of cationic Cr(III) species and anionic CR(VI) species in natural water samples without the need of a chromatographic separation step prior to their detection. SLM was also coupled on-line to potentiometric stripping analysis providing a fast and sensitive method for analysis of Pb in urine samples. A microporous membrane liquid-liquid extraction (MMLLE) method was developed for the determination of organotin compounds in natural waters that reduced the number of manual steps involved in the LLE of organotin compounds prior to their CC separation. Clean extracts obtained after running unfiltered humic-rich river water samples through the MMLLE flow system allowed selective determination of all the organotin compounds in a single run using GC-MS in the selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) 171 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  18. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S.; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality i...

  19. Some techniques to improve time structure of slow extracted beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Y.; Sato, H.; Toyama, T.; Marutsuka, K.; Sueno, T.; Mikawa, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Yoshii, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the time structure of slow extracted beam spill for the KEK 12GeV PS, the spill control system has been upgraded by adding feed forward signal to feedback signal. Further, the wake field in the RF cavity has been cancelled by the beam bunch signal to reduce the re-bunch effect during extraction period. (author)

  20. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dong-Ping; Zheng, Jie; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-10-01

    The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power) were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun . Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549), breast (MCF-7), liver (HepG2) and colon (HT-29) cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  1. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  2. Electromembrane extraction as a rapid and selective miniaturized sample preparation technique for biological fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This special report discusses the sample preparation method electromembrane extraction, which was introduced in 2006 as a rapid and selective miniaturized extraction method. The extraction principle is based on isolation of charged analytes extracted from an aqueous sample, across a thin film....... Technical aspects of electromembrane extraction, important extraction parameters as well as a handful of examples of applications from different biological samples and bioanalytical areas are discussed in the paper....

  3. Cryptographic Protocols Based on Root Extracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koprowski, Maciej

    In this thesis we design new cryptographic protocols, whose security is based on the hardness of root extracting or more speci cally the RSA problem. First we study the problem of root extraction in nite Abelian groups, where the group order is unknown. This is a natural generalization of the...... complexity of root extraction, even if the algorithm can choose the "public exponent'' itself. In other words, both the standard and the strong RSA assumption are provably true w.r.t. generic algorithms. The results hold for arbitrary groups, so security w.r.t. generic attacks follows for any cryptographic...... groups. In all cases, security follows from a well de ned complexity assumption (the strong root assumption), without relying on random oracles. A smooth natural number has no big prime factors. The probability, that a random natural number not greater than x has all prime factors smaller than x1/u...

  4. Extracting Low-Lying Lambda Resonances Using Correlation Matrix Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menadue, Benjamin J.; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Mahbub, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    The lowest-lying negative-parity state of the Lambda is investigated in (2+1)-flavour full-QCD on the PACS-CS configurations made available through the ILDG. We show that a variational analysis using multiple source and sink smearings can extract a state lying lower than that obtained by using a standard fixed smeared source and sink operator alone.

  5. Evaluation of vacuum microwave-assisted extraction technique for the extraction of antioxidants from plant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jun-Xia; Wang, Gang; Wang, Jia-Yue; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-12-18

    In the present work, vacuum microwave-assisted extraction (VMAE) was to perform microwave-assisted extraction in vacuum. Two well-known antioxidants, vitamin C from guava and green pepper, and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol) from soybean and tea leaves, which were easy to be oxidized, were chosen as representative target compounds for the evaluation of VMAE. The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE and those in MAE performed in atmosphere (air-MAE) were compared and the effects of extraction time, extraction temperature and sample matrix were studied. Moreover, the effects of the oxygen and subpressure invacuo were also discussed via performed MAE in N(2) atmosphere (N(2)-MAE). The extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in VMAE were higher than that in air-MAE, 35% increments of vitamin C from green pepper, 22% increments of alpha-tocopherol and 47% increments of gamma-tocopherol from tea leaves were obtained, respectively. The comparable increased extraction yields of vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in N(2)-MAE to that in air-MAE confirmed that oxygen in system was the crucial factor for the oxidation of vitamin C and vitamin E, VMAE was beneficial for the extraction of these oxygen-sensitive compounds. In addition, the subpressure invacuo in the VMAE system also showed positive affect on the extraction yields. On the basis of preventing oxidation and improving extraction efficiency of target compounds because of less oxygen and subpressure invacuo in the extraction system, VMAE has good potential for the extraction of oxygen-sensitive and thermosensitive compounds from plant samples.

  6. Distributed Parallel Endmember Extraction of Hyperspectral Data Based on Spark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebin Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing dimensionality and volume of remotely sensed hyperspectral data, the development of acceleration techniques for massive hyperspectral image analysis approaches is a very important challenge. Cloud computing offers many possibilities of distributed processing of hyperspectral datasets. This paper proposes a novel distributed parallel endmember extraction method based on iterative error analysis that utilizes cloud computing principles to efficiently process massive hyperspectral data. The proposed method takes advantage of technologies including MapReduce programming model, Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS, and Apache Spark to realize distributed parallel implementation for hyperspectral endmember extraction, which significantly accelerates the computation of hyperspectral processing and provides high throughput access to large hyperspectral data. The experimental results, which are obtained by extracting endmembers of hyperspectral datasets on a cloud computing platform built on a cluster, demonstrate the effectiveness and computational efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. Segmentation techniques for extracting humans from thermal images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dickens, JS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A pedestrian detection system for underground mine vehicles is being developed that requires the segmentation of people from thermal images in underground mine tunnels. A number of thresholding techniques are outlined and their performance on a...

  8. A simple and rapid technique for recovery of 99mTc from low specific activity (n,γ)99Mo based on solid-liquid extraction and column chromatography methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Das, Sujata Saha; Barua, Luna

    2010-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method has been developed for the separation of 99m Tc from 99 Mo produced from the neutron activation of 98 Mo by 98 Mo(n,γ) 99 Mo nuclear reaction. The recovery of 99m Tc was performed by solid-liquid extraction based on alumina column chromatography. The overall radiochemical yield for the complete separation of 99m Tc was 85-97% (n=5). The separated Na[ 99m Tc]TcO 4 was of high radionuclidic, radiochemical and chemical purities. The method can be adopted for routine processing and use of 99m Tc in radiopharmacy operations.

  9. Microprocessor based techniques at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, G.; Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessor based systems succesfully used in connection with the High Energy Physics experimental program at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring are described. The multiprocessor calibration system for the CUSB calorimeter is analyzed in view of present and future applications. (orig.)

  10. Extraction of Natural Antioxidants from the Thelephora ganbajun Mushroom by an Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Technique and Evaluation of Antiproliferative Activity of the Extract against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ping Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Thelephora ganbajun mushroom has been found to be a potential rich source of natural antioxidants. In this study, an ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE technique together with GRAS (generally recognized as safe solvents (ethanol and water was used to maximize the extraction of antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Five extraction parameters (ethanol concentration, solvent to solid ratio, extraction time, temperature and ultrasound power were investigated by single-factor experiments, and then a central composite rotatable design was employed to study interaction of three key extraction parameters. The optimum conditions were as follows: 57.38% ethanol, 70.15 mL/g solvent to solid ratio, 10.58 min extraction time, 40 °C extraction temperature and 500 W ultrasound power. Under the optimum conditions, the antioxidant activity obtained was 346.98 ± 12.19 µmol Trolox/g DW, in accordance with the predicted value of 344.67 µmol Trolox/g DW. Comparison of UAE with conventional maceration and Soxhlet extraction, the UAE method showed stronger extract efficiency in a shorter extraction time. These results showed that UAE was an effective technique to extract antioxidants from Thelephora ganbajun. Furthermore, the extracts obtained under the optimized conditions exhibited antiproliferative activities toward human lung (A549, breast (MCF-7, liver (HepG2 and colon (HT-29 cancer cells, especially for liver and lung cancer cells. In addition, rutin, 2-hydrocinnamic acid and epicatechin were identified in the extract, which might contribute to antioxidant and antiproliferative activities.

  11. An Authentication Technique Based on Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钢; 杨杰

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel watermarking approach based on classification for authentication, in which a watermark is embedded into the host image. When the marked image is modified, the extracted watermark is also different to the original watermark, and different kinds of modification lead to different extracted watermarks. In this paper, different kinds of modification are considered as classes, and we used classification algorithm to recognize the modifications with high probability. Simulation results show that the proposed method is potential and effective.

  12. Model-based Bayesian signal extraction algorithm for peripheral nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Thomas E.; Dweiri, Yazan M.; McCallum, Grant A.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Multi-channel cuff electrodes have recently been investigated for extracting fascicular-level motor commands from mixed neural recordings. Such signals could provide volitional, intuitive control over a robotic prosthesis for amputee patients. Recent work has demonstrated success in extracting these signals in acute and chronic preparations using spatial filtering techniques. These extracted signals, however, had low signal-to-noise ratios and thus limited their utility to binary classification. In this work a new algorithm is proposed which combines previous source localization approaches to create a model based method which operates in real time. Approach. To validate this algorithm, a saline benchtop setup was created to allow the precise placement of artificial sources within a cuff and interference sources outside the cuff. The artificial source was taken from five seconds of chronic neural activity to replicate realistic recordings. The proposed algorithm, hybrid Bayesian signal extraction (HBSE), is then compared to previous algorithms, beamforming and a Bayesian spatial filtering method, on this test data. An example chronic neural recording is also analyzed with all three algorithms. Main results. The proposed algorithm improved the signal to noise and signal to interference ratio of extracted test signals two to three fold, as well as increased the correlation coefficient between the original and recovered signals by 10-20%. These improvements translated to the chronic recording example and increased the calculated bit rate between the recovered signals and the recorded motor activity. Significance. HBSE significantly outperforms previous algorithms in extracting realistic neural signals, even in the presence of external noise sources. These results demonstrate the feasibility of extracting dynamic motor signals from a multi-fascicled intact nerve trunk, which in turn could extract motor command signals from an amputee for the end goal of

  13. Molecular Techniques for Dicistrovirus Detection without RNA Extraction or Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F. B. Querido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dicistroviridae is a new family of small, nonenveloped, and +ssRNA viruses pathogenic to both beneficial arthropods and insect pests as well. Triatoma virus (TrV, a dicistrovirus, is a pathogen of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, one of the main vectors of Chagas disease. In this work, we report a single-step method to identify TrV, a dicistrovirus, isolated from fecal samples of triatomines. The identification method proved to be quite sensitive, even without the extraction and purification of RNA virus.

  14. A Review of Extraction Techniques for Avocado Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoli; Zhong, Jinfeng

    2016-11-01

    Avocado fruit is rich in monounsaturated fat and contains relatively high level of important lipid-soluble compounds such as vitamin E, β-sitosterol and carotenoids. The consumption of avocado fruit is highly related to its potential benefits. However, with the increase of avocado production, short time of maturation and easy oxidation of avocado fruit are the main problem for producers. The production of oil from avocado fruit, thus, is highly promoted. This paper discusses the effects of different extraction methods on chemical composition and yield of oils from avocado fruits.

  15. Bases en technique du vide

    CERN Document Server

    Rommel, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Cette seconde édition, 20 ans après la première, devrait continuer à aider les techniciens pour la réalisation de leur système de vide. La technologie du vide est utilisée, à présent, dans de nombreux domaines très différents les uns des autres et avec des matériels très fiables. Or, elle est souvent bien peu étudiée, de plus, c'est une discipline où le savoir-faire prend tout son sens. Malheureusement la transmission par des ingénieurs et techniciens expérimentés ne se fait plus ou trop rapidement. La technologie du vide fait appel à la physique, à la chimie, à la mécanique, à la métallurgie, au dessin industriel, à l'électronique, à la thermique, etc. Cette discipline demande donc de maîtriser des techniques de domaines très divers, et ce n'est pas chose facile. Chaque installation est en soi un cas particulier avec ses besoins, sa façon de traiter les matériaux et celle d'utiliser les matériels. Les systèmes de vide sont parfois copiés d'un laboratoire à un autre et le...

  16. Optical supervised filtering technique based on Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Abdullah

    2004-11-01

    Hopfield neural network is commonly preferred for optimization problems. In image segmentation, conventional Hopfield neural networks (HNN) are formulated as a cost-function-minimization problem to perform gray level thresholding on the image histogram or the pixels' gray levels arranged in a one-dimensional array [R. Sammouda, N. Niki, H. Nishitani, Pattern Rec. 30 (1997) 921-927; K.S. Cheng, J.S. Lin, C.W. Mao, IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 15 (1996) 560-567; C. Chang, P. Chung, Image and Vision comp. 19 (2001) 669-678]. In this paper, a new high speed supervised filtering technique is proposed for image feature extraction and enhancement problems by modifying the conventional HNN. The essential improvement in this technique is to use 2D convolution operation instead of weight-matrix multiplication. Thereby, neural network based a new filtering technique has been obtained that is required just 3 × 3 sized filter mask matrix instead of large size weight coefficient matrix. Optical implementation of the proposed filtering technique is executed easily using the joint transform correlator. The requirement of non-negative data for optical implementation is provided by bias technique to convert the bipolar data to non-negative data. Simulation results of the proposed optical supervised filtering technique are reported for various feature extraction problems such as edge detection, corner detection, horizontal and vertical line extraction, and fingerprint enhancement.

  17. A methodology for automated CPA extraction using liver biopsy image analysis and machine learning techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsipouras, Markos G; Giannakeas, Nikolaos; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Tsianou, Zoe E; Manousou, Pinelopi; Hall, Andrew; Tsoulos, Ioannis; Tsianos, Epameinondas

    2017-03-01

    Collagen proportional area (CPA) extraction in liver biopsy images provides the degree of fibrosis expansion in liver tissue, which is the most characteristic histological alteration in hepatitis C virus (HCV). Assessment of the fibrotic tissue is currently based on semiquantitative staging scores such as Ishak and Metavir. Since its introduction as a fibrotic tissue assessment technique, CPA calculation based on image analysis techniques has proven to be more accurate than semiquantitative scores. However, CPA has yet to reach everyday clinical practice, since the lack of standardized and robust methods for computerized image analysis for CPA assessment have proven to be a major limitation. The current work introduces a three-stage fully automated methodology for CPA extraction based on machine learning techniques. Specifically, clustering algorithms have been employed for background-tissue separation, as well as for fibrosis detection in liver tissue regions, in the first and the third stage of the methodology, respectively. Due to the existence of several types of tissue regions in the image (such as blood clots, muscle tissue, structural collagen, etc.), classification algorithms have been employed to identify liver tissue regions and exclude all other non-liver tissue regions from CPA computation. For the evaluation of the methodology, 79 liver biopsy images have been employed, obtaining 1.31% mean absolute CPA error, with 0.923 concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed methodology is designed to (i) avoid manual threshold-based and region selection processes, widely used in similar approaches presented in the literature, and (ii) minimize CPA calculation time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Charge transport and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells studied by the photoinduced charge extraction in linearly increasing voltage technique

    OpenAIRE

    Mozer, AJ; Sariciftci, NS; Osterbacka, R; Westerling, M; Juska, G; LUTSEN, Laurence; VANDERZANDE, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    Charge carrier mobility and recombination in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on the mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)-C-61 (PCBM) has been studied using the novel technique of photoinduced charge carrier extraction in a linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV). In this technique, charge carriers are photogenerated by a short laser flash, and extracted under a reverse bias voltage ramp after ...

  19. Towards a Technique for Extracting Microservices from Monolithic Enterprise Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Levcovitz, Alessandra; Terra, Ricardo; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2016-01-01

    The idea behind microservices architecture is to develop a single large, complex application as a suite of small, cohesive, independent services. On the other way, monolithic systems get larger over the time, deviating from the intended architecture, and becoming risky and expensive to evolve. This paper describes a technique to identify and define microservices on monolithic enterprise systems. As the major contribution, our evaluation shows that our approach was able to identify relevant ca...

  20. Simple, Safe, and Cost-Effective Technique for Resected Stomach Extraction in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derici, Serhan; Atila, Koray; Bora, Seymen; Yener, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become a popular operation during the recent years. This procedure requires resection of 80-90% of the stomach. Extraction of gastric specimen is known to be a challenging and costly stage of the operation. In this paper, we report results of a simple and cost-effective specimen extraction technique which was applied to 137 consecutive LSG patients. Methods. Between October 2013 and October 2015, 137 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgeries were performed at Dokuz Eylul University General Surgery Department, Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit. All specimens were extracted through a 15 mm trocar site without using any special device. Results. We noticed one superficial incisional surgical site infection and treated this patient with oral antibiotics. No cases of trocar site hernia were observed. Conclusion. Different techniques have been described for specimen extraction. This simple technique allows extraction of specimen safely in a short time and does not require any special device.

  1. Extraction of kiwi seed oil: Soxhlet versus four different non-conventional techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bicchi, Carlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Binello, Arianna; Tomao, Valerie; Chemat, Farid

    2011-06-01

    Kiwi seed oil has a nutritionally interesting fatty acid profile, but a rather low oxidative stability, which requires careful extraction procedures and adequate packaging and storage. For these reasons and with the aim to achieve process intensification with shorter extraction time, lower energy consumption and higher yields, four different non-conventional techniques were experimented. Kiwi seeds were extracted in hexane using classic Soxhlet as well as under power ultrasound (US), microwaves (MWs; closed vessel) and MW-integrated Soxhlet. Supercritical CO₂ was also employed and compared to the other techniques in term of yield, extraction time, fatty acid profiles and organoleptic properties. All these non-conventional techniques are fast, effective and safe. A sensory evaluation test showed the presence of off-flavours in oil samples extracted by Soxhlet and US, an indicator of partial degradation.

  2. Comparative study of modern extraction techniques for the determination of environmental samples (M14)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gfrerer, M.; Lankmayr, E.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The aim of any extraction method in analytical chemistry is, to effectively separate the analytes from the matrix. The whole step should be fast and quantitative with minimal solvent and time required. The classical Soxhlet extraction usually requires large volumes (up to 200 ml) of solvent to be refluxed through the solid samples for several hours. Therefore, in the last decades, alternatives for this extraction method have been presented and investigated such as ultrasonic extraction (UE), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and fluidized-bed extraction (FBE). The actual choice for analytical application is frequently the initial capital cost, operating costs, simplicity of operation, amount of organic solvent required and sample throughput. Since sample preparation is a critical step in the analytical cycle, special care has to be taken for an accurate choice and optimization of extraction techniques and clean-up procedures. Therefore, MAE and FBE were investigated for their influential extraction parameters and these parameters were optimized for the extraction of organochlorine biocides, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from environmental matrices like soil, sediment and sewage sludge. The extraction yields were compared with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction performed following DIN-methods. Finally, the optimized modern methods were validated by systematic experiments with certified reference materials. Refs. 3 (author)

  3. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  4. Refining Automatically Extracted Knowledge Bases Using Crowdsourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhua; Zhao, Pengpeng; Sheng, Victor S; Xian, Xuefeng; Wu, Jian; Cui, Zhiming

    2017-01-01

    Machine-constructed knowledge bases often contain noisy and inaccurate facts. There exists significant work in developing automated algorithms for knowledge base refinement. Automated approaches improve the quality of knowledge bases but are far from perfect. In this paper, we leverage crowdsourcing to improve the quality of automatically extracted knowledge bases. As human labelling is costly, an important research challenge is how we can use limited human resources to maximize the quality improvement for a knowledge base. To address this problem, we first introduce a concept of semantic constraints that can be used to detect potential errors and do inference among candidate facts. Then, based on semantic constraints, we propose rank-based and graph-based algorithms for crowdsourced knowledge refining, which judiciously select the most beneficial candidate facts to conduct crowdsourcing and prune unnecessary questions. Our experiments show that our method improves the quality of knowledge bases significantly and outperforms state-of-the-art automatic methods under a reasonable crowdsourcing cost.

  5. Gravitational wave extraction based on Cauchy-characteristic extraction and characteristic evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babiuc, Maria [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Szilagyi, Bela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); Hawke, Ian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany); School of Mathematics, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Zlochower, Yosef [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2005-12-07

    We implement a code to find the gravitational news at future null infinity by using data from a Cauchy code as boundary data for a characteristic code. This technique of Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) allows for the unambiguous extraction of gravitational waves from numerical simulations. We first test the technique on non-radiative spacetimes: Minkowski spacetime, perturbations of Minkowski spacetime and static black hole spacetimes in various gauges. We show the convergence and limitations of the algorithm and illustrate its success in cases where other wave extraction methods fail. We further apply our techniques to a standard radiative test case for wave extraction, a linearized Teukolsky wave, presenting our results in comparison to the Zerilli technique, and we argue for the advantages of our method of extraction.

  6. Various extraction and analytical techniques for isolation and identification of secondary metabolites from Nigella sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, J-H

    2011-10-01

    Nigella sativa L. (black cumin), commonly known as black seed, is a member of the Ranunculaceae family. This seed is used as a natural remedy in many Middle Eastern and Far Eastern countries. Extracts prepared from N. sativa have, for centuries, been used for medical purposes. Thus far, the organic compounds in N. sativa, including alkaloids, steroids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, fatty acids, etc. have been fairly well characterized. Herein, we summarize some new extraction techniques, including microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical extraction techniques (SFE), in addition to the classical method of hydrodistillation (HD), which have been employed for isolation and various analytical techniques used for the identification of secondary metabolites in black seed. We believe that some compounds contained in N. sativa remain to be identified, and that high-throughput screening could help to identify new compounds. A study addressing environmentally-friendly techniques that have minimal or no environmental effects is currently underway in our laboratory.

  7. Solvent extraction of gold using ionic liquid based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Zunita, Megawati; Rizki, Z.; Dharmawijaya, P. T.

    2017-01-01

    In decades, many research and mineral processing industries are using solvent extraction technology for metal ions separation. Solvent extraction technique has been used for the purification of precious metals such as Au and Pd, and base metals such as Cu, Zn and Cd. This process uses organic compounds as solvent. Organic solvents have some undesired properties i.e. toxic, volatile, excessive used, flammable, difficult to recycle, low reusability, low Au recovery, together with the problems related to the disposal of spent extractants and diluents, even the costs associated with these processes are relatively expensive. Therefore, a lot of research have boosted into the development of safe and environmentally friendly process for Au separation. Ionic liquids (ILs) are the potential alternative for gold extraction because they possess several desirable properties, such as a the ability to expanse temperature process up to 300°C, good solvent properties for a wide range of metal ions, high selectivity, low vapor pressures, stability up to 200°C, easy preparation, environmentally friendly (commonly called as "green solvent"), and relatively low cost. This review paper is focused in investigate of some ILs that have the potentials as solvent in extraction of Au from mineral/metal alloy at various conditions (pH, temperature, and pressure). Performances of ILs extraction of Au are studied in depth, i.e. structural relationship of ILs with capability to separate Au from metal ions aggregate. Optimal extraction conditon in order to gain high percent of Au in mineral processing is also investigated.

  8. Extraction of three bioactive diterpenoids from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the extraction techniques on extract composition and quantification of three andrographolides using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satyanshu; Dhanani, Tushar; Shah, Sonal

    2014-10-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) wall.ex Nees (Acanthaceae) or Kalmegh is an important medicinal plant finding uses in many Ayurvedic formulations. Diterpenoid compounds andrographolides (APs) are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and herbage of A. paniculata. The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide was compared with the solid-liquid extraction techniques such as solvent extraction, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction and microwave-assisted solvent extraction with methanol, water and methanol-water as solvents. Also a rapid and validated reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the three biologically active compounds, AP, neoandrographolide and andrograpanin, in the extracts of A. paniculata. Under the best SFE conditions tested for diterpenoids, which involved extraction at 60°C and 100 bar, the extractive efficiencies were 132 and 22 µg/g for AP and neoandrographolide, respectively. The modifier percentage significantly affected the extraction efficiency. © The Author [2013]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction of umbelliferone and herniarin in Matricaria chamomilla processing fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Maja; Mendešević, Nikolina; Šubarić, Drago; Banjari, Ines; Jokić, Stela

    2017-08-05

    Chamomile, a well-known medicinal plant, is a rich source of bioactive compounds, among which two coumarin derivatives, umbelliferone and herniarin, are often found in its extracts. Chamomile extracts have found a different uses in cosmetic industry, as well as umbelliferone itself, which is, due to its strong absorption of UV light, usually added to sunscreens, while herniarin (7-methoxycoumarin) is also known for its biological activity. Therefore, chamomile extracts with certain herniarin and umbelliferone content could be of interest for application in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products. The aim of this study was to compare the extracts of different chamomile fractions (unprocessed chamomile flowers first class, processed chamomile flowers first class, pulvis and processing waste) and to identify the best material and method of extraction to obtain herniarin and umbelliferone. Various extraction techniques such as soxhlet, hydrodistillation, maceration and supercritical CO 2 extraction were used in this study. Umbelliferone and herniarin content was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of umbelliferone (11.80 mg/100 g) and herniarin (82.79 mg/100 g) were obtained from chamomile processing waste using maceration technique with 50% aqueous ethanol solution and this extract has also proven to possess antioxidant activity (61.5% DPPH scavenging activity). This study shows a possibility of potential utilization of waste from chamomile processing applying different extraction techniques.

  10. Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE), a novel extraction technique for aqueous samples: theory and principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, H.A.; Sandra, P.J.F.; David, F.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The theory and practice of a novel approach for sample enrichment, namely the application of stir bars coated with the sorbent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and referred to as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) are presented. Stir bars with a length of 10 and 40 mm coated with 55 and 219 L of PDMS

  11. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our annotation is currently limited to a single

  12. Comparative of signal processing techniques for micro-Doppler signature extraction with automotive radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Hervas, Berta; Maile, Michael; Flores, Benjamin C.

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, the automotive industry has experienced an evolution toward more powerful driver assistance systems that provide enhanced vehicle safety. These systems typically operate in the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum and have demonstrated high efficiency in collision and risk avoidance. Microwave radar systems are particularly relevant due to their operational robustness under adverse weather or illumination conditions. Our objective is to study different signal processing techniques suitable for extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures of slow moving objects in dense urban environments. Selection of the appropriate signal processing technique is crucial for the extraction of accurate micro-Doppler signatures that will lead to better results in a radar classifier system. For this purpose, we perform simulations of typical radar detection responses in common driving situations and conduct the analysis with several signal processing algorithms, including short time Fourier Transform, continuous wavelet or Kernel based analysis methods. We take into account factors such as the relative movement between the host vehicle and the target, and the non-stationary nature of the target's movement. A comparison of results reveals that short time Fourier Transform would be the best approach for detection and tracking purposes, while the continuous wavelet would be the best suited for classification purposes.

  13. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet extract flavor base may be safely used in food in accordance with the provisions of this section. (a...

  14. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maximillan Leite; Magalhães, Chaiana Froés; da Rosa, Marcelo Barcellos; de Assis Santos, Daniel; Brasileiro, Beatriz Gonçalves; de Carvalho, Leandro Machado; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zani, Carlos Leomar; de Siqueira, Ezequias Pessoa; Peres, Rodrigo Loreto; Andrade, Anderson Assunção

    2013-12-01

    The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  15. Antifungal activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves prepared by different solvents and extraction techniques against dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximillan Leite Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different solvents and extraction techniques upon the phytochemical profile and anti-Trichophyton activity of extracts from Piper aduncum leaves were evaluated. Extract done by maceration method with ethanol has higher content of sesquiterpenes and antifungal activity. This extract may be useful as an alternative treatment for dermatophytosis.

  16. Automated extraction of knowledge for model-based diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Myler, Harley R.; Towhidnejad, Massood; Mckenzie, Frederic D.; Kladke, Robin R.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of accessing computer aided design (CAD) design databases and extracting a process model automatically is investigated as a possible source for the generation of knowledge bases for model-based reasoning systems. The resulting system, referred to as automated knowledge generation (AKG), uses an object-oriented programming structure and constraint techniques as well as internal database of component descriptions to generate a frame-based structure that describes the model. The procedure has been designed to be general enough to be easily coupled to CAD systems that feature a database capable of providing label and connectivity data from the drawn system. The AKG system is capable of defining knowledge bases in formats required by various model-based reasoning tools.

  17. Location Fingerprint Extraction for Magnetic Field Magnitude Based Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone based indoor positioning has greatly helped people in finding their positions in complex and unfamiliar buildings. One popular positioning method is by utilizing indoor magnetic field, because this feature is stable and infrastructure-free. In this method, the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone measures indoor magnetic field and queries its position. However, the environments of the magnetometer are rather harsh. This harshness mainly consists of coarse-grained hard/soft-iron calibrations and sensor electronic noise. The two kinds of interferences decrease the position distinguishability of the magnetic field. Therefore, it is important to extract location features from magnetic fields to reduce these interferences. This paper analyzes the main interference sources of the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone. In addition, we present a feature distinguishability measurement technique to evaluate the performance of different feature extraction methods. Experiments revealed that selected fingerprints will improve position distinguishability.

  18. Advanced field-solver techniques for RC extraction of integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Wenjian

    2014-01-01

    Resistance and capacitance (RC) extraction is an essential step in modeling the interconnection wires and substrate coupling effect in nanometer-technology integrated circuits (IC). The field-solver techniques for RC extraction guarantee the accuracy of modeling, and are becoming increasingly important in meeting the demand for accurate modeling and simulation of VLSI designs. Advanced Field-Solver Techniques for RC Extraction of Integrated Circuits presents a systematic introduction to, and treatment of, the key field-solver methods for RC extraction of VLSI interconnects and substrate coupling in mixed-signal ICs. Various field-solver techniques are explained in detail, with real-world examples to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of each algorithm. This book will benefit graduate students and researchers in the field of electrical and computer engineering, as well as engineers working in the IC design and design automation industries. Dr. Wenjian Yu is an Associate Professor at the Department of ...

  19. Extraction techniques for arsenic species in rice flour and their speciation by HPLC-ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narukawa, Tomohiro; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Hioki, Akiharu

    2014-12-01

    The extraction of arsenic (As) species present in rice flour samples was investigated using different extracting solvents, and the concentration of each species was determined by HPLC-ICP-MS after heat-assisted extraction. The extraction efficiencies for total arsenic species and especially for arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] were investigated. As(III), As(V) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA) were found in the samples, and the concentration of DMAA did not vary with treatment conditions. However, the concentrations of extracted total arsenic and those of As(III) and As(V) depended on the extracting solvents. When an extracting solvent was highly acidic, the concentrations of extracted total arsenic were in good agreement with the total arsenic concentration determined by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion, though a part of the As(V) was reduced to As(III) during the highly acidic extraction process. Extraction under neutral conditions increased the extracted As(V), but extracted total arsenic was decreased because a part of the As(III) could not be extracted. Optimum conditions for the extraction of As(III) and As(V) from rice flour samples are discussed to allow the accurate determinations of As(III), As(V) and DMAA in the rice flour samples. Heat block extraction techniques using 0.05 mol L(-1) HClO4 and silver-containing 0.15 mol L(-1) HNO3 were also developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative oil extraction methods from Echium plantagineum L. seeds using advanced techniques and green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, Natalia; Luna, Pilar; Señoráns, Francisco J

    2018-04-01

    The edible oil processing industry involves large losses of organic solvent into the atmosphere and long extraction times. In this work, fast and environmentally friendly alternatives for the production of echium oil using green solvents are proposed. Advanced extraction techniques such as Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE), Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) and Ultrasound Assisted Extraction (UAE) were evaluated to efficiently extract omega-3 rich oil from Echium plantagineum seeds. Extractions were performed with ethyl acetate, ethanol, water and ethanol:water to develop a hexane-free processing method. Optimal PLE conditions with ethanol at 150 °C during 10 min produced a very similar oil yield (31.2%) to Soxhlet using hexane for 8 h (31.3%). UAE optimized method with ethanol at mild conditions (55 °C) produced a high oil yield (29.1%). Consequently, advanced extraction techniques showed good lipid yields and furthermore, the produced echium oil had the same omega-3 fatty acid composition than traditionally extracted oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Spectral features based tea garden extraction from digital orthophoto maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun

    2018-05-01

    The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.

  2. Mitigation of the voltage fluctuations using an efficient disturbance extraction technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnady, Amr; Salama, M.M.A. [University of Waterloo, Electrical and Computer Engineering, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ont. (Canada N2L3G1)

    2007-03-15

    This paper introduces an efficient technique for extracting the disturbance signal of the voltage flicker. The proposed technique depends on the supervised state estimation that is controlled by the Widrow-Hoff delta rule. The extracted disturbance signal is employed for mitigating the cyclic voltage flicker by using series and parallel mitigating devices. The speed and accuracy of the proposed technique are verified by simulation results with EMTDC/PSCAD. In addition, experimental results are presented to prove the validity of the proposed algorithm. (author)

  3. Posterior Segment Intraocular Foreign Body: Extraction Surgical Techniques, Timing, and Indications for Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante A. Guevara-Villarreal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular penetrating injury with Intraocular Foreign Body (IOFB is a common form of ocular injury. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors. The aim of this publication is to review different timing and surgical techniques related to the extraction of IOFB. Material and Methods. A PubMed search on “Extraction of Intraocular Foreign Body,” “Timing for Surgery Intraocular Foreign Body,” and “Surgical Technique Intraocular Foreign Body” was made. Results. Potential advantages of immediate and delayed IOFB removal have been reported with different results. Several techniques to remove IOFB have been reported by different authors with good results. Conclusion. The most important factor at the time to perform IOFB extraction is the experience of the surgeon.

  4. Studies on In-situ Chelation/Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Lanthanides and Actinides Using a Radiotracer Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuehe; Wu, Hong; Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.

    2001-01-01

    Radioisotope tracer techniques were used to study the process of in-situ chelation/supercritical fluid extraction(SFE) of La3+ and Lu3+ from solid matrix using mixed ligand hexafluoroacetylacetone (HFA) and tributylphosphate (TBP) as chelating agents. A lab-built SFE extactor was used in this study and the extractor design was optimized based on the experimental results. Quantitative recovery of La and Lu was achieved when the extrator design was optimized. Extraction of uranium from real world samples was also investigated to demonstrate the capability of this chelation/SFE technology for environmental remediation applications. A novel on-line back extraction technique for the recovery of metal ions and regeneration of ligands is also reported.

  5. Extraction of CT dose information from DICOM metadata: automated Matlab-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K; Gingold, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to extract exposure parameters and dose-relevant indexes of CT examinations from information embedded in DICOM metadata. DICOM dose report files were identified and retrieved from a PACS. An automated software program was used to extract from these files information from the structured elements in the DICOM metadata relevant to exposure. Extracting information from DICOM metadata eliminated potential errors inherent in techniques based on optical character recognition, yielding 100% accuracy.

  6. The Application of Special Computing Techniques to Speed-Up Image Feature Extraction and Processing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    noise supression and data clustering . Another significant step or stage in image processing and exploitation is feature extraction. The objectives and...PAMI-3, no. 3, May, 1981. 16. L.G. Shapiro, "A Structural Model of Shape," IEEE Trans. on Pattern AnalIsis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-2, no...Theoretic Clustering ," IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-1, no. 1, Jan., 1979. 34. P.M. Narendra, "A Separable Median

  7. Analysis of Technique to Extract Data from the Web for Improved Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neena; Singh, Manish

    2010-11-01

    The World Wide Web rapidly guides the world into a newly amazing electronic world, where everyone can publish anything in electronic form and extract almost all the information. Extraction of information from semi structured or unstructured documents, such as web pages, is a useful yet complex task. Data extraction, which is important for many applications, extracts the records from the HTML files automatically. Ontologies can achieve a high degree of accuracy in data extraction. We analyze method for data extraction OBDE (Ontology-Based Data Extraction), which automatically extracts the query result records from the web with the help of agents. OBDE first constructs an ontology for a domain according to information matching between the query interfaces and query result pages from different web sites within the same domain. Then, the constructed domain ontology is used during data extraction to identify the query result section in a query result page and to align and label the data values in the extracted records. The ontology-assisted data extraction method is fully automatic and overcomes many of the deficiencies of current automatic data extraction methods.

  8. Comparison of clearance and arteriovenous extraction techniques for measurements of renal hemodynamic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzberg, R.W.; Pabico, R.C.; Morris, T.W.; Hayakawa, K.; McKenna, B.A.; Ventura, J.A.; Fischer, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    No previous studies have directly compared timed urine collections (UV/P) vs. arteriovenous (A-V) extraction methods for determination of renal function in whole kidney preparations. We examined different markers and techniques for assessing renal plasma flow (RPF), filtration fraction (FF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in both steady-state and rapidly changing conditions following 2 ml/kg bolus intravenous injections of either Renografin 76% (meglumine/sodium diatrizoate-76%) or hypertonic mannitol 25%. During steady-state conditions, excellent correlations were obtained when comparing markers and techniques. Thus, timed urinary clearances of inulin vs. 99m-technetium DTPA (Tc) had a correlation coefficient (R) of .96 (P less than .01; n = 16), and the A-V extraction technique of inulin vs. Tc as determinants of GFR showed a correlation of R = .98 (P less than .01; n = 15). The timed urinary clearance of inulin vs. the A-V extraction of inulin for glomerular filtration gave a correlation of R = .93 (P less than .01; n = 15). The clearance of para-aminohippurate (PAH) divided by the extraction of PAH vs. flow determinations using the electromagnetic flowmeter gave a correlation of R = .92 (P less than .01; n = 16). The anticipated decrease in GFR following contrast medium and hypertonic mannitol was observed using the A-V extraction technique, whereas an artifactual, exaggerated increase in GFR was observed using the timed urine collection technique. Similarly, we noted an exaggerated increase in RPF using CPAH/EPAH as the methodology. We conclude that rapid changes in renal hemodynamics may be measured accurately using the A-V extraction technique but not with clearance techniques requiring timed urine collections

  9. Composite Techniques Based Color Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ibrahim Abood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Compression for color image is now necessary for transmission and storage in the data bases since the color gives a pleasing nature and natural for any object, so three composite techniques based color image compression is implemented to achieve image with high compression, no loss in original image, better performance and good image quality. These techniques are composite stationary wavelet technique (S, composite wavelet technique (W and composite multi-wavelet technique (M. For the high energy sub-band of the 3rd level of each composite transform in each composite technique, the compression parameters are calculated. The best composite transform among the 27 types is the three levels of multi-wavelet transform (MMM in M technique which has the highest values of energy (En and compression ratio (CR and least values of bit per pixel (bpp, time (T and rate distortion R(D. Also the values of the compression parameters of the color image are nearly the same as the average values of the compression parameters of the three bands of the same image.

  10. Comparison between several techniques of olive tree bark extraction (Tunisian Chemlali variety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaoui, Aimen; Ksibi, Hatem; Ksibi, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In order to better understand the chemical composition of the olive tree bark of Tunisian chemlali variety (Olea europaea cv. 'Chemlali'), this material was extracted by different ways. Compositions of extracts were used at best-selected conditions for each technique, and characterised using HPLC, LC/MS and GC-MS techniques. Analyses are conducted to an important variety of high carbon number compounds such as aliphatic compounds as nanocosane and heptacosane, and molecules with high value added tax (VAT) which can be classified as follows: diterpenes as phytol, triterpenes as squalene and also esters as Benzyl cinnamate. Hydrodistillation at high pressure seems to be a very common method to get a wide variety of compounds, the results are better than the ones obtained using supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

  11. A highly sensitive quantitative cytosensor technique for the identification of receptor ligands in tissue extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenkei, Z; Beaudet, A; Chartrel, N; De Mota, N; Irinopoulou, T; Braun, B; Vaudry, H; Llorens-Cortes, C

    2000-11-01

    Because G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute excellent putative therapeutic targets, functional characterization of orphan GPCRs through identification of their endogenous ligands has great potential for drug discovery. We propose here a novel single cell-based assay for identification of these ligands. This assay involves (a) fluorescent tagging of the GPCR, (b) expression of the tagged receptor in a heterologous expression system, (c) incubation of the transfected cells with fractions purified from tissue extracts, and (d) imaging of ligand-induced receptor internalization by confocal microscopy coupled to digital image quantification. We tested this approach in CHO cells stably expressing the NT1 neurotensin receptor fused to EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein), in which neurotensin promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor in a dose-dependent fashion (EC(50) = 0.98 nM). Similarly, four of 120 consecutive reversed-phase HPLC fractions of frog brain extracts promoted internalization of the NT1-EGFP receptor. The same four fractions selectively contained neurotensin, an endogenous ligand of the NT1 receptor, as detected by radioimmunoassay and inositol phosphate production. The present internalization assay provides a highly specific quantitative cytosensor technique with sensitivity in the nanomolar range that should prove useful for the identification of putative natural and synthetic ligands for GPCRs.

  12. Uranium Extraction From Artificial Liquid Waste Using Continuous Extraction Liquid membrane Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusdianasari; Buchari

    2002-01-01

    The continuous extraction of uranium from artificial liquid waste by emulsion liquid membrane was carried out using one stage mixer-settler. This emulsion liquid membrane containing di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) and tri-n-buthyl phosphate (TBP) as carrier were carried out using one stage mixer-settler. The optimum condition gave the ratio of emulsion velocity to the feed velocity 1:4 and steady state reached after five minutes. The optimum condition was obtained at the 90.91 % of uranium recovered from raffinate, using EDTA as the masking agent with concentration 5x10 - 2 M . The total concentration of carrier was 3% with ratio D2EHPA and TBP 3:1. The emulsion liquid membrane has high relative selectivity after steady state with separation factors were α U , N i= 115,43 and α U , Fe 328,55. The result of experiment showed that emulsion liquid membrane containing D2EHPA and TBP as carrier have good performance for continuous system

  13. Extraction and quantification of polyphenols from kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. peel using ultrasound and maceration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad N. Safdar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out to extract polyphenols from the peel of kinnow (Citrus reticulate L. by maceration and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE techniques. The antioxidant potential of these polyphenols was evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and superoxide radical scavenging assays; and their antimicrobial activity was assessed against bacterial strains Staphyloccoccus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Salmonella typhimurium. The highest extraction yield was obtained through the solvent ethanol at 80% concentration level, whereas UAE was a more efficient technique and yielded comparatively higher polyphenol contents than maceration. Maximum polyphenols were extracted with 80% methanol [32.48 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract] using UAE, whereas minimum phenolics (8.64 mg GAE/g extract were obtained with 80% ethyl acetate through the maceration technique. Elevated antioxidant activity of kinnow peel extracts was exhibited in three antioxidant assays, where 80% methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity (27.67±1.11mM/100 g for FRAP and the highest scavenging activity, 72.83±0.65% and 64.80±0.91% for DPPH and superoxide anion radical assays, respectively. Strong correlations between total polyphenols and antioxidant activity were recorded. Eleven phenolic compounds—including five phenolic acids and six flavonoids—were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography. Ferulic acid and hesperidin were the most abundant compounds whereas caffeic acid was the least abundant phenolic compound in kinnow peel extracts. Maximum inhibition zone was recorded against S. aureus (16.00±0.58 mm whereas minimum inhibition zone was noted against S. typhimurium (9.00±1.16 mm. It was concluded that kinnow mandarin peels, being a potential source of phenolic compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, may be used as an ingredient for

  14. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  15. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S.; Kuster, Ricardo M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g -1 dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g -1 dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  16. Idioms-based Business Rule Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R Smit (Rob)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractThis thesis studies the extraction of embedded business rules, using the idioms of the used framework to identify them. Embedded business rules exist as source code in the software system and knowledge about them may get lost. Extraction of those business rules could make them accessible

  17. Application of Solvent-In-Pulp Technique for Uranium Extraction from Mineralization Granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.; Hussein, A.E.M.; Youseif, W.M.; El Didamony, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations on uranium extraction from a representative mineralized granite sample (Gattar granite GII) by solvent-in-pulp (SIP) technique were carried out in the present study. For this purpose, the solvent (tri-butyl amine) (TBA) was mixed with the leaching slurry without prior filtration. The influence of various factors affecting the SIP process, such as contact time, solvent concentration, dilution factor, type of surfactant, surfactant/solid ratio were studied. About 91% uranium extraction efficiency was attained by the application of the chosen extraction SIP conditions. Also, about 96% of the loaded uranium could be stripped by using sulfuric acid as an effective stripping agent

  18. Optimization of cloud point extraction and solid phase extraction methods for speciation of arsenic in natural water using multivariate technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Jameel A; Kazi, Tasneem G; Shah, Abdul Q; Arain, Mohammad B; Afridi, Hassan I; Kandhro, Ghulam A; Khan, Sumaira

    2009-09-28

    The simple and rapid pre-concentration techniques viz. cloud point extraction (CPE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) were applied for the determination of As(3+) and total inorganic arsenic (iAs) in surface and ground water samples. The As(3+) was formed complex with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and extracted by surfactant-rich phases in the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114, after centrifugation the surfactant-rich phase was diluted with 0.1 mol L(-1) HNO(3) in methanol. While total iAs in water samples was adsorbed on titanium dioxide (TiO(2)); after centrifugation, the solid phase was prepared to be slurry for determination. The extracted As species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors for the recovery of As(3+) and total iAs by CPE and SPE. The standard addition method was used to validate the optimized methods. The obtained result showed sufficient recoveries for As(3+) and iAs (>98.0%). The concentration factor in both cases was found to be 40.

  19. Technique of calculating specific capital investments in the fuel extracting sectors of industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugrov, V.A.; Filey, I.A.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of the existing methods of calculating specific capital investments in the fuel extracting sectors of industry. Their shortcomings are shown. It is suggested that specific capital investments for extraction of coal and gas be defined as the ratio of capital investments to the conditional increase in extraction. Coal extraction should take int consideration all the capital investments associated with the input of new facilities, and the maintenance of the attained level of extraction and reconstruction of the enterprise, as well as all the newly introduced facilities both at the new and at the active enterprises associated with an increase in coal extraction and with maintenance of the facilities. The suggested technique completely corresponds to the ''Standard Technique for Developing a Technical-Industrial-Financial Plan,'' which stipulates determination of specific capital investments per unit of introduced facilities with only the difference that it takes into consideration the specific features of the fuel extracting sectors of industry.

  20. The development of simple field based procedures for extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to develop procedures for extracting volatiles from the vine of Adenia cissampeloides which could effect the highest yield at the lowest extraction costs and also could be produced at the cottage industry level. The participatory rural appraisal technique was used to ensure ...

  1. Comparison of surface extraction techniques performance in computed tomography for 3D complex micro-geometry dimensional measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torralba, Marta; Jiménez, Roberto; Yagüe-Fabra, José A.

    2018-01-01

    micro-geometries as well (i.e., in the sub-mm dimensional range). However, there are different factors that may influence the CT process performance, being one of them the surface extraction technique used. In this paper, two different extraction techniques are applied to measure a complex miniaturized......The number of industrial applications of computed tomography (CT) for dimensional metrology in 100–103 mm range has been continuously increasing, especially in the last years. Due to its specific characteristics, CT has the potential to be employed as a viable solution for measuring 3D complex...... dental file by CT in order to analyze its contribution to the final measurement uncertainty in complex geometries at the mm to sub-mm scales. The first method is based on a similarity analysis: the threshold determination; while the second one is based on a gradient or discontinuity analysis: the 3D...

  2. Simple New Screw Insertion Technique without Extraction for Broken Pedicle Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Jin-Sang; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-05-01

    Spinal transpedicular screw fixation is widely performed. Broken pedicle screw rates range from 3%-7.1%. Several techniques have been described for extraction of broken pedicle screws. However, most of these techniques require special instruments. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. No special instruments or drilling in an adjacent pedicle are required. We used a high-speed air drill with a round burr. With C-arm fluoroscopy guidance, the distal fragment of a broken pedicle screw was palpated using free-hand technique through the screw entry hole. A high-speed air drill with a round burr (not a diamond burr) was inserted through the hole. Drilling began slowly and continued until enough space was obtained for new screw insertion. Using this space, we performed new pedicle screw fixation medially alongside the distal fragment of the broken pedicle screw. We performed the insertion with a previously used entry hole and pathway in the pedicle. The same size pedicle screw was used. Three patients were treated with this modified technique. New screw insertion was successful in all cases after partial drilling of the distal broken pedicle screw fragment. There were no complications, such as screw loosening, dural tears, or root injury. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. This technique is recommended in patients who require insertion of a new screw. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Kernel-based discriminant feature extraction using a representative dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Honglin; Sancho Gomez, Jose-Luis; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2002-07-01

    Discriminant Feature Extraction (DFE) is widely recognized as an important pre-processing step in classification applications. Most DFE algorithms are linear and thus can only explore the linear discriminant information among the different classes. Recently, there has been several promising attempts to develop nonlinear DFE algorithms, among which is Kernel-based Feature Extraction (KFE). The efficacy of KFE has been experimentally verified by both synthetic data and real problems. However, KFE has some known limitations. First, KFE does not work well for strongly overlapped data. Second, KFE employs all of the training set samples during the feature extraction phase, which can result in significant computation when applied to very large datasets. Finally, KFE can result in overfitting. In this paper, we propose a substantial improvement to KFE that overcomes the above limitations by using a representative dataset, which consists of critical points that are generated from data-editing techniques and centroid points that are determined by using the Frequency Sensitive Competitive Learning (FSCL) algorithm. Experiments show that this new KFE algorithm performs well on significantly overlapped datasets, and it also reduces computational complexity. Further, by controlling the number of centroids, the overfitting problem can be effectively alleviated.

  4. Optimization-based Method for Automated Road Network Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, D

    2001-01-01

    Automated road information extraction has significant applicability in transportation. It provides a means for creating, maintaining, and updating transportation network databases that are needed for purposes ranging from traffic management to automated vehicle navigation and guidance. This paper is to review literature on the subject of road extraction and to describe a study of an optimization-based method for automated road network extraction

  5. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) - a fast and automated technique with low solvent consumption for the extraction of solid samples (T12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefler, F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) is a modern extraction technique that significantly streamlines sample preparation. A common organic solvent as well as water is used as extraction solvent at elevated temperature and pressure to increase extraction speed and efficiency. The entire extraction process is fully automated and performed within 15 minutes with a solvent consumption of 18 ml for a 10 g sample. For many matrices and for a variety of solutes, ASE has proven to be equivalent or superior to sonication, Soxhlet, and reflux extraction techniques while requiring less time, solvent and labor. First ASE has been applied for the extraction of environmental hazards from solid matrices. Within a very short time ASE was approved by the U.S. EPA for the extraction of BNAs, PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, herbicides, TPH, and dioxins from solid samples in method 3545. Especially for the extraction of dioxins the extraction time with ASE is reduced to 20 minutes in comparison to 18 h using Soxhlet. In food analysis ASE is used for the extraction of pesticide and mycotoxin residues from fruits and vegetables, the fat determination and extraction of vitamins. Time consuming and solvent intensive methods for the extraction of additives from polymers as well as for the extraction of marker compounds from herbal supplements can be performed with higher efficiencies using ASE. For the analysis of chemical weapons the extraction process and sample clean-up including derivatization can be automated and combined with GC-MS using an online ASE-APEC-GC system. (author)

  6. The use of supercritical fluid extraction as a sample preparation technique for soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, J.M.; Dolata, L.A.; Rosselli, A.C.; Ravey, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Using off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted at different levels from various soil and sediment matrices. Based upon GC/MS measurements a number of SFE operational parameters including pressure, temperature and flow rate, were optimized to yield the highest efficiencies with the best precision

  7. [Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe

    2013-01-01

    The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a set of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  8. [Cotton identification and extraction using near infrared sensor and object-oriented spectral segmentation technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jin-Song; Shi, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Li-Su; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2009-07-01

    The real-time, effective and reliable method of identifying crop is the foundation of scientific management for crop in the precision agriculture. It is also one of the key techniques for the precision agriculture. However, this expectation cannot be fulfilled by the traditional pixel-based information extraction method with respect to complicated image processing and accurate objective identification. In the present study, visible-near infrared image of cotton was acquired using high-resolution sensor. Object-oriented segmentation technique was performed on the image to produce image objects and spatial/spectral features of cotton. Afterwards, nearest neighbor classifier integrated the spectral, shape and topologic information of image objects to precisely identify cotton according to various features. Finally, 300 random samples and an error matrix were applied to undertake the accuracy assessment of identification. Although errors and confusion exist, this method shows satisfying results with an overall accuracy of 96.33% and a KAPPA coefficient of 0.926 7, which can meet the demand of automatic management and decision-making in precision agriculture.

  9. Current STR-based techniques in forensic science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuvadol Thanakiatkrai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA analysis in forensic science is mainly based on short tandem repeat (STR genotyping. The conventional analysis is a three-step process of DNA extraction, amplification and detection. An overview of various techniques that are currently in use and are being actively researched for STR typing is presented. The techniques are separated into STR amplification and detection. New techniques for forensic STR analysis focus on increasing sensitivity, resolution and discrimination power for suboptimal samples. These are achieved by shifting primer-binding sites, using high-fidelity and tolerant polymerases and applying novel methods to STR detection. Examples in which STRs are used in criminal investigations are provided and future research directions are discussed.

  10. Optical Aperture Synthesis Object's Information Extracting Based on Wavelet Denoising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, W J; Lu, Y

    2006-01-01

    Wavelet denoising is studied to improve OAS(optical aperture synthesis) object's Fourier information extracting. Translation invariance wavelet denoising based on Donoho wavelet soft threshold denoising is researched to remove Pseudo-Gibbs in wavelet soft threshold image. OAS object's information extracting based on translation invariance wavelet denoising is studied. The study shows that wavelet threshold denoising can improve the precision and the repetition of object's information extracting from interferogram, and the translation invariance wavelet denoising information extracting is better than soft threshold wavelet denoising information extracting

  11. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy, Quick, and Safe Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Ravi; Singh, Harpreet; Singh, Amit; Garg, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective.

  12. IMAGE ANALYSIS BASED ON EDGE DETECTION TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    A method that incorporates edge detection technique, Markov Random field (MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques was presented for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. It first applies edge detection technique to obtain a Difference In Strength (DIS) map. An initial segmented result is obtained based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance. Then the region process is modeled by MRF to obtain an image that contains different intensity regions. The gradient values are calculated and then the watershed technique is used. DIS calculation is used for each pixel to define all the edges (weak or strong) in the image. The DIS map is obtained. This help as priority knowledge to know the possibility of the region segmentation by the next step (MRF), which gives an image that has all the edges and regions information. In MRF model,gray level l, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The segmentation results are improved by using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions are processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. The edge map is obtained using a merge process based on averaged intensity mean values. A common edge detectors that work on (MRF) segmented image are used and the results are compared. The segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  13. A new technique of laparoscopic intracorporeal anastomosis for transrectal bowel resection with transvaginal specimen extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Emilie; Albornoz, Jaime; Messori, Pietro; Leroy, Joël; Wattiez, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    To show a new technique of laparoscopic intracorporeal anastomosis for transrectal bowel resection with transvaginal specimen extraction, a technique particularly suited for treatment of bowel endometriosis. Step-by-step explanation of the technique using videos and pictures (educative video). Endometriosis may affect the bowel in 3% to 37% of all endometriosis cases. Bowel endometriosis affects young women, without any co-morbidities and in particular without any vascular disorders. In addition, affected patients often express a desire for childbearing. Radical excision is sometimes required because of the impossibility of conservative treatment such as shaving, mucosal skinning, or discoid resection. Bowel endometriosis should not be considered a cancer, and consequently maximal resection is not the objective. Rather, the goal would be to achieve functional benefit. As a result, resection must be as economic and cosmetic as possible. The laparoscopic approach has proved its superiority over the open technique, although mini-laparotomy is generally performed to prepare for the anastomosis. Total laparoscopic approach in patients with partial bowel stenosis, using the vagina for specimen extraction. This technique of intracorporeal anastomosis with transvaginal specimen extraction enables a smaller resection and avoidance of abdominal incision enlargement that may cause hernia, infection, or pain. When stenosis is partial, this technique seems particularly suited for treatment of bowel endometriosis requiring resection. If stenosis is complete, the anvil can be inserted above the lesion transvaginally. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of the extraction techniques on the kinetics, yield and antioxidative activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanojević, Ljiljana P.; Stanković, Mihajlo Z.; Veljković, Vlada; Cakić, Milorad D.; Nikolić, Vesna D.; Ilić, Dušica P.

    2011-01-01

    The influence of three extraction techniques (Reflux maceration, Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction) on the kinetics, yield and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate extracts of Hieracium pilosella L. was investigated. The antioxidant activity of the extracts on stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical was determined spectrophotometrically. The total phenolic content was determined by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids content was measured by spectrophotometric...

  15. A novel technique using the Hendrickx centrifuge for extracting winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum from soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wander, J.G.N.; Berg, van den W.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Lamers, J.G.; Leeuwen, van G.C.M.; Hendrickx, G.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    A zonal centrifugation method, known as the Hendrickx centrifuge technique, was tested for routine detection of winter sporangia of Synchytrium endobioticum in soil. In four experiments the ability of the Hendrickx centrifuge to extract the sporangia from soil was compared with a method used by the

  16. Techniques to extract physical modes in model-independent analysis of rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.-X.

    2004-01-01

    A basic goal of Model-Independent Analysis is to extract the physical modes underlying the beam histories collected at a large number of beam position monitors so that beam dynamics and machine properties can be deduced independent of specific machine models. Here we discuss techniques to achieve this goal, especially the Principal Component Analysis and the Independent Component Analysis.

  17. Determination of stability constants of lanthanide nitrate complex formation using a solvent extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, S.; Ekberg, C.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Nilsson, M.; Skarnemark, G.; Eberhardt, K.

    2006-01-01

    For lanthanides and actinides, nitrate complex formation is an important factor with respect to the reprocessing of nuclear fuels and in studies that treat partitioning and transmutation/conditioning. Different techniques, including microcalorimetry, various kinds of spectroscopy, ion-exchange and solvent extraction, can be used to determine stability constants of nitrate complex formation. However, it is uncommon that all lanthanides are studied at the same time, using the same experimental conditions and technique. The strengths of the complexes are different for lanthanides and actinides, a feature that may assist in the separation of the two groups. This paper deals with nitrate complex formation of lanthanides using a solvent extraction technique. Trace amounts of radioactive isotopes of lanthanides were produced at the TRIGA Mainz research reactor and at the Institutt for Energiteknikk in Kjeller, Norway (JEEP II reactor). The extraction of lanthanide ions into an organic phase consisting of 2, 6-bis-(benzoxazolyl)-4-dodecyloxylpyridine, 2-bromodecanoic acid and tert-butyl benzene as a function of nitrate ion concentration in the aqueous phase was studied in order to estimate the stability constants of nitrate complex formation. When the nitrate ion concentration is increased in the aqueous phase, the nitrate complex formation starts to compete with the extraction of metal ions. Thus the stability constants of nitrate complex formation can be estimated by measuring the decrease in extraction and successive fitting of an appropriate model. Extraction curves for La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Ho and Er were obtained and stability constants for their nitrate complex formation were estimated. Tb, Tm, Yb and Lu were also investigated, but no stability constants could be determined. The distribution ratios for the metal ions at low nitrate ion concentration were obtained at the same time, showing the effect of lanthanide contraction resulting in decreasing

  18. Analytical research using synchrotron radiation based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2015-01-01

    There are many Synchrotron Radiation (SR) based techniques such as X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS), X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), SR-Fourier-transform Infrared (SRFTIR), Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. which are increasingly being employed worldwide in analytical research. With advent of modern synchrotron sources these analytical techniques have been further revitalized and paved ways for new techniques such as microprobe XRF and XAS, FTIR microscopy, Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (HAXPS) etc. The talk will cover mainly two techniques illustrating its capability in analytical research namely XRF and XAS. XRF spectroscopy: XRF spectroscopy is an analytical technique which involves the detection of emitted characteristic X-rays following excitation of the elements within the sample. While electron, particle (protons or alpha particles), or X-ray beams can be employed as the exciting source for this analysis, the use of X-ray beams from a synchrotron source has been instrumental in the advancement of the technique in the area of microprobe XRF imaging and trace level compositional characterisation of any sample. Synchrotron radiation induced X-ray emission spectroscopy, has become competitive with the earlier microprobe and nanoprobe techniques following the advancements in manipulating and detecting these X-rays. There are two important features that contribute to the superb elemental sensitivities of microprobe SR induced XRF: (i) the absence of the continuum (Bremsstrahlung) background radiation that is a feature of spectra obtained from charged particle beams, and (ii) the increased X-ray flux on the sample associated with the use of tunable third generation synchrotron facilities. Detection sensitivities have been reported in the ppb range, with values of 10 -17 g - 10 -14 g (depending on the particular element and matrix). Keeping in mind its demand, a microprobe XRF beamline has been setup by RRCAT at Indus-2 synchrotron

  19. Charge transport and recombination in bulk heterojunction solar cells studied by the photoinduced charge extraction in linearly increasing voltage technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, A. J.; Sariciftci, N. S.; Lutsen, L.; Vanderzande, D.; Österbacka, R.; Westerling, M.; Juška, G.

    2005-03-01

    Charge carrier mobility and recombination in a bulk heterojunction solar cell based on the mixture of poly[2-methoxy-5-(3,7-dimethyloctyloxy)-phenylene vinylene] (MDMO-PPV) and 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)-C61 (PCBM) has been studied using the novel technique of photoinduced charge carrier extraction in a linearly increasing voltage (Photo-CELIV). In this technique, charge carriers are photogenerated by a short laser flash, and extracted under a reverse bias voltage ramp after an adjustable delay time (tdel). The Photo-CELIV mobility at room temperature is found to be μ =2×10-4cm2V-1s-1, which is almost independent on charge carrier density, but slightly dependent on tdel. Furthermore, determination of charge carrier lifetime and demonstration of an electric field dependent mobility is presented.

  20. Generating unstable resonances for extraction schemes based on transverse splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giovannozzi

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, a novel multiturn extraction scheme was proposed, based on particle trapping inside stable resonances. Numerical simulations and experimental tests have confirmed the feasibility of such a scheme for low order resonances. While the third-order resonance is generically unstable and those higher than fourth order are generically stable, the fourth-order resonance can be either stable or unstable depending on the specifics of the system under consideration. By means of the normal form, a general approach to control the stability of the fourth-order resonance has been derived. This approach is based on the control of the amplitude detuning and the general form for a lattice with an arbitrary number of sextupole and octupole families is derived in this paper. Numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical results and have shown that, when crossing the unstable fourth-order resonance, the region around the center of the phase space is depleted and particles are trapped in only the four stable islands. A four-turn extraction could be designed using this technique.

  1. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  2. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  3. Coacervative extraction as a green technique for sample preparation for the analysis of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, A; Wolska, L; Namieśnik, J

    2014-04-25

    One of the present trends in analytical chemistry is miniaturization, which is one of the methods of green analytical chemistry application. A particular emphasis is placed on the elimination of the use of large amounts of organic solvents which are toxic and harmful to the environment, maintaining high efficiency of the extraction process, high recovery values and low values of quantification (LOQ) and detection (LOD) limits. These requirements are fulfilled by coacervative extraction (CAE) technique. In this review, theoretical aspects of the coacervation process are presented along with environmental and bioanalytical applications of this technique, its advantages, limitations and competitiveness with other techniques. Due to its simplicity and rapidity, CAE is an excellent alternative for currently practiced procedures of sample preparation for the analysis of organic compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  5. Text Character Extraction Implementation from Captured Handwritten Image to Text Conversionusing Template Matching Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barate Seema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Images contain various types of useful information that should be extracted whenever required. A various algorithms and methods are proposed to extract text from the given image, and by using that user will be able to access the text from any image. Variations in text may occur because of differences in size, style,orientation, alignment of text, and low image contrast, composite backgrounds make the problem during extraction of text. If we develop an application that extracts and recognizes those texts accurately in real time, then it can be applied to many important applications like document analysis, vehicle license plate extraction, text- based image indexing, etc and many applications have become realities in recent years. To overcome the above problems we develop such application that will convert the image into text by using algorithms, such as bounding box, HSV model, blob analysis,template matching, template generation.

  6. Two simple techniques for the safe Sarcoptes collection and individual mite DNA extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soglia, Dominga; Rambozzi, Luisa; Maione, Sandra; Spalenza, Veronica; Sartore, Stefano; Alasaad, Samer; Sacchi, Paola; Rossi, Luca

    2009-10-01

    Availability of mites is a recognized limiting factor of biological and genetic investigations of the genus Sarcoptes. Current methods of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction from individual mites also need substantial improvement in efficiency and operator friendliness. We have first developed a technique for efficient and safe extraction of living mites from scabietic skin samples (crusts or deep skin scrapings). Its core device is a large plastic syringe connected with a 1.5-ml Eppendorf tube. The source material is introduced in the syringe and the device in a shoe box with the tip half of the tube emerging. Mites migrate towards a heat source during a minimum of 36 h. Then, the tube is detached and the mites utilized without risks for the operators. A second technique allows operator-friendly manipulation of individual mites for DNA extraction. Fixed mites are isolated by adhesion to a small strip of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) adhesive tape operated with tweezers. Then, mite and strip are plunged in the lyses buffer and the sample twice submitted to thermal shock for disruption of the chitinous exoskeleton. Data show that the tape does not interfere with successive DNA extraction with a commercial kit. The corresponding protocol, that we briefly name "PVC adhesive tape + thermal shock + kit DNA extraction," compares favorably with the available ones.

  7. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. Methods This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. Results The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. Conclusions The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall. PMID:26043907

  8. Developing a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity recognition technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min; Yu, Hwanjo; Han, Wook-Shin

    2015-01-01

    Bio-entity extraction is a pivotal component for information extraction from biomedical literature. The dictionary-based bio-entity extraction is the first generation of Named Entity Recognition (NER) techniques. This paper presents a hybrid dictionary-based bio-entity extraction technique. The approach expands the bio-entity dictionary by combining different data sources and improves the recall rate through the shortest path edit distance algorithm. In addition, the proposed technique adopts text mining techniques in the merging stage of similar entities such as Part of Speech (POS) expansion, stemming, and the exploitation of the contextual cues to further improve the performance. The experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves the best or at least equivalent performance among compared techniques, GENIA, MESH, UMLS, and combinations of these three resources in F-measure. The results imply that the performance of dictionary-based extraction techniques is largely influenced by information resources used to build the dictionary. In addition, the edit distance algorithm shows steady performance with three different dictionaries in precision whereas the context-only technique achieves a high-end performance with three difference dictionaries in recall.

  9. Stuffing the nail: A simple technique for the extraction of a broken femoral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jane; Krishna, Damodaran; Gehr, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    The extraction of broken femoral nails can be a challenging procedure and surgeons should be familiar with many different techniques. This paper demonstrates a case study and new, simple and cost effective technique for the removal of broken cannulated femoral nails. Our technique uses two guide wires of variable diameter and had several key points of differentiation from previous methods. Firstly, stuffing the nail with guide wires of greater total diameter than the cannula; secondly, reversing the second guide wire and finally, bending the tips of the wires. These innovations allow the technique to be used for narrow cannulated nails, superior purchase along the length of the nail, easy wire insertion and limited soft tissue damage. Our technique for the removal of broken femoral nails is quick, effective, cheap and easy to replicate and can be used by any generalist orthopaedic surgeon with basic equipment.

  10. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  11. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  12. Graph based techniques for tag cloud generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leginus, Martin; Dolog, Peter; Lage, Ricardo Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Tag cloud is one of the navigation aids for exploring documents. Tag cloud also link documents through the user defined terms. We explore various graph based techniques to improve the tag cloud generation. Moreover, we introduce relevance measures based on underlying data such as ratings...... or citation counts for improved measurement of relevance of tag clouds. We show, that on the given data sets, our approach outperforms the state of the art baseline methods with respect to such relevance by 41 % on Movielens dataset and by 11 % on Bibsonomy data set....

  13. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  14. Evaluating chemical extraction techniques for the determination of uranium oxidation state in reduced aquifer sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Campbell, Kate M.; Fox, Patricia M.; Singer, David M.; Kaviani, Nazila; Carey, Minna; Peck, Nicole E.; Barger, John R.; Kent, Douglas B.; Davis, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Extraction techniques utilizing high pH and (bi)carbonate concentrations were evaluated for their efficacy in determining the oxidation state of uranium (U) in reduced sediments collected from Rifle, CO. Differences in dissolved concentrations between oxic and anoxic extractions have been proposed as a means to quantify the U(VI) and U(IV) content of sediments. An additional step was added to anoxic extractions using a strong anion exchange resin to separate dissolved U(IV) and U(VI). X-ray spectroscopy showed that U(IV) in the sediments was present as polymerized precipitates similar to uraninite and/or less ordered U(IV), referred to as non-uraninite U(IV) species associated with biomass (NUSAB). Extractions of sediment containing both uraninite and NUSAB displayed higher dissolved uranium concentrations under oxic than anoxic conditions while extractions of sediment dominated by NUSAB resulted in identical dissolved U concentrations. Dissolved U(IV) was rapidly oxidized under anoxic conditions in all experiments. Uraninite reacted minimally under anoxic conditions but thermodynamic calculations show that its propensity to oxidize is sensitive to solution chemistry and sediment mineralogy. A universal method for quantification of U(IV) and U(VI) in sediments has not yet been developed but the chemical extractions, when combined with solid-phase characterization, have a narrow range of applicability for sediments without U(VI).

  15. Development of 99mTc extraction techniques from 99Mo by (n,γ) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Hori, Naohiko; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Sato, Yuichi

    2010-11-01

    Investigation of production method of 99 Mo by (n, γ) reaction, where the processing is relatively simple and generating less amount of radioactive waste, is conducted in the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center. The 99 Mo is adsorbed to highly efficient adsorbent PZC after neutron irradiation and 99m Tc is eluted. However, radioactivity concentration of the 99m Tc solution obtained from PZC column loaded with 99 Mo derived by (n, γ) method is lower than that obtained from alumina column with 99 Mo by (n, f) method due to extremely low specific activity of (n, f) 99 Mo. Therefore, it is necessary to develop technique for increasing the amount of 99 Mo and the 99m Tc solution of high radioactivity concentration (minimum: 1Ci/ cm 3 ). In this study, the preliminary fabrication tests using high density MoO 3 pellets were carried out to increase the production of 99 Mo. The method of concentrating 99m Tc solution through solvent extraction with MEK was investigated and a device for this concentration process was also developed. In the preliminary tests of the MoO 3 pellets, the pellets having high density were successfully fabricated by the SPS method. Additionally, it was ascertained that the pellets can be dissolved with 6M-NaOH solution completely. The test for 99 Mo adsorption followed by 99m Tc elution using PZC was carried out. As the result, amount of Mo adsorbed to 1g-PZC was about 250mg, and 99m Tc yield was about 80%. In the concentration test using Re solution instead of 99m Tc solution, it was ascertained that the concentration efficiency is higher than 80% of the theoretical value. A concentration device for 99m Tc solution could be realized based on the method employed in the present experiments. The outcomes of development of 99m Tc extraction techniques from 99 Mo by (n,γ) reaction was reviewed in this paper, and the contents were presented in the 3rd International Symposium on Material Test Reactors. (author)

  16. Contactless physiological signals extraction based on skin color magnification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Kun Ha; Lee, Eui Chul

    2017-11-01

    Although the human visual system is not sufficiently sensitive to perceive blood circulation, blood flow caused by cardiac activity makes slight changes on human skin surfaces. With advances in imaging technology, it has become possible to capture these changes through digital cameras. However, it is difficult to obtain clear physiological signals from such changes due to its fineness and noise factors, such as motion artifacts and camera sensing disturbances. We propose a method for extracting physiological signals with improved quality from skin colored-videos recorded with a remote RGB camera. The results showed that our skin color magnification method reveals the hidden physiological components remarkably in the time-series signal. A Korea Food and Drug Administration-approved heart rate monitor was used for verifying the resulting signal synchronized with the actual cardiac pulse, and comparisons of signal peaks showed correlation coefficients of almost 1.0. In particular, our method can be an effective preprocessing before applying additional postfiltering techniques to improve accuracy in image-based physiological signal extractions.

  17. Mobility of radionuclides based on sequential extraction of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Oughton, D.H.; Lien, H.N.; Oestby, G.; Strand, P.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989, core samples of soil and vegetation from semi-natural pastures have been collected at selected sites in Norway during the growing season. The activity concentrations in soil and vegetation as well as transfer coefficients vary significantly between regions, within regions and even within sampling plot areas. In order to differentiate between mobil and inert fractions of radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr in soils, samples were extracted sequentially using agents with increasing dissolution power. The reproducibility of the sequential extraction technique is good and the data obtained seems most informative. As the distribution pattern for radioactive and stable isotopes of Cs and Sr are similar, a high degree of isotopic exchange is indicated. Based on easily leachable fractions, mobility factors are calculated. In general the mobility of 90 Sr is higher than for 137 Cs. Mobility factors are not significantly influenced by seasonal variations, but a decrease in the mobile fraction in soil with time is indicated. Mobility factors should be considered useful for modelling purposes. (au)

  18. An investigation of two-phase flow instability using wavelet signal extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Zhi; Yang Ruichang; Cao Xuewu; Yang Yanhua

    2004-01-01

    When the oscillation periods of the instability of two-phase flow are sought with traditional methods of signal analysis, generally the Fourier transform must be employed and then the oscillation periods will be gotten at the location of the local maximum amplitude of frequency transform. However, Fourier transform will be difficult to clearly analyze the unsteady signals especially when the signals include many peaks and the noise interference is not generated by white noise in many areas of practical engineering like the oscillation of the instability of two-phase flow. The most effective solving method for the difficulty of Fourier transform is to analyze the signals directly in time domain. Wavelet analysis is able to search out the periods from time domain directly. It also has more excellent local characteristics than Fourier analysis in the both of time and frequency domains. In this paper, not only is a direct detecting method of the oscillation periods successfully applied based on the wavelet signal extraction techniques, but also the oscillation of density wave type of TYPE I is found as a kind of oscillations with a high-frequency harmonization

  19. The effect of the operation conditions and the extraction techniques on the yield, kinetics and composition of methanol extracts of Hieracium pilosella L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević Ljiljana P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal operational extraction conditions were determined by investigating the influence of the methanol concentration, solvomodule and temperature of the maceration extraction on the yield and kinetics of total extractive matter, chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside from Hieracium pilosella L. Based on the results of Soxhlet and Tillepape extraction kinetics investigations of the total extractive matter and the components under the optimal maceration operation conditions it was found that the highest yields of the extractive matter and investigated bioactive components extracted from the dry plant material were obtained by using the Soxhlet extraction method. The contents of chlorogenic acid, umbelliferone and apigenin-7-O-glucoside in the extracts were determined by HPLC method. Chlorogenic acid is the component with the highest share in all the extracts.

  20. Effects of extraction and derivatization techniques on recovery of organotin species in environmental matrices (W3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlen, R.; Catterick, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Organotin (OT) contamination is still persistent in most coastal environments and estuaries and can be monitored accurately by analysis of sediments and sedentary aquatic animal populations. In addition to human exposure via contaminated seafood, there is increasing concern about OT compounds in man-made consumer products. Organotin analysis involves the extraction from the matrix, derivatization (for GC analysis), separation of the different species and detection. Commonly used extraction techniques are mechanical shaking, ultrasonic agitation and microwave leaching (open or closed vessel). Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has also been reported. In this study, closed-vessel microwave extraction and ASE methods are compared for OT analysis in environmental tissues using separation by gas chromatography (GC) and detection by inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS). The efficiency of an ethylation procedure with sodiumtetraethylborate (NABEt 4 ) using different matrices and derivatization durations is monitored by comparing data obtained by external calibration with results by species-specific isotope dilution analysis (SS-IDMS) of dibutyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) enriched with 117 Sn. Uncertainty estimates for both quantification techniques will be provided. (author)

  1. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Huwart, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t’am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  2. Novel process intensification techniques in solvent extraction. Contributed Paper IT-09

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    Process intensification can be briefly described as any chemical engineering development that leads to substantially smaller, cleaner and more energy efficient technology. Process intensification in active nuclear material processing will offer additional benefit in terms of reduced containment volume. The intensification can be realized either by use of novel equipment or by novel operating techniques. Feasibility of hollow fiber (HF) modules and microchannels or microfluidic devices will be explained for their utilization in process intensification of solvent extraction operation in nuclear fuel cycle

  3. A technique system for the measurement, reconstruction and character extraction of rice plant architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xumeng Li

    Full Text Available This study developed a technique system for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures, which have challenged functional-structural plant modeling for decades and have become the foundation of the design of ideo-plant architectures. The system uses the location-separation-measurement method (LSMM for the collection of data on the canopy architecture and the analytic geometry method for the reconstruction and visualization of the three-dimensional (3D digital architecture of the rice plant. It also uses the virtual clipping method for extracting the key traits of the canopy architecture such as the leaf area, inclination, and azimuth distribution in spatial coordinates. To establish the technique system, we developed (i simple tools to measure the spatial position of the stem axis and azimuth of the leaf midrib and to capture images of tillers and leaves; (ii computer software programs for extracting data on stem diameter, leaf nodes, and leaf midrib curves from the tiller images and data on leaf length, width, and shape from the leaf images; (iii a database of digital architectures that stores the measured data and facilitates the reconstruction of the 3D visual architecture and the extraction of architectural traits; and (iv computation algorithms for virtual clipping to stratify the rice canopy, to extend the stratified surface from the horizontal plane to a general curved surface (including a cylindrical surface, and to implement in silico. Each component of the technique system was quantitatively validated and visually compared to images, and the sensitivity of the virtual clipping algorithms was analyzed. This technique is inexpensive and accurate and provides high throughput for the measurement, reconstruction, and trait extraction of rice canopy architectures. The technique provides a more practical method of data collection to serve functional-structural plant models of rice and for the

  4. Use of elevator instruments when luxating and extracting teeth in dentistry: clinical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoun, John

    2017-06-01

    In dentistry, elevator instruments are used to luxate teeth, and this technique imparts forces to tooth particles that sever the periodontal ligament around tooth roots inside the socket and expand alveolar bone around tooth particles. These effects can result in extraction of the tooth particles or facilitate systematic forceps extraction of the tooth particles. This article presents basic oral surgery techniques for applying elevators to luxate teeth. Determination of the optimal luxation technique requires understanding of the functions of the straight elevator and the Cryer elevator, the concept of purchase points, how the design elements of elevator working ends and tips influence the functionality of an elevator, application of forces to tooth particles, sectioning teeth at furcations, and bone removal to facilitate luxation. The effectiveness of tooth particle luxation is influenced by elevator tip shape and size, the magnitude and the vectors of forces applied to the tooth particle by the tip, and sectioning and bone removal within the operating field. Controlled extraction procedures are facilitated by a dental operating microscope or the magnification of binocular surgical loupes telescopes, combined with co-axial illumination.

  5. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SINGLE AND COMBINATION FEATURE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING CERVICAL CANCER LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pradeep Kumar Kenny

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer affecting women especially in third world countries. The predominant reason for such alarming rate of death is primarily due to lack of awareness and proper health care. As they say, prevention is better than cure, a better strategy has to be put in place to screen a large number of women so that an early diagnosis can help in saving their lives. One such strategy is to implement an automated system. For an automated system to function properly a proper set of features have to be extracted so that the cancer cell can be detected efficiently. In this paper we compare the performances of detecting a cancer cell using a single feature versus a combination feature set technique to see which will suit the automated system in terms of higher detection rate. For this each cell is segmented using multiscale morphological watershed segmentation technique and a series of features are extracted. This process is performed on 967 images and the data extracted is subjected to data mining techniques to determine which feature is best for which stage of cancer. The results thus obtained clearly show a higher percentage of success for combination feature set with 100% accurate detection rate.

  6. [Aging Law of PAHs in Contaminated Soil and Their Enrichment in Earthworms Characterized by Chemical Extraction Techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Yang, Xing-lun; Bian, Yong-rong; Gu, Cheng-gang; Liu, Zong-tang; Li, Jiao; Wang, Dai-zhang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of aging on the availability of PAHs, chemical extraction by exhaustive ( ASE extraction) and nonexhaustive techniques (Tenax-TA extraction, hydroxypropyl-p-cyclodextrin ( HPCD ) extraction, n-butyl alcohol ( BuOH) extraction) as well as PAHs accumulation in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were conducted in yellow soil from Baguazhou, Nanjing, China, and red soil from Hainan, China, spiked with phenanthrene, pryene and benzo(a) pyrene and aged 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days. The results showed that the concentration of PAHs extracted by ASE and three nonexhaustive techniques and accumulated by earthworms significantly decreased with aging time, except the ASE extracted concentration between 30-and 60-day aging time. Furthermore, the relationships were studied in this experiment between chemical extracted PAHs concentration and accumulated concentration in earthworms. PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was not significantly correlated with the exhaustive extracted concentration of PAHs in soil (R² 0.44-0.56), which indicated that ASE extraction techniques could not predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworms because it overestimated the risk of PAHs. However, the PAHs accumulated concentration in earthworms was significantly correlated with the three nonexhaustive extracted concentrations of PAHs in soil, which indicated that all the three nonexhaustive techniques could predict PAHs bioavailability to earthworm to some extent, among which, HPCD extraction (R² 0.94-0.99) was better than Tenax-TA extraction (R² 0.62-0.87) and BuOH extraction (R² 0.69-0.94). So HPCD extraction was a more appropriate and reliable technique to predict bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  7. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenoghena, C. O.; Emagbetere, J. O.; Aibinu, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out.

  8. Artificial Intelligence based technique for BTS placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenoghena, C O; Emagbetere, J O; 1 Minna (Nigeria))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Telecommunications Engineering, Federal University of Techn.1 Minna (Nigeria))" >Aibinu, A M

    2013-01-01

    The increase of the base transceiver station (BTS) in most urban areas can be traced to the drive by network providers to meet demand for coverage and capacity. In traditional network planning, the final decision of BTS placement is taken by a team of radio planners, this decision is not fool proof against regulatory requirements. In this paper, an intelligent based algorithm for optimal BTS site placement has been proposed. The proposed technique takes into consideration neighbour and regulation considerations objectively while determining cell site. The application will lead to a quantitatively unbiased evaluated decision making process in BTS placement. An experimental data of a 2km by 3km territory was simulated for testing the new algorithm, results obtained show a 100% performance of the neighbour constrained algorithm in BTS placement optimization. Results on the application of GA with neighbourhood constraint indicate that the choices of location can be unbiased and optimization of facility placement for network design can be carried out

  9. Applying machine learning and image feature extraction techniques to the problem of cerebral aneurysm rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steren Chabert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral aneurysm is a cerebrovascular disorder characterized by a bulging in a weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. It is relevant to understand the mechanisms leading to the apparition of aneurysms, their growth and, more important, leading to their rupture. The purpose of this study is to study the impact on aneurysm rupture of the combination of different parameters, instead of focusing on only one factor at a time as is frequently found in the literature, using machine learning and feature extraction techniques. This discussion takes relevance in the context of the complex decision that the physicians have to take to decide which therapy to apply, as each intervention bares its own risks, and implies to use a complex ensemble of resources (human resources, OR, etc. in hospitals always under very high work load. This project has been raised in our actual working team, composed of interventional neuroradiologist, radiologic technologist, informatics engineers and biomedical engineers, from Valparaiso public Hospital, Hospital Carlos van Buren, and from Universidad de Valparaíso – Facultad de Ingeniería and Facultad de Medicina. This team has been working together in the last few years, and is now participating in the implementation of an “interdisciplinary platform for innovation in health”, as part of a bigger project leaded by Universidad de Valparaiso (PMI UVA1402. It is relevant to emphasize that this project is made feasible by the existence of this network between physicians and engineers, and by the existence of data already registered in an orderly manner, structured and recorded in digital format. The present proposal arises from the description in nowadays literature that the actual indicators, whether based on morphological description of the aneurysm, or based on characterization of biomechanical factor or others, these indicators were shown not to provide sufficient information in order

  10. Sparsity-based shrinkage approach for practicability improvement of H-LBP-based edge extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chenyi [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Qiao, Shuang, E-mail: qiaos810@nenu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Sun, Jianing, E-mail: sunjn118@nenu.edu.cn [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Zhao, Ruikun; Wu, Wei [Jilin Cancer Hospital, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2016-07-21

    The local binary pattern with H function (H-LBP) technique enables fast and efficient edge extraction in digital radiography. In this paper, we reformulate the model of H-LBP and propose a novel sparsity-based shrinkage approach, in which the threshold can be adapted to the data sparsity. Using this model, we upgrade fast H-LBP framework and apply it to real digital radiography. The experiments show that the method improved using the new shrinkage approach can avoid elaborately artificial modulation of parameters and possess greater robustness in edge extraction compared with the other current methods without increasing processing time. - Highlights: • An novel sparsity-based shrinkage approach for edge extraction on digital radiography is proposed. • The threshold of SS-LBP can be adaptive to the data sparsity. • SS-LBP is the development of AH-LBP and H-LBP. • Without boosting processing time and losing processing efficiency, SS-LBP can avoid elaborately artificial modulation of parameters provides. • SS-LBP has more robust performance in edge extraction compared with the existing methods.

  11. Distant Supervision for Relation Extraction with Ranking-Based Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Relation extraction has benefited from distant supervision in recent years with the development of natural language processing techniques and data explosion. However, distant supervision is still greatly limited by the quality of training data, due to its natural motivation for greatly reducing the heavy cost of data annotation. In this paper, we construct an architecture called MIML-sort (Multi-instance Multi-label Learning with Sorting Strategies, which is built on the famous MIML framework. Based on MIML-sort, we propose three ranking-based methods for sample selection with which we identify relation extractors from a subset of the training data. Experiments are set up on the KBP (Knowledge Base Propagation corpus, one of the benchmark datasets for distant supervision, which is large and noisy. Compared with previous work, the proposed methods produce considerably better results. Furthermore, the three methods together achieve the best F1 on the official testing set, with an optimal enhancement of F1 from 27.3% to 29.98%.

  12. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography MS/MS method for the determination of parabens in compost from sewage sludge: comparison of the efficiency of two extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Villalba, Julio César; Zafra-Gómez, Alberto; Dorival-García, Noemí; Camino-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Cantarero, Samuel; Vílchez, José Luis

    2013-08-01

    The efficiency of two extraction techniques--ultrasound-assisted extraction and pressurized liquid extraction--are compared and evaluated in the determination of parabens in compost samples. The extraction parameters for each technique were accurately optimized. The selected compounds were detected and quantified using ultra-performance LC MS/MS, operating in negative ESI and in SRM mode. The analytes were separated in less than 5 min. Ethylparaben (ring-(13)C6 labeled) was used as an internal standard. Two selective, sensitive, and accurate analytical methods were developed and validated. The LODs of the methods ranged from 3 to 7 ng/g and the LOQs from 10 to 23 ng/g, while inter- and intraday variability was under 6% in all cases. The methods were validated separately by using matrix-matched calibration and recovery assays with spiked samples. Recovery rates ranged from 94.0 to 105.0%. Compost samples were taken from different composting plants. Although the statistical comparison demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the two extraction techniques, the method based on pressurized liquid extraction was more sensitive than the ultrasound extraction based method. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. A Karnaugh-Map based fingerprint minutiae extraction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Singla

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprint is one of the most promising method among all the biometric techniques and has been used for thepersonal authentication for a long time because of its wide acceptance and reliability. Features (Minutiae are extracted fromthe fingerprint in question and are compared with the features already stored in the database for authentication. Crossingnumber (CN is the most commonly used minutiae extraction method for fingerprints. In this paper, a new Karnaugh-Mapbased fingerprint minutiae extraction method has been proposed and discussed. In the proposed algorithm the 8 neighborsof a pixel in a 33 window are arranged as 8 bits of a byte and corresponding hexadecimal (hex value is calculated. Thesehex values are simplified using standard Karnaugh-Map (K-map technique to obtain the minimized logical expression.Experiments conducted on the FVC2002/Db1_a database reveals that the developed method is better than the crossingnumber (CN method.

  14. Academic Activities Transaction Extraction Based on Deep Belief Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracting information about academic activity transactions from unstructured documents is a key problem in the analysis of academic behaviors of researchers. The academic activities transaction includes five elements: person, activities, objects, attributes, and time phrases. The traditional method of information extraction is to extract shallow text features and then to recognize advanced features from text with supervision. Since the information processing of different levels is completed in steps, the error generated from various steps will be accumulated and affect the accuracy of final results. However, because Deep Belief Network (DBN model has the ability to automatically unsupervise learning of the advanced features from shallow text features, the model is employed to extract the academic activities transaction. In addition, we use character-based feature to describe the raw features of named entities of academic activity, so as to improve the accuracy of named entity recognition. In this paper, the accuracy of the academic activities extraction is compared by using character-based feature vector and word-based feature vector to express the text features, respectively, and with the traditional text information extraction based on Conditional Random Fields. The results show that DBN model is more effective for the extraction of academic activities transaction information.

  15. Effect of organic bases on extraction of gadolinium carboxylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhan, V.V.; Frankovskij, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of pyridine, 2-aminopyridine, benzylamine, antipyrine and o-phenanthroline on the extraction of capronates and bromocapronates of gadolinium with chloroform is studied. Out of the studied organic bases benzylamine produces the highest synergetic effect. In the absence of organic bases gadolinium carboxylates, solvated by three molecules of carbonic acids, are extracted into organic phase. A possihility of extractional separation of gadolinium from comparable amounts of iron with the mixture of 1 M solutions of caproic or bromocaproic acids with 1 M benzylamine from 0.1 M solution of tartaric acids is shown [ru

  16. A feasibility study of H{sup -} beam extraction technique using YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meigo, Shin-ichiro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Ikeda, Yujiro; Oigawa, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Aoki, Nobutada [Toshiba Power System Co., Ltd. (Japan); Nakagawa, Satoshi [Toshiba Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Under a framework of JAERI-KEK joint project of high intensity proton accelerator, as for research and develop of the accelerator driven nuclear transmutation of the long lived radioactive nuclide, it is planed to built the Transmutation Physics Experiment Facility (TEF-P) and the Transmutation Engineering Experiment Facility (TEF-E). The TEF-P is used for the experiments for subcritical system coupled with a spallation neutron target bombarded with 600-MeV proton beam accelerated by the LINAC. To limit the maximum thermal power less than 500 W at the TEF-P, an incident beam power should be less than 10 W. On the contrary, at the TEF-E, high power beam of 200 kW is requested. Both high and low power beams are demanded for the transmutation facilities. It is difficult to deliver a low power beam to the TEF-P. Conventional beam extraction technique with a thin foil, is not desirable because the scattering of the beam at the foil requires the massive shield. Therefore, we study a new technique to extract a small portion of the beam precisely from the high intensity beam by using a laser beam. By a laser beam, H{sup -} in the beam from LINAC is partially changed to H{sup 0} beam so that a low current H{sup 0} beam can be obtained. As the cross section of the charge exchange reaction for H{sup -} ions has a peak around at a wave length of 1 {mu}m for photons, YAG laser is suitable for this charge exchange because of its 1.06 {mu}m wave length. It is derived that 10 W beam for 600-MeV proton can be extracted by the YAG laser with power of 2 J for each pulse of 25 Hz. By this technique, the pulse width for the extracted beam can be controlled by changing the time width of laser irradiation. When a charge exchanger having the beam collide point existing in straight section, a background beam current of projectile, however, will be increased due to the interaction with the residual gas in the beam duct. Thus, a charge exchanger is devised having the beam collide point in a

  17. Scattering-parameter extraction and calibration techniques for RF free-space material characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniecki, M.; Saenz, E.; Rolo, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for material characterization (permittivity, permeability, loss tangent) based on the scattering parameters. The performance of the extraction algorithm will be shown for modelled and measured data. The measurements were carried out at the European Space Agency...

  18. Patented techniques for the extraction and isolation of secoisolari-ciresinol diglucoside from flaxseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, Farah S; Beta, Trust

    2009-01-01

    Plant lignans are phenolic compounds generally containing a dibenzylbutane skeleton. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is the major lignan found in flaxseed. SDG is known to have antioxidant and anticancer properties. SDG can potentially be used as a natural antioxidant in foods thereby preventing further oxidation reactions and thus enhance the shelf life of foods. This article reviews the patents that are concerned with the extraction of SDG from flaxseed, the richest plant source of lignans. Most of the patented techniques for the extraction, isolation, and purification of SDG are conducted on defatted flaxseed and whole flaxseed. Flaxseed hull is potentially a good starting material. Furthermore, most methods use aliphatic alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol) to extract the complexed form of SDG. Combinations of these solvents are commonly used with water. Alkaline hydrolysis liberates SDG from its complexed form. SDG is enriched by a process involving either liquid-liquid partitioning or passing the aqueous phase through anion exchange resins or C18 resins. The SDG is recovered after evaporation of the water. Analytical HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry is performed to determine the quantity and purity of the extracted SDG.

  19. A novel technique of percutaneous stone extraction in choledocholithiasis after cholecystostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kyoung Hoon; Kim, Yong Joo

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of percutaneous common bile duct stone extraction via cystic duct after percutaneous cholecystostomy. Twenty-five consecutive patients with choledocholithiasis underwent percutaneous stone extraction under conscious sedation. The stones were extracted through the 12-Fr sheath using Wittich nitinol stone basket under fluoroscopic guidance via cystic duct after percutaneous trnas-hepatic cholecystostomy. Common bile duct stones were successfully removed in 22 of the 25 patients (88%) by this new technique. The causes of failure in three patients were bile leakage, hematoma of the gallbladder and failure of cystic duct cannulation. Cystic duct injury during this procedure did not occur and there was no post-procedure mortality. The mean period of indwelling catheter was 8.7±4.6 days and the mean duration of hospitalization was 13.4±5.9 days. Percutaneous commmon bile duct stone extraction via the cystic duct through percutaneous cholecystostomy route is effective and feasible for treating choledocholithiasis.

  20. A solvent extraction technique for the isotopic measurement of dissolved copper in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Claire M., E-mail: claire.thompson@anu.edu.au; Ellwood, Michael J., E-mail: michael.ellwood@anu.edu.au; Wille, Martin, E-mail: martin.wille@uni-tuebingen.de

    2013-05-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •A new sample preparation method for seawater copper isotopic analysis (δ{sup 65}Cu). •Solvent-extraction was used to pre-concentrate metals from seawater samples. •Anion-exchange was used to purify copper from the metal-rich extract. •δ{sup 65}Cu was measured in the north Tasman Sea. •Seawater δ{sup 65}Cu may be linked to marine biological activity. -- Abstract: Stable copper (Cu) isotope geochemistry provides a new perspective for investigating and understanding Cu speciation and biogeochemical Cu cycling in seawater. In this work, sample preparation for isotopic analysis employed solvent-extraction with amino pyrollidine dithiocarbamate/diethyl dithiocarbamate (APDC/DDC), coupled with a nitric acid back-extraction, to concentrate Cu from seawater. This was followed by Cu-purification using anion-exchange. This straightforward technique is high yielding and fractionation free for Cu and allows precise measurement of the seawater Cu isotopic composition using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. A deep-sea profile measured in the oligotrophic north Tasman Sea shows fractionation in the Cu isotopic signature in the photic zone but is relatively homogenised at depth. A minima in the Cu isotopic profile correlates with the chlorophyll a maximum at the site. These results indicate that a range of processes are likely to fractionate stable Cu isotopes in seawater.

  1. Complex investigation of extraction techniques applied for cyclitols and sugars isolation from different species of Solidago genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratiu, Ileana-Andreea; Al-Suod, Hossam; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2018-03-15

    Cyclitols are phytochemicals naturally occurring in plant material, which attracted an increasing interest due to multiple medicinal attributes, among which the most important are the antidiabetic, antioxidant, and anticancer properties. Due to their valuable properties, sugars are used in the food industry as sweeteners, preservatives, texture modifiers, fermentation substrates, and flavoring and coloring agents. In this study, we report for the first time the quantitative analysis of sugars and cyclitols isolated from Solidago virgaurea L., which was used for the selection of the optimal solvent and extraction technique that can provide the best possible yield. Moreover, the quantities of sugars and cyclitols extracted from two other species, Solidago canadensis and Solidago gigantea, were investigated using the best extraction method and the most appropriate solvent. Comparative analysis of natural plant extracts obtained using five different techniques-maceration, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction-was performed in order to decide the most suitable, efficient, and economically convenient extraction method. Three different solvents were used. Analysis of samples has been performed by solid-phase extraction for purification and pre-concentration, followed by derivation and GC-MS analysis. Highest efficiency for the total amount of obtained compounds has been reached by PLE, when water was used as a solvent. d-pinitol amount was almost similar for every solvent and for all the extraction techniques involved. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Radioanalytical determination of plutonium and americium using ion exchange and extraction chromatography technique in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanakrishnan, V.; Sreedevi, K.R.; Rajaram, S.; Ravi, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of anion exchange chromatography for the separation of Pu and extraction chromatography technique for the separation of Am from urine samples was studied. In the earlier method, Pu separation was carried out by anion exchange chromatography followed by Am separation by cation exchange chromatography. The chemical recovery of Am obtained by cation exchange separation method was inconsistent and low in the range 30-70%. In this study, the average Pu recovery obtained using anion exchange chromatography was 89.2 with standard deviation of 10.4 and the average Am recovery obtained using extraction chromatography with TRU resin was 77.4 with standard deviation of 14.8. Moreover, Am separation could be completed within three hours using the TRU column compared to two days that were required for the cation exchange chromatography. (author)

  3. Statistical feature extraction based iris recognition system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atul Bansal

    1 Department of Electronics and Communication, G.L.A. University, 17-km stone, NH#2, Delhi-Mathura Road, .... Based upon these range of values, a decision is taken about the ...... triplet half-band filter bank and flexible k-out-of-n: A post.

  4. A singularity extraction technique for computation of antenna aperture fields from singular plane wave spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel

    2008-01-01

    An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...

  5. The Mellin transform technique for the extraction of the gluon density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graudenz, D.

    1995-06-01

    A new method is presented to determine the gluon density in the proton from jet production in deeply inelastic scattering. By using the technique of Mellin transforms not only for the solution of the scale evolution equation of the parton densities but also for the evaluation of scattering cross sections, the gluon density can be extracted in next-to-leading order QCD. The method described in this paper is, however, more general, and can be used in situations where a repeated fast numerical evaluation of scattering cross sections for varying parton distribution functions is required. (orig.)

  6. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kandioller@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Six thiosalicylate-based ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) were newly synthesized. • ILs showed good extraction of cadmium, copper, and zinc. • Phosphonium ILs showed better extraction efficiencies than their ammonium counterparts. - Abstract: This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1–24 h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P{sub 66614}][BTB] exclusively.

  7. Knickzone Extraction Tool (KET – A new ArcGIS toolset for automatic extraction of knickzones from a DEM based on multi-scale stream gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Tuba

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of knickpoints or knickzones from a Digital Elevation Model (DEM has gained immense significance owing to the increasing implications of knickzones on landform development. However, existing methods for knickzone extraction tend to be subjective or require time-intensive data processing. This paper describes the proposed Knickzone Extraction Tool (KET, a new raster-based Python script deployed in the form of an ArcGIS toolset that automates the process of knickzone extraction and is both fast and more user-friendly. The KET is based on multi-scale analysis of slope gradients along a river course, where any locally steep segment (knickzone can be extracted as an anomalously high local gradient. We also conducted a comparative analysis of the KET and other contemporary knickzone identification techniques. The relationship between knickzone distribution and its morphometric characteristics are also examined through a case study of a mountainous watershed in Japan.

  8. Developing a complex independent component analysis technique to extract non-stationary patterns from geophysical time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Geodetic/geophysical observations, such as the time series of global terrestrial water storage change or sea level and temperature change, represent samples of physical processes and therefore contain information about complex physical interactionswith many inherent time scales. Extracting relevant information from these samples, for example quantifying the seasonality of a physical process or its variability due to large-scale ocean-atmosphere interactions, is not possible by rendering simple time series approaches. In the last decades, decomposition techniques have found increasing interest for extracting patterns from geophysical observations. Traditionally, principal component analysis (PCA) and more recently independent component analysis (ICA) are common techniques to extract statistical orthogonal (uncorrelated) and independent modes that represent the maximum variance of observations, respectively. PCA and ICA can be classified as stationary signal decomposition techniques since they are based on decomposing the auto-covariance matrix or diagonalizing higher (than two)-order statistical tensors from centered time series. However, the stationary assumption is obviously not justifiable for many geophysical and climate variables even after removing cyclic components e.g., the seasonal cycles. In this paper, we present a new decomposition method, the complex independent component analysis (CICA, Forootan, PhD-2014), which can be applied to extract to non-stationary (changing in space and time) patterns from geophysical time series. Here, CICA is derived as an extension of real-valued ICA (Forootan and Kusche, JoG-2012), where we (i) define a new complex data set using a Hilbert transformation. The complex time series contain the observed values in their real part, and the temporal rate of variability in their imaginary part. (ii) An ICA algorithm based on diagonalization of fourth-order cumulants is then applied to decompose the new complex data set in (i

  9. MIPCE: An MI-based protein complex extraction technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-28

    Sep 28, 2015 ... In this work, a method is proposed, referred to as. MIPCE, to find protein ... Because of its importance in the studies of protein interaction network, there are ..... three publicly available benchmark real-life datasets. The method was ... protein interaction networks with improved balance and scal- ability; in ...

  10. Exploiting the spontaneous potential of the electrodes used in the capacitive mixing technique for the extraction of energy from salinity difference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogioli, D.; Ziano, R.; Rica, R.A.; Salerno, D.; Kozynchenko, O.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Mantegazza, F.

    2012-01-01

    The "capacitive mixing" (CAPMIX) technique is aimed at the extraction of energy from the salinity difference between the sea and rivers. It is based on the voltage rise that takes place at the electrodes when changing the salt concentration of the solution in which the two electrodes are dipped. In

  11. Separation of trivalent actinide from lanthanide by a solvent extraction technique using imidazoledithiocarboxylic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, S.; Yanaga, M.; Okuno, K.; Suganuma, H.; Satoh, I.

    2006-01-01

    The extraction behavior of 241 Am and 152,154 Eu by a solvent extraction technique using imidazoledithiocarboxylic acid (IMD) were investigated. Although the solubility of IMD into organic solvent is very poor, it was improved by the formation of ion pair with hydrophobic cation, such as tetrabutylammonium ion (TBA + ) or tetraoctylammonium ion (TOA + ). The obtained tetrabutylammonium imidazole-dithiocarboxylate (TBA + IMD - ) and tetraoctylammonium imidazoledithiocarboxylate (TOA + TMD - ) are able to solve into various organic solvents, for example cyclohexanone, chloroform and nitrobenzene, but not to solve into nonpolar alkane. The radionuclides of Am(III) and Eu(III) are able to be extracted in the region of 2 eq + IMD - /cyclohexanone and TOA + IMD - /cyclohexanone. The distribution ratio of Am(III) is higher than that of Eu(III) when the organic phase is 0.1 M TBA + IMD - /cyclohexanone and the aqueous phase is 1.0 M (H,Na)NO 3 . The separation factor (Am(III)/Eu(III)) at pH eq =5.5 is ca. 30. In the region of pH>6, the distribution ratios of Am(III) and Eu(III) in the system described above showed constant values, respectively. (author)

  12. Assessment of chromium biostabilization in contaminated soils using standard leaching and sequential extraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papassiopi, Nymphodora; Kontoyianni, Athina; Vaxevanidou, Katerina; Xenidis, Anthimos

    2009-01-01

    The iron reducing microorganism Desulfuromonas palmitatis was evaluated as potential biostabilization agent for the remediation of chromate contaminated soils. D. palmitatis were used for the treatment of soil samples artificially contaminated with Cr(VI) at two levels, i.e. 200 and 500 mg kg -1 . The efficiency of the treatment was evaluated by applying several standard extraction techniques on the soil samples before and after treatment, such as the EN12457 standard leaching test, the US EPA 3060A alkaline digestion method and the BCR sequential extraction procedure. The water soluble chromium as evaluated with the EN leaching test, was found to decrease after the biostabilization treatment from 13 to less than 0.5 mg kg -1 and from 120 to 5.6 mg kg -1 for the soil samples contaminated with 200 and 500 mg Cr(VI) per kg soil respectively. The BCR sequential extraction scheme, although not providing accurate estimates about the initial chromium speciation in contaminated soils, proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the relative changes in element partitioning, as a consequence of the stabilization treatment. After bioreduction, the percentage of chromium retained in the two least soluble BCR fractions, i.e. the 'oxidizable' and 'residual' fractions, increased from 54 and 73% to more than 96% in both soils

  13. Extraction of citral oil from lemongrass (Cymbopogon Citratus) by steam-water distillation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, P. N.; Husin, H.; Asnawi, T. M.; Adisalamun

    2018-04-01

    In Indonesia, production of citral oil from lemon grass (Cymbopogon Cytratus) is done by a traditional technique whereby a low yield results. To improve the yield, an appropriate extraction technology is required. In this research, a steam-water distillation technique was applied to extract the essential oil from the lemongrass. The effects of sample particle size and bed volume on yield and quality of citral oil produced were investigated. The drying and refining time of 2 hours were used as fixed variables. This research results that minimum citral oil yield of 0.53% was obtained on sample particle size of 3 cm and bed volume of 80%, whereas the maximum yield of 1.95% on sample particle size of 15 cm and bed volume of 40%. The lowest specific gravity of 0.80 and the highest specific gravity of 0.905 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 80% and particle size of 12 cm with bed volume of 70%, respectively. The lowest refractive index of 1.480 and the highest refractive index of 1.495 were obtained on sample particle size of 8 cm with bed volume of 70% and sample particle size of 15 cm with bed volume of 40%, respectively. The solubility of the produced citral oil in alcohol was 70% in ratio of 1:1, and the citral oil concentration obtained was around 79%.

  14. Noninvasive extraction of fetal electrocardiogram based on Support Vector Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yumei; Xiang, Shihan; Chen, Tianyi; Zhou, Ping; Huang, Weiyan

    2015-10-01

    The fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) signal has important clinical value for diagnosing the fetal heart diseases and choosing suitable therapeutics schemes to doctors. So, the noninvasive extraction of FECG from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals becomes a hot research point. A new method, the Support Vector Machine (SVM) is utilized for the extraction of FECG with limited size of data. Firstly, the theory of the SVM and the principle of the extraction based on the SVM are studied. Secondly, the transformation of maternal electrocardiogram (MECG) component in abdominal composite signal is verified to be nonlinear and fitted with the SVM. Then, the SVM is trained, and the training results are compared with the real data to ensure the effect of the training. Meanwhile, the parameters of the SVM are optimized to achieve the best performance so that the learning machine can be utilized to fit the unknown samples. Finally, the FECG is extracted by removing the optimal estimation of MECG component from the abdominal composite signal. In order to evaluate the performance of FECG extraction based on the SVM, the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the visual test are used. The experimental results show that the FECG with good quality can be extracted, its SNR ratio is significantly increased as high as 9.2349 dB and the time cost is significantly decreased as short as 0.802 seconds. Compared with the traditional method, the noninvasive extraction method based on the SVM has a simple realization, the shorter treatment time and the better extraction quality under the same conditions.

  15. Level Sets and Voronoi based Feature Extraction from any Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, O.; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka

    2012-01-01

    Polygon features are of interest in many GEOProcessing applications like shoreline mapping, boundary delineation, change detection, etc. This paper presents a unique new GPU-based methodology to automate feature extraction combining level sets, or mean shift based segmentation together with Voron...

  16. Design of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction for the efficient extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xueqin; Li, Li; Wang, Yuzhi; Chen, Jing; Huang, Yanhua; Xu, Kaijia

    2014-12-01

    A series of novel tetramethylguanidinium ionic liquids and hexaalkylguanidinium ionic liquids have been synthesized based on 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine. The structures of the ionic liquids were confirmed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. A green guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction method has been developed with these guanidinium ionic liquids for the effective extraction of Praeruptorin A from Radix peucedani. After extraction, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection was employed for the analysis of Praeruptorin A. Several significant operating parameters were systematically optimized by single-factor and L9 (3(4)) orthogonal array experiments. The amount of Praeruptorin A extracted by [1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine]CH2CH(OH)COOH is the highest, reaching 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/g. Guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction presents unique advantages in Praeruptorin A extraction compared with guanidinium ionic liquid based maceration extraction, guanidinium ionic liquid based heat reflux extraction and guanidinium ionic liquid based ultrasound-assisted extraction. The precision, stability, and repeatability of the process were investigated. The mechanisms of guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction were researched by scanning electron microscopy and IR spectroscopy. All the results show that guanidinium ionic liquid based microwave-assisted extraction has a huge potential in the extraction of bioactive compounds from complex samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Learning-based meta-algorithm for MRI brain extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Feng; Wang, Li; Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-segmentation-and-fusion method has been widely used for brain extraction, tissue segmentation, and region of interest (ROI) localization. However, such studies are hindered in practice by their computational complexity, mainly coming from the steps of template selection and template-to-subject nonlinear registration. In this study, we address these two issues and propose a novel learning-based meta-algorithm for MRI brain extraction. Specifically, we first use exemplars to represent the entire template library, and assign the most similar exemplar to the test subject. Second, a meta-algorithm combining two existing brain extraction algorithms (BET and BSE) is proposed to conduct multiple extractions directly on test subject. Effective parameter settings for the meta-algorithm are learned from the training data and propagated to subject through exemplars. We further develop a level-set based fusion method to combine multiple candidate extractions together with a closed smooth surface, for obtaining the final result. Experimental results show that, with only a small portion of subjects for training, the proposed method is able to produce more accurate and robust brain extraction results, at Jaccard Index of 0.956 +/- 0.010 on total 340 subjects under 6-fold cross validation, compared to those by the BET and BSE even using their best parameter combinations.

  18. Skeleton extraction based on the topology and Snakes model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Cai

    Full Text Available A new skeleton line extraction method based on topology and flux is proposed by analyzing the distribution characteristics of the gradient vector field in the Snakes model. The distribution characteristics of the skeleton line are accurately obtained by calculating the eigenvalues of the critical points and the flux of the gradient vector field. Then the skeleton lines can be effectively extracted. The results also show that there is no need for the pretreatment or binarization of the target image. The skeleton lines of complex gray images such as optical interference patterns can be effectively extracted by using this method. Compared to traditional methods, this method has many advantages, such as high extraction accuracy and fast processing speed. Keywords: Skeleton, Snakes model, Topology, Photoelasticity image

  19. Extraction methods and test techniques for detection of vegetable proteins in meat products. I. Qualitative detection of soya derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop, N S

    1976-06-01

    Extracts of 3 soya bean preparations, used commercially in certain countries to replace part of the meat in popular meat products, were made by treatment with (i) sodium dodecyl sulphate, (ii) Triton-X100 or (iii) n-Butanol. Similar extracts were made from beef and pork. All extracts were examined by electrophoretic and immunological techniques. Stained polyacrylamide gels revealed distinctive protein bands after electrophoresis. The migration rates of corresponding bands differed between beef and pork extracts. However, the migration rates of vegetable bands revealed certain similarities, but differed very greatly from those of animal origin. Characteristic fast-migrating S-bands were distinguishable only in extracts of vegetable protein. Immunodiffusion tests, using antisera produced in rabbits against each extract, revealed varying degrees of similarity between extracts of vegetable origin, but the antisera were specific for either vegetable or animal protein.

  20. Effects of moisture content in cigar tobacco on nicotine extraction. Similarity between soxhlet and focused open-vessel microwave-assisted techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lay-Keow; Hupé, Michel

    2003-09-05

    The effects of tobacco moisture on nicotine yield were investigated in this study. Soxhlet and microwave-assisted techniques were used to extract nicotine from cigar fillers of varying moisture contents (5-20%), using a polar (methanol) and a non-polar (isooctane) solvent. The extracts were analyzed by a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame-ionization detector. For both extraction techniques, higher nicotine yields were consistently obtained with methanol than with isooctane from the same samples. Solubility of nicotine salts in methanol but not in isooctane is the major cause of this observation. Moreover, pronounced effects of the tobacco moisture content on extraction efficiency were observed with isooctane but not with methanol. For microwave assisted extraction (MAE) with isooctane, nicotine yield increased from 3 to 70% as the moisture level in tobacco was raised from 3 to 13%, and leveled off thereafter. Similar observations were made with Soxhlet extraction. While MAE results were rationalized by the known cell-rupture process, a mechanism based on the interaction between the solvents and the structural components of the plant cells has been proposed to account for the observations made with Soxhlet extraction.

  1. Comparison of four kinds of extraction techniques and kinetics of microwave-assisted extraction of vanillin from Vanilla planifolia Andrews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhizhe; Gu, Fenglin; Xu, Fei; Wang, Qinghuang

    2014-04-15

    Vanillin yield, microscopic structure, antioxidant activity and overall odour of vanilla extracts obtained by different treatments were investigated. MAE showed the strongest extraction power, shortest time and highest antioxidant activity. Maceration gave higher vanillin yields than UAE and PAE, similar antioxidant activity with UAE, but longer times than UAE and PAE. Overall odour intensity of different vanilla extracts obtained by UAE, PAE and MAE were similar, while higher than maceration extracts. Then, powered vanilla bean with a sample/solvent ratio of 4 g/100 mL was selected as the optimum condition for MAE. Next, compared with other three equations, two-site kinetic equation with lowest RMSD and highest R²(adj) was shown to be more suitable in describing the kinetics of vanillin extraction. By fitting the parameters C(eq), k₁, k₂, and f, a kinetics model was constructed to describe vanillin extraction in terms of irradiation power, ethanol concentration, and extraction time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Rishika; Chester, Karishma; Khan, Yasmeen; Tamboli, Ennus Tajuddin; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2) were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method. PMID:26681884

  3. Characterization of Linum usitatissimum L. oil obtained from different extraction technique and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishika Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Linum usitatissimum L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, ultrasound-assistance, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO2 were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR fingerprinting. Antioxidant activity was also determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide scavenging method. Result: The main fatty acids were α-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks, as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods, were superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of L. usitatissimum L. is a good source of n-3 fatty acid with the significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  4. DCT-based cyber defense techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsalem, Yaron; Puzanov, Anton; Bedinerman, Anton; Kutcher, Maxim; Hadar, Ofer

    2015-09-01

    With the increasing popularity of video streaming services and multimedia sharing via social networks, there is a need to protect the multimedia from malicious use. An attacker may use steganography and watermarking techniques to embed malicious content, in order to attack the end user. Most of the attack algorithms are robust to basic image processing techniques such as filtering, compression, noise addition, etc. Hence, in this article two novel, real-time, defense techniques are proposed: Smart threshold and anomaly correction. Both techniques operate at the DCT domain, and are applicable for JPEG images and H.264 I-Frames. The defense performance was evaluated against a highly robust attack, and the perceptual quality degradation was measured by the well-known PSNR and SSIM quality assessment metrics. A set of defense techniques is suggested for improving the defense efficiency. For the most aggressive attack configuration, the combination of all the defense techniques results in 80% protection against cyber-attacks with PSNR of 25.74 db.

  5. Utilization of Integrated Geophysical Techniques to Delineate the Extraction of Mining Bench of Ornamental Rocks (Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low yields in ornamental rock mining remain one of the most important problems in this industry. This fact is usually associated with the presence of anisotropies in the rock, which makes it difficult to extract the blocks. An optimised planning of the exploitation, together with an improved geological understanding of the deposit, could increase these yields. In this work, marble mining in Macael (Spain was studied to test the capacity of non-destructive geophysical prospecting methods (GPR and ERI as tools to characterize the geology of the deposit. It is well-known that the ERI method provides a greater penetration depth. By using this technique, it is possible to distinguish the boundaries between the marble and the underlying micaschists, the morphology of the unit to be exploited, and even fracture zones to be identified. Therefore, this technique could be used in the early stages of research, to estimate the reserves of the deposit. The GPR methodology, with a lower penetration depth, is able to offer more detailed information. Specifically, it detects lateral and vertical changes of the facies inside the marble unit, as well as the anisotropies of the rock (fractures or holes. This technique would be suitable for use in a second stage of research. On the one hand, it is very useful for characterization of the texture and fabric of the rock, which allows us to determine in advance its properties, and therefore, the quality for ornamental use. On the other hand, the localization of anisotropy using the GPR technique will make it possible to improve the planning of the rock exploitation in order to increase yields. Both integrated geophysical techniques are effective for assessing the quality of ornamental rock and thus can serve as useful tools in mine planning to improve yields and costs.

  6. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  7. Quality assessment of Moringa concanensis seed oil extracted through solvent and aqueous-enzymatic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition and quality of the M. concanensis seed oil extracted through an aqueous-enzyme-assisted technique, using three commercial enzyme-mixtures (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, and Feedzyme was compared to those of the control-, (without enzymes and solvent-extracted oils. Aqueous enzyme-extracted M.concanensis seed oil content ranged from 23.54 to 27.46% and was significantly (P 0.05 variation in the contents of fiber and ash within the three extraction methods. However, the protein content of the meal obtained through the aqueous-enzyme and control methods was significantly (P M. concanensis seed oils extracted using the three methods. The specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm, peroxide value, p-anisidine, free fatty acid contents and color values of the aqueous-enzyme-extracted oil were found to be lower than that of solvent-extracted oil and thus revealed good quality. The oils extracted through the three methods exhibited no significant (P En este estudio se compara la composición y la calidad del aceite de semilla de M. concanensis extraído mediante enzimas, utilizando tres enzimas comerciales (Natuzyme, Kemzyme, y Feedzyme con las de un control extraído sin enzimas y con las del aceite extraído con disolvente. El contenido en aceites de las semilla extraídas con enzimas osciló entre 23,54 a 27,46% y fue significativamente más elevado (P 0,05 en el contenido de fibra y ceniza para los tres métodos de la extracción. Sin embargo, el contenido proteínico de la harina obtenido por métodos enzimáticos y el control sin enzimas fue significativamente menor (P < 0,05 que el de la harina obtenida después de la extracción por disolvente. Las diferencias en el índice de yodo (67.1-68.0 g /100 g of oil, densidad en 24 °C (0,865-0,866 g/mL, índice de refracción a 40 °C (1,4622-1,4627 y fracción insaponificable (0,69-0,76 % no fueron significativamente diferentes para ninguna de las técnicas de extracción. Las extinciones espec

  8. An Experimental Technique for Structural Diagnostic Based on Laser Vibrometry and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Castellini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years damage detection techniques based on vibration data have been largely investigated with promising results for many applications. In particular, several attempts have been made to determine which kind of data should be extracted for damage monitoring.

  9. Ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from burdock leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Zaixiang; Wang Hongxin; Zhu Song; Chen Shangwei; Zhang Ming; Wang Zhouping

    2012-01-01

    The ionic liquids based simultaneous ultrasonic and microwave assisted extraction (IL-UMAE) technique was first proposed and applied to isolate compounds. The ionic liquids comprising a range of four anions, five 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium derivatives were designed and prepared. The results suggested that varying the anion and cation both had apparent effects on the extraction of phenolics. The results also showed that irradiation power, time and solid–liquid ratio significantly affected the yields. The yields of caffeic acid and quercetin obtained by IL-UMAE were higher than those by regular UMAE. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (HRE), the proposed approach exhibited higher efficiency (8–17% enhanced) and shorter extraction time (from 5 h to 30 s). The results indicated ILUMAE to be a fast and efficient extraction technique. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the reproducibility and recovery experiments. The ILUMAE method provided good recoveries (from 96.1% to 105.3%) with RSD lower than 5.2%, which indicated that the proposed method was credible. Based on the designable nature of ionic liquids, and the rapid and highly efficient performance of the proposed approach, ILUMAE provided a new alternative for preparation of various useful substances from solid samples.

  10. Chemometric profile of root extracts of Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. with hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometric technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol B Tayade

    Full Text Available Rhodiola imbricata Edgew. (Rose root or Arctic root or Golden root or Shrolo, belonging to the family Crassulaceae, is an important food crop and medicinal plant in the Indian trans-Himalayan cold desert. Chemometric profile of the n-hexane, chloroform, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and 60% ethanol root extracts of R. imbricata were performed by hyphenated gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS technique. GC/MS analysis was carried out using Thermo Finnigan PolarisQ Ion Trap GC/MS MS system comprising of an AS2000 liquid autosampler. Interpretation on mass spectrum of GC/MS was done using the NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Database, with NIST MS search program v.2.0g. Chemometric profile of root extracts revealed the presence of 63 phyto-chemotypes, among them, 1-pentacosanol; stigmast-5-en-3-ol, (3β,24S; 1-teracosanol; 1-henteracontanol; 17-pentatriacontene; 13-tetradecen-1-ol acetate; methyl tri-butyl ammonium chloride; bis(2-ethylhexyl phthalate; 7,8-dimethylbenzocyclooctene; ethyl linoleate; 3-methoxy-5-methylphenol; hexadecanoic acid; camphor; 1,3-dimethoxybenzene; thujone; 1,3-benzenediol, 5-pentadecyl; benzenemethanol, 3-hydroxy, 5-methoxy; cholest-4-ene-3,6-dione; dodecanoic acid, 3-hydroxy; octadecane, 1-chloro; ethanone, 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl; α-tocopherol; ascaridole; campesterol; 1-dotriacontane; heptadecane, 9-hexyl were found to be present in major amount. Eventually, in the present study we have found phytosterols, terpenoids, fatty acids, fatty acid esters, alkyl halides, phenols, alcohols, ethers, alkanes, and alkenes as the major group of phyto-chemotypes in the different root extracts of R. imbricata. All these compounds identified by GC/MS analysis were further investigated for their biological activities and it was found that they possess a diverse range of positive pharmacological actions. In future, isolation of individual phyto-chemotypes and subjecting them to biological activity will definitely prove fruitful

  11. Digital lock-in techniques for adaptive power-line interference extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrev, Dobromir; Neycheva, Tatyana; Mudrov, Nikolay

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a simple digital approach for adaptive power-line (PL) or other periodic interference extraction. By means of two digital square (or sine) wave mixers, the real and imaginary parts of the interference are found, and the interference waveform is synthesized and finally subtracted. The described technique can be implemented in an open-loop architecture where the interference is synthesized as a complex sinusoid or in a closed-loop architecture for automatic phase and gain control. The same approach can be used for removal of the fundamental frequency of the PL interference as well as its higher harmonics. It is suitable for real-time operation with popular low-cost microcontrollers.

  12. Effect of DNA extraction methods and sampling techniques on the apparent structure of cow and sheep rumen microbial communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Henderson

    Full Text Available Molecular microbial ecology techniques are widely used to study the composition of the rumen microbiota and to increase understanding of the roles they play. Therefore, sampling and DNA extraction methods that result in adequate yields of microbial DNA that also accurately represents the microbial community are crucial. Fifteen different methods were used to extract DNA from cow and sheep rumen samples. The DNA yield and quality, and its suitability for downstream PCR amplifications varied considerably, depending on the DNA extraction method used. DNA extracts from nine extraction methods that passed these first quality criteria were evaluated further by quantitative PCR enumeration of microbial marker loci. Absolute microbial numbers, determined on the same rumen samples, differed by more than 100-fold, depending on the DNA extraction method used. The apparent compositions of the archaeal, bacterial, ciliate protozoal, and fungal communities in identical rumen samples were assessed using 454 Titanium pyrosequencing. Significant differences in microbial community composition were observed between extraction methods, for example in the relative abundances of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Microbial communities in parallel samples collected from cows by oral stomach-tubing or through a rumen fistula, and in liquid and solid rumen digesta fractions, were compared using one of the DNA extraction methods. Community representations were generally similar, regardless of the rumen sampling technique used, but significant differences in the abundances of some microbial taxa such as the Clostridiales and the Methanobrevibacter ruminantium clade were observed. The apparent microbial community composition differed between rumen sample fractions, and Prevotellaceae were most abundant in the liquid fraction. DNA extraction methods that involved phenol-chloroform extraction and mechanical lysis steps tended to be more comparable. However

  13. Identification of threats using linguistics-based knowledge extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A.

    2008-09-01

    One of the challenges increasingly facing intelligence analysts, along with professionals in many other fields, is the vast amount of data which needs to be reviewed and converted into meaningful information, and ultimately into rational, wise decisions by policy makers. The advent of the world wide web (WWW) has magnified this challenge. A key hypothesis which has guided us is that threats come from ideas (or ideology), and ideas are almost always put into writing before the threats materialize. While in the past the 'writing' might have taken the form of pamphlets or books, today's medium of choice is the WWW, precisely because it is a decentralized, flexible, and low-cost method of reaching a wide audience. However, a factor which complicates matters for the analyst is that material published on the WWW may be in any of a large number of languages. In 'Identification of Threats Using Linguistics-Based Knowledge Extraction', we have sought to use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) and other similar text analysis techniques to map documents from the WWW, in whatever language they were originally written, to a common language-independent vector-based representation. This then opens up a number of possibilities. First, similar documents can be found across language boundaries. Secondly, a set of documents in multiple languages can be visualized in a graphical representation. These alone offer potentially useful tools and capabilities to the intelligence analyst whose knowledge of foreign languages may be limited. Finally, we can test the over-arching hypothesis--that ideology, and more specifically ideology which represents a threat, can be detected solely from the words which express the ideology--by using the vector-based representation of documents to predict additional features (such as the ideology) within a framework based on supervised learning. In this report, we present the results of a three-year project of the same name. We believe

  14. Image feature extraction based on the camouflage effectiveness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin; Lv, Xuliang; Li, Ling; Wang, Xinzhu; Zhang, Zhi

    2018-04-01

    The key step of camouflage effectiveness evaluation is how to combine the human visual physiological features, psychological features to select effectively evaluation indexes. Based on the predecessors' camo comprehensive evaluation method, this paper chooses the suitable indexes combining with the image quality awareness, and optimizes those indexes combining with human subjective perception. Thus, it perfects the theory of index extraction.

  15. Effect of cellulose-based fibers extracted from pineapple (Ananas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New polyurethane foams were fabricated utilizing cellulose-based fibers extracted from pineapple (Ananas comosus) leaf as raw material. The pineapple leaf fibers (PALF) were treated with alkali and subsequently bleached to enhance its fiber-matrix adhesion. Polyurethane composites have been prepared by ...

  16. A New Augmentation Based Algorithm for Extracting Maximal Chordal Subgraphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms' parallelizability. In this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.

  17. Extraction of minerals by underground leaching and other techniques. Dobycha poleznykh iskopaemykh podzemnym vyshchelachivaniyem i drugimi geotekhnologicheskimi metodami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalabin, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    Scientific and practical principles, criteria and classification of hydrogeologic methods of extraction of metals and other minerals from the lithosphere and hydrosphere are systematically outlined in this text, dealing with physical, physicochemical and bacterial-chemical techniques. Mechanism, kinetics, thermodynamics and hydrodynamics of the discussed methods are covered; scientific basis as well as techniques of physicogeologic and technological calculations, hydrodynamic and technological calculations. Role of underground atomic explosions in ore leaching is discussed. Experimental and industrial operations regarding uranium mining, copper, nickel, sulphur, rock and potassium salts, etc. is covered. Feasibility and potential of extracting minerals with new techniques is discussed, and it is demonstrated that this may bring about significant social consequences.

  18. Speciation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in Contaminated Aquifer Sediments Using Chemical Extraction Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, Gorm; Crouzet, Catherine.; Bourg, Alain C. M.

    1994-01-01

    The iron mineralogy of aquifer sediments was described by chemical extraction techniques. Single-step extractions including 1 M CaC12, NaAc, oxalate, dithionite, Ti(II1)- EDTA, 0.5 M HC1,5 M HC1, hot 6 M HC1, and a sequential extraction by HI and CrIIHC1 were tested on standard iron minerals...... species are distinguished as AVS (acid volatile sulfide, hot 6 M HC1 extraction) and pyrite (sequential HI and CrIIHC1 extraction). By including a cold 5 M HC1 extraction, the total distribution of the major reactive Fe(I1) and Fe(II1) fractions in aquifer sediments can be assessed....

  19. Colour Fastness and Tensile Strength of Cotton Fabric Dyed with Natural Extracts of Alkanna tinctoria by Continuous Dyeing Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattak, S. P.; Rafique, S.; Inayat, F.; Ahmad, B.

    2015-01-01

    A natural dye extracted from the roots of alkanet (Alkanna tinctoria) was applied on cotton fabric by pad-steam dyeing technique. The study was designed to evaluate the colour fastness and tensile properties of dyed cotton after using various mordants, cationizing agents, UV absorbers and crosslinkers with this natural dye. Metallic mordants included aluminium sulphate, copper sulphate, ferric chloride, potassium dichromate and hydrated potassium aluminum sulphate or alum. Alkanet root extract produced variety of green shades with different dyeing auxiliaries. Better wash, light, crocking fastness; good colour coordinates such as chroma, hue, colour strength and increase in tensile strength was accomplished with post-mordanting of CuSO/sub 4/. Cationization of cotton with quaternary ammonium compound (both pre-treatment and post-treatment) and post-finishing with soft polyurethane emulsion has enhanced the fastness properties, tensile strength as well as relative colour strength (K/S) , whereas, reactive UV absorber based on oxalanilide and heterocyclic compound as UV absorber greatly increased the light fastness of alkanet dyed cotton. Crosslinkers applied with alkanet dye on cotton (methylolation product based on glyoxalmonourein, modified dimethyloldihydroxyethylene urea, modified dihydroxy ethylene urea) also improved the fastness but could not bring further development in the shade and K/S value of the dyed sample. (author)

  20. The use of carrier RNA to enhance DNA extraction from microfluidic-based silica monoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Thain, Lauren; Docker, Peter T; Dyer, Charlotte E; Greenman, John; Greenway, Gillian M; Haswell, Stephen J

    2009-10-12

    DNA extraction was carried out on silica-based monoliths within a microfluidic device. Solid-phase DNA extraction methodology was applied in which the DNA binds to silica in the presence of a chaotropic salt, such as guanidine hydrochloride, and is eluted in a low ionic strength solution, such as water. The addition of poly-A carrier RNA to the chaotropic salt solution resulted in a marked increase in the effective amount of DNA that could be recovered (25ng) compared to the absence of RNA (5ng) using the silica-based monolith. These findings confirm that techniques utilising nucleic acid carrier molecules can enhance DNA extraction methodologies in microfluidic applications.

  1. Effects of processing parameters on the caffeine extraction yield during decaffeination of black tea using pilot-scale supercritical carbon dioxide extraction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgaz, Saziye; Sat, Ihsan Gungor; Polat, Atilla

    2018-04-01

    In this pilot-scale study supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO 2 ) extraction technique was used for decaffeination of black tea. Pressure (250, 375, 500 bar), extraction time (60, 180, 300 min), temperature (55, 62.5, 70 °C), CO 2 flow rate (1, 2, 3 L/min) and modifier quantity (0, 2.5, 5 mol%) were selected as extraction parameters. Three-level and five-factor response surface methodology experimental design with a Box-Behnken type was employed to generate 46 different processing conditions. 100% of caffeine from black tea was removed under two different extraction conditions; one of which was consist of 375 bar pressure, 62.5 °C temperature, 300 min extraction time, 2 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 5 mol% modifier concentration and the other was composed of same temperature, pressure and extraction time conditions with 3 L/min CO 2 flow rate and 2.5 mol% modifier concentration. Results showed that extraction time, pressure, CO 2 flow rate and modifier quantity had great impact on decaffeination yield.

  2. Comparing deep learning and concept extraction based methods for patient phenotyping from clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrmann, Sebastian; Dernoncourt, Franck; Li, Yeran; Carlson, Eric T; Wu, Joy T; Welt, Jonathan; Foote, John; Moseley, Edward T; Grant, David W; Tyler, Patrick D; Celi, Leo A

    2018-01-01

    In secondary analysis of electronic health records, a crucial task consists in correctly identifying the patient cohort under investigation. In many cases, the most valuable and relevant information for an accurate classification of medical conditions exist only in clinical narratives. Therefore, it is necessary to use natural language processing (NLP) techniques to extract and evaluate these narratives. The most commonly used approach to this problem relies on extracting a number of clinician-defined medical concepts from text and using machine learning techniques to identify whether a particular patient has a certain condition. However, recent advances in deep learning and NLP enable models to learn a rich representation of (medical) language. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) for text classification can augment the existing techniques by leveraging the representation of language to learn which phrases in a text are relevant for a given medical condition. In this work, we compare concept extraction based methods with CNNs and other commonly used models in NLP in ten phenotyping tasks using 1,610 discharge summaries from the MIMIC-III database. We show that CNNs outperform concept extraction based methods in almost all of the tasks, with an improvement in F1-score of up to 26 and up to 7 percentage points in area under the ROC curve (AUC). We additionally assess the interpretability of both approaches by presenting and evaluating methods that calculate and extract the most salient phrases for a prediction. The results indicate that CNNs are a valid alternative to existing approaches in patient phenotyping and cohort identification, and should be further investigated. Moreover, the deep learning approach presented in this paper can be used to assist clinicians during chart review or support the extraction of billing codes from text by identifying and highlighting relevant phrases for various medical conditions.

  3. Comparison of yield, composition, and antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extracts obtained using various techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Mara E M; Leal, Patrícia F; Carvalho, João E; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-10-22

    Turmeric extracts were obtained from two lots of raw material (M and S) using various techniques: hydrodistillation, low pressure solvent extraction, Soxhlet, and supercritical extraction using carbon dioxide and cosolvents. The solvents and cosolvents tested were ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, and their mixture in equal proportions. The composition of the extracts was determined by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and UV. The largest yield (27%, weight) was obtained in the Soxhlet extraction (turmeric (S), ethanol = 1:100); the lowest yield was detected in the hydrodistillation process (2.1%). For the supercritical extraction, the best cosolvent was a mixture of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol. Sixty percent of the light fraction of the extracts consisted of ar-turmerone, (Z)-gamma-atlantone, and (E)-gamma-atlantone, except for the Soxhlet extracts (1:100, ethanol), for which only ar-turmeronol and (Z)-alpha-atlantone were detected. The maximum amount of curcuminoids (8.43%) was obtained using Soxhlet extraction (ethanol/isopropyl alcohol). The Soxhlet and low pressure extract exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities.

  4. The role of graphene-based sorbents in modern sample preparation techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Toffoli, Ana Lúcia; Maciel, Edvaldo Vasconcelos Soares; Fumes, Bruno Henrique; Lanças, Fernando Mauro

    2018-01-01

    The application of graphene-based sorbents in sample preparation techniques has increased significantly since 2011. These materials have good physicochemical properties to be used as sorbent and have shown excellent results in different sample preparation techniques. Graphene and its precursor graphene oxide have been considered to be good candidates to improve the extraction and concentration of different classes of target compounds (e.g., parabens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrethroids, triazines, and so on) present in complex matrices. Its applications have been employed during the analysis of different matrices (e.g., environmental, biological and food). In this review, we highlight the most important characteristics of graphene-based material, their properties, synthesis routes, and the most important applications in both off-line and on-line sample preparation techniques. The discussion of the off-line approaches includes methods derived from conventional solid-phase extraction focusing on the miniaturized magnetic and dispersive modes. The modes of microextraction techniques called stir bar sorptive extraction, solid phase microextraction, and microextraction by packed sorbent are discussed. The on-line approaches focus on the use of graphene-based material mainly in on-line solid phase extraction, its variation called in-tube solid-phase microextraction, and on-line microdialysis systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Building Contour Extraction Based on LiDAR Point Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xu-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for solving the problem of utilizing the LiDAR data to extract the building contour line. For detection of the edge points between the building test points by using the least squares fitting to get the edge line of buildings and give the weight determining of the building of edge line slope depend on the length of the edge line. And then get the weighted mean of the positive and negative slope of the building edge line. Based on the structure of the adjacent edge perpendicular hypothesis, regularization processing to extract the edge of the skeleton line perpendicular. The experiments show that the extracted building edges have the good accuracy and have the good applicability in complex urban areas.

  6. Frequency of lingual nerve injury in mandibular third molar extraction: A comparison of two surgical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shad, S.; Abbasi, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar is associated with a number of complications including postoperative bleeding, dry socket, postoperative infection, and injury to regional nerves. Lingual nerve damage is one of the main complications. To prevent this complication different techniques had been used. Lingual flap reflection is one of these procedures in which lingual soft tissue is reflected and retracted deliberately, the nerve is identified and is kept out of the surgical field. The objective of this study was to evaluate a surgical technique for third molar removal which is associated with minimum frequency of lingual nerve damage. Method: A randomized controlled trial was performed. A total of 380 patients with impacted mandibular third molars were included in this study. Each patient was allotted randomly by blocked randomization to group A where procedure was performed by reflection and retraction of lingual flap in addition to buccal flap and group B where procedure was performed by retraction of buccal flap only. Results: Lingual nerve damage occurred in 8.94 percentage in Group A in which lingual flap retraction was performed but damage was reversible. In group B, 2.63 percentage lingual nerve damage was observed and nature of damage was permanent. The difference was statistically significant (p=0.008). Conclusions: Lingual flap retraction poses 3.4 times increased risk of lingual nerve damage during extraction of mandibular third molar when lingual flap is retracted but the nature of damage is reversible. (author)

  7. A technique for automatically extracting useful field of view and central field of view images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Param Dev; Aheer, Deepak; Kumar, Jay Prakash; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Patel, Chetan; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to ensure the uniform response of the single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera system before using it for the clinical studies by exposing it to uniform flood source. Vendor specific acquisition and processing protocol provide for studying flood source images along with the quantitative uniformity parameters such as integral and differential uniformity. However, a significant difficulty is that the time required to acquire a flood source image varies from 10 to 35 min depending both on the activity of Cobalt-57 flood source and the pre specified counts in the vendors protocol (usually 4000K-10,000K counts). In case the acquired total counts are less than the total prespecified counts, and then the vendor's uniformity processing protocol does not precede with the computation of the quantitative uniformity parameters. In this study, we have developed and verified a technique for reading the flood source image, remove unwanted information, and automatically extract and save the useful field of view and central field of view images for the calculation of the uniformity parameters. This was implemented using MATLAB R2013b running on Ubuntu Operating system and was verified by subjecting it to the simulated and real flood sources images. The accuracy of the technique was found to be encouraging, especially in view of practical difficulties with vendor-specific protocols. It may be used as a preprocessing step while calculating uniformity parameters of the gamma camera in lesser time with fewer constraints.

  8. A methodology for semiautomatic taxonomy of concepts extraction from nuclear scientific documents using text mining techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a text mining method for semi-automatic extraction of taxonomy of concepts, from a textual corpus composed of scientific papers related to nuclear area. The text classification is a natural human practice and a crucial task for work with large repositories. The document clustering technique provides a logical and understandable framework that facilitates the organization, browsing and searching. Most clustering algorithms using the bag of words model to represent the content of a document. This model generates a high dimensionality of the data, ignores the fact that different words can have the same meaning and does not consider the relationship between them, assuming that words are independent of each other. The methodology presents a combination of a model for document representation by concepts with a hierarchical document clustering method using frequency of co-occurrence concepts and a technique for clusters labeling more representatives, with the objective of producing a taxonomy of concepts which may reflect a structure of the knowledge domain. It is hoped that this work will contribute to the conceptual mapping of scientific production of nuclear area and thus support the management of research activities in this area. (author)

  9. Novel technique for injecting and extracting beams in a circular hadron accelerator without using septum magnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Franchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With a few exceptions, all on-axis injection and extraction schemes implemented in circular particle accelerators, synchrotrons, and storage rings, make use of magnetic and electrostatic septa with systems of slow-pulsing dipoles acting on tens of thousands of turns and fast-pulsing dipoles on just a few. The dipoles create a closed orbit deformation around the septa, usually referred to as an orbit bump. A new approach is presented which obviates the need for the septum deflectors. Fast-pulsing elements are still required, but their strength can be minimized by choosing appropriate local accelerator optics. This technique should increase the beam clearance and reduce the usually high radiation levels found around the septa and also reduce the machine impedance introduced by the fast-pulsing dipoles. The basis of the technique is the creation of stable islands around stable fixed points in horizontal phase space. The trajectories of these islands may then be adjusted to match the position and angle of the incoming or outgoing beam.

  10. A technique for automatically extracting useful field of view and central field of view images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Anil Kumar; Sharma, Param Dev; Aheer, Deepak; Kumar, Jay Prakash; Sharma, Sanjay Kumar; Patel, Chetan; Kumar, Rakesh; Bal, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to ensure the uniform response of the single photon emission computed tomography gamma camera system before using it for the clinical studies by exposing it to uniform flood source. Vendor specific acquisition and processing protocol provide for studying flood source images along with the quantitative uniformity parameters such as integral and differential uniformity. However, a significant difficulty is that the time required to acquire a flood source image varies from 10 to 35 min depending both on the activity of Cobalt-57 flood source and the pre specified counts in the vendors protocol (usually 4000K-10,000K counts). In case the acquired total counts are less than the total prespecified counts, and then the vendor's uniformity processing protocol does not precede with the computation of the quantitative uniformity parameters. In this study, we have developed and verified a technique for reading the flood source image, remove unwanted information, and automatically extract and save the useful field of view and central field of view images for the calculation of the uniformity parameters. This was implemented using MATLAB R2013b running on Ubuntu Operating system and was verified by subjecting it to the simulated and real flood sources images. The accuracy of the technique was found to be encouraging, especially in view of practical difficulties with vendor-specific protocols. It may be used as a preprocessing step while calculating uniformity parameters of the gamma camera in lesser time with fewer constraints

  11. Feature extraction algorithm for space targets based on fractal theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Balin; Yuan, Jianping; Yue, Xiaokui; Ning, Xin

    2007-11-01

    In order to offer a potential for extending the life of satellites and reducing the launch and operating costs, satellite servicing including conducting repairs, upgrading and refueling spacecraft on-orbit become much more frequently. Future space operations can be more economically and reliably executed using machine vision systems, which can meet real time and tracking reliability requirements for image tracking of space surveillance system. Machine vision was applied to the research of relative pose for spacecrafts, the feature extraction algorithm was the basis of relative pose. In this paper fractal geometry based edge extraction algorithm which can be used in determining and tracking the relative pose of an observed satellite during proximity operations in machine vision system was presented. The method gets the gray-level image distributed by fractal dimension used the Differential Box-Counting (DBC) approach of the fractal theory to restrain the noise. After this, we detect the consecutive edge using Mathematical Morphology. The validity of the proposed method is examined by processing and analyzing images of space targets. The edge extraction method not only extracts the outline of the target, but also keeps the inner details. Meanwhile, edge extraction is only processed in moving area to reduce computation greatly. Simulation results compared edge detection using the method which presented by us with other detection methods. The results indicate that the presented algorithm is a valid method to solve the problems of relative pose for spacecrafts.

  12. Characterization of Arachis hypogaea L. oil obtained from different extraction techniques and in vitro antioxidant potential of supercritical fluid extraction extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishika Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was aimed to characterize the fixed oil of Arachis hypogaea L. using five different extraction methods: Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, ultrasound assistance extraction, soxhlet extraction, solvent extraction, and three phase partitioning method. Materials and Methods: The SFE conditions (temperature, pressure, and volume of CO 2 were optimized prior for better yield. The extracted oils were analyzed and compared for their physiochemical parameters, high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR fingerprinting. Anti-oxidant activity was also determined using DPPH and superoxide scavenging method. Results: The main fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, palmitic, and stearic acids as obtained by GC-MS. HPTLC analysis revealed the presence of similar major components in chromatograms. Similarly, the pattern of peaks as obtained in FT-IR and GC-MS spectra of same oils by different extraction methods was superimposable. Conclusion: Analysis reported that the fixed oil of A. hypogaea L. is a good source of unsaturated fatty acid, mainly n-6 and n-9 fatty acid with a significant antioxidant activity of oil obtained from SFE extraction method.

  13. Assessment of phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for correction of high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A El-Helw

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A El-Helw, Ahmed M EmarahDepartment of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate various phacoaspiration techniques in clear lens extraction for the incidence of intraoperative difficulties and complications.Patients and methods: This was a prospective study in which bilateral clear lens extraction was performed on 40 eyes of 20 patients, to correct high myopia. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A underwent supracapsular phacoaspiration; group B were the contralateral eyes of the same patient. These patients were operated on with endocapsular phacoaspiration with the divide and conquer (D and C technique. Preoperative ocular examination data were recorded and tested for significance. Intraoperative difficulties and complications such as nucleus cracking, capsule rupture and vitreous loss, and repeated chamber collapse were recorded. Postoperative examination data were recorded.Results: Mean age was 35.65 ± 5.85 years. Mean follow-up time was 17.1 ± 8.56 months. In group A mean myopia was -17.3 ± 5.07 diopters; in group B myopia was -17.9 ± 4.20 diopters. Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 0.04 ± 0.0167, while the mean postoperative UCVA was 0.435 ± 0.1442. There was a significant difference in pre and postoperative BCVA within both groups, but not between the two groups. In both groups endothelial cell count (ECC showed a significant difference between pre- and postoperative data; however, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups in postoperative ECC. The effective phacoaspiration time for group A was 4.6 ± 1.6 seconds, and for group B 9.90 ± 2.27 seconds (P < 0.005. No cases of capsule rupture occurred in group A, but 3 cases occurred in group B (15 % (not significant, P = 0.231. Nucleus cracking did not occur in group A, but in group B 13 cases occurred (65%. Chamber collapse occurred in 4 cases (20% in group A and 5 cases (25% in group B (not

  14. Nitrous oxide-based techniques versus nitrous oxide-free techniques for general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rao; Jia, Wen Qin; Zhang, Peng; Yang, KeHu; Tian, Jin Hui; Ma, Bin; Liu, Yali; Jia, Run H; Luo, Xiao F; Kuriyama, Akira

    2015-11-06

    anaesthesia (or both) with any general anaesthesia using a volatile anaesthetic or propofol-based maintenance of anaesthesia but no nitrous oxide for adults undergoing surgery. Our primary outcome was inhospital case fatality rate. Secondary outcomes were complications and length of stay. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted the outcome data. We used meta-analysis for data synthesis. Heterogeneity was examined with the Chi² test and by calculating the I² statistic. We used a fixed-effect model if the measure of inconsistency was low for all comparisons (I² statistic nitrous oxide-based techniques increased the incidence of pulmonary atelectasis (odds ratio (OR) 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18 to 2.10, P = 0.002), but had no effects on the inhospital case fatality rate, the incidence of pneumonia, myocardial infarction, stroke, severe nausea and vomiting, venous thromboembolism, wound infection, or the length of hospital stay. The sensitivity analyses suggested that the results of the meta-analyses were all robust except for the outcomes of pneumonia, and severe nausea and vomiting. Two trials reported length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay but the data were skewed so were not pooled. Both trials reported that nitrous oxide-based techniques had no effects on the length of ICU stay. We rated the quality of evidence for two outcomes (pulmonary atelectasis, myocardial infarction) as high, four outcomes (inhospital case fatality rate, stroke, venous thromboembolism, length of hospital stay) as moderate, and three (pneumonia, severe nausea and vomiting, wound infection rate) as low. Given the evidence from this Cochrane review, the avoidance of nitrous oxide may be reasonable in participants with pre-existing poor pulmonary function or at high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Since there are eight studies awaiting classification, selection bias may exist in our systematic review.

  15. An Automatic Building Extraction and Regularisation Technique Using LiDAR Point Cloud Data and Orthoimage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ali Naqi Gilani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of robust and accurate methods for automatic building detection and regularisation using multisource data continues to be a challenge due to point cloud sparsity, high spectral variability, urban objects differences, surrounding complexity, and data misalignment. To address these challenges, constraints on object’s size, height, area, and orientation are generally benefited which adversely affect the detection performance. Often the buildings either small in size, under shadows or partly occluded are ousted during elimination of superfluous objects. To overcome the limitations, a methodology is developed to extract and regularise the buildings using features from point cloud and orthoimagery. The building delineation process is carried out by identifying the candidate building regions and segmenting them into grids. Vegetation elimination, building detection and extraction of their partially occluded parts are achieved by synthesising the point cloud and image data. Finally, the detected buildings are regularised by exploiting the image lines in the building regularisation process. Detection and regularisation processes have been evaluated using the ISPRS benchmark and four Australian data sets which differ in point density (1 to 29 points/m2, building sizes, shadows, terrain, and vegetation. Results indicate that there is 83% to 93% per-area completeness with the correctness of above 95%, demonstrating the robustness of the approach. The absence of over- and many-to-many segmentation errors in the ISPRS data set indicate that the technique has higher per-object accuracy. While compared with six existing similar methods, the proposed detection and regularisation approach performs significantly better on more complex data sets (Australian in contrast to the ISPRS benchmark, where it does better or equal to the counterparts.

  16. A novel technique to extract events from access control system and locate persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, M.; Vaidyanathan, Mythili; Patidar, Suresh Chandra; Prabhakara Rao, G.

    2011-01-01

    Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research houses many laboratories which handle radioactive materials and classified materials. Protection and accounting of men and material and critical facilities are important aspect of nuclear security. Access Control System (ACS) is used to enhance the protective measures against elevated threat environment. Access control system hardware consists of hand geometry readers, RFID readers, Controllers, Electromagnetic door locks, Turnstiles, fiber cable laying and termination etc. Access Control System controls and monitors the people accessing the secured facilities. Access Control System generates events on: 1. Showing of RFID card, 2. Rotation of turnstile, 3. Download of valid card numbers, 4. Generation of alarms etc. Access control system turnstiles are located in main entrance of a facility, entrance of inside laboratory and door locks are fixed on secured facilities. Events are stored in SQL server database. From the events stored in database a novel technique is developed to extract events and list the persons in a particular facility, list all entry/exit events on one day, list the first in and last out entries. This paper discusses the complex multi level group by queries and software developed to extract events from database, locate persons and generate reports. Software is developed as a web application in ASP.Net and query is written in SQL. User can select the doors, type of events and generate reports. Reports are generated using the master data stored about employees RFID cards and events data stored in tables. Four types of reports are generated 1. Plant Emergency Report, 2. Locate User Report, 3. Entry - Exit Report, 4. First in Last out Report. To generate plant emergency report for whole plant only events generated in outer gates have to be considered. To generate plant emergency report for inside laboratory, events generated in entrance gates have to be ignored. (author)

  17. Melodic pattern extraction in large collections of music recordings using time series mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Sankalp; Serrà, Joan; Ishwar, Vignesh; Serra, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a data-driven unsupervised approach for the discovery of melodic patterns in large collections of Indian art music recordings. The approach first works on single recordings and subsequently searches in the entire music collection. Melodic similarity is based on dynamic time warping. The task being computationally intensive, lower bounding and early abandoning techniques are applied during distance computation. Our dataset comprises 365 hours of music, containing 1,764 audio rec...

  18. Template based rodent brain extraction and atlas mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimin Huang; Jiaqi Zhang; Zhiping Lin; Su Huang; Yuping Duan; Zhongkang Lu

    2016-08-01

    Accurate rodent brain extraction is the basic step for many translational studies using MR imaging. This paper presents a template based approach with multi-expert refinement to automatic rodent brain extraction. We first build the brain appearance model based on the learning exemplars. Together with the template matching, we encode the rodent brain position into the search space to reliably locate the rodent brain and estimate the rough segmentation. With the initial mask, a level-set segmentation and a mask-based template learning are implemented further to the brain region. The multi-expert fusion is used to generate a new mask. We finally combine the region growing based on the histogram distribution learning to delineate the final brain mask. A high-resolution rodent atlas is used to illustrate that the segmented low resolution anatomic image can be well mapped to the atlas. Tested on a public data set, all brains are located reliably and we achieve the mean Jaccard similarity score at 94.99% for brain segmentation, which is a statistically significant improvement compared to two other rodent brain extraction methods.

  19. Effect of extraction technique on the content and antioxidant activity of crude extract of Anacyclus clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliboudhar, Hamza; Tigrine-Kordjani, Nacéra

    2014-01-01

    Anacyclus clavatus is a plant used as food and remedy. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction technique on the antioxidant property, total phenol and flavonoid contents of crude extracts from A. clavatus flowers and their essential oil composition. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, ferric-reducing power, β-carotene and total antioxidant capacity assays have demonstrated the significant antioxidant ability of different crude extracts obtained by using the following extraction methods: Soxhlet, microwave heating, heat reflux (HRE) and maceration. The activity of the extract obtained by HRE was the highest (112.06 ± 2.89 μg/mL) evaluated by the DPPH assay. Extraction of essential oil was performed by microwave-assisted hydro-distillation (MAHD) and by hydro-distillation (HD). A significant difference was observed in both essential oils, despite the common main family and major constituents, such as artemisia ketone (10.0 ± 0.8% for MAHD vs. 6.5 ± 0.5 for HD) and pinocarvone (4.1 ± 0.4% for MAHD vs. 1.1 ± 0.1% for HD).

  20. Synchrotron radiation based analytical techniques (XAS and XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Shambhu Nath

    2014-01-01

    A brief description of the principles of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques is given in this article with emphasis on the advantages of using synchrotron radiation-based instrumentation/beamline. XAS technique is described in more detail to emphasize the strength of the technique as a local structural probe. (author)

  1. Successful transjugular extraction of a lead in front of the anterior scalene muscle by using snare technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayako Okada, MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cardiovascular implantable electronic device infection is increasing. We report a case of and successful device removal in a 79-year-old man with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator infection. Right phrenic nerve paralysis was evident on chest radiography. The lead was in front of the anterior scalene muscle, close to the left phrenic nerve. Therefore, extraction carried a risk of bilateral phrenic nerve paralysis. The lead was successfully extracted from the right internal jugular vein by using the snare technique. No complications occurred, and the extraction was successful.

  2. Pixel extraction based integral imaging with controllable viewing direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chao-Chao; Deng, Huan; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2012-01-01

    We propose pixel extraction based integral imaging with a controllable viewing direction. The proposed integral imaging can provide viewers three-dimensional (3D) images in a very small viewing angle. The viewing angle and the viewing direction of the reconstructed 3D images are controlled by the pixels extracted from an elemental image array. Theoretical analysis and a 3D display experiment of the viewing direction controllable integral imaging are carried out. The experimental results verify the correctness of the theory. A 3D display based on the integral imaging can protect the viewer’s privacy and has huge potential for a television to show multiple 3D programs at the same time. (paper)

  3. Csf Based Non-Ground Points Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, A.; Zhang, W.; Shi, H.

    2017-09-01

    Region growing is a classical method of point cloud segmentation. Based on the idea of collecting the pixels with similar properties to form regions, region growing is widely used in many fields such as medicine, forestry and remote sensing. In this algorithm, there are two core problems. One is the selection of seed points, the other is the setting of the growth constraints, in which the selection of the seed points is the foundation. In this paper, we propose a CSF (Cloth Simulation Filtering) based method to extract the non-ground seed points effectively. The experiments have shown that this method can obtain a group of seed spots compared with the traditional methods. It is a new attempt to extract seed points

  4. Comparison of methods for conducting marine and estuarine sediment porewater toxicity tests—extraction, storage, and handling techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, R.S.; Chapman, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to compare different porewater extraction techniques and to evaluate the effects of sediment and porewater storage conditions on the toxicity of pore water, using assays with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata. If care is taken in the selection of materials, several different porewater extraction techniques (pressurized squeezing, centrifugation, vacuum) yield samples with similar toxicity. Where the primary contaminants of concern are highly hydrophobic organic compounds, centrifugation is the method of choice for minimizing the loss of contaminants during the extraction procedure. No difference was found in the toxicity of pore water obtained with the Teflon® and polyvinyl chloride pressurized extraction devices. Different types of filters in the squeeze extraction devices apparently adsorbed soluble contaminants to varying degrees. The amount of fine suspended particulate material remaining in the pore water after the initial extraction varied among the methods. For most of the sediments tested, freezing and thawing did not affect the toxicity of porewater samples obtained by the pressurized squeeze extraction method. Pore water obtained by other methods (centrifugation, vacuum) and frozen without additional removal of suspended particulates by centrifugation may exhibit increased toxicity compared with the unfrozen sample.The toxicity of pore water extracted from refrigerated (4°C) sediments exhibited substantial short-term (days, weeks) changes. Similarly, sediment pore water extracted over time from a simulated amphipod solid-phase toxicity test changed substantially in toxicity. For the sediments tested, the direction and magnitude of change in toxicity of pore water extracted from both refrigerated and solid-phase test sediments was unpredictable.

  5. Collaborative Filtering Based on Sequential Extraction of User-Item Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Katsuhiro; Notsu, Akira; Ichihashi, Hidetomo

    Collaborative filtering is a computational realization of “word-of-mouth” in network community, in which the items prefered by “neighbors” are recommended. This paper proposes a new item-selection model for extracting user-item clusters from rectangular relation matrices, in which mutual relations between users and items are denoted in an alternative process of “liking or not”. A technique for sequential co-cluster extraction from rectangular relational data is given by combining the structural balancing-based user-item clustering method with sequential fuzzy cluster extraction appraoch. Then, the tecunique is applied to the collaborative filtering problem, in which some items may be shared by several user clusters.

  6. Historical Feature Pattern Extraction Based Network Attack Situation Sensing Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Yong; Liu, Dacheng; Lei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The situation sequence contains a series of complicated and multivariate random trends, which are very sudden, uncertain, and difficult to recognize and describe its principle by traditional algorithms. To solve the above questions, estimating parameters of super long situation sequence is essential, but very difficult, so this paper proposes a situation prediction method based on historical feature pattern extraction (HFPE). First, HFPE algorithm seeks similar indications from the history si...

  7. Soft Tissue Closure of Grafted Extraction Sockets in the Anterior Maxilla: A Modified Palatal Pedicle Connective Tissue Flap Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Chaar, Edgard; Oshman, Sarah; Cicero, Giuseppe; Castano, Alejandro; Dinoi, Cinzia; Soltani, Leila; Lee, Yoonjung Nicole

    Localized ridge resorption, the consequence of socket collapse, following tooth extraction in the anterior maxilla can adversely affect esthetics, function, and future implant placement. Immediate grafting of extraction sockets may help preserve natural ridge contours, but a lack of available soft tissue can compromise the final esthetic outcome. The presented modified rotated palatal pedicle connective tissue flap is a useful technique for simultaneous soft tissue coverage and augmentation of grafted sockets to improve esthetic outcome. This article delineates its advantages through the presentation of a four-case series using this new technique.

  8. Accelerator based techniques for contraband detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourvopoulos, George

    1994-05-01

    It has been shown that narcotics, explosives, and other contraband materials, contain various chemical elements such as H, C, N, O, P, S, and Cl in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from other innocuous substances. Neutrons and γ-rays have the ability to penetrate through various materials at large depths. They are thus able, in a non-intrusive way, to interrogate volumes ranging from suitcases to Sea-Land containers, and have the ability to image the object with an appreciable degree of reliability. Neutron induced reactions such as (n, γ), (n, n') (n, p) or proton induced γ-resonance absorption are some of the reactions currently investigated for the identification of the chemical elements mentioned above. Various DC and pulsed techniques are discussed and their advantages, characteristics, and current progress are shown. Areas where use of these methods is currently under evaluation are detection of hidden explosives, illicit drug interdiction, chemical war agents identification, nuclear waste assay, nuclear weapons destruction and others.

  9. Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and CNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yudian; Lu, Tongwei; Jiang, Yongyuan

    2018-03-01

    As an important application in the field of text line recognition and office automation, Chinese character recognition has become an important subject of pattern recognition. However, due to the large number of Chinese characters and the complexity of its structure, there is a great difficulty in the Chinese character recognition. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a method of printed Chinese character recognition based on Gabor feature extraction and Convolution Neural Network(CNN). The main steps are preprocessing, feature extraction, training classification. First, the gray-scale Chinese character image is binarized and normalized to reduce the redundancy of the image data. Second, each image is convoluted with Gabor filter with different orientations, and the feature map of the eight orientations of Chinese characters is extracted. Third, the feature map through Gabor filters and the original image are convoluted with learning kernels, and the results of the convolution is the input of pooling layer. Finally, the feature vector is used to classify and recognition. In addition, the generalization capacity of the network is improved by Dropout technology. The experimental results show that this method can effectively extract the characteristics of Chinese characters and recognize Chinese characters.

  10. Arduino-based automation of a DNA extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Won; Lee, Mi-So; Ryu, Mun-Ho; Kim, Jong-Won

    2015-01-01

    There have been many studies to detect infectious diseases with the molecular genetic method. This study presents an automation process for a DNA extraction system based on microfluidics and magnetic bead, which is part of a portable molecular genetic test system. This DNA extraction system consists of a cartridge with chambers, syringes, four linear stepper actuators, and a rotary stepper actuator. The actuators provide a sequence of steps in the DNA extraction process, such as transporting, mixing, and washing for the gene specimen, magnetic bead, and reagent solutions. The proposed automation system consists of a PC-based host application and an Arduino-based controller. The host application compiles a G code sequence file and interfaces with the controller to execute the compiled sequence. The controller executes stepper motor axis motion, time delay, and input-output manipulation. It drives the stepper motor with an open library, which provides a smooth linear acceleration profile. The controller also provides a homing sequence to establish the motor's reference position, and hard limit checking to prevent any over-travelling. The proposed system was implemented and its functionality was investigated, especially regarding positioning accuracy and velocity profile.

  11. Laser-based techniques for combustion diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgiev, N.

    1997-04-01

    Two-photon-induced Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing, DFWM, was applied for the first time to the detection of CO, and NH{sub 3} molecules. Measurements were performed in a cell, and in atmospheric-pressure flames. In the cell measurements, the signal dependence on the pressure and on the laser beam intensity was studied. The possibility of simultaneous detection of NH{sub 3} and OH was investigated. Carbon monoxide and ammonia were also detected employing two-photon-induced Polarization Spectroscopy, PS. In the measurements performed in a cold gas flow, the signal strength dependence on the laser intensity, and on the polarization of the pump beam, was investigated. An approach to improve the spatial resolution of the Amplified Stimulated Emission, ASE, was developed. In this approach, two laser beams at different frequencies were crossed in the sample. If the sum of the frequencies of the two laser beams matches a two photon resonance of the investigated species, only the molecules in the intersection volume will be excited. NH{sub 3} molecules and C atoms were studied. The potential of using two-photon LIF for two-dimensional imaging of combustion species was investigated. Although LIF is species specific, several species can be detected simultaneously by utilizing spectral coincidences. Combining one- and two-photon process, OH, NO, and O were detected simultaneously, as well as OH, NO, and NH{sub 3}. Collisional quenching is the major source of uncertainty in quantitative applications of LIF. A technique for two-dimensional, absolute species concentration measurements, circumventing the problems associated with collisional quenching, was developed. By applying simple mathematics to the ratio of two LIF signals generated from two counterpropagating laser beams, the absolute species concentration could be obtained. 41 refs

  12. Elemental characterization of coal ash and its leachates using sequential extraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Cerbus, J.F.; Larson, S.

    1995-01-01

    Over 50 million tons of coal ash are produced annually in North America. Technological improvements in air pollution control have decreased stack emissions but have also increased contaminant concentrations in the ash of coal-fired boiler applications. The leaching of heavy metals and other elements during regulatory tests may cause coal ash to be classified as hazardous waste, complicating land disposal. The hazardous nature of coal ash remains unclear because current toxicity tests fail to effectively characterize the elemental distribution and chemical solubility of trace metals in the landfill environment. Leaching characteristics of ash samples can be investigated with various laboratory extraction procedures in association with multi-elemental analytical techniques (e.g., neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy). Such methods provide more thorough analyses of coal ash leaching dynamics than the regulatory assessments can demonstrate. Regulatory elements including Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se were shown to remain in largely insoluble forms while elements such as B and S leached at higher levels. Experimental results may assist operators of coal-fired boiler industries in selecting coal types and disposal options to curtail the leaching of potentially toxic inorganic contaminants. (author) 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  13. Standardization of Berberis aristata extract through conventional and modern HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh K. Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Berberis aristata (Berberidaceae is an important medicinal plant, found in the different region of the world. It has significant medicinal value in the traditional Indian and Chinese system of medicine. The aim of the present investigation includes qualitative and quantitative analysis of Berberis aristata extract. Methods: Present study includes determination of phytochemical analysis, solubility test, heavy metal analysis, antimicrobial study and quantitative analysis by HPTLC method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrate, glycoside, alkaloid, protein, amino acid, saponin, tannin and flavonoid. Solubility in water and alcohal were found to be 81.90% in water and 84.52% in 50% in alcohal. Loss on drying was found to be 5.32%. Total phenol and flavonoid content were found to be 0.11% and 2.8%. Level of lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complies the standard level. E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent whereas total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit. Content of berberine was found to be 13.47% through HPTLC techniques. Conclusions: The results obtained from the present studies could be used as source of valuable information which can play an important role for the food scientists, researchers and even the consumers for its standards.

  14. Analysis and Comparison of the Antioxidant Component of Portulaca Oleracea Leaves Obtained by Different Solid-Liquid Extraction Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Esterina

    2017-01-01

    Portulaca oleracea is a wild plant pest of orchards and gardens, but is also an edible vegetable rich in beneficial nutrients. It possesses many antioxidant properties due to the high content of vitamins, minerals, omega-3 essential fatty acids and other healthful compounds; therefore, the intake of purslane and/or its bioactive compounds could help to improve the health and function of the whole human organism. Accordingly, in this work it was analyzed and compared to the extractive capacity of the antioxidant component of purslane leaves obtained by solid-liquid extraction techniques such as: hot-maceration, maceration with ultrasound, rapid solid-liquid dynamic extraction using the Naviglio extractor, and a combination of two techniques (mix extraction). The chromatographic analysis by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) of the methanolic extract of dried purslane leaves allowed the identification of various polyphenolic compounds for comparison with the standards. In addition, the properties of the different extracts were calculated on dry matter and the antioxidant properties of the total polyphenol components analyzed by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The results showed that mix extraction was the most efficient compared to other techniques. In fact, it obtained a quantity of polyphenols amounting to 237.8 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents (GAE)/100 g of fresh weight, while in other techniques, the range varied from 60–160 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight. In addition, a qualitative analysis by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) of the phenolic compounds present in the purslane leaves examined was carried out. The compounds were identified by comparison of their molecular weight, fragmentation pattern and retention time with those of standards, using the “Multiple Reaction Monitoring” mode (MRM). Therefore, this study allowed the re-evaluation of a little-known plant that possesses as its beneficial properties, a

  15. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  16. Region-Based Building Rooftop Extraction and Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Metzlaff, L.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic extraction of building changes is important for many applications like disaster monitoring and city planning. Although a lot of research work is available based on 2D as well as 3D data, an improvement in accuracy and efficiency is still needed. The introducing of digital surface models (DSMs) to building change detection has strongly improved the resulting accuracy. In this paper, a post-classification approach is proposed for building change detection using satellite stereo imagery. Firstly, DSMs are generated from satellite stereo imagery and further refined by using a segmentation result obtained from the Sobel gradients of the panchromatic image. Besides the refined DSMs, the panchromatic image and the pansharpened multispectral image are used as input features for mean-shift segmentation. The DSM is used to calculate the nDSM, out of which the initial building candidate regions are extracted. The candidate mask is further refined by morphological filtering and by excluding shadow regions. Following this, all segments that overlap with a building candidate region are determined. A building oriented segments merging procedure is introduced to generate a final building rooftop mask. As the last step, object based change detection is performed by directly comparing the building rooftops extracted from the pre- and after-event imagery and by fusing the change indicators with the roof-top region map. A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the proposed approach is provided by using WorldView-2 satellite data from Istanbul, Turkey.

  17. REGION-BASED BUILDING ROOFTOP EXTRACTION AND CHANGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic extraction of building changes is important for many applications like disaster monitoring and city planning. Although a lot of research work is available based on 2D as well as 3D data, an improvement in accuracy and efficiency is still needed. The introducing of digital surface models (DSMs to building change detection has strongly improved the resulting accuracy. In this paper, a post-classification approach is proposed for building change detection using satellite stereo imagery. Firstly, DSMs are generated from satellite stereo imagery and further refined by using a segmentation result obtained from the Sobel gradients of the panchromatic image. Besides the refined DSMs, the panchromatic image and the pansharpened multispectral image are used as input features for mean-shift segmentation. The DSM is used to calculate the nDSM, out of which the initial building candidate regions are extracted. The candidate mask is further refined by morphological filtering and by excluding shadow regions. Following this, all segments that overlap with a building candidate region are determined. A building oriented segments merging procedure is introduced to generate a final building rooftop mask. As the last step, object based change detection is performed by directly comparing the building rooftops extracted from the pre- and after-event imagery and by fusing the change indicators with the roof-top region map. A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the proposed approach is provided by using WorldView-2 satellite data from Istanbul, Turkey.

  18. Ontology-Based Information Extraction for Business Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggion, Horacio; Funk, Adam; Maynard, Diana; Bontcheva, Kalina

    Business Intelligence (BI) requires the acquisition and aggregation of key pieces of knowledge from multiple sources in order to provide valuable information to customers or feed statistical BI models and tools. The massive amount of information available to business analysts makes information extraction and other natural language processing tools key enablers for the acquisition and use of that semantic information. We describe the application of ontology-based extraction and merging in the context of a practical e-business application for the EU MUSING Project where the goal is to gather international company intelligence and country/region information. The results of our experiments so far are very promising and we are now in the process of building a complete end-to-end solution.

  19. The extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from grapes to wine during fermentative maceration is affected by the enological technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse-Valverde, Naiara; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, Jose M; Gil-Muñoz, Rocio; Bautista-Ortín, Ana B

    2011-05-25

    The effect of three enological techniques (low temperature prefermentative maceration, must freezing with dry ice, and the use of a maceration enzyme) on the extraction of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins from must to wine during fermentative maceration was studied to determine the extent to which these compounds are extracted and to assess the changes on their qualitative composition due to enological technique applied. The results showed that the dry ice treatment led to wines with high color intensity and high anthocyanin content, the maximum rate of extraction being observed the first 6 days of fermentative maceration. Regarding the effect of the different techniques on the quantitative and qualitative composition of proanthocyanidins, only the dry ice treatment seemed to favor the extraction of high molecular weight skin proanthocyanidins. The low temperature prefermentative maceration treatment led to the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins at the moment of pressing; however, this treatment, contrary to expectations, led to wines with the highest content of seed-derived proanthocyanidins. The use of the maceration enzyme also increased the concentration of proanthocyanidins during all of the fermentative process, as compared to a control wine, although the increase was not only due to skin proanthocyanidins but also seed proanthocyanidins. We have demonstrated in this study that maceration enzymes also facilitate seed phenolic extraction.

  20. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor; Tayebi-Meigooni, Amin

    2015-06-11

    Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol) and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v) ethanol-water) extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM)), total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM), and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM), and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity). Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v) maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  1. Extraction Method for Earthquake-Collapsed Building Information Based on High-Resolution Remote Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Wu, Jian; Liu, Yaolin; Wang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    At present, the extraction of earthquake disaster information from remote sensing data relies on visual interpretation. However, this technique cannot effectively and quickly obtain precise and efficient information for earthquake relief and emergency management. Collapsed buildings in the town of Zipingpu after the Wenchuan earthquake were used as a case study to validate two kinds of rapid extraction methods for earthquake-collapsed building information based on pixel-oriented and object-oriented theories. The pixel-oriented method is based on multi-layer regional segments that embody the core layers and segments of the object-oriented method. The key idea is to mask layer by layer all image information, including that on the collapsed buildings. Compared with traditional techniques, the pixel-oriented method is innovative because it allows considerably rapid computer processing. As for the object-oriented method, a multi-scale segment algorithm was applied to build a three-layer hierarchy. By analyzing the spectrum, texture, shape, location, and context of individual object classes in different layers, the fuzzy determined rule system was established for the extraction of earthquake-collapsed building information. We compared the two sets of results using three variables: precision assessment, visual effect, and principle. Both methods can extract earthquake-collapsed building information quickly and accurately. The object-oriented method successfully overcomes the pepper salt noise caused by the spectral diversity of high-resolution remote sensing data and solves the problem of same object, different spectrums and that of same spectrum, different objects. With an overall accuracy of 90.38%, the method achieves more scientific and accurate results compared with the pixel-oriented method (76.84%). The object-oriented image analysis method can be extensively applied in the extraction of earthquake disaster information based on high-resolution remote sensing

  2. Huffman-based code compression techniques for embedded processors

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2010-09-01

    The size of embedded software is increasing at a rapid pace. It is often challenging and time consuming to fit an amount of required software functionality within a given hardware resource budget. Code compression is a means to alleviate the problem by providing substantial savings in terms of code size. In this article we introduce a novel and efficient hardware-supported compression technique that is based on Huffman Coding. Our technique reduces the size of the generated decoding table, which takes a large portion of the memory. It combines our previous techniques, Instruction Splitting Technique and Instruction Re-encoding Technique into new one called Combined Compression Technique to improve the final compression ratio by taking advantage of both previous techniques. The instruction Splitting Technique is instruction set architecture (ISA)-independent. It splits the instructions into portions of varying size (called patterns) before Huffman coding is applied. This technique improves the final compression ratio by more than 20% compared to other known schemes based on Huffman Coding. The average compression ratios achieved using this technique are 48% and 50% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. The Instruction Re-encoding Technique is ISA-dependent. It investigates the benefits of reencoding unused bits (we call them reencodable bits) in the instruction format for a specific application to improve the compression ratio. Reencoding those bits can reduce the size of decoding tables by up to 40%. Using this technique, we improve the final compression ratios in comparison to the first technique to 46% and 45% for ARM and MIPS, respectively (including all overhead that incurs). The Combined Compression Technique improves the compression ratio to 45% and 42% for ARM and MIPS, respectively. In our compression technique, we have conducted evaluations using a representative set of applications and we have applied each technique to two major embedded processor architectures

  3. Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for the rapid screening and identification of antioxidants in methanolic extracts of pharmaceutically used plants .

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Exarchou, V.; Fiamegos, Y.C.; Beek, van T.A.; Nanos, C.G.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Phytochemical analysis is an important scientific research area, which normally relies on a number of rather laborious and time-consuming techniques for compound identification. Isolation of the ingredients of plant extracts in adequate quantities for spectral and biological analysis was the basis

  4. Choice of solvent extraction technique affects fatty acid composition of pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolshahi, Anna; Majd, Mojtaba Heydari; Rad, Javad Sharifi; Taheri, Mehrdad; Shabani, Aliakbar; Teixeira da Silva, Jaime A

    2015-04-01

    Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) oil has important nutritional and therapeutic properties because of its high concentration of essential fatty acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw material is critical for product quality, in particular to protect nutritional value. This study compared the fatty acid composition of pistachio oil extracted by two conventional procedures, Soxhlet extraction and maceration, analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID). Four solvents with different polarities were tested: n-hexane (Hx), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtAc) and ethanol (EtOH). The highest unsaturated fatty acid content (88.493 %) was obtained by Soxhlet extraction with EtAc. The Soxhlet method extracted the most oleic and linolenic acids (51.99 % and 0.385 %, respectively) although a higher concentration (36.32 %) of linoleic acid was extracted by maceration.

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Different Extraction Techniques and Solvents for the Assay of Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activity of Hashemi Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghasemzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary metabolite contents (total phenolic, flavonoid, tocopherol, and tocotrienol and antioxidant activities of Hashemi rice bran extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted and traditional solvent (ethanol and 50:50 (v/v ethanol-water extraction techniques were compared. Phenolic and, flavonoid compounds were identified using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and method validation was performed. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed among the different extraction techniques upon comparison of phytochemical contents and antioxidant activities. The extracts obtained using the ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic technique showed the highest amounts of total phenolics (288.40 mg/100 g dry material (DM, total flavonoids (156.20 mg/100 g DM, and total tocotrienols (56.23 mg/100 g DM, and the highest antioxidant activity (84.21% 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, 65.27% β-carotene-linoleic bleaching and 82.20% nitric oxide scavenging activity. Secondary metabolite contents and antioxidant activities of the rice bran extracts varied depending of the extraction method used, and according to their effectiveness, these were organized in a decreasing order as follows: ethanol-water (50:50 v/v ultrasonic, ethanol-water (50:50 v/v maceration, ethanol ultrasonic and ethanol maceration methods. Ferulic, gallic and chlorogenic acids were the most abundant phenolic compounds in rice bran extracts. The phytochemical constituents of Hashemi rice bran and its antioxidant properties provides insights into its potential application to promote health.

  6. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the Chemical Composition of “Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines C. Agardh” Volatile Compounds Obtained by Different Extraction Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Bouzidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile fraction of the brown alga Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines C.Agardh is prepared from the crude extract through the following three extraction methods: Hydrodistillation (HD, focused microwave assisted hydrodistillation (FMAHD and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. The volatile fractions are analyzed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector-mass spectrometry (GC-FID-MS, the chemical components are identified on the basis of the comparison of their retention indices with literature and their mass spectra with those reported in commercial databases. The chemical composition of the volatile fractions obtained by different extraction techniques fall into three major chemical classes: fatty acids and derivatives, sesquiterpenes, and hydrocarbons and derivatives. Others Compounds belonging to different chemical classes are found in that chemical composition.

  8. A NOVEL WRAPPING CURVELET TRANSFORMATION BASED ANGULAR TEXTURE PATTERN (WCTATP EXTRACTION METHOD FOR WEED IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Apparently weed is a major menace in crop production as it competes with crop for nutrients, moisture, space and light which resulting in poor growth and development of the crop and finally yield. Yield loss accounts for even more than 70% when crops are frown under unweeded condition with severe weed infestation. Weed management is the most significant process in the agricultural applications to improve the crop productivity rate and reduce the herbicide application cost. Existing weed detection techniques does not yield better performance due to the complex background, illumination variation and crop and weed overlapping in the agricultural field image. Hence, there arises a need for the development of effective weed identification technique. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel Wrapping Curvelet Transformation Based Angular Texture Pattern Extraction Method (WCTATP for weed identification. In our proposed work, Global Histogram Equalization (GHE is used improve the quality of the image and Adaptive Median Filter (AMF is used for filtering the impulse noise from the image. Plant image identification is performed using green pixel extraction and k-means clustering. Wrapping Curvelet transform is applied to the plant image. Feature extraction is performed to extract the angular texture pattern of the plant image. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based Differential Evolution Feature Selection (DEFS approach is applied to select the optimal features. Then, the selected features are learned and passed through an RVM based classifier to find out the weed. Edge detection and contouring is performed to identify the weed in the plant image. The Fuzzy rule-based approach is applied to detect the low, medium and high levels of the weed patchiness. From the experimental results, it is clearly observed that the accuracy of the proposed approach is higher than the existing Support Vector Machine (SVM based approaches. The proposed approach

  9. Comparison of extraction techniques and mass spectrometric ionization modes in the analysis of wine volatile carbonyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Julian; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; Cacho, Juan [Laboratory for Flavor Analysis and Enology, Institute of Engineering of Aragon, I3A, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Ferreira, Vicente, E-mail: vferre@unizar.es [Laboratory for Flavor Analysis and Enology, Institute of Engineering of Aragon, I3A, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    This work presents a comparative study of the analytical characteristics of two methods for the analysis of carbonyl compounds in wine, both based on the derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA). In the first method derivatives are formed in the solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge in which the analytes have been previously isolated, while in the second method derivatives are formed in a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibre saturated with vapors of the reagent and exposed to the sample headspace. In both cases detection has been carried out by electron impact (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The possibility of determining haloanisols simultaneously has been also considered. The method based on SPE presents, in general, better analytical properties than the SPME one. Although linearity was satisfactory for both methods (R{sup 2} > 0.99), repeatability of the SPE method (RSD < 10%) was better than that obtained with SPME (9% < RSD < 20%). Detection limits obtained with EI are better for the SPE method except for trihaloanisols, while with NCI detection limits for both strategies are comparable, although the SPME strategy presents worse results for ketones and methional. Detection limits are always lower with NCI, being the improvement most notable for SPME. Recovery experiments show that in the case of SPE, uncertainties are lower than 12% in all cases, while with the SPME method the imprecision plus the existence of matrix effects make the global uncertainty to be higher than 15%.

  10. Comparison of extraction techniques and mass spectrometric ionization modes in the analysis of wine volatile carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, Julian; Mateo-Vivaracho, Laura; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a comparative study of the analytical characteristics of two methods for the analysis of carbonyl compounds in wine, both based on the derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine hydrochloride (PFBHA). In the first method derivatives are formed in the solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge in which the analytes have been previously isolated, while in the second method derivatives are formed in a solid phase microextraction (SPME) fibre saturated with vapors of the reagent and exposed to the sample headspace. In both cases detection has been carried out by electron impact (EI) or negative chemical ionization (NCI) mass spectrometry. The possibility of determining haloanisols simultaneously has been also considered. The method based on SPE presents, in general, better analytical properties than the SPME one. Although linearity was satisfactory for both methods (R 2 > 0.99), repeatability of the SPE method (RSD < 10%) was better than that obtained with SPME (9% < RSD < 20%). Detection limits obtained with EI are better for the SPE method except for trihaloanisols, while with NCI detection limits for both strategies are comparable, although the SPME strategy presents worse results for ketones and methional. Detection limits are always lower with NCI, being the improvement most notable for SPME. Recovery experiments show that in the case of SPE, uncertainties are lower than 12% in all cases, while with the SPME method the imprecision plus the existence of matrix effects make the global uncertainty to be higher than 15%.

  11. A Novel Technique for Fetal ECG Extraction Using Single-Channel Abdominal Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive fetal electrocardiograms (FECGs are an alternative method to standard means of fetal monitoring which permit long-term continual monitoring. However, in abdominal recording, the FECG amplitude is weak in the temporal domain and overlaps with the maternal electrocardiogram (MECG in the spectral domain. Research in the area of non-invasive separations of FECG from abdominal electrocardiograms (AECGs is in its infancy and several studies are currently focusing on this area. An adaptive noise canceller (ANC is commonly used for cancelling interference in cases where the reference signal only correlates with an interference signal, and not with a signal of interest. However, results from some existing studies suggest that propagation of electrocardiogram (ECG signals from the maternal heart to the abdomen is nonlinear, hence the adaptive filter approach may fail if the thoracic and abdominal MECG lack strict waveform similarity. In this study, singular value decomposition (SVD and smooth window (SW techniques are combined to build a reference signal in an ANC. This is to avoid the limitation that thoracic MECGs recorded separately must be similar to abdominal MECGs in waveform. Validation of the proposed method with r01 and r07 signals from a public dataset, and a self-recorded private dataset showed that the proposed method achieved F1 scores of 99.61%, 99.28% and 98.58%, respectively for the detection of fetal QRS. Compared with four other single-channel methods, the proposed method also achieved higher accuracy values of 99.22%, 98.57% and 97.21%, respectively. The findings from this study suggest that the proposed method could potentially aid accurate extraction of FECG from MECG recordings in both clinical and commercial applications.

  12. Analogy between gambling and measurement-based work extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Dror A.; Permuter, Haim H.; Merhav, Neri

    2016-04-01

    In information theory, one area of interest is gambling, where mutual information characterizes the maximal gain in wealth growth rate due to knowledge of side information; the betting strategy that achieves this maximum is named the Kelly strategy. In the field of physics, it was recently shown that mutual information can characterize the maximal amount of work that can be extracted from a single heat bath using measurement-based control protocols, i.e. using ‘information engines’. However, to the best of our knowledge, no relation between gambling and information engines has been presented before. In this paper, we briefly review the two concepts and then demonstrate an analogy between gambling, where bits are converted into wealth, and information engines, where bits representing measurements are converted into energy. From this analogy follows an extension of gambling to the continuous-valued case, which is shown to be useful for investments in currency exchange rates or in the stock market using options. Moreover, the analogy enables us to use well-known methods and results from one field to solve problems in the other. We present three such cases: maximum work extraction when the probability distributions governing the system and measurements are unknown, work extraction when some energy is lost in each cycle, e.g. due to friction, and an analysis of systems with memory. In all three cases, the analogy enables us to use known results in order to obtain new ones.

  13. Microcontroller based two axis microtron beam extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashoka, H.; Jathar, M.; Meshram, V.; Rao, Nageswara

    2009-01-01

    Microtron is an electron accelerator which is used to accelerate the electron beam. The Microtron consists of electro magnet with two poles separated by yoke for completion of path for magnetic flux lines. A compact Microtron capable of accelerating electrons up to 12 MeV has been developed in RRCAT. The beam from the Microtron has to be extracted from various orbits depending upon the user requirement (X-Y stage is built with an accuracy of 100 μm). This paper describes the design and development of microcontroller based two axis beam extraction system for Microtron, with a resolution of 50 μm to position the extraction tube with respect to selected orbit. Two axis motion controller is developed using current controlled micro-stepping driver mechanism, which uses Bipolar Chopper Drive for driving stepper motors. Each phase has 2A continuous driving capability. The system is provided with user selectable controls like speed, steps, direction, and mode. This system is provided with RS-232 interface, to accept commands from PC. This system also has local keyboard and LCD interface to use in Stand-alone mode (local Mode). (author)

  14. Extraction of Trivalent Actinides and Lanthanides from Californium Campaign Rework Solution Using TODGA-based Solvent Extraction System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benker, Dennis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Delmau, Laetitia Helene [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dryman, Joshua Cory [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This report presents the studies carried out to demonstrate the possibility of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides and lanthanides from highly acidic solutions using a neutral ligand-based solvent extraction system. These studies stemmed from the perceived advantage of such systems over cationexchange- based solvent extraction systems that require an extensive feed adjustment to make a low-acid feed. The targeted feed solutions are highly acidic aqueous phases obtained after the dissolution of curium targets during a californium (Cf) campaign. Results obtained with actual Cf campaign solutions, but highly diluted to be manageable in a glove box, are presented, followed by results of tests run in the hot cells with Cf campaign rework solutions. It was demonstrated that a solvent extraction system based on the tetraoctyl diglycolamide molecule is capable of quantitatively extracting trivalent actinides from highly acidic solutions. This system was validated using actual feeds from a Cf campaign.

  15. Glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents as extractants for the separation of MEK and ethanol via liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, N.R.; Ferré Güell, J.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Four different glycerol-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were tested as extracting agents for the separation of the azeotropic mixture {methyl ethyl ketone + ethanol} via liquid-liquid extraction. The selected DESs for this work were: glycerol/choline chloride with molar ratios (4:1) and (2:1),

  16. Vision-based weld pool boundary extraction and width measurement during keyhole fiber laser welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Masiyang; Shin, Yung C.

    2015-01-01

    In keyhole fiber laser welding processes, the weld pool behavior is essential to determining welding quality. To better observe and control the welding process, the accurate extraction of the weld pool boundary as well as the width is required. This work presents a weld pool edge detection technique based on an off axial green illumination laser and a coaxial image capturing system that consists of a CMOS camera and optic filters. According to the difference of image quality, a complete developed edge detection algorithm is proposed based on the local maximum gradient of greyness searching approach and linear interpolation. The extracted weld pool geometry and the width are validated by the actual welding width measurement and predictions by a numerical multi-phase model.

  17. Multispectral Image Road Extraction Based Upon Automated Map Conflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin

    Road network extraction from remotely sensed imagery enables many important and diverse applications such as vehicle tracking, drone navigation, and intelligent transportation studies. There are, however, a number of challenges to road detection from an image. Road pavement material, width, direction, and topology vary across a scene. Complete or partial occlusions caused by nearby buildings, trees, and the shadows cast by them, make maintaining road connectivity difficult. The problems posed by occlusions are exacerbated with the increasing use of oblique imagery from aerial and satellite platforms. Further, common objects such as rooftops and parking lots are made of materials similar or identical to road pavements. This problem of common materials is a classic case of a single land cover material existing for different land use scenarios. This work addresses these problems in road extraction from geo-referenced imagery by leveraging the OpenStreetMap digital road map to guide image-based road extraction. The crowd-sourced cartography has the advantages of worldwide coverage that is constantly updated. The derived road vectors follow only roads and so can serve to guide image-based road extraction with minimal confusion from occlusions and changes in road material. On the other hand, the vector road map has no information on road widths and misalignments between the vector map and the geo-referenced image are small but nonsystematic. Properly correcting misalignment between two geospatial datasets, also known as map conflation, is an essential step. A generic framework requiring minimal human intervention is described for multispectral image road extraction and automatic road map conflation. The approach relies on the road feature generation of a binary mask and a corresponding curvilinear image. A method for generating the binary road mask from the image by applying a spectral measure is presented. The spectral measure, called anisotropy-tunable distance (ATD

  18. Javanese Character Feature Extraction Based on Shape Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galih Hendra Wibowo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Javanese character is one of Indonesia's noble culture, especially in Java. However, the number of Javanese people who are able to read the letter has decreased so that there need to be conservation efforts in the form of a system that is able to recognize the characters. One solution to these problem lies in Optical Character Recognition (OCR studies, where one of its heaviest points lies in feature extraction which is to distinguish each character. Shape Energy is one of feature extraction method with the basic idea of how the character can be distinguished simply through its skeleton. Based on the basic idea, then the development of feature extraction is done based on its components to produce an angular histogram with various variations of multiples angle. Furthermore, the performance test of this method and its basic method is performed in Javanese character dataset, which has been obtained from various images, is 240 data with 19 labels by using K-Nearest Neighbors as its classification method. Performance values were obtained based on the accuracy which is generated through the Cross-Validation process of 80.83% in the angular histogram with an angle of 20 degrees, 23% better than Shape Energy. In addition, other test results show that this method is able to recognize rotated character with the lowest performance value of 86% at 180-degree rotation and the highest performance value of 96.97% at 90-degree rotation. It can be concluded that this method is able to improve the performance of Shape Energy in the form of recognition of Javanese characters as well as robust to the rotation.

  19. Annotation-based feature extraction from sets of SBML models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Rebekka; Waltemath, Dagmar; Wolfien, Markus; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Henkel, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Model repositories such as BioModels Database provide computational models of biological systems for the scientific community. These models contain rich semantic annotations that link model entities to concepts in well-established bio-ontologies such as Gene Ontology. Consequently, thematically similar models are likely to share similar annotations. Based on this assumption, we argue that semantic annotations are a suitable tool to characterize sets of models. These characteristics improve model classification, allow to identify additional features for model retrieval tasks, and enable the comparison of sets of models. In this paper we discuss four methods for annotation-based feature extraction from model sets. We tested all methods on sets of models in SBML format which were composed from BioModels Database. To characterize each of these sets, we analyzed and extracted concepts from three frequently used ontologies, namely Gene Ontology, ChEBI and SBO. We find that three out of the methods are suitable to determine characteristic features for arbitrary sets of models: The selected features vary depending on the underlying model set, and they are also specific to the chosen model set. We show that the identified features map on concepts that are higher up in the hierarchy of the ontologies than the concepts used for model annotations. Our analysis also reveals that the information content of concepts in ontologies and their usage for model annotation do not correlate. Annotation-based feature extraction enables the comparison of model sets, as opposed to existing methods for model-to-keyword comparison, or model-to-model comparison.

  20. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  1. Microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography-guided small-incision lenticule extraction: New surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Urkude, Jayanand; Chaniyara, Manthan; Titiyal, Jeewan S

    2017-10-01

    We describe the surgical technique of microscope-integrated intraoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided small-incision lenticule extraction. The technique enables manual tracking of surgical instruments and identification of the desired dissection plane. It also helps discern the relation between the dissector and the intrastromal lenticule. The dissection plane becomes hyperreflective on dissection, ensuring complete separation of the intrastromal lenticule from the overlying and underlying stroma. Inadvertent posterior plane entry, cap-lenticule adhesion, incomplete separation of the lenticule, creation of a false plane, and lenticule remnants may be recognized intraoperatively so corrective steps can be taken immediately. In cases with a hazy overlying cap, microscope-integrated intraoperative OCT enables localization and extraction of the lenticule. The technique is helpful for inexperienced surgeons, especially in cases with low amplitudes of refractive errors, ie, thin lenticules. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Kernel-Based Learning for Domain-Specific Relation Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basili, Roberto; Giannone, Cristina; Del Vescovo, Chiara; Moschitti, Alessandro; Naggar, Paolo

    In a specific process of business intelligence, i.e. investigation on organized crime, empirical language processing technologies can play a crucial role. The analysis of transcriptions on investigative activities, such as police interrogatories, for the recognition and storage of complex relations among people and locations is a very difficult and time consuming task, ultimately based on pools of experts. We discuss here an inductive relation extraction platform that opens the way to much cheaper and consistent workflows. The presented empirical investigation shows that accurate results, comparable to the expert teams, can be achieved, and parametrization allows to fine tune the system behavior for fitting domain-specific requirements.

  3. Morphological operation based dense houses extraction from DSM

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.; Zhu, L.; Tachibana, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method of reshaping and extraction of markers and masks of the dense houses from the DSM based on mathematical morphology (MM). Houses in a digital surface model (DSM) are almost joined together in high-density housing areas, and most segmentation methods cannot completely separate them. We propose to label the markers of the buildings firstly and segment them into masks by watershed then. To avoid detecting more than one marker for a house or no marker at all d...

  4. A window-based time series feature extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu-Öztürk, Deniz; Güvenir, H Altay; Ravens, Ursula; Baykal, Nazife

    2017-10-01

    This study proposes a robust similarity score-based time series feature extraction method that is termed as Window-based Time series Feature ExtraCtion (WTC). Specifically, WTC generates domain-interpretable results and involves significantly low computational complexity thereby rendering itself useful for densely sampled and populated time series datasets. In this study, WTC is applied to a proprietary action potential (AP) time series dataset on human cardiomyocytes and three precordial leads from a publicly available electrocardiogram (ECG) dataset. This is followed by comparing WTC in terms of predictive accuracy and computational complexity with shapelet transform and fast shapelet transform (which constitutes an accelerated variant of the shapelet transform). The results indicate that WTC achieves a slightly higher classification performance with significantly lower execution time when compared to its shapelet-based alternatives. With respect to its interpretable features, WTC has a potential to enable medical experts to explore definitive common trends in novel datasets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Answer Extraction Based on Merging Score Strategy of Hot Terms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LE Juan; ZHANG Chunxia; NIU Zhendong

    2016-01-01

    Answer extraction (AE) is one of the key technologies in developing the open domain Question&an-swer (Q&A) system . Its task is to yield the highest score to the expected answer based on an effective answer score strategy. We introduce an answer extraction method by Merging score strategy (MSS) based on hot terms. The hot terms are defined according to their lexical and syn-tactic features to highlight the role of the question terms. To cope with the syntactic diversities of the corpus, we propose four improved candidate answer score algorithms. Each of them is based on the lexical function of hot terms and their syntactic relationships with the candidate an-swers. Two independent corpus score algorithms are pro-posed to tap the role of the corpus in ranking the candi-date answers. Six algorithms are adopted in MSS to tap the complementary action among the corpus, the candi-date answers and the questions. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  6. Improving information extraction using a probability-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, S.; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, K.

    2007-01-01

    Information plays a crucial role during the entire life-cycle of a product. It has been shown that engineers frequently consult colleagues to obtain the information they require to solve problems. However, the industrial world is now more transient and key personnel move to other companies...... or retire. It is becoming essential to retrieve vital information from archived product documents, if it is available. There is, therefore, great interest in ways of extracting relevant and sharable information from documents. A keyword-based search is commonly used, but studies have shown...... the recall, while maintaining the high precision, a learning approach that makes identification decisions based on a probability model, rather than simply looking up the presence of the pre-defined variations, looks promising. This paper presents the results of developing such a probability-based entity...

  7. Technique of optimum extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and its chemical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abid, H.; Hussain, A.; Ali, J.

    2009-01-01

    The extraction of pectin from sour orange peels and effect of pH, temperature, extraction time on the yield and quality of pectin was studied. The extracting reagent was 0.1 N sulphuric acid and variables were pH (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5), extraction time (30, 60 and 120 minutes) and temperature (70 degree C, 80 degree C arid 90 degree C). These variables were significantly affected the extraction of pectin. The best yield (16.10 %) was obtained on soaking the finely ground peels in the sulphuric acid solution of pH, 25 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. Anhydrogalacturonic acid, methoxyl content were 7310 % and 9.93 %, respectively, while equivalent weight value 945 was obtained by using pH, 2.5 at 80 degree C for 120 minutes. (author)

  8. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Model-Based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dees, Elizabeth M. [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Moore, David Roger [General Electric Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Li, Li [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Kumar, Manish [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-05-28

    Over the last 1.5 years, GE Global Research and Pennsylvania State University defined a model-based, scalable, and multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, optionally, salt. The team explored saline brines that ranged across the expected range for extracted water for carbon sequestration reservoirs (40,000 up to 220,000 ppm total dissolved solids, TDS). In addition, the validated the system performance at pilot scale with field-sourced water using GE’s pre-pilot and lab facilities. This project encompassed four principal tasks, in addition to Project Management and Planning: 1) identify a deep saline formation carbon sequestration site and a partner that are suitable for supplying extracted water; 2) conduct a techno-economic assessment and down-selection of pre-treatment and desalination technologies to identify a cost-effective system for extracted water recovery; 3) validate the downselected processes at the lab/pre-pilot scale; and 4) define the scope of the pilot desalination project. Highlights from each task are described below: Deep saline formation characterization The deep saline formations associated with the five DOE NETL 1260 Phase 1 projects were characterized with respect to their mineralogy and formation water composition. Sources of high TDS feed water other than extracted water were explored for high TDS desalination applications, including unconventional oil and gas and seawater reverse osmosis concentrate. Technoeconomic analysis of desalination technologies Techno-economic evaluations of alternate brine concentration technologies, including humidification-dehumidification (HDH), membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), turboexpander-freeze, solvent extraction and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO), were conducted. These technologies were evaluated against conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) as a baseline desalination process. Furthermore, a

  10. Fundus Image Features Extraction for Exudate Mining in Coordination with Content Based Image Retrieval: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, C.; Jayadevappa, D.; Tunga, Satish

    2018-06-01

    Medical field has seen a phenomenal improvement over the previous years. The invention of computers with appropriate increase in the processing and internet speed has changed the face of the medical technology. However there is still scope for improvement of the technologies in use today. One of the many such technologies of medical aid is the detection of afflictions of the eye. Although a repertoire of research has been accomplished in this field, most of them fail to address how to take the detection forward to a stage where it will be beneficial to the society at large. An automated system that can predict the current medical condition of a patient after taking the fundus image of his eye is yet to see the light of the day. Such a system is explored in this paper by summarizing a number of techniques for fundus image features extraction, predominantly hard exudate mining, coupled with Content Based Image Retrieval to develop an automation tool. The knowledge of the same would bring about worthy changes in the domain of exudates extraction of the eye. This is essential in cases where the patients may not have access to the best of technologies. This paper attempts at a comprehensive summary of the techniques for Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) or fundus features image extraction, and few choice methods of both, and an exploration which aims to find ways to combine these two attractive features, and combine them so that it is beneficial to all.

  11. Fundus Image Features Extraction for Exudate Mining in Coordination with Content Based Image Retrieval: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gururaj, C.; Jayadevappa, D.; Tunga, Satish

    2018-02-01

    Medical field has seen a phenomenal improvement over the previous years. The invention of computers with appropriate increase in the processing and internet speed has changed the face of the medical technology. However there is still scope for improvement of the technologies in use today. One of the many such technologies of medical aid is the detection of afflictions of the eye. Although a repertoire of research has been accomplished in this field, most of them fail to address how to take the detection forward to a stage where it will be beneficial to the society at large. An automated system that can predict the current medical condition of a patient after taking the fundus image of his eye is yet to see the light of the day. Such a system is explored in this paper by summarizing a number of techniques for fundus image features extraction, predominantly hard exudate mining, coupled with Content Based Image Retrieval to develop an automation tool. The knowledge of the same would bring about worthy changes in the domain of exudates extraction of the eye. This is essential in cases where the patients may not have access to the best of technologies. This paper attempts at a comprehensive summary of the techniques for Content Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) or fundus features image extraction, and few choice methods of both, and an exploration which aims to find ways to combine these two attractive features, and combine them so that it is beneficial to all.

  12. Time Domain Feature Extraction Technique for earth's electric field signal prior to the Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astuti, W; Sediono, W; Akmeliawati, R; Salami, M J E

    2013-01-01

    Earthquake is one of the most destructive of natural disasters that killed many people and destroyed a lot of properties. By considering these catastrophic effects, it is highly important of knowing ahead of earthquakes in order to reduce the number of victims and material losses. Earth's electric field is one of the features that can be used to predict earthquakes (EQs), since it has significant changes in the amplitude of the signal prior to the earthquake. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the earth's electric field due to earthquakes which occurred in Greece, between January 1, 2008 and June 30, 2008. In that period of time, 13 earthquakes had occurred. 6 of them were recorded with magnitudes greater than Ms=5R (5R), while 7 of them were recorded with magnitudes greater than Ms=6R (6R). Time domain feature extraction technique is applied to analyze the 1st significant changes in the earth's electric field prior to the earthquake. Two different time domain feature extraction techniques are applied in this work, namely Simple Square Integral (SSI) and Root Mean Square (RMS). The 1st significant change of the earth's electric field signal in each of monitoring sites is extracted using those two techniques. The feature extraction result can be used as input parameter for an earthquake prediction system

  13. Techniques for extracting single-trial activity patterns from large-scale neural recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchland, Mark M; Yu, Byron M; Sahani, Maneesh; Shenoy, Krishna V

    2008-01-01

    Summary Large, chronically-implanted arrays of microelectrodes are an increasingly common tool for recording from primate cortex, and can provide extracellular recordings from many (order of 100) neurons. While the desire for cortically-based motor prostheses has helped drive their development, such arrays also offer great potential to advance basic neuroscience research. Here we discuss the utility of array recording for the study of neural dynamics. Neural activity often has dynamics beyond that driven directly by the stimulus. While governed by those dynamics, neural responses may nevertheless unfold differently for nominally identical trials, rendering many traditional analysis methods ineffective. We review recent studies – some employing simultaneous recording, some not – indicating that such variability is indeed present both during movement generation, and during the preceding premotor computations. In such cases, large-scale simultaneous recordings have the potential to provide an unprecedented view of neural dynamics at the level of single trials. However, this enterprise will depend not only on techniques for simultaneous recording, but also on the use and further development of analysis techniques that can appropriately reduce the dimensionality of the data, and allow visualization of single-trial neural behavior. PMID:18093826

  14. Base Oils Biodegradability Prediction with Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malika Trabelsi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we apply various data mining techniques including continuous numeric and discrete classification prediction models of base oils biodegradability, with emphasis on improving prediction accuracy. The results show that highly biodegradable oils can be better predicted through numeric models. In contrast, classification models did not uncover a similar dichotomy. With the exception of Memory Based Reasoning and Decision Trees, tested classification techniques achieved high classification prediction. However, the technique of Decision Trees helped uncover the most significant predictors. A simple classification rule derived based on this predictor resulted in good classification accuracy. The application of this rule enables efficient classification of base oils into either low or high biodegradability classes with high accuracy. For the latter, a higher precision biodegradability prediction can be obtained using continuous modeling techniques.

  15. The determination of organochlorine pesticides based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ligang; Ding Lan; Jin Haiyan; Song Daqian; Zhang Huarong; Li Jiantao; Zhang Kun; Wang Yutang; Zhang Hanqi

    2007-01-01

    A rapid technique based on dynamic microwave-assisted extraction coupled with on-line solid-phase extraction of high-performance liquid chromatography (DMAE-SPE-HPLC) has been developed. A TM 010 microwave resonance cavity built in the laboratory was applied to concentrate the microwave energy. The sample placed in the zone of microwave irradiation was extracted with 95% acetonitrile (ACN) aqueous solution which was driven by a peristaltic pump at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min -1 . The extraction can be completed in a recirculating system in 10 min. When a number of extraction cycles were completed, the extract (1 mL) was diluted on-line with water. Then the extract was loaded into an SPE column where the analytes were retained while the unretained matrix components were washed away. Subsequently, the analytes were automatically transferred from the SPE column to the analytical column and determined by UV detector at 238 nm. The technique was used for determination of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in grains, including wheat, rice, corn and bean. The limits of detection of OCPs are in the range of 19-37 ng g -1 . The recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked grain samples are in the range of 86-105%, whereas the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values are <8.7% ranging from 1.2 to 8.7%. Our method was demonstrated to be fast, accurate, and precise. In addition, only small quantities of solvent and sample were required

  16. Comparison of various extraction techniques for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, D; Hoogerbrugge, R; Stoffelsen, B H G; Dijkman, E; Berkhoff, C J; Hogendoorn, E A

    2002-10-25

    Two less laborious extraction methods, viz. (i) a simplified liquid extraction using light petroleum or (ii) microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE), for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of the compost worm Eisenia andrei, were compared with a reference method. After extraction and concentration, analytical methodology consisted of a cleanup of (part) of the extract with high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and instrumental analysis of 15 PAHs with reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (RPLC-FLD). Comparison of the methods was done by analysing samples with incurred residues (n=15, each method) originating from an experiment in which worms were exposed to a soil contaminated with PAHs. Simultaneously, the performance of the total lipid determination of each method was established. Evaluation of the data by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the performance of the light petroleum method for both the extraction of PAHs (concentration range 1-30 ng/g) and lipid content corresponds very well with the reference method. Compared to the reference method, the MASE method yielded somewhat lower concentrations for the less volatile PAHs, e.g., dibenzo[ah]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene and provided a significant higher amount of co-extracted material.

  17. Quantum Jarzynski equality of measurement-based work extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikuni, Yohei; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hatano, Naomichi

    2017-03-01

    Many studies of quantum-size heat engines assume that the dynamics of an internal system is unitary and that the extracted work is equal to the energy loss of the internal system. Both assumptions, however, should be under scrutiny. In the present paper, we analyze quantum-scale heat engines, employing the measurement-based formulation of the work extraction recently introduced by Hayashi and Tajima [M. Hayashi and H. Tajima, arXiv:1504.06150]. We first demonstrate the inappropriateness of the unitary time evolution of the internal system (namely, the first assumption above) using a simple two-level system; we show that the variance of the energy transferred to an external system diverges when the dynamics of the internal system is approximated to a unitary time evolution. Second, we derive the quantum Jarzynski equality based on the formulation of Hayashi and Tajima as a relation for the work measured by an external macroscopic apparatus. The right-hand side of the equality reduces to unity for "natural" cyclic processes but fluctuates wildly for noncyclic ones, exceeding unity often. This fluctuation should be detectable in experiments and provide evidence for the present formulation.

  18. Development of novel techniques to extract phenolic compounds from Romanian cultivars of Prunus domestica L. and their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocan, Andrei; Diuzheva, Alina; Carradori, Simone; Andruch, Vasil; Massafra, Chiara; Moldovan, Cadmiel; Sisea, Cristian; Petzer, Jacobus P; Petzer, Anél; Zara, Susi; Marconi, Guya Diletta; Zengin, Gokhan; Crișan, Gianina; Locatelli, Marcello

    2018-04-21

    In the present work, fourteen cultivars of Prunus domestica were analysed to investigate their phenolic pattern with the purpose of using the leaves as potential resources of bioactive compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction techniques were optimized in order to obtain an exhaustive multi-component panel of phenolic compounds. The best phenolic-enriched recovery was achieved using MAE in water:methanol (30:70), and this procedure was further applied for quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds in real samples. In order to prove the safeness of these extracts, the biological potential of the Prunus cultivars was tested by several in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays. Moreover, their cytotoxicity was evaluated on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs), and in most of the cases the treatment with different concentrations of extracts didn't show cytotoxicity up to 500 μg/mL. Only 'Carpatin' and 'Minerva' cultivars, at 250 and 500 μg/mL, reduced partially cell viability of HGFs population. Noteworthy, Centenar cultivar was the most active for the α-glucosidase inhibition (6.77 mmolACAE/g extract), whereas Ialomița cultivar showed the best antityrosinase activity (23.07 mgKAE/g extract). Overall, leaves of P. domestica represent a rich alternative source of bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. The role of chemometrics in single and sequential extraction assays: a review. Part II. Cluster analysis, multiple linear regression, mixture resolution, experimental design and other techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Agnese; Abollino, Ornella; Malandrino, Mery; Mentasti, Edoardo

    2011-03-04

    Single and sequential extraction procedures are used for studying element mobility and availability in solid matrices, like soils, sediments, sludge, and airborne particulate matter. In the first part of this review we reported an overview on these procedures and described the applications of chemometric uni- and bivariate techniques and of multivariate pattern recognition techniques based on variable reduction to the experimental results obtained. The second part of the review deals with the use of chemometrics not only for the visualization and interpretation of data, but also for the investigation of the effects of experimental conditions on the response, the optimization of their values and the calculation of element fractionation. We will describe the principles of the multivariate chemometric techniques considered, the aims for which they were applied and the key findings obtained. The following topics will be critically addressed: pattern recognition by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and other less common techniques; modelling by multiple linear regression (MLR); investigation of spatial distribution of variables by geostatistics; calculation of fractionation patterns by a mixture resolution method (Chemometric Identification of Substrates and Element Distributions, CISED); optimization and characterization of extraction procedures by experimental design; other multivariate techniques less commonly applied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Innovative separation and preconcentration technique of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction exploiting graphene oxide nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaghi, Mehri; Mousavi, Hassan Zavvar; Rashidi, Ali Morad; Shirkhanloo, Hamid; Rahighi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    A uniquely novel, fast, and facile technique is introduced for the first time in which a scant amount of graphene oxide (GO), without modification, has been utilized in dispersive mode of solid phase extraction (SPE) for an efficient yet simple separation. The proposed method of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction (CHD-µSPE) is based on coagulation of homogeneous GO solution with the aid of polyetheneimine (PEI). CHD-µSPE use full adsorption capacity of GO because in this method was used GO solution obtained from synthesis process without drying step and stacking nanosheets. In optimized condition, 30 µL GO solution (7 mg mL(-1)), obtained in synthesis process, was injected into 1.5 mL the sample solution followed by immediate injection of 53 µL PEI solution (1 mg mL(-1)). After inserting PEI, GO sheets aggregate and can be readily separated by centrifugation. PEI not only cause aggregation of GO, but also form three-dimensional network of GO with easy handling in following separation steps. Lead, cadmium, and chromium were selected as model analytes and the effecting parameters including the amount of GO, concentration of PEI, sample pH, extraction time, and type of desorption solvent were investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the proposed CHD-µSPE method can be successfully applied GO in dispersive mode of SPE without effecting on good capability adsorption of GO. The novel method was applied in determination of lead, cadmium, and chromium in water, human saliva, and urine samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits are as low as 0.035, 0.005, and 0.012 µg L(-1) for Pb, Cd, and Cr respectively. The intra-day precisions (RSDs) were lower than 3.8%. CHD-µSPE method showed a good linear ranges of 0.24-15.6, 0.015-0.95 and 0.039-2.33 µg L(-1) for Pb, Cd and Cr respectively. Method performance was investigated by determination of mentioned metal ions in river water, human urine and

  1. improvement of digital image watermarking techniques based on FPGA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Hadedy, M.E

    2006-01-01

    digital watermarking provides the ownership of a piece of digital data by marking the considered data invisibly or visibly. this can be used to protect several types of multimedia objects such as audio, text, image and video. this thesis demonstrates the different types of watermarking techniques such as (discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and their characteristics. then, it classifies these techniques declaring their advantages and disadvantages. an improved technique with distinguished features, such as peak signal to noise ratio ( PSNR) and similarity ratio (SR) has been introduced. the modified technique has been compared with the other techniques by measuring heir robustness against differ attacks. finally, field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) based implementation and comparison, for the proposed watermarking technique have been presented and discussed

  2. [The anesthetic effects of Gow-Gates technique of inferior alveolar nerve block in impacted mandibular third molar extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jieping; Liu, Wei; Gao, Qinghong

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the anesthetic effects and safety of Gow-Gates technique of inferior alveolar nerve block in impacted mandibular third molar extraction. A split-mouth study was designed. The bilateral impacted mandibular third molar of 32 participants were divided into Gow-Gates technique of inferior alveolar nerve block (Gow-Gates group) and conventional technique of inferior alveolar nerve block (conventional group) randomly with third molar extracted. The anesthetic effects and adverse events were recorded. All the participants completed the research. The anesthetic success rate was 96.9% in Gow-Gates group and 90.6% in conventional group with no statistical difference ( P= 0.317); but when comparing the anesthesia grade, Gow-Gates group had a 96.9% of grade A and B, and conventional group had a rate of 78.1% (P = 0.034). And the Gow-Gates group had a much lower withdrawn bleeding than conventional group (P = 0.025). Two groups had no hematoma. Gow-Gates technique had a reliable anesthesia effects and safety in impacted mandibular third molar extraction and could be chosen as a candidate for the conventional inferior alveolar nerve block.

  3. Removal of actinide elements from liquid scintillation cocktail wastes using liquid-liquid extraction and demulsification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foltz, K.; Landsberger, S.; Srinivasan, B.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1994-01-01

    For many years liquid scintillation cocktail (LSC) wastes have been generated and stored at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). These wastes are stored in thousands of 10--20 m scintillation vials, many of which contain elements with Z > 88. Because storage space is limited, disposal of this waste is pressing. These wastes could be commercially incinerated if the radionuclides with Z>88 are reduced to sufficiently low levels. However, there is currently no deminimus level for these radionuclides, and separation techniques are still being tested. The University of Illinois is conducting experiments to separate radionuclides with Z > 88 from simulated LSC wastes by using liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) and demulsification techniques. The actinide elements are removed from the LSC by extraction into an aqueous phase after the cocktail has been demulsified. The aqueous and organic phases are separated and the organic phase, now free from radionuclides with Z > 88, can be sent to a commercial incineration facility. The aqueous phase may be treated and disposed of using existing techniques. The LLX separation techniques used solutions of sodium oxalate, aluminum nitrate, and tetrasodium EDTA at varying concentrations. These extractants were mixed with the simulated waste in a 1:1 volume ratio. Using 1.0M Na 4 EDTA salt solutions, decontamination ratios as high as 230 were achieved

  4. Characterization of the aroma profile of Madeira wine by sorptive extraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R F; Nascimento, A M D; Nogueira, J M F

    2005-08-01

    The characterization of the aroma profile of 33 samples of Madeira wine from five monovarieties (Sercial, Verdelho, Boal, Malvasia and Tinta Negra Mole) having different type and categories is presented, using solid phase microextraction and stir bar sorptive extraction techniques (SPME and SBSE) followed by capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection (GC-MS). Headspace SPME/GC-MS provided effectiveness to identify the major constituents of the aroma profile of Madeira wine, where no remarkable differences occur among the samples studied. The volatile compounds are mainly constituted by ethyl octanoate (11.3-256.9μgL -1 ), ethyl decanoate (21.5-210.5μgL -1 ), ethyl decenoate (0.1-112.8μgL -1 ), diethyl succinate (0.9-65.6μgL -1 ), ethyl dodecanoate (1.2-6.5μgL -1 ), ethyl nonanoate (0.6-5.2μgL -1 ), ethyl hexanoate (0.2-3.7μgL -1 ) and isoamyl octanoate (0-2.2μgL -1 ). C 13 norisoprenoids such as vitispirane (0.9-7.0μgL -1 ) and 1,1,6-trimethyl 1,2-dihydro naphthalene (0.7-12.5μgL -1 ), as well as phenyl ethanol (0-8.1μgL -1 ), were also found in Madeira wine samples. The powerful capabilities of SBSE followed thermal desorption and GC-MS analysis allowed higher ability for profiling traces and ultra traces of compounds in Madeira wine samples, including esters (80.7-89.7%), carboxylic acids (1.6-4.2%), alcohols (3.5-8.2%), aldehydes (0.9-3.7%), pyrans (0.2-1.7%), lactones (sensorial threshold limits. Excellent correlation between Madeira wine ageing and the abundance of cis-oak lactone was attained showing to be an important chemical descriptor to characterize reserves and Vintages as well as a contributor to wine flavour. The differentiation between reserves, dry/medium dry and sweet/medium sweet young wines could be well established by means of chemometric analysis, using particular aroma compounds such as diethyl succinate, cis-oak lactone and ethyl octanoate as discriminating variables.

  5. Digital extraction of interference fringe contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastin, G.A.; Ghiglia, D.C.

    1985-01-01

    Two basic techniques for extracting interferogram contours have been discussed. The first is a global contour extracton technique based on the fast Fourier transform. The second extracts individual contours with a thinning algorithm using logical neighborhood transformations

  6. Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction of herbicides in peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Wang, Zhibing; Zhang, Liyuan; Nian, Li; Lei, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Hanqi; Yu, Aimin

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-phase extraction coupled with metal-organic frameworks-based dispersive solid phase extraction was developed and applied to the extraction of pesticides in high fatty matrices. The herbicides were ultrasonically extracted from peanut using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The separation of the analytes from a large amount of co-extractive fat was achieved by dispersive solid-phase extraction using MIL-101(Cr) as sorbent. In this step, the analytes were adsorbed on MIL-101(Cr) and the fat remained in bulk. The herbicides were separated and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental parameters, including type and volume of extraction solvent, ultrasonication time, volume of hexane and eluting solvent, amount of MIL-101(Cr) and dispersive solid phase extraction time, were optimized. The limits of detection for herbicides range from 0.98 to 1.9 μg/kg. The recoveries of the herbicides are in the range of 89.5-102.7% and relative standard deviations are equal or lower than 7.0%. The proposed method is simple, effective and suitable for treatment of the samples containing high content of fat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid analysis of steels using laser-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.; Archuleta, F.L.; Dilworth, H.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on the data obtained by this study, we conclude that laser-based techniques can be used to provide at least semi-quantitative information about the elemental composition of molten steel. Of the two techniques investigated here, the Sample-Only method appears preferable to the LIBS (laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy) method because of its superior analytical performance. In addition, the Sample-Only method would probably be easier to incorporate into a steel plant environment. However, before either technique can be applied to steel monitoring, additional research is needed

  8. Comparison of extraction techniques for isolation of steroid oestrogens in environmentally relevant concentrations from sediment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sadílek, Jan; Spálovská, P.; Vrana, B.; Vávrová, M.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Šimek, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 11 (2016), s. 1022-1037 ISSN 0306-7319 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : microwave - assisted extraction * estrogens * sediment Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 1.208, year: 2016

  9. Contributions from the data samples in NOC technique on the extracting of the Sq variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingyan; Xu, Wenyao

    2015-04-01

    The solar quiet daily variation, Sq, a rather regular variation is usually observed at mid-low latitudes on magnetic quiet days or less-disturbed days. It is mainly resulted from the dynamo currents in the ionospheric E region, which are driven by the atmospheric tidal wind and different processes and flow as two current whorls in each of the northern and southern hemispheres[1]. The Sq exhibits a conspicuous day-to-day (DTD) variability in daily range (or strength), shape (or phase) and its current focus. This variability is mainly attributed to changes in the ionospheric conductivity and tidal winds, varying with solar radiation and ionospheric conditions. Furthermore, it presents a seasonal variation and solar cycle variation[2-4]. In generally, Sq is expressed with the average value of the five international magnetic quiet days. Using data from global magnetic stations, equivalent current system of daily variation can be constructed to reveal characteristics of the currents[5]. In addition, using the differences of H component at two stations on north and south side of the Sq currents of focus, Sq is extracted much better[6]. Recently, the method of Natural Orthoganal Components (NOC) is used to decompose the magnetic daily variation and express it as the summation of eigenmodes, and indicate the first NOC eigenmode as the solar quiet daily variation, the second as the disturbance daily variation[7-9]. As we know, the NOC technique can help reveal simpler patterns within a complex set of variables, without designed basic-functions such as FFT technique. But the physical explanation of the NOC eigenmodes is greatly depends on the number of data samples and data regular-quality. Using the NOC method, we focus our present study on the analysis of the hourly means of the H component at BMT observatory in China from 2001 to 2008. The contributions of the number and the regular-quality of the data samples on which eigenmode corresponds to the Sq are analyzed, by

  10. The optimal extraction of feature algorithm based on KAZE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zheyi; Gu, Guohua; Qian, Weixian; Wang, Pengcheng

    2015-10-01

    As a novel method of 2D features extraction algorithm over the nonlinear scale space, KAZE provide a special method. However, the computation of nonlinear scale space and the construction of KAZE feature vectors are more expensive than the SIFT and SURF significantly. In this paper, the given image is used to build the nonlinear space up to a maximum evolution time through the efficient Additive Operator Splitting (AOS) techniques and the variable conductance diffusion. Changing the parameter can improve the construction of nonlinear scale space and simplify the image conductivities for each dimension space, with the predigest computation. Then, the detection for points of interest can exhibit a maxima of the scale-normalized determinant with the Hessian response in the nonlinear scale space. At the same time, the detection of feature vectors is optimized by the Wavelet Transform method, which can avoid the second Gaussian smoothing in the KAZE Features and cut down the complexity of the algorithm distinctly in the building and describing vectors steps. In this way, the dominant orientation is obtained, similar to SURF, by summing the responses within a sliding circle segment covering an angle of π/3 in the circular area of radius 6σ with a sampling step of size σ one by one. Finally, the extraction in the multidimensional patch at the given scale, centered over the points of interest and rotated to align its dominant orientation to a canonical direction, is able to simplify the description of feature by reducing the description dimensions, just as the PCA-SIFT method. Even though the features are somewhat more expensive to compute than SIFT due to the construction of nonlinear scale space, but compared to SURF, the result revels a step forward in performance in detection, description and application against the previous ways by the following contrast experiments.

  11. Model-based Extracted Water Desalination System for Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gettings, Rachel; Dees, Elizabeth

    2017-03-23

    The focus of this research effort centered around water recovery from high Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) extracted waters (180,000 mg/L) using a combination of water recovery (partial desalination) technologies. The research goals of this project were as follows: 1. Define the scope and test location for pilot-scale implementation of the desalination system, 2.Define a scalable, multi-stage extracted water desalination system that yields clean water, concentrated brine, and, salt from saline brines, and 3. Validate overall system performance with field-sourced water using GE pre-pilot lab facilities. Conventional falling film-mechanical vapor recompression (FF-MVR) technology was established as a baseline desalination process. A quality function deployment (QFD) method was used to compare alternate high TDS desalination technologies to the base case FF-MVR technology, including but not limited to: membrane distillation (MD), forward osmosis (FO), and high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO). Technoeconomic analysis of high pressure reverse osmosis (HPRO) was performed comparing the following two cases: 1. a hybrid seawater RO (SWRO) plus HPRO system and 2. 2x standard seawater RO system, to achieve the same total pure water recovery rate. Pre-pilot-scale tests were conducted using field production water to validate key process steps for extracted water pretreatment. Approximately 5,000 gallons of field produced water was processed through, microfiltration, ultrafiltration, and steam regenerable sorbent operations. Improvements in membrane materials of construction were considered as necessary next steps to achieving further improvement in element performance at high pressure. Several modifications showed promising results in their ability to withstand close to 5,000 PSI without gross failure.

  12. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of essential oil and biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-hui; Liu, Ting-ting; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuan-gang; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Chunjian

    2011-12-02

    Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction (ILMAE) has been successfully applied in extracting essential oil and four kinds of biphenyl cyclooctene lignans from Schisandra chinensis Baill. 0.25 M 1-lauryl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ionic liquid is selected as solvent. The optimum parameters of dealing with 25.0 g sample are 385 W irradiation power, 40 min microwave extraction time and 1:12 solid-liquid ratio. The yields of essential oil and lignans are 12.12±0.37 ml/kg and 250.2±38.2 mg/kg under the optimum conditions. The composition of the essential oil extracted by hydro-distillation, steam-distillation and ILMAE is analyzed by GC-MS. With ILMAE method, the energy consumption time has not only been shortened to 40 min (hydro-distillation 3.0 h for extracting essential oil and reflux extraction 4.0 h for extracting lignans, respectively), but also the extraction efficiency has been improved (extraction of lignans and distillation of essential oil at the same time) and reduces the environmental pollution. S. chinensis materials treated by different methods are observed by scanning electronic microscopy. Micrographs provide more evidence to prove that ILMAE is a better and faster method. The experimental results also indicate that ILMAE is a simple and efficient technique for sample preparation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison on extraction yield of sennoside A and sennoside B from senna (Cassia angustifolia) using conventional and non conventional extraction techniques and their quantification using a validated HPLC-PDA detection method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanani, Tushar; Singh, Raghuraj; Reddy, Nagaraja; Trivedi, A; Kumar, Satyanshu

    2017-05-01

    Senna is an important medicinal plant and is used in many Ayurvedic formulations. Dianthraquinone glucosides are the main bioactive phytochemicals present in leaves and pods of senna. The extraction efficiency in terms of yield and composition of the extract of senna prepared using both conventional (cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing) and non conventional (ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction as well as supercritical fluid extraction) techniques were compared in the present study. Also a rapid reverse phase HPLC-PDA detection method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sennoside A and sennoside B in the different extracts of senna leaves. Ultrasound and microwave assisted solvent extraction techniques were more effective in terms of yield and composition of the extracts compared to cold percolation at room temperature and refluxing methods of extraction.

  14. Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipper, Beatriz I.A.; Madureira, Luiz A.S. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: madureira@qmc.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria

    2001-07-01

    The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianopolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3) for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 {mu}g g{sup -1} ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g{sup -1}. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes. (author)

  15. Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaipper Beatriz I. A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianópolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3 for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 mug g-1 ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g-1. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes.

  16. Parameters extraction for perovskite solar cells based on Lambert W-function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Junyu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviors of the solar cells are decided by the device parameters. Thus, it is necessary to extract these parameters to achieve the optimal working condition. Because the five-parameter model of solar cells has the implicit equation of current-voltage relationship, it is difficult to obtain the parameters with conventional methods. In this work, an optimized method is presented to extract device parameters from the actual test data of photovoltaic cell. Based on Lambert W-function, explicit formulation of the model can be deduced. The proposed technique takes suitable method of selecting sample points, which are used to calculate the values of the model parameters. By comparing with the Quasi-Newton method, the results verify accuracy and reliability of this method.

  17. Plasmonic characterization of photo-induced silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based TEM film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail: sudheer@rrcat.gov.in; Tiwari, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Varshney, G. K. [Laser Bio-medical Applications & Instrumentation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Photo-reduction process is carried out to convert the silver halide grains into the metallic silver. The centrifuge technique is used for separating the silver nanoparticles from the residual solution. Morphological study performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) shows that all the nanoparticles have an average diameter of ~120 nm with a high degree of mono dispersion in size. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak at ~537 nm confirms the presence of large size silver nanoparticles.

  18. Tie Points Extraction for SAR Images Based on Differential Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, X.; Jin, G.; Xu, Q.; Zhang, H.

    2018-04-01

    Automatically extracting tie points (TPs) on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC) algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC) algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. TIE POINTS EXTRACTION FOR SAR IMAGES BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatically extracting tie points (TPs on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.

  20. Fractal Complexity-Based Feature Extraction Algorithm of Communication Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Jingchao; Guo, Lili; Dou, Zheng; Lin, Yun; Zhou, Ruolin

    How to analyze and identify the characteristics of radiation sources and estimate the threat level by means of detecting, intercepting and locating has been the central issue of electronic support in the electronic warfare, and communication signal recognition is one of the key points to solve this issue. Aiming at accurately extracting the individual characteristics of the radiation source for the increasingly complex communication electromagnetic environment, a novel feature extraction algorithm for individual characteristics of the communication radiation source based on the fractal complexity of the signal is proposed. According to the complexity of the received signal and the situation of environmental noise, use the fractal dimension characteristics of different complexity to depict the subtle characteristics of the signal to establish the characteristic database, and then identify different broadcasting station by gray relation theory system. The simulation results demonstrate that the algorithm can achieve recognition rate of 94% even in the environment with SNR of -10dB, and this provides an important theoretical basis for the accurate identification of the subtle features of the signal at low SNR in the field of information confrontation.

  1. Localized Segment Based Processing for Automatic Building Extraction from LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, G.; Rajan, K. S.

    2017-05-01

    The current methods of object segmentation and extraction and classification of aerial LiDAR data is manual and tedious task. This work proposes a technique for object segmentation out of LiDAR data. A bottom-up geometric rule based approach was used initially to devise a way to segment buildings out of the LiDAR datasets. For curved wall surfaces, comparison of localized surface normals was done to segment buildings. The algorithm has been applied to both synthetic datasets as well as real world dataset of Vaihingen, Germany. Preliminary results show successful segmentation of the buildings objects from a given scene in case of synthetic datasets and promissory results in case of real world data. The advantages of the proposed work is non-dependence on any other form of data required except LiDAR. It is an unsupervised method of building segmentation, thus requires no model training as seen in supervised techniques. It focuses on extracting the walls of the buildings to construct the footprint, rather than focussing on roof. The focus on extracting the wall to reconstruct the buildings from a LiDAR scene is crux of the method proposed. The current segmentation approach can be used to get 2D footprints of the buildings, with further scope to generate 3D models. Thus, the proposed method can be used as a tool to get footprints of buildings in urban landscapes, helping in urban planning and the smart cities endeavour.

  2. LOCALIZED SEGMENT BASED PROCESSING FOR AUTOMATIC BUILDING EXTRACTION FROM LiDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Parida

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The current methods of object segmentation and extraction and classification of aerial LiDAR data is manual and tedious task. This work proposes a technique for object segmentation out of LiDAR data. A bottom-up geometric rule based approach was used initially to devise a way to segment buildings out of the LiDAR datasets. For curved wall surfaces, comparison of localized surface normals was done to segment buildings. The algorithm has been applied to both synthetic datasets as well as real world dataset of Vaihingen, Germany. Preliminary results show successful segmentation of the buildings objects from a given scene in case of synthetic datasets and promissory results in case of real world data. The advantages of the proposed work is non-dependence on any other form of data required except LiDAR. It is an unsupervised method of building segmentation, thus requires no model training as seen in supervised techniques. It focuses on extracting the walls of the buildings to construct the footprint, rather than focussing on roof. The focus on extracting the wall to reconstruct the buildings from a LiDAR scene is crux of the method proposed. The current segmentation approach can be used to get 2D footprints of the buildings, with further scope to generate 3D models. Thus, the proposed method can be used as a tool to get footprints of buildings in urban landscapes, helping in urban planning and the smart cities endeavour.

  3. COSMO-RS-based extractant screening for phenol extraction as model system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghoff, B.; Goetheer, E.L.V.; Haan, A.B. de

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this investigation is the development of a fast and reliable extractant screening approach. Phenol extraction is selected as the model process. A quantum chemical conductor-like screening model for real solvents (COSMO-RS) is combined with molecular design considerations. For this

  4. Potentials of enhancing the physicochemical and functional characteristics of Nigella sativa oil by using the screw pressing technique for extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, S.F.; Shaaban, H.A.; Ramadan, A.A.; Edris, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    In the current investigation the crude oil of Nigella sativa was extracted from seeds using hydraulic and screw pressing techniques. Different parameters were evaluated in order to find out the appropriate technique to enhance the physicochemical and functional-related characteristics of the extracted crude oil. Results showed that the acid and peroxide values were significantly lower in the screw pressed oil (SPO) than in the hydraulic pressed oil (HPO). The total phenolic content of the SPO was significantly higher than that of HPO. Evaluation of the oxidative stability using the Rancimat test showed that SPO recorded a much higher oxidative stability index (40.07 h) than HPO (0.51 h). The yield of the volatile oil fraction and its contents of thymoquinone isolated from the SPO were higher than that from the HPO. Biological evaluation revealed that the SPO had significantly higher antimicrobial activity than HPO against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus at 40 μL/well. [es

  5. Comparison of the method of diffusive gels in thin films with conventional extraction techniques for evaluating zinc accumulation in plants and isopods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, Marijke; Reijnders, Lucas; Oost, Nathalie R. van; Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of diffusive gels in thin films (DGT) has recently been developed to assess metal bioavailability in soils. The DGT-method is based on diffusion in a porous matrix. To test the predictive capabilities of the method with regard to metal bioavailability, a study was set up with 28 soils having a variety of textures and amounts of zinc salts added. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to compare DGT-extracted zinc levels to zinc concentrations obtained by extraction with 0.01 M CaCl 2 and 0.43 M HNO 3 , digestion with aqua regia and the zinc concentration in pore water. The amount of zinc extracted with CaCl 2 correlated well with DGT-extracted zinc levels in all soils spiked with different amounts of ZnCl 2 . A similar correlation was not found for zinc concentrations in soil samples collected in the field. Experiments were performed to compare zinc content in organisms and in soils. The organisms tested were plants (grass, lettuce and lupine) and the hard bodied soil dwelling isopod Oniscus asellus. Good correlations were found between zinc accumulation in grass and lettuce and the C E (effective concentration) measured by a DGT-device, CaCl 2 extracted zinc and the zinc content in the pore water of all soils. The correlation with C E was not significant for lupine, neither for spiked soils, nor for field soils (p ≤ 0.001). Zinc levels in the isopods were not significantly related to any set of zinc measurements. From a synthesis of all results obtained it is concluded that the DGT-methodology does not have an additional value in predicting bioavailability of zinc in terrestrial ecosystems as compared to conventional extraction methods. - Capsule: The newly developed method of diffusive gels in Thin films (DGT) does not have an added value over conventional extraction techniques in predicting zinc uptake by plants and isopods

  6. Rule-based Approach on Extraction of Malay Compound Nouns in Standard Malay Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Zamri; Kamal Ismail, Normaly; Rawi, Mohd Izani Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Malay compound noun is defined as a form of words that exists when two or more words are combined into a single syntax and it gives a specific meaning. Compound noun acts as one unit and it is spelled separately unless an established compound noun is written closely from two words. The basic characteristics of compound noun can be seen in the Malay sentences which are the frequency of that word in the text itself. Thus, this extraction of compound nouns is significant for the following research which is text summarization, grammar checker, sentiments analysis, machine translation and word categorization. There are many research efforts that have been proposed in extracting Malay compound noun using linguistic approaches. Most of the existing methods were done on the extraction of bi-gram noun+noun compound. However, the result still produces some problems as to give a better result. This paper explores a linguistic method for extracting compound Noun from stand Malay corpus. A standard dataset are used to provide a common platform for evaluating research on the recognition of compound Nouns in Malay sentences. Therefore, an improvement for the effectiveness of the compound noun extraction is needed because the result can be compromised. Thus, this study proposed a modification of linguistic approach in order to enhance the extraction of compound nouns processing. Several pre-processing steps are involved including normalization, tokenization and tagging. The first step that uses the linguistic approach in this study is Part-of-Speech (POS) tagging. Finally, we describe several rules-based and modify the rules to get the most relevant relation between the first word and the second word in order to assist us in solving of the problems. The effectiveness of the relations used in our study can be measured using recall, precision and F1-score techniques. The comparison of the baseline values is very essential because it can provide whether there has been an improvement

  7. Research of building information extraction and evaluation based on high-resolution remote-sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qiong; Gu, Lingjia; Ren, Ruizhi; Wang, Lang

    2016-09-01

    Building extraction currently is important in the application of high-resolution remote sensing imagery. At present, quite a few algorithms are available for detecting building information, however, most of them still have some obvious disadvantages, such as the ignorance of spectral information, the contradiction between extraction rate and extraction accuracy. The purpose of this research is to develop an effective method to detect building information for Chinese GF-1 data. Firstly, the image preprocessing technique is used to normalize the image and image enhancement is used to highlight the useful information in the image. Secondly, multi-spectral information is analyzed. Subsequently, an improved morphological building index (IMBI) based on remote sensing imagery is proposed to get the candidate building objects. Furthermore, in order to refine building objects and further remove false objects, the post-processing (e.g., the shape features, the vegetation index and the water index) is employed. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, the omission errors (OE), commission errors (CE), the overall accuracy (OA) and Kappa are used at final. The proposed method can not only effectively use spectral information and other basic features, but also avoid extracting excessive interference details from high-resolution remote sensing images. Compared to the original MBI algorithm, the proposed method reduces the OE by 33.14% .At the same time, the Kappa increase by 16.09%. In experiments, IMBI achieved satisfactory results and outperformed other algorithms in terms of both accuracies and visual inspection

  8. Wind turbine extraction from high spatial resolution remote sensing images based on saliency detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingbo; Yue, Anzhi; Wang, Chengyi; Huang, Qingqing; Chen, Jiansheng; Meng, Yu; He, Dongxu

    2018-01-01

    The wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical power. Accurate and automatic extraction of wind turbine is instructive for government departments to plan wind power plant projects. A hybrid and practical framework based on saliency detection for wind turbine extraction, using Google Earth image at spatial resolution of 1 m, is proposed. It can be viewed as a two-phase procedure: coarsely detection and fine extraction. In the first stage, we introduced a frequency-tuned saliency detection approach for initially detecting the area of interest of the wind turbines. This method exploited features of color and luminance, was simple to implement, and was computationally efficient. Taking into account the complexity of remote sensing images, in the second stage, we proposed a fast method for fine-tuning results in frequency domain and then extracted wind turbines from these salient objects by removing the irrelevant salient areas according to the special properties of the wind turbines. Experiments demonstrated that our approach consistently obtains higher precision and better recall rates. Our method was also compared with other techniques from the literature and proves that it is more applicable and robust.

  9. Research on Crowdsourcing Emergency Information Extraction of Based on Events' Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Jizhou; Ma, Weijun; Mao, Xi

    2018-01-01

    At present, the common information extraction method cannot extract the structured emergency event information accurately; the general information retrieval tool cannot completely identify the emergency geographic information; these ways also do not have an accurate assessment of these results of distilling. So, this paper proposes an emergency information collection technology based on event framework. This technique is to solve the problem of emergency information picking. It mainly includes emergency information extraction model (EIEM), complete address recognition method (CARM) and the accuracy evaluation model of emergency information (AEMEI). EIEM can be structured to extract emergency information and complements the lack of network data acquisition in emergency mapping. CARM uses a hierarchical model and the shortest path algorithm and allows the toponomy pieces to be joined as a full address. AEMEI analyzes the results of the emergency event and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the event framework. Experiments show that event frame technology can solve the problem of emergency information drawing and provides reference cases for other applications. When the emergency disaster is about to occur, the relevant departments query emergency's data that has occurred in the past. They can make arrangements ahead of schedule which defense and reducing disaster. The technology decreases the number of casualties and property damage in the country and world. This is of great significance to the state and society.

  10. Development of a flat membrane based device for electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Eibak, Lars Erik Eng; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    this EME device, exhaustive extraction of the basic drugs quetiapine, citalopram, amitriptyline, methadone and sertraline was investigated from both acidified water samples and human plasma. The volume of acceptor solution, extraction time, and extraction voltage were found to be important factors...

  11. The effect of different extraction techniques on property and bioactivity of polysaccharides from Dioscorea hemsleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengcheng; Li, Xia; Miao, Jing; Jing, Songsong; Li, Xuejiao; Huang, Luqi; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-09-01

    The rhizoma of Dioscorea hemsleyi (DH) has been used as a treatment of diabetes in China for hundreds of years. Polysaccharides in DH were extracted by using ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), cold water extraction (CWE), warm water extraction (WWE) and hot water extraction (HWE), separately. Then the different characterizations of four DH polysaccharide (DHP) samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), high-performance Gel permeation chromatography (HGPC), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy(UV), fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their activities in vitro of DHP were compared. Experimental results showed that HWE had the highest yield and large molecular weight. CWE had the highest uronic acid yield and little molecular weight, and its DPPH, AGI and AAI activity were the best. The molecular weight of UAE was small, and its RP and FRAP activity were the best. Four DHP samples had differences in the surface topography, while they all had the typical IR spectra characteristic of polysaccharides. According the correlation analysis, it showed that the more uronic acid and the lower molecular weight was, the higher the antioxidant activity was. The high content of monosaccharide composition of Xyl, Ara, GlcA and GalA, and little molecular weight have good effect on antidiabetic activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Phytochemical analysis and standardization of Strychnos nux-vomica extract through HPTLC techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective is to develop a noval qualitative and quantitative method by which we can determine different phytoconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica L. Methods: To profile the phyconstituents of Strychnos nux-vomica, in the present study hydroalcoholic extract of Strychnos nux-vomica was subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis, antimicrobial activities against certain pathogenic microorganisms, solubility test, loss on drying and pH value. Extract was also subjected to the quantitative analysis including total phenol, flavonoid and heavy metal analysis. Quantitative analysis was performed through HPTLC methods using strychnine and brucine as a standard marker. Results: Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, carbohydrate, tannin, steroid, triterpenoid and glycoside in the extract. Total flavonoid and phenol content of Strychnos nux-vomica L extract was found to be 0.40 % and 0.43%. Result showed that the level of heavy metal (lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium complie the standard level. Total bacterial count, yeast and moulds contents were found to be under the limit whereas E. coli and salmonella was found to be absent in the extract. Content of strychnine and brucine were found to be 4.75% and 3.91%. Conclusions: These studies provide valluable information for correct identification and selection of the drug from various adulterations. In future this study will be helpful for the quantitative analysis as well as standardization of the Strychnos nux-vomica L.

  13. Super-pixel extraction based on multi-channel pulse coupled neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, GuangZhu; Hu, Song; Zhang, Liu; Zhao, JingJing; Fu, YunXia; Lei, BangJun

    2018-04-01

    Super-pixel extraction techniques group pixels to form over-segmented image blocks according to the similarity among pixels. Compared with the traditional pixel-based methods, the image descripting method based on super-pixel has advantages of less calculation, being easy to perceive, and has been widely used in image processing and computer vision applications. Pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) is a biologically inspired model, which stems from the phenomenon of synchronous pulse release in the visual cortex of cats. Each PCNN neuron can correspond to a pixel of an input image, and the dynamic firing pattern of each neuron contains both the pixel feature information and its context spatial structural information. In this paper, a new color super-pixel extraction algorithm based on multi-channel pulse coupled neural network (MPCNN) was proposed. The algorithm adopted the block dividing idea of SLIC algorithm, and the image was divided into blocks with same size first. Then, for each image block, the adjacent pixels of each seed with similar color were classified as a group, named a super-pixel. At last, post-processing was adopted for those pixels or pixel blocks which had not been grouped. Experiments show that the proposed method can adjust the number of superpixel and segmentation precision by setting parameters, and has good potential for super-pixel extraction.

  14. Power system stabilizers based on modern control techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, O P; Chen, G P; Zhang, Y; El-Metwally, K [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1994-12-31

    Developments in digital technology have made it feasible to develop and implement improved controllers based on sophisticated control techniques. Power system stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and artificial networks are being developed. Each of these control techniques possesses unique features and strengths. In this paper, the relative performance of power systems stabilizers based on adaptive control, fuzzy logic and neural network, both in simulation studies and real time tests on a physical model of a power system, is presented and compared to that of a fixed parameter conventional power system stabilizer. (author) 16 refs., 45 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Simulation-based optimization parametric optimization techniques and reinforcement learning

    CERN Document Server

    Gosavi, Abhijit

    2003-01-01

    Simulation-Based Optimization: Parametric Optimization Techniques and Reinforcement Learning introduces the evolving area of simulation-based optimization. The book's objective is two-fold: (1) It examines the mathematical governing principles of simulation-based optimization, thereby providing the reader with the ability to model relevant real-life problems using these techniques. (2) It outlines the computational technology underlying these methods. Taken together these two aspects demonstrate that the mathematical and computational methods discussed in this book do work. Broadly speaking, the book has two parts: (1) parametric (static) optimization and (2) control (dynamic) optimization. Some of the book's special features are: *An accessible introduction to reinforcement learning and parametric-optimization techniques. *A step-by-step description of several algorithms of simulation-based optimization. *A clear and simple introduction to the methodology of neural networks. *A gentle introduction to converg...

  16. Chemical vs. electrochemical extraction of lithium from the Li-excess Li(1.10)Mn(1.90)O4 spinel followed by NMR and DRX techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, S; Sobrados, I; Tonti, D; Amarilla, J M; Sanz, J

    2014-02-21

    Lithium extraction from the Li-excess Li1.10Mn1.90O4 spinel has been performed by chemical and electrochemical methods in aqueous and in organic media, respectively. De-lithiated samples have been investigated by XRD, SEM, TG, (7)Li and (1)H MAS-NMR techniques. The comparative study has allowed demonstrating that the intermediate de-intercalated samples prepared during the chemical extraction by acid titration are similar to those prepared by the electrochemical way in a non-aqueous electrolyte. LiMn2O4 based spinel with a tailored de-lithiation degree can be prepared as a single phase by controlling the pH used in chemical extraction. (7)Li MAS-NMR spectroscopy has been used to follow the influence of the manganese oxidation state on tetra and octahedral Li-signals detected in Li-extracted samples. The oxidation of Mn(III) ions goes parallel to the partial dissolution of the spinel, following Hunter's mechanism. Based on this mechanism, a generalized chemical reaction has been proposed to explain the formation of intermediate Li(+) de-intercalated samples during acid treatment in aqueous media. By the (1)H MAS NMR study, no evidence of Li-H topotactic exchange in the bulk of the acid treated material was found.

  17. Chemical Variability and Biological Activities of Brassica rapa var. rapifera Parts Essential Oils Depending on Geographic Variation and Extraction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Boualem; Djouahri, Abderrahmane; Djerrad, Zineb; Terfi, Souhila; Aberrane, Sihem; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Baaliouamer, Aoumeur; Boudarene, Lynda

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, the Brassica rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils and their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated for the first time depending on geographic origin and extraction technique. Gas-chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS) analyses showed several constituents, including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ketones, norisoprenoids, terpenic, nitrogen and sulphur compounds, totalizing 38 and 41 compounds in leaves and root essential oils, respectively. Nitrogen compounds were the main volatiles in leaves essential oils and sulphur compounds were the main volatiles in root essential oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences were found among B. rapa var. rapifera parts essential oils collected from different locations and extracted by hydrodistillation and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation techniques. Furthermore, our findings showed a high variability for both antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The highlighted variability reflects the high impact of plant part, geographic variation and extraction technique on chemical composition and biological activities, which led to conclude that we should select essential oils to be investigated carefully depending on these factors, in order to isolate the bioactive components or to have the best quality of essential oil in terms of biological activities and preventive effects in food. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Determination of pesticides in fruits and vegetables using acetonitrile extraction and GC/MS technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.

    2010-01-01

    A selection of oranges, guava and spinach were purchased from the local markets of Lahore, Pakistan. Extraction of the samples was carried out using an acetonitrile/toluene extraction procedure to determine the residual concentration of pesticides which may have been used during seasonal growth. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for quantitative and confirmatory analysis of GC-amenable pesticides. The data obtained was compared with that of a referenced pesticide by matching molecular weight to a library of known pesticides. For comparison the same non-sprayed fruits/vegetable were extracted as a control reference. Factors studied were retention time, elution time, relative abundance and molecular weight. The results showed that low molecular weight pesticides were eluted before the high molecular weight pesticides. Pesticides identified included crotoxyphos, fenoxycarb and methoxyfenozide. (author)

  19. Research on Techniques of Multifeatures Extraction for Tongue Image and Its Application in Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is one of the important methods in the Chinese traditional medicine. Doctors can judge the disease’s situation by observing patient’s tongue color and texture. This paper presents a novel approach to extract color and texture features of tongue images. First, we use improved GLA (Generalized Lloyd Algorithm to extract the main color of tongue image. Considering that the color feature cannot fully express tongue image information, the paper analyzes tongue edge’s texture features and proposes an algorithm to extract them. Then, we integrate the two features in retrieval by different weight. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the detection rate of lesion in tongue image relative to single feature retrieval.

  20. Isolation of quercetin from the methanolic extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa by HPLC technique, its cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells and photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Saraswathi, V; Saravanan, D; Santhakumar, K

    2017-06-01

    The flavonoids present in the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa were extracted, characterized by spectral methods and studied for its cytotoxicity activity against MCF-cell lines and photocatalytic activity against azo dye. Direct and sequential soxhlet extraction was performed and its concentrated crude extract was subjected to high performance liquid chromatography. The yield obtained by the isolated compound (MEI-quercetin) from leaves of L. speciosa was found to be 1.8g from the methanolic extract. The phytochemical analysis and the Rf value of the isolated flavonoid was found to be 3.59. The isolated compound was characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, NMR and Mass. Based on the characterization, the structure was elucidated as quercetin - a flavonoid. The isolated compound showed the significant in vitro cytotoxicity activity against MCF-7 cell lines at 500μg/ml when compared to the crude extract. Among the various concentrations (25, 50, 100, 250, and 500μg/ml), at higher concentration the cell viability was pronounced and also compared with that of the control. It was first time to report that the isolated flavonoid showed photocatalytic against azo dye-methyl orange. The dye degradation was monitored by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The isolated compound showed dye degradation of 91.66% with the crude extract 82.47% at 160min. Hence in the present findings, the photocatalytic degradation of MO dye under UV irradiation was investigated over isolated compound of L. speciosa. Hence we expect that this can be used to treat the waste water in near future based on the photocatalytic technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Image Registration Based Technique for Noninvasive Vascular Elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Sina; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Mirbagheri, Alireza; Soozande, Mehdi; Manwar, Rayyan; Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive vascular elastography is an emerging technique in vascular tissue imaging. During the past decades, several techniques have been suggested to estimate the tissue elasticity by measuring the displacement of the Carotid vessel wall. Cross correlation-based methods are the most prevalent approaches to measure the strain exerted in the wall vessel by the blood pressure. In the case of a low pressure, the displacement is too small to be apparent in ultrasound imaging, especially in th...

  2. Memory Based Machine Intelligence Techniques in VLSI hardware

    OpenAIRE

    James, Alex Pappachen

    2012-01-01

    We briefly introduce the memory based approaches to emulate machine intelligence in VLSI hardware, describing the challenges and advantages. Implementation of artificial intelligence techniques in VLSI hardware is a practical and difficult problem. Deep architectures, hierarchical temporal memories and memory networks are some of the contemporary approaches in this area of research. The techniques attempt to emulate low level intelligence tasks and aim at providing scalable solutions to high ...

  3. The Research of Histogram Enhancement Technique Based on Matlab Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Histogram enhancement technique has been widely applied as a typical pattern in digital image processing. The paper is based on Matlab software, through the two ways of histogram equalization and histogram specification technologies to deal with the darker images, using two methods of partial equilibrium and mapping histogram to transform the original histograms, thereby enhanced the image information. The results show that these two kinds of techniques both can significantly improve the image quality and enhance the image feature.

  4. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Y.M.; Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y.; Lee, M.W.; Thian, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology

  5. Functional chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract composite films for applications in food packaging technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Y.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Lim, S.H.; Tay, B.Y. [Forming Technology Group, Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology (Singapore); Lee, M.W. [Food Innovation and Resource Centre, Singapore Polytechnic (Singapore); Thian, E.S., E-mail: mpetes@nus.edu.sg [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Chitosan-based grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) films were solution casted. • GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. • All chitosan-based composite films showed remarkable transparency. • Increasing amounts of GFSE incorporated increased the elongation at break of films. • Chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth. - Abstract: Chitosan-based composite films with different amounts of grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% v/v) were fabricated via solution casting technique. Experimental results showed that GFSE was uniformly dispersed within all chitosan film matrices. The presence of GFSE made the films more amorphous and tensile strength decreased, while elongation at break values increased as GFSE content increased. Results from the measurement of light transmission revealed that increasing amounts of GFSE (from 0.5 to 1.5% v/v) did not affect transparency of the films. Furthermore, packaging of bread samples with chitosan-based GFSE composite films inhibited the proliferation of fungal growth as compared to control samples. Hence, chitosan-based GFSE composite films have the potential to be a useful material in the area of food technology.

  6. Shadow Analysis Technique for Extraction of Building Height using High Resolution Satellite Single Image and Accuracy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Chaudhary, H.; Jha, A. K.

    2014-11-01

    These High resolution satellite data with metadata information is used to extract the height of the building using shadow. Proposed approach divides into two phases 1) rooftop and shadow extraction and 2) height estimation. Firstly the rooftop and shadow region were extracted by manual/ automatic methods using Example - Based and Rule - Based approaches. After feature extraction next step is estimating height of the building by taking rooftop in association with shadow using Ratio Method and by using the relation between sun-satellite geometry. The performance analysis shows the total mean error of height is 0.67 m from ratio method, 1.51 m from Example - Based Approach and 0.96 m from Rule - Based Approach. Analysis concluded that Ratio Method i.e. manual method is best for height estimation but it is time consuming so the automatic Rule Based approach is best for height estimation in comparison to Example Based Approach because it require more knowledge and selection of more training samples as well as slows the processing rate of the method.

  7. Innovative separation and preconcentration technique of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction exploiting graphene oxide nanosheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazaghi, Mehri [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35131-19111, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Hassan Zavvar, E-mail: hzmousavi@semnan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35131-19111, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rashidi, Ali Morad [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Entrance Blvd., Olympic Village, P.O. Box: 14857-33111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirkhanloo, Hamid [Occupational and Environmental Health Research Center (OEHRC), Iranian Petroleum Industry Health Research Institute (IPIHRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahighi, Reza [Nanotechnology Research Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry (RIPI), West Entrance Blvd., Olympic Village, P.O. Box: 14857-33111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Research and Development, Sharif Ultrahigh Nanotechnologists (SUN) Company, P.O. Box: 13488-96394, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-01

    A uniquely novel, fast, and facile technique is introduced for the first time in which a scant amount of graphene oxide (GO), without modification, has been utilized in dispersive mode of solid phase extraction (SPE) for an efficient yet simple separation. The proposed method of coagulating homogenous dispersive micro solid phase extraction (CHD-µSPE) is based on coagulation of homogeneous GO solution with the aid of polyetheneimine (PEI). CHD-µSPE use full adsorption capacity of GO because in this method was used GO solution obtained from synthesis process without drying step and stacking nanosheets. In optimized condition, 30 µL GO solution (7 mg mL{sup −1}), obtained in synthesis process, was injected into 1.5 mL the sample solution followed by immediate injection of 53 µL PEI solution (1 mg mL{sup −1}). After inserting PEI, GO sheets aggregate and can be readily separated by centrifugation. PEI not only cause aggregation of GO, but also form three-dimensional network of GO with easy handling in following separation steps. Lead, cadmium, and chromium were selected as model analytes and the effecting parameters including the amount of GO, concentration of PEI, sample pH, extraction time, and type of desorption solvent were investigated and optimized. The results indicate that the proposed CHD-µSPE method can be successfully applied GO in dispersive mode of SPE without effecting on good capability adsorption of GO. The novel method was applied in determination of lead, cadmium, and chromium in water, human saliva, and urine samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The detection limits are as low as 0.035, 0.005, and 0.012 µg L{sup −1} for Pb, Cd, and Cr respectively. The intra-day precisions (RSDs) were lower than 3.8%. CHD-µSPE method showed a good linear ranges of 0.24–15.6, 0.015–0.95 and 0.039–2.33 µg L{sup −1} for Pb, Cd and Cr respectively. Method performance was investigated by determination of mentioned

  8. Single channel blind source separation based on ICA feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new technique is proposed to solve the blind source separation (BSS) given only a single channel observation. The basis functions and the density of the coefficients of source signals learned by ICA are used as the prior knowledge. Based on the learned prior information the learning rules of single channel BSS are presented by maximizing the joint log likelihood of the mixed sources to obtain source signals from single observation,in which the posterior density of the given measurements is maximized. The experimental results exhibit a successful separation performance for mixtures of speech and music signals.

  9. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T [Biomedical Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States); Huang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing [College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University at Albany, SUNY, Albany, NY (United States); Chrisey, Douglas B, E-mail: schien@rpi.ed, E-mail: chrisd@rpi.ed [Material Science and Engineering Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location ({+-}5 {mu}m) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  10. Laser-based direct-write techniques for cell printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiele, Nathan R; Corr, David T; Huang Yong; Raof, Nurazhani Abdul; Xie Yubing; Chrisey, Douglas B

    2010-01-01

    Fabrication of cellular constructs with spatial control of cell location (±5 μm) is essential to the advancement of a wide range of applications including tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research. Precise cell placement, especially of multiple cell types in co- or multi-cultures and in three dimensions, can enable research possibilities otherwise impossible, such as the cell-by-cell assembly of complex cellular constructs. Laser-based direct writing, a printing technique first utilized in electronics applications, has been adapted to transfer living cells and other biological materials (e.g., enzymes, proteins and bioceramics). Many different cell types have been printed using laser-based direct writing, and this technique offers significant improvements when compared to conventional cell patterning techniques. The predominance of work to date has not been in application of the technique, but rather focused on demonstrating the ability of direct writing to pattern living cells, in a spatially precise manner, while maintaining cellular viability. This paper reviews laser-based additive direct-write techniques for cell printing, and the various cell types successfully laser direct-written that have applications in tissue engineering, stem cell and cancer research are highlighted. A particular focus is paid to process dynamics modeling and process-induced cell injury during laser-based cell direct writing. (topical review)

  11. A MULTI-AGENT BASED SOCIAL CRM FRAMEWORK FOR EXTRACTING AND ANALYSING OPINIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDELAZIZ EL FAZZIKI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Social media provide a wide space for people from around the world to communicate, share knowledge and personal experiences. They increasingly become an important data source for opinion mining and sentiment analysis, thanks to shared comments and reviews about products and services. And companies are showing a growing interest to harness their potential, in order to support setting up marketing strategies. Despite the importance of sentiment analysis in decision making, there is a lack of social intelligence integration at the level of customer relationship management systems. Thus, social customer relationship management (SCRM systems have become an interesting research area. However, they need deep analytic techniques to transform the large amount of data “Big Data” into actionable insights. Such systems also require an advanced modelling and data processing methods, and must consider the emerging paradigm related to proactive systems. In this paper, we propose an agent based social framework that extracts and consolidates the reviews expressed via social media, in order to help enterprises know more about customers’ opinions toward a particular product or service. To illustrate our approach, we present the case study of Twitter reviews that we use to extract opinions and sentiment about a set of products using SentiGem API. Data extraction, analysis and storage are performed using a framework based on Hadoop MapReduce and HBase.

  12. Iris image recognition wavelet filter-banks based iris feature extraction schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Rahulkar, Amol D

    2014-01-01

    This book provides the new results in wavelet filter banks based feature extraction, and the classifier in the field of iris image recognition. It provides the broad treatment on the design of separable, non-separable wavelets filter banks, and the classifier. The design techniques presented in the book are applied on iris image analysis for person authentication. This book also brings together the three strands of research (wavelets, iris image analysis, and classifier). It compares the performance of the presented techniques with state-of-the-art available schemes. This book contains the compilation of basic material on the design of wavelets that avoids reading many different books. Therefore, it provide an easier path for the new-comers, researchers to master the contents. In addition, the designed filter banks and classifier can also be effectively used than existing filter-banks in many signal processing applications like pattern classification, data-compression, watermarking, denoising etc.  that will...

  13. Spectral-based features ranking for gamelan instruments identification using filter techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah P Wulandari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe an approach of spectral-based features ranking for Javanese gamelaninstruments identification using filter techniques. The model extracted spectral-based features set of thesignal using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT. The rank of the features was determined using the fivealgorithms; namely ReliefF, Chi-Squared, Information Gain, Gain Ratio, and Symmetric Uncertainty. Then,we tested the ranked features by cross validation using Support Vector Machine (SVM. The experimentshowed that Gain Ratio algorithm gave the best result, it yielded accuracy of 98.93%.

  14. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  15. [Clinical study of modified Gow-Gates technique of inferior alveolar nerve block in impacted mandibular third molar extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-ping; Jin, Gui-fang

    2015-06-01

    To introduce a minimally invasive and more effective technique of inferior alveolar nerve block. Two hundred and six patients who needed extraction of the impacted mandibular third molar were divided randomly into 2 groups: the experimental group (105 cases) with modified Gow-Gates technique (modified Gow-Gates group) and the control group (101 cases) with Halstead technique (Halstead group). The anesthetic success rates, effects and complications were recorded and analyzed with SPSS17.0 software package. The anesthetic success rate was 97.15% in modified Gow-Gates group and 89.10% in Halstead group with significant difference between the 2 groups (P=0.0380.05). Modified Gow-Gates group had much fewer of complications than Halstead group (P=0.014inferior alveolar nerve block anesthesia. Supported by Science and Technology Planning Project of Yueqing City (2014y027).

  16. Characters Feature Extraction Based on Neat Oracle Bone Rubbings

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Guo

    2013-01-01

    In order to recognize characters on the neat oracle bone rubbings, a new mesh point feature extraction algorithm was put forward in this paper by researching and improving of the existing coarse mesh feature extraction algorithm and the point feature extraction algorithm. Some improvements of this algorithm were as followings: point feature was introduced into the coarse mesh feature, the absolute address was converted to relative address, and point features have been changed grid and positio...

  17. A semantic-based method for extracting concept definitions from scientific publications: evaluation in the autism phenotype domain

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanpour, Saeed; O?Connor, Martin J; Das, Amar K

    2013-01-01

    Background A variety of informatics approaches have been developed that use information retrieval, NLP and text-mining techniques to identify biomedical concepts and relations within scientific publications or their sentences. These approaches have not typically addressed the challenge of extracting more complex knowledge such as biomedical definitions. In our efforts to facilitate knowledge acquisition of rule-based definitions of autism phenotypes, we have developed a novel semantic-based t...

  18. The Research of Disease Spots Extraction Based on Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangshun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of maize disease spot performance in the image, this paper designs two-histogram segmentation method based on evolutionary algorithm, which combined with the analysis of image of maize diseases and insect pests, with full consideration of color and texture characteristic of the lesion of pests and diseases, the chroma and gray image, composed of two tuples to build a two-dimensional histogram, solves the problem of one-dimensional histograms that cannot be clearly divided into target and background bimodal distribution and improved the traditional two-dimensional histogram application in pest damage lesion extraction. The chromosome coding suitable for the characteristics of lesion image is designed based on second segmentation of the genetic algorithm Otsu. Determining initial population with analysis results of lesion image, parallel selection, optimal preservation strategy, and adaptive mutation operator are used to improve the search efficiency. Finally, by setting the fluctuation threshold, we continue to search for the best threshold in the range of fluctuations for implementation of global search and local search.

  19. Generating Unstable Resonances for Extraction Schemes Based on Transverse Splitting

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannozzi, M; Turchetti, G

    2009-01-01

    A few years ago, a novel multi-turn extraction scheme was proposed, based on particle trapping inside stable resonances. Numerical simulations and experimental tests have confirmed the feasibility of such a scheme for low order resonances. While the third-order resonance is generically unstable and those higher than fourth-order are generically stable, the fourth-order resonance can be either stable or unstable depending on the specifics of the system under consideration. By means of the Normal Form a general approach to control the stability of the fourth-order resonance has been derived. This approach is based on the control of the amplitude detuning and the general form for a lattice with an arbitrary number of sextupole and octupole families is derived in this paper. Numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical results and have shown that, when crossing the unstable fourth-order resonance, the region around the centre of the phase space is depleted and particles are trapped in only the four stable ...

  20. Iris recognition based on key image feature extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X; Tian, Q; Zhang, J; Wu, S; Zeng, Y

    2008-01-01

    In iris recognition, feature extraction can be influenced by factors such as illumination and contrast, and thus the features extracted may be unreliable, which can cause a high rate of false results in iris pattern recognition. In order to obtain stable features, an algorithm was proposed in this paper to extract key features of a pattern from multiple images. The proposed algorithm built an iris feature template by extracting key features and performed iris identity enrolment. Simulation results showed that the selected key features have high recognition accuracy on the CASIA Iris Set, where both contrast and illumination variance exist.

  1. Technique to assess the alveolar bone width for immediate implant placement in fresh extraction sockets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Kumar Chandraker

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: This technique will help the surgeon understand the thickness of labial plate especially the apical region without reflecting the flap, also aid in selection of proper dimension of dental implant, and if bone graft is needed.

  2. Microdialysis as a New Technique for Extracting Phenolic Compounds from Extra Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzu, Gianfranco; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Dore, Antonio; Serra, Pier Andrea

    2017-03-01

    The amount and composition of the phenolic components play a major role in determining the quality of olive oil. The traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method requires a time-consuming sample preparation to obtain the "phenolic profile" of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). This study aimed to develop a microdialysis extraction (MDE) as an alternative to the LLE method to evaluate the phenolic components of EVOO. To this purpose, a microdialysis device and dialysis procedure were developed. "Dynamic-oil" microdialysis was performed using an extracting solution (80:20 methanol/water) flow rate of 2 μL min -1 and a constant EVOO stream of 4 μL min -1 . The results indicated a strong positive correlation between MDE and the LLE method, providing a very similar phenolic profile obtained with traditional LLE. In conclusion, the MDE approach, easier and quicker in comparison to LLE, provided a reliable procedure to determine the phenolic components used as a marker of the quality and traceability of EVOO.

  3. ENCAPSULATION OF EXTRACT FROM WINERY INDUSTRY RESIDUE USING THE SUPERCRITICAL ANTI-SOLVENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mezzomo

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace (seed, skin and stem is a winery byproduct with high levels of biologically active compounds, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials, that could be converted into high added-value products. Since these components are easily degraded by oxygen, light and high temperature exposure, stabilization is important, for instance, by a microencapsulation process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence on the particle characteristics of the operational conditions applied in the Supercritical Anti-Solvent (SAS process for the co-precipitation of grape pomace extract and poly(-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The morphology and size of the particles formed, their stability and thermal profile were evaluated, and also the co-precipitation efficiency. The conditions studied allowed the production of microparticles with spherical shape for all operational conditions, with estimated particle size between 4 ± 2 and 11 ± 5 µm, and very good co-precipitation efficiencies (up to 94.4 ± 0.6%. The co-precipitated extract presented higher stability compared to the crude extract, indicating the effectiveness of the co-precipitation process and coating material against degradation processes.

  4. A linguistic rule-based approach to extract drug-drug interactions from pharmacological documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Bedmar, Isabel; Martínez, Paloma; de Pablo-Sánchez, César

    2011-03-29

    A drug-drug interaction (DDI) occurs when one drug influences the level or activity of another drug. The increasing volume of the scientific literature overwhelms health care professionals trying to be kept up-to-date with all published studies on DDI. This paper describes a hybrid linguistic approach to DDI extraction that combines shallow parsing and syntactic simplification with pattern matching. Appositions and coordinate structures are interpreted based on shallow syntactic parsing provided by the UMLS MetaMap tool (MMTx). Subsequently, complex and compound sentences are broken down into clauses from which simple sentences are generated by a set of simplification rules. A pharmacist defined a set of domain-specific lexical patterns to capture the most common expressions of DDI in texts. These lexical patterns are matched with the generated sentences in order to extract DDIs. We have performed different experiments to analyze the performance of the different processes. The lexical patterns achieve a reasonable precision (67.30%), but very low recall (14.07%). The inclusion of appositions and coordinate structures helps to improve the recall (25.70%), however, precision is lower (48.69%). The detection of clauses does not improve the performance. Information Extraction (IE) techniques can provide an interesting way of reducing the time spent by health care professionals on reviewing the literature. Nevertheless, no approach has been carried out to extract DDI from texts. To the best of our knowledge, this work proposes the first integral solution for the automatic extraction of DDI from biomedical texts.

  5. Extraction of Urban Trees from Integrated Airborne Based Digital Image and LIDAR Point Cloud Datasets - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-10-01

    Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition and structural changes of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting tree features include; ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraint, such as labour intensive field work, a lot of financial requirement, influences by weather condition and topographical covers which can be overcome by means of integrated airborne based LiDAR and very high resolution digital image datasets. This study presented a semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated airborne based LIDAR and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The above scheme includes detection and extraction of shadow free vegetation features based on spectral properties of digital images using shadow index and NDVI techniques and automated extraction of 3D information about vegetation features from the integrated processing of shadow free vegetation image and LiDAR point cloud datasets. The ability of the developed algorithms shows a promising result as an automated and cost effective approach to estimating and delineated 3D information of urban trees. The research also proved that integrated datasets is a suitable technology and a viable source of information for city managers to be used in urban trees management.

  6. Extraction of alkaloids for NMR-based profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Nyberg, Nils; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2012-01-01

    A museum collection of Cinchona cortex samples (n = 117), from the period 1850–1950, were extracted with a mixture of chloroform-d1, methanol-d4, water-d2, and perchloric acid in the ratios 5:5:1:1. The extracts were directly analyzed using 1H NMR spectroscopy (600 MHz) and the spectra evaluated...

  7. Ionic Liquid-Based Ultrasonic/Microwave-Assisted Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Compared with traditional methods, IL-UMAE method uses Ionic liquid-solvent which greatly shortens the extraction time. IL-UMAE as a simple, effective and environmentally friendly approach shows a broad prospect for active ingredient extraction. Keywords: Dioscorea zingiberensis Steroidal saponins, Ionic ...

  8. Sample-based XPath Ranking for Web Information Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jundt, Oliver; van Keulen, Maurice

    Web information extraction typically relies on a wrapper, i.e., program code or a configuration that specifies how to extract some information from web pages at a specific website. Manually creating and maintaining wrappers is a cumbersome and error-prone task. It may even be prohibitive as some

  9. Estimate-Merge-Technique-based algorithms to track an underwater ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D V A N Ravi Kumar

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... In this paper, two novel methods based on the Estimate Merge Technique ... mentioned advantages of the proposed novel methods is shown by carrying out Monte Carlo simulation in .... equations are converted to sequential equations to make ... estimation error and low convergence time) at feasibly high.

  10. GIS-Based bivariate statistical techniques for groundwater potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    24

    This study shows the potency of two GIS-based data driven bivariate techniques namely ... In the view of these weaknesses , there is a strong requirement for reassessment of .... Font color: Text 1, Not Expanded by / Condensed by , ...... West Bengal (India) using remote sensing, geographical information system and multi-.

  11. Learning Physics through Project-Based Learning Game Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Medine; Maskan, Abdulkadir; Yasar, Seyma

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study, in which Project and game techniques are used together, is to examine the impact of project-based learning games on students' physics achievement. Participants of the study consist of 34 9th grade students (N = 34). The data were collected using achievement tests and a questionnaire. Throughout the applications, the…

  12. Extraction of Plant-based Capsules for Microencapsulation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potroz, Michael G; Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Park, Jae Hyeon; Tan, Ee-Lin; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-11-09

    Microcapsules derived from plant-based spores or pollen provide a robust platform for a diverse range of microencapsulation applications. Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) are obtained when spores or pollen are processed so as to remove the internal sporoplasmic contents. The resulting hollow microcapsules exhibit a high degree of micromeritic uniformity and retain intricate microstructural features related to the particular plant species. Herein, we demonstrate a streamlined process for the production of SECs from Lycopodium clavatum spores and for the loading of hydrophilic compounds into these SECs. The current SEC isolation procedure has been recently optimized to significantly reduce the processing requirements which are conventionally used in SEC isolation, and to ensure the production of intact microcapsules. Natural L. clavatum spores are defatted with acetone, treated with phosphoric acid, and extensively washed to remove sporoplasmic contents. After acetone defatting, a single processing step using 85% phosphoric acid has been shown to remove all sporoplasmic contents. By limiting the acid processing time to 30 hr, it is possible to isolate clean SECs and avoid SEC fracturing, which has been shown to occur with prolonged processing time. Extensive washing with water, dilute acids, dilute bases, and solvents ensures that all sporoplasmic material and chemical residues are adequately removed. The vacuum loading technique is utilized to load a model protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) as a representative hydrophilic compound. Vacuum loading provides a simple technique to load various compounds without the need for harsh solvents or undesirable chemicals which are often required in other microencapsulation protocols. Based on these isolation and loading protocols, SECs provide a promising material for use in a diverse range of microencapsulation applications, such as, therapeutics, foods, cosmetics, and personal care products.

  13. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    bandwidths, and with it receiver noise floors , are unavoidable. Figure 1. SNR of a thermally limited receiver based on Friis equation showing the...techniques for RF and photonic integration based on liquid crystal polymer substrates were pursued that would aid in the realization of potential imaging...These models assumed that sufficient LNA gain was used on the antenna to set the noise floor of the imaging receiver, which necessitated physical

  14. Classification of Textures Using Filter Based Local Feature Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocekci Veysel Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work local features are used in feature extraction process in image processing for textures. The local binary pattern feature extraction method from textures are introduced. Filtering is also used during the feature extraction process for getting discriminative features. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm before the extraction process, three different noise are added to both train and test images. Wiener filter and median filter are used to remove the noise from images. We evaluate the performance of the method with Naïve Bayesian classifier. We conduct the comparative analysis on benchmark dataset with different filtering and size. Our experiments demonstrate that feature extraction process combine with filtering give promising results on noisy images.

  15. Fully Convolutional Network Based Shadow Extraction from GF-2 Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Cai, G.; Ren, H.

    2018-04-01

    There are many shadows on the high spatial resolution satellite images, especially in the urban areas. Although shadows on imagery severely affect the information extraction of land cover or land use, they provide auxiliary information for building extraction which is hard to achieve a satisfactory accuracy through image classification itself. This paper focused on the method of building shadow extraction by designing a fully convolutional network and training samples collected from GF-2 satellite imagery in the urban region of Changchun city. By means of spatial filtering and calculation of adjacent relationship along the sunlight direction, the small patches from vegetation or bridges have been eliminated from the preliminary extracted shadows. Finally, the building shadows were separated. The extracted building shadow information from the proposed method in this paper was compared with the results from the traditional object-oriented supervised classification algorihtms. It showed that the deep learning network approach can improve the accuracy to a large extent.

  16. Text feature extraction based on deep learning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Sun, Xiao; Sun, Yunlei; Gao, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Selection of text feature item is a basic and important matter for text mining and information retrieval. Traditional methods of feature extraction require handcrafted features. To hand-design, an effective feature is a lengthy process, but aiming at new applications, deep learning enables to acquire new effective feature representation from training data. As a new feature extraction method, deep learning has made achievements in text mining. The major difference between deep learning and conventional methods is that deep learning automatically learns features from big data, instead of adopting handcrafted features, which mainly depends on priori knowledge of designers and is highly impossible to take the advantage of big data. Deep learning can automatically learn feature representation from big data, including millions of parameters. This thesis outlines the common methods used in text feature extraction first, and then expands frequently used deep learning methods in text feature extraction and its applications, and forecasts the application of deep learning in feature extraction.

  17. Mode extraction on wind turbine blades via phase-based video motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrafi, Aral; Poozesh, Peyman; Niezrecki, Christopher; Mao, Zhu

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, image processing techniques are being applied more often for structural dynamics identification, characterization, and structural health monitoring. Although as a non-contact and full-field measurement method, image processing still has a long way to go to outperform other conventional sensing instruments (i.e. accelerometers, strain gauges, laser vibrometers, etc.,). However, the technologies associated with image processing are developing rapidly and gaining more attention in a variety of engineering applications including structural dynamics identification and modal analysis. Among numerous motion estimation and image-processing methods, phase-based video motion estimation is considered as one of the most efficient methods regarding computation consumption and noise robustness. In this paper, phase-based video motion estimation is adopted for structural dynamics characterization on a 2.3-meter long Skystream wind turbine blade, and the modal parameters (natural frequencies, operating deflection shapes) are extracted. Phase-based video processing adopted in this paper provides reliable full-field 2-D motion information, which is beneficial for manufacturing certification and model updating at the design stage. The phase-based video motion estimation approach is demonstrated through processing data on a full-scale commercial structure (i.e. a wind turbine blade) with complex geometry and properties, and the results obtained have a good correlation with the modal parameters extracted from accelerometer measurements, especially for the first four bending modes, which have significant importance in blade characterization.

  18. Plutonium association with selected solid phases in soils of Rocky Flats, Colorado, using sequential extraction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaor, M.I.; Ibrahim, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Plutonium contamination in the soil environs of Rock Flats, CO, has been a potential health risk to the public since the late 1960s. Although the measurement of total activity of Pu-239 + 240 in the soil is important information in appraising this risk, total activity does not provide the information required to characterize the geochemical behavior that affects the transport of Pu from the soil and vadose zone to groundwater. A sequential extraction experiment was conducted to assess the geochemical association of Pu with selected mineralogical and chemical phases of the soil. In the surface horizons, Pu-239 + 240 was primarily associated with the organic C (45-65%), sesquioxides (20-40%), and the residual fraction (10-15%). A small portion of Pu-239+240 was associated with soluble (0.09-0.22%), exchangeable (0.04-0.08%), and carbonates (0.57-7.0%) phases. These results suggest that under the observed pH and oxic conditions, relatively little Pu-239 + 240 is available for geochemically induced transport processes. Uncommon hydrogeochemical conditions were observed during the spring of 1995, which may have facilitated a partial dissolution of sesquioxides followed by desorption of Pu resulting in increased Pu mobility. Systematic errors in the sequential extraction experiment due to postextraction readsorption were evaluated using Np-237 tracer as a surrogate to Pu-239. The results suggested that postextraction readsorption rates were insignificant during the first 30 min after extraction for most chemical and mineralogical phases under study. 50 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Piezoelectric Versus Conventional Rotary Techniques for Impacted Third Molar Extraction: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Qiu, Yating; Yang, Chi; Yang, Jingyun; Chen, Minjie; Zhang, Zhiyuan

    2015-10-01

    Impacted third molars are frequently encountered in clinical work. Surgical removal of impacted third molars is often required to prevent clinical symptoms. Traditional rotary cutting instruments are potentially injurious, and piezosurgery, as a new osteotomy technique, has been introduced in oral and maxillofacial surgery. No consistent conclusion has been reached regarding whether this new technique is associated with fewer or less severe postoperative sequelae after third molar extraction.The aim of this study was to compare piezosurgery with rotary osteotomy techniques, with regard to surgery time and the severity of postoperative sequelae, including pain, swelling, and trismus.We conducted a systematic literature search in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar.The eligibility criteria of this study included the following: the patients were clearly diagnosed as having impacted mandibular third molars; the patients underwent piezosurgery osteotomy, and in the control group rotary osteotomy techniques, for removing impacted third molars; the outcomes of interest include surgery time, trismus, swelling or pain; the studies are randomized controlled trials.We used random-effects models to calculate the difference in the outcomes, and the corresponding 95% confidence interval. We calculated the weighted mean difference if the trials used the same measurement, and a standardized mean difference if otherwise.A total of seven studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in our analysis. Compared with rotary osteotomy, patients undergoing piezosurgery experienced longer surgery time (mean difference 4.13 minutes, 95% confidence interval 2.75-5.52, P piezosurgery groups.The number of included randomized controlled trials and the sample size of each trial were relatively small, double blinding was not possible, and cost analysis was unavailable due to a lack of data.Our meta-analysis indicates that although patients undergoing piezosurgery

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbeddoses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements...... that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component,which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured...

  1. Artificial terraced field extraction based on high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jiaming; Yang, Xin; Xiong, Liyang; Tang, Guoan

    2017-04-01

    With the increase of human activities, artificial landforms become one of the main terrain features with special geographical and hydrological value. Terraced field, as the most important artificial landscapes of the loess plateau, plays an important role in conserving soil and water. With the development of digital terrain analysis (DTA), there is a current and future need in developing a robust, repeatable and cost-effective research methodology for terraced fields. In this paper, a novel method using bidirectional DEM shaded relief is proposed for terraced field identification based on high resolution DEM, taking Zhifanggou watershed, Shannxi province as the study area. Firstly, 1m DEM is obtained by low altitude aerial photogrammetry using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and 0.1m DOM is also obtained as the test data. Then, the positive and negative terrain segmentation is done to acquire the area of terraced field. Finally, a bidirectional DEM shaded relief is simulated to extract the ridges of each terraced field stages. The method in this paper can get not only polygon feature of the terraced field areas but also line feature of terraced field ridges. The accuracy is 89.7% compared with the artificial interpretation result from DOM. And additional experiment shows that this method has a strong robustness as well as high accuracy.

  2. Morphological operation based dense houses extraction from DSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhu, L.; Tachibana, K.; Shimamura, H.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a method of reshaping and extraction of markers and masks of the dense houses from the DSM based on mathematical morphology (MM). Houses in a digital surface model (DSM) are almost joined together in high-density housing areas, and most segmentation methods cannot completely separate them. We propose to label the markers of the buildings firstly and segment them into masks by watershed then. To avoid detecting more than one marker for a house or no marker at all due to its higher neighbour, the DSM is morphologically reshaped. It is carried out by a MM operation using the certain disk shape SE of the similar size to the houses. The sizes of the houses need to be estimated before reshaping. A granulometry generated by opening-by-reconstruction to the NDSM is proposed to detect the scales of the off-terrain objects. It is a histogram of the global volume of the top hats of the convex objects in the continuous scales. The obvious step change in the profile means that there are many objects of similar sizes occur at this scale. In reshaping procedure, the slices of the object are derived by morphological filtering at the detected continuous scales and reconstructed in pile as the dome. The markers are detected on the basis of the domes.

  3. Historical feature pattern extraction based network attack situation sensing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yong; Liu, Dacheng; Lei, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The situation sequence contains a series of complicated and multivariate random trends, which are very sudden, uncertain, and difficult to recognize and describe its principle by traditional algorithms. To solve the above questions, estimating parameters of super long situation sequence is essential, but very difficult, so this paper proposes a situation prediction method based on historical feature pattern extraction (HFPE). First, HFPE algorithm seeks similar indications from the history situation sequence recorded and weighs the link intensity between occurred indication and subsequent effect. Then it calculates the probability that a certain effect reappears according to the current indication and makes a prediction after weighting. Meanwhile, HFPE method gives an evolution algorithm to derive the prediction deviation from the views of pattern and accuracy. This algorithm can continuously promote the adaptability of HFPE through gradual fine-tuning. The method preserves the rules in sequence at its best, does not need data preprocessing, and can track and adapt to the variation of situation sequence continuously.

  4. Historical Feature Pattern Extraction Based Network Attack Situation Sensing Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The situation sequence contains a series of complicated and multivariate random trends, which are very sudden, uncertain, and difficult to recognize and describe its principle by traditional algorithms. To solve the above questions, estimating parameters of super long situation sequence is essential, but very difficult, so this paper proposes a situation prediction method based on historical feature pattern extraction (HFPE. First, HFPE algorithm seeks similar indications from the history situation sequence recorded and weighs the link intensity between occurred indication and subsequent effect. Then it calculates the probability that a certain effect reappears according to the current indication and makes a prediction after weighting. Meanwhile, HFPE method gives an evolution algorithm to derive the prediction deviation from the views of pattern and accuracy. This algorithm can continuously promote the adaptability of HFPE through gradual fine-tuning. The method preserves the rules in sequence at its best, does not need data preprocessing, and can track and adapt to the variation of situation sequence continuously.

  5. Extraction of bioactives from Orthosiphon stamineus using microwave and ultrasound-assisted techniques: Process optimization and scale up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chung-Hung; See, Tiam-You; Yusoff, Rozita; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Kow, Kien-Woh

    2017-04-15

    This work demonstrated the optimization and scale up of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) of bioactive compounds from Orthosiphon stamineus using energy-based parameters such as absorbed power density and absorbed energy density (APD-AED) and response surface methodology (RSM). The intensive optimum conditions of MAE obtained at 80% EtOH, 50mL/g, APD of 0.35W/mL, AED of 250J/mL can be used to determine the optimum conditions of the scale-dependent parameters i.e. microwave power and treatment time at various extraction scales (100-300mL solvent loading). The yields of the up scaled conditions were consistent with less than 8% discrepancy and they were about 91-98% of the Soxhlet extraction yield. By adapting APD-AED method in the case of UAE, the intensive optimum conditions of the extraction, i.e. 70% EtOH, 30mL/g, APD of 0.22W/mL, AED of 450J/mL are able to achieve similar scale up results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Surface Extraction from TIN based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Myoung-Jong; Howat, Ian M.

    2017-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide critical information for a wide range of scientific, navigational and engineering activities. Submeter resolution, stereoscopic satellite imagery with high geometric and radiometric quality, and wide spatial coverage are becoming increasingly accessible for generating stereo-photogrammetric DEMs. However, low contrast and repeatedly-textured surfaces, such as snow and glacial ice at high latitudes, and mountainous terrains challenge existing stereo-photogrammetric DEM generation techniques, particularly without a-priori information such as existing seed DEMs or the manual setting of terrain-specific parameters. To utilize these data for fully-automatic DEM extraction at a large scale, we developed the Surface Extraction from TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm. SETSM is fully automatic (i.e. no search parameter settings are needed) and uses only the sensor model Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). SETSM adopts a hierarchical, combined image- and object-space matching strategy utilizing weighted normalized cross-correlation with both original distorted and geometrically corrected images for overcoming ambiguities caused by foreshortening and occlusions. In addition, SETSM optimally minimizes search-spaces to extract optimal matches over problematic terrains by iteratively updating object surfaces within a Triangulated Irregular Network, and utilizes a geometric-constrained blunder and outlier detection in object space. We prove the ability of SETSM to mitigate typical stereo-photogrammetric matching problems over a range of challenging terrains. SETSM is the primary DEM generation software for the US National Science Foundation's ArcticDEM project.

  7. Chemical name extraction based on automatic training data generation and rich feature set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Su; Spangler, W Scott; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The automation of extracting chemical names from text has significant value to biomedical and life science research. A major barrier in this task is the difficulty of getting a sizable and good quality data to train a reliable entity extraction model. Another difficulty is the selection of informative features of chemical names, since comprehensive domain knowledge on chemistry nomenclature is required. Leveraging random text generation techniques, we explore the idea of automatically creating training sets for the task of chemical name extraction. Assuming the availability of an incomplete list of chemical names, called a dictionary, we are able to generate well-controlled, random, yet realistic chemical-like training documents. We statistically analyze the construction of chemical names based on the incomplete dictionary, and propose a series of new features, without relying on any domain knowledge. Compared to state-of-the-art models learned from manually labeled data and domain knowledge, our solution shows better or comparable results in annotating real-world data with less human effort. Moreover, we report an interesting observation about the language for chemical names. That is, both the structural and semantic components of chemical names follow a Zipfian distribution, which resembles many natural languages.

  8. Chemical techniques to extract organic fractions from fossil bones for accurate 14C dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Masayo; Muto, Hiroo; Nakamura, Toshio

    2004-01-01

    We examined different concentrations of HCl, such as 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 M, for decalcification of fossil bones and different times of 0.1 M NaOH treatment on collagens to determine the best conditions for purifying collagen through extraction of humic contaminants, and compared the alkali treatment method with the XAD-2 treatment method for several types of fossils. The yield of acid-insoluble bone fractions did not change over the range from 0.4 to 1.0 M HCl and decreased suddenly with 1.2 M HCl on decalcification, and the 14 C ages of the extracted gelatins from the five decalcified fractions were unchanged, suggesting that 14 C ages as those of the XAD-purified hydrolysates. The NaOH-treatment time should be less than several hours to avoid a loss of collagen. The fossil bones used are relatively well-preserved, but the alkali treatment could bring about a lot of loss of organic bone proteins for poorly-preserved bones. The XAD-2 treatment method is effective for accurate radiocarbon dating of fossil bones, if the XAD-2 resin is completely pre-cleaned

  9. Integrating angle-frequency domain synchronous averaging technique with feature extraction for gear fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengli; Tang, J.

    2018-01-01

    Gear fault diagnosis relies heavily on the scrutiny of vibration responses measured. In reality, gear vibration signals are noisy and dominated by meshing frequencies as well as their harmonics, which oftentimes overlay the fault related components. Moreover, many gear transmission systems, e.g., those in wind turbines, constantly operate under non-stationary conditions. To reduce the influences of non-synchronous components and noise, a fault signature enhancement method that is built upon angle-frequency domain synchronous averaging is developed in this paper. Instead of being averaged in the time domain, the signals are processed in the angle-frequency domain to solve the issue of phase shifts between signal segments due to uncertainties caused by clearances, input disturbances, and sampling errors, etc. The enhanced results are then analyzed through feature extraction algorithms to identify the most distinct features for fault classification and identification. Specifically, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA) targeting at nonlinearity, Multilinear Principal Component Analysis (MPCA) targeting at high dimensionality, and Locally Linear Embedding (LLE) targeting at local similarity among the enhanced data are employed and compared to yield insights. Numerical and experimental investigations are performed, and the results reveal the effectiveness of angle-frequency domain synchronous averaging in enabling feature extraction and classification.

  10. Line impedance estimation using model based identification technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Agelidis, Vassilios; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    The estimation of the line impedance can be used by the control of numerous grid-connected systems, such as active filters, islanding detection techniques, non-linear current controllers, detection of the on/off grid operation mode. Therefore, estimating the line impedance can add extra functions...... into the operation of the grid-connected power converters. This paper describes a quasi passive method for estimating the line impedance of the distribution electricity network. The method uses the model based identification technique to obtain the resistive and inductive parts of the line impedance. The quasi...

  11. Biometric image enhancement using decision rule based image fusion techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagayee, G. Mary Amirtha; Arumugam, S.

    2010-02-01

    Introducing biometrics into information systems may result in considerable benefits. Most of the researchers confirmed that the finger print is widely used than the iris or face and more over it is the primary choice for most privacy concerned applications. For finger prints applications, choosing proper sensor is at risk. The proposed work deals about, how the image quality can be improved by introducing image fusion technique at sensor levels. The results of the images after introducing the decision rule based image fusion technique are evaluated and analyzed with its entropy levels and root mean square error.

  12. Electromagnetism based atmospheric ice sensing technique - A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mughal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic and vibrational properties of ice can be used to measure certain parameters such as ice thickness, type and icing rate. In this paper we present a review of the dielectric based measurement techniques for matter and the dielectric/spectroscopic properties of ice. Atmospheric Ice is a complex material with a variable dielectric constant, but precise calculation of this constant may form the basis for measurement of its other properties such as thickness and strength using some electromagnetic methods. Using time domain or frequency domain spectroscopic techniques, by measuring both the reflection and transmission characteristics of atmospheric ice in a particular frequency range, the desired parameters can be determined.

  13. Proposing a Wiki-Based Technique for Collaborative Essay Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Ortiz Navarrete

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at proposing a technique for students learning English as a foreign language when they collaboratively write an argumentative essay in a wiki environment. A wiki environment and collaborative work play an important role within the academic writing task. Nevertheless, an appropriate and systematic work assignment is required in order to make use of both. In this paper the proposed technique when writing a collaborative essay mainly attempts to provide the most effective way to enhance equal participation among group members by taking as a base computer mediated collaboration. Within this context, the students’ role is clearly defined and individual and collaborative tasks are explained.

  14. Knowledge based systems advanced concepts, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The field of knowledge-based systems (KBS) has expanded enormously during the last years, and many important techniques and tools are currently available. Applications of KBS range from medicine to engineering and aerospace.This book provides a selected set of state-of-the-art contributions that present advanced techniques, tools and applications. These contributions have been prepared by a group of eminent researchers and professionals in the field.The theoretical topics covered include: knowledge acquisition, machine learning, genetic algorithms, knowledge management and processing under unc

  15. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF WEB INFORMATION EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES DEEP LEARNING vs. NAÏVE BAYES vs. BACK PROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORKS IN WEB DOCUMENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sharmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Web mining related exploration is getting the chance to be more essential these days in view of the reason that a lot of information is overseen through the web. Web utilization is expanding in an uncontrolled way. A particular framework is required for controlling such extensive measure of information in the web space. Web mining is ordered into three noteworthy divisions: Web content mining, web usage mining and web structure mining. Tak-Lam Wong has proposed a web content mining methodology in the exploration with the aid of Bayesian Networks (BN. In their methodology, they were learning on separating the web data and characteristic revelation in view of the Bayesian approach. Roused from their investigation, we mean to propose a web content mining methodology, in view of a Deep Learning Algorithm. The Deep Learning Algorithm gives the interest over BN on the basis that BN is not considered in any learning architecture planning like to propose system. The main objective of this investigation is web document extraction utilizing different grouping algorithm and investigation. This work extricates the data from the web URL. This work shows three classification algorithms, Deep Learning Algorithm, Bayesian Algorithm and BPNN Algorithm. Deep Learning is a capable arrangement of strategies for learning in neural system which is connected like computer vision, speech recognition, and natural language processing and biometrics framework. Deep Learning is one of the simple classification technique and which is utilized for subset of extensive field furthermore Deep Learning has less time for classification. Naive Bayes classifiers are a group of basic probabilistic classifiers in view of applying Bayes hypothesis with concrete independence assumptions between the features. At that point the BPNN algorithm is utilized for classification. Initially training and testing dataset contains more URL. We extract the content presently from the dataset. The

  16. An improved approach for flow-based cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizzarin, Rejane M; Rocha, Fábio R P

    2014-04-11

    Novel strategies are proposed to circumvent the main drawbacks of flow-based cloud point extraction (CPE). The surfactant-rich phase (SRP) was directly retained into the optical path of the spectrophotometric cell, thus avoiding its dilution previously to the measurement and yielding higher sensitivity. Solenoid micro-pumps were exploited to improve mixing by the pulsed flow and also to modulate the flow-rate for retention and removal of the SRP, thus avoiding the elution step, often carried out with organic solvents. The heat released and the increase of the salt concentration provided by an on-line neutralization reaction were exploited to induce the cloud point without an external heating device. These innovations were demonstrated by the spectrophotometric determination of iron, yielding a linear response from 10 to 200 μg L(-1) with a coefficient of variation of 2.3% (n=7). Detection limit and sampling rate were estimated at 5 μg L(-1) (95% confidence level) and 26 samples per hour, respectively. The enrichment factor was 8.9 and the procedure consumed only 6 μg of TAN and 390 μg of Triton X-114 per determination. At the 95% confidence level, the results obtained for freshwater samples agreed with the reference procedure and those obtained for digests of bovine muscle, rice flour, brown bread and tort lobster agreed with the certified reference values. The proposed procedure thus shows advantages in relation to previously proposed approaches for flow-based CPE, being a fast and environmental friendly alternative for on-line separation and pre-concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Case-based reasoning diagnostic technique based on multi-attribute similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makoto, Takahashi [Tohoku University, Miyagi (Japan); Akio, Gofuku [Okayama University, Okayamaa (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Case-based diagnostic technique has been developed based on the multi-attribute similarity. Specific feature of the developed system is to use multiple attributes of process signals for similarity evaluation to retrieve a similar case stored in a case base. The present technique has been applied to the measurement data from Monju with some simulated anomalies. The results of numerical experiments showed that the present technique can be utilizes as one of the methods for a hybrid-type diagnosis system.

  18. An Observed Voting System Based On Biometric Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Devikiruba

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a computational framework which can run almost on every computer connected to an IP based network to study biometric techniques. This paper discusses with a system protecting confidential information puts strong security demands on the identification. Biometry provides us with a user-friendly method for this identification and is becoming a competitor for current identification mechanisms. The experimentation section focuses on biometric verification specifically based on fingerprints. This article should be read as a warning to those thinking of using methods of identification without first examine the technical opportunities for compromising mechanisms and the associated legal consequences. The development is based on the java language that easily improves software packages that is useful to test new control techniques.

  19. Biomimetic polymers in analytical chemistry. Part 1: preparation and applications of MIP (Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) in extraction and separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarley, Cesar Ricardo Teixeira; Sotomayor, Maria del Pilar Taboada; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    MIPs are synthetic polymers that are used as biomimetic materials simulating the mechanism verified in natural entities such as antibodies and enzymes. Although MIPs have been successfully used as an outstanding tool for enhancing the selectivity or different analytical approaches, such as separation science and electrochemical and optical sensors, several parameters must be optimized during their synthesis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art of MIP production as well as the different polymerization methods are discussed. The potential selectivity of MIPs in the extraction and separation techniques focusing mainly on environmental, clinical and pharmaceutical samples as applications for analytical purposes is presented. (author)

  20. Separation of phytochemicals from Helichrysum italicum: An analysis of different isolation techniques and biological activity of prepared extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimovic, Svetolik; Tadic, Vanja; Skala, Dejan; Zizovic, Irena

    2017-06-01

    Helichrysum italicum presents a valuable source of natural bioactive compounds. In this work, a literature review of terpenes, phenolic compounds, and other less common phytochemicals from H. italicum with regard to application of different separation methods is presented. Data including extraction/separation methods and experimental conditions applied, obtained yields, number of identified compounds, content of different compound groups, and analytical techniques applied are shown as corresponding tables. Numerous biological activities of both isolates and individual compounds are emphasized. In addition, the data reported are discussed, and the directions for further investigations are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social network extraction based on Web: 1. Related superficial methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin Matyuso Nasution, Mahyuddin

    2018-01-01

    Often the nature of something affects methods to resolve the related issues about it. Likewise, methods to extract social networks from the Web, but involve the structured data types differently. This paper reveals several methods of social network extraction from the same sources that is Web: the basic superficial method, the underlying superficial method, the description superficial method, and the related superficial methods. In complexity we derive the inequalities between methods and so are their computations. In this case, we find that different results from the same tools make the difference from the more complex to the simpler: Extraction of social network by involving co-occurrence is more complex than using occurrences.

  2. Detecting epileptic seizure with different feature extracting strategies using robust machine learning classification techniques by applying advance parameter optimization approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Lal

    2018-06-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder produced due to abnormal excitability of neurons in the brain. The research reveals that brain activity is monitored through electroencephalogram (EEG) of patients suffered from seizure to detect the epileptic seizure. The performance of EEG detection based epilepsy require feature extracting strategies. In this research, we have extracted varying features extracting strategies based on time and frequency domain characteristics, nonlinear, wavelet based entropy and few statistical features. A deeper study was undertaken using novel machine learning classifiers by considering multiple factors. The support vector machine kernels are evaluated based on multiclass kernel and box constraint level. Likewise, for K-nearest neighbors (KNN), we computed the different distance metrics, Neighbor weights and Neighbors. Similarly, the decision trees we tuned the paramours based on maximum splits and split criteria and ensemble classifiers are evaluated based on different ensemble methods and learning rate. For training/testing tenfold Cross validation was employed and performance was evaluated in form of TPR, NPR, PPV, accuracy and AUC. In this research, a deeper analysis approach was performed using diverse features extracting strategies using robust machine learning classifiers with more advanced optimal options. Support Vector Machine linear kernel and KNN with City block distance metric give the overall highest accuracy of 99.5% which was higher than using the default parameters for these classifiers. Moreover, highest separation (AUC = 0.9991, 0.9990) were obtained at different kernel scales using SVM. Additionally, the K-nearest neighbors with inverse squared distance weight give higher performance at different Neighbors. Moreover, to distinguish the postictal heart rate oscillations from epileptic ictal subjects, and highest performance of 100% was obtained using different machine learning classifiers.

  3. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Method of extracting significant trouble information of nuclear power plants using probabilistic analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Yoshio; Miyazaki, Takamasa

    2005-01-01

    In order to analyze and evaluate large amounts of trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants, it is necessary to select information that is significant in terms of both safety and reliability. In this research, a method of efficiently and simply classifying degrees of importance of components in terms of safety and reliability while paying attention to root-cause components appearing in the information was developed. Regarding safety, the reactor core damage frequency (CDF), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of a reactor, was used. Regarding reliability, the automatic plant trip probability (APTP), which is used in the probabilistic analysis of automatic reactor trips, was used. These two aspects were reflected in the development of criteria for classifying degrees of importance of components. By applying these criteria, a simple method of extracting significant trouble information of overseas nuclear power plants was developed. (author)

  5. Multivariate anomaly detection for Earth observations: a comparison of algorithms and feature extraction techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Flach

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, many processes at the Earth's surface are constantly monitored by multiple data streams. These observations have become central to advancing our understanding of vegetation dynamics in response to climate or land use change. Another set of important applications is monitoring effects of extreme climatic events, other disturbances such as fires, or abrupt land transitions. One important methodological question is how to reliably detect anomalies in an automated and generic way within multivariate data streams, which typically vary seasonally and are interconnected across variables. Although many algorithms have been proposed for detecting anomalies in multivariate data, only a few have been investigated in the context of Earth system science applications. In this study, we systematically combine and compare feature extraction and anomaly detection algorithms for detecting anomalous events. Our aim is to identify suitable workflows for automatically detecting anomalous patterns in multivariate Earth system data streams. We rely on artificial data that mimic typical properties and anomalies in multivariate spatiotemporal Earth observations like sudden changes in basic characteristics of time series such as the sample mean, the variance, changes in the cycle amplitude, and trends. This artificial experiment is needed as there is no gold standard for the identification of anomalies in real Earth observations. Our results show that a well-chosen feature extraction step (e.g., subtracting seasonal cycles, or dimensionality reduction is more important than the choice of a particular anomaly detection algorithm. Nevertheless, we identify three detection algorithms (k-nearest neighbors mean distance, kernel density estimation, a recurrence approach and their combinations (ensembles that outperform other multivariate approaches as well as univariate extreme-event detection methods. Our results therefore provide an effective workflow to

  6. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerkov Thomsen, Kristina

    2004-02-01

    This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective dose determinations using unheated materials. It focuses on identifying materials suitable for use in assessment of doses absorbed as a consequence of radiation accidents (i.e. accident dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbed doses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements of single grains of quartz extracted from poorly-bleached building materials can provide useful information on radiation accident doses, even when the luminescence sensitivity is low. Sources of variance in well-bleached single grain dose distributions have been investigated in detail and it is concluded that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component, which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured and minimum detection limits of less than 100 mGy are derived. Measurements of thermal transfer in single grains of poorly-bleached quartz show that thermal transfer is variable on a grain-to-grain basis and that it can be a source of variance in single-grain dose distributions. Furthermore, the potential of using common household and workplace chemicals, such as table salt, washing powder and water softener, in retrospective dosimetry has been investigated. It is concluded that such materials should be considered as retrospective dosimeters in the event of a radiation accident. (au)

  7. Foreign body extraction from soft tissue by using CT and fluoroscopic guidance: a new technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoretti, Nicolas; Marcy, Pierre-Yves; Lesbats-Jacquot, Virginie; Fonquerne, Marie-Eve; Maratos, Yvonne [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Radiology Department, Nice (France); Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, Unite d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, CHU de Bordeaux (France); Hovorka, Istvan; Boileau, Pascal [Centre Hopitalier Universitaire de Nice, Orthopaedic Department, Nice (France)

    2010-01-15

    We report on a new minimally invasive technique for the retrieval of a surgical pin fragment after accidental migration into the soft tissue of the shoulder in two patients. The technique is performed under local anaesthesia and uses combined CT and fluoroscopic guidance. The materials used were simple, combining a bone biopsy needle and an endoscopy clamp. Pin displacement was confirmed under fluoroscopic guidance and the clamp was used to withdraw the pin to the cutaneous entry point under CT (step-by-step) guidance. The CT slices provide perfect visualisation of the vascular or nervous structures as well as perfect positioning of the extremity of the trocar relative to the material to be removed. This intervention avoids a second surgical intervention with a longer incision and avoided repeated general anaesthesia. (orig.)

  8. MEMS-Based Power Generation Techniques for Implantable Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lueke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  9. MEMS-based power generation techniques for implantable biosensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueke, Jonathan; Moussa, Walied A

    2011-01-01

    Implantable biosensing is attractive for both medical monitoring and diagnostic applications. It is possible to monitor phenomena such as physical loads on joints or implants, vital signs, or osseointegration in vivo and in real time. Microelectromechanical (MEMS)-based generation techniques can allow for the autonomous operation of implantable biosensors by generating electrical power to replace or supplement existing battery-based power systems. By supplementing existing battery-based power systems for implantable biosensors, the operational lifetime of the sensor is increased. In addition, the potential for a greater amount of available power allows additional components to be added to the biosensing module, such as computational and wireless and components, improving functionality and performance of the biosensor. Photovoltaic, thermovoltaic, micro fuel cell, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and piezoelectric based generation schemes are evaluated in this paper for applicability for implantable biosensing. MEMS-based generation techniques that harvest ambient energy, such as vibration, are much better suited for implantable biosensing applications than fuel-based approaches, producing up to milliwatts of electrical power. High power density MEMS-based approaches, such as piezoelectric and electromagnetic schemes, allow for supplemental and replacement power schemes for biosensing applications to improve device capabilities and performance. In addition, this may allow for the biosensor to be further miniaturized, reducing the need for relatively large batteries with respect to device size. This would cause the implanted biosensor to be less invasive, increasing the quality of care received by the patient.

  10. LC-NMR Technique in the Analysis of Phytosterols in Natural Extracts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horník, Štěpán; Sajfrtová, Marie; Karban, Jindřich; Sýkora, Jan; Březinová, Anna; Wimmer, Zdeněk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 2013, č. 2013 (2013), ID 526818 ISSN 2090-8865 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0616 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61389030 Keywords : LC-NMR technique * phytosterols * analyses Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry; EE - Microbiology, Virology (UEB-Q) Impact factor: 0.948, year: 2013

  11. Sample preparation for large-scale bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedovici, Andrei; Bacalum, Elena; David, Victor

    2018-01-01

    Quality of the analytical data obtained for large-scale and long term bioanalytical studies based on liquid chromatography depends on a number of experimental factors including the choice of sample preparation method. This review discusses this tedious part of bioanalytical studies, applied to large-scale samples and using liquid chromatography coupled with different detector types as core analytical technique. The main sample preparation methods included in this paper are protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, derivatization and their versions. They are discussed by analytical performances, fields of applications, advantages and disadvantages. The cited literature covers mainly the analytical achievements during the last decade, although several previous papers became more valuable in time and they are included in this review. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Power system dynamic state estimation using prediction based evolutionary technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basetti, Vedik; Chandel, Ashwani K.; Chandel, Rajeevan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new robust LWS (least winsorized square) estimator is proposed for dynamic state estimation of a power system. One of the main advantages of this estimator is that it has an inbuilt bad data rejection property and is less sensitive to bad data measurements. In the proposed approach, Brown's double exponential smoothing technique has been utilised for its reliable performance at the prediction step. The state estimation problem is solved as an optimisation problem using a new jDE-self adaptive differential evolution with prediction based population re-initialisation technique at the filtering step. This new stochastic search technique has been embedded with different state scenarios using the predicted state. The effectiveness of the proposed LWS technique is validated under different conditions, namely normal operation, bad data, sudden load change, and loss of transmission line conditions on three different IEEE test bus systems. The performance of the proposed approach is compared with the conventional extended Kalman filter. On the basis of various performance indices, the results thus obtained show that the proposed technique increases the accuracy and robustness of power system dynamic state estimation performance. - Highlights: • To estimate the states of the power system under dynamic environment. • The performance of the EKF method is degraded during anomaly conditions. • The proposed method remains robust towards anomalies. • The proposed method provides precise state estimates even in the presence of anomalies. • The results show that prediction accuracy is enhanced by using the proposed model.

  13. Fractal Image Compression Based on High Entropy Values Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douaa Younis Abbaas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many attempts tried to improve the encoding stage of FIC because it consumed time. These attempts worked by reducing size of the search pool for pair range-domain matching but most of them led to get a bad quality, or a lower compression ratio of reconstructed image. This paper aims to present a method to improve performance of the full search algorithm by combining FIC (lossy compression and another lossless technique (in this case entropy coding is used. The entropy technique will reduce size of the domain pool (i. e., number of domain blocks based on the entropy value of each range block and domain block and then comparing the results of full search algorithm and proposed algorithm based on entropy technique to see each of which give best results (such as reduced the encoding time with acceptable values in both compression quali-ty parameters which are C. R (Compression Ratio and PSNR (Image Quality. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm proven that using the proposed entropy technique reduces the encoding time while keeping compression rates and reconstruction image quality good as soon as possible.

  14. Characterization techniques for graphene-based materials in catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maocong Hu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Graphene-based materials have been studied in a wide range of applications including catalysis due to the outstanding electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties. The unprecedented features of graphene-based catalysts, which are believed to be responsible for their superior performance, have been characterized by many techniques. In this article, we comprehensively summarized the characterization methods covering bulk and surface structure analysis, chemisorption ability determination, and reaction mechanism investigation. We reviewed the advantages/disadvantages of different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS, atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM. The application of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR, CO chemisorption, and NH3/CO2-temperature-programmed desorption (TPD was also briefly introduced. Finally, we discussed the challenges and provided possible suggestions on choosing characterization techniques. This review provides key information to catalysis community to adopt suitable characterization techniques for their research.

  15. Determination of Methylmercury Traces in Biological Matrix: Chemical Extraction and Nuclear Quantification with the Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldati, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Mercury is present in the environment as a result of the human and natural activities.The total amount of Hg present in the biosphere has been incremented three times since the industrial era, and now it is affecting in a global sense all the ecosystem.One of the main entrance of Hg in the human diet is the consumption of fish and other marine creatures.Most of the ingested Hg is mono methylmercury (MeHg), which is one of the most toxic forms in which this element could be found because it crosses membranes.Since the toxicity levels are low, the determination of concentrations of total Hg and Me Hg require very careful sampling, sample conditioning and analytical procedures to prevent either losses or contamination, or the degradation of the Hg species.In this work, we implemented a chemical Me Hg extraction procedure, using a ionic exchange resin, with three different types of fish tissue: muscle, liver and hepato pancreas.After Me Hg extraction, the determination and quantification was made by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis, by measuring the 197 Au, y el 203 Tl deexcitation s, created through the radioactive decay of the isotopes 197 Hg y 203 Hg.The influence of several parameters on the overall extraction process, such as velocity of passage through the ionic exchange column and the acid concentration used in the extraction was evaluated.Regarding the INAA determinations, a choice was made for the irradiation, decay and counting times, neutron and gamma doses, and the counting geometry The detection limit found for this technique (dry weight) is 140 pg MeHg/g. The Hg contents of the muscle samples were measured with the 279 keV emission of the product of the 202 Hg(n,g) 203 Hg reaction, with a recovery of (100 ± 13)%. Liver and Hepato pancreas samples were measured with the 77 keV gamma emission of the 197 Hg, checking this result with the 67 y 69 keV X emissions from the same isotope.The liver samples needed an extra vacuum filtering process during

  16. Development of a new extraction technique and HPLC method for the analysis of non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L. (hemp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Virginia; Pellati, Federica; Steinbach, Marleen; Maran, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania

    2017-09-05

    The present work was aimed at the development and validation of a new, efficient and reliable technique for the analysis of the main non-psychoactive cannabinoids in fibre-type Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) inflorescences belonging to different varieties. This study was designed to identify samples with a high content of bioactive compounds, with a view to underscoring the importance of quality control in derived products as well. Different extraction methods, including dynamic maceration (DM), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE) were applied and compared in order to obtain a high yield of the target analytes from hemp. Dynamic maceration for 45min with ethanol (EtOH) at room temperature proved to be the most suitable technique for the extraction of cannabinoids in hemp samples. The analysis of the target analytes in hemp extracts was carried out by developing a new reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with diode array (UV/DAD) and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection, by using an ion trap mass analyser. An Ascentis Express C 18 column (150mm×3.0mm I.D., 2.7μm) was selected for the HPLC analysis, with a mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid in both water and acetonitrile, under gradient elution. The application of the fused-core technology allowed us to obtain a significant improvement of the HPLC performance compared with that of conventional particulate stationary phases, with a shorter analysis time and a remarkable reduction of solvent usage. The analytical method optimized in this study was fully validated to show compliance with international requirements. Furthermore, it was applied to the characterization of nine hemp samples and six hemp-based pharmaceutical products. As such, it was demonstrated to be a very useful tool for the analysis of cannabinoids in both the plant material and its derivatives for

  17. Validation of Extraction Paper Chromatography as a Quality Control Technique for Analysis of Sr-90 in Y-90 Product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nipavan, Poramatikul; Jatupol, Sangsuriyan; Wiranee, Sriweing

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Yttrium-90 (Y-90) is a daughter product of strontium-90 (Sr-90). It is specified that there should be less than 2 micro-curie of Sr-90 in Y-90 radiopharmaceuticals. Since both nuclides are beta emitting and there is always a contamination of Y-90 in Sr-90 sample, validation of the analytical method is necessary. In this study, commercial Y-90 and Sr-85 (a gamma emitting isotope of strontium) were used as daughter and mother nuclides, respectively. Extraction paper chromatography technique and its efficient validation method were investigated. Bis-(2-ethylhexyl) diphosphonate was dropped at the origin of chromatography paper and air dried prior to sample drops. Validation of the separation was done by radio-chromatography scanning of the chromatography paper. Their energy spectra were identified in the spectra mode of Packard Cobra II automatic gamma counter, which can differentiate a pure gamma, a pure beta and a mixture of beta and gamma nuclides. Results showed that yttrium acetate remained fixed at the origin of the chromatography paper while strontium acetate moved to the solvent front when developed in saline. In conclusion, the extraction paper chromatography technique can effectively separate Sr-90 from Y-90

  18. Simultaneous extraction and concentration of water pollution tracers using ionic-liquid-based systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Teresa B V; Passos, Helena; Lima, Diana L D; Sousa, Ana C A; Coutinho, João A P; Esteves, Valdemar I; Freire, Mara G

    2017-07-29

    Human activities are responsible for the release of innumerous substances into the aquatic environment. Some of these substances can be used as pollution tracers to identify contamination sources and to prioritize monitoring and remediation actions. Thus, their identification and quantification are of high priority. However, due to their presence in complex matrices and at significantly low concentrations, a pre-treatment/concentration step is always required. As an alternative to the currently used pre-treatment methods, mainly based on solid-phase extractions, aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) composed of ionic liquids (ILs) and K 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 are here proposed for the simultaneous extraction and concentration of mixtures of two important pollution tracers, caffeine (CAF) and carbamazepine (CBZ). An initial screening of the IL chemical structure was carried out, with extraction efficiencies of both tracers to the IL-rich phase ranging between 95 and 100%, obtained in a single-step. These systems were then optimized in order to simultaneously concentrate CAF and CBZ from water samples followed by HPLC-UV analysis, for which no interferences of the ABS phase-forming components and other interferents present in a wastewater effluent sample have been found. Based on the saturation solubility data of both pollution tracers in the IL-rich phase, the maximum estimated concentration factors of CAF and CBZ are 28595- and 8259-fold. IL-based ABS can be thus envisioned as effective pre-treatment techniques of environmentally-related aqueous samples for a more accurate monitoring of mixtures of pollution tracers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. IoT Security Techniques Based on Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Liang; Wan, Xiaoyue; Lu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Yanyong; Wu, Di

    2018-01-01

    Internet of things (IoT) that integrate a variety of devices into networks to provide advanced and intelligent services have to protect user privacy and address attacks such as spoofing attacks, denial of service attacks, jamming and eavesdropping. In this article, we investigate the attack model for IoT systems, and review the IoT security solutions based on machine learning techniques including supervised learning, unsupervised learning and reinforcement learning. We focus on the machine le...

  20. A new and simple extraction technique for rectal foreign bodies: removing by cutting into small pieces

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Aras; Mehmet Karabulut; Osman Kones; Kaplan Baha Temizgonul; Halil Alis

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of insertion and types of foreign bodies in rectum show great variation. Rectal foreign bodies need to be removed without giving damage to intestinal wall and this should be done in the easiest possible way. We have reported a new and a simple technique. It is easy to apply and safe. A patient was admitted to our clinic with a rectal foreign body (radish) which was successfully removed by cutting it into small pieces. We conclude that different kinds of rectal foreign bodies, esp...

  1. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Stable Isotopes: Extraction Technique Development and Urban Atmospheric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimont, Isaac Josef

    We have developed an extraction system to analyze isotopes of carbon monoxide (CO). We then analyzed CO isotopes for two years at Indianapolis, IN, USA. These measurements were done at three towers, one of which measured incoming, background air into the city. We quantitatively removed the background signal and determined the urban CO mole fraction and isotopic enhancements. During the winter months, we constrained the isotopic signature and concluded that the majority of CO produced during the winter was produced by fossil fuel combustion. We found that the Indianapolis fossil fuel signature differed from that of studies done in Europe. Further, we performed a limited traffic study to look at CO isotopes from traffic. While this was not conclusive, it did support our hypothesis that a larger fraction of the Indianapolis vehicle fleet may have malfunctioning catalytic systems, which biases the isotopic results, particularly for delta18O. We used the wintertime fossil fuel isotopic signature to help constrain the summertime budget. It was hypothesized that a second source of CO was significant during the summer months. Oxidation of biogenically produced volatile organic compounds (BVOC's) was one possible source. Oxidized BVOC's were consistent with the changes between our winter and summer isotopic source signatures. We then used the isotopic signatures to determine that between zero and sixty percent of the summertime CO budget was produced from oxidized VOC's. This provided the first direct evidence of a larger percentage of urban CO being produced by oxidized VOC's.

  3. Fast and effective low-temperature freezing extraction technique to determine organotin compounds in edible vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxia; Ma, Yaqian; Wan, Yiqun; Guo, Lan; Wan, Xiaofen

    2016-06-01

    Most organotin compounds that have been widely used in food packaging materials and production process show serious toxicity effects to human health. In this study, a simple and low-cost method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of four organotins in edible vegetable oil samples was developed. Four organotins including dibutyltin dichloride, tributyltin chloride, diphenyltin dichloride, and triphenyltin chloride were simultaneously extracted with methanol using the low-temperature precipitation process. After being concentrated, the extracts were purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion using graphitized carbon black. The experimental parameters such as extraction solvent and clean-up material were optimized. To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the recoveries were investigated. In addition, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was also proposed for comparison. The procedures of extracting and purifying samples for the analysis were simple and easy to perform batch operations, also showed good efficiency with lower relative standard deviation. The limits of detection of the four organotins were 0.28-0.59 μg/L, and the limits of quantification of the four organotins were 0.93-1.8 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the four organotins in edible vegetable oil. Some analytes were detected at the level of 2.5-28.8 μg/kg. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. An Image Morphing Technique Based on Optimal Mass Preserving Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Yang, Yan; Haker, Steven; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Image morphing, or image interpolation in the time domain, deals with the metamorphosis of one image into another. In this paper, a new class of image morphing algorithms is proposed based on the theory of optimal mass transport. The L2 mass moving energy functional is modified by adding an intensity penalizing term, in order to reduce the undesired double exposure effect. It is an intensity-based approach and, thus, is parameter free. The optimal warping function is computed using an iterative gradient descent approach. This proposed morphing method is also extended to doubly connected domains using a harmonic parameterization technique, along with finite-element methods. PMID:17547128

  5. Comparing Four Touch-Based Interaction Techniques for an Image-Based Audience Response System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jorritsma, Wiard; Prins, Jonatan T.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate touch-based interaction technique for I2Vote, an image-based audience response system for radiology education in which users need to accurately mark a target on a medical image. Four plausible techniques were identified: land-on, take-off,

  6. Porphyrin-based magnetic nanocomposites for efficient extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Zhu, Shukui; Pang, Liling; Chen, Pin; Zhu, Gang-Tian

    2018-03-09

    Stable and reusable porphyrin-based magnetic nanocomposites were successfully synthesized for efficient extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from environmental water samples. Meso-Tetra (4-carboxyphenyl) porphyrin (TCPP), a kind of porphyrin, can connect the copolymer after amidation and was linked to Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 magnetic nanospheres via cross-coupling. Several characteristic techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, vibrating sample magnetometry and a tensiometer were used to characterize the as-synthesized materials. The structure of the copolymer was similar to that of graphene, possessing sp 2 -conjugated carbon rings, but with an appropriate amount of delocalized π-electrons giving rise to the higher extraction efficiency for heavy PAHs without sacrificing the performance in the extraction of light PAHs. Six extraction parameters, including the TCPP:Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 (m:m) ratio, the amount of adsorbents, the type of desorption solvent, the desorption solvent volume, the adsorption time and the desorption time, were investigated. After the optimization of extraction conditions, a comparison of the extraction efficiency of Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 -TCPP and Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 @GO was carried out. The adsorption mechanism of TCPP to PAHs was studied by first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Combining experimental and calculated results, it was shown that the π-π stacking interaction was the main adsorption mechanism of TCPP for PAHs and that the amount of delocalized π-electrons plays an important role in the elution process. Under the optimal conditions, Fe 3 O 4 @SiO 2 -porphyrin showed good precision in intra-day (<8.9%) and inter-day (<13.0%) detection, low method detection limits (2-10 ng L -1 ), and wide linearity (10-10000 ng L -1 ). The method was applied to simultaneous analysis of 15 PAHs with

  7. Semantic Information Extraction of Lanes Based on Onboard Camera Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L.; Deng, T.; Ren, C.

    2018-04-01

    In the field of autonomous driving, semantic information of lanes is very important. This paper proposes a method of automatic detection of lanes and extraction of semantic information from onboard camera videos. The proposed method firstly detects the edges of lanes by the grayscale gradient direction, and improves the Probabilistic Hough transform to fit them; then, it uses the vanishing point principle to calculate the lane geometrical position, and uses lane characteristics to extract lane semantic information by the classification of decision trees. In the experiment, 216 road video images captured by a camera mounted onboard a moving vehicle were used to detect lanes and extract lane semantic information. The results show that the proposed method can accurately identify lane semantics from video images.

  8. A DIFFERENT WEB-BASED GEOCODING SERVICE USING FUZZY TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pahlavani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding – the process of finding position based on descriptive data such as address or postal code - is considered as one of the most commonly used spatial analyses. Many online map providers such as Google Maps, Bing Maps and Yahoo Maps present geocoding as one of their basic capabilities. Despite the diversity of geocoding services, users usually face some limitations when they use available online geocoding services. In existing geocoding services, proximity and nearness concept is not modelled appropriately as well as these services search address only by address matching based on descriptive data. In addition there are also some limitations in display searching results. Resolving these limitations can enhance efficiency of the existing geocoding services. This paper proposes the idea of integrating fuzzy technique with geocoding process to resolve these limitations. In order to implement the proposed method, a web-based system is designed. In proposed method, nearness to places is defined by fuzzy membership functions and multiple fuzzy distance maps are created. Then these fuzzy distance maps are integrated using fuzzy overlay technique for obtain the results. Proposed methods provides different capabilities for users such as ability to search multi-part addresses, searching places based on their location, non-point representation of results as well as displaying search results based on their priority.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction technique for establishing selenium contents in breast cancer biopsies by Zeeman-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using multi-injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavilla, I.; Mosquera, A.; Millos, J.; Cameselle, J.; Bendicho, C.

    2006-01-01

    A solid-liquid extraction method is developed to establish the contents of selenium in breast cancer biopsies. The method is based on the ultrasound-assisted extraction of selenium from pretreated biopsies prior to Se determination by atomic absorption spectrometry with longitudinal-Zeeman background correction. Fifty-one breast biopsies were collected from the Cies Hospital (Vigo, Spain), 32 of which correspond to tumor tissue and 19 to normal tissue (parenchyma). Difficulties arising from the samples analyzed, i.e. small samples mass (50-100 mg), extremely low Se contents and sample texture modification including tissue hardening due to formaldehyde preservation are addressed and overcome. High intensity sonication using a probe together with addition of hydrogen peroxide succeeded in completely extracting Se from biopsies. The multiple injection technique was useful to tackle the low Se contents present in some biopsies. The detection limit was 25 ng g -1 of Se and the precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was less than 10%. Se contents ranged from 0.08 to 0.4 μg g -1 for parenchyma samples and from 0.09 to 0.8 μg g -1 for tumor samples. In general, Se levels in tumor biopsies were higher as compared with the adjacent normal tissue in 19 patients by a factor of up to 6. Analytical data confirmed Se accumulation in the breast tumors

  10. Joint Feature Extraction and Classifier Design for ECG-Based Biometric Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutta, Sandeep; Cheng, Qi

    2016-03-01

    Traditional biometric recognition systems often utilize physiological traits such as fingerprint, face, iris, etc. Recent years have seen a growing interest in electrocardiogram (ECG)-based biometric recognition techniques, especially in the field of clinical medicine. In existing ECG-based biometric recognition methods, feature extraction and classifier design are usually performed separately. In this paper, a multitask learning approach is proposed, in which feature extraction and classifier design are carried out simultaneously. Weights are assigned to the features within the kernel of each task. We decompose the matrix consisting of all the feature weights into sparse and low-rank components. The sparse component determines the features that are relevant to identify each individual, and the low-rank component determines the common feature subspace that is relevant to identify all the subjects. A fast optimization algorithm is developed, which requires only the first-order information. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated through experiments using the MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm database.

  11. Comparison of the method of diffusive gels in thin films with conventional extraction techniques for evaluating zinc accumulation in plants and isopods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, Marijke [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Open University Netherlands, Heerlen (Netherlands); Reijnders, Lucas [Open University Netherlands, Heerlen (Netherlands); Oost, Nathalie R. van [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Peijnenburg, Willie J.G.M. [National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, Laboratory for Ecological Risk Assessment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)]. E-mail: wjgm.peijnenburg@rivm.nl

    2005-01-01

    The measurement of diffusive gels in thin films (DGT) has recently been developed to assess metal bioavailability in soils. The DGT-method is based on diffusion in a porous matrix. To test the predictive capabilities of the method with regard to metal bioavailability, a study was set up with 28 soils having a variety of textures and amounts of zinc salts added. Correlation and regression analyses were performed to compare DGT-extracted zinc levels to zinc concentrations obtained by extraction with 0.01 M CaCl{sub 2} and 0.43 M HNO{sub 3}, digestion with aqua regia and the zinc concentration in pore water. The amount of zinc extracted with CaCl{sub 2} correlated well with DGT-extracted zinc levels in all soils spiked with different amounts of ZnCl{sub 2}. A similar correlation was not found for zinc concentrations in soil samples collected in the field. Experiments were performed to compare zinc content in organisms and in soils. The organisms tested were plants (grass, lettuce and lupine) and the hard bodied soil dwelling isopod Oniscus asellus. Good correlations were found between zinc accumulation in grass and lettuce and the C{sub E} (effective concentration) measured by a DGT-device, CaCl{sub 2} extracted zinc and the zinc content in the pore water of all soils. The correlation with C{sub E} was not significant for lupine, neither for spiked soils, nor for field soils (p {<=} 0.001). Zinc levels in the isopods were not significantly related to any set of zinc measurements. From a synthesis of all results obtained it is concluded that the DGT-methodology does not have an additional value in predicting bioavailability of zinc in terrestrial ecosystems as compared to conventional extraction methods. - Capsule: The newly developed method of diffusive gels in Thin films (DGT) does not have an added value over conventional extraction techniques in predicting zinc uptake by plants and isopods.

  12. Random Forest Based Coarse Locating and KPCA Feature Extraction for Indoor Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast developing of mobile terminals, positioning techniques based on fingerprinting method draw attention from many researchers even world famous companies. To conquer some shortcomings of the existing fingerprinting systems and further improve the system performance, on the one hand, in the paper, we propose a coarse positioning method based on random forest, which is able to customize several subregions, and classify test point to the region with an outstanding accuracy compared with some typical clustering algorithms. On the other hand, through the mathematical analysis in engineering, the proposed kernel principal component analysis algorithm is applied for radio map processing, which may provide better robustness and adaptability compared with linear feature extraction methods and manifold learning technique. We build both theoretical model and real environment for verifying the feasibility and reliability. The experimental results show that the proposed indoor positioning system could achieve 99% coarse locating accuracy and enhance 15% fine positioning accuracy on average in a strong noisy environment compared with some typical fingerprinting based methods.

  13. SKILLS-BASED ECLECTIC TECHNIQUES MATRIX FOR ELT MICROTEACHINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İskender Hakkı Sarıgöz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Foreign language teaching undergoes constant changes due to the methodological improvement. This progress may be examined in two parts. They are the methods era and the post-methods era. It is not pragmatic today to propose a particular language teaching method and its techniques for all purposes. The holistic inflexibility of mid-century methods has long gone. In the present day, constructivist foreign language teaching trends attempt to see the learner as a whole person and an individual who may be different from the other students in many respects. At the same time, the individual differences should not keep the learners away from group harmony. For this reason, current teacher training programs require eclectic teaching matrixes for unit design considering the mixed ability student groups. These matrixes can be prepared in a multidimensional fashion because there are many functional techniques in different methods and other new techniques to be created by instructors freely in accordance with the teaching aims. The hypothesis in this argument is that the collection of foreign language teaching techniques compiled in ELT microteachings for a particular group of learners has to be arranged eclectically in order to update the teaching process. Nevertheless, designing a teaching format of this sort is a demanding and highly criticized task. This study briefly argues eclecticism in language-skills based methodological struggle from the perspective of ELT teacher education.

  14. Optimization of β-cyclodextrin-based flavonol extraction from apple pomace using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Indu; Sharma, Sowmya; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated five cyclodextrins (CDs) for the extraction of flavonols from apple pomace powder and optimized β-CD based extraction of total flavonols using response surface methodology. A 2(3) central composite design with β-CD concentration (0-5 g 100 mL(-1)), extraction temperature (20-72 °C), extraction time (6-48 h) and second-order quadratic model for the total flavonol yield (mg 100 g(-1) DM) was selected to generate the response surface curves. The optimal conditions obtained were: β-CD concentration, 2.8 g 100 mL(-1); extraction temperature, 45 °C and extraction time, 25.6 h that predicted the extraction of 166.6 mg total flavonols 100 g(-1) DM. The predicted amount was comparable to the experimental amount of 151.5 mg total flavonols 100 g(-1) DM obtained from optimal β-CD based parameters, thereby giving a low absolute error and adequacy of fitted model. In addition, the results from optimized extraction conditions showed values similar to those obtained through previously established solvent based sonication assisted flavonol extraction procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to optimize aqueous β-CD based flavonol extraction which presents an environmentally safe method for value-addition to under-utilized bio resources.

  15. FDTD technique based crosstalk analysis of bundled SWCNT interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duksh, Yograj Singh; Kaushik, Brajesh Kumar; Agarwal, Rajendra P.

    2015-01-01

    The equivalent electrical circuit model of a bundled single-walled carbon nanotube based distributed RLC interconnects is employed for the crosstalk analysis. The accurate time domain analysis and crosstalk effect in the VLSI interconnect has emerged as an essential design criteria. This paper presents a brief description of the numerical method based finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique that is intended for estimation of voltages and currents on coupled transmission lines. For the FDTD implementation, the stability of the proposed model is strictly restricted by the Courant condition. This method is used for the estimation of crosstalk induced propagation delay and peak voltage in lossy RLC interconnects. Both functional and dynamic crosstalk effects are analyzed in the coupled transmission line. The effect of line resistance on crosstalk induced delay, and peak voltage under dynamic and functional crosstalk is also evaluated. The FDTD analysis and the SPICE simulations are carried out at 32 nm technology node for the global interconnects. It is observed that the analytical results obtained using the FDTD technique are in good agreement with the SPICE simulation results. The crosstalk induced delay, propagation delay, and peak voltage obtained using the FDTD technique shows average errors of 4.9%, 3.4% and 0.46%, respectively, in comparison to SPICE. (paper)

  16. IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON MARKOV RANDOM FIELD AND WATERSHED TECHNIQUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纳瑟; 刘重庆

    2002-01-01

    This paper presented a method that incorporates Markov Random Field(MRF), watershed segmentation and merging techniques for performing image segmentation and edge detection tasks. MRF is used to obtain an initial estimate of x regions in the image under process where in MRF model, gray level x, at pixel location i, in an image X, depends on the gray levels of neighboring pixels. The process needs an initial segmented result. An initial segmentation is got based on K-means clustering technique and the minimum distance, then the region process in modeled by MRF to obtain an image contains different intensity regions. Starting from this we calculate the gradient values of that image and then employ a watershed technique. When using MRF method it obtains an image that has different intensity regions and has all the edge and region information, then it improves the segmentation result by superimpose closed and an accurate boundary of each region using watershed algorithm. After all pixels of the segmented regions have been processed, a map of primitive region with edges is generated. Finally, a merge process based on averaged mean values is employed. The final segmentation and edge detection result is one closed boundary per actual region in the image.

  17. Semantics-based information extraction for detecting economic events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Hogenboom (Alexander); F. Frasincar (Flavius); K. Schouten (Kim); O. van der Meer

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAs today's financial markets are sensitive to breaking news on economic events, accurate and timely automatic identification of events in news items is crucial. Unstructured news items originating from many heterogeneous sources have to be mined in order to extract knowledge useful for

  18. Rule set transferability for object-based feature extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anders, N.S.; Seijmonsbergen, Arie C.; Bouten, Willem

    2015-01-01

    Cirques are complex landforms resulting from glacial erosion and can be used to estimate Equilibrium Line Altitudes and infer climate history. Automated extraction of cirques may help research on glacial geomorphology and climate change. Our objective was to test the transferability of an

  19. Ecosystem-based design rules for marine sand extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de Maarten F.; Borsje, Bas W.; Baptist, Martin J.; Wal, van der Jan Tjalling; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch

  20. Ecosystem-based design rules for marine sand extraction sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Maarten F.; Borsje, Bas W.; Baptist, Martin J.; van der Wal, Jan Tjalling; Lindeboom, Han J.; Hoekstra, Piet

    2016-01-01

    The demand for marine sand in the Netherlands as well as globally is increasing. Over the last decades, only shallow sand extraction of 2m below the seabed was allowed on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). To guarantee sufficient supply and to decrease the surface area of direct impact, the Dutch

  1. Analog integrated circuit design automation placement, routing and parasitic extraction techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Ricardo; Horta, Nuno

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to a variety of tools for analog layout design automation. After discussing the placement and routing problem in electronic design automation (EDA), the authors overview a variety of automatic layout generation tools, as well as the most recent advances in analog layout-aware circuit sizing. The discussion includes different methods for automatic placement (a template-based Placer and an optimization-based Placer), a fully-automatic Router and an empirical-based Parasitic Extractor. The concepts and algorithms of all the modules are thoroughly described, enabling readers to reproduce the methodologies, improve the quality of their designs, or use them as starting point for a new tool. All the methods described are applied to practical examples for a 130nm design process, as well as placement and routing benchmark sets. Introduces readers to hierarchical combination of Pareto fronts of placements; Presents electromigration-aware routing with multilayer multiport terminal structures...

  2. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk, so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue and milk samples respectively. The recoveries of tissue sample by addition lindane standard solution: 0.50 and 1.00 μg are 85.10 and 103.10% respectively, while that of milk with the addition of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 μg are 83.80, 88.69 and 91.24% respectively. Three replicates were carried out for every sample. According of validation criteria of FAO/IAEA the recovery for analysis of pesticide residues was 70-110%. Therefore, the method is applicable.

  3. Investigation of antineoplastic activity of chewing tablets based on dry oat extract and quercetin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ярослав Ростиславович Андрійчук

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main goals of domestic pharmaceutical science is development of new medicines. Thus, new tablet drug was created based on dry oat extract and quercetin. Investigation of antineoplastic activity was performed. Antineoplastic activity of investigational drug based on dry oat extract and quercetin was experimentally proved.

  4. Adaptive differential correspondence imaging based on sorting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop an adaptive differential correspondence imaging (CI method using a sorting technique. Different from the conventional CI schemes, the bucket detector signals (BDS are first processed by a differential technique, and then sorted in a descending (or ascending order. Subsequently, according to the front and last several frames of the sorted BDS, the positive and negative subsets (PNS are created by selecting the relative frames from the reference detector signals. Finally, the object image is recovered from the PNS. Besides, an adaptive method based on two-step iteration is designed to select the optimum number of frames. To verify the proposed method, a single-detector computational ghost imaging (GI setup is constructed. We experimentally and numerically compare the performance of the proposed method with different GI algorithms. The results show that our method can improve the reconstruction quality and reduce the computation cost by using fewer measurement data.

  5. Wear Detection of Drill Bit by Image-based Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukeri, Maziyah; Zulhilmi Paiz Ismadi, Mohd; Rahim Othman, Abdul; Kamaruddin, Shahrul

    2018-03-01

    Image processing for computer vision function plays an essential aspect in the manufacturing industries for the tool condition monitoring. This study proposes a dependable direct measurement method to measure the tool wear using image-based analysis. Segmentation and thresholding technique were used as the means to filter and convert the colour image to binary datasets. Then, the edge detection method was applied to characterize the edge of the drill bit. By using cross-correlation method, the edges of original and worn drill bits were correlated to each other. Cross-correlation graphs were able to detect the difference of the worn edge despite small difference between the graphs. Future development will focus on quantifying the worn profile as well as enhancing the sensitivity of the technique.

  6. Underwater Time Service and Synchronization Based on Time Reversal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Wang, Hai-bin; Aissa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Pyndiah, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    Real time service and synchronization are very important to many underwater systems. But the time service and synchronization in existence cannot work well due to the multi-path propagation and random phase fluctuation of signals in the ocean channel. The time reversal mirror technique can realize energy concentration through self-matching of the ocean channel and has very good spatial and temporal focusing properties. Based on the TRM technique, we present the Time Reversal Mirror Real Time service and synchronization (TRMRT) method which can bypass the processing of multi-path on the server side and reduce multi-path contamination on the client side. So TRMRT can improve the accuracy of time service. Furthermore, as an efficient and precise method of time service, TRMRT could be widely used in underwater exploration activities and underwater navigation and positioning systems.

  7. Bit Plane Coding based Steganography Technique for JPEG2000 Images and Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Kasana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a Bit Plane Coding (BPC based steganography technique for JPEG2000 images and Motion JPEG2000 video is proposed. Embedding in this technique is performed in the lowest significant bit planes of the wavelet coefficients of a cover image. In JPEG2000 standard, the number of bit planes of wavelet coefficients to be used in encoding is dependent on the compression rate and are used in Tier-2 process of JPEG2000. In the proposed technique, Tier-1 and Tier-2 processes of JPEG2000 and Motion JPEG2000 are executed twice on the encoder side to collect the information about the lowest bit planes of all code blocks of a cover image, which is utilized in embedding and transmitted to the decoder. After embedding secret data, Optimal Pixel Adjustment Process (OPAP is applied on stego images to enhance its visual quality. Experimental results show that proposed technique provides large embedding capacity and better visual quality of stego images than existing steganography techniques for JPEG2000 compressed images and videos. Extracted secret image is similar to the original secret image.

  8. Innovative Hyperspectral Imaging-Based Techniques for Quality Evaluation of Fruits and Vegetables: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhen Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New, non-destructive sensing techniques for fast and more effective quality assessment of fruits and vegetables are needed to meet the ever-increasing consumer demand for better, more consistent and safer food products. Over the past 15 years, hyperspectral imaging has emerged as a new generation of sensing technology for non-destructive food quality and safety evaluation, because it integrates the major features of imaging and spectroscopy, thus enabling the acquisition of both spectral and spatial information from an object simultaneously. This paper first provides a brief overview of hyperspectral imaging configurations and common sensing modes used for food quality and safety evaluation. The paper is, however, focused on the three innovative hyperspectral imaging-based techniques or sensing platforms, i.e., spectral scattering, integrated reflectance and transmittance, and spatially-resolved spectroscopy, which have been developed in our laboratory for property and quality evaluation of fruits, vegetables and other food products. The basic principle and instrumentation of each technique are described, followed by the mathematical methods for processing and extracting critical information from the acquired data. Applications of these techniques for property and quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables are then presented. Finally, concluding remarks are given on future research needs to move forward these hyperspectral imaging techniques.

  9. Selective solid-phase extraction of Hg(II) using silica gel surface - imprinting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, H.; Geng, T.; Hu, L.

    2008-01-01

    A new ion-imprinted amino-functionalized silica gel sorbent was synthesized by surface-imprinting technique for preconcentration and separation of Hg(II) prior to its determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Compared to the traditional solid sorbents and non-imprinted polymer particles, the ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) have higher adsorption capacity and selectivity for Hg(II). The maximum static adsorption capacity of the imprinted and non-imprinted sorbent for Hg(II) was 29.89 mg g -1 and 11.21 mg g -1 , respectively. The highest selectivity coefficient for Hg(II) in the presence of Zn(II) exceeded 230. The detection limit (3σ) of the method was 0.25 μg L -1 . The relative standard deviation of the method was 2.5% for eight replicate determinations of 10 μg of Hg 2+ in 200 mL-in-volume water sample. The procedure was validated by performing the analysis of the certified river sediment sample (GBW 08603, China) using the standard addition method. The developed method was also successfully applied to the determination of trace mercury in Chinese traditional medicine and water samples with satisfactory results. (authors)

  10. Vision based techniques for rotorcraft low altitude flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Suorsa, Ray; Smith, Philip

    1991-01-01

    An overview of research in obstacle detection at NASA Ames Research Center is presented. The research applies techniques from computer vision to automation of rotorcraft navigation. The development of a methodology for detecting the range to obstacles based on the maximum utilization of passive sensors is emphasized. The development of a flight and image data base for verification of vision-based algorithms, and a passive ranging methodology tailored to the needs of helicopter flight are discussed. Preliminary results indicate that it is possible to obtain adequate range estimates except at regions close to the FOE. Closer to the FOE, the error in range increases since the magnitude of the disparity gets smaller, resulting in a low SNR.

  11. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Lara; Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; Villacorta, Juan J; Raboso, Mariano

    2015-06-17

    Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation-based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to separate the person from the background, masking-to reduce the dimensions of images-and binarization-to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  12. Comparison of solvent extraction and extraction chromatography resin techniques for uranium isotopic characterization in high-level radioactive waste and barrier materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Bermúdez, Santiago; Villa-Alfageme, María; Mas, José Luis; Alba, María Dolores

    2018-07-01

    The development of Deep Geological Repositories (DGP) to the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) is mainly focused in systems of multiple barriers based on the use of clays, and particularly bentonites, as natural and engineered barriers in nuclear waste isolation due to their remarkable properties. Due to the fact that uranium is the major component of HLRW, it is required to go in depth in the analysis of the chemistry of the reaction of this element within bentonites. The determination of uranium under the conditions of HLRW, including the analysis of silicate matrices before and after the uranium-bentonite reaction, was investigated. The performances of a state-of-the-art and widespread radiochemical method based on chromatographic UTEVA resins, and a well-known and traditional method based on solvent extraction with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), for the analysis of uranium and thorium isotopes in solid matrices with high concentrations of uranium were analysed in detail. In the development of this comparison, both radiochemical approaches have an overall excellent performance in order to analyse uranium concentration in HLRW samples. However, due to the high uranium concentration in the samples, the chromatographic resin is not able to avoid completely the uranium contamination in the thorium fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combination Base64 Algorithm and EOF Technique for Steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Nurdiyanto, Heri; Hidayat, Rahmat; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Siregar, Dodi; Putera Utama Siahaan, Andysah; Faisal, Ilham; Rahman, Sayuti; Suita, Diana; Zamsuri, Ahmad; Abdullah, Dahlan; Napitupulu, Darmawan; Ikhsan Setiawan, Muhammad; Sriadhi, S.

    2018-04-01

    The steganography process combines mathematics and computer science. Steganography consists of a set of methods and techniques to embed the data into another media so that the contents are unreadable to anyone who does not have the authority to read these data. The main objective of the use of base64 method is to convert any file in order to achieve privacy. This paper discusses a steganography and encoding method using base64, which is a set of encoding schemes that convert the same binary data to the form of a series of ASCII code. Also, the EoF technique is used to embed encoding text performed by Base64. As an example, for the mechanisms a file is used to represent the texts, and by using the two methods together will increase the security level for protecting the data, this research aims to secure many types of files in a particular media with a good security and not to damage the stored files and coverage media that used.

  14. A proposed security technique based on watermarking and encryption for digital imaging and communications in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abd-Eldayem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays; modern Hospital Data Management Systems (HDMSs are applied in a computer network; in addition medicinal equipments produce medical images in a digital form. HDMS must store and exchange these images in a secured environment to provide image integrity and patient privacy. The reversible watermarking techniques can be used to provide the integrity and the privacy. In this paper, a security technique based on watermarking and encryption is proposed to be used for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM. It provides patient authentication, information confidentiality and integrity based on reversible watermark. To achieve integrity service at the sender side; a hash value based on encrypted MD5 is determined from the image. And to satisfy the reversible feature; R–S-Vector is determined from the image and is compressed based on a Huffman compression algorithm. After that to provide confidentiality and authentication services: the compressed R–S-Vector, the hash value and patient ID are concatenated to form a watermark then this watermark is encrypted using AES encryption technique, finally the watermark is embedded inside the medical image. Experimental results prove that the proposed technique can provide patient authentication services, image integrity service and information confidentiality service with excellent efficiency. Concluded results for all tested DICOM medical images and natural images show the following: BER equals 0, both of SNR and PSNR are consistent and have large values, and MSE has low value; the average values of SNR, PSNR and MSE are 52 dB, 57 dB and 0.12 respectively. Therefore, watermarked images have high imperceptibility, invisibility and transparency. In addition, the watermark extracted from the image at the receiver side is identical to the watermark embedded into the image in the sender side; as a result, the proposed technique is totally reversible, and the embedded watermark does not

  15. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction. PMID:26397832

  16. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Wu, Huayi; Wang, Yandong; Liu, Wenming

    2015-01-01

    Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS) databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1) using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2) using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  17. Main Road Extraction from ZY-3 Grayscale Imagery Based on Directional Mathematical Morphology and VGI Prior Knowledge in Urban Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liu

    Full Text Available Main road features extracted from remotely sensed imagery play an important role in many civilian and military applications, such as updating Geographic Information System (GIS databases, urban structure analysis, spatial data matching and road navigation. Current methods for road feature extraction from high-resolution imagery are typically based on threshold value segmentation. It is difficult however, to completely separate road features from the background. We present a new method for extracting main roads from high-resolution grayscale imagery based on directional mathematical morphology and prior knowledge obtained from the Volunteered Geographic Information found in the OpenStreetMap. The two salient steps in this strategy are: (1 using directional mathematical morphology to enhance the contrast between roads and non-roads; (2 using OpenStreetMap roads as prior knowledge to segment the remotely sensed imagery. Experiments were conducted on two ZiYuan-3 images and one QuickBird high-resolution grayscale image to compare our proposed method to other commonly used techniques for road feature extraction. The results demonstrated the validity and better performance of the proposed method for urban main road feature extraction.

  18. Full-duplex MIMO system based on antenna cancellation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Franek, Ondrej; Tatomirescu, Alexandru

    2014-01-01

    The performance of an antenna cancellation technique for a multiple-input– multiple-output (MIMO) full-duplex system that is based on null-steering beamforming and antenna polarization diversity is investigated. A practical implementation of a symmetric antenna topology comprising three dual......-polarized patch antennas operating at 2.4 GHz is described. The measurement results show an average of 60 dB self-interference cancellation over 200 MHz bandwidth. Moreover, a decoupling level of up to 22 dB is achieved for MIMO multiplexing using antenna polarization diversity. The performance evaluation...

  19. Cooperative Technique Based on Sensor Selection in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISLAM, M. R.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An energy efficient cooperative technique is proposed for the IEEE 1451 based Wireless Sensor Networks. Selected numbers of Wireless Transducer Interface Modules (WTIMs are used to form a Multiple Input Single Output (MISO structure wirelessly connected with a Network Capable Application Processor (NCAP. Energy efficiency and delay of the proposed architecture are derived for different combination of cluster size and selected number of WTIMs. Optimized constellation parameters are used for evaluating derived parameters. The results show that the selected MISO structure outperforms the unselected MISO structure and it shows energy efficient performance than SISO structure after a certain distance.

  20. GA Based Optimal Feature Extraction Method for Functional Data Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Wan; Zehua Chen; Yingwu Chen; Zhidong Bai

    2010-01-01

    Classification is an interesting problem in functional data analysis (FDA), because many science and application problems end up with classification problems, such as recognition, prediction, control, decision making, management, etc. As the high dimension and high correlation in functional data (FD), it is a key problem to extract features from FD whereas keeping its global characters, which relates to the classification efficiency and precision to heavens. In this paper...

  1. Failure Mechanism of Rock Bridge Based on Acoustic Emission Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqing Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic emission (AE technique is widely used in various fields as a reliable nondestructive examination technology. Two experimental tests were carried out in a rock mechanics laboratory, which include (1 small scale direct shear tests of rock bridge with different lengths and (2 large scale landslide model with locked section. The relationship of AE event count and record time was analyzed during the tests. The AE source location technology and comparative analysis with its actual failure model were done. It can be found that whether it is small scale test or large scale landslide model test, AE technique accurately located the AE source point, which reflected the failure generation and expansion of internal cracks in rock samples. Large scale landslide model with locked section test showed that rock bridge in rocky slope has typical brittle failure behavior. The two tests based on AE technique well revealed the rock failure mechanism in rocky slope and clarified the cause of high speed and long distance sliding of rocky slope.

  2. Radiation synthesized protein-based nanoparticles: A technique overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Perossi, Gabriela G.; Grasselli, Mariano; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking for alternative routes for protein engineering a novel technique – radiation induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity has been recently reported. This work aimed to evaluate different process conditions to optimize and provide an overview of the technique using γ-irradiation. Papain was used as model protease and the samples were irradiated in a gamma cell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) containing ethanol (0–35%). The dose effect was evaluated by exposure to distinct γ-irradiation doses (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) and scale up experiments involving distinct protein concentrations (12.5–50 mg mL −1 ) were also performed. Characterization involved size monitoring using dynamic light scattering. Bityrosine detection was performed using fluorescence measurements in order to provide experimental evidence of the mechanism involved. Best dose effects were achieved at 10 kGy with regard to size and no relevant changes were observed as a function of papain concentration, highlighting very broad operational concentration range. Bityrosine changes were identified for the samples as a function of the process confirming that such linkages play an important role in the nanoparticle formation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-based nanoparticles by γ-irradiation. • Optimization of the technique. • Overview of mechanism involved in the nanoparticle formation. • Engineered papain nanoparticles for biomedical applications

  3. A New Emulsion Liquid Membrane Based on a Palm Oil for the Extraction of Heavy Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Björkegren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The extraction efficiency of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, from water has been investigated using a vegetable oil based emulsion liquid membrane (ELM technique. The main purpose of this study was to create a novel ELM formulation by choosing a more environmentally friendly and non-toxic diluent such as palm oil. The membrane phase so formulated includes the mobile carrier tri-n-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC, to facilitate the metal transport, and the hydrophilic surfactant Tween 80 to facilitate the dispersion of the ELM phase in the aqueous solution. Span 80 is used as surfactant and butanol as co-surfactant. Our results demonstrate that this novel ELM formulation, using the vegetable palm oil as diluent, is useful for the removal of hexavalent chromium with an efficiency of over 99% and is thus competitive with the already existing, yet less environmentally friendly, ELM formulations. This result was achieved with an optimal concentration of 0.1 M NaOH as stripping agent and an external phase pH of 0.5. Different water qualities have also been investigated showing that the type of water (deionized, distilled, or tap water does not significantly influence the extraction rate.

  4. Novel Displacement Agents for Aqueous 2-Phase Extraction Can Be Estimated Based on Hybrid Shortcut Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Christian; Sadowski, Gabriele; Brandenbusch, Christoph

    2016-10-01

    The purification of therapeutic proteins is a challenging task with immediate need for optimization. Besides other techniques, aqueous 2-phase extraction (ATPE) of proteins has been shown to be a promising alternative to cost-intensive state-of-the-art chromatographic protein purification. Most likely, to enable a selective extraction, protein partitioning has to be influenced using a displacement agent to isolate the target protein from the impurities. In this work, a new displacement agent (lithium bromide [LiBr]) allowing for the selective separation of the target protein IgG from human serum albumin (represents the impurity) within a citrate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) ATPS is presented. In order to characterize the displacement suitability of LiBr on IgG, the mutual influence of LiBr and the phase formers on the aqueous 2-phase system (ATPS) and partitioning is investigated. Using osmotic virial coefficients (B22 and B23) accessible by composition gradient multiangle light-scattering measurements, the precipitating effect of LiBr on both proteins and an estimation of both protein partition coefficients is estimated. The stabilizing effect of LiBr on both proteins was estimated based on B22 and experimentally validated within the citrate-PEG ATPS. Our approach contributes to an efficient implementation of ATPE within the downstream processing development of therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Pesticide residues in canned foods, fruits, and vegetables: the application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and chromatographic techniques in the analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saeid, Mohamed H

    2003-12-11

    Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates. By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues +/- RSD% ranging from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.8 +/- 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 +/- 0.02 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  6. Pesticide Residues in Canned Foods, Fruits, and Vegetables: The Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques in the Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. EL-Saeid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates.By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues ± RSD% ranging from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.05 ± 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.8 ± 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 ± 0.02 to 0.8 ±0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  7. Structural level characterization of base oils using advanced analytical techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Hourani, Nadim

    2015-05-21

    Base oils, blended for finished lubricant formulations, are classified by the American Petroleum Institute into five groups, viz., groups I-V. Groups I-III consist of petroleum based hydrocarbons whereas groups IV and V are made of synthetic polymers. In the present study, five base oil samples belonging to groups I and III were extensively characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC), and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) equipped with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) sources. First, the capabilities and limitations of each analytical technique were evaluated, and then the availed information was combined to reveal compositional details on the base oil samples studied. HPLC showed the overwhelming presence of saturated over aromatic compounds in all five base oils. A similar trend was further corroborated using GC×GC, which yielded semiquantitative information on the compound classes present in the samples and provided further details on the carbon number distributions within these classes. In addition to chromatography methods, FT-ICR MS supplemented the compositional information on the base oil samples by resolving the aromatics compounds into alkyl- and naphtheno-subtituted families. APCI proved more effective for the ionization of the highly saturated base oil components compared to APPI. Furthermore, for the detailed information on hydrocarbon molecules FT-ICR MS revealed the presence of saturated and aromatic sulfur species in all base oil samples. The results presented herein offer a unique perspective into the detailed molecular structure of base oils typically used to formulate lubricants. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  8. A High-Speed Vision-Based Sensor for Dynamic Vibration Analysis Using Fast Motion Extraction Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dashan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of image sensor and optics enables the application of vision-based techniques to the non-contact dynamic vibration analysis of large-scale structures. As an emerging technology, a vision-based approach allows for remote measuring and does not bring any additional mass to the measuring object compared with traditional contact measurements. In this study, a high-speed vision-based sensor system is developed to extract structure vibration signals in real time. A fast motion extraction algorithm is required for this system because the maximum sampling frequency of the charge-coupled device (CCD sensor can reach up to 1000 Hz. Two efficient subpixel level motion extraction algorithms, namely the modified Taylor approximation refinement algorithm and the localization refinement algorithm, are integrated into the proposed vision sensor. Quantitative analysis shows that both of the two modified algorithms are at least five times faster than conventional upsampled cross-correlation approaches and achieve satisfactory error performance. The practicability of the developed sensor is evaluated by an experiment in a laboratory environment and a field test. Experimental results indicate that the developed high-speed vision-based sensor system can extract accurate dynamic structure vibration signals by tracking either artificial targets or natural features.

  9. Learning from social media: utilizing advanced data extraction techniques to understand barriers to breast cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Vaz-Luis, Ines; Keating, Nancy L

    2016-07-01

    Past examinations of breast cancer treatment barriers have typically included registry, claims-based, and smaller survey studies. We examined treatment barriers using a novel, comprehensive, social media analysis of online, candid discussions about breast cancer. Using an innovative toolset to search postings on social networks, message boards, patient communities, and topical sites, we performed a large-scale qualitative analysis. We examined the sentiments and barriers expressed about breast cancer treatments by Internet users during 1 year (2/1/14-1/31/15). We categorized posts based on thematic patterns and examined trends in discussions by race/ethnicity (white/black/Hispanic) when this information was available. We identified 1,024,041 unique posts related to breast cancer treatment. Overall, 57 % of posts expressed negative sentiments. Using machine learning software, we assigned treatment barriers for 387,238 posts (38 %). Barriers included emotional (23 % of posts), preferences and spiritual/religious beliefs (21 %), physical (18 %), resource (15 %), healthcare perceptions (9 %), treatment processes/duration (7 %), and relationships (7 %). Black and Hispanic (vs. white) users more frequently reported barriers related to healthcare perceptions, beliefs, and pre-diagnosis/diagnosis organizational challenges and fewer emotional barriers. Using a novel analysis of diverse social media users, we observed numerous breast cancer treatment barriers that differed by race/ethnicity. Social media is a powerful tool, allowing use of real-world data for qualitative research, capitalizing on the rich discussions occurring spontaneously online. Future research should focus on how to further employ and learn from this type of social intelligence research across all medical disciplines.

  10. Ionic liquid-based microwave-assisted extraction of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Chu, Kedan; Li, Huang; Zhang, Yuqin; Zheng, Haiyin; Chen, Ruilan; Chen, Lidian

    2012-12-03

    An ionic liquids (IL)-based microwave-assisted approach for extraction and determination of flavonoids from Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth. was proposed for the first time. Several ILs with different cations and anions and the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) conditions, including sample particle size, extraction time and liquid-solid ratio, were investigated. Two M 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([bmim] Br) solution with 0.80 M HCl was selected as the optimal solvent. Meanwhile the optimized conditions a ratio of liquid to material of 30:1, and the extraction for 10 min at 70 °C. Compared with conventional heat-reflux extraction (CHRE) and the regular MAE, IL-MAE exhibited a higher extraction yield and shorter extraction time (from 1.5 h to 10 min). The optimized extraction samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS. IL extracts of Bauhinia championii (Benth.)Benth consisted mainly of flavonoids, among which myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol, β-sitosterol, triacontane and hexacontane were identified. The study indicated that IL-MAE was an efficient and rapid method with simple sample preparation. LC-MS/MS was also used to determine the chemical composition of the ethyl acetate/MAE extract of Bauhinia championii (Benth.) Benth, and it maybe become a rapid method to determine the composition of new plant extracts.

  11. An automatic rat brain extraction method based on a deformable surface model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiehua; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhuo, Jiachen; Gullapalli, Rao P; Zara, Jason M

    2013-08-15

    The extraction of the brain from the skull in medical images is a necessary first step before image registration or segmentation. While pre-clinical MR imaging studies on small animals, such as rats, are increasing, fully automatic imaging processing techniques specific to small animal studies remain lacking. In this paper, we present an automatic rat brain extraction method, the Rat Brain Deformable model method (RBD), which adapts the popular human brain extraction tool (BET) through the incorporation of information on the brain geometry and MR image characteristics of the rat brain. The robustness of the method was demonstrated on T2-weighted MR images of 64 rats and compared with other brain extraction methods (BET, PCNN, PCNN-3D). The results demonstrate that RBD reliably extracts the rat brain with high accuracy (>92% volume overlap) and is robust against signal inhomogeneity in the images. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of automatic extraction of the corpus callosum from magnetic resonance imaging of the head and examination of the early dementia objective diagnostic technique in feature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Naoki; Kaneko, Tomoyuki

    2005-01-01

    We examined the objective diagnosis of dementia based on changes in the corpus callosum. We examined midsagittal head MR images of 17 early dementia patients (2 men and 15 women; mean age, 77.2±3.3 years) and 18 healthy elderly controls (2 men and 16 women; mean age, 73.8±6.5 years), 35 subjects altogether. First, the corpus callosum was automatically extracted from the MR images. Next, early dementia was compared with the healthy elderly individuals using 5 features of the straight-line methods, 5 features of the Run-Length Matrix, and 6 features of the Co-occurrence Matrix from the corpus callosum. Automatic extraction of the corpus callosum showed an accuracy rate of 84.1±3.7%. A statistically significant difference was found in 6 of the 16 features between early dementia patients and healthy elderly controls. Discriminant analysis using the 6 features demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 77.8%, with an overall accuracy of 82.9%. These results indicate that feature analysis based on changes in the corpus callosum can be used as an objective diagnostic technique for early dementia. (author)

  13. A hybrid model based on neural networks for biomedical relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yijia; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Shaowu; Sun, Yuanyuan; Yang, Liang

    2018-05-01

    Biomedical relation extraction can automatically extract high-quality biomedical relations from biomedical texts, which is a vital step for the mining of biomedical knowledge hidden in the literature. Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are two major neural network models for biomedical relation extraction. Neural network-based methods for biomedical relation extraction typically focus on the sentence sequence and employ RNNs or CNNs to learn the latent features from sentence sequences separately. However, RNNs and CNNs have their own advantages for biomedical relation extraction. Combining RNNs and CNNs may improve biomedical relation extraction. In this paper, we present a hybrid model for the extraction of biomedical relations that combines RNNs and CNNs. First, the shortest dependency path (SDP) is generated based on the dependency graph of the candidate sentence. To make full use of the SDP, we divide the SDP into a dependency word sequence and a relation sequence. Then, RNNs and CNNs are employed to automatically learn the features from the sentence sequence and the dependency sequences, respectively. Finally, the output features of the RNNs and CNNs are combined to detect and extract biomedical relations. We evaluate our hybrid model using five public (protein-protein interaction) PPI corpora and a (drug-drug interaction) DDI corpus. The experimental results suggest that the advantages of RNNs and CNNs in biomedical relation extraction are complementary. Combining RNNs and CNNs can effectively boost biomedical relation extraction performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization of Geospatial Techniques for Extraction of Suitable River Islands for Construction of Eco-Friendly Tourism Places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, K.

    2016-02-01

    In India, most of the rivers form big size natural islands due to change in its course. However, identification of suitable river island for construction of Eco-friendly parks/tourist destination is a very challenging task since these are exposed to river flooding. River islands which are least vulnerable to the impact of severe flooding can be a suitable place for construction of tourism destination such as eco-friendly Parks, Hotels etc. The study involves a two step approach viz. automatic extraction of river islands and model development for flood inundation mapping for extraction of eco-friendly tourism destinations. In this study, automatic extraction of the river islands has been carried out using knowledge based classification approach. The satellite data acquired by the Indian Remote Sensing Satellites sensors such as LISS-III and Cartosat-1 DEM have been used for analyses. In the first step, satellite imagery has been broadly categorized into 5 landuse/cover classes viz. Water, Sand, Islands, Settlements and Cropland. Extraction of such islands which remain unaffected during severe flooding has been accomplished with the flood inundation mapping which has been carried out in HEC-GeoRas with in GIS environment. The model utilizes the primary 4 inputs viz. geometry of the river (DEM, slope), time series data of water surface elevation, landuse/cover, and location of rain gauge station for flood inundation mapping. This paper also investigates the applicability of the eco-island concept to include protection of wetland, management of land-resources, sustainable use of natural resources and construction of ecological park/hotels. The output of the study will be very useful for Government authorities in stabilizing economy, and enhancing the tourism infrastructure in a better way.

  15. An investigation of paper based microfluidic devices for size based separation and extraction applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z W; Wu, R G; Wang, Z P; Tan, H L

    2015-09-01

    Conventional microfluidic devices are typically complex and expensive. The devices require the use of pneumatic control systems or highly precise pumps to control the flow in the devices. This work investigates an alternative method using paper based microfluidic devices to replace conventional microfluidic devices. Size based separation and extraction experiments conducted were able to separate free dye from a mixed protein and dye solution. Experimental results showed that pure fluorescein isothiocyanate could be separated from a solution of mixed fluorescein isothiocyanate and fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin. The analysis readings obtained from a spectrophotometer clearly show that the extracted tartrazine sample did not contain any amount of Blue-BSA, because its absorbance value was 0.000 measured at a wavelength of 590nm, which correlated to Blue-BSA. These demonstrate that paper based microfluidic devices, which are inexpensive and easy to implement, can potentially replace their conventional counterparts by the use of simple geometry designs and the capillary action. These findings will potentially help in future developments of paper based microfluidic devices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. On HTML and XML based web design and implementation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezboruah, B.; Kalita, M.

    2006-05-01

    Web implementation is truly a multidisciplinary field with influences from programming, choosing of scripting languages, graphic design, user interface design, and database design. The challenge of a Web designer/implementer is his ability to create an attractive and informative Web. To work with the universal framework and link diagrams from the design process as well as the Web specifications and domain information, it is essential to create Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) or other software and multimedia to accomplish the Web's objective. In this article we will discuss Web design standards and the techniques involved in Web implementation based on HTML and Extensible Markup Language (XML). We will also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of HTML over its successor XML in designing and implementing a Web. We have developed two Web pages, one utilizing the features of HTML and the other based on the features of XML to carry out the present investigation. (author)

  17. Efficient Identification Using a Prime-Feature-Based Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Haq, Shaiq A.; Valente, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    . Fingerprint identification system, implemented on PC/104 based real-time systems, can accurately identify the operator. Traditionally, the uniqueness of a fingerprint is determined by the overall pattern of ridges and valleys as well as the local ridge anomalies e.g., a ridge bifurcation or a ridge ending......, which are called minutiae points. Designing a reliable automatic fingerprint matching algorithm for minimal platform is quite challenging. In real-time systems, efficiency of the matching algorithm is of utmost importance. To achieve this goal, a prime-feature-based indexing algorithm is proposed......Identification of authorized train drivers through biometrics is a growing area of interest in locomotive radio remote control systems. The existing technique of password authentication is not very reliable and potentially unauthorized personnel may also operate the system on behalf of the operator...

  18. Designing on ICT reconstruction software based on DSP techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jinhui; Xiang Xincheng

    2006-01-01

    The convolution back project (CBP) algorithm is used to realize the CT image's reconstruction in ICT generally, which is finished by using PC or workstation. In order to add the ability of multi-platform operation of CT reconstruction software, a CT reconstruction method based on modern digital signal processor (DSP) technique is proposed and realized in this paper. The hardware system based on TI's C6701 DSP processor is selected to support the CT software construction. The CT reconstruction software is compiled only using assembly language related to the DSP hardware. The CT software can be run on TI's C6701 EVM board by inputting the CT data, and can get the CT Images that satisfy the real demands. (authors)

  19. New calibration technique for KCD-based megavoltage imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Zheng, Wei; DiBianca, Frank A.; Zeman, Herbert D.; Laughter, Joseph S.

    1999-05-01

    In megavoltage imaging, current commercial electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs), despite having the advantage of immediate digital imaging over film, suffer from poor image contrast and spatial resolution. The feasibility of using a kinestatic charge detector (KCD) as an EPID to provide superior image contrast and spatial resolution for portal imaging has already been demonstrated in a previous paper. The KCD system had the additional advantage of requiring an extremely low dose per acquired image, allowing for superior imaging to be reconstructed form a single linac pulse per image pixel. The KCD based images utilized a dose of two orders of magnitude less that for EPIDs and film. Compared with the current commercial EPIDs and film, the prototype KCD system exhibited promising image qualities, despite being handicapped by the use of a relatively simple image calibration technique, and the performance limits of medical linacs on the maximum linac pulse frequency and energy flux per pulse delivered. This image calibration technique fixed relative image pixel values based on a linear interpolation of extrema provided by an air-water calibration, and accounted only for channel-to-channel variations. The counterpart of this for area detectors is the standard flat fielding method. A comprehensive calibration protocol has been developed. The new technique additionally corrects for geometric distortions due to variations in the scan velocity, and timing artifacts caused by mis-synchronization between the linear accelerator and the data acquisition system (DAS). The role of variations in energy flux (2 - 3%) on imaging is demonstrated to be not significant for the images considered. The methodology is presented, and the results are discussed for simulated images. It also allows for significant improvements in the signal-to- noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the dose using multiple images without having to increase the linac pulse frequency or energy flux per pulse. The

  20. Risk-based maintenance-Techniques and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunraj, N.S.; Maiti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Plant and equipment, however well designed, will not remain safe or reliable if it is not maintained. The general objective of the maintenance process is to make use of the knowledge of failures and accidents to achieve the possible safety with the lowest possible cost. The concept of risk-based maintenance was developed to inspect the high-risk components usually with greater frequency and thoroughness and to maintain in a greater manner, to achieve tolerable risk criteria. Risk-based maintenance methodology provides a tool for maintenance planning and decision making to reduce the probability of failure of equipment and the consequences of failure. In this paper, the risk analysis and risk-based maintenance methodologies were identified and classified into suitable classes. The factors affecting the quality of risk analysis were identified and analyzed. The applications, input data and output data were studied to understand their functioning and efficiency. The review showed that there is no unique way to perform risk analysis and risk-based maintenance. The use of suitable techniques and methodologies, careful investigation during the risk analysis phase, and its detailed and structured results are necessary to make proper risk-based maintenance decisions