WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraction salt residues

  1. Cation exchange process for molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proctor, S.G.

    1975-01-01

    A new method, utilizing a cation exchange technique, has been developed for processing molten salt extraction (MSE) chloride salt residues. The developed ion exchange procedure has been used to separate americium and plutonium from gross quantities of magnesium, potassium, and sodium chloride that are present in the residues. The recovered plutonium and americium contained only 20 percent of the original amounts of magnesium, potassium, and sodium and were completely free of any detectable amounts of chloride impurity. (U.S.)

  2. Recovery and purification of americium from molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navratil, J.D.; Martella, L.L.; Thompson, G.H.

    1980-01-01

    Americium recovery and purification development at Rocky Flats involves the testing of a combined anion exchange - bidentate organophosphorus liquid - liquid extraction or extraction chromatography process for separating americium from molten salt extraction residues. Laboratory-scale and preliminary pilot-plant results have shown that americium can be effectively recovered and purified from impurity elements such as aluminum, calcium, magnesium, plutonium, potassium, sodium, and zinc. The purified americium oxide product from the liquid - liquid extraction process contained greater than 95% AmO 2 with less than 1% of any individual impurity element

  3. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  4. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmire, V.L.; Hurd, J.R.; Sedlacek, W.E.; Scarborough, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Fourteen molten salt extraction residues were assayed by conventional and prototype nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques to be compared with destructive chemical analysis in an effort to identify acceptable NDA measurement methods for this matrix. NDA results on seven samples and destructive results on four samples are presented

  5. Evaluation of in-plant neutron coincidence counters for the measurement of molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, D.G.; Russo, P.A.; Wachter, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Americium is extracted from plutonium by a molten salt extraction (MSE) process. The residual americium-laden salts are a significant waste stream in this pyrochemical purification process. Rapid assay of MSE residues is desirable to minimize the exposure of personnel to these often high-level emissions. However, the quantitative assay of plutonium in MSE residues is difficult. Variable, unknown (a,n) rates and variable emitted-neutron energy spectra preclude the use of standard neutron coincidence counting techniques with old-generation neutron coincidence counters. Gamma-ray assay methods have not been successful with some residues because of random lumps of plutonium metal. In this paper, we present measurements of MSE residues with two state-of-the-art neutron coincidence counters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility: an in-line counter built for the assay of bulk waste material and the pyrochemical multiplicity counter that underwent test and evaluation at that facility. Both of these counters were designed to minimize the effects on measurements of variations in the sample geometry and variable energy spectra of emitted neutrons. These results are compared to measurements made with an HLNCII and with a 20-yr-old in-line well counter. The latter two counters are not optimized in ft sense. We conclude that the newer counters provide significantly improved assay results. The pyrochemical multiplicity counter operated in the conventional coincidence mode provided the best assays overall

  6. A comparison of conventional and prototype nondestructive measurements on molten salt extraction residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longmire, V.L.; Scarborough, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Impure plutonium metal is routinely processed by molten salt extraction (MSE) to reduce the amount of americium in the metal product. Individuals form four technical groups at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) participated in a study designed to evaluate the accuracy of various nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques for measuring the plutonium content in MSE residues. This study was performed to improve in-house accountability of these items and to identify assay methods that would be acceptable for determining receiver's values for MSE salts from off-site sources. Recent upgrades have been made in a segmented gamma scan system, in a thermal neutron coincidence counter, and in the software of a gamma isotopic system that supports the calorimeters at LAPF. The authors evaluated the newer systems against the older systems versus destructive qualitative analyses. Fourteen containers of MSE residues were selected to be studied. Seven of these salts originated at LAPF and seven originated at Rockwell International Rocky Flats plant. Measurements have been performed on these items in their original containers, and the items have been repackaged into a different geometry and assayed again

  7. Investigation of the source of residual phthalate in sundried salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyo; Lee, Jin Hwan; Kim, So-Young

    2014-03-01

    Phthalate contamination in sundried salt has recently garnered interest in Korea. Phthalate concentrations were investigated in Korean sundried salts, source waters, and aqueous extracts from polyvinyl chloride materials used in salt ponds. Preliminary screening results for phthalates in Korean sundried salts revealed that only di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was over the limit of detection, with an 8.6% detection rate, and the concentration ranged from below the limit of detection to 0.189 mg/kg. The tolerable daily intake contribution ratio of the salt was calculated to be only 0.001%. Residual phthalates were below 0.026 mg/liter in source water, and the aqueous extracted di-n-butylphthalate, benzylbutylphthalate, and DEHP, which are considered endocrine disruptors, were below 0.029 mg/kg as derived from the polyvinyl chloride materials in salt ponds. The transfer ratios of the six phthalates from seawater to sundried salts were investigated; transfer ratio was correlated with vapor pressure (r(2) = 0.9875). Thus, di-n-butylphthalate, benzylbutylphthalate, DEHP, and di-n-octylphthalate can be considered highly likely residual pollutants in some consumer salts.

  8. Salt effects in electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seip, Knut Fredrik; Jensen, Henrik; Kieu, Thanh Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was performed on samples containing substantial amounts of NaCl to investigate how the presence of salts affected the recovery, repeatability, and membrane current in the extraction system. A group of 17 non-polar basic drugs with various physical chemical...... this loss and the physical chemical properties of these substances was seen. The recovery loss was hypothesized to be caused by ion pairing in the SLM, and a mathematical model for the extraction recovery in the presence of salts was made according to the experimental observations. Some variations...... to the EME system reduced this recovery loss, such as changing the SLM solvent from NPOE to 6-undecanone, or by using a different EME setup with more favorable volume ratios. This was in line with the ion pairing hypothesis and the mathematical model. This thorough investigation of how salts affect EME...

  9. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection following salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction for the analysis of benzimidazole residues in farm fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Lara, Francisco J; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud

    2018-03-30

    Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with fluorescence detection (FL) has been proposed for the first time to determine thirteen benzimidazoles (BZs) in farmed fish samples. In order to optimize the chromatographic separation, parameters such as mobile phase composition and flow rate were carefully studied, establishing a gradient mode with a mobile phase consisted of water (solvent A) and acetonitrile (solvent B) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The separation was performed on a Zorbax Eclipse Plus RRHD C 18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm), involving a total analysis time lower than 12 min. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied as sample treatment to different types of farmed fish (trout, sea bream and sea bass). To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized including the amount of sample, type and volume of the extraction solvent, and the nature and amount of the salt used. Characterization of the method in terms of performance characteristics was carried out, obtaining satisfactory results for the linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.997), repeatability (RSD ≤ 6.1%), reproducibility (RSD ≤ 10.8%) and recoveries (R ≥ 79%; RSD ≤ 7.8%). Detection limits between 0.04-29.9 μg kg -1 were obtained, demonstrating the applicability of this fast, simple and environmentally friendly method. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Pyrophoric potential of plutonium-containing salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, John M.; Fauske, Hans K.; Phillips, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    Ignition temperatures of plutonium and the pyrophoric potential of plutonium-containing pyrochemical salt residues are determined from differential thermal analysis (DTA) data and by modeling of thermal behavior. Exotherms observed at 90-200 deg. C for about 30% of the residues are attributed to reaction of plutonium with water from decomposition of hydrated salts. Exotherms observed near 300 deg. C are consistent with ignition of metal particles embedded in the salt. Onset of self-sustained reaction at temperatures as low as 90 deg. C is not precluded by these results and heat-balance models are developed and applied in predicting the static ignition point of massive metal and in evaluating salt pyrophoricity. Results show that ambient temperatures in excess of 200 deg. C are required for ignition of salt residues and that the most reactive salts cannot ignite at low temperatures because diffusion of oxidant to embedded metal is limited by low salt porosity

  11. Comparison of destructive and nondestructive assay of heterogeneous salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleissner, J.G.; Hume, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    To study problems associated with nondestructive assay (NDA) measurements of molten salt residues, a joint study was conducted by the Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, CO and Mound Laboratories, Miamisburg, OH. Extensive NDA measurements were made on nine containers of molten salt residues by both Rocky Flats and Mound followed by dissolution and solution quantification at Rocky Flats. Results of this study verify that plutonium and americium can be measured in such salt residues by a new gamma-ray spectral analysis technique coupled with calorimetry. Biases with respect to the segmented gamma-scan technique were noted

  12. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  13. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  14. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J.; Heslop, M.

    1999-01-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238 Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na 2 SO 4 , Na 3 PO 4 and NaAsO 2 or Na 3 AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238 Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  15. Salt stripping: a pyrochemical approach to the recovery of plutonium electrorefining salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-10-01

    A pyrochemical process has been developed to take the salt residue from the plutonium electrorefining process and strip the plutonium from it. The process, called salt stripping, uses calcium as a reducing/coalescing agent. In a one-day operation, greater than 95% of the plutonium can be recovered as a metallic button. As much as 88% of the residue is either reused as metal or discarded as a clean salt. A thin layer of black salts, which makes up the bulk of the unrecovered Pu, is a by-product of the initial reductions. A number of black salts can be collected together and re-reduced in a second step. Greater than 88% of this plutonium can be successfully recovered in this second stage with the resulting residues being discardable. The processing time, number of processor hours, and the volume of secondary residues are greatly reduced over the classical aqueous recovery methods. In addition, the product metal is of sufficient quality to be fed directly to the electrorefining process for purification. 8 figures, 7 tables

  16. Melting of Uranium Metal Powders with Residual Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin-Mok Hur; Dae-Seung Kang; Chung-Seok Seo

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP) of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute focuses on the conditioning of Pressurized Water Reactor spent oxide nuclear fuel. After the oxide reduction step of the ACP, the resultant metal powders containing ∼ 30 wt% residual LiCl-Li 2 O should be melted for a consolidation of the fine metal powders. In this study, we investigated the melting behaviors of uranium metal powders considering the effects of a LiCl-Li 2 O residual salt. (authors)

  17. Analysis and characterization of plutonium in pyrochemical salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, John M.; Phillips, Alan G.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative measurement of hydrogen produced during salt-catalyzed hydrolysis of plutonium in pyrochemical salt residues show that the metal is present in concentrations of 10 ± 5 mass%. The analytical method is based on stoichiometric reaction of metal with water to form plutonium monoxide monohydride (PuOH) and hydrogen. Results of a kinetic model developed to describe the observed time dependence of the hydrolysis rate shows that metal is present predominately as particles with essentially spherical geometries and diameters near 1 mm. The presence of smaller metallic particles cannot be verified or excluded. Plutonium concentrations measured for residues stored in different configurations suggest that a sizable fraction of the metal has oxidized during storage. Application of the hydrolysis method in determining concentrations and dimensions of metallic plutonium in other nuclear waste forms is proposed

  18. Measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, F.X.; Lawless, J.L.; Herren, W.E.; Hughes, M.E.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement of plutonium and americium in molten salt residues using a segmented gamma-ray scanning device is described. This system was calibrated using artificially fabricated as well as process generated samples. All samples were calorimetered and the americium to plutonium content of the samples determined by gamma-ray spectroscopy. For the nine samples calorimetered thus far, no significant biases are present in the comparison of the segmented gamma-ray assay and the calorimetric assay. Estimated errors are of the order of 10 percent and is dependent on the americium to plutonium ratio determination

  19. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of tetracycline residues in infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-04-15

    The use of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of tetracyclines in infant foods based on meat and vegetables or in milk. To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized. Analytical performances of the method were satisfactory, obtaining limits of quantification lower than 0.48μgkg -1 in all cases. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%, RSD) was below 11.3%. The extraction efficiency for fortified samples ranged from 89.2 to 96.8%, with RSDs lower than 7.3%. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples studied, being lower than |21|% in all cases. In relation to the low solvent consumption, the proposed methodology could be considered rapid, cheap and environmentally friendly. Its applicability has been successfully tested in a wide range of infant foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Compost and residues from biogas plant as potting substrates for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam Van, Do Thi

    2013-08-01

    Compost and residues from biogas plant have been increasingly recognized as potting substrates in horticulture. To investigate the suitability of both materials to grow salt tolerant plants in 2010 a pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of INRES-Plant nutrition, University of Bonn. Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), rape (Brassica napus) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were chosen as experimental plants. To reduce the high salt content compost and residues from biogas plant were leached. To improve physical characteristics of raw materials, additives including Perlite, Styromull, Hygromull, Lecaton, Peat, Cocofiber were incorporated into compost or residues from biogas plant with the volumetric ratio of 4:1. Plant growth (DM) and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Na and S) of the experimental plants grown in compost-based or residue-based substrates with and without additives and standard soil as a control were determined. Preliminary results reveal that origin compost and residues from biogas plant without leaching are suitable potting substrates for those plants. For compost leaching may not be recommended while for residues from biogas plant the effect of leaching was not distinct and needs further investigations. The incorporation of additives into the basic materials partially resulted in higher plant dry matter yield and nutrient uptake. However, differences between the additives on both parameters were mainly insignificant. Incorporation of Hygromull or Peat, especially into residues from biogas plant favored plant growth and enhanced total nutrient uptake. In 2011, pot experiments were continued with the salt-sensitive ornamental plants, Pelargonium (Pelargonium zonale Toro) and Salvia (Salvia splendens). Two separate experiments were carried out for the mixtures of compost and additives (SPS standard soil type 73 based on Peat, Hygromull or Cocofiber) with different volumetric ratios (4:1, 1:1, 1:4) and the mixtures of Peat incorporated with small

  1. Salt extraction by poulticing : an NMR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voronina, V.

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of salts is widely recognized as one of the most significant causes of damage to many cultural objects consisting of porous materials, such as monuments, sculptures, historic buildings, wall paintings, etc. A common response to salt damage problems are treatments aimed at

  2. Continuous extraction of molten chloride salts with liquid cadmium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    A pyrochemical method is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to provide contnuous multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and liquid cadmium alloys at 500 degrees C. The extraction method will be used to recover transuranic (TRU) elements from the process salt in the electroretiner used in the pyrochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR is one of the Department of Energy's advanced power reactor concepts. The recovered TRU elements are returned to the electrorefiner. The extracted salt undergoes further processing to remove rare earths and other fission products so that most of the purified salt can also be returned to the electrorefiner, thereby extending the useful life of the process salt many times

  3. Residual salts separation from metal reduced electrolytically in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Oh, Seung Chul; Hong, Sun Seok; Seo, Chung Seok; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    The PWR spent oxide fuel can be reduced electrolytically in a hot molten salt for the conditioning and the preparation of a metallic fuel. Then the metal product is smelted into an ingot to be treated in the post process. Incidentally, the residual salt which originated from the molten salt and spent fuel elements should be separated from the metal product during the smelting. In this work, we constructed a surrogate material system to simulate the salt separation from the reduced spent fuel and studied the vaporization behaviors of the salts

  4. Swelling kinetics of several residues from Shenhua coal extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Mei-xia; Shui, Heng-fu; Wang, Zhi-cai [Anhui University of Technology, Maanshan (China). School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering

    2008-08-15

    In order to understand the mechanism of swelling and the relation between swelling behavior and solvent extraction, the swelling kinetics of residues from Shenhua coal extracted by CS{sub 2}/NMP with different mixing ratios were studied in different solvents. The result shows that the swelling rates of extraction residues increase along with swelling temperature. The swelling rate in polar solvent NMP is much higher than that in non-polar solvent THN. Solvent extraction has a great effect on the swelling of extraction residues. The swelling activation energy of extraction residues increases and the swelling rate decreases with the increase of extraction yield. The swelling activation energies of extraction residues in NMP and THN are less than 10 kJ/mol, suggesting that the swelling process is controlled by solvent molecular diffusion in coal structure. 22 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Molten salt/metal extractions for recovery of transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, L.S.; Basco, J.K.; Ackerman, J.P.; Johnson, T.R.

    1992-01-01

    The integral fast reactor (EFR) is an advanced reactor concept that incorporates metallic driver and blanket fuels, an inherently safe, liquid-sodium-cooled, pool-type, reactor design, and on-site pyrochemical reprocessing (including electrorefining) of spent fuels and wastes. This paper describes a pyrochemical method that is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory to recover transuranic elements from the EFR electrorefiner process salt. The method uses multistage extractions between molten chloride salts and cadmium metal at high temperatures. The chemical basis of the salt extraction method, the test equipment, and a test plan are discussed

  6. Dehydration of ethanol with salt extractive distillation-a comparative analysis between processes with salt recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, E.L.; Ravagnani, T.M.K. [Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Qumicos, Faculdade de Engenharia Qumica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Anhydrous ethanol can be obtained from a dilute aqueous solution of ethanol via extractive distillation with potassium acetate. Two process flowsheets with salt recovery were proposed. In the first, dilute ethanol is directly fed to a salt extractive distillation column and, after that, the salt is recovered in a multiple effect evaporator followed by a spray dryer. In the second, the concentrated ethanol from conventional distillation is fed to a salt extractive distillation column. In this case, salt is recovered in a single spray dryer. In both processes the recovered salt is recycled to be used in the extractive distillation column. Every component of each process was rigorously modeled and its behavior was simulated for a wide range of operating conditions. A global simulation was then carried out. The results show that the second process is more interesting in terms of energy consumption than the first. Furthermore, it would be easier to implement changes on existing benzene extractive anhydrous ethanol plants to convert them to more ecologically attractive concentrated ethanol feed processes. (author)

  7. Molten salt extractive distillation process for zirconium-hafnium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Stoltz, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an improvement in a process for zirconium-hafnium separation. It utilizes an extractive distillation column with a mixture of zirconium and hafnium tetrachlorides introduced into a distillation column having a top and bottom with hafnium enriched overheads taken from the top of the column and a molten salt solvent circulated through the column to provide a liquid phase, and with molten salt solvent containing zirconium chloride being taken from the bottom of the distillation column. The improvements comprising: utilizing a molten salt solvent consisting principally of lithium chloride and at least one of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium chlorides; stripping of the zirconium chloride taken from the bottom of the distillation column by electrochemically reducing zirconium from the molten salt solvent; and utilizing a pressurized reflux condenser on the top of the column to add the hafnium chloride enriched overheads to the molten salt solvent previously stripped of zirconium chloride

  8. Residual salt separation from simulated spent nuclear fuel reduced in a LiCl-Li2O salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin-Mok; Hong, Sun-Seok; Seo, Chung-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, All rights reservedopyriprocess. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of the LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below the temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950degC were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O>LiCl>LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 >SrCl 2 . (author)

  9. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li2O Molten Salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-01

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U 3 O 8 powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li 2 O, Y 2 O 3 and SrCl 2 were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li 2 O and LiCl-SrCl 2 was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li 2 O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li 2 O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl 2 > SrCl 2

  10. Residual Salt Separation from the Metal Products Reduced in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O Molten Salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Jin Mok; Hong, Sun Seok; Kang, Dae Seung; Jeong, Meong Soo; Seo, Chung Seok

    2006-02-15

    The electrochemical reduction of spent nuclear fuel in a LiCl-Li{sub 2}O molten salt for the conditioning of spent nuclear fuel requires the separation of the residual salts from a reduced metal product after the reduction process. Considering the behavior of spent nuclear fuel during the electrochemical reduction process, a surrogate material matrix was constructed and inactive tests on a salt separation were carried out to produce the data required for the active tests. Fresh uranium metal prepared from the electrochemical reduction of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder was used as the surrogates of the spent nuclear fuel components which might be metallized by the electrochemical reduction process. LiCl, Li{sub 2}O, Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SrCl{sub 2} were selected as the components of the residual salts. Interactions between the salts and their influence on the separation of the residual salts were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TG). Eutectic melting of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} led to a melting point which was lower than that of a LiCl molten salt was observed. Residual salts were separated by a vaporization method. Co-vaporization of LiCl-Li{sub 2}O and LiCl-SrCl{sub 2} was achieved below temperatures which could make the uranium metal oxidation by Li{sub 2}O possible. The salt vaporization rates at 950 .deg. C were measured as follows: LiCl-8 wt% Li{sub 2}O > LiCl > LiCl-8 wt% SrCl{sub 2} > SrCl{sub 2}.

  11. Nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from leaves of five cassava varieties as feed for ruminants. ... Results indicated that processing reduced (P < 0.05) the inherent nutrients of cassava leaf residues produced after the extraction of protein concentrate from cassava leaves with crude protein (CP) content ...

  12. Plutonium and americium recovery from spent molten-salt-extraction salts with aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusick, M.J.; Sherwood, W.G.; Fitzpatrick, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Development work was performed to determine the feasibility of removing plutonium and americium from spent molten-salt-extraction (MSE) salts using Al-Mg alloys. If the product buttons from this process are compatible with subsequent aqueous processing, the complex chloride-to-nitrate aqueous conversion step which is presently required for these salts may be eliminated. The optimum alloy composition used to treat spent 8 wt % MSE salts in the past yielded poor phase-disengagement characteristics when applied to 30 mol % salts. After a limited investigation of other alloy compositions in the Al-Mg-Pu-Am system, it was determined that the Al-Pu-Am system could yield a compatible alloy. In this system, experiments were performed to investigate the effects of plutonium loading in the alloy, excess magnesium, age of the spent salt on actinide recovery, phase disengagement, and button homogeneity. Experimental results indicate that 95 percent plutonium recoveries can be attained for fresh salts. Further development is required for backlog salts generated prior to 1981. A homogeneous product alloy, as required for aqueous processing, could not be produced

  13. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  14. Interfacing solvent extraction in the recovery of pyrochemical residues at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Holcomb, H.P.

    1986-01-01

    The traditional feedstock for plutonium recovery at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been spent reactor fuel elements and irradiated targets. Feed sources have included both onsite reactors and a wide variety of domestic and foreign reactors. For the past few years, a growing and increasingly varied mix of unirradiated plutonium residues has been purified through SRP aqueous-based processes. Recently, plutonium residues generated in various chloride salt melts have become a significant offsite source of feed for SRP recovery operations. Impure plutonium metal and plutonium alloys have also been processed. A broader range of molten salt and other high temperature residues is anticipated for the future. The major advantage of solvent extraction for scrap purification is the versatility of the solvent extraction system which allows numerous contaminants to be removed by routine operations. Major concerns are nuclear safety control, corrosion of equipment, and control of releases to the environment. SRP's past, present, and future interfacing of solvent extraction in processing pyrochemical and other plutonium-containing residues is reviewed

  15. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  16. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  17. Management of parthenium weed by extracts and residue of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the prospects of using methanolic extracts and residue of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for the management of parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), one of the world's worst weeds. In a laboratory bioassay, the effect of methanol extracts of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% (w/v) concentrations of ...

  18. Fuel characteristics and pyrolysis studies of solvent extractables and residues from the evergreen shrub Calotropis procera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdman, M.D.; Gregorski, K.S.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Solvent extractables and residues from milkweed were evaluated as sources of liquid and solid fuels. Selected chemical, physical and pyrolytic determinations of the extractables and residues indicated that hexane extract is a potentially valuable, high density fuel resource. Methanol extract was shown to be a lower energy, highly toxic extract. Extracted residues were demonstrated to be valuable as solid fuel energy resources. 31 references.

  19. Reoxidation of uranium in electrolytically reduced simulated oxide fuel during residual salt distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun-Young Choi; Jin-Mok Hur; Min Ku Jeon; University of Science and Technology, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon

    2017-01-01

    We report that residual salt removal by high-temperature distillation causes partial reoxidation of uranium metal to uranium oxide in electrolytically reduced simulated oxide fuel. Specifically, the content of uranium metal in the above product decreases with increasing distillation temperatures, which can be attributed to reoxidation by Li 2 O contained in residual salt (LiCl). Additionally, we estimate the fractions of Li 2 O reacted with uranium metal under these conditions, showing that they decrease with decreasing temperature, and calculate some thermodynamic parameters of the above reoxidation. (author)

  20. Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residue by bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Baoping; Chen, Bing; Duan, Ning; Zhou, Changbo

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of manganese from electrolytic manganese residues using bioleaching was investigated in this paper. The maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 93% by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria at 4.0 g/l sulfur after bioleaching of 9days, while the maximum extraction efficiency of Mn was 81% by pyrite-leaching bacteria at 4.0 g/l pyrite. The series bioleaching first by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and followed by pyrite-leaching bacteria evidently promoted the extraction of manganese, witnessing the maximum extraction efficiency of 98.1%. In the case of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, the strong dissolution of bio-generated sulfuric acid resulted in extraction of soluble Mn2+, while both the Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ and weak acidic dissolution of Mn2+ accounted for the extraction of manganese with pyrite-leaching bacteria. The chemical simulation of bioleaching process further confirmed that the acid dissolution of Mn2+ and Fe2+ catalyzed reduction of Mn4+ were the bioleaching mechanisms involved for Mn extraction from electrolytic manganese residues. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovery of Residual LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salts in Radioactive Rare Earth Precipitates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Hee Chul; Yang, Hee Chul; Kim, In Tae; Lee, Han Soo; Cho, Yung Zun

    2010-01-01

    For the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuels, recovery of LiCl-KCl eutectic salts is needed to reduce radioactive waste volume and to recycle resource materials. This paper is about recovery of residual LiCl-KCl eutectic salts in radioactive rare earth precipitates (rare earth oxychlorides or oxides) by using a vacuum distillation process. In the vacuum distillation test apparatus, the salts in the rare earth precipitates were vaporized and were separated effectively. The separated salts were deposited in three positions of the vacuum distillation test apparatus or were collected in the filter and it is difficult to recover them. To resolve the problem, a vacuum distillation and condensation system, which is subjected to the force of a temperature gradient at a reduced pressure, was developed. In a preliminary test of the vacuum distillation/condensation recovery system, it was confirmed that it was possible to condense the vaporized salts only in the salt collector and to recover the condensed salts from the salt collector easily

  2. Residual fluxes of salt and water in the Azhikode estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pylee, A.; Varma, P.U.; Revichandran, C.

    hours at all stations and the data were analysed to provide estimates of the residual fluxes of water and salt. The interpolated data for the non-dimensional depth was used for computation of depth, tide and cross sectional averages. A net seaward flow...

  3. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. A non-multimacrocyclic heteroditopic receptor that cooperatively binds and effectively extracts KAcO salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Maciej; Kwietniewska, Natalia; Walczak, Wojciech; Piątek, Piotr

    2018-06-06

    Prepared in only three synthetic steps, a non-multimacrocyclic heteroditopic receptor binds potassium salts of halides and carboxylates with unusually high cooperativity, suggesting salt binding as associated ion-pairs. Unprecedented extraction of highly hydrophilic KAcO salt from water to organic solution is also demonstrated.

  5. Determination of potassium concentration in salt water for residual beta radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Pujol, Ll.

    2004-01-01

    High interferences may arise in the determination of potassium concentration in salt water. Several analytical methods were studied to determine which method provided the most accurate measurements of potassium concentration. This study is relevant for radiation protection because the exact amount of potassium in water samples must be known for determinations of residual beta activity concentration. The fitting algorithm of the calibration curve and estimation of uncertainty in potassium determinations were also studied. The reproducibility of the proposed analytical method was tested by internal and external validation. Furthermore, the residual beta activity concentration of several Spanish seawater and brackish river water samples was determined using the proposed method

  6. Physical principles and efficiency of salt extraction by poulticing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, L.; Sawdy - Heritage, A.M.; Voronina, V.

    2010-01-01

    The crystallization of soluble salts plays a significant role in the deterioration of porous cultural property. A common response to salt damage problems is to undertake treatments aimed at reducing the salt content of the affected object, most typically through the application of poultices. The

  7. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of subseabed salt domes on Tidal Residual currents in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashayekh Poul, Hossein; Backhaus, Jan; Dehghani, Ali; Huebner, Udo

    2016-05-01

    Geological studies in the Persian Gulf (PG) have revealed the existence of subseabed salt-domes. With suitable filtering of a high-resolution PG seabed topography, it is seen that the domes leave their signature in the seabed, i.e., numerous hills and valleys with amplitudes of several tens of meters and radii from a few up to tens of kilometers. It was suspected that the "shark skin" of the PG seabed may affect the tidal residual flow. The interaction of tidal dynamics and these obstacles was investigated in a nonlinear hydrodynamic numerical tidal model of the PG. The model was first used to characterize flow patterns of residual currents generated by a tidal wave passing over symmetric, elongated and tilted obstacles. Thereafter it was applied to the entire PG. The model was forced at its open boundary by the four dominant tidal constituents residing in the PG. Each tidal constituent was simulated separately. Results, i.e., tidal residual currents in the PG, as depicted by Lagrangian trajectories reveal a stationary flow that is very rich in eddies. Each eddy can be identified with a topographic obstacle. This confirms that the tidal residual flow field is strongly influenced by the nonlinear interaction of the tidal wave with the bottom relief which, in turn, is deformed by salt-domes beneath the seabed. Different areas of maximum residual current velocities are identified for major tidal constituents. The pattern of trajectories indicates the presence of two main cyclonic gyres and several adjacent gyres rotating in opposite directions and a strong coastal current in the northern PG.

  9. Effect of state of tetraoctylammonium and trioctylpropylammonium salts in extracts on coextraction of micro- and macroelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagreev, V.V.; Kardivarenko, L.M.; Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1988-01-01

    State effect of halide simple and metal-bearing tetraoctyl- and trioctylpropylammonium salts in benzene and nitrobenzene on inhibition of indium and cobalt trace amounts extraction from HCl solutions by the extractable macrocomponents-gallium and zinc, respectively, is investigated. Dissociation constants (K dis ) for metal-bearing salts and tetraoctylammonium and trioctylpropylammonium bromides in nitrobenzene as well are calculated. It is shown, that inhibition of trace elements extraction is the more higher, the more is the difference between K dis for alkylammonium metal-bearing and simple salts

  10. Optimizing the extraction of Soluble salts from porous materials by poultices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawdy, A.; Lubelli, B.; Voronina, V.; Pel, L

    2010-01-01

    Poultices are often used to extract salts from salt-deteriorated objects, but the results achieved can be highly variable. Currently, poulticing materials and methodologies are selected empirically, but many variables affect the treatment outcome, so achieving the 'best fit' between available

  11. Improving protein fold recognition by extracting fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwei; Zhang, Haicang; Li, Shuai Cheng; Wang, Chao; Kong, Lupeng; Sun, Shiwei; Zheng, Wei-Mou; Bu, Dongbo

    2017-12-01

    Accurate recognition of protein fold types is a key step for template-based prediction of protein structures. The existing approaches to fold recognition mainly exploit the features derived from alignments of query protein against templates. These approaches have been shown to be successful for fold recognition at family level, but usually failed at superfamily/fold levels. To overcome this limitation, one of the key points is to explore more structurally informative features of proteins. Although residue-residue contacts carry abundant structural information, how to thoroughly exploit these information for fold recognition still remains a challenge. In this study, we present an approach (called DeepFR) to improve fold recognition at superfamily/fold levels. The basic idea of our approach is to extract fold-specific features from predicted residue-residue contacts of proteins using deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) technique. Based on these fold-specific features, we calculated similarity between query protein and templates, and then assigned query protein with fold type of the most similar template. DCNN has showed excellent performance in image feature extraction and image recognition; the rational underlying the application of DCNN for fold recognition is that contact likelihood maps are essentially analogy to images, as they both display compositional hierarchy. Experimental results on the LINDAHL dataset suggest that even using the extracted fold-specific features alone, our approach achieved success rate comparable to the state-of-the-art approaches. When further combining these features with traditional alignment-related features, the success rate of our approach increased to 92.3%, 82.5% and 78.8% at family, superfamily and fold levels, respectively, which is about 18% higher than the state-of-the-art approach at fold level, 6% higher at superfamily level and 1% higher at family level. An independent assessment on SCOP_TEST dataset showed consistent

  12. Physicochemical investigations on the extraction mechanism of some elements and inorganic acids by quaternary ammonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.

    1974-01-01

    The extraction of rare earth and transplutonium elements, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po, and also of HNO 3 and HCl, with chloroform solutions of cetylpyridinium salts solutions showed that the salts aggregate in chloroform solutions, forming micelles above a concentration of about 10 -2 M. Surface tension and surface potential measurements proved that cetylpyridinium nitrate is not transferred to HNO 3 solutions in the extraction system, while cetylpyridinium chloride is transferred to ECl solutions. (author)

  13. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  14. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the salt waste processing facility caustic side solvent extraction solvent example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-01

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.9, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  15. Selective solid-liquid extraction of lithium halide salts using a ditopic macrobicyclic receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Joseph M; Beatty, Alicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2004-11-29

    A ditopic salt receptor that is known to bind and extract solid NaCl, KCl, NaBr, and KBr into organic solution as their contact ion pairs is now shown by NMR and X-ray crystallography to bind and extract solid LiCl and LiBr as water-separated ion pairs. The receptor can transport these salts from an aqueous phase through a liquid organic membrane with a cation selectivity of K+ > Na+ > Li+. However, the selectivity order is strongly reversed when the receptor extracts solid alkali metal chlorides and bromides into organic solution. For a three-component mixture of solid LiCl, NaCl, and KCl, the ratio of salts extracted and complexed to the receptor in CDCl3 was 94:4:2, respectively. The same strong lithium selectivity was also observed in the case of a three-component mixture of solid LiBr, NaBr, and KBr where the ratio of extracted salts was 92:5:3. This observation is attributed to the unusually high solubility of lithium salts in organic solvents. The study suggests that ditopic receptors with an ability to extract solid salts as associated ion pairs may have application in separation processes.

  16. Novel Fluorinated Tensioactive Extractant Combined with Flotation for Decontamination of Extractant Residual during Solvent Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue; Chang, Zhidong; Liu, Yao; Choe, Chol Ryong

    2017-12-01

    Solvent-extraction is widely used in chemical industry. Due to the amphiphilic character, a large amount of extractant remains in water phase, which causes not only loss of reagent, but also secondary contamination in water phase. Novel fluorinated extractants with ultra-low solubility in water were regarded as effective choice to reduce extractant loss in aqueous phase. However, trace amount of extractant still remained in water. Based on the high tensioactive aptitude of fluorinated solvent, flotation was applied to separate fluorinated extractant remaining in raffinate. According to the data of surface tension measurement, the surface tension of solution was obviously decreased with the addition of fluorinated extractant tris(2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl) phosphate (FTAP). After flotation, the FTAP dissolved in water can be removed as much as 70%, which proved the feasibility of this key idea. The effects of operation time, gas velocity, pH and salinity of bulk solution on flotation performance were discussed. The optimum operating parameters were determined as gas velocity of 12ml/min, operating time of 15min, pH of 8.7, and NaCl volume concentration of 1.5%, respectively. Moreover, adsorption process of FTAP on bubble surface was simulated by ANSYS VOF model using SIMPLE algorithm. The dynamic mechanism of flotation was also theoretically investigated, which can be considered as supplement to the experimental results.

  17. Bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential for polyphenol-rich cocoa extract obtained by agroindustrial residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Silva da Costa, Russany; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Casazza, Alessandro Alberto; Perego, Patrizia; Pinheiro Arruda, Mara Silvia; Carréra Silva Júnior, José Otávio; Converti, Attilio; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria

    2017-11-10

    Processing of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans responsible for agricultural exports leads to large amounts of solid waste that were discarded, however, this one presents high contents of metabolites with biological activities. The major objective of this study was to valorise cocoa agroindustrial residue obtained by hydraulic pressing for extract rich in antioxidants. For it, the centesimal composition of residue was investigated, the green extraction was carried out from the residue after, the bioactive compounds, sugar contents and screaming by HPTLC were quantified for extract. The extract has a total polyphenol content of 229.64 mg/g and high antioxidant activity according to ABTS 225.0 μM/g. HTPLC analysis confirmed the presence in the extract, residue of terpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids and antioxidant activity. These results, as a whole, suggest that the extract from the cocoa residue has interesting characteristics to alternative crops with potential industrial uses.

  18. Improved methodologies for extraction of salt in halophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Morais

    2014-06-01

    This method yield rates in Salicornia appear to be higher than the expected based on previous publication. The data suggests other elements of interest may be differently distributed between the two genera. A nutritional profile, which we intend to do, may elucidate about the contents of vegetable salt.

  19. Improvement of seawater salt quality by hydro-extraction and re-crystallization methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumada, K.; Dewati, R.; Suprihatin

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is one of the salt producing countries that use sea water as a source of raw materials, the quality of salt produced is influenced by the quality of sea water. The resulting average salt quality contains 85-90% NaCl. The Indonesian National Standard (SNI) for human salt’s consumption sodium chloride content is 94.7 % (dry base) and for industrial salt 98,5 %. In this study developed the re-crystallization without chemical and hydro-extraction method. The objective of this research to choose the best methods based on efficiency. The results showed that re-crystallization method can produce salt with NaCl content 99,21%, while hydro-extraction method content 99,34 % NaCl. The salt produced through both methods can be used as a consumption and industrial salt, Hydro-extraction method is more efficient than re-crystallization method because re-crystallization method requires heat energy.

  20. Extraction, scrub, and strip test results for the solvent transfer to salt waste processing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared approximately 240 gallons of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent for use at the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of the prepared solvent using a salt solution prepared by Parsons to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams. This data will be used by Parsons to help qualify the solvent for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 15.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges.

  1. Ammonium chloride salting out extraction/cleanup for trace-level quantitative analysis in food and biological matrices by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanita, Sergio C; Padivitage, Nilusha L T

    2013-03-20

    A sample extraction and purification procedure that uses ammonium-salt-induced acetonitrile/water phase separation was developed and demonstrated to be compatible with the recently reported method for pesticide residue analysis based on fast extraction and dilution flow injection mass spectrometry (FED-FI-MS). The ammonium salts evaluated were chloride, acetate, formate, carbonate, and sulfate. A mixture of NaCl and MgSO4, salts used in the well-known QuEChERS method, was also tested for comparison. With thermal decomposition/evaporation temperature of salts resulted in negligible ion source residual under typical electrospray conditions, leading to consistent method performance and less instrument cleaning. Although all ammonium salts tested induced acetonitrile/water phase separation, NH4Cl yielded the best performance, thus it was the preferred salting out agent. The NH4Cl salting out method was successfully coupled with FI/MS/MS and tested for fourteen pesticide active ingredients: chlorantraniliprole, cyantraniliprole, chlorimuron ethyl, oxamyl, methomyl, sulfometuron methyl, chlorsulfuron, triflusulfuron methyl, azimsulfuron, flupyrsulfuron methyl, aminocyclopyrachlor, aminocyclopyrachlor methyl, diuron and hexazinone. A validation study was conducted with nine complex matrices: sorghum, rice, grapefruit, canola, milk, eggs, beef, urine and blood plasma. The method is applicable to all analytes, except aminocyclopyrachlor. The method was deemed appropriate for quantitative analysis in 114 out of 126 analyte/matrix cases tested (applicability rate=0.90). The NH4Cl salting out extraction/cleanup allowed expansion of FI/MS/MS for analysis in food of plant and animal origin, and body fluids with increased ruggedness and sensitivity, while maintaining high-throughput (run time=30s/sample). Limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 0.01mgkg(-1) (ppm), the 'well-accepted standard' in pesticide residue analysis, were achieved in >80% of cases tested; while limits of detection

  2. Extraction of cellulose nanofibers from Pinus oocarpa residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrich, Anny; Martins, Maria Alice, E-mail: anny@daad-alumni.de [EMBRAPA Instrumentacao, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Moraes, Jheyce Cristina; Pasquoloto, Camila [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Pinus oocarpa, which wood is moderately hard and tough, is planted in Brazil for reforestation and employed for timber production used in constructions. The wood residues, such as shavings, bark and sawdust represent 30% to 50% of the total volume of wood production, of which the sawdust is 10%{sup 1}. Cellulose nanofibers is nanomaterials having a diameter between 5 nm and 20 nm and a length of up to hundreds of nm. To obtain nanofibers from cellulose sources, such as sisal and sugarcane bagasse, is used chemical processes, in which the lignocellulosic material initially undergoes pre-treatments to promote partial separation of the cellulose, such as mercerisation and bleaching thus disposing lignin and hemicellulose components. Sequentially, by controlled acid hydrolysis, amorphous regions of the cellulose are removed, and crystalline cellulose is isolated in the form of cellulose nanofibers. In this work, nanofibers from sawdust of Pinnus oocarpa, containing 44.8 wt% of cellulose 20.6 wt% hemicellulose and 30.0 wt% insoluble lignin were isolated by mercerisation (NaOH 5%, 80°C, 120 min), followed by bleaching (NaOH + acetic acid + NaClO{sub 2}, 80 deg C, 240min) and acid hydrolysis (60 wt% sulfuric acid, 45 °C, 40min). Nanofibers obtained were characterized by DRX and SEM-FEG. Results showed that, for used conditions, fiber acid hydrolysis was not complete, therefore a biphasic suspension was formed. Crystallinity index achieved was not much higher than that from pinus fiber itself, increasing from 62% to 65% and signs of cellulose type II were observed. SEM images showed elongated fibers, which have diameter of 15 ± 5 nm and length of hundreds of nm, what means that they have a large L/D aspect ratio. Nanofiber extraction yield was very low (1.3 wt% of initial residue). All steps of the process are being reviewed aiming at better results. 1) Morais, S. A. L.; Nascimento E. A. e D. C. Melo, 2005, R. Árvore, 29, 3, 461-470. (author)

  3. CAPMIX -Deploying Capacitors for Salt Gradient Power Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Bijmans, M.F.M.; Burheim, O.S.; Bryjak, M.; Delgado, A.; Hack, P.; Mantegazza, F.; Tenisson, S.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2012-01-01

    The process of mixing sea and river water can be utilised as a power source. At present, three groups of technology are established for doing so; i) mechanical; Pressure Retarded Osmosis PRO, ii) electrochemical reactions; Reverse ElectroDialysis (RED) and Nano Battery Electrodes (NBE) and iii) ultra capacitors; Capacitive Double Layer Expansion (CDLE) and Capacitors charge by the Donnan Potentials (CDP). The chemical potential for salt gradient power systems is only limited by th...

  4. Prolonged persistence of residual Wuchereria bancrofti infection after cessation of diethylcarbamazine-fortified salt programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaiah, K D; Thiruvengadam, B; Vanamail, P; Subramanian, S; Gunasekaran, S; Nilamani, N; Das, P K

    2009-08-01

    A diethylcarbamazine (DEC)-fortified salt intervention programme was implemented between 1982 and 1986 in Karaikal district, Union territory of Pondicherry, south India, to control Culex transmitted bancroftian filariasis. The intervention reduced the microfilaria (Mf) rate from 4.49% to 0.08%. To eliminate the residual microfilaraemia, the health department detected and treated Mf carriers from 1987 to 2005 and mass-administered drugs in 2004 and 2005. Surveillance from 1987 to 2005 revealed persistent microfilaraemia in 0.03-0.42% of the population. In 2006, we conducted a more detailed Mf survey and a child antigenaemia (Ag) survey in 15 urban wards and 17 rural villages. These surveys showed an overall Mf rate of 0.46% in the high-risk urban areas and 0.18% in the rural areas; none of the sampled children was positive for Ag. All detected Mf carriers were >20 years old. The age of the youngest Mf carrier was 30 years in urban and 21 years in rural areas, which suggests that transmission was interrupted and there was no incidence of new Mf case after cessation of DEC salt programme. Eleven of 15 urban and 15 of 17 villages were totally free from microfilaraemia. Nevertheless, three of 15 surveyed urban localities and two of 17 villages showed >1% Mf rate. Thus, it seems that (i) post-intervention very low levels of microfilaraemia can continue as long as 20 years; (ii) 0.60-0.70% Mf rate is a safe level and at this level recrudescence of infection may not occur; (iii) there can be isolated localities with >1% Mf rate and their detection for further intervention measures could be challenging in larger control/elimination programmes and (iv) the residual infection mostly gets concentrated in the adult population, in underdeveloped urban areas and in historically highly endemic or large endemic rural areas. These groups and areas should be targeted with rigorous intervention measures such as mass drug administration to eliminate the residual infection.

  5. Hydrothermal processing of fermentation residues in a continuous multistage rig – Operational challenges for liquefaction, salt separation, and catalytic gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zöhrer, H.; De Boni, E.; Vogel, F.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation residues are a waste stream of biomethane production containing substantial amounts of organic matter, and thus representing a primary energy source which is mostly unused. For the first time this feedstock was tested for catalytic gasification in supercritical water (T ≥ 374 °C, p ≥ 22 MPa) for methane production. The processing steps include hydrothermal liquefaction, salt separation, as well as catalytic gasification over a ruthenium catalyst in supercritical water. In continuous experiments at a feed rate of 1 kg h −1 a partial liquefaction and carbonization of some of the solids was observed. Significant amounts of heavy tars were formed. Around 50% of the feed carbon remained in the rig. Furthermore, a homogeneous coke was formed, presumably originating from condensed tars. The mineralization of sulfur and its separation in the salt separator was insufficient, because most of the sulfur was still organically bound after liquefaction. Desalination was observed at a salt separator set point temperature of 450 °C and 28 MPa; however, some of the salts could not be withdrawn as a concentrated brine. At 430 °C no salt separation took place. Higher temperatures in the salt separator were found to promote tar and coke formation, resulting in conflicting process requirements for efficient biomass liquefaction and desalination. In the salt separator effluent, solid crystals identified as struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were found. This is the first report of struvite formation from a supercritical water biomass conversion process and represents an important finding for producing a fertilizer from the separated salt brine. - Highlights: • Continuous processing of fermentation residues in sub- and supercritical water. • Continuous separation of salt brines at supercritical water conditions. • Struvite crystals (magnesium ammonium phosphate) were recovered from the effluent. • Separation of sulfur from the biomass could

  6. Washability characteristics of residual coals obtained from solvent extraction: studies towards developing cleaner coal technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giri, C.C.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2004-07-01

    The washability characteristics of original Indian coals and solvent-extracted residual coals were studied by the float and sink technique. The following conclusions were drawn on the basis of the present study. Anthracene oil-extracted residual coals have lower percentage of reactions in the specific gravity range of 1.4 to 1.6 than the original coals, which indicates that the mineral matter is disassociated from the organic mass, and the anthracene oil-extracted residual coal is more suitable for washing than the original coal. The floatability behaviour of coal increases during NMP (N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone) extraction. This indicates that coal changes its washability character during NMP extractions. As during NMP extraction the surface area of coal increases by creating fissures in the matrix, the chemical leaching technique would be more suitable to remove the mineral matter in the residual coals. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fuel reprocessing of the fast molten salt reactor: actinides et lanthanides extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskierowicz, S.

    2012-01-01

    The fuel reprocessing of the molten salt reactor (Gen IV concept) is a multi-steps process in which actinides and lanthanides extraction is performed by a reductive extraction technique. The development of an analytic model has showed that the contact between the liquid fuel LiF-ThF 4 and a metallic phase constituted of Bi-Li provide firstly a selective and quantitative extraction of actinides and secondly a quantitative extraction of lanthanides. The control of this process implies the knowledge of saline phase properties. Studies of the physico-chemical properties of fluoride salts lead to develop a technique based on potentiometric measurements to evaluate the fluoro-acidity of the salts. An acidity scale was established in order to classify the different fluoride salts considered. Another electrochemical method was also developed in order to determine the solvation properties of solutes in fluoride F- environment (and particularly ThF 4 by F-) in reductive extraction technique, a metallic phase is also involved. A method to prepare this phase was developed by electro-reduction of lithium on a bismuth liquid cathode in LiCl-LiF melt. This technique allows to accurately control the molar fraction of lithium introduced into the liquid bismuth, which is a main parameter to obtain an efficient extraction. (author)

  8. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2012-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  9. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khakimov, N.; Nazarov, Kh.M.; Mirsaidov, I.U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  10. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction and scrub DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. Strip DCs values for the Tank 46F sample also met process requirements. However, strip DCs values could not be calculated for the Tank 38H sample due to the poor material balance for Cs-137. Potential explanations for the poor material balance are discussed and additional work to determine the cause is described

  11. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. {sup 14}C-labelled volatilised and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the {sup 14}C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the {sup 14}C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the {sup 14}C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues.

  12. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. 14 C-labelled volatilised and 14 CO 2 fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the 14 C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the 14 C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the 14 C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues

  13. Extraction of lithium from neutral salt solutions with fluorinated β-diketones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, F.G.; Baldwin, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium was selectively extracted from near-neutral aqueous solutions of alkali metal salts. The mechanism by which this was achieved involves the formation of the trioctylphosphine oxide adduct of a lithium chelate of a fluorinated β-diketone, which is then readily extractable into an organic diluent. High separation factors were obtained from sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. The selectivity of the fluorinated β-diketones for lithium over the alkaline earths was found to be poor. A suggested general flowsheet for the recovery of lithium from a salt brine concentrate is included. (author)

  14. Extraction of lithium from neutral salt solutions with fluorinated. beta. -diketones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, F.G.; Baldwin, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Lithium was selectively extracted from near-neutral aqueous solutions of alkali metal salts. The mechanism by which this was achieved involves the formation of the trioctylphosphine oxide adduct of a lithium chelate of a fluorinated ..beta..-diketone, which is then readily extractable into an organic diluent. High separation factors were obtained from sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium. The selectivity of the fluorinated ..beta..-diketones for lithium over the alkaline earths was found to be poor. A suggested general flowsheet for the recovery of lithium from a salt brine concentrate is included.

  15. Dynamics of dissolved and extractable organic nitrogen upon soil amendment with crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, G.H.; Hoffland, E.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is increasingly recognized as a pivotal pool in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle. Numerous devices and sampling procedures have been used to estimate its size, varying from in situ collection of soil solution to extraction of dried soil with salt solutions. Extractable

  16. Mixture of residual fish hydrolysate and fish extract hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacillus licheniformis 6346 activated in nutrient broth-starch was inoculated to a locally formulated solid medium (paddy husk, rice flour, (NH4)2SO4, cuttle fish powder, murate potash, table salt, triple super phosphate, sesame oil, coconut oil and tap water) and the highest -amylase activity was obtained on day 5 (1075 U g ...

  17. Effect of metal salts on antibacterial activity of zingiber officinale roscoe extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, T.; Yaqeen, Z.; Imran, H.; Rehman, Z.; Fatima, N.

    2013-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Zingiber Officinale Roscoe (ginger) and its combination with different salts like CuSO/sub 4/, ZnSO/sub 4/ and MnCl/sub 2/ was investigated. Both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were tested by agar diffusion method. The results showed that ethanol extract of Zingiber Officinale gave the maximum zone of inhibition at 50 mg/ml concentrations against Escherichia coli among Gram negative bacteria and against Staphylococcus aureus in Gram positive bacteria. However antibacterial activity of the ginger and metal salts combination was greater than activity of ethanol extract. These investigations indicate that though ethanol extract has antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, ginger and metal salts complex has more inhibitory effect on microorganisms. Antibacterial activity was also compared with standard drug ampicillin. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ginger extract and metal salts complexes against all test organisms ranged from 0.3125 to 2.5 mg/ml. (author)

  18. Influence of the amine salt anion on the synergic solvent extraction of praseodymium with mixtures of chelating extractants and tridodecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Higher Inst. of Chemical Technology, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-11-01

    The solvent extraction of Pr with thenoyltrifluoroacetone, (HTTA) or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-pyrazol-5-one(HP) and tridodecylammonium salt (TDAHA,A{sup -} = Cl{sup -},NO{sub 3}{sup -}, ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species has been determined as Pr(TTA){sub 3} TDAHA and TDAH{sup +}[PrP{sub 4}]{sup -}. The values of the equilibrium constants, have been calculated. The extraction mechanism has been discussed on the basis of the experimental data. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Chenglong; Jia, Yongzhong; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Hong; Jing, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C 4 mim][PF 6 ]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO 4 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO 4 − amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO 4 − )/n(Li + ) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C 4 mim][PF 6 ] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising

  20. Residual effects of biochar on improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat under salt stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, Saqib Saleem; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to global food security. Biochar amendment could alleviate the negative impacts of salt stress in crop in the season. However, its long-term residual effect on reducing Na+ uptake in latter crops remains unknown. A pot experiment with wheat was conducted...... in a greenhouse. The soil used was from an earlier experiment on potato where the plants were irrigated with tap water (S0), 25 mM (S1) and 50 mM (S2) NaCl solutions and with 0 and 5% (w/w) biochar amendment. At onset of the experiment, three different EC levels at S0, S1 and S2 were established in the non...... by transient Na+ binding due to its high adsorption capacity, decreasing osmotic stress by enhancing soil moisture content, and by releasing mineral nutrients (particularly K+, Ca++, Mg++) into the soil solution. Growth, physiology and yield of wheat were affected positively with biochar amendment...

  1. Occurrence of pesticide non extractable residues in physical and chemical fractions from two natural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, K.; Jones, K.; Semple, K.

    2009-04-01

    Distribution of pesticide non extractable residues resulted from the incubation of two natural soils with each of the isoproturon, diazinon and cypermethrin pesticide was assessed in this study. Pesticide non extractable residues distribution in soil physical and chemical fractions is known to ultimately affect their fate. This study aimed to address the fate and behaviour of the non extractable residues in the context of their association with soil physical and chemical fractions with varying properties and characteristics. Non extractable residues were formed from incubation of each pesticide in the two natural soils over a period of 24 months. Soils containing the non extractable residues were fractionated into three solid phase fractions using a physical fractionation procedure as follows: Sediment (SED, >20 μm), (II) Microaggregate (MA, 20-2 μm) and (III) Colloid phase (COL, 2-0.05 μm). Each soil fraction was then fractionated into organic carbon chemical fractionations as follows: Fulvic acid (FA), Humic acid (HA) and Humin (HM). Significant amount of the pesticides was lost during the incubation period. Enrichment factors for the organic carbon and the 14C-pesticide residues were higher in the MA and COL fraction rather than the SED fraction. Greater association and enrichment of the fulvic acid fraction of the organic carbon in the soil was observed. Non extractable residues at the FA fraction showed to diminish while in the HA fraction were increased with decreasing the fraction size. An appreciable amount of non extractable residues were located in the HM fraction but this was less than the amount recovered in the humic substances. Long term fate of pesticide non extractable residues in the soil structural components is important in order to assess any risk associated with them.

  2. Extraction and LC determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineros, I; Ballesteros, P; Lastres, J L

    2002-02-01

    A new reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-buffer phosphate pH 3.3. Detection was UV absorbance at 252 nm. The precision and accurately of the method were excellent. The established linearity range was 5-60 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.999). Microemulsions samples were dispersed with chloroform and extracted lysine clonixinate salt with water. This easy method employing chloroformic extraction has been done three times. The recovery of lysine clonixinate salt from spiked placebo and microemulsion were >90% over the linear range.

  3. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  4. Zinc species distribution in EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.-H.; Wei, Y.-L.; Wang, H. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Soil sample from a site heavily contaminated with >10 wt.% zinc is sampled and extracted with aqueous solutions of ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) that is a reagent frequently used to extract heavy metals in soil remediation. Three liquid/soil ratios (5/1, 20/1, and 100/1) were used in the extracting experiment. The molecular environment of the residual Zn in the EDTA-extract residues of zinc-contaminated soil is investigated with XANES technique. The results indicate that EDTA does not show considerable preference of chelating for any particular Zn species during the extraction. Zn species distribution in the sampled soil is found to resemble that in all EDTA-extract residues; Zn(OH) 2 is determined as the major zinc species (60-70%), seconded by organic zinc (21-26%) and zinc oxide (9-14%)

  5. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  6. The effects of logging residue extraction for energy on ecosystem services and biodiversity: A synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranius, Thomas; Hämäläinen, Aino; Egnell, Gustaf; Olsson, Bengt; Eklöf, Karin; Stendahl, Johan; Rudolphi, Jörgen; Sténs, Anna; Felton, Adam

    2018-03-01

    We review the consequences for biodiversity and ecosystem services from the industrial-scale extraction of logging residues (tops, branches and stumps from harvested trees and small-diameter trees from thinnings) in managed forests. Logging residue extraction can replace fossil fuels, and thus contribute to climate change mitigation. The additional biomass and nutrients removed, and soils and other structures disturbed, have several potential environmental impacts. To evaluate potential impacts on ecosystem services and biodiversity we reviewed 279 scientific papers that compared logging residue extraction with non-extraction, the majority of which were conducted in Northern Europe and North America. The weight of available evidence indicates that logging residue extraction can have significant negative effects on biodiversity, especially for species naturally adapted to sun-exposed conditions and the large amounts of dead wood that are created by large-scaled forest disturbances. Slash extraction may also pose risks for future biomass production itself, due to the associated loss of nutrients. For water quality, reindeer herding, mammalian game species, berries, and natural heritage the results were complicated by primarily negative but some positive effects, while for recreation and pest control positive effects were more consistent. Further, there are initial negative effects on carbon storage, but these effects are transient and carbon stocks are mostly restored over decadal time perspectives. We summarize ways of decreasing some of the negative effects of logging residue extraction on specific ecosystem services, by changing the categories of residue extracted, and site or forest type targeted for extraction. However, we found that suggested pathways for minimizing adverse outcomes were often in conflict among the ecosystem services assessed. Compensatory measures for logging residue extraction may also be used (e.g. ash recycling, liming, fertilization

  7. Drying of residue and separation of nitrate salts in the sludge waste for the lagoon sludge treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, D. S.; Lee, K. I.; Choi, Y. D.; Hwang, S. T.; Park, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the dissolution property of nitrate salts in the dissolution process by water and the drying property of residue after separating nitrates in a series of the processes for the sludge treatment. Desalination was carried out with the adding ratio of water and drying property was analyzed by TG/DTA, FTIR, and XRD. Nitrate salts involved in the sludge were separated over 97% at the water adding ratio of 2.5. But a small quantity of calcium and sodium nitrate remained in the residue These were decomposed over 600 .deg. C and calcium carbonate, which was consisted mainly of residue, was decomposed into calcium oxide over 750 .deg. C. The residue have to be decomposed over 800 .deg. C to converse uranyl nitrate of six value into the stable U 3 O 8 of four value. As a result of removing the nitrates at the water adding ratio of 2.5 and drying the residue over 900 .deg. C, volume of the sludge waste decreased over 80%

  8. Mixture of residual fish hydrolysate and fish extract hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... 42°C. Replacement of nutrient broth-starch with residual fish hydrolysate-starch led to the enzyme production to .... Paddy husk, raw unpolished rice, fertilizers such as ..... Saunders BC (eds) Practical Organic Chemistry. 4th.

  9. Residual monomer reduction in polymer latex products by extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, M.; Meuldijk, J.; Kemmere, M.F.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of residual monomer from a latex product with supercritical carbon dioxide ((sc)CO2) in a column was studied. Operating conditions were chosen at 35¿°C and 100 bar. For reducing the residual styrene level in a polystyrene latex from 104 ppm to 100¿ppm and from 104 ppm to 10¿ppm, a

  10. Heat transfer and flow characteristics of a cooling thimble in a molten salt reactor residual heat removal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonghao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the passive residual heat removal system of a molten salt reactor, one of the residual heat removal methods is to use the thimble-type heat transfer elements of the drain salt tank to remove the residual heat of fuel salts. An experimental loop is designed and built with a single heat transfer element to analyze the heat transfer and flow characteristics. In this research, the influence of the size of a three-layer thimble-type heat transfer element on the heat transfer rate is analyzed. Two methods are used to obtain the heat transfer rate, and a difference of results between methods is approximately 5%. The gas gap width between the thimble and the bayonet has a large effect on the heat transfer rate. As the gas gap width increases from 1.0 mm to 11.0 mm, the heat transfer rate decreases from 5.2 kW to 1.6 kW. In addition, a natural circulation startup process is described in this paper. Finally, flashing natural circulation instability has been observed in this thimble-type heat transfer element.

  11. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaen, J.A. [Universidad de Panama, Centro de Investigaciones con Tecnicas Nucleares/Depto. de Quimica (Panama); Garcia de Saldana, E.; Hernandez, C. [Universidad de Panama, Maestria en Ciencias Quimicas (Panama)

    1999-11-15

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Moessbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  12. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzigues, H.; Reneaud, J.M.

    1963-01-01

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors) [fr

  13. Biochemical solubilization of toxic salts from residual geothermal brines and waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuzic, Eugene T.; Lin, Mow S.

    1994-11-22

    A method of solubilizing metal salts such as metal sulfides in a geothermal sludge using mutant Thiobacilli selected for their ability to metabolize metal salts at high temperature is disclosed, The method includes the introduction of mutated Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and Thiobacillus thiooxidans to a geothermal sludge or brine. The microorganisms catalyze the solubilization of metal salts, For instance, in the case of metal sulfides, the microorganisms catalyze the solubilization to form soluble metal sulfates.

  14. Effects of lead mineralogy on soil washing enhanced by ferric salts as extracting and oxidizing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Park, Sang-Min; Yoon, Geun-Seok; Tsang, Daniel C W; Baek, Kitae

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated the feasibility of using ferric salts including FeCl 3 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 as extracting and oxidizing agents for a soil washing process to remediate Pb-contaminated soils. We treated various Pb minerals including PbO, PbCO 3 , Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 , PbSO 4 , PbS, and Pb 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH) using ferric salts, and compared our results with those obtained using common washing agents of HCl, HNO 3 , disodium-ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid (Na 2 -EDTA), and citric acid. The use of 50 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 extracted significantly more Pb (above 96% extraction) from Pb minerals except PbSO 4 (below 55% extraction) compared to the other washing agents. In contrast, washing processes using FeCl 3 and HCl were not effective for extraction from Pb minerals because of PbCl 2 precipitation. Yet, the newly formed PbCl 2 could be dissolved by subsequent wash with distilled water under acidic conditions. When applying our washing method to remediate field-contaminated soil from a shooting range that had high concentrations of Pb 3 (CO 3 ) 2 (OH) 2 and PbCO 3 , we extracted more Pb (approximately 99% extraction) from the soil using 100 mM Fe(NO 3 ) 3 than other washing agents at the same process conditions. Our results show that ferric salts can be alternative washing agents for Pb-contaminated soils in view of their extracting and oxidizing abilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  16. Residual signal feature extraction for gearbox planetary stage fault detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Ursin, Thomas; Sweeney, Christian Walsted

    2017-01-01

    Faults in planetary gears and related bearings, e.g. planet bearings and planet carrier bearings, pose inherent difficulties on their accurate and consistent detection associated mainly to the low energy in slow rotating stages and the operating complexity of planetary gearboxes. In this work......, identification of the expected spectral signature for proper residual signal calculation and filtering of any frequency component not related to the planetary stage. Two field cases of planet carrier bearing defect and planet wheel spalling are presented and discussed, showing the efficiency of the followed...

  17. Vector valued logarithmic residues and the extraction of elementary factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bart (Harm); T. Ehrhardt; B. Silbermann

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAn analysis is presented of the circumstances under which, by the extraction of elementary factors, an analytic Banach algebra valued function can be transformed into one taking invertible values only. Elementary factors are generalizations of the simple scalar expressions λ – α, the

  18. Lithium isotope effect in the extraction systems of polyethers: effect of salt concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Shengqiang; Fu Lian

    1991-01-01

    Separation factors of lithium isotopes at 20 deg C were determined in the extraction systems of B15C5-CHCl 3 /LiBr-H 2 O. The initial concentration of LiBr was controlled in the extent of more than 2 mol/l. It may be established that the increase of LiBr concentration causes a remarkable increase of the separation factor. The essence of this effect due to the change in salt concentration was discussed in connection with examination of relevant phenomena in literature. It can be concluded that the relationship between α and Cm, the concentration of lithium salt, is dependent on K Q and K P express respectively, lithium isotope exchange equilibrium constants between Li-crownether complex and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration less than 1-2 mol/l, and between lithium salt ion pair and hydrated lithium ion for lithium concentration more than 2 mol/l in aqueous phase

  19. Pyrochemical reprocessing of molten salt fast reactor fuel: focus on the reductive extraction step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues Davide

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear fuel reprocessing is a prerequisite for nuclear energy to be a clean and sustainable energy. In the case of the molten salt reactor containing a liquid fuel, pyrometallurgical way is an obvious way. The method for treatment of the liquid fuel is divided into two parts. In-situ injection of helium gas into the fuel leads to extract the gaseous fission products and a part of the noble metals. The second part of the reprocessing is performed by ‘batch’. It aims to recover the fissile material and to separate the minor actinides from fission products. The reprocessing involves several chemical steps based on redox and acido-basic properties of the various elements contained in the fuel salt. One challenge is to perform a selective extraction of actinides and lanthanides in spent liquid fuel. Extraction of actinides and lanthanides are successively performed by a reductive extraction in liquid bismuth pool containing metallic lithium as a reductive reagent. The objective of this paper is to give a description of the several steps of the reprocessing retained for the molten salt fast reactor (MSFR concept and to present the initial results obtained for the reductive extraction experiments realized in static conditions by contacting LiF-ThF4-UF4-NdF3 with a lab-made Bi-Li pool and for which extraction efficiencies of 0.7% for neodymium and 14.0% for uranium were measured. It was concluded that in static conditions, the extraction is governed by a kinetic limitation and not by the thermodynamic equilibrium.

  20. Isolation and characterization of coagulant extracted from Moringa oleifera seed by salt solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-02-01

    It is known that M. oleifera contains a natural coagulant in the seeds. In our previous research, the method using salt water to extract the active coagulation component from M. oleifera seeds was developed and compared with the conventional method using water. In this research, the active coagulation component was purified from a NaCl solution crude extract of Moringa oleifera seeds. The active component was isolated and purified from the crude extract through a sequence of steps that included salting-out by dialysis, removal of lipids and carbohydrates by homogenization with acetone, and anion exchange. Specific coagulation activity of the active material increased up to 34 times more than the crude extract after the ion exchange. The active component was not the same as that of water extract. The molecular weight was about 3000 Da. The Lowry method and the phenol-sulfuric acid method indicated that the active component was neither protein nor polysaccharide. The optimum pH of the purified active component for coagulation of turbidity was pH 8 and above. Different from the conventional water extracts, the active component can be used for waters with low turbidity without increase in the dissolved organic carbon concentration.

  1. Extraction of lithium from salt lake brine using room temperature ionic liquid in tributyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Chenglong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Jia, Yongzhong [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); Zhang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing (China); Liu, Hong [Qinghai Salt Chemical Products Supervision and Inspection Center, 816000 Golmud (China); Jing, Yan, E-mail: 1580707906@qq.com [Key Laboratory of Salt Lake Resources and Chemistry, Qinghai Institute of Salt Lakes, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 810008 Xining (China)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • We proposed a new system for Li recovery from salt lake brine by extraction using an ionic liquid. • Cation exchange was proposed to be the mechanism of extraction followed in ionic liquid. • This ionic liquid system shown considerable extraction ability for lithium and the single extraction efficiency of lithium reached 87.28% under the optimal conditions. - Abstract: Lithium is known as the energy metal and it is a key raw material for preparing lithium isotopes which have important applications in nuclear energy source. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid (RTILs), 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]), was used as an alternative solvent to study liquid/liquid extraction of lithium from salt lake brine. In this system, the ionic liquid, NaClO{sub 4} and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were used as extraction medium, co-extraction reagent and extractant respectively. The effects of solution pH value, phase ratio, ClO{sub 4}{sup −} amount and other factors on lithium extraction efficiency had been investigated. Optimal extraction conditions of this system include the ratio of TBP/IL at 4/1 (v/v), O/A at 2:1, n(ClO{sub 4}{sup −})/n(Li{sup +}) at 2:1, the equilibration time of 10 min and unadjusted pH. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of lithium was 87.28% which was much higher than the conventional extraction system. Total extraction efficiency of 99.12% was obtained by triple-stage countercurrent extraction. Study on the mechanism revealed that the use of ionic liquid increased the extraction yield of lithium through cation exchange in this system. Preliminary results indicated that the use of [C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}] as an alternate solvent to replace traditional organic solvents (VOCs) in liquid/liquid extraction was very promising.

  2. Recovery of plutonium and americium from chloride salt wastes by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichley-Yinger, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonium and americium can be recovered from aqueous waste solutions containing a mixture of HCl and chloride salt wastes by the coupling of two solvent extraction systems: tributyl phosphate (TBP) in tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO) in TCE. In the flowsheet developed, the salt wastes are dissolved in HCl, the Pu(III) is oxidized to the IV state with NaClO 2 and recovered in the TBP-TCE cycle, and the Am is then removed from the resultant raffinate by the CMPO-TCE cycle. The consequences of the feed solution composition and extraction behavior of these species on the process flowsheet design, the Pu-product purity, and the decontamination of the aqueous raffinate from transuranic elements are discussed. 16 refs., 6 figs

  3. Prediction of retained residual stresses in laboratory fracture mechanics specimens extracted from welded components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurlston, R.G.; Sherry, A.H.; James, P.; Sharples, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of weld material fracture toughness properties is important for the structural integrity assessment of engineering components. However, welds can contain high levels of residual stress and these can be retained in fracture mechanics specimens, particularly when machined from non-stress relieved welds. Retained residual stresses can make the measurement of valid fracture toughness properties difficult. This paper describes the results of analytical work undertaken to investigate factors that can influence the magnitude and distribution of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from as-welded ferritic and austenitic stainless steel plates. The results indicate that significant levels of residual stress can be retained in specimen blanks prior to notching, and that the magnitude and distribution of stress is dependent upon material properties, specimen geometry and size, and extraction location through the thickness of the weld. Finite element modelling is shown to provide a useful approach for estimating the level and distributions of retained residual stresses. A new stress partitioning approach has been developed to estimate retained stress levels and results compare favourably with FE analysis and available experimental data. The approach can help guide the selection of specimen geometry and machining strategies to minimise the level of residual stresses retained in fracture mechanics specimen blanks extracted from non stress-relieved welds and thus improve the measurement of weld fracture toughness properties. - Highlights: • A simplified method for generating realistic weld residual stresses has been developed. • It has been shown that significant levels of residual stress can be retained within laboratory fracture mechanics specimens. • The level and distribution is dependant upon material, specimen type, specimen size and extraction location. • A method has been developed to allow estimates of the

  4. Comparative substoichiometric extraction of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, P.

    1995-01-01

    The comparative extractability of zinc with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, and benzyl xanthates from the pH range of 3.5-9.0 into chloroform has been studied, employing a sensitive and rapid substoichiometric radiochemical method. The extent of reproducibility was tested in each case. The effect of associated ions on the extraction was studied. The amount of zinc present in the standard solutions was determined employing each xanthate separately. The zinc content present in geological water samples in and around Tirupati was determined by the method developed and compared with the values obtained by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  5. Comparative substoichiometric extraction of cadmium with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, B.

    1995-01-01

    A comparative study of the extractability of cadmium with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates into chloroform and a mixture of 1:4 pyridine and ethyl acetate from pH 1-7 buffers and sodium formate media, respectively, has been carried out employing an accurate and highly sensitive substoichiometric radiochemical method. The effect of foreign ions on the extractability was studied. The method developed was utilized for the determination of cadmium content in standard as well as in geological water samples. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Separation of tungsten from molybdenum by liquid-liquid extraction and extraction chromatography using thiocyanate and a quarternary ammonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, C.; Onishi, H.

    1977-01-01

    Methods were developed for the separation of tungsten from molybdenum by liquid-liquid extraction and extraction chromatography using thiocyanate and a quaternary ammonium salt, Zephiramine. Tungsten was extracted into chloroform as an ion associate of tungsten(V)-thiocyanate complex and Zephiramine cation was retained on a column of Teflon powder coated with Zephiramine, but molybdenum(III) was neither extracted nor retained. The extraction chromatographic method was succesfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of tungsten in molybdenum by neutron activation analysis. The γ-ray spectrum, observed with the Ge(Li) detector, of tungsten fraction separated from irradiated molybdenum are shown. The peaks of 99 Mo, sup(99m)Tc, and sup(99m)Nb (produced by 92 Mo(n,p)sup(99m)Nb) were seen, but these nuclides did nit interfere with the determination of tungsten using a NaI(Tl) detector. The results of the neutron activation analysis of a sample of ammonium molybdate agreed quite well with that of the spectrophotometric determination after extraction chromatographic separation. (T.G.)

  7. Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates from water-salt solutions with n.-octanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinov, V.A.; Kudrova, A.V.; Valueva, O.V.; Pyartman, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates (Ln=La-Nd, Sm-Gd) from aqueous-salt solutions at 298.15 K was studied using solution of n.-octanol, its concentration 6.31 mol/l. It was ascertained that at Ln(NO 3 ) 3 concentration in aqueous phase below 0.6 mol/l, there is actually no extraction. At higher concentrations of nitrates in aqueous phase the content of lanthanides(III) in organic phase increases in the series La-Gd. Isotherms of extraction were ascertained, its phase equilibria being described mathematically. It is shown that extraction of lanthanide(III) nitrates with n.-octanol should be realized from concentrated aqueous solutions [ru

  8. Flashback phenomenon and residual neurological deficits after the use of "bath salt" 3, 4- methylenedioxypyrovalerone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Aaron R; Bravo, Thomas P; Traub, Stephen J; Maher, Steven A; Lipinski, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    The use and abuse of designer drugs has been recognized for decades; however there are many derivatives of compounds that make their way into the community. Abuse of compound(s) known on the street as "bath salt" is on the rise. We report the case of a 33-year-old man who complained of "flashbacks" and right arm shaking that followed a night of "bath salt" snorting. The active compound methylenedioxypyrovalerone methamphetamine (MDPV) was confirmed; however, analysis of three different "bath salt" products showed difference in their active components. The patient's symptoms remained stable and he was discharged home after observation in the emergency department with instructions to return for any symptom progression. Practitioners should be aware of the abuse of the compounds and that not all "bath salt" products contain MDPV.

  9. Estimating the Application Rate of Liquid Chloride Products Based on Residual Salt Concentration on Pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-21

    This technical report summarizes the results of laboratory testing on asphalt and concrete pavement. A known quantity of salt brine was applied as an anti-icer, followed by snow application, traffic simulation, and mechanical snow removal via simulat...

  10. Nutrition quality of extraction mannan residue from palm kernel cake on brolier chicken

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Hanafi, N. D.; Kejora, E.; Yusraini, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to find out the nutrient residue of palm kernel cake from mannan extraction on broiler chicken by evaluating physical quality (specific gravity, bulk density and compacted bulk density), chemical quality (proximate analysis and Van Soest Test) and biological test (metabolizable energy). Treatment composed of T0 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest (control), T1 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1%, T2 : palm kernel cake extracted aquadest + mannanase enzyme 100 u/l and T3 : palm kernel cake extracted acetic acid (CH3COOH) 1% + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l. The results showed that mannan extraction had significant effect (P<0.05) in improving the quality of physical and numerically increase the value of crude protein and decrease the value of NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber). Treatments had highly significant influence (P<0.01) on the metabolizable energy value of palm kernel cake residue in broiler chickens. It can be concluded that extraction with aquadest + enzyme mannanase 100 u/l yields the best nutrient quality of palm kernel cake residue for broiler chicken.

  11. Pesticide residue determination in surface waters by stir bar sorptive extraction and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, A; Fernández-Franzón, M; Ruiz, M J; Font, G; Picó, Y

    2009-03-01

    In this stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) method, 16 pesticides were extracted from surface water samples by sorption onto 1 mm polydimethylsiloxane layer coated on a 10-mm-length stir bar magnet. After liquid desorption of the analytes with 1 ml of methanol, the detection was performed on a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyzer using selected reaction monitoring mode via electrospray ionization. Parameters affecting SBSE operation, including sample volume, salt addition, extraction time, stirring rate, and desorption conditions, have been evaluated. The optimized SBSE method required two 50 ml aliquots of surface water samples, one aliquot was added of 30% NaCl and stirred at 900 rpm during 1 h for testing five pesticides with log K(o/w) 3. The method was validated in spiked surface water samples at limits of quantifications (LOQs) and ten times the LOQs showing recoveries Albufera Lake and surrounding channels, showing that SBSE is a powerful tool for routine control analysis of pesticide residues in surface water.

  12. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and 20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  13. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Karolina M., E-mail: karolina.nowak@ufz.de [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gehre, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schäffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kästner, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of {sup 13}C{sub 6}-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the {sup 13}C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. {sup 13}C-FA and {sup 13}C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The {sup 13}C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of {sup 13}C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated.

  14. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Karolina M.; Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja; Gehre, Matthias; Schäffer, Andreas; Kästner, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of 13 C 6 -ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the 13 C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. 13 C-FA and 13 C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The 13 C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of 13 C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated

  15. Investigation of residual anode material after electrorefining uranium in molten chloride salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, M.A., E-mail: marose@anl.gov [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907 (United States); Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Williamson, M.A.; Willit, J. [Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    A buildup of material at uranium anodes during uranium electrorefining in molten chloride salts has been observed. Potentiodynamic testing has been conducted using a three electrode cell, with a uranium working electrode in both LiCl/KCl eutectic and LiCl each containing ∼5 mol% UCl{sub 3}. The anodic current response was observed at 50° intervals between 450 °C and 650 °C in the eutectic salt. These tests revealed a buildup of material at the anode in LiCl/KCl salt, which was sampled at room temperature, and analyzed using ICP-MS, XRD and SEM techniques. Examination of the analytical data, current response curves and published phase diagrams has established that as the uranium anode dissolves, the U{sup 3+} ion concentration in the diffusion layer surrounding the electrode rises precipitously to levels, which may at low temperatures exceed the solubility limit for UCl{sub 3} or in the case of the eutectic salt for K{sub 2}UCl{sub 5}. The reduction in current response observed at low temperature in eutectic salt is eliminated at 650 °C, where K{sub 2}UCl{sub 5} is absent due to its congruent melting and only simple concentration polarization effects are seen. In LiCl similar concentration effects are seen though significantly longer time at applied potential is required to effect a reduction in the current response as compared to the eutectic salt.

  16. Considerations on the utilisation of the extraction residue from U, Th production from low grade ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwyler, S.

    1979-11-01

    A literature review about processes for the winning of metals from the extraction residue of low grade U, Th-ores has been made. Among the metals recoverable aluminium is being considered as the most interesting one. The aluminium extraction processes discussed here include high temperature chlorination, the BAYER-process, acid and SO 3 digestion processes, winning of an AlSiFe-alloy by electrometallurgy. The merits of the different processes are compared. (Auth.)

  17. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs

  18. Pseudomacrocyclic effect in extraction processes of metal salts by polyethers from nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Vilkova, O.M.; Kotlyar, S.A.; Kamalov, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    Comparison of macrocyclic (ME) and pseudmacrocyclic effects (PME), originating by conduct of the metal salt extraction processes (Cs, Sr, In, Zr, Cd, etc) from nitric acid solutions through linear and cyclic polyethers, containing 5 or 6 atoms of ether oxygen and having close molecular masses (290-360), is carried out. It is shown that ordinary ethers practically do not extract the studied metals from nitric acid solutions. By transfer from linear polyethers to their macrocyclic analogs the ME impact is expressed clearly enough: the separation coefficient value grows by tens and hundred times. At the some time the PME role in the extraction processes of metal nitrates through crown-ethers with alkyl and groups is expressed less clearly

  19. Performance of weed Extracts on Growth Characteristics and Biochemical Activities in Salt Stressed Soybean Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, H.R.; Khodary, S.E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The changes induced in the growth parameters and certain metabolic activities in response to both salt (NaCI) shock treatments and foliar spray of weed extracts (jungle rice, cocklebur and purslane) plus salinity were studied, using soybean seedlings grown in Hoagland's nutrient solution supplemented with various concentrations of NaCI. When seedlings were subjected to high salinity (100 and 200 mM NaCI), their growth criteria, the photosynthetic capacity, pigment contents and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly decreased. Under salinized conditions and weed extract treatments, the growth pattern,''1''4CO 2 -fixation rate, pigment as well as carbohydrate contents of soybean plants were significantly increased comparable to NaCI-treated samples. It was suggested that weed extract and in particular jungle rice might oppose the harsh effect of salinity in soybean plants

  20. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  1. Antihypertensive activities of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) in high salt-loaded rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopda, Orelien Sylvain Mtopi; Longo, Frida; Bella, Thierry Ndzana; Edzah, Protais Marcellin Ohandja; Taïwe, Germain Sotoing; Bilanda, Danielle Claude; Tom, Esther Ngo Lemba; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Dimo, Theophile

    2014-04-28

    The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat (NTR) and salt hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its antioxidant properties. Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of 18% NaCl for 4 weeks. For the preventive study, three groups of rats received 18% NaCl solution and the plant extract at 25 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day by gavage. Two positive control groups received 18% NaCl solution and either spironolactone (0.71 mg/kg/day) or eupressyl (0.86 mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric monoxide (NO) were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration. Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats (SHR). In SHR, concomitant administration of Kalanchoe pinnata at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure by 32%, 24% and 47% (for SAP); 35%, 33% and 56% (for DAP), respectively. No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of Kalanchoe pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity. The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. This

  2. Coagulation mechanism of salt solution-extracted active component in Moringa oleifera seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Tetsuji; Baes, Aloysius U.; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC-PC) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-PC into tap water formed insoluble matters. The formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-PC was added into distilled water. The formation was affected by Ca2+ or other bivalent cations which may connect each m...

  3. Comparative analysis of different methods of extraction of present hydrocarbons in industrial residual waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa, Judith Rocio; Serrano, Martin; Stashenko, Elena

    2002-01-01

    A comparison among four extraction techniques such as: liquid - liquid (LLE) continuous and for lots, solid phase extraction (SPE), solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (S-HS) was carried out. The main purpose of this research was to determine the highest recovery efficiencies and how reproducible the tests are while varying parameters such as time, extraction technique, type of solvents and others. Chromatographic parameters were optimized in order to carry out the analyses. Hydrocarbon's quantification of residual waters was achieved by using a high-resolution gas chromatography with a gas flame ionization detector (HRGC-FID). Validation of the method was carried out by analyzing real samples taken in different sampling places of the residual waters treatment plant of Ecopetrol - Barrancabermeja. The use of extraction methods that require big solvent quantities and long time for analysis are losing validity day by day. Techniques such as the HS-SPME and static HS are offered as alternatives for quantifying hydrocarbons. They show total lack of solvents, high sensibility, selectivity and the techniques are reproducible. Solid phase micro extraction (SPME) and static headspace (static HS) techniques were chosen as the extraction techniques to validate the method in real samples. Both techniques showed similar results for the determination of total hydrocarbons (in the gasoline range)

  4. Soy Sauce Residue Oil Extracted by a Novel Continuous Phase Transition Extraction under Low Temperature and Its Refining Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lichao; Zhang, Yong; He, Liping; Dai, Weijie; Lai, Yingyi; Yao, Xueyi; Cao, Yong

    2014-04-09

    On the basis of previous single-factor experiments, extraction parameters of soy sauce residue (SSR) oil extracted using a self-developed continuous phase transition extraction method at low temperature was optimized using the response surface methodology. The established optimal conditions for maximum oil yield were n-butane solvent, 0.5 MPa extraction pressure, 45 °C temperature, 62 min extraction time, and 45 mesh raw material granularity. Under these conditions, the actual yield was 28.43% ± 0.17%, which is relatively close to the predicted yield. Meanwhile, isoflavone was extracted from defatted SSR using the same method, but the parameters and solvent used were altered. The new solvent was 95% (v/v) ethanol, and extraction was performed under 1.0 MPa at 60 °C for 90 min. The extracted isoflavones, with 0.18% ± 0.012% yield, mainly comprised daidzein and genistein, two kinds of aglycones. The novel continuous phase transition extraction under low temperature could provide favorable conditions for the extraction of nonpolar or strongly polar substances. The oil physicochemical properties and fatty acids compositions were analyzed. Results showed that the main drawback of the crude oil was the excess of acid value (AV, 63.9 ± 0.1 mg KOH/g) and peroxide value (POV, 9.05 ± 0.3 mmol/kg), compared with that of normal soybean oil. However, through molecular distillation, AV and POV dropped to 1.78 ± 0.12 mg KOH/g and 5.9 ± 0.08 mmol/kg, respectively. This refined oil may be used as feedstuff oil.

  5. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO 4 )) in C 6 H 6 has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA) 3 TDAHA(A - = Cl - or ClO 4 - ). The values of the equilibrium constant K T,S have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined

  6. Study of treatment of a thorium and rare earths residue by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, Josiane; Abrao, Alcidio; Carvalho, Fatima Maria Sequeira de; Freitas, Antonio Alves de; Scapin, Marcos Antonio

    2005-01-01

    In the 70's was established at IPEN the project of a thorium compounds purification pilot plant that had the goal of fulfilling the nuclear technology purity standards. The used method was the purification by extraction with solvents in pulsed columns. The thorium remaining in the organic phase was back extracted as thorium nitrate with a high degree of purity. Impurities, thorium non-extracted and practically all rare earths in aqueous phase of this chemical process were precipitated as hydroxide, generating a product containing thorium and rare earths, that was denominated RETOTER (residue of thorium and rare earths). This residue was accumulated and today there are 25 (twenty-five) metric tons of this by product stored in the safeguard storage shed at IPEN that must to be treated due to the radiation of the thorium and mainly his daughters. The average composition of this residue is, 68% in thorium oxide (ThO 2 ), 5% in rare earths oxides (R 2 O 3 ), 0,3% in uranium oxide (U 3 O 8 ) and common impurities such as phosphorus, iron, titanium, lead and sodium. In this work a new method is presented for separation and purification of thorium from this residue, obtaining a concentrate with high degree of purity for nuclear and non-nuclear use. This process will contribute to establish a decreasing of residue volumes, to have a mind to the minimization of environmental impacts, the reduction of worker's exposition and reduction of the storage costs. In this process the separation and purification of uranium and thorium is done by chromatography extraction, being used polymeric resins, that are previously functionalized with organic solvent (extractor agent). The effluent of this process is a concentrate of rare earths that can be reprocessed in a subsequent fractionating for to obtaining the individual fractions. (author)

  7. Development of a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction: Application for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides from fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Feriduni, Behruz; Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza Afshar

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new extraction method based on counter current salting-out homogenous liquid-liquid extraction (CCSHLLE) followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been developed for the extraction and preconcentration of widely used pesticides in fruit juice samples prior to their analysis by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). In this method, initially, sodium chloride as a separation reagent is filled into a small column and a mixture of water (or fruit juice) and acetonitrile is passed through the column. By passing the mixture sodium chloride is dissolved and the fine droplets of acetonitrile are formed due to salting-out effect. The produced droplets go up through the remained mixture and collect as a separated layer. Then, the collected organic phase (acetonitrile) is removed with a syringe and mixed with 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (extraction solvent at µL level). In the second step, for further enrichment of the analytes the above mixture is injected into 5 mL de-ionized water placed in a test tube with conical bottom in order to dissolve acetonitrile into water and to achieve a sedimented phase at µL-level volume containing the enriched analytes. Under the optimal extraction conditions (extraction solvent, 1.5 mL acetonitrile; pH, 7; flow rate, 0.5 mL min(-1); preconcentration solvent, 20 µL 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane; NaCl concentration; 5%, w/w; and centrifugation rate and time, 5000 rpm and 5 min, respectively), the extraction recoveries and enrichment factors ranged from 87% to 96% and 544 to 600, respectively. Repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as relative standard deviations, ranged from 2% to 6% for intra-day (n=6, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) and inter-days (n=4, C=250 or 500 µg L(-1)) precisions. Limits of detection are obtained between 2 and 12 µg L(-1). Finally, the proposed method is applied for the determination of the target pesticide residues in the juice samples. Copyright © 2015

  8. Indium and scandium extraction by dibenzoylmethane in the presence of salting-out agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionov, V.P.; Chicherina, N.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    The dependence of In and Sc distribution coefficients (D) on molar concentration of salting-out agents (Li, Na and K nitrates) (Csub(s)) during extraction of 0.3 and 0.1 mol/l respectively by dibenzoylmethane (DBM) solutions in benzene at the constant equilibrium pH 2.0 has been studied. Applicability of previously derived equation for the distribution coefficient, taking into account the nature and concentration of salting-out agent and solution pH, is confirmed: lgD=Ksub(D)xCsub(s)+3pH- lg Dsub(A) lgB, where Ksub(D) Sechenov parameter (tangent of inclination angle of the linear part of lgD-Csub(s) dependence); 3pH-constituent, conditioned by the effect of hydrogen ions (3-tangent of inclination angle of the dependence lgD-pH for tricharged ions); lg Dsub(A) lg-nonlinear constituent o distribution coefficient-; B-constant, characterizing the nature and concentration of reagent and diluent. Analysis of the constant B of the equation is made and it is shown, that B presents a logarithm of chelate extraction constant

  9. Assessing potential forest and steel inter-industry residue utilisation by sequential chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makela, M.

    2012-10-15

    Traditional process industries in Finland and abroad are facing an emerging waste disposal problem due recent regulatory development which has increased the costs of landfill disposal and difficulty in acquiring new sites. For large manufacturers, such as the forest and ferrous metals industries, symbiotic cooperation of formerly separate industrial sectors could enable the utilisation waste-labeled residues in manufacturing novel residue-derived materials suitable for replacing commercial virgin alternatives. Such efforts would allow transforming the current linear resource use and disposal models to more cyclical ones and thus attain savings in valuable materials and energy resources. The work described in this thesis was aimed at utilising forest and carbon steel industry residues in the experimental manufacture of novel residue-derived materials technically and environmentally suitable for amending agricultural or forest soil properties. Single and sequential chemical extractions were used to compare the pseudo-total concentrations of trace elements in the manufactured amendment samples to relevant Finnish statutory limit values for the use of fertilizer products and to assess respective potential availability under natural conditions. In addition, the quality of analytical work and the suitability of sequential extraction in the analysis of an industrial solid sample were respectively evaluated through the analysis of a certified reference material and by X-ray diffraction of parallel sequential extraction residues. According to the acquired data, the incorporation of both forest and steel industry residues, such as fly ashes, lime wastes, green liquor dregs, sludges and slags, led to amendment liming capacities (34.9-38.3%, Ca equiv., d.w.) comparable to relevant commercial alternatives. Only the first experimental samples showed increased concentrations of pseudo-total cadmium and chromium, of which the latter was specified as the trivalent Cr(III). Based on

  10. Modeling the influence of river discharge on salt intrusion and residual circulation in Danshuei River estuary, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.-C.; Chen, W.-B.; Cheng, R.T.; Hsu, M.-H.; Kuo, A.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A 3-D, time-dependent, baroclinic, hydrodynamic and salinity model was implemented and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system and the adjacent coastal sea in Taiwan. The model forcing functions consist of tidal elevations along the open boundaries and freshwater inflows from the main stream and major tributaries in the Danshuei River estuarine system. The bottom friction coefficient was adjusted to achieve model calibration and verification in model simulations of barotropic and baroclinic flows. The turbulent diffusivities were ascertained through comparison of simulated salinity time series with observations. The model simulation results are in qualitative agreement with the available field data. The validated model was then used to investigate the influence of freshwater discharge on residual current and salinity intrusion under different freshwater inflow condition in the Danshuei River estuarine system. The model results reveal that the characteristic two-layered estuarine circulation prevails most of the time at Kuan-Du station near the river mouth. Comparing the estuarine circulation under low- and mean flow conditions, the circulation strengthens during low-flow period and its strength decreases at moderate river discharge. The river discharge is a dominating factor affecting the salinity intrusion in the estuarine system. A correlation between the distance of salt intrusion and freshwater discharge has been established allowing prediction of salt intrusion for different inflow conditions. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  12. Stability of the anthocyanins extracted from residues of the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Clemente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are highly important due to their antioxidant capacity. They are the most important among the phenolic compounds and one of the main natural dyes used in the food industry. In this research, residue of processed grapes was used to investigate the presence of anthocyanins, the possibility of their extraction from the residue, and their stability. The extraction solution consisted of 70 mL of ethanol 70% and 30 mL of HCl 0.1% at pH 2.0. The results found for the processed grapes residue was 26.20 mg.100 g-1. In order to evaluate stability, caffeic acid was added at 0.5:1 w/v; 0.8:1 w/v; and 1:1 w/v concentrations. Anthocyanins extract reached the greatest stability at 0.5:1 w/v concentration, with 82.47% color retention and a half-life period of 15 days. Therefore, the use of this organic acid as a stabilizer for anthocyanins is feasible.

  13. Analysis of residual toluene in food packaging via headspace extraction method using gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ying Chin; Mohd Marsin Sanagi

    2008-01-01

    Polymeric materials are used in many food contact applications as packaging material. The presence of residual toluene in this food packaging material can migrate into food and thus affect the quality of food. In this study, a manual headspace analysis was successfully designed and developed. The determination of residual toluene was carried out with standard addition method and multiple headspace extraction, MHE) method using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector, GC-FID). Identification of toluene was performed by comparison of its retention time with standard toluene and GC-MS. It was found that the suitable heating temperature was 180 degree Celsius with an optimum heating time of 10 minutes. The study also found that the concentration of residual toluene in multicolored sample was higher compared to mono colored sample whereas residual toluene in sample analyzed using standard addition method was higher compared to MHE method. However, comparison with the results obtained from De Paris laboratory, France found that MHE method gave higher accuracy for sample with low analyte concentration. On the other hand, lower accuracy was obtained for sample with high concentration of residual toluene due to systematic errors. Comparison between determination methods showed that MHE method is more precise compared to standard addition method. (author)

  14. Physalis minima Leaves Extract Induces Re-Endothelialization in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Endothelial Dysfunction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Nugrahenny

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The administration of deoxy-corticosterone acetate (DOCA-salt can induce oxidative stress leading to decrease the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO, increase senescence of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, thus contributing to endothelial dysfunction. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of Physalis minima L. leaves extract on serum NO levels, circulating EPCs number, and histopathology of tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: rats without any treatment (normal, rats treated with DOCA (10 mg/kgBW s.c. twice weekly and given 0.9% NaCl to drink ad libitum for 6 weeks, and DOCA-salt-induced rats orally supplemented with P. minima leaves extract at doses of 500, 1500, or 2500 mg/kgBW for 4 weeks. Serum NO levels were measured by colorimetry. The number of circulating EPCs (CD34+/CD133+ cells was determined by flow cytometry. The tail artery sections were histologically processed with hematoxylin-eosin staining. DOCA-salt-induced rats showed significantly (p<0.05 decrease in serum NO levels and circulating EPCs number compared to the normal. There was also more detached tail artery endothelial cells in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leaves extract at a dose of 500 mg/kgBW significantly (p<0.05 increased serum NO level and circulating EPCs number, and also induced an optimal re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced rats. P. minima leave extract dose-dependently increases NO bioavailability contributing to enhanced EPCs mobilization, thereby promoting re-endothelialization in DOCA-salt-induced endothelial dysfunction in rats.

  15. Preconcentration of Trace Neonicotinoid Insecticide Residues Using Vortex-Assisted Dispersive Micro Solid-Phase Extraction with Montmorillonite as an Efficient Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwankaew Moyakao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigated montmorillonite for adsorption of neonicotinoid insecticides in vortex-assisted dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (VA-d-μ-SPE. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for quantification and determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues, including thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid. In this method, the solid sorbent was dispersed into the aqueous sample solution and vortex agitation was performed to accelerate the extraction process. Finally, the solution was filtered from the solid sorbent with a membrane filter. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the proposed method were optimized, such as amount of sorbent, sample volume, salt addition, type and volume of extraction solvent, and vortex time. The adsorbing results show that montmorillonite could be reused at least 4 times and be used as an effective adsorbent for rapid extraction/preconcentration of neonicotinoid insecticide residues. Under optimum conditions, linear dynamic ranges were achieved between 0.5 and 1000 ng mL−1 with a correlation of determination (R2 greater than 0.99. Limit of detection (LOD ranged from 0.005 to 0.065 ng mL−1, while limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.008 to 0.263 ng mL−1. The enrichment factor (EF ranged from 8 to 176-fold. The results demonstrated that the proposed method not only provided a more simple and sensitive method, but also can be used as a powerful alternative method for the simultaneous determination of insecticide residues in natural surface water and fruit juice samples.

  16. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  17. Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Xueqiao; Wang Yun; Han Juan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan Yongsheng, E-mail: yys@ujs.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2011-02-14

    Based on the poly(propylene glycol){sub 400} (PPG{sub 400})-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG{sub 400}-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 {mu}g L{sup -1}.

  18. Nitrogen recycling from fuel-extracted algal biomass: residuals as the sole nitrogen source for culturing Scenedesmus acutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Huiya; Nagle, Nick; Pienkos, Philip T; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the reuse of nitrogen from fuel-extracted algal residues was investigated. The alga Scenedesmus acutus was found to be able to assimilate nitrogen contained in amino acids, yeast extracts, and proteinaceous alga residuals. Moreover, these alternative nitrogen resources could replace nitrate in culturing media. The ability of S. acutus to utilize the nitrogen remaining in processed algal biomass was unique among the promising biofuel strains tested. This alga was leveraged in a recycling approach where nitrogen is recovered from algal biomass residuals that remain after lipids are extracted and carbohydrates are fermented to ethanol. The protein-rich residuals not only provided an effective nitrogen resource, but also contributed to a carbon "heterotrophic boost" in subsequent culturing, improving overall biomass and lipid yields relative to the control medium with only nitrate. Prior treatment of the algal residues with Diaion HP20 resin was required to remove compounds inhibitory to algal growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Substoichiometric extraction and quantification of cobalt with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar Reddy, P.; Rangamannar, B.; Prasad, K.S.S.

    1999-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive substoichiometric radiochemical procedure has been developed for the extraction of cobalt with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates. The relative extractabilities of the cobalt-xanthate complexes into chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were studied. Substoichiometric quantification methods were developed in each case and utilised to determine the cobalt content present in standard solutions as well as biological samples. (author)

  20. Behaviour of I/Br/Cl-THMs and their projected toxicities under simulated cooking conditions: Effects of heating, table salt and residual chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Li, Mingyang; Han, Xuze

    2016-08-15

    This study examined the effects of heating, residual chlorine and concentration of table salt on the generation of iodine-, bromine- and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes (THMs) under simulated cooking conditions. In the case of addition of either KI- or KIO3-fortified salt, total I-THM concentrations increased with increasing iodine concentration, while total Cl/Br-THM concentrations decreased. CHCl2I, CHBrClI, CHBrI2, CHBr2I and CHI3 were formed in the presence of KI salt, while only CHCl2I was formed in the presence of KIO3 salt. CHCl2I was unstable under cooking conditions, and >90% of this DBP was removed during heating, which in some cases increased the concentrations of the other I-THMs. The calculated cytotoxicity increased with addition of KI- or KIO3-fortified salt due to the generation of I-THMs, whose impact on the cytotoxicity at room temperature was equal to or five times higher, respectively, than the cytotoxicity of the simultaneously formed Cl/Br-THMs for the cases of salts. Heating decreased the cytotoxicity, except for the case of addition of KI salt, in which the calculated cytotoxicity of I-THMs increased above 150% as the temperature was increased up to 100°C. The reported results may have important implications for epidemiologic exposure assessments and, ultimately, for public health protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermodynamic Considerations for a Pyrometallurgical Extraction of Indium and Silver from a Jarosite Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Steinlechner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Indium and silver are technologically important, critical metals, and in the majority of cases, they are extracted as a by-product of another carrier metal. The importance of indium has seen recent growth, and for technological reasons, these metals can be found in industrial residues from primary zinc production, such as the iron precipitate—jarosite. To secure the supply of such metals in Europe, and with the idea of a circular economy and the sustainable use of raw materials, the recycling of such industrial residues is coming into focus. Due to the low value of jarosite, the focus must lie simultaneously on the recovery of valuable metals and the production of high-quality products in order to pursue an economical process. The objective of this article is to give the fundamentals for the development of a successful process to extract the minor elements from roasted jarosite. As such, we use thermodynamic calculations to show the behavior of indium and silver, leading to a recommendation for the required conditions for a successful extraction process. In summary, the formation of chlorine compounds shows high potential to meet the challenge of simultaneously recovering these metals together with zinc at the lowest possible energy input.

  2. Extraction of Iron and Manganese from Pyrolusite Absorption Residue by Ammonium Sulphate Roasting–Leaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The residue from desulfurization and denitrification of exhaust gas treatment process with pyrolusite ore as absorbent is regarded as a potential source of iron and manganese. In this study, an extraction process is proposed for recovery of iron and manganese with ammonium sulphate roasting followed by sulphuric acid leaching. Firstly, the conversion mechanism was analyzed through mineral phase analysis of roasting products at different roasting temperature by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD technology. Then, the parameters of the roasting procedure such as roasting temperature and time, ammonium sulphate dosage, leaching temperature, leaching time, and sulphuric acid concentration are examined. The results implicate that the iron oxide and manganese dioxide in the residue are firstly converted into the water-soluble ( NH 4 3 Fe ( SO 4 3 and ( NH 4 2 Mn 2 ( SO 4 3 at 200–350 °C, and then the more stable NH 4 Fe ( SO 4 2 and MnSO 4 are formed, at temperature higher than 350 °C. Under optimum conditions, 95.2% Fe and 97.0% Mn can be extracted. Reactant diffusion through inert layer of silicon dioxide was considered as the rate-limiting step for iron extraction with an activation energy of 20.56 kJ/mol, while, the recovery process of Mn was controlled by both reactant diffusion and chemical reaction with an activation energy of 29.52 kJ/mol.

  3. Process for extracting residual heat and device for the ultimate absorption of heat for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Lawrence Jr.

    1980-01-01

    This invention concerns a 'heat sink' or device for the ultimate absorption of heat for electric power stations using the most widespread thermal neutron nuclear reactors, namely 'light water' reactors such as boiling or pressurized water reactors. The residual heat given off by these reactors can be safely extracted with this method by using dry cooling. However, the invention does not concern the problems arising from the cooling of the steam used for actuating the steam turbine nor the cooling of the steam exhausted by the turbine or coming from it, but it does concern the 'safety' part of the nuclear power station in which the residual heat discharged in the reactor is controlled and dissipated [fr

  4. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of soil organic matter extracted from a Brazilian mangrove and Spanish salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perobelli Ferreira, F.; Buurman, P.; Macias, F.; Otero, X.L.; Boluda, R.

    2009-01-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) extracted under different vegetation types from a Brazilian mangrove (Pai Matos Island, São Paulo State) and from three Spanish salt marshes (Betanzos Ría and Corrubedo Natural Parks, Galícia, and the Albufera Natural Park, Valencia) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas

  5. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  6. Extraction of Vanadium from Vanadium Slag Via Non-salt Roasting and Ammonium Oxalate Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Du, Hao; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Shaona; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Biao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Zhang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    A clean method featuring non-salt roasting followed by (NH4)2C2O4 leaching to recover vanadium from vanadium slag was proposed. The carcinogenic Cr6+ compounds and exhaust gases were avoided, and the water generated from vanadate precipitation may be recycled and reused in this new leaching process. The leaching residues may be easily used by a blast furnace. Moreover, (NH4)2C2O4 solution was used as a leaching medium to avoid expensive and complicated ammonium controlling operations as a result of the stability of (NH4)2C2O4 at a high temperature. The transformation mechanisms of vanadium- and chromium-bearing phases were systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-disperse x-ray spectrometry, respectively. In addition, the effects of oxygen concentration, roasting temperature, and holding time on vanadium recovery were investigated. Finally, the effects of leaching variables on the vanadium leaching rate were also examined.

  7. Microscopic Examination of the Corroded Hagan Container Used to Store Molten Salt Extraction Residue XBPS333

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Kennard Virden Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Elizabeth J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-24

    A microscopic examination was performed on a Hagan container after corrosion and a white powder were found on the outside surface of the lid and filter cover while in storage in the vault. The inside surfaces of the container were covered by a wipeable brown coating. The coating was removed and portions of the container were sectioned and imaged with optical microscopy. General corrosion was found throughout the inside of the container, and pitting corrosion was observed in several locations on the lid and sidewall. This report describes the type and extent of the corrosion observed and its impact on the storage lifetime of the container.

  8. Determination of residual volatile organic compounds migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food simulant by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Marsin Sanagi; Ling, Susie Lu; Zalilah Nasir; Wan Aini Wan Ibrahim; Abu Naim, Ahmedy

    2008-01-01

    The residual styrene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the polystyrene food packaging are of concern as these compounds have the potential to migrate into the food in contact. This work describes a method for quantitative determination of VOCs, namely styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene, iso-propylbenzene and n-propylbenzene that have migrated from polystyrene food packaging into food stimulant by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). Headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) technique was applied for migration test using water as food stimulant. The effects of extraction variables including sample volume, eluotropic strength, extraction temperature, extraction time, desorption time, sample agitation, and salt addition on the amounts of the extracted analyses were studied to obtain the optimal HS-SPME conditions. The optimized method was applied to test the VOCs migrated from polystyrene bowls and cups at storage temperatures ranging from 24 to 80 degree Celsius for 30 min. Styrene and ethyl benzene were found to migrate from the samples into the food stimulant. The migration of analyze was found to be strongly dependent upon the storage temperature. The HS-SPME is useful as an alternative method to determine the migration of VOCs from food packaging material into food stimulant. (author)

  9. Polder effects on sediment-to-soil conversion: water table, residual available water capacity, and salt stress interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radimy, Raymond Tojo; Dudoignon, Patrick; Hillaireau, Jean Michel; Deboute, Elise

    2013-01-01

    The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

  10. Polder Effects on Sediment-to-Soil Conversion: Water Table, Residual Available Water Capacity, and Salt Stress Interdependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Tojo Radimy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The French Atlantic marshlands, reclaimed since the Middle Age, have been successively used for extensive grazing and more recently for cereal cultivation from 1970. The soils have acquired specific properties which have been induced by the successive reclaiming and drainage works and by the response of the clay dominant primary sediments, that is, structure, moisture, and salinity profiles. Based on the whole survey of the Marais Poitevin and Marais de Rochefort and in order to explain the mechanisms of marsh soil behavior, the work focuses on two typical spots: an undrained grassland since at least 1964 and a drained cereal cultivated field. The structure-hydromechanical profiles relationships have been established thanks to the clay matrix shrinkage curve. They are confronted to the hydraulic functioning including the fresh-to-salt water transfers and to the recording of tensiometer profiles. The CE1/5 profiles supply the water geochemical and geophysical data by their better accuracy. Associated to the available water capacity calculation they allow the representation of the parallel evolution of the residual available water capacity profiles and salinity profiles according to the plant growing and rooting from the mesophile systems of grassland to the hygrophile systems of drained fields.

  11. Inactivation of Ca2+-induced ciliary reversal by high-salt extraction in the cilia of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutomi, Osamu; Seki, Makoto; Nakamura, Shogo; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Noguchi, Munenori

    2013-10-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) induces ciliary reversal and backward swimming in Paramecium. However, it is not known how the Ca(2+) signal controls the motor machinery to induce ciliary reversal. We found that demembranated cilia on the ciliated cortical sheets from Paramecium caudatum lost the ability to undergo ciliary reversal after brief extraction with a solution containing 0.5 M KCl. KNO(3), which is similar to KCl with respect to chaotropic effect; it had the same effect as that of KCl on ciliary response. Cyclic AMP antagonizes Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal. Limited trypsin digestion prevents endogenous A-kinase and cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of an outer arm dynein light chain and induces ciliary reversal. However, the trypsin digestion prior to the high-salt extraction did not affect the inhibition of Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal caused by the high-salt extraction. Furthermore, during the course of the high-salt extraction, some axonemal proteins were extracted from ciliary axonemes, suggesting that they may be responsible for Ca(2+)-induced ciliary reversal.

  12. Influence of the ammonium salt anion on the synergistic solvent extraction of lanthanides with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone and tridecylamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dukov, I.L.; Jordanov, V.M. [Univ. of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    1998-08-01

    The synergistic solvent extraction of Pr, Gd and Yb with mixtures of thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTA) and primary ammonium salt (tridecylammonium chloride or perchlorate, TDAH(Cl, ClO{sub 4})) in C{sub 6}H{sub 6} has been studied. The composition of the extracted species have been determined as Ln(TTA){sub 3}TDAHA(A{sup {minus}} = Cl{sup {minus}} or ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}). The values of the equilibrium constant K{sub T,S} have been calculated. The influence of the ammonium salt anion on the extraction process has been discussed. The separation factors of the pairs Gd/Pr and Yb/Gd have been determined.

  13. Aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in milk samples coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qinghai; Yang, Yaling; Liu, Mousheng

    2012-10-01

    An aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric method coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction for the determination of four widely used fluoroquinolones (FQs) namely norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and gatifloxacin (GAT) in bovine raw milk was described. The analytical procedure involves the fluorescence sensitization of aluminium (Al3+) by complexation with FQs, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction (SALLUE), followed by spectrofluorometry. The influence of several parameters on the extraction (the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, temperature and phase volume ratio) was investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of the method in milk varied from 0.009 μg/mL for NOR to 0.016 μg/mL for GAT (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) values were found to be relatively low (0.54-2.48% for four compounds). The calibration graph was linear from 0.015 to 2.25 μg/mL with coefficient of determinations not less than 0.9974. The methodology developed was applied to the determination of FQs in bovine raw milk samples. The main advantage of this method is simple, accurate and green. The method showed promising applications for analyzing polar analytes especially polar drugs in various sample matrices.

  14. Lipophilic extracts from banana fruit residues: a source of valuable phytosterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lúcia; Freire, Carmen S R; Silvestre, Armando J D; Cordeiro, Nereida

    2008-10-22

    The chemical composition of the lipophilic extracts of unripe pulp and peel of banana fruit 'Dwarf Cavendish' was studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fatty acids, sterols, and steryl esters are the major families of lipophilic components present in banana tissues, followed by diacylglycerols, steryl glucosides, long chain fatty alcohols, and aromatic compounds. Fatty acids are more abundant in the banana pulp (29-90% of the total amount of lipophilic extract), with linoleic, linolenic, and oleic acids as the major compounds of this family. In banana peel, sterols represent about 49-71% of the lipophilic extract with two triterpenic ketones (31-norcyclolaudenone and cycloeucalenone) as the major components. The detection of high amounts of steryl esters (469-24405 mg/kg) and diacylglycerols (119-878 mg/kg), mainly present in the banana peel extract, explains the increase in the abundance of fatty acids and sterols after alkaline hydrolysis. Several steryl glucosides were also found in significative amounts (273-888 mg/kg), particularly in banana pulp (888 mg/kg). The high content of sterols (and their derivatives) in the 'Dwarf Cavendish' fruit can open new strategies for the valorization of the banana residues as a potential source of high-value phytochemicals with nutraceutical and functional food additive applications.

  15. Molten salt extraction process for the recovery of valued transition metals from land-based and deep-sea minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroni, V.A.; von Winbush, S.

    1987-05-01

    A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.

  16. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Karolina M; Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja; Gehre, Matthias; Schäffer, Andreas; Kästner, Matthias

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of (13)C(6)-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the (13)C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. (13)C-FA and (13)C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The (13)C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of (13)C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Coagulation mechanism of salt solution-extracted active component in Moringa oleifera seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, T; Baes, A U; Nishijima, W; Okada, M

    2001-03-01

    This study focuses on the coagulation mechanism by the purified coagulant solution (MOC-SC-PC) with the coagulation active component extracted from M. oleifera seeds using salt solution. The addition of MOC-SC-PC tap water formed insoluble matters. This formation was responsible for kaolin coagulation. On the other hand, insoluble matters were not formed when the MOC-SC-PC was added into distilled water. The formation was affected by Ca2+ or other bivalent cations which may connect each molecule of the active coagulation component in MOC-SC-PC and form a net-like structure. The coagulation mechanism of MOC-SC-PC seemed to be an enmeshment of Kaolin by the insoluble matters with the net-like structure. In case of Ca2+ ion (bivalent cations), at least 0.2 mM was necessary for coagulation at 0.3 mgC l-1 dose of MOC-SC-PC. Other coagulation mechanisms like compression of double layer, interparticle bridging or charge neutralization were not responsible for the coagulation by MOC-SC-PC.

  18. performance of sorghum grown on a salt affected soil manured with dhaincha plant residues using a 15N isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Razok, A.; Al-Shamma, M.

    2008-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a salt-affected soil to determine the effect of application of three types of Dhaincha (Sesbania aculeata pers.) residues (R, roots; L, shoots; L+R, shoots plus roots) of on the performance of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) using the indirect 15 N isotopic dilution technique. Results indicated that Sesbania residues (L and L+R), used as green manures significantly increased grain yield, dry matter production, N uptake, and water use efficiency of sorghum. Percentages of N derived from residues (%Ndfr) in sorghum ranged from 6.4 to 28%. The N recoveries in sorghum were 52, 19. and 19.7% of the total amount contained in Sesbania roots, shoots and roots plus shoots, respectively. The beneficial effects of Sesbania residues are attributed not only to the additional N availability to the plants, but also to effects on the enhancement of soil N uptake, particularly in the L+R treatment. The findings suggest that the use of Sesbania aculeata residues, as a green manure, can provide a substantial portion of total N in sorghum. In addition, the use of Sesbania green manure in salt-affected soils, as a bio-reclaiming material, can be a promising approach for enhancing plant growth on a sustainable basis. (author)

  19. Process and apparatus for extraction of gases produced during operation of a fused-salt nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, J.; Marie, J.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of fused-salt nuclear reactors and its object is the extraction of the gases produced in the course of operation of these reactors. The process according to the invention consists in placing into position a piece of material permeable for gases and impermeable for the used fused salts, for instance, a piece of graphite, in such a way that part of the surface of this piece is in contact with the circuit of the radioactive salts and another part connected to a gas suction device. The piece could also be scavenged in its mass by a flow of inert gas. Application is contemplated in reactors using a mixture of lithium fluoride, beryllium fluoride, and uranium and/or thorium fluoride. 10 claims, 2 drawing figures

  20. Extraction and characterization of cellulose microfibrils from agricultural residue –Cocos nucifera L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uma Maheswari, C.; Obi Reddy, K.; Muzenda, E.; Guduri, B.R.; Varada Rajulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to extract cellulose microfibrils from the agricultural residue of coconut palm leaf sheath using chlorination and alkaline extraction process. Chemical characterization of the cellulose microfibrils confirmed that the α-cellulose mass fraction increased from 0.373 kg kg −1 to 0.896 kg kg −1 after application of several treatments including dewaxing, chlorite delignification and alkaline extraction of hemicelluloses. Similarly, the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for leaf sheath and extracted cellulose microfibrils was found to be 42.3 and 47.7 respectively. The morphology of the cellulose microfibrils was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The cellulose microfibrils had diameters in the range of 10–15 μm. Fourier transform infrared and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the leaf sheath fibers. The thermal stability of the fibers was analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis, which demonstrated that this thermal stability was enhanced noticeably for cellulose microfibrils. This work provides a new approach for more effective utilization of coconut palm leaf sheaths to examine their potential use as pulp and paper and reinforcement fibers in biocomposite applications. -- Highlights: ► Utilization of Coconut palm leaf sheath as an alternate material for cellulose extraction. ► Using an abundant natural waste for paper pulp, biofilms and composite applications. ► Cellulose microfibrils have higher cellulose content than the leaf sheath. ► FTIR and NMR were used to study fiber structural changes during several treatments. ► Thermal stability of microfibrils is higher than their respective leaf sheath.

  1. [Microbiological and physicochemical evaluation of pasteurized beverages fortified with orange deodorized residues extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Alvarez, Mario José; Machado, Alexandra; Padrón, Arelis; García, David; Belén Camacho, Douglas Rafael

    2004-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical parameters of pasteurized beverages conditioned with aqueous extracts from orange deodorized residues were evaluated. The fruits used were selected according to following criterion: homogenous maturity, without physical damage and absence of apparent chlorophyll. Orange peels were dried and transformed to flour. The juice was evaluated by means of these parameters: pH 3.90, degrees Brix 10, titrable acidity 0.33 g of citric acid/100 mL and total carotenoids 0.0078 mg/mL. Volatil compounds of the flour that may to cause bitterness were separated by means of two methods of deodorization: distillation in current of vapor and in autoclave to 121 degrees C; then, the flour was extracted with water (relation 1:50 p/v). Pasteurized citric beverages (orange juice) were elaborated adding the deodorized extracts. pH, degrees Brix, titrable acidity and total carotenoids showed no significant differences (P>0.05). Microbiological results were according to pasteurized products. Sensorial analysis by untrained panel showed no signiificant differences. In conclusion, the deodorant processes were effectives and permitted the inclusion of aquasoluble compounds as flavonoids with antioxidant activity.

  2. Behaviour of I/Br/Cl-THMs and their projected toxicities under simulated cooking conditions: Effects of heating, table salt and residual chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Mingquan, E-mail: yanmq@pku.edu.cn; Li, Mingyang; Han, Xuze

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Additions of KI and KIO{sub 3}-fortified table salt cause I-THMs to increase. • CHCl{sub 2}I is the predominant I-THM formed in the presence of KIO{sub 3}-fortified table salt. • >90% of CHCl{sub 2}I is removed by heating, but concentrations of the other I-THMs increase. • Additions of KI or KIO{sub 3}-fortified salt increase the cytotoxicity due to I-THM formed. • Heating causes cytotoxicity to decrease for KIO{sub 3}-fortified salt but increase for KI. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of heating, residual chlorine and concentration of table salt on the generation of iodine-, bromine- and chlorine-containing trihalomethanes (THMs) under simulated cooking conditions. In the case of addition of either KI- or KIO{sub 3}-fortified salt, total I-THM concentrations increased with increasing iodine concentration, while total Cl/Br-THM concentrations decreased. CHCl{sub 2}I, CHBrClI, CHBrI{sub 2}, CHBr{sub 2}I and CHI{sub 3} were formed in the presence of KI salt, while only CHCl{sub 2}I was formed in the presence of KIO{sub 3} salt. CHCl{sub 2}I was unstable under cooking conditions, and >90% of this DBP was removed during heating, which in some cases increased the concentrations of the other I-THMs. The calculated cytotoxicity increased with addition of KI- or KIO{sub 3}-fortified salt due to the generation of I-THMs, whose impact on the cytotoxicity at room temperature was equal to or five times higher, respectively, than the cytotoxicity of the simultaneously formed Cl/Br-THMs for the cases of salts. Heating decreased the cytotoxicity, except for the case of addition of KI salt, in which the calculated cytotoxicity of I-THMs increased above 150% as the temperature was increased up to 100 °C. The reported results may have important implications for epidemiologic exposure assessments and, ultimately, for public health protection.

  3. The Influenced of Salting Out Agent of Phosphat Ion and Ferrosulfamic in Extraction of Thorium and Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busron Masduki; Didiek Herhady, R.

    2002-01-01

    It was carried out thorium-uranium extraction using one stage mixer settler to investigate the influenced of salting out agent of nitric acid and nitric aluminium. The result of this experiment showed the salting out of agent for nitric aluminium of 0.5 M much more significantly increase the distribution coefficient of uranium, but not for the thorium. The distribution coefficient of thorium much more significantly increased after nitric aluminium addition ≥1.0 M. There was not any meaningly differences the waste volume between nitric acid and nitric aluminium in its utilization. Reductor agent of ion Fe 2+ for chromi and decontaminate agent for protactinium in feed extraction, did not any influences of thorium and uranium distribution coefficient. (author)

  4. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  5. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role...... to deposition and corrosion problems at MSW incinerators. The results may be used to model the deposition process and to the better understanding of the corrosion process during MSW incineration....

  6. Baryon femtoscopy considering residual correlations as a tool to extract strong interaction potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymański Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the analysis of baryon-antibaryon femtoscopic correlations is presented. In particular, it is shown that taking into account residual correlations is crucial for the description of pΛ¯$\\bar \\Lambda $ and p̄Λ correlation functions measured by the STAR experiment in Au–Au collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair √sNN = 200 GeV. This approach enables to obtain pΛ¯$\\bar \\Lambda $ (p̄Λ source size consistent with the sizes extracted from correlations in pΛ (p̄Λ¯$\\bar \\Lambda $ and lighter pair systems as well as with model predictions. Moreover, with this analysis it is possible to derive the unknown parameters of the strong interaction potential for baryon-antibaryon pairs under several assumptions.

  7. Process Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Arabinogalactan from Dihydroquercetin Extracted Residues by Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaizhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used for the extraction of larch arabinogalactan from Larix gmelinii. The optimal conditions for ultrasound extraction were determined by response surface methodology. Specifically, the Box-Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: ultrasound time, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio. The highest arabinogalactan yield (11.18% was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 41.5°C, extraction time 24.3 min, and liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g. In addition, the antioxidant activity of arabinogalactan that was extracted from dihydroquercetin extraction residues exhibited a moderate and concentration-dependent hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing power, and reducing power. The wood material was characterized before and after processing by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  8. The removal of dinitrochlorobenzene from industrial residuals by liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrochlorobenzenes (NCBs are very important in the chemical industry since they have been used as raw material for the manufacture of crop protection products, as active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry, as pigments and as antioxidants as well as for other uses. In industrial processes, NCBs are produced by monochlorobenzene (MCB nitration reactions and one of the main residuals formed is dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, which is mainly composed of the isomer 2,4DNCB. This subproduct, although of commercial interest when in its pure state, is generally incinerated due to the high costs of recovery treatment and purification. The objective of this study is to present an alternative to the treatment of industrial residuals containing DNCB. The technique consists of converting DNCB into sodium dinitrophenolate, which is very soluble in water and is also easy to reuse. For this purpose, liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction (alkaline hydrolysis with a rotating disc contactor (RDC is used. Experimental data on MCB nitration reactions as well as alkaline hydrolysis using a rotating disc contactor are presented.

  9. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Luna Guevara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  10. Extraction of uranium from anomaly ores no 1,6,8 in salt domes of Bandar Abbas region using column leaching by seawater in sulfuric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Column leaching is one of the experimental methods which is used for identifying the specifications of uranium ores. From the efficiency point of view, the process has some complications and usually it is applied in parallel with the conventional leaching process in order to facilitate of finding an appropriate design and operational method, to be applicable in an large practical scale. In this research work, at the first stage, the existed free chlorine in the samples was washed out using seawater. Then, in a process of acid leaching with seawater and sulfuric acid by the use of the column leaching was applied. The results show that the maximum of 85% of uranium from the ore of Anomali ≠1 is extracted. The extra residual of the used acid dose not react with the uranium and therefore it will increase the free acidity of the leach liquor. In Anomali ≠6, the extraction efficiency of uranium is 75%, while in Anomali ≠8, using 30 periods of leaching, the efficiency is 81%. However, the maximum efficiency achievement has to be avoided by the non-economical circumstances. Based on some comparisons, it is shown that the presence of chlorine in ore will affect the efficiency. The capability of s eawater i n uranium extraction from salted, compared with the n ormal or sweat water h as some advantages. These include: reduction of the operational period, less acid consumption, and reduction in the ore leaching costs. Thus, the heap leaching industry is believed to be a valuable and economical method for uranium extraction, where the needs of utilizing the complicated technical facilities can be reduced. The present work is the first research project on the uranium extraction and concentration in solution containing chlorine. Our experimental results can provide a valuable pattern for the heap leaching of uranium ores design from arches shaped in the region Bandar Abbas

  11. Effect of lithium salts addition on the ionic liquid based extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Yu; Zhang, Sha-Sha; Jie-Xing; Qin, Xue-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an ionic liquids (ILs) based extraction approach has been successfully applied to the extraction of essential oil from Farfarae Flos, and the effect of lithium chloride was also investigated. The results indicated that the oil yields can be increased by the ILs, and the extraction time can be reduced significantly (from 4h to 2h), compared with the conventional water distillation. The addition of lithium chloride showed different effect according to the structures of ILs, and the oil yields may be related with the structure of cation, while the chemical compositions of essential oil may be related with the anion. The reduction of extraction time and remarkable higher efficiency (5.41-62.17% improved) by combination of lithium salt and proper ILs supports the suitability of the proposed approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Simultaneous Determination of TetracyclinesResidues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mesgari Abbasi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tetracyclines (TCs are widely used in animal husbandry and their residues in milk may resultinharmful effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of TCs residues in various bovine milk samples from local markets of Ardabil, Iran. Methods:One hundred and fourteen pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were collected from markets of Ardabil. Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline (TCs residues extraction carried out by Solid Phase Extraction method. Determination of TCs residues were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using Fluorescence detector.Results: The mean of total TCs residues in all samples (114 samples was 97.6 ±16.9ng/g and that of pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were 87.1 ± 17.7, 112.0 ± 57.3 and 154.0 ± 66.3ng/g respectively. Twenty five point four percent of the all samples, and24.4%, 30% and 28.6% of the pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples, respectively had higher TCs residues than the recommended maximum levels (100ng/g. Conclusion:This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues more than allowed amount. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs.

  13. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra-Rojas, Quinatzin Y; Cruz-Cansino, Nelly S; Quintero-Lira, Aurora; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Alanís-García, Ernesto; Cervantes-Elizarrarás, Alicia; Güemes-Vera, Norma; Ramírez-Moreno, Esther

    2016-07-21

    Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X₁: 80%-90%) and extraction time (X₂: 10-15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.

  14. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein Thermostability Is Owing to Their Preferences to Non-Polar Smaller Volume Amino Acids, Variations in Residual Physico-Chemical Properties and More Salt-Bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Anindya Sundar; Bandopadhyay, Bidyut; Maiti, Smarajit

    2015-01-01

    Protein thermostability is an important field for its evolutionary perspective of mesophilic versus thermophilic relationship and for its industrial/ therapeutic applications. Presently, a total 400 (200 thermophilic and 200 mesophilic homologue) proteins were studied utilizing several software/databases to evaluate their amino acid preferences. Randomly selected 50 homologous proteins with available PDB-structure of each group were explored for the understanding of the protein charges, isoelectric-points, hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, tyrosine phosphorylation and salt-bridge occurrences. These 100 proteins were further probed to generate Ramachandran plot/data for the gross secondary structure prediction in and comparison between the thermophilic and mesophilic proteins. Present results strongly suggest that nonpolar smaller volume amino acids Ala (χ2 = 238.54, psalt bridges in this study. The average percentage of salt-bridge of thermophiles is found to be higher by 20% than their mesophilic homologue. The GLU-HIS and GLU-LYS salt-bridge dyads are calculated to be significantly higher (psalt-bridges and smaller volume nonpolar residues (Gly, Ala and Val) and lesser occurrence of bulky polar residues in the thermophilic proteins. A more stoichiometric relationship amongst these factors minimized the hindrance due to side chain burial and increased compactness and secondary structural stability in thermophilic proteins.

  16. The use of solid phase extraction method for analysis of residues of pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, L.E.; Ruepert, C.; Alfaro, A.R.; Solis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Different solid phase extraction devices were tested for the analysis of residues of eleven pesticides used in banana production in Costa Rica. The analysis was performed by using gas chromatograph equipped with NPD and ECD detectors. In general low recoveries and high variation coefficients were found for chlorothalonil, imazalil, terbufos and thiabendazole. For the other pesticides recoveries ranged between 60 and over 100%. (author)

  17. Feasibility of biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yan, Xi-Luan; Fan, Jie-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hang; Zhou, Wen-Bin

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific biogas yield was 294 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solids added, obtained at 50% of herbal-extraction residues and 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Specific methane yield from swine manure alone was 207 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solid added d(-1) at 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Furthermore, specific methane yields were 162, 180 and 220 mL CH(4) g (-1) volatile solids added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10%, 25% and 50% herbal-extraction residues, respectively. These results suggested that biogas production could be enhanced efficiently by the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Residual intrahepatic stones after percutaneous biliary extraction : longterm follow up of complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung Min; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Lim, Sang Jun; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Yang Soo; Choi, Young Hee; Kwak, Byung Kuck; Park, Ji Young

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the radiologic and clinical follow-up of complications between a group in whom stone removal after percutaneous biliary extraction had been complete, and a group in whom this had been incomplete. Twenty-two patients in whom stone removal had been incomplete, and 20 from whom stones had been completely removed were evaluated with particular attention to complications such as cholangitis, liver abscess, biliary sepsis, and pain. Cholangitis was diagnosed on the basis of typical clinical symptoms such as pain, high fever, jaundice and leukocytosis. Pain without other cholangitic symptoms was excluded. Liver abscess was diagnosed by percutaneous aspiration of pus, and biliary sepsis by bacterial growth on blood culture, or laboratory findings such as increased fibrinogen products, decreased fibrinogen, and increased prothrombin time with cholangitic symptoms. 'Complete removal' means no residual stones on follow-up sonogram and cholangiogram performed within three to seven days after pecutaneous biliary extraction. Mean follow-up period was 26.5 months in the incomplete removal group and 34.2 months in the complete removal group. In twelve of 22 patients (54.5%) in the incomplete removal group, complications occurred, as follows:cholangitis, ten cases (45.5%);liver absces, one (4.5%);biliary sepsis, one (4.5%);and pain, seven(31.8%). In contrast, only two of twenty patients (10%) in the complete removal group suffered complications, all of which involved the recurrence of stones in the common duct, and cholangitis. Complete removal of intrahepatic stones significantly helps to reduce the incidence of possible complications. Even in the case of an impacted stone, aggressive interventional procedures, aimed at complete removal, should be considered. If nonsurgical procedures fail, early partial hepatectomy should be considered, particulary for the stones localized in the left intrahepatic duct

  19. Combination of solid-phase extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS for determination of pesticide residues from water, milk, honey and fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yazdanfar, Najmeh; Ghambarian, Mahnaz

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an effective preconcentration method for the extraction and determination of traces of multi-residue pesticides was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Variables affecting the performance of both extraction steps such as type and volume of elution and extraction solvents, breakthrough volume, salt addition, extraction time were thoroughly investigated. The proposed method resulted in good linearities (R(2)>0.9915) over the ranges of 1-10,000ngkg(-1), limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 0.5-1.0ngkg(-1) at S/N=3, and precision of RSD% of ⩽11.8. Under optimal conditions, the preconcentration factors were obtained in the range of 2362-10,593 for 100mL sample solutions. Comparison of the proposed method with other ones demonstrated that SPE-DLLME method provides higher extraction efficiency and larger preconcentration factor for determination of pesticides residues. Further, it is simple, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and can be successfully applied to separation, preconcentration and determination of the pesticides (and other noxious materials) in different real food samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee industry’s residues through solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Rossana PALOMINO García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.

  1. Optimization of two methods based on ultrasound energy as alternative to European standards for soluble salts extraction from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Gómez-Laserna, O; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2012-11-01

    The Italian recommendation NORMAL 13/83, later replaced by the UNI 11087/2003 norm, were used as standard for soluble salts extraction from construction materials. These standards are based on long-time stirring (72 and 2h, respectively) of the sample in deionized water. In this work two ultrasound based methods were optimized in order to reduce the extraction time while efficiency is improved. The instrumental variables involved in the extraction assisted by ultrasound bath and focused ultrasounds were optimized by experimental design. As long as it was possible, the same non-instrumental parameters values as those of standard methods were used in order to compare the results obtained on a mortar sample showing a black crust by the standards and the optimized methods. The optimal extraction time for the ultrasounds bath was found to be of two hours. Although the extraction time was equal to the standard UNI 11087/2003, the obtained extraction recovery was improved up to 119%. The focused ultrasound system achieved also better recoveries (up to 106%) depending on the analyte in 1h treatment time. The repeatabilities of the proposed ultrasound based methods were comparables to those of the standards. Therefore, the selection of one or the other of the ultrasound based methods will depend on topics such as laboratory facilities or number of samples, and not in aspects related with their quality parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of calcium and phosphorus, lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on Cheddar cheese quality: changes in residual sugars and water-soluble organic acids during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, P; McKay, L L; Metzger, L E

    2006-02-01

    Cheddar cheese ripening involves the conversion of lactose to glucose and galactose or galactose-6-phosphate by starter and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria. Under ideal conditions (i.e., where bacteria grow under no stress of pH, water activity, and salt), these sugars are mainly converted to lactic acid. However, during ripening of cheese, survival and growth of bacteria occurs under the stressed condition of low pH, low water activity, and high salt content. This forces bacteria to use alternate biochemical pathways resulting in production of other organic acids. The objective of this study was to determine if the level and type of organic acids produced during ripening was influenced by calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) of cheese. Eight cheeses with 2 levels of Ca and P (0.67 and 0.47% vs. 0.53 and 0.39%, respectively), lactose at pressing (2.4 vs. 0.78%), and S/M (6.4 vs. 4.8%) were manufactured. The cheeses were analyzed for organic acids (citric, orotic, pyruvic, lactic, formic, uric, acetic, propanoic, and butyric acids) and residual sugars (lactose, galactose) during 48 wk of ripening using an HPLC-based method. Different factors influenced changes in concentration of residual sugars and organic acids during ripening and are discussed in detail. Our results indicated that the largest decrease in lactose and the largest increase in lactic acid occurred between salting and d 1 of ripening. It was interesting to observe that although the lactose content in cheese was influenced by several factors (Ca and P, residual lactose, and S/M), the concentration of lactic acid was influenced only by S/M. More lactic acid was produced in low S/M treatments compared with high S/M treatments. Although surprising for Cheddar cheese, a substantial amount (0.2 to 0.4%) of galactose was observed throughout ripening in all treatments. Minor changes in the levels of citric, uric, butyric, and propanoic acids were observed during

  3. Preparation and Properties of Asphalt Binders Modified by THFS Extracted From Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Ji

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the preparation and viscoelastic properties of asphalt binder modified by tetrahydrofuran soluble fraction (THFS extracted from direct coal liquefaction residue. The modified asphalt binders, which blended with SK-90 (control asphalt binder and 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% THFS (by weight of SK-90, were fabricated. The preparation process for asphalt binder was optimized in terms of the orthogonal array test strategy and gray correlation analysis results. The properties of asphalt binder were measured by applying Penetration performance grade and Superpave performance grade specifications. In addition, the temperature step and frequency sweep test in Dynamic Shear Rheometer were conducted to predict the rheological behavior, temperature and frequency susceptibility of asphalt binder. The test results suggested the optimal preparation process, such as 150 °C shearing temperature, 45 min shearing time and 4000 rpm shearing rate. Subsequently, the addition of THFS was beneficial in increasing the high-temperature properties but decreased the low-temperature properties and resistance to fatigue. The content analysis of THFS showed the percentage of 4~6% achieved a balance in the high-and-low temperature properties of asphalt binder. The asphalt binder with higher THFS content exhibited higher resistance to rutting and less sensitivity to frequency and temperature.

  4. Lead speciation in 0.1N HCl-extracted residue of analog of Pb-contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Yuling; Yang, Y.-W.; Lee, J.-F.

    2005-01-01

    The heavy metal in-taken by plants from contaminated soils is usually assessed by extraction with 0.1N HCl. This study characterized the chemical form of lead in the solid residue of 0.1N HCl-extracted Pb-contaminated kaolin. The results indicate that most lead in the 0.1N HCl-extracted residue of the Pb(NO 3 ) 2 -contaminated kaolin dried at 105 deg C is mainly in form of PbCl 2 . For other lead-containing kaolin sample heated at 900 deg C, the XAS analysis also shows that majority of the lead compound was converted into PbCl 2 precipitate that remained in the solid residue during the 0.1N HCl extraction. Because PbCl 2 is only slightly soluble in dilute acids or water, it is suggested that using 0.1N HCl liquid as an extracting reagent to represent the heavy metal uptake by plants might actually underestimate the uptake

  5. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  6. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    , that the charcoal contained a high concentration of Zn, probably from paint. Chemical extraction experiments in HNO were conducted with the charcoal and it was found that the order of extraction (in percentage) was Zn > Cu > As > Cr. A SEM/EDX investigation of the mixed ash from combustion showed the presence...... a matter to cope with when methods to avoid As emission are implemented: the residues with increased concentrations of Cu, Cr and As. In the present paper two different residues after thermal treatment are characterized: a mixed bottom and fly ash from combustion of CCA impregnated wood, and a charcoal...... form in a small layer on the surface of some matrix particles indicating condensation of volatile Cu species. Chemical extraction with inorganic acids showed the order of percentages mobilized as: As > Cu > Cr....

  7. Test of electrodialytic upgrading of MSWI APC residue in pilot scale: focus on reduced metal and salt leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    that is adapted from conventional electrodialysis, e.g. used in desalination of solutions. The APC residue was treated in a suspension (8 kg APC residue and 80 L tap water) and circulated through an electrodialytic (ED) stack consisting of 50 cell pairs separated by ion exchange membranes. A direct current...

  8. Optimization of elution salt concentration in stepwise elution of protein chromatography using linear gradient elution data. Reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in monoclonal antibody purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Takashi; Kadoya, Toshihiko; Endo, Naomi; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2006-05-05

    Our simple method for optimization of the elution salt concentration in stepwise elution was applied to the actual protein separation system, which involves several difficulties such as detection of the target. As a model separation system, reducing residual protein A by cation-exchange chromatography in human monoclonal antibody (hMab) purification was chosen. We carried out linear gradient elution experiments and obtained the data for the peak salt concentration of hMab and residual protein A, respectively. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was applied to the measurement of the residual protein A. From these data, we calculated the distribution coefficient of the hMab and the residual protein A as a function of salt concentration. The optimal salt concentration of stepwise elution to reduce the residual protein A from the hMab was determined based on the relationship between the distribution coefficient and the salt concentration. Using the optimized condition, we successfully performed the separation, resulting in high recovery of hMab and the elimination of residual protein A.

  9. Recovery of anthocyanins from residues of Rubus fruticosus, Vaccinium myrtillus and Eugenia brasiliensis by ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Paula Da Fonseca; Pereira, Ana Luiza Duarte; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Martínez, Julian

    2017-09-15

    This work investigated the extraction efficiency of polyphenols (anthocyanins) from blackberry, blueberry and grumixama residues using combined ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (UAE+PLE). The performance of UAE+PLE was compared to those achieved by the isolated PLE and UAE methods and conventional Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the extraction methods and solvents (acidified water pH 2.0, ethanol+water 50% v/v and ethanol+water 70% ethanol v/v) on total phenolics content, anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of extracts were investigated by a full factorial design. The extraction efficiency for total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in decreasing order was: UAE+PLE>PLE≈Soxhlet>UAE, and for anthocyanins it was: Soxhlet≈UAE>UAE+PLE>PLE, using hydroethanolic mixtures as solvents. Extractions with acidified water and ultrasound were not effective to recover phenolics. Two, four and fourteen anthocyanins were identified in the extracts from grumixama, blackberry and blueberry, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cooperativity of complex salt bridges

    OpenAIRE

    Gvritishvili, Anzor G.; Gribenko, Alexey V.; Makhatadze, George I.

    2008-01-01

    The energetic contribution of complex salt bridges, in which one charged residue (anchor residue) forms salt bridges with two or more residues simultaneously, has been suggested to have importance for protein stability. Detailed analysis of the net energetics of complex salt bridge formation using double- and triple-mutant cycle analysis revealed conflicting results. In two cases, it was shown that complex salt bridge formation is cooperative, i.e., the net strength of the complex salt bridge...

  11. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    which ultimately spreads to the vascular smooth muscle (VSM) producing a fall in VSM intracellular calcium leading to vasodilatation (Amberg et al.,. 2003; Haddy, Vanhoutte and Feletou, 2006) and a fall in blood pressure. The higher heart rate of salt loaded rats compared to control rats (Fig. 3) is suggestive of sympathetic.

  12. Using solid phase micro extraction to determine salting-out (Setschenow) constants for hydrophobic organic chemicals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Muijs, B.

    2010-01-01

    With increasing ionic strength, the aqueous solubility and activity of organic chemicals are altered. This so-called salting-out effect causes the hydrophobicity of the chemicals to be increased and sorption in the marine environment to be more pronounced than in freshwater systems. The process can

  13. Pesticide residues in canned foods, fruits, and vegetables: the application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and chromatographic techniques in the analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Saeid, Mohamed H

    2003-12-11

    Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates. By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues +/- RSD% ranging from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.05 +/- 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.005 to 0.8 +/- 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 +/- 0.02 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  14. Pesticide Residues in Canned Foods, Fruits, and Vegetables: The Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques in the Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. EL-Saeid

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE and Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC techniques in the analysis of the levels of pesticide residues in canned foods, vegetables, and fruits; and second, to contribute to the promotion of consumer safety by excluding pesticide residue contamination from markets. Fifteen different types of imported canned and frozen fruits and vegetables samples obtained from the Houston local food markets were investigated. The major types of pesticides tested were pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, and carbamates.By using these techniques, the overall data showed 60.82% of the food samples had no detection of any pesticide residues under this investigation. On the other hand, 39.15% different food samples were contaminated by four different pyrethroid residues ± RSD% ranging from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.05 ± 0.03 ppm, of which most of the pyrethroid residues were detected in frozen vegetables and strawberry jam. Herbicide residues in test samples ranged from 0.03 ± 0.005 to 0.8 ± 0.01 ppm. Five different fungicides, ranging from 0.05 ± 0.02 to 0.8 ±0.1 ppm, were found in five different frozen vegetable samples. Carbamate residues were not detected in 60% of investigated food samples. It was concluded that SFE and SFC techniques were accurate, reliable, less time consuming, and cost effective in the analysis of imported canned foods, fruits, and vegetables and are recommended for the monitoring of pesticide contaminations.

  15. Probing the molecular forces involved in binding of selected volatile flavour compounds to salt-extracted pea proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Arntfield, Susan D

    2016-11-15

    Molecular interactions between heterologous classes of flavour compounds with salt-extracted pea protein isolates (PPIs) were determined using various bond disrupting agents followed by GC/MS analysis. Flavour bound by proteins decreased in the order: dibutyl disulfide>octanal>hexyl acetate>2-octanone=benzaldehyde. Benzaldehyde, 2-octanone and hexyl acetate interacted non-covalently with PPIs, whereas octanal bound PPIs via covalent and non-covalent forces. Dibutyl disulfide reacted with PPIs covalently, as its retention was not diminished by urea and guanidine hydrochloride. Using propylene glycol, H-bonding and ionic interactions were implicated for hexyl acetate, benzaldehyde, and 2-octanone. A protein-destabilising salt (Cl3CCOONa) reduced bindings for 2-octanone, hexyl acetate, and benzaldehyde; however, retention for octanal and dibutyl disulfide increased. Conversely, a protein-stabilising salt (Na2SO4) enhanced retention for benzaldehyde, 2-octanone, hexyl acetate and octanal. Formation of a volatile flavour by-product, 1-butanethiol, from dibutyl disulfide when PPIs were treated with dithiothreitol indicated occurrence of sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of a new centrifuge sugar flotation technique with the agar method for the extraction of immature Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) life stages from salt marsh soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two sampling techniques, agar extraction (AE) and centrifuge sugar flotation extraction (CSFE) were compared to determine their relative efficacy to recover immature stages of Culicoides spp from salt marsh substrates. Three types of samples (seeded with known numbers of larvae, homogenized field s...

  17. Complementary experimental-simulational study of surfactant micellar phase in the extraction process of metallic ions: Effects of temperature and salt concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Ángeles, Alan Gustavo; Rodríguez-Hidalgo, María del Rosario; Soto-Figueroa, César; Vicente, Luis

    2018-02-01

    The thermoresponsive micellar phase behaviour that exhibits the Triton-X-100 micelles by temperature effect and addition of salt in the extraction process of metallic ions was explored from mesoscopic and experimental points. In the theoretical study, we analyse the formation of Triton-X-100 micelles, load and stabilization of dithizone molecules and metallic ions extraction inside the micellar core at room temperature; finally, a thermal analysis is presented. In the experimental study, the spectrophotometric outcomes confirm the solubility of the copper-dithizone complex in the micellar core, as well as the extraction of metallic ions of aqueous environment via a cloud-point at 332.2 K. The micellar solutions with salt present a low absorbance value compared with the micellar solutions without salt. The decrease in the absorbance value is attributed to a change in the size of hydrophobic region of colloidal micelles. All transitory stages of extraction process are discussed and analysed in this document.

  18. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  19. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  20. DEPENDENCIES TO DETERMINE THE MEASURE OF DAMAGE AND CALCULATION OF RESIDUAL LIFE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPERSTRUCTURE, EXPOSED TO SALT CORROSION

    OpenAIRE

    SAATOVA NODIRA ZIYAYEVNA

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the current method of determining the measure of damage of concrete and reinforcement. The proposed dependence measures of damage, convenient for use in predicting the life of structures superstructures.The practical method of calculation determination of residual resource of the exploited superstructures developed. The main source of data for calculating the residual life are the parameters defined by the technical diagnosis.

  1. Extraction from aqueous media novocaine aliphatic alcohols using salting out agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of rational conditions for the extraction of novocaine. Development of effective extraction systems for almost its complete removal from aqueous media. Establishing correlations between coefficients distribution (lgD novocaine and the number of C–atoms in a molecule of alcohol.

  2. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, E.M.; Ogasawara, T.; Silva, F.T. da; Fontes, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author) [pt

  3. Effect of calcium and phosphorus, residual lactose, and salt-to-moisture ratio on the melting characteristics and hardness of cheddar cheese during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevanan, N; Muthukumarappan, K

    2007-05-01

    Meltability, melt profile parameters, and hardness of cheddar cheese prepared with varying levels of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content, residual lactose content, and salt-to-moisture ratio were studied at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo of ripening. Meltability, melt profile parameters, and hardness of cheddar cheeses measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mo of ripening showed significant interaction between the levels of Ca and P, residual lactose, salt-to-moisture ratio, and ripening time for most of the properties studied. cheddar cheese prepared with high Ca and P (0.67% Ca and 0.53% P) resulted in up to 6.2%, 4.5%, 9.6%, 5.0%, and 22.8% increase in softening time, softening temperature, melting time, melting temperature, and hardness, respectively, and 23.5%, 9.6%, and 3.2% decrease in meltability, flow rate, and extent of flow, respectively, compared to the cheddar cheese prepared with low Ca and P (0.53% Ca and 0.39% P). cheddar cheese prepared with high lactose (1.4%) content resulted in up to 7.7%, 7.0%, 4.9%, 4.2%, and 24.6% increase in softening time, softening temperature, melting time, melting temperature, and hardness, respectively, and 14.7%, 12.7%, and 2.8% decrease in meltability, flow rate, and extent of flow respectively compared to the cheddar cheese prepared with low lactose (0.78%) content. cheddar cheese prepared with high salt-to-moisture ratio (6.4%) resulted in up to 21.8%, 11.3%, 12.9%, 4.1%, and 29.4% increase in softening time, softening temperature, melting time, melting temperature, and hardness, respectively, and 13.2%, 28.6%, and 2.6% decrease in meltability, flow rate, and extent of flow, respectively, compared to the cheddar cheese prepared with low salt-to-moisture ratio (4.8%) during ripening.

  4. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions

  5. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  6. Lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue as a fertilizer substitute for Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar eMaurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e. T1 (No fertilizer; T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha-1; T3 to T6 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant-1, which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant-1 under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  7. Universal and rapid salt-extraction of high quality genomic DNA for PCR-based techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Aljanabi, S M; Martinez, I

    1997-01-01

    A very simple, fast, universally applicable and reproducible method to extract high quality megabase genomic DNA from different organisms is described. We applied the same method to extract high quality complex genomic DNA from different tissues (wheat, barley, potato, beans, pear and almond leaves as well as fungi, insects and shrimps' fresh tissue) without any modification. The method does not require expensive and environmentally hazardous reagents and equipment. It can be performed even i...

  8. 26 CFR 1.381(c)(18)-1 - Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from... Reorganizations § 1.381(c)(18)-1 Depletion on extraction of ores or minerals from the waste or residue of prior... transfer, to an allowance for depletion under section 611 in respect of ores or minerals extracted from...

  9. Extraction of plutonium from lean residues by room-temperature fluoride volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.M.; Foropoulos, J.; Kennedy, R.C.; Dye, B.A.; Behrens, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    The use of dioxygen difluoride and krypton difluoride for the recovery of plutonium from lean residues by conversion to gaseous plutonium hexa-fluoride is being investigated. The synthesis of dioxygen difluoride in practical quantity has been demonstrated. Fluorination of plutonium compounds under ideal conditions supports the contention that a viable process can be developed. Application of the method to lean plutonium residues is in the early stage of development

  10. Antioxidant Activity and Thermal Stability of Oleuropein and Related Phenolic Compounds of Olive Leaf Extract after Separation and Concentration by Salting-Out-Assisted Cloud Point Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Stamatopoulos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A fast, clean, energy-saving, non-toxic method for the stabilization of the antioxidant activity and the improvement of the thermal stability of oleuropein and related phenolic compounds separated from olive leaf extract via salting-out-assisted cloud point extraction (CPE was developed using Tween 80. The process was based on the decrease of the solubility of polyphenols and the lowering of the cloud point temperature of Tween 80 due to the presence of elevated amounts of sulfates (salting-out and the separation from the bulk solution with centrifugation. The optimum conditions were chosen based on polyphenols recovery (%, phase volume ratio (Vs/Vw and concentration factor (Fc. The maximum recovery of polyphenols was in total 95.9%; Vs/Vw was 0.075 and Fc was 15 at the following conditions: pH 2.6, ambient temperature (25 °C, 4% Tween 80 (w/v, 35% Na2SO4 (w/v and a settling time of 5 min. The total recovery of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, luteolin-7-O-glucoside, verbascoside and apigenin-7-O-glucoside, at optimum conditions, was 99.8%, 93.0%, 87.6%, 99.3% and 100.0%, respectively. Polyphenolic compounds entrapped in the surfactant-rich phase (Vs showed higher thermal stability (activation energy (Ea 23.8 kJ/mol compared to non-entrapped ones (Ea 76.5 kJ/mol. The antioxidant activity of separated polyphenols remained unaffected as determined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method.

  11. Plutonium extraction by the formation of insoluble salts (1960); Extraction du plutonium par formation de sels insolubles (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganivet, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-06-15

    The aim of this work is to convert Pu IV nitrate in solution into an insoluble salt. Three methods have been studied: 1) the conventional oxalic acid method was improved; 2) precipitation with 8-hydroxyquinoline was tried; 3) the hydrogen peroxide method was adapted to the eluates of the ionic resins from Marcoule. The yield from the oxalic process has been increased (loss of Pu in the mother-liquor brought from 200 mg/l to 20 mg/l). The study of Pu IV precipitation by 8-hydroxyquinoline has shown that the yield is excellent (Pu concentration in the mother-liquor less than 5 mg/h), but decontamination from impurities is nil. Finally, experiments on the precipitation by hydrogen peroxide of Pu IV solutions at the concentrations normally obtained from the anionic resins at Marcoule have given us good yields (Pu concentration in the mother-liquor less than 7 mg/l), and the purification is better than that obtained by oxalic acid (1000 ppm total impurities after a precipitation). (author) [French] L'objet de l'etude est la transformation en sel insoluble du nitrate de Pu IV en solution. Trois procedes ont ete etudies: 1) la methode classique a l'acide oxalique a ete amelioree, 2) la precipitation a la 8-hydroxyquinoleine a ete essayee; 3) le procede a l'eau oxygenee a ete adapte aux solutions d'elution des resines anion de Marcoule. Le rendement du procede oxalique a ete augmente (perte en Pu dans les eaux-meres ramenee de 200 mg/l a 20 mg/l). L'etude de la precipitation du Pu IV par la 8-hydroxyquinoleine a montre que le rendement etait excellent (concentration du Pu dans les eaux-meres inferieure a 5 mg/l), mais la decontamination en impuretes est nulle. Enfin, l'etude et l'application de la precipitation par l'eau oxygenee de solutions de Pu IV de concentrations habituellement obtenues a la sortie des resines anion a Marcoule nous ont permis d'obtenir un bon rendement (concentration de Pu dans les eaux-meres inferieure a 7 mg/l); la purification est meilleure que

  12. The effect of salt composition on reductive extraction of some typical elements from molten LiF-BeF2 salt into liquid bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotake, M.; Jun, O.; Kimikazu, M.; Kunimitsu, Y.; Yasunobu, T.

    1983-01-01

    The distribution coefficients of thorium and radium between molten LiF-BeF 2 and liquid bismuth solutions were measured at 600 0 C in support of the processing of the molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) fuel. The increasing mole fraction of LiF in the salt phase from 40 to 70 mol% resulted in the rapid decrease of the distribution coefficient of thorium and in the slow decrease of that of radium. A comprehensive correlation of distribution behavior with salt composition is given by taking into account the formation of complex ions. The equilibrium distribution data affirm that thorium and radium exist mainly as Li 2 ThF 6 and RaF 2 , respectively, in the salt phase. It is suggested that the lower mole fraction of LiF in the fuel salt is effective in the MSBR fuel processing

  13. Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. P. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

  14. A preliminary study of local administration of dexamethasone after tooth extraction: Better preservation of residual alveolar ridge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poštić Srđan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is important that the height of the edentulous alveolar ridge after tooth extraction remains at a reasonable acceptable level for as long as possible. The aim of this study was to report preliminary results of the clinical effect of local oral submucous administration of dexamethasone after tooth extractions in order to prepare alveolar supporting tissues for acceptance of removable dentures. Methods. In a total of 15 patients (11 partially and 4 completely edentulous the quantity of 0.25 mL to 0.5 mL of dexamethasone was injected bucally and orally in the region of the tooth socket after complicated extractions. Results. Healing of extraction wounds was uneventful in all the patients, without pain or local inflammation. Conclusion. Dexamethasone can be locally applied to oral tissues to prevent post-extraction inflammation and extensive resorption of the residual alveolar ridge. The obtained results are promising for patients undergoing classic prosthodontic rehabilitation soon after tooth extraction, demonstrating that there are no adverse effects after local oral corticosteroids administration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175021

  15. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation and release of non-extractable 14C-Dicamba residues in soil under sterile and non-sterile regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T.

    2005-01-01

    The role of native soil microorganisms in the formation and release of non-extractable 14 C-residues, previously treated with 14 C-Dicamba, was investigated to examine their significance to the longer-term environmental effects on non-extractable pesticide residues. A 90 d study compared the fate of Dicamba under sterile and non-sterile regimes. In addition, soils were aged for 30 d and repeatedly extracted with a 0.01 M CaCl 2 solution, to an extraction end point, to produce non-extractable residues. The extracted soil containing non-extractable residues was mixed with clean soil that had been freshly spiked with non-labeled Dicamba at 0.2 mg kg -1 to increase the bulk volume of the soil and stimulate microbial activity. Sub-samples were then introduced into microcosms to compare the extent of microbially facilitated release and mineralisation with release rates in sterile microcosms. The results show that microorganisms play a significant role in the formation and release of non-extractable Dicamba residues. The release of 14 C-activity in sterile microcosms was linked to physical mixing of the extracted soil with field soil prior to the beginning of the incubations. The released 14 C-activity may be further mineralized, reincorporated into humus, or taken up by plants or other soil inhabiting biota

  17. Salt removal from microliter sample volumes by multiple phase microelectromembrane extractions across free liquid membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 16 (2017), s. 8476-8483 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : desalting * microelectromembrane extraction * electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  18. "Salting-out" concentration of phytoplankton pigment extracts previous to their analysis by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Garrido

    2014-04-01

    The recoveries of different pigments varied depending on their chemical nature and the degree of enrichment of the extract. Carotenoids and non-polar chlorophylls were recovered above 85 % with 5M saline solutions, while the recovery of acidic clorophylls (c3 and c2 decreased with enrichment factors.

  19. Salt removal from microliter sample volumes by multiple phase microelectromembrane extractions across free liquid membranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubáň, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 16 (2017), s. 8476-8483 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09135S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : desalting * microelectromembrane extraction * electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  20. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  1. Results Of The Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing Using An Improved Solvent Formulation And Salt Waste Processing Facility Simulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent - also known as the next generation solvent (NGS) - for deployment at the Savannah River Site to remove cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is a collaborative effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). As part of the program, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has performed a number of Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests. These batch contact tests serve as first indicators of the cesium mass transfer solvent performance with actual or simulated waste. The test detailed in this report used simulated Tank 49H material, with the addition of extra potassium. The potassium was added at 1677 mg/L, the maximum projected (i.e., a worst case feed scenario) value for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). The results of the test gave favorable results given that the potassium concentration was elevated (1677 mg/L compared to the current 513 mg/L). The cesium distribution value, DCs, for extraction was 57.1. As a comparison, a typical D Cs in an ESS test, using the baseline solvent formulation and the typical waste feed, is ∼15. The Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) uses the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process to remove cesium (Cs) from alkaline waste. This process involves the use of an organic extractant, BoBCalixC6, in an organic matrix to selectively remove cesium from the caustic waste. The organic solvent mixture flows counter-current to the caustic aqueous waste stream within centrifugal contactors. After extracting the cesium, the loaded solvent is stripped of cesium by contact with dilute nitric acid and the cesium concentrate is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), while the organic solvent is cleaned and recycled for further use. The Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), under

  2. Biochemical Effects of Aqueous Extract of Persea americana (Mill) on the Myocardium of Left Ventricle of High Salt-Fed Adult Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olushola, Ayoola I; Aderibigbe, Komolafe O; Stephen, Saka O; Ayodeji, Odukoya S

    2017-10-01

    The cardioprotective effects of Persea americana extract was investigated on biochemical activities of high salt-fed adult Wistar rats in this study. Forty healthy Wistar rats of both sexes weighing 120 to 150 g were randomly assigned into 8 groups of 5 rats each (groups A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and H). Rats in groups A, F, G, and H were fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D, and E were fed on the high-salt diet for 4 weeks. Concomitantly, daily administration of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg of the P americana extract were given orally to groups C and F, D and G, and E and H, respectively, while rats in groups A and B were administered distilled water. Blood samples were taken by cardiac puncture; concentration of sodium ion, potassium ion, nitric oxide, and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were determined. One-way analysis of variance was used to analyze data, followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test for multiple comparison. Results revealed that concentration of potassium ion and nitric oxide was significantly lower ( P < .05) in high salt-fed groups. Sodium ion concentration and activity of lactate dehydrogenase were higher in high salt-fed group while P americana prevented biochemical perturbations in other experimental groups. In conclusion, high salt-diet induced biochemical alterations which were significantly protected by oral administration of P americana extract.

  3. Theoretical Study on the Extraction of Alkaline Earth Salts by 18-Crown-6: Roles of Counterions, Solvent Types and Extraction Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saprizal Hadisaputra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The roles of counterions, solvent types and extraction temperatures on the selectivity of 18-crown-6 (L toward alkaline earth salts MX2 (M = Ca, Sr, Ba; X = Cl-, NO3- have been studied by density functional method at B3LYP level of theory in gas and solvent phase. In gas phase, the chloride anion Cl- is the preference counterion than nitrate anion NO3-. This result is confirmed by the interaction energies, the second order interaction energies, charge transfers, energy difference between HOMO-LUMO and electrostatic potential maps. The presence of solvent reversed the gas phase trend. It is found that NO3- is the preference counterion in solvent phase. The calculated free energies demonstrate that the solvent types strongly change the strength of the complex formation. The free energies are exothermic in polar solvent while for the non polar solvent the free energies are endothermic. As the temperature changes the free energies also vary where the higher the temperatures the lower the free energy values. The calculated free energies are correlated well with the experimental stability constants. This theoretical study would have a strong contribution in planning the experimental conditions in terms of the preference counterions, solvent types and optimum extraction temperatures.

  4. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction

  5. Preparation of fused chloride salts for use in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.

    1986-07-01

    The Plutonium Metal Technology Group at Los Alamos routinely uses pyrochemical processes to produce and purify plutonium from impure sources. The basic processes (metal production, metal purification, and residue treatment) involve controlling oxidation and reduction reactions between plutonium and its compounds in molten salts. Current production methods are described, as well as traditional approaches and recent developments in the preparation of solvent salts for electrorefining, molten salt extraction, lean metal (pyroredox) purification, and direct oxide reduction.

  6. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, I. D.; Uyazán, A. M.; Aguilar, J. L.; Rodríguez, G.; Caicedo, L. A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration pro...

  7. Characterization of lecithin isolated from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) residues deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mi; Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2012-07-01

    Lecithin was isolated and characterized from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) deoiled residues using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) at a semibatch flow extraction process and an organic solvent (hexane) extraction. SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out to extract oil from anchovy at different temperatures (35 to 45 °C) and pressures (15 to 25 MPa). Extraction yield of oil was influenced by physical properties of SC-CO(2) with temperature and pressure changes. The major phospholipids of anchovy lecithin were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) (68%± 1.00%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (29%± 0.50%) were the main phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography was performed to purify the individual phospholipids. The fatty acid compositions of lecithin, PC, and PE were analyzed by gas chromatography. A significant amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were present in both phospholipids of PC and PE. Emulsions of lecithin in water were prepared through the use of a homogenizer. Oxidative stability of anchovy lecithin was high in spite of its high concentration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lecithin can be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when ingested. Lecithin from anchovy contain higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA, it may have positive outcome to use in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Study on Salting out-Steam Distillation Extraction Technology and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from Cumin Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different factors on the yield of essential oil from were discussed, and the extraction conditions of essential oil from cumin seeds by salting out-steam distillation technology based on single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, as well as its antibacterial activities on several common food spoilage bacteria were studied in this paper. The results showed that, the impact order of the influence factors was liquid/solid ratio > distilling time > NaCl concentration, and optimized extraction conditions were as follows, liquid to material ratio 15:1, soaking time 1 h, 4% NaCl, steam distilling time 3 h. The yield of essential oil was up to 4.48% under these conditions. The results of antibacterial activity assays showed that the essential oil from cumin seeds exhibited the different antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens, especially it presented the best inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL respectively, followed by Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus, the lowest for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae

  9. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the quantitative determination of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor quizartinib in mouse plasma using salting-out liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Retmana, Irene A; Wang, Jing; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Sparidans, Rolf W

    2017-01-01

    A bioanalytical assay for quizartinib -a potent, and selective FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitor- in mouse plasma was developed and validated. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE), using acetonitrile and magnesium sulfate, was selected as sample pretreatment with deuterated quizartinib

  10. Storage stability of screwpress-extracted oils and residual meals from CELSS candidate oilseed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, S. D.; Watkins, B. A.; Nielsen, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of using screwpress extraction for oil was studied with three Controlled Ecological Life-Support System (CELSS) candidate oilseed crops (soybean, peanut, and canola), since use of volatile organic solvents for oil extraction likely would be impractical in a closed system. Low oil yields from initial work indicated that a modification of the process is necessary to increase extraction efficiency. The extracted oil from each crop was tested for stability and sensory characteristics. When stored at 23 degC, canola oil and meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. When stored at 65 degC, soybean oil and canola meal were least stable to oxidative rancidity, whereas peanut oil and meal were least stable to hydrolytic rancidity. Sensory evaluation of the extracted oils used in bread and salad dressing indicated that flavor, odor intensity, acceptability, and overall preference may be of concern for screwpress-extracted canola oil when it is used in an unrefined form. Overall results with screwpress-extracted crude oils indicated that soybean oil may be more stable and acceptable than canola or peanut under typical storage conditions.

  11. Reclamation of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.; Holcomb, H.P.; Chostner, D.F.

    1987-04-01

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL), Savannah River Plant (SRP), and Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) have jointly developed a process to recover plutonium from molten salt extraction residues. These NaCl, KCL, and MgCl 2 residues, which are generated in the pyrochemical extraction of 241 Am from aged plutonium metal, contain up to 25 wt % dissolved plutonium and up to 2 wt % americium. The overall objective was to develop a process to convert these residues to a pure plutonium metal product and discardable waste. To meet this objective a combination of pyrochemical and aqueous unit operations was used. The first step was to scrub the salt residue with a molten metal (aluminum and magnesium) to form a heterogeneous ''scrub alloy'' containing nominally 25 wt % plutonium. This unit operation, performed at RFP, effectively separated the actinides from the bulk of the chloride salts. After packaging in aluminum cans, the ''scrub alloy'' was then dissolved in a nitric acid - hydrofluoric acid - mercuric nitrate solution at SRP. Residual chloride was separated from the dissolver solution by precipitation with Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 followed by centrifuging. Plutonium was then separated from the aluminum, americium and magnesium using the Purex solvent extraction system. The 241 Am was diverted to the waste tank farm, but could be recovered if desired

  12. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk, so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue and milk samples respectively. The recoveries of tissue sample by addition lindane standard solution: 0.50 and 1.00 μg are 85.10 and 103.10% respectively, while that of milk with the addition of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 μg are 83.80, 88.69 and 91.24% respectively. Three replicates were carried out for every sample. According of validation criteria of FAO/IAEA the recovery for analysis of pesticide residues was 70-110%. Therefore, the method is applicable.

  13. MIL-101(Cr)@GO for dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of pharmaceutical residue in chicken breast used in microwave-assisted coupling with HPLC-MS/MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudan; Dai, Xinpeng; He, Xi; Chen, Lin; Hou, Xiaohong

    2017-10-25

    In this work, MIL-101(Cr)@GO (Graphite Oxide) was synthesized using a hydrothermal synthesis method and was applied as a dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) sorbent for the efficient concentration of four residual drugs (metronidazole, MNZ; tinidazole, TNZ; chloramphenicol, CAP; sulfamethoxazole, SMX). Meanwhile, the extraction process was optimized by combining it with microwave-assisted extraction. Factors affecting the D-μ-SPE efficiency, such as selection of sorbent materials, pH of the sample solution, salting-out effect, amount of used material, extraction time, desorption solvent and desorption time, were studied. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the linearity ranged from 10 to 1000ngkg -1 and 1-100ngkg -1 (r 2 ≥0.9928) for the target analytes. The limits of detection were between 0.08 and 1.02ngkg -1 , and the limits of quantitation were between 0.26 and 3.40ngkg -1 . Additionally, the developed method also exhibited good precision (RSD≤2.5%), repeatability (RSD≤4.3%), high recoveries (88.9%-102.3%) and low matrix effects (78.2%-95.1%). The proposed method proved to be an efficient and reliable approach for the determination of the analytes. Finally, we successfully detected the four drugs in chicken breast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction in Pesticide Residues Analysis:1. Optimisation of Extraction Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS/SPME was successfully used in a simultaneous multicomponent analysis of hexachlorobenzene (HCB, tefluthrin, heptachlor, aldrin, chlorpyrifos, fenthion and bifenthrin in aqueous medium. Measurementswere performed using a nonpolar polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS fiber. Detection and quantification were done by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS.Optimal conditions for HS/SPME were determined both by performing extraction at different temperatures and examining extraction time profiles at constant temperature. Optimal extraction temperature for each pesticide studied was determined as follows: 60°C for HCB and for heptachlor, 80°C for aldrin and for chlorpyrifos, fenthion and tefluthrin, and temperature exceeding 80°C for bifenthrin. For the pesticide mixture studied, 60°C was identified as the optimum extraction temperature.Based on the time profiles obtained, it was confirmed that satisfactory extraction sensitivity can be obtained even for extraction times shorter than the time required to reach a sorption equilibrium. This conclusion was confirmed by linear concentration profiles obtained for the following ranges: 0.05-10 ng/ml (HCB, 0.05-25 ng/ml (tefluthrin, 0.05-40 ng/ml (heptachlor, 0.05-40 ng/ml (aldrin, 0.05-25 ng/ml (chlorpyrifos, 0.05-25 ng/ml (fenthionand 0.05-25 ng/ml (bifenthrin.Relative standard deviation (RSD values for triplicate measurements did not exceed 15%.

  15. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  16. An approach of ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction for two coumarins preparation from Cortex fraxini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zaizhi; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2015-10-23

    Ionic liquids/lithium salts solvent system was successfully introduced into the separation technique for the preparation of two coumarins (aesculin and aesculetin) from Cortex fraxini. Ionic liquids/lithium salts based microwave irradiation pretreatment followed by ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (ILSMP-UMSE) procedure was developed and optimized for the sufficient extraction of these two analytes. Several variables which can potentially influence the extraction yields, including pretreatment time and temperature, [C4mim]Br concentration, LiAc content, ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction (UMSE) time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were optimized by Plackett-Burman design. Among seven variables, UMSE time, liquid-solid ratio, and UMSE power were the statistically significant variables and these three factors were further optimized by Box-Behnken design to predict optimal extraction conditions and find out operability ranges with maximum extraction yields. Under optimum operating conditions, ILSMP-UMSE showed higher extraction yields of two target compounds than those obtained by reference extraction solvents. Method validation studies also evidenced that ILSMP-UMSE is credible for the preparation of two coumarins from Cortex fraxini. This study is indicative of the proposed procedure that has huge application prospects for the preparation of natural products from plant materials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Salicornia Extract Ameliorates Salt-Induced Aggravation of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Obese Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hwan; Suk, Sujin; Jang, Woo Jung; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jong-Eun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Kweon, Mee-Hyang; Kim, Jong Hun; Lee, Ki Won

    2017-07-01

    High-fat and high-salt intakes are among the major risks of chronic diseases including obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Salicornia is a halophytic plant known to exert antioxidant, antidiabetic, and hypolipidemic effects, and Salicornia-extracted salt (SS) has been used as a salt substitute. In this study, the effects of SS and purified salt (PS) on the aggravation of NAFLD/NASH were compared. C57BL/6J male mice (8-wk-old) were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 mo and divided into 3 dietary groups, which were additionally fed HFD, HFD + SS, and HFD + PS for 13 wk. PS induced aggravation of NAFLD/NASH in HFD-fed mice. Although the actual salt intake was same between the PS and SS groups as 1% of the diet (extrapolated from the World Health Organization [WHO] guideline), SS induced less liver injury and hepatic steatosis compared to PS. The hepatic mRNA expressions of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis marker were significantly lower in the SS group than the PS group. Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of inflammation in NAFLD/NASH. Results of the component analysis showed that the major polyphenols that exhibited antioxidant activity in the Salicornia water extract were ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and isorhamnetin. These results suggest that even the level of salt intake recommended by WHO can accelerate the progression of liver disease in obese individuals consuming HFD. It is proposed that SS can be a salt substitute for obese individuals who consume HFD. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  19. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  20. Effect of feeding tamarind kernel powder extract residue on digestibility, nitrogen availability and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Nakanishi, Takashi; Sato, Yoshiaki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kei; Kumagai, Hajime

    2017-03-01

    This study was to examine in vivo digestibility, nitrogen balance and ruminal fermentation of tamarind ( Tamarind indica ) kernel powder extract residue (TKPER) compared to soybean products and by-products in wethers. Four wethers with initial body weight (BW) of 51.6±5.5 kg were assigned in a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate nutritional characteristics of TKPER, dry heat soybean (SB), dry soybean curd residue (SBCR) and soybean meal (SBM) feeding with ryegrass straw (R) at a ratio of 1:1 at 2% of BW in dry matter (DM) on a daily basis. The digestibility of DM, crude protein, and ether extract (EE) of TKPER-R diet were 57.0%, 87.0%, and 86.0%, respectively. Higher non-fiber carbohydrates digestibility was observed in TKPER-R diet (83.2%) than in SB-R diet (73.9%, pruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N) contents at 4 h after feeding than those fed the SBM-R diet (pcontent, as well as lower acetate to propionate ratio (C2:C3) in rumen fluid than SBM feeding at 4 h after feeding (pruminants.

  1. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89 pro...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...

  2. European sites contaminated by residues from the ore extracting and processing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenhove, H.

    2000-01-01

    Activities linked with the ore extraction and processing industries may lead to enhanced levels of naturally occurring radionuclides (NORs) in products, by-products and waste and at the installations and in the surroundings of the facility. In the framework of the EC-DGXI CARE project (Common Approach for REstoration of contaminated sites) nine important categories of industries were identified and discussions were summarized on the industrial processes and the levels of NORs in parent material, waste and by-products. The most contaminating industries are uranium mining and milling, metal mining and smelting and the phosphate industry. Radionuclide levels in products and/or waste products from the oil and gas extraction industry and of the rare earth, zirconium and ceramics industries may be particularly elevated, but waste streams are limited. The impact on the public from coal mining and power production from coal is commonly considered low. No typical values are available for contaminant levels in materials, buildings and surroundings of radium extraction and luminizing plants, nor for thorium extraction and processing plants. An attempt to give an overview of sites in Europe contaminated with NORs, with emphasis on past practices, was only partly successful since information was often limited or unavailable. The most prominent case of environmental contamination due to mining and processing activities (uranium, metal and coal mining) is in eastern Germany. (author)

  3. Aqueous biphasic systems formed by deep eutectic solvent and new-type salts for the high-performance extraction of pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Wang, Yuzhi; Zhou, Yigang; Chen, Jing; Wei, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Panli

    2018-05-01

    Deep eutectic solvent (DES) composed of polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG 400) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) was combined with a series of new-type salts such as quaternary ammonium salts, amino acid and polyols to form Aqueous Biphasic Systems (ABSs). Phase-forming ability of the salts was investigated firstly. The results showed that polyols had a relatively weak power to produce phases within studied scopes. And the shorter of carbon chain length of salts, the easier to obtain phase-splitting. Then partitioning of three pigments in PPG 400/betaine-based ABSs was addressed to investigate the effect of pigments' hydrophobicity on extraction efficiency. It was found that an increase in hydrophobicity contributed to the migration of pigments in the DES-rich phase. On the other hand, with a decline in phase-forming ability of salts, the extraction efficiency of the whole systems started to go down gradually. Based on the results, selective separation experiment was conducted successfully in the PPG 400/betaine-based systems, including more than 93.00% Sudan Ⅲ in the top phase and about 80.00% sunset yellow FCF/amaranth in the bottom phase. Additionally, ABSs constructed by DES/betaine for partitioning amaranth were further utilized to explore the performances of influence factors and back extraction. It can be concluded that after the optimization above 98.00% amaranth was transferred into the top phase. And 67.98% amaranth can be transferred into the bottom phase in back-extraction experiment. At last, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were applied to probe into extraction mechanism. The results demonstrated that hydrophobicity played an important role in the separation process of pigments. Through combining with new-type DES, this work was devoted to introducing plentiful salts as novel compositions of ABSs and providing an eco-friendly extraction way for partitioning pigments, which boosted development of ABSs in the

  4. Extraction and characterization of mandarin essential oil obtained from agroindustrial residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Carolina; Gil, Jesus; Durango, Diego; Garcia, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, citrus national agroindustries have shown a significant momentum, led by the market expansion of fruit derivatives. This activity has resulted in the generation of large amounts of waste, which could have a potential as starting material for the development of commercial products with high added value such as essential oils (EO), fixed oils, and fibres among others. The EO have a strong demand in the food industry, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. This paper describes the extraction and characterization of mandarin EO obtained through steam distillation, of agroindustrial waste. The effect of vapour pressure, thickness, and the number of layers of plant material, were evaluated on the yield and quality of EO. The operating conditions were adjusted in accordance to the design characteristics of the extraction plant of a local company.

  5. ENCAPSULATION OF EXTRACT FROM WINERY INDUSTRY RESIDUE USING THE SUPERCRITICAL ANTI-SOLVENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mezzomo

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace (seed, skin and stem is a winery byproduct with high levels of biologically active compounds, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials, that could be converted into high added-value products. Since these components are easily degraded by oxygen, light and high temperature exposure, stabilization is important, for instance, by a microencapsulation process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence on the particle characteristics of the operational conditions applied in the Supercritical Anti-Solvent (SAS process for the co-precipitation of grape pomace extract and poly(-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The morphology and size of the particles formed, their stability and thermal profile were evaluated, and also the co-precipitation efficiency. The conditions studied allowed the production of microparticles with spherical shape for all operational conditions, with estimated particle size between 4 ± 2 and 11 ± 5 µm, and very good co-precipitation efficiencies (up to 94.4 ± 0.6%. The co-precipitated extract presented higher stability compared to the crude extract, indicating the effectiveness of the co-precipitation process and coating material against degradation processes.

  6. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the determination of pyrethroid insecticides in high salinity and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zongliang; Yu, Chunwei; He, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jun; Wen, Yingying

    2017-09-05

    A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the determination of four pyrethroid insecticides (PYRs) in high salinity and biological samples. Several parameters including sample pH, salting-out solution volume and salting-out solution pH influencing the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated with the aid of orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions of SALLE were: 4mL of salting-out solution with pH=4 and the sample pH=3. Under the optimum extraction and determination conditions, good responses for four PYRs were obtained in a range of 5-5000ng/mL, with linear coefficients greater than 0.998. The recoveries of the four PYRs ranged from 74% to 110%, with standard deviations ranging from 1.8% to 9.8%. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were between 1.5-60.6ng/mL. The method was applied to the determination of PYRs in urine, seawater and wastewater samples with a satisfactory result. The results demonstrated that this SALLE-GC-MS method was successfully applied to determine PYRs in high salinity and biological samples. SALLE avoided the need for the elimination of salinity and protein in the sample matrix, as well as clean-up of the extractant. Most of all, no centrifugation or any special apparatus are required, make this a promising method for rapid sample preparation procedure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction of plutonium from lean residues by room temperature fluoride volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.M.; Foropoulos, J.; Kennedy, R.C.; Dye, B.A.; Behrens, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of dioxygen difluoride (FOOF) and KrF 2 for the recovery of Pu from lean residues by conversion to gaseous PuF 6 is being investigated. The greater stability of PuF 6 at room temperature allows much more extensive removal of Pu from contaminated wastes, when compared to the high temperature fluoride volatility process. The process also requires fewer additive chemicals than aqueous processes, thus minimizing the amount of material that must be disposed of as radioactive waste. The transportability of gaseous PuF 6 allows much of the process to be automated, reducing operator exposure to radiation. Removal of PuF 6 decomposition product is easily facilitated by the use of these fluorinating agents. 9 refs., 8 figs

  8. Integrated method of thermosensitive triblock copolymer-salt aqueous two phase extraction and dialysis membrane separation for purification of lycium barbarum polysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Hu, Xiaowei; Han, Juan; Ni, Liang; Tang, Xu; Hu, Yutao; Chen, Tong

    2016-03-01

    A polymer-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) consisting of thermosensitive copolymer ethylene-oxide-b-propylene-oxide-b-ethylene-oxide (EOPOEO) and NaH2PO4 was employed in deproteinization for lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP). The effects of salt type and concentration, EOPOEO concentration, amount of crude LBP solution and temperature were studied. In the primary extraction process, LBP was preferentially partitioned to the bottom (salt-rich) phase with high recovery ratio of 96.3%, while 94.4% of impurity protein was removed to the top (EOPOEO-rich) phase. Moreover, the majority of pigments could be discarded to top phase. After phase-separation, the LBP in the bottom phase was further purified by dialysis membrane to remove salt and other small molecular impurities. The purity of LBP was enhanced to 64%. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum was used to identify LBP. EOPOEO was recovered by a temperature-induced separation, and reused in a new ATPS. An ideal extraction and recycle result were achieved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Sensory Properties, Color, Microbial, Lipid Oxidation, and Residual Nitrite of Se’i Marinated with Lime and Roselle Calyces Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. M. Malelak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat deterioration can occur because of lipid oxidation and bacteria that could affect meat quality. It has been recognized that fruits of lime (Citrus aurantifolia and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces contain bioactive compounds that have a capability to prevent oxidation and bacterial growth. The objective of this research was to  investigate the effect of lime and roselle calyces extracts on se’i (Rotenese smoked beef quality. Completely randomized design (CRD with 2x4 factorial pattern was used in this study. The first factor (E was source of extracts i.e., lime extract (E1 and roselle extract (E2. The second factor (L was level of the extract consisted of 4 levels i.e., control (without extract/ L0; L1= 1%; L2= 2%; and L3= 3% (v/v. Each treatment consisted of 3 replications. Sensory properties measured were aroma, taste, and tenderness. Other variables measured were color, total plate count (TPC, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and residual nitrite.  The taste and tenderness of se’i were affected (P<0.05 by combination of the extract and the level of the extract.  Results showed that there were significant interactions (P<0.05 between the kind of extracts and the level of extract on L (lightness, a (redness, and b (yellowness values, TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. The level of 3% of  lime extract as well as 3% of roselle calyces extract improved score of taste and tenderness, reduced a values, decreased TPC, TBARS, and residual nitrite values. Marinating in 3% of roselle calyces extract decreased the b value but marinating in 3% of lime increased the b value of se’i. It is concluded that marinating 3% of roselle or 3% of lime gives the best effect on taste, tenderness, TPC, and TBARS values of se’i.

  10. [Effects of the Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin on the residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Zhao-you; Ren, Zheng-gang; Huang, Xiu-yan; Jia, Qing-an; Xie, Xiao-ying; Shen, Hu-jia

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a Chinese herbal extract Songyou Yin on residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice and the relevant mechanisms. Orthotopic nude mouse models bearing residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy was established using human liver carcinoma MHCC97L cells. Three different doses of Songyon Yin (2.1 g/kg, 4.2 g/kg and 8.4 g/kg) were administered to the mice in the trial groups by intragastric gavage, respectively. The mice in the control group were administered physiological saline. The tumor growth, metastasis and survival in the mice of each group were recorded. The corresponding mechanisms were studied. The pulmonary metastasis rates of the control group and 2.1g/kg, 4.2g/kg, 8.4g/kg Songyou Yin treatment group were 86.7%, 73.3%, 40.0%, and 20.0%, respectively, and the survivals of these groups were 53.83 ± 4.71, 56.50 ± 6.09, 66.67 ± 5.61, 81.17 ± 7.36 days, respectively. Compared with the mice in the control group, mice in the 4.2 g/kg, 8.4 g/kg Songyou Yin treatment groups had a lower pulmonary metastasis rate (P = 0.021 and P = 0.001, respectively) and longer survival (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). A restoration of E-cadherin expression and a concomitant reduction of N-cadherin expression were detected in the tumors of the 4.2 g/kg and 8.4 g/kg Songyou Yin treatment groups. Songyou Yin effectively inhibits the invasion and metastasis of the residual hepatocellular carcinoma after chemotherapy in nude mice through attenuating the epithelia-mesenchymal transition and prolongs the survival. Songyon Yin may have potential to promote the efficacy of chemotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Cellulosic biofuels from crop residue and groundwater extraction in the US Plains: the case of Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmero, Juan P

    2014-11-01

    This study develops a model of crop residue (i.e. stover) supply and derived demand for irrigation water accounting for non-linear effects of soil organic matter on soil's water holding capacity. The model is calibrated for typical conditions in central Nebraska, United States, and identifies potential interactions between water and biofuel policies. The price offered for feedstock by a cost-minimizing plant facing that stover supply response is calculated. Results indicate that as biofuel production volumes increase, soil carbon depletion per unit of biofuel produced decreases. Consumption of groundwater per unit of biofuel produced first decreases and then increases (after a threshold of 363 dam(3) of biofuels per year) due to plants' increased reliance on the extensive margin for additional biomass. The analysis reveals a tension between biofuel and water policies. As biofuel production raises the economic benefits of relaxing water conservation policies (measured by the "shadow price" of water) increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of the extraction residue of emeralds in a formulation mass of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcante, R. F.; Nascimento, R.M.; Paskocimas, C.A.; Dutra, R.P.S.

    2012-01-01

    Companies involved in mining and beneficiation of emerald represent an important area of industrial development in Brazil, with a significant contribution to world production of this ore. As a result, large volumes of waste generated and emerald are constantly abandoned in the environment, contributing negatively to their preservation. On the other hand the interest in the use of mining waste as an additive in production of ceramic materials has grown among researchers in recent years. The ceramic industry is constantly seeking to expand the market for the sector and trying to improve product quality and increase the variety of applications. The technology of obtaining ceramic coating that uses waste from mining is still a largely unexplored market. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the waste generated from mining emerald as well as to evaluate its potential use as raw material for production melting of ceramic tiles. Ceramic mixtures were prepared from raw materials characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Five compositions were prepared using the waste codes of emeralds from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Samples were prepared by pressing, sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C and characterized to establish their mineralogical composition, water absorption, linear shrinkage and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the residue of emeralds studied can be embedded in the mass of ceramic tiles up to 20% in replacement of feldspar without compromising the end product properties. (author)

  13. Solid-Phase Extraction and Large-Volume Sample Stacking-Capillary Electrophoresis for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Islas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase extraction in combination with large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-LVSS-CE was applied to measure chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method had a linear range of 29 to 200 µg·L−1, with limits of detection ranging from 18.6 to 23.8 µg·L−1 with inter- and intraday repeatabilities < 10% (as a relative standard deviation in all cases. The enrichment factors obtained were from 50.33 to 70.85 for all the TCs compared with a conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. This method is adequate to analyze tetracyclines below the most restrictive established maximum residue limits. The proposed method was employed in the analysis of 15 milk samples from different brands. Two of the tested samples were positive for the presence of oxytetracycline with concentrations of 95 and 126 µg·L−1. SPE-LVSS-CE is a robust, easy, and efficient strategy for online preconcentration of tetracycline residues in complex matrices.

  14. Valuation of solid phase extraction disks in the determination of pesticide residues in surface and groundwater in Panama

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, V.; Ramos de Jimenez, J.; Rojas, B.

    1999-01-01

    In Panama large quantities of pesticides are used in agriculture and livestock farming and there is increasing concern about their impact on public health and the environment. Chiriqui is the Province that registers the largest number of producers whose activities have impact on the environment, especially on surface and groundwater. Systematic monitoring programmes are non-existent due, in part, to the high cost of laboratory determination of environmental residues of pesticides. Within the framework of the FAO/IAEA/SIDA Coordinated Research Programme, efforts were focused on evaluating and optimising the use of solid phase extraction C 18 membrane disks in the analysis of surface and groundwater samples to determine pesticide residues. Factors studied were the effect of pre-washing and conditioning of the disks, flow rates, concentration level and matrix effects of field samples. Four pesticides, carbofuran, chlorothalonil, ametryn and chlorpyrifos were selected for these tests because preliminary analysis showed their presence in surface and groundwater. The technique significantly reduces the amount of organic solvents used as compared with the liquid-liquid extraction method. Quantifiable detection limits (Q L ) for the method were found to be 0.003 μg/L carbofuran, 0.016 μg/L chlorothalonil, 0.007 μg/L ametryn and 0.003 μg/L chlorpyrifos, when using standard spiked solutions. Recovery (%) was high when standard mixtures were used for the test runs but low when real surface water samples were tested, especially for chlorothalonil which was not recovered at all. (author)

  15. Comparison of salting-out and sugaring-out liquid-liquid extraction methods for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid in royal jelly and their co-extracted protein content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xijuan; Sun, Fanyi; Wu, Siyuan; Liu, Weiyi; Gao, Zhaosheng; Huang, Shaokang; Chen, Wenbin

    2018-01-15

    Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (h-LLE) has been receiving considerable attention as a sample preparation method due to its simple and fast partition of compounds with a wide range of polarities. To better understand the differences between the two h-LLE extraction approaches, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and sugaring-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SULLE), have been compared for the partition of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) from royal jelly, and for the co-extraction of proteins. Effects of the amount of phase partition agents and the concentration of acetonitrile (ACN) on the h-LLE were discussed. Results showed that partition efficiency of 10-HDA depends on the phase ratio in both SALLE and SULLE. Though the partition triggered by NaCl and glucose is less efficient than MgSO 4 in the 50% (v/v) ACN-water mixture, their extraction yields can be improved to be similar with that in MgSO 4 SALLE by increasing the initial concentration of ACN in the ACN-water mixture. The content of co-extracted protein was correlated with water concentration in the obtained upper phase. MgSO 4 showed the largest protein co-extraction at the low concentration of salt. Glucose exhibited a large protein co-extraction in the high phase ratio condition. Furthermore, NaCl with high initial ACN concentration is recommended because it produced high extraction yield for 10-HDA and the lowest amount of co-extracted protein. These observations would be valuable for the sample preparation of royal jelly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The extraction of lanthanides and americium by benzyldiakylamines and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates from the nitrate solutions; structure and aggregation of their salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedinakova, V.; Zilkova, J.; Dvorak, Z.; Vojtiskova, M.

    1982-01-01

    Benzyldialkylamine and benzyltrialkylammonium nitrates were used for the extraction of lanthanides and americium from aqueous nitrate solutions. The dependence of the extraction performance for Ln(III) and Am(III) on the concentration of nitric acid, the kind and concentration of salting-out agents in the aqueous phase, and the kind of solvent were investigated. The extraction of Am(III) is compared with the extraction of lanthanides. The difference in distribution coefficients for lanthanides and americium can be utilized for the separation of lanthanides and americium. Using vapor phase osmometry and cryoscopy the association of these compounds was measured at 5.5deg, 25deg and 37deg C, allowing rough estimates of ΔH and ΔS for the formation of the aggregates, monomers in the case of benzyldiethylamine, benzyldibutylamine, benzyldihexylamine and benzyldioctylamine, tetramers for the benzyldibutylamine nitrate and tetramers for benzyldimethyldodecylammonium nitrate. (author)

  17. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  18. Two-dimensional coordination polymer matrix for solid-phase extraction of pesticide residues from plant Cordia salicifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Pedro Henrique Viana; Barreto, Alysson Santos; Rodrigues, Marcelo O; Prata, Vanessa de Menezes; Alves, Péricles Barreto; de Mesquita, Maria Eliane; Alves, Severino; Navickiene, Sandro

    2009-06-01

    The 2D coordination polymer (infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)]) was tested for extraction of acephate, chlorpropham, pirimicarb, bifenthrin, tetradifon, and phosalone from the medicinal plant Cordia salicifolia, whose extracts are commercialized in Brazil as diuretic, appetite suppressant, and weight loss products, using GC/MS, SIM. Considering that there are no Brazilian regulations concerning maximum permissible pesticide residue concentrations in medicinal herbs, recovery experiments were carried out (seven replicates), at two arbitrary fortification levels (0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg), resulting in recoveries in range of 20 to 107.7% and SDRSDs were between 5.6 and 29.1% for infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)] sorbent. Detection and quantification limits for herb ranged from 0.10 to 0.15 mg/kg and from 0.15 to 0.25 mg/kg, respectively, for the different pesticides studied. The developed method is linear over the range assayed, 0.5-10.0 microg/mL, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9975 to 0.9986 for all pesticides. Comparison between infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)] sorbent and conventional sorbent (neutral alumina) showed similar performance of infinity[Gd(DPA)(HDPA)] polymeric sorbent for three (bifenthrin, tetradifon, and phosalone) out of six pesticides tested.

  19. Alkali solution extraction of rice residue protein isolates: Influence of alkali concentration on protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Furong; Ding, Wenhui; Qu, Wenjuan; Oladejo, Ayobami Olayemi; Xiong, Feng; Zhang, Weiwei; He, Ronghai; Ma, Haile

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the nutrient property and safety of the rice residue protein isolates (RRPI) product (extracted by different alkali concentrations) by exploring the protein functional, structural properties and lysinoalanine (LAL) formation. The results showed that with the rising of alkali concentration from 0.03M to 0.15M, the solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties of RRPI increased at first and then descended. When the alkali concentration was greater than 0.03M, the RRPI surface hydrophobicity decreased and the content of thiol and disulfide bond, Lys and Cys significantly reduced. By the analysis of HPLC, the content of LAL rose up from 276.08 to 15,198.07mg/kg and decreased to 1340.98mg/kg crude protein when the alkali concentration increased from 0.03 to 0.09M and until to 0.15M. These results indicated that RRPI alkaline extraction concentration above 0.03M may cause severe nutrient or safety problems of protein. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on 14C-extractable residue, 14C-bound residue and mineralization of 14C-labeled chlorsulfuron in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qingfu; Sun Jinhe; Qi Wenyuan; Wu Jianmin

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate 14 C-extractable residue ( 14 C-ER), 14 C-bound residue ( 14 C-BR) and mineralization of 14 C-labeled chlorsulfuron in soils by using isotope technique. The main factors affecting 14 C-BR formation and the distribution pattern of 14 C-BR in humus were also discussed in details. The results were as follows: (1) The 14 C-ER content of 14 C-chlorsulfuron in seven kinds of soil was positively related to soil pH and negatively related to clay content and organic matter content significantly. Moreover. the decrease rate of 14 C-chlorsulfuron parent compound derived from 14 C-ER in soils followed the first order rate reaction, the half-life in Soil 1-Soil 7 were 13.0, 13.1, 17.7, 133.3, 21.8, 22.1, 33.2 days, respectively. It was concluded that soil pH was the main factor affecting the degradation of 14 C-chlorsulfuron. (2) The 14 C-BR content of 14 C-chlorsulfuron in soils increased sharply with the incubation time during the initial 20 days, then changed slowly with time. However, 14 C-BR content during the whole incubation depended on soil types. The order of 14 C-BR content followed Soil 1 > Soil 2, Soil 5 and Soil 6 > Soil 3 > Soil 7 > Soil 4. The maximum values of 14 C-BR content of 14 C-chlorsulfuron in Soil 1-Soil 7 were 53.3%, 40.9%, 37.8%, 16.4%, 42.5%, 41.0% and 31.3% of applied amount. In addition, the 14 C-BR content of 14 C-chlorsulfuron in soils was negatively related to soil pH significantly, and positively related to the clay content. The soil pH was found to be the main factor affecting BR formation of 14 C-chlorsulfuron among the basic properties of soil. (3) During the whole periods of the incubation, the 14 C-BR of 14 C-chlorsulfuron in soils was mainly distributed in fulvic acid and humin. The relative percent of 14 C-BR in fulvic acid was higher than in humin. While the relative percentage of the 14 C-BR in humic acid only account for 2%. It was suggested that fulvic acid played an important role

  1. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1984-01-01

    A new process for recovery of plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste has been demonstrated. It is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, which eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flowsheet concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 = from high chloride-low acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with 1N HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. The plutonium is recovered, after elution, via hydroxide precipitation, while the americium is recovered via NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process are discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are now in progress for MSE residues. Flow sheets for actinide recovery from electrorefining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  2. Actinide recovery from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avens, L.R.; Clifton, D.G.; Vigil, A.R.

    1985-05-01

    We demonstrated a new process for recovering plutonium and americium from pyrochemical waste. The method is based on chloride solution anion exchange at low acidity, or acidity that eliminates corrosive HCl fumes. Developmental experiments of the process flow chart concentrated on molten salt extraction (MSE) residues and gave >95% plutonium and >90% americium recovery. The recovered plutonium contained 6 2- from high-chloride low-acid solution. Americium and other metals are washed from the ion exchange column with lN HNO 3 -4.8M NaCl. After elution, plutonium is recovered by hydroxide precipitation, and americium is recovered by NaHCO 3 precipitation. All filtrates from the process can be discardable as low-level contaminated waste. Production-scale experiments are in progress for MSE residues. Flow charts for actinide recovery from electro-refining and direct oxide reduction residues are presented and discussed

  3. 75 FR 14154 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... (LOQ) of 0.05 ppm for total residues of spiroxamine is being submitted. The extraction and hydrolysis... detection (ECD), and convert residues of amitraz to 2,4-DMA by acid and base hydrolysis, respectively. The...-(hydrogen sulfobutanedioate), 1- (C 8 -C 20 linear and branched alkyl) ethers, sodium salts (CAS No. 1079993...

  4. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma biochemistry and haematological indices of salt-loaded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Ikewuchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on plasma marker enzymes, plasma chemistry and the haematological profile of salt-loaded rats were studied. The control group received only a commercial feed, whilst the four test groups received a diet consisting of the commercial feed and salt, although the reference treatment group was reverted to the normal feed at the end of 6 weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg body weight to two test groups, respectively; whilst the test control, reference and control groups received equivalent volumes of water by the same route. The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, but it did produce leukocytosis, significantly increased (p < 0.05 plasma calcium and potassium levels and significantly decreased (p < 0.05 plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to the test control animals. This result supports the traditional use of Sansevieria senegambica in the management of hypertension, whilst suggesting that the extract may be a potassium-sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be achieved through alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances, or through calcium-mediated changes in vascular muscle tone.

  5. Use of water in aiding olefin/paraffin (liquid + liquid) extraction via complexation with a silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yu; Thompson, Jillian; Zhou, Jingjing; Goodrich, Peter; Atilhan, Mert; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Kirchner, Barbara; Rooney, David; Jacquemin, Johan; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Silver-based ILs used as olefin extracting agents for olefin/paraffin mixtures. • Each extraction process is based on the olefin complexation and solvation. • The presence of water influences positively each extraction process. • Each extraction process was evaluated by DFT calculations, NMR, IR and Raman. • LLE data were then correlated by using the UNIQUAC model. - Abstract: This paper describes the extraction of C 5 –C 8 linear α-olefins from olefin/paraffin mixtures of the same carbon number via a reversible complexation with a silver salt (silver bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, Ag[Tf 2 N]) to form room temperature ionic liquids [Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]. From the experimental (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for the olefin/paraffin mixtures and Ag[Tf 2 N], 1-pentene showed the best separation performance while C 7 and C 8 olefins could only be separated from the corresponding mixtures on addition of water which also improves the selectivity at lower carbon numbers like the C 5 and C 6 , for example. Using infrared and Raman spectroscopy of the complex and Ag[Tf 2 N] saturated by olefin, the mechanism of the extraction was found to be based on both chemical complexation and the physical solubility of the olefin in the ionic liquid ([Ag(olefin) x ][Tf 2 N]). These experiments further support the use of such extraction techniques for the separation of olefins from paraffins

  6. Comparative substoichiometric extraction and quantification of mercury in geological water samples with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekhar, R.P.; Rangamannar, B.

    1996-01-01

    The relative extent of extraction of mercury with potassium salts of ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthates has been studied employing a sensitive and rapid substoichiometric radiochemical method. The effect of pH on the extractability of mercury xanthate complexes into chloroform was investigated. Buffer solutions of pH 12, 11, 10, 9 and 5.5 were found to be suitable media for the maximum extraction of mercury as ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl and benzyl xanthate complexes, respectively. The procedures developed were utilized for the determination of mercury content in standard solutions and geological water samples collected in eight parts of Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Preparation of Nano-Scale Biopolymer Extracted from Coconut Residue and Its Performance as Drag Reducing Agent (DRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.

  8. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  9. Extraction residue analysis on F82H-BA07 heat and other reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Takuya; Hishinuma, Yoshimitsu; Muroga, Takeo; Li, Yanfen; Watanabe, Hideo; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Sakasegawa, Hideo; Ando, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Extraction residue analysis was conducted on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, such as F82H-BA07 heat, F82H-IEA heat, JLF-1 JOYO heat and CLAM steel. M 23 C 6 type precipitates, TaC precipitates and Fe 2 W Laves phase were identified in the present analyses. M 23 C 6 precipitates were coarsened in F82H-BA07 compared with the other steels at as-normalized and tempered (NT) condition. TaC precipitate formation was enhanced in JLF-1 and CLAM compared with F82H-BA07 and F82H-IEA at as-NT condition. Laves phase were detected in F82H-IEA after aging above 550 o C, where solid solution W was significantly decreased. F82H-IEA exhibited hardening after aging at 400 and 500 o C for 100 khr, whereas softening at 600 and 650 o C. This behavior is similar to JLF-1 and CLAM, and can be understood by precipitation of TaC and Laves phase.

  10. Inoculation of soil with an Isoproturon degrading microbial community reduced the pool of "real non-extractable" Isoproturon residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaomin; Schroll, Reiner; Dörfler, Ulrike; Chen, Baoliang

    2018-03-01

    During pesticides degradation, biogenic non-extractable residues ("apparent NER") may not share the same environmental fate and risks with the "real NER" that are bound to soil matrix. It is not clear how microbial community (MC) inoculation for pesticides degradation would influence the NER composition. To investigate degradation efficiency of pesticides Isoproturon (IPU) and NER composition following MC inoculation, clay particles harboring MC that contains the IPU degrading strain, Sphingomonas sp., were inoculated into soil receiving 14 C-labeled IPU addition. Mineralization of IPU was greatly enhanced with MC inoculation that averagely 55.9% of the applied 14 C-IPU was consumed up into 14 CO 2 during 46 days soil incubation. Isoproturon degradation was more thorough with MC than that in the control: much less amount of metabolic products (4.6% of applied IPU) and NER (35.4%) formed in MC treatment, while the percentages were respectively 30.3% for metabolites and 49.8% for NER in the control. Composition of NER shifted with MC inoculation, that relatively larger amount of IPU was incorporated into the biogenic "apparent NER" in comparison with "real NER". Besides its well-recognized role on enhancing mineralization, MC inoculation with clay particles benefits soil pesticides remediation in term of reducing "real NER" formation, which has been previously underestimated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fast, simple and efficient salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction of naringenin from fruit juice samples prior to their enantioselective determination by liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magiera, Sylwia; Kwietniowska, Ewelina

    2016-11-15

    In this study, an easy, simple and efficient method for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in fruit juices after salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection (DAD) was developed. The sample treatment is based on the use of water-miscible acetonitrile as the extractant and acetonitrile phase separation under high-salt conditions. After extraction, juice samples were incubated with hydrochloric acid in order to achieve hydrolysis of naringin to naringenin. The hydrolysis parameters were optimized by using a half-fraction factorial central composite design (CCD). After sample preparation, chromatographic separation was obtained on a Chiralcel® OJ-RH column using the mobile phase consisting of 10mM aqueous ammonium acetate:methanol:acetonitrile (50:30:20; v/v/v) with detection at 288nm. The average recovery of the analyzed compounds ranged from 85.6 to 97.1%. The proposed method was satisfactorily used for the determination of naringenin enantiomers in various fruit juices samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salting-Out Assisted Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Quantification of Febuxostat in Plasma Using RP-HPLC and Its Pharmacokinetic Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, Devang; Shah, Purvi; Patel, Kalpana; Thakkar, Vaishali; Patel, Kirti; Gandhi, Tejal

    2016-11-01

    A rapid and sensitive reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method using novel salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction technique has been developed for the quantitative determination of febuxostat (FEB), used for the treatment of gout, in rat plasma. The method was validated according to US FDA guideline. Separation was achieved using a Phenomenex Luna-C 18 (250 × 4.60 mm, 5 µm) column and mobile phase composed of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer 25 mM, adjusted to pH 6.8 with triethylamine:methanol in a ratio of 35:65 (v/v) showing retention time 5.56 and 8.86 min for FEB and internal standard, respectively. The optimal salting-out parameters; 1 mL of acetonitrile and 200 µL of 2 M ammonium acetate salt showed extraction recovery >90% for FEB from plasma. This extraction procedure afforded clear samples resulting in convenient and cost-saving procedure and showed good linear relationship (r > 0.9997) between peak area ratio and concentration from 0.3 to 20 µg/mL. The results of pharmacokinetic study showed that absorption profile of spherical agglomerate of FEB compared to marketed formulation was higher indicating greater systemic absorption. In conclusion, the developed SALLE-HPLC method with simple ultraviolet detection offered a number of advantages including good quantitative ability, wide linear range, high recovery, short analysis time as well as low cost. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of the type of ammonium salt on the extractive desulfurization of fuels using deep eutectic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warrag, Samah E.E.; Adeyemi, Idowu; Rodriguez, Nerea R.; Nashef, Inas M.; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Kroon, Maaike C.; Peters, Cor J.

    2018-01-01

    In a previous work, we proved that the deep eutectic solvents (DESs) consisting of mixtures of tetraalkylammonium salts with polyols are promising candidates for oil desulfurization based on the obtained liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data. In this study, the capability of DESs containing other

  14. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Prospects for methane production and nutrient recycling from lipid extracted residues and whole Nannochloropsis salina using anaerobic digestion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohutskyi, Pavlo; Chow, Steven; Ketter, Ben; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Bouwer, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Semi-continuous AD of untreated and enzymatically pretreated lipid extracted algae. • Coupled biodiesel and methane process yields 40% more energy than biodiesel alone. • Thermal pretreatment (150–170 °C) of whole algae was more effective than enzymatic. • Addition of 5% of AD effluent was optimal to support high growth of Nannochloropsis. • AD effluent can partly replace chemical fertilizer for algal growth. - Abstract: Sustainable mass production of algal biofuels requires a reduction in nutrient demand and efficient conversion into fuels of all biomass including lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA). This study evaluated methane production, nutrient recovery and recycling from untreated and enzymatically pretreated Nannochloropsis LEA using semi-continuous anaerobic digestion (AD). Additionally, this process was compared to methane generation from whole Nannochloropsis alga (WA) and thermally pretreated WA. The methane production from untreated LEA and WA reached up to 0.22 L and 0.24 L per gram of biomass volatile solids (VS), respectively, corresponding to only 36–38% of the theoretical potential. Additionally, observed VS reduction was only 40–50% confirming biomass recalcitrance to biodegradation. While enzymatic treatment hydrolyzed up to 65% of the LEA polysaccharides, the methane production increased by only 15%. Alternatively, WA thermal pretreatment at 150–170 °C enhanced methane production up to 40%. Overall, an integrated process of lipid conversion into biodiesel coupled with LEA conversion into methane generates nearly 40% more energy compared to methane production from WA, and about 100% more energy than from biodiesel alone. Additionally, the AD effluent contained up to 60–70% of the LEA phosphorus content, 30–50% of the nitrogen, sulfur, calcium and boron, 20% of the iron and cobalt, and 10% of manganese, zinc and copper, which can partially replace chemical fertilizers during algal cultivation. Consequently

  16. Screening of Salt-stress, Antioxidant Enzyme, and Antimicrobial Activity of Leave extracts of Mangroves Avicennia marina L. from Hodaidah, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A. Al Maqtari

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the salinity stress, antioxidant enzyme and antimicrobial activities of leaf extract of Avicennia marinawere investigated. As visualized from SDS-PAGE, no differences was found in number of protein band, but the intensities of several protein bands having apparent molecular mass by reduced severely in salt treated samples with enhanced activities of CAT, POX and GPX. Escherichia coli (ATCC8739, Staphylococus aureus (ATCC 6538, and Bacillus subtilis (ATCC6633 and fungus (Candida albicans ATCC 2091, and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404 were used as the test pathogenic bacteria and fungi, respectively in this study. The Avicennia marina extract possessed antibacterial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis (12, 6, and 7 mm respectively, with antifungal activity against C. albicans and A. niger (9 and 10 mm.

  17. Separation of Np from U and Pu using a salt-free reductant for Np(VI) by continuous counter-current back-extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Yasutoshi; Asakura, Toshihide; Morita, Yasuji

    2005-01-01

    Reduction properties of several salt-free reagents for Np(VI) and Pu(IV) were reviewed to choose selective reductants that reduce only Np(VI) to Np(V) for separating Np from U and Pu in TBP by reductive back-extraction. Allylhydrazine was proposed as a candidate for selective Np(VI) reductant, and it was confirmed by a batch experiment that allylhydrazine reduced almost all Np(VI) to Np(V) and back-extracted Np from organic phase (30 vol.% TBP diluted in n-dodecane) to aqueous phase (3 mol/dm 3 HNO 3 ) within 10 min. A continuous counter-current experiment using a miniature mixer-settler was carried out with allylhydrazine at room temperature. At least 91% of Np(VI) that fed to the mixer-settler was selectively reduced to Np(V) and separated from U and Pu. (author)

  18. Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid liquid-liquid micro-extraction for determination of sulfonamides in blood by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhongling; Yu, Wei; Zhang, Hanqi; Gu, Fanbin; Jin, Xiangqun

    2016-12-01

    Salting-out homogenous extraction followed by ionic liquid/ionic liquid dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction system was developed and applied to the extraction of sulfonamides in blood. High-performance liquid chromatography was applied to the determination of the analytes. The blood sample was centrifuged to obtain the serum. After the proteins in the serum were removed in the presence of acetonitrile, ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, ionic liquid 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were added into the resulting solution. After the resulting mixture was ultrasonically shaken and centrifuged, the precipitate was separated. The acetonitrile was added in the precipitate and the analytes were extracted into the acetonitrile phase. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency, such as volume of ionic liquid, amount of dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, volume of dispersant, extraction time and temperature were investigated. The limits of detection of sulfamethizole (STZ), sulfachlorpyridazine (SCP), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and Sulfisoxazole (SSZ) were 4.78, 3.99, 5.21 and 3.77μgL -1 , respectively. When the present method was applied to the analysis of real blood samples, the recoveries of analytes ranged from 90.0% to 113.0% and relative standard deviations were lower than 7.2%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Search for plutonium salt deposits in the plutonium extraction batteries of the Marcoule plant (1963); Recherche de depots de sels de plutonium dans les batteries d'extraction du plutonium de l'usine de Marcoule (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzigues, H; Reneaud, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Production de Plutonium, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This report describes a method and a special apparatus making it possible to detach the insoluble plutonium salt deposits in the extraction chain of an irradiated fuel treatment plant. The process chosen allows the detection, in the extraction batteries or in the highly active chemical engineering equipment, of plutonium quantities of a few grains. After four years operation it has been impossible to detect measurable quantities of plutonium in any part of the extraction chain. The results have been confirmed by visual examinations carried out with a specially constructed endoscope. (authors) [French] Ce rapport decrit une methode et un montage special permettant de detacher les accumulations de sels de plutonium insolubles dans les chaines d'extraction d'une usine de traitement de combustible irradie. Le procede retenu permet de reperer, dans des batteries d'extraction ou dans l'appareillage de genie chimique fortement actif, des masses de plutonium de quelques grammes. Apres quatre annees de fonctionnement, il n'a pas ete possible de deceler des quantites ponderables de plutonium en aucun endroit de la chaine d'extraction. Ces resultats ont ete confirmes par les examens visuels effectues a l'aide d'un endoscope concu specialement pour cet usage. (auteurs)

  20. Aluminothermic Reduction-Molten Salt Electrolysis Using Inert Anode for Oxygen and Al-Base Alloy Extraction from Lunar Soil Simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaiyu; Shi, Zhongning; Xu, Junli; Hu, Xianwei; Gao, Bingliang; Wang, Zhaowen

    2017-10-01

    Aluminothermic reduction-electrolysis using an inert anode process is proposed to extract oxygen and metals from Minnesota Lunar Simulant-1 (MLS-1). Effective aluminothermic reduction between dissolved MLS-1 and dissolved metal aluminum was achieved in cryolite salt media. The product phases obtained by aluminothermic reduction at 980°C for 4 h were Al, Si, and Al5FeSi, while the chemical components were 79.71 mass% aluminum, 12.03 mass% silicon, 5.91 mass% iron, and 2.35 mass% titanium. The cryolite salt containing Al2O3 was subsequently electrolyzed with Fe0.58-Ni0.42 inert anode at 960°C for 4 h. Oxygen was evolved at the anode with an anodic current efficiency of 78.28%. The results demonstrate that this two-step process is remarkably feasible for the extraterrestrial extraction of oxygen and metals. This process will help expand the existing in situ resource utilization methods.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF PYRETHROID RESIDUES IN ENVIRONMENTAL AND FOOD SAMPLES BY ENHANCED SOLVENT EXTRACTION/SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION COUPLED WITH GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The abstract summarizes pyrethorid methods development research. It provides a summary of sample preparation and analytical techniques such as supercritical fluid extraction, enhance solvent extraction, gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

  2. Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Leaves and Fruit Residues of Brazilian Savanna Plants Aiming Its Use as Safe Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Caroline Alves; Gasperini, Alessandra Marcon; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide.

  3. Molten salt reactors: chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This work is a critical analysis of the 1000 MW MSBR project. Behavior of rare gases in the primary coolant circuit, their extraction from helium. Coating of graphite by molybdenum, chemistry of protactinium and niobium produced in the molten salt, continuous reprocessing of the fuel salt and use of stainless steel instead of hastelloy are reviewed [fr

  4. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affonso, Regina Celis Lopes; Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result ( p coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  5. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  6. Rapid trace level determination of sulfonamide residues in honey with online extraction using short C-18 column by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad; Na, Na; Safdar, Muhammad; Lu, Xin; Ma, Lin; He, Lan; Ouyang, Jin

    2013-11-01

    A sensitive and inexpensive quantification method with online extraction using a short C-18 column for sulfonamide residues in honey by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector was developed and validated. In sample preparation, acid hydrolysis was used to break the N-glycoside bond between the honey sugar and sulfonamide drugs and derivatization of sulfonamide residues with fluorescamine was conducted at pH 3.5 using a citrate buffer (0.5M) in the honey matrix. The chromatography was carried out on Zorbax Extended C-18 (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column, using a mixture of acetonitrile and an acetate buffer (pH 4.50, 20mM) as a mobile phase. A Zorbax Extended C-18 (12mm×4.6mm; 5μm) column was used for online extraction of fifteen sulfonamide residues from honey sample with the help of a two position valve. The limit of quantification of sulfonamide residues in honey was less than 3ngg(-1), and the percentage recovery of study compounds in spiked honey sample was from 80% for sulfacetamide to 100% of sulfachloropyridazine. The developed method has excellent linearity for all studied sulfonamides with a correlation coefficient 0.993. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy-metal extraction from sewage sludge using phosphorous-based salts: optimization process with Na2H2P2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, Milagros; Ortega-López, Vanesa; Lópéz-Fernández, Juana I; Amo-Salas, Mariano; González-Carcedo, Salvador

    2017-09-01

    Land application is one of the important disposal alternatives for sewage sludge, but availability of potential toxic metals often restricts its uses. Three phosphorous-based salts (Na 2 H 2 P 2 O 7 , K 4 P 2 O 7 , KH 2 PO 4 ) were studied as potential metal extractants. The conclusions of the research were that greater extractive efficiency is achieved through a 30-min process of vertical shaking with disodium diacid pyrophosphate - Na 2 H 2 P 2 O 7 - at a concentration of 0.2 M at pH 2. Alternatively, the optimized process with oscillating shaking equipment would require 60 min. In both cases the average of set of extracted metals is around 50%. A second extraction process with potassium pyrophosphate - K 4 P 2 O 7 at pH 6 achieved the reduction of further total amounts of metal, upper 65% with respect to the initial content. In this way the sludge could be used in land applications, with restrictions on each soil, according to the limit values specified in the future regulations.

  8. Salt taste adaptation: the psychophysical effects of adapting solutions and residual stimuli from prior tastings on the taste of sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, M

    1979-01-01

    The paper reviews how adaptation to sodium chloride, changing in concentration as a result of various experimental procedures, affects measurements of the sensitivity, intensity, and quality of the salt taste. The development of and evidence for the current model that the salt taste depends on an adaptation level (taste zero) determined by the sodium cation concentration is examined and found to be generally supported, despite great methodological complications. It would seem that lower adaptation levels elicit lower thresholds, higher intensity estimates, and altered quality descriptions with predictable effects on psychophysical measures.

  9. Structural Characterization and Antioxidative Activity of Low-Molecular-Weights Beta-1,3-Glucan from the Residue of Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Feng Kao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major cell wall constituent of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is β-1,3-glucan. This study examined the polysaccharide from the residues of alkaline-extracted fruiting bodies using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC, and it employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS to confirm the structures. We have successfully isolated low-molecular-weight β-1,3-glucan (LMG, in high yields, from the waste residue of extracted fruiting bodies of G. lucidum. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay evaluated the capability of LMG to suppress H2O2-induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells, identifying that LMG protected cells from H2O2-induced damage. LMG treatment decreased H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. LMG also influenced sphingomyelinase (SMase activity, stimulated by cell death to induce ceramide formation, and then increase cell ROS production. Estimation of the activities of neutral and acid SMases in vitro showed that LMG suppressed the activities of both neutral and acid SMases in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LMG, a water-soluble β-1,3-glucan recycled from extracted residue of G. lucidum, possesses antioxidant capability against H2O2-induced cell death by attenuating intracellular ROS and inhibiting SMase activity.

  10. Investigation of the long-term behaviour of residues of brown coal upgrading processes in an underground deposit in the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining. Text volume. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Residues of brown coal upgrading processes are problematic substances that require extensive monitoring. In East Germany, these residues were usually stored above ground in abandoned open pits and industrial waste dumps. In the Land of Thuringia, the most urgent poblems are posed by the ''Neue Sorge'' abandoned open pit near Rositz and the Rusendorf industrial waste dump. In both cases, large volumes of highly polluted waste materials must be disposed of. The method of choice recommended for disposal is the combustion in a hazardous-waste incinerator in accordance with the specifications of the Waste Management Technical Guide (TA Abfall). Preliminary studies are currently being made for the construction of a waste incinerating plant in this region. An alternative option for disposal would be underground storage in an abandoned salt mine. Thuringia has a number of abandoned potassium mines that appear to be well suited for this purpose. On the other hand, there have been no systematic investigations so far on the long-term behaviour of hazardous waste under the geogenic conditions of potassium and rock salt mining, so that further studies will be necessary. (orig.)

  11. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan

    2017-03-06

    Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration ( X ₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time ( X ₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature ( X ₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC 50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve

  12. Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected penicillin antibiotic residues from intact milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Michaelidou, Katia; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a novel sorbent-based microextraction method, was evaluated as a simple and rapid strategy for the extraction of four penicillin antibiotic residues (benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) from cows' milk, without prior protein precipitation. Time-consuming solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps were eliminated successfully from the sample preparation workflow. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric substrate, chemically coated with sol-gel derived, highly efficient, organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent as the extraction medium. Herein short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) provided optimum extraction sensitivity for the selected penicillins, which were analysed using an RP-HPLC method, validated according to the European Decision 657/2002/EC. The limit of quantitation was 10μg/kg for benzylpenicillin, 20μg/kg for cloxacillin, 25μg/kg dicloxacillin and 30μg/kg oxacillin. These are a similar order of magnitude with those reported in the literature and (with the exception of benzylpenicillin) are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by European legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pesticide Residues in Canned Foods, Fruits, and Vegetables: The Application of Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Chromatographic Techniques in the Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    EL-Saeid, Mohamed H.

    2003-01-01

    Multiple pesticide residues have been observed in some samples of canned foods, frozen vegetables, and fruit jam, which put the health of the consumers at risk of adverse effects. It is quite apparent that such a state of affairs calls for the need of more accurate, cost-effective, and rapid analytical techniques capable of detecting the minimum concentrations of the multiple pesticide residues. The aims of this paper were first, to determine the effectiveness of the use of Supercritical Flui...

  14. Impacts of Extraction Methods in the Rapid Determination of Atrazine Residues in Foods using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: Microwave Solvent vs. Supercritical Fluid Extractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Saeid

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is an accepted fact that many food products that we eat today have the possibility of being contaminated by various chemicals used from planting to processing. These chemicals have been shown to cause illnesses for which some concerned government agencies have instituted regulatory mechanisms to minimize the risks and the effects on humans. It is for these concerns that reliable and accurate rapid determination techniques are needed to effect proper regulatory standards for the protection of people's nutritional health. This paper, therefore, reports the comparative evaluation of the extraction methods in the determination of atrazine (commonly used in agricultural as a herbicide residues in foods using supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA techniques. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE and microwave solvent extraction (MSE methods were used to test samples of frozen vegetables, fruit juice, and jam from local food markets in Houston. Results showed a high recovery percentage of atrazine residues using supercritical fluid coupled with ELISA and SFC than with MSE. Comparatively, however, atrazine was detected 90.9 and 54.5% using SFC and ELISA techniques, respectively. ELISA technique was, however, less time consuming, lower in cost, and more sensitive with low detection limit of atrazine residues than SFC technique.

  15. Evaluation of bi-functionalized mesoporous silicas as reversed phase/cation-exchange mixed-mode sorbents for multi-residue solid phase extraction of veterinary drug residues in meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Sierra, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    A SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthesized and bi-functionalized with octadecylsilane (C18) or octylsilane (C8), and sulfonic acid (SO 3 - ) groups in order to obtain materials with reversed-phase/strong cation-exchange mixed-mode retention mechanism. The resulting hybrid materials (SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - and SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - ) were comprehensively characterized. They showed high surface area, high pore volume and controlled porous size. Elemental analysis of the materials revealed differences in the amount of C18 and C8. SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - contained 0.19mmol/g of C18, while SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - presented 0.54mmol/g of C8. The SO 3 - groups anchored to the silica surface of the pore walls were 0.20 and 0.09mmol/g, respectively. The bi-functionalized materials were evaluated as SPE sorbents for the multi-residue extraction of 26 veterinary drug residues in meat samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-MS/MS). Different sorbent amounts (100 and 200mg) and organic solvents were tested to optimize the extraction procedure. Both silicas showed big extraction potential and were successful in the extraction of the target analytes. The mixed-mode retention mechanism was confirmed by comparing both silicas with SBA-15 mesoporous silica mono-functionalized with C18 and C8. Best results were achieved with 200mg of SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - obtaining recoveries higher than 70% for the majority of analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of different types of coatings in headspace solid phase micro extraction for the analysis of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Mee Kin; Tan, Guan Huat

    2008-01-01

    Despite the continuing development of solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) fiber coatings, their selection presents some difficulties for analytes in choosing the appropriate fiber for a particular application. There are many types of SPME coatings available commercially. The most widely used for determination of pesticide residues in vegetable and fruits are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyacrylate (PA). A headspace solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) procedure using these two commercialized fibers (PDMS and PA) is presented for the determination of selected groups of organo chlorine and organophosphorus pesticides. The extraction performances of these compounds were compared using these two fibers. The optimal experimental procedures for the adsorption and desorption of pesticides were determined. An explanation for the extraction differences is suggested based on the different thickness, polarity of the polymeric film of fibers and the different extracting matrices. In addition, the higher detector response of the pesticides after addition of aliquots of water and an organic solvent to the vegetable and fruit samples are also discussed. The SPME fibers were reusable until a maximum of 120 extractions. Finally, the optimized procedures were applied successfully for the determination of these compounds in vegetable and fruits samples. Mean recoveries for all pesticides were between 75.0-97 % with RSD below 7 %. (author)

  17. Liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes of cobalt(II-4-(2-pyridylazoresorcinol with ditetrazolium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divarova Vidka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation and liquid-liquid extraction of ion-association complexes between Co(II-4-(2-Pyridylazoresorcinol (PAR anionic chelates and cations of three ditetrazolium chlorides were studied: Blue Tetrazolium chloride (BTC, Neotetrazolium chloride (NTC and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium chloride (NBT. The optimum conditions for the formation and solvent extraction of the ion-association comlpex chelates were determined. It has been found that in the systems of Co(II-PAR-DTS, the reactants are reacted in molar ratios 1:2:1 and the general formula of complexes was suggested. The extraction equilibria were investigated and quantitatively characterized by the equilibrium constants and the recovery factors. The analytical characteristics of the complexes were calculated.

  18. Adaption of the microbial community to continuous exposures of multiple residual antibiotics in sediments from a salt-water aquacultural farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiuping; Wang, Min; Chen, Yongshan; Yu, Shen; Hong, Youwei; Ma, Jun; Wu, Qian; Lin, Qiaoyin; Xu, Xiangrong

    2015-06-15

    Residual antibiotics from aquacultural farming may alter microbial community structure in aquatic environments in ways that may adversely or positively impact microbially-mediated ecological functions. This study investigated 26 ponds (26 composited samples) used to produce fish, razor clam and shrimp (farming and drying) and 2 channels (10 samples) in a saltwater aquacultural farm in southern China to characterize microbial community structure (represented by phospholipid fatty acids) in surface sediments (0-10 cm) with long-term exposure to residual antibiotics. 11 out of 14 widely-used antibiotics were quantifiable at μg kg(-1) levels in sediments but their concentrations did not statistically differ among ponds and channels, except norfloxacin in drying shrimp ponds and thiamphenicol in razor clam ponds. Concentrations of protozoan PLFAs were significantly increased in sediments from razor clam ponds while other microbial groups were similar among ponds and channels. Both canonical-correlation and stepwise-multiple-regression analyses on microbial community and residual antibiotics suggested that roxithromycin residuals were significantly related to shifts in microbial community structure in sediments. This study provided field evidence that multiple residual antibiotics at low environmental levels from aquacultural farming do not produce fundamental shifts in microbial community structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Preliminary phytochemical screening, antifungal and cytotoxic activities of leaves extract of moringa oleifera lam. from salt range, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, M.; Qureshi, R.; Arshad, M.; Ahmed, M.E.; Ikram, M.

    2017-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a miraculous plant that endowed with variety of medicinal properties and traditionally used as herbal drug as well as nutraceutical agent. There is sporadic information on phytochemical and antifungal activity of various solvents based leaves extracts. Therefore, the present study was designed to explore In vitro antifungal activity of M. oleifera leaves against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. niger and Candida albicans at four different concentrations (50-300 mg/ml) by ager well diffusion method. Leaves of this plant were collected from the Thal Desert, Pakistan, dried under shade, powdered and kept in air tight sterilized bottles. Polarity based solvent extraction of powdered samples were carried out with different solvents. The ethanolic and methanolic extracts were found the most effective against all selected fungal strains. The maximum zone of inhibition was recorded in the case of methanolic leaves extract (16 mm) against A. niger at a concentration of 300 mg/ml, which was at par to the standard antibiotic. Methanolic extract showed the highest MIC value (70 mg/ml) against A. niger. There was very strong activity in terms of IC50 against MCF-7, INS-1, RG2 and HeLa (<5 mu gmL-1). The quantitative phytochemical analysis revealed that leaves possessed high amount of flavonoids (21.76+-0.68), followed tannins (14.3+-0.26), saponins (12.56+-0.51) and alkaloids (2.4+-0.85). This piece of research would be used as benchmark to carry-out further detailed study ranging from isolation, characterization, pharmacological diagnosis and clinical trials prior to launching marketable drug. (author)

  20. Novel method for the rapid and specific extraction of multiple β2 -agonist residues in food by tailor-made Monolith-MIPs extraction disks and detection by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Gan, Ning; Chen, Yinji; Ding, Qingqing; Huang, Jie; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua

    2016-09-01

    A quick and specific pretreatment method based on a series of extraction clean-up disks, consisting of molecularly imprinted polymer monoliths and C18 adsorbent, was developed for the specific enrichment of salbutamol and clenbuterol residues in food. The molecularly imprinted monolithic polymer disk was synthesized using salbutamol as a template through a one-step synthesis process. It can simultaneously and specifically recognize salbutamol and clenbuterol. The monolithic polymer disk and series of C18 disks were assembled with a syringe to form a set of tailor-made devices for the extraction of target molecules. In a single run, salbutamol and clenbuterol can be specifically extracted, cleaned, and eluted by methanol/acetic acid/H2 O. The target molecules, after a silylation derivatization reaction were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The parameters including solvent desorption, sample pH, and the cycles of reloading were investigated and discussed. Under the optimized extraction and clean-up conditions, the limits of detection and quantitation were determined as 0.018-0.022 and 0.042-0.049 ng/g for salbutamol and clenbuterol, respectively. The assay described was convenient, rapid, and specific; thereby potentially efficient in the high-throughput analysis of β2 -agonists residues in real food samples. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Rece...

  2. Development of QuEChERS-based extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantifying flumethasone residues in beef muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Hun; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Abd El-Aty, A M; Cho, Soon-Kil; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Kwon, Ki Sung; Park, Hee Ra; Kim, Hyung Soo; Shin, Ho-Chul; Kim, Mi Ra; Shim, Jae-Han

    2012-12-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in the positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) was developed and validated to quantify flumethasone residues in beef muscle. Methods were compared between the original as well as the EN quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS)-based extraction. Good linearity was achieved at concentration levels of 5-30 μg/kg. Estimated recovery rates at spiking levels of 5 and 10 μg/kg ranged from 72.1 to 84.6%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs)noise ratios (S/Ns) of 3 and 10, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze real samples obtained from large markets throughout the Korean Peninsula. The method proved to be sensitive and reliable and, thus, rendered an appropriate means for residue analysis studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of residual oxygen-15-labeled carbon monoxide radioactivity on cerebral blood flow and oxygen extraction fraction in a dual-tracer autoradiographic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanishi, Katsuhiro; Watabe, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Takuya; Miyake, Yoshinori; Minato, Kotaro; Iida, Hidehiro

    2009-06-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV) are quantitatively measured with PET with (15)O gases. Kudomi et al. developed a dual tracer autoradiographic (DARG) protocol that enables the duration of a PET study to be shortened by sequentially administrating (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) gases. In this protocol, before the sequential PET scan with (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) gases ((15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan), a PET scan with C(15)O should be preceded to obtain CBV image. C(15)O has a high affinity for red blood cells and a very slow washout rate, and residual radioactivity from C(15)O might exist during a (15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan. As the current DARG method assumes no residual C(15)O radioactivity before scanning, we performed computer simulations to evaluate the influence of the residual C(15)O radioactivity on the accuracy of measured CBF and OEF values with DARG method and also proposed a subtraction technique to minimize the error due to the residual C(15)O radioactivity. In the simulation, normal and ischemic conditions were considered. The (15)O(2) and C(15)O(2) PET count curves with the residual C(15)O PET counts were generated by the arterial input function with the residual C(15)O radioactivity. The amounts of residual C(15)O radioactivity were varied by changing the interval between the C(15)O PET scan and (15)O(2)-C(15)O(2) PET scan, and the absolute inhaled radioactivity of the C(15)O gas. Using the simulated input functions and the PET counts, the CBF and OEF were computed by the DARG method. Furthermore, we evaluated a subtraction method that subtracts the influence of the C(15)O gas in the input function and PET counts. Our simulations revealed that the CBF and OEF values were underestimated by the residual C(15)O radioactivity. The magnitude of this underestimation depended on the amount of C(15)O radioactivity and the physiological conditions. This underestimation

  5. Leaching of APC residues from secondary Pb metallurgy using single extraction tests: the mineralogical and the geochemical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Strnad, Ladislav

    2005-05-20

    Two air-pollution-control (APC) residues--one from flue gas cooling with alkaline water and one from deionized water cooling--from secondary lead metallurgy were submitted to two different standardized short-term leaching protocols: US EPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) and static leaching according to Czech/European norm EN 12457-2. The experimental procedure was coupled with detailed mineralogical investigation of the solid material (SEM, XRPD) and speciation-solubility calculations using the PHREEQC-2 geochemical code. Both types of residues were considered as hazardous materials exhibiting substantial leaching of Pb (up to 7130 mg/l) and other inorganic contaminants. However, the APC residue produced by flue gas cooling with alkaline water (sample B) exhibits more favourable leaching and environmental characteristics than that produced by simple deionised water cooling (sample A). At pH 6, phosgenite (PbCl2.PbCO3) became the dominant secondary phase. The results are consistent with the mineralogical and geochemical studies focused on acidic forest soils highly polluted by smelter emissions, where anglesite, as a unique Pb-bearing phase, has been detected. From the technological point of view, the mixing of APC residue with alkaline water, followed by an increase in the suspension pH and equilibration with atmospheric CO2, may be used to ensure the precipitation of less soluble Pb carbonates, which are more easily recycled in the Pb recovery process in the metallurgical plant.

  6. Simple and sensitive monitoring of sulfonamide veterinary residues in milk by stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolithic material and high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Qiu, Ningning; Yuan, Dongxing

    2009-11-13

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the quantitative monitoring of five sulfonamide antibacterial residues (SAs) in milk was developed by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupling to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The analytes were concentrated by SBSE based on poly (vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) monolithic material as coating. The extraction procedure was very simple, milk was diluted with water then directly sorptive extraction without elimination of fats and protein in samples was required. To achieve optimum extraction performance for SAs, several parameters, including extraction and desorption time, desorption solvent, ionic strength and pH value of sample matrix were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target compounds were achieved within the range of 1.30-7.90 ng/mL and 4.29-26.3 ng/mL from spiked milk, respectively. Good linearities were obtained for SAs with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.996. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs compounds in different milk samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained.

  7. Optimization of Phenolics Extracted from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue and Its Antioxidant and Depigmenting Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of phenolics from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue was optimized by the maximization of the yield in total phenolics, using the response surface methodology. The optimized conditions were 50% ethanol, 5 h extraction time, 1 : 40 liquid to solid ratio, and 80°C extraction temperature. The experimental average total phenolics yield was 54.49±4.26 mg/g. These antioxidant properties of phenolics were comprehensively analyzed for the first time. All the extracts not only demonstrated the significant free radical scavenging activities and metal chelating activity but also inhibited lipid, lipoprotein peroxidation and revealed reducing power activity. Ethyl acetate extraction (EAE also inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value of the skin of C57BL/6 mice, indicating its potential use for skin hyperpigmentation in humans. The results of cell experiments showed EAE could strongly inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity, which had led to the decrease of melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Overall, EAE is an excellent natural antioxidant and depigmenting agent, which can be developed as a new food additive, medicine, and cosmetic.

  8. Determination of antibiotic residues in southern Baltic Sea sediments using tandem solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Siedlewicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to adapt analytical procedures for determining antibiotic residues in solid and aquatic samples to marine sediments and to investigate the occurrence of 9 sulfonamides, trimethoprim and 2 quinolones in southern Baltic Sea sediments. The analytical procedure was applied to sediment samples characterized as sand and silty sand. The validation results showed that a sensitive and efficient method applying tandem solid-phase extraction (SPE and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS was obtained. Analytes were determined in the lower ng g−1 range with good accuracy and precision. The proposed analytical procedure was applied to the analysis of 13 sediment samples collected from the Baltic Sea along the Polish coast. Concentrations of antibiotic residues in environmental samples were calculated based on external matrix-matched calibration. Residues of nine out of twelve of the above antibiotics were detected in sediment samples in a concentrations of up to 419.2 ng g−1 d.w. (dry weight. Sulfamethoxazole and sulfachloropyridazine were the most frequently detected compounds (58% of the analyzed samples. The occurrence frequency of trimethoprim was 42% and it was always detected simultaneously with sulfamethoxazole. Preliminary studies on the spatial distribution of the analyzed antibiotics indicate a high level of antibiotics occurring in the Pomeranian Bay and close to the mouths of Polish rivers. The study is the first one to demonstrate the occurrence of antibiotic residues in sediments of the Polish coastal area. The obtained results suggest that sediment can be an important secondary source of antibiotic residues in the marine environment.

  9. Simple and rapid determination of 5-nitroimidazoles and metabolites in fish roe samples by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2018-06-30

    A novel multiresidue method is proposed for the determination of 12 5-nitroimidazoles and their metabolites in fish roe samples using UHPLC-MS/MS. A salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction procedure was performed prior to sample analysis. The separation of compounds was accomplished using a C18 Zorbax Eclipse Plus column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.8 µm) at 25 °C and a mobile phase consisting of 0.025% (v/v) aqueous formic acid and pure MeOH at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Parameters involved in ionization and fragmentation were also optimized. The method was characterized in terms of linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.9992), extraction efficiency (≥68.9%), repeatability (RSD ≤ 9.8%), reproducibility (RSD ≤ 13.9%) and trueness (recoveries ≥81.4%). Decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) were obtained in the ranges 0.1-1.0 and 0.2-1.7 µg/kg, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary design studies of the draining tanks for the Molten Salt Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merle-Lucotte, E.; Allibert, M.; Heuer, D.; Brovchenko, M.; Laureau, A.; Ghetta, V.; Rubiolo, P.

    2014-01-01

    reactor called the Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR). The reference MSFR design is a 3000 MWth reactor with a total fuel salt volume of 18 m3, operated at a mean fuel temperature of 750 deg. C. The first confinement barrier of the reactor includes a salt draining system. In case of a planned reactor shut down or in case of accidents leading to an excessive increase of the temperature in the fuel circuit, the fuel configuration may be changed passively by gravitational draining of the fuel salt in dedicated draining tank located under the reactor and designed to provide adequate reactivity margins while insuring a passive cooling of the fuel salt to extract the residual heat from the short to the long term. The present preliminary assessment of this sub-critical draining system has been performed to identify the physical constraints and to give some orders of magnitude of characteristic time periods (authors)

  11. Design of a natural draft air-cooled condenser and its heat transfer characteristics in the passive residual heat removal system for 10 MW molten salt reactor experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Hangbin; Yan, Changqi; Sun, Licheng; Zhao, Kaibin; Fa, Dan

    2015-01-01

    As one of the Generation IV reactors, Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) has its superiorities in satisfying the requirements on safety. In order to improve its inherent safety, a concept of passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS) for the 10 MW Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) was put forward, which mainly consisted of a fuel drain tank, a feed water tank and a natural draft air-cooled condenser (NDACC). Besides, several valves and pipes are also included in the PRHRS. A NDACC for the PRHRS was preliminarily designed in this paper, which contained a finned tube bundle and a chimney. The tube bundle was installed at the bottom of the chimney for increasing the velocity of the air across the bundle. The heat transfer characteristics of the NDACC were investigated by developing a model of the PRHRS using C++ code. The effects of the environmental temperature, finned tube number and chimney height on heat removal capacity of the NDACC were analyzed. The results show that it has sufficient heat removal capacity to meet the requirements of the residual heat removal for MSRE. The effects of these three factors are obvious. With the decay heat reducing, the heat dissipation power declines after a short-time rise in the beginning. The operation of the NDACC is completely automatic without the need of any external power, resulting in a high safety and reliability of the reactor, especially once the accident of power lost occurs to the power plant. - Highlights: • A model to study the heat transfer characteristics of the NDACC was developed. • The NDACC had sufficient heat removal capacity to remove the decay heat of MSRE. • NDACC heat dissipation power depends on outside temperature and condenser geometry. • As time grown, the effects of outside temperature and condenser geometry diminish. • The NDACC could automatically adjust its heat removal capacity

  12. Extraction of valuable compounds from agro-residues of elder (Sambus nigra), pine (Pinus pinaster) and tara (Caesalpinia spinosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Seabra, Inês José Abrantes de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Engenharia Química (Processos Químicos) apresentada à Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra Agricultural processing inevitably goes along with the production of large amounts of agro-residues, which may represent a major waste disposal problem. Legislation regulating the management of waste materials has appeared throughout the European Union and has significantly contributed to the introduction of sustainable waste management proced...

  13. Special licorice extracts containing lowered glycyrrhizin and enhanced licochalcone A prevented Helicobacter pylori-initiated, salt diet-promoted gastric tumorigenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Hong, Kyung-Sook; Han, Young-Min; Jang, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2014-06-01

    In spite of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions, conventional licorice extracts (c-lico) were limitedly used due to serious side effects of glycyrrhizin. As our group had successfully isolated special licorice extracts (s-lico) lowering troublesome glycyrrhizin, but increasing licochalcone A, we have compared anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective actions of s-lico and c-lico against either in vitro or in vivo Helicobacter pylori infection. RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to check anti-inflammatory action and electron spin resonance (ESR) and DCFDA spectroscopy to check antioxidative action. s-lico or c-lico was pretreated 1 hours before H. pylori infection on AGS cells. Interleukin-10 deficient mice inoculated H. pylori and followed with high salt containing pallet diets to produce H. pylori-associated chronic atrophic gastritis and gastric tumors, during which s-lico or c-lico-containing pellet diets were administered up to 24 weeks. s-lico had fabulous efficacy on scavenging ROS which was further confirmed by DCFDA study and ESR measurement. The expressions of COX-2, iNOS, VEGF, and IL-8 were increased after H. pylori infection, of which levels were significantly decreased with s-lico in a dose-dependent manner. s-lico significantly ameliorated hypoxia-induced or H. pylori-induced angiogenic activities. s-lico significantly ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastric damages as well as gastritis. Our animal model showed significant development of gastric tumors including adenoma and dysplasia relevant to H. pylori infection, and s-lico administration significantly attenuated incidence of H. pylori-induced gastric tumorigenesis. Special licorice extracts can be anticipating substance afforded significant attenuation of either H. pylori-induced gastritis or tumorigenesis based on potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antimutagenic actions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl–KCl molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yong-De; Xu, Yan-Lu; Zhang, Mi-Lin; Xue, Yun; Han, Wei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qiong; Zhang, Zhi-Jian

    2013-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl–KCl and LiCl–KCl–AlCl 3 melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al–Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl–KCl–AlCl 3 solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl–KCl–AlCl 3 melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al–Li–Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al 2 Nd and Al 3 Nd phases were formed in Al–Li–Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al–Li–Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively

  15. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick

    2014-01-01

    The use of neonicotinoids as an insecticide group in Ghana has been quite significant particularly in cocoa production. The high usage has been mainly as a result of a government policy of free insecticide spraying on cocoa farms, in an effort to curb declining yields caused by pests and diseases...... and to prevent the use of unapproved or banned insecticides on cocoa farms. However the scale of cocoa farming, the frequency and intensity of usage coupled with the mode of application may result in large physical volumes of insecticides in the environment. This makes the knowledge of the concentration and fate...... of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts...

  16. Clean-up of aqueous acetone vegetable extracts by solid-matrix partition for pyrethroid residue determination by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muccio, A; Barbini, D A; Generali, T; Pelosi, P; Ausili, A; Vergori, F; Camoni, I

    1997-03-21

    Disposable, ready-to-use cartridges filled with macroporous diatomaceous material are used to carry out a partition clean-up that, in a single step, is capable of transferring pesticide residues from aqueous acetone extracts into light petroleum-dichloromethane (75:25, v/v). This procedure takes the place of some functions (such as separatory-funnel partition, drying over anhydrous sodium sulphate and partial adsorption clean-up) usually performed by separate steps in classical schemes. Fourteen pyrethroid pesticides, including tefluthrin, tetramethrin, cyphenothrin, cyfluthrin, flucythrinate, tau-fluvalinate, deltamethrin, bioallethrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate and tralomethrin were determined using the described procedure with satisfactory recoveries for most of them, at spiking levels ranging from 0.08 to 0.82 mg/kg for the different compounds. Crops subjected to the described procedure included strawberry, apple, and orange gave extracts containing a mass of co-extractives that was between 5 and 30 mg. Compared with classical schemes, the described procedure is simple, less labour intensive, allows parallel handling of several extracts and does not require the preparation and maintenance of equipment. Troublesome emulsions such as those frequently observed in separation funnel partitioning do not occur.

  17. A history of salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, M; Capasso, G; Di Leo, V A; De Santo, N G

    1994-01-01

    The medical history of salt begins in ancient times and is closely related to different aspects of human history. Salt may be extracted from sea water, mineral deposits, surface encrustations, saline lakes and brine springs. In many inland areas, wood was used as a fuel source for evaporation of brine and this practice led to major deafforestation in central Europe. Salt played a central role in the economies of many regions, and is often reflected in place names. Salt was also used as a basis for population censuses and taxation, and salt monopolies were practised in many states. Salt was sometimes implicated in the outbreak of conflict, e.g. the French Revolution and the Indian War of Independence. Salt has also been invested with many cultural and religious meanings, from the ancient Egyptians to the Middle Ages. Man's innate appetite for salt may be related to his evolution from predominantly vegetarian anthropoids, and it is noteworthy that those people who live mainly on protein and milk or who drink salty water do not generally salt their food, whereas those who live mainly on vegetables, rice and cereals use much more salt. Medicinal use tended to emphasize the positive aspects of salt, e.g. prevention of putrefaction, reduction of tissue swelling, treatment of diarrhea. Evidence was also available to ancient peoples of its relationship to fertility, particularly in domestic animals. The history of salt thus represents a unique example for studying the impact of a widely used dietary substance on different important aspects of man's life, including medical philosophy.

  18. Comparison between asphaltenes fractions extracted from different asphaltic residue; Comparacao de fracoes de asfaltenos obtidas a partir de residuos asfalticos distintos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreira, Fabio R.; Lucas, Elizabete F., E-mail: fabiorbarreira@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ferreira, Silas R. [Clariant S/A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Asphaltenes are blamed for various problems in the petroleum industry, especially formation of solid deposits and stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Due to the diversity and complexity of these structures, there is still much to be investigated in terms of characterization and stability. In this study, asphaltene subfractions were extracted from an asphaltic residue (AR02), characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), elemental analysis (CHN), X-ray fluorescence and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS-TOF), and compared to previous results obtained for another asphaltic residue. The precipitation onset of (sub)fractions was assessed by optical microscopy. The results obtained indicate there are more differences than similarities between the asphaltene fractions obtained from the asphaltic residues of distinct origins, with respect to aromaticity, elemental composition (CHN), presence and content of hetero elements and average molar mass. On the matter of stability, it seems that small differences in molecules polarity provoke great differences on phase behavior of every isolated asphaltenes fractions. (author)

  19. [Determination of seven strobilurin fungicide residues in Chinese herbs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yule; Huang, Chaoqun; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xiaomei; Mo, Weimin

    2013-03-01

    An LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneously determination of seven strobilurin fungicide residues in Chinese herbs. The strobilurin fungicides include Z-metominostrobin, kresoxim-methyl, dimoxystrobin, picoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin. The sample was extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned-up by an amino SPE column. The seven strobilurin fungicide residues were separated on a C18 column with gradient elution of 1.0 per thousand formic acid and methanol as mobile phases, and detected by ESI-MS in positive ion and selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. External standard method was used to the quantification with good linear relationships (r > or = 0. 996). The LOQs were 2 micro g/kg for dimoxystrobin, picoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin, 4 mciro g/kg for pyraclostrobin and azoxystrobin, 10 micro g/kg for Z-metominostrobin and kresoxim-methyl. The recoveries were from 60.4% to 110% with the RSDs between 1.2% and 17%. The developed method is suitable for the determination and confirmation of the seven strobilurin fungicide residues in the three of Eight Zhes ( Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.), Scrophularia ningpoensis Hemsl. and Corydalis yanhusuo W T Wang).

  20. Determination of six polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jing; Song, Ge; Ai, Lian-Feng; Li, Jian-Chen

    2016-04-01

    A new method using solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed for the determination of six polyether antibiotics, including lasalocid, salinomycin, monensin, narasin, madubamycin and nigericin residues, in foods of animal origin. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified by ENVI-Carb SPE columns after comparing the impurity effect and maneuverability of several SPE cartridges. Subsequently, the analytes were separated on a Hypersil Gold column (2.1×150mm, 5μm) and analyzed by MS/MS detection. The limit of quantization (LOQ) for milk and chicken was 0.4μg/kg, and for chicken livers and eggs, it was 1μg/kg. The linearity was satisfactory with a correlation coefficient of >0.9995 at concentrations ranging from 2 to 100μg/L. The average recoveries of the analytes fortified at three levels ranged from 68.2 to 114.3%, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 12.1%. The method was suitable for quantitative analysis and confirmation of polyether antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaipper, Beatriz I.A.; Madureira, Luiz A.S. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: madureira@qmc.ufsc.br; Corseuil, Henry X. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria

    2001-07-01

    The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianopolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3) for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 {mu}g g{sup -1} ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g{sup -1}. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes. (author)

  2. Use of activated charcoal in a solid-phase extraction technique for analysis of pesticide residues in tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaipper Beatriz I. A.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes extraction and purification methods that were developed to determine and to monitor the content of organophosphorus pesticides in tomato crops from the agricultural district of Florianópolis, Brazil. SPE technique with activated charcoal was used for purification and recovery of the pesticides methamidophos, acephate, malation and methyl parathion. The solvents used for sample extraction and elution were chosen after several comparative tests. Best results were achieved using ethyl acetate for extraction and dichloromethane - ethyl acetate (7:3 for elution. Average recoveries from the matrices fortified with 0.20 to 0.60 mug g-1 ranged from 85.2 to 100 % with overall coefficients of variation of 1.3 to 6.3 %. The limits of detection of the method varied between 0.04 and 0.12 ng g-1. Activated charcoal demonstrated to be efficient for tomato matrix purification and for quantitative recovery of the analytes.

  3. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero D, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  4. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrometallurgical treatment of plutonium. Bearing salt baths waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bros, P.; Gozlan, J.P.; Lecomte, M.; Bourges, J.

    1993-01-01

    The salt flux issuing from the electrorefining of plutonium metal alloy in salt baths (KCI + NaCI) poses a difficult problem of the back-end alpha waste management. An alternative to the salt process promoted by Los Alamos Laboratory is to develop a hydrometallurgical treatment. A new process based on the electrochemistry technique in aqueous solution has been defined and tested successfully in the CEA. The diagram of the process exhibits two principal steps: in the head-end, a dissolution in HNO 3 medium accompanied with an electrolytic dechlorination leading to a quantitative elimination of chloride as CI 2 gas followed by its trapping one soda lime cartridge, a complete oxidative dissolution of the refractory Pu residues by electrogenerated Ag(II), in the back-end: the Pu and Am recoveries by chromatographic extractions. (authors). 10 figs., 9 refs

  6. The sequential-separation of Tc, Np and residual U from metal ions -30% TBP/0.5% TOA/n-dodecane extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I. H.; Kim, S. H.; Lim, J. K.; Kim, K. W.; Kwon, S. K.

    2002-01-01

    This study on the enhancement of Tc extraction and the selective separation of Tc, Np and residual U by means of adding a small amount of tri-n-octylamine(TOA) in the 30% vol. tributyl phosphate(TBP)/n-dodecane was performed. Co-extraction of Tc, Np and U from the 10 components simulated radwaste solution containing the 0.005M-K 2 Cr 2 O 7 as an oxidant of Np by 30% TBP/0.5% TOA, and selective stripping of Tc, Np and U from the loaded organic phase were investigated, and their operation conditions were evaluated. Tc, Np and U was effectively co-extracted at O/A=1 and 1M HNO 3 . In this condition, the co-extraction yields of Tc, Np and U were 81.9%, 86%, 89.2%, respectively and those of Am, Eu, Nd, Mo and Fe were below 5%. For the selective stripping of extracted Tc, Np and U, however, sequentially 5M HNO 3 and O/A=1 for Tc, reduction of Np(VI) to Np(V) with 0.175M n-butyraldehyde (NBA) and O/A=2 for Np, and 0.15M Na 2 CO 3 and O/A=1 for U were used, respectively. In this case, 79% of Tc(co-stripping of less than 4% Np and U), 84% of Np(co-stripping of about 6% U), above 99% of U could be recovered, respectively

  7. Determination of Fusarium toxins in functional vegetable milks applying salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Ahmed M; Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; García-Campaña, Ana M; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Vegetable milks are considered as functional foods due to their physiological benefits. Although the consumption of these products has significantly increased, they have received little attention in legislation with regard to contaminants. However, they may contain mycotoxins resulting from the use of contaminated raw materials. In this work, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry has been proposed for the determination of the most relevant Fusarium toxins (fumonisin B 1 and B 2 , HT-2 and T-2 toxins, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fusarenon-X) in different functional beverages based on cereals, legumes and seeds. Sample treatment consisted of a simple salting-out-assisted liquid-liquid extraction with no further clean-up. The method provided limits of quantification between 3.2 and 57.7 µg L -1 , recoveries above 80% and precision with RSD lower than 12%. The method was also applied for studying the occurrence of these mycotoxins in market samples of vegetable functional beverages and deoxynivalenol was found in three oat-based commercial drinks.

  8. Mixture design and Doehlert matrix for the optimization of the extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Spondias mombin L Apple Bagasse Agro-industrial Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Felix, Antonio C.; Novaes, Cleber G.; Pires Rocha, Maísla; Barreto, George E.; do Nascimento, Baraquizio B.; Giraldez Alvarez, Lisandro D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we have determined, using RSM (mixture design and Doehlert matrix), the optimum values of the independent variables to achieve the maximum response for the extraction of total phenolic compounds from Spondias mombin L bagasse agroindustrial residues, preserving its antioxidant activity. The assessment with reference to the extraction of phenolic compounds, as well as their capacity to scavenge ABTS and the antioxidant capacity, determined by the modified DPPH method were investigated based on distinct combinations of time, temperature, velocity of rotation and solvents concentration. It was investigated that the optimum condition for the highest antioxidant yield was obtained using water (60.84%), acetone (30.31%) and ethanol (8.85%) at 30 ºC during 20 min at 50 rpm. We have found that the maximum yield of total phenolics was 355.63 ± 9.77 (mg GAE/100 g), showing an EC50 of 3962.24 ± 41.20 (g fruit/g of DPPH) and 8.36 ± 0.30 (µM trolox/g fruit), which were measured using DPPH and ABTS assays. These results suggest that RSM was successfully applied for optimizing the extraction of phenolics compounds preserving its antioxidant activity. This method does not require expensive reagents or high quantities of organic solvents.

  9. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  11. Ionic liquids-lithium salts pretreatment followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction of vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside and vitexin from Phyllostachys edulis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kexin; Chen, Fengli; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-29

    An efficient method for the extraction of vitexin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, and vitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside from Phyllostachys edulis leaves comprises heat treatment using an ionic liquid-lithium salt mixture (using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide as the solvent and lithium chloride as the additive), followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction. To obtain higher extraction yields, the effects of the relevant experimental parameters (including heat treatment temperature and time, relative amounts of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide and lithium chloride, power and time of the ultrasound irradiation, and the liquid-solid ratio) are evaluated and response surface methodology is used to optimize the significant factors. The morphologies of the treated and untreated P. edulis leaves are studied by scanning electron microscopy. The improved extraction method proposed provides high extraction yield, good repeatability and precision, and has wide potential applications in the analysis of plant samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Salts, sodium and heavy metals, in residual waters not purified, used for the watering in the cultivation of the sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Romero, Franky Jose; Gisbert-Banquert, Juan Manuel

    2003-01-01

    In a farm located in the Valencia Lake Basin at northeast of Guacara city (Venezuelan country) and cultivated with sugar cane crop was evaluated during the period of July of 1996 to June of 1997 the salinity, sodicity and heavy metals concentration In municipal wastewater using to gravity Irrigated the sugar cane crop. The salinity was determinate by EC direct measure In Irrigation water (standardized at 25 Celsius degrade, Sodium by flame photometer Calcium and Magnesium by titulation with EDTA Cd, Cu, Fe Mn, Ni and Zn, were determinate by AAS before water samples preserve with NO 3 H. The wastewater quality employ to Irrigated the sugar cane crop was evaluated by mean of the Venezuelan official water Laws (1995) and compare too with the directives mentioned by Pratt and Suarez (1990), Crook and Bastian (1992) and the Mexican official wastewater irrigation laws NOM-CAA-032-ECOL/93 (1993. The results showed than the wastewater using to Irrigated the sugar cane field crop could to bring light and strong problems by salinity and sodium so much the soil as the crop The concentration of Cd, Fe and Cu are outside Limits proposals the Venezuelan official water laws (1995) Also when comparing the results with the other directives all the heavy metal concentration are outside the proposed Limits In each one of them except the Zn. In any case, the continuous use of the wastewater treated in this research could generate potential contamination and toxicity problems by heavy metals, salts and sodium In the crop, soils, groundwater and the people

  13. Production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48Ca beam on a 208Pb target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremin, A.V.; Chepigin, V.I.; Itkis, M.G.

    1998-01-01

    The production cross sections of the isotopes 253-255 No were measured for the heavy ion complete fusion reaction 48 Ca + 208 Pb using the electrostatic recoil separator VASSILISSA. The obtained excitation functions for the reaction products formed after the evaporation of 1-3 neutrons from the compound nucleus are discussed and compared with the data obtained earlier and with the results of the statistical model calculations. The background conditions at the extraction of the correlated events of the reaction product decay are also considered from the point of view of future experiments on the superheavy element synthesis in the complete fusion reactions induced by 48 Ca projectiles

  14. High temperature salting of fish mince

    OpenAIRE

    Talabi, S.O.; Sorinmade, S.O.; Nwanekezie, R.U.; Aliu, A.

    1986-01-01

    Freshly caught miscellaneous fish were transported to the laboratory, gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Seven batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (Wt/Wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt of the salted cooked mince, cooked water and salted pressed mince was determined. Also, the moisture content of the salted cooked mince and s...

  15. Forensic analysis of high explosives residues in post-blast water samples employing solid phase extraction for analyte pro-concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umi Kalsom Ahmad; Rajendran, Sumathy; Ling, Lee Woan

    2008-01-01

    Nitro aromatic, nitramine and nitrate ester compounds are a major group of high order explosive or better known as military explosives. Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX), 1,3,5-hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro triazine (RDX), 2,4,6-trinitro-toluene (TNT), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) are secondary high explosives classified as most commonly used explosives components. There is an increasing demand for pre-concentration of these compounds in water samples as the sensitivity achieved by instrumental analytical methods for these high explosives residues are the main drawback in the application at trace levels for forensic analysis. Hence, a simple cartridge solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure was optimized as the off-line extraction and pre-concentration method to enhance the detection limit of high explosive residues using micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) and gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) methods. The SPE cartridges utilized LiChrolut EN as the SPE adsorbent. By emplying pre-concentration using SPE, the detection limits of the target analytes in water sample were lowered by more than 1000 times with good percentage recovery (>87%) for MEKC method and lowered by 120 times with more than 2 % percentage recovery for GC-ECD methods. In order to test the feasibility of the developed method to real cases, post-blast water samples were analyzed. The post-blast water samples which were collected from Baling Bom training range, Ulu Kinta, Perak contained RDX and PETN in the range of 0.05 - 0.17 ppm and 0.0124 - 0.0390 ppm respectively. (author)

  16. Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and antioxidants in blended oil using a liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive solid phase extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Tian, Wen; Pei, Fei; Li, Peng; Shao, XiaoLong; Fan, Yan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-08-15

    This article developed a method to detect two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)) and twelve pesticides (dichlorvos, pirimicarb, prothiofos, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, malathion, beta-Cypermethrin, profenofos, diazinon, propoxur, procymidon, captan) in blended oil samples after their extraction simultaneously. The establishment of the method was based on two-step process of screening and optimization experiment design. With a Plackett-Burman (PB) design, significant parameters were found by screening experiment and single factor experiment accompanied by a central composite design (CCD) experiment were used to make important parameters optimal. The coefficients of determination (r 2 ) was between 0.9931 and 0.9996 while the limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were found in scope of 0.002-0.04mg·kg -1 and 0.0006-0.0012mg·kg -1 . Recovery values of analytes were above 74%, at the same time the relative standard deviations (RSDs) under 10% at the concentrations ranging from 0.05mg·kg -1 to 0.20mg·kg -1 . To sum up, this method with shorter time and fewer consumption of reagents could be employed in various occasions to detect antioxidants and pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elemental analysis of ash residue from combustion of CCA treated wood waste before and after electrodialytic extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    Element distribution in a combined fly ash and bottom ash from combustion of copper chromate arsenate (CCA) treated wood waste was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX) before and after electrodialytic extraction. The untreated ash contained various particles, including pieces...... of incompletely combusted wood rich in Cr and Ca, and irregular particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was also found incorporated in silica-based matrix particles. As was associated with Ca in porous (char) particles, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been formed during combustion. Cu was associated with Cr...... in the incompletely combusted wood pieces and was also found in almost pure form in a surface layer of some matrix particles – indicating surface condensation of volatile Cu species. In treated ash, Ca and As were no longer found together, indicating that Ca-arsenates had been dissolved due to the electrodialytic...

  18. Determination of pesticide residues in olives by liquid extraction surface analysis followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Almenar, M. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pesticides are essential in modern agriculture for crop protection, however, this use supposes a potential risk for human health and the environment. Traditional techniques of pesticide determination require the use of laborious and complex extraction methods to separate pesticides from the matrix, above all in fatty matrices like olives. For this reason, a new simple, rapid, cheap and selective method for the extraction and quantification of the most frequently used pesticides in olive growing has been developed. Pesticide determination was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Mean recoveries were found in a range between 73 and 114% with relative standard deviations lower than 20% in most pesticides evaluated and the limits of detection (LODs and quantification (LOQs were lower than 4 μg· kg-1 and 8 μg· kg-1, respectively. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 25 olive samples where Dimethoate and Terbuthylazine were detected in some cases, but their results were lower than 15 μg· kg-1.Hoy en día los pesticidas son esenciales en la agricultura moderna para la protección de los cultivos pero su uso supone un riesgo para la salud y el medio ambiente. Las técnicas tradicionales de determinación de pesticidas requieren el uso de métodos de extracción complejos a fin de separar los pesticidas de la matriz, sobre todo en matrices grasas como las aceitunas. Por ello, se ha desarrollado un nuevo método simple, rápido, barato y selectivo para la extracción y cuantificación de los pesticidas más frecuentemente utilizados en el cultivo del olivo, empleando cromatografía líquida de ultra-resolución (UPLC acoplada a espectrometría de masas (MS/MS. Las recuperaciones alcanzadas variaron entre el 73 y 114% obteniendo desviaciones estándar relativas inferiores al 20%. Los límites de detección (LD y cuantificación (LQ fueron

  19. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sposina S. Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR, Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN, Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR, and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR. The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h. The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  20. Aqueous recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical processing residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Gray, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Pyrochemical processes provide rapid methods to reclaim plutonium from scrap residues. Frequently, however, these processes yield an impure plutonium product and waste residues that are contaminated with actinides and are therefore nondiscardable. The Savannah River Laboratory and Plant and the Rocky Flats Plant are jointly developing new processes using both pyrochemistry and aqueous chemistry to generate pure product and discardable waste. An example of residue being treated is that from the molten salt extraction (MSE), a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 , PuCl 3 , AmCl 3 , PuO 2 , and Pu 0 . This mixture is scrubbed with molten aluminum containing a small amount of magnesium to produce a nonhomogeneous Al-Pu-Am-Mg alloy. This process, which rejects most of the NaCl-KCl-MgCl 2 salts, results in a product easily dissolved in 6M HNO 3 -0.1M HF. Any residual chloride in the product is removed by precipitation with Hg(I) followed by centrifuging. Plutonium and americium are then separated by the standard Purex process. The americium, initially diverted to the solvent extraction waste stream, can either be recovered or sent to waste

  1. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...

  2. A rapid method based on hot water extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for analyzing tetracycline antibiotic residues in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; Coradazzi, Cristina; Di Corcia, Antonio; Lagana, Aldo; Sergi, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for determining residues of 4 widely used tetracycline antibiotics and 3 of their 4-epimers in cheese is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After dispersing samples of mozzarella, asiago, parmigiano, gruyere, emmenthal, and camembert on sand, target compounds were eluted from the MSPD column by passing through it 6 mL water heated at 70 degrees C. After acidification and filtration, 200 microL of the aqueous extract was directly injected into the LC column. For analyte identification and quantification, MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting 2 precursor ion-to-product ion transitions for each target compound. Hot water appeared to be an efficient extractant, because absolute recoveries were no lower than 78%. Using demeclocycline as a surrogate analyte, recoveries of analyte added to the 6 types of cheeses at the 30 ng/g level were 96-117%, with relative standard deviation (RSD) not higher than 9%. Statistical analysis of the mean recovery data showed that the extraction efficiency was not dependent on the type of cheese analyzed. This result indicates that this method could be applied to other cheese types not considered here. At the lowest concentration considered, i.e., 10 ng/g, the accuracy of the method ranged between 90 and 107%, with RSDs not larger than 12%. Based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, limits of quantitation were estimated to be 1-2 ng/g.

  3. Salt dynamics in well-mixed estuaries: importance of advection by tides

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, X.; Schramkowski, G.P.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding salt dynamics is important to adequately model salt intrusion, baroclinic forcing, and sediment transport. In this paper, the importance of the residual salt transport due to tidal advection in well-mixed tidal estuaries is studied. The water motion is resolved in a consistent way with a width-averaged analytical model, coupled to an advection–diffusion equation describing the salt dynamics. The residual salt balance obtained from the coupled model shows that the seaward salt tr...

  4. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  5. Sea salt

    OpenAIRE

    Galvis-Sánchez, Andrea C.; Lopes, João Almeida; Delgadillo, Ivone; Rangel, António O. S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The geographical indication (GI) status links a product with the territory and with the biodiversity involved. Besides, the specific knowledge and cultural practices of a human group that permit transforming a resource into a useful good is protected under a GI designation. Traditional sea salt is a hand-harvested product originating exclusively from salt marshes from specific geographical regions. Once salt is harvested, no washing, artificial drying or addition of anti-caking agents are all...

  6. [Monitoring of the residue of fosthiazate in water samples using solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Zhou, Xin; Fu, Chunmei; Liu, Sankang; Li, Zhangwan

    2004-11-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to determine the fosthiazate residue in water samples. The water samples were first filtered through cellulose filters (0.45 microm pore size). A 100 mL volume of filtered water, in which 1 mL of methanol has been added, was then passed through a pre-conditioned 3 cm C18 cartridge at a flow-rate of 1.5 mL/min. Elution was performed by 1 mL of methanol. The eluant was finally dried under reduced pressure for solvent evaporation. The volume was quantitatively adjusted to 0.5 mL with methanol. The analysis was carried out on GC/MS. The mass spectrometer was operated in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. According to mass spectrum of fosthiazate, three selected ions at m/z of 126, 195, 283, respectively, were monitored for identification and quantification. High sensitivity and selectivity were achieved by using this method. The limit of detection for fosthiazate in water samples was determined to be 56.4 ng/L. The linearity was demonstrated over a wide range of concentrations covering from 0.282 to 141 microg/L. The recoveries were more than 85.5% and the relative standard deviations for the overall procedure were less than 4.42%. The fosthiazate residue was detected in the water samples from a pool near cropland where fosthiazate was used. The results demonstrate the suitability of the SPE-GC/MS approach for the analysis of fosthiazate in water.

  7. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticides and insect growth regulators residues in honey using LC-MS/MS with anion exchanger-disposable pipette extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shiming; Zhang, Cuifang; Chen, Zhaojie; He, Fengmei; Wei, Jie; Tan, Huihua; Li, Xuesheng

    2018-07-06

    In this study, we developed an anion exchanger-disposable pipette extraction (DPX) method to detect the residual concentrations of eight neonicotinoid insecticides (dinotefuran, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, imidachloprid, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram, and thiamethoxam) and eight insect growth regulators (IGRs; triflumuron, cyromazine, buprofezin, methoxyfenozide, tebufenozide, chromafenozide, fenoxycarb, and RH 5849) in Chinese honey samples collected from different floral sources and different geographical regions using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). QAE Sephadex A-25 was used as the anion exchanger in the DPX column for the purification and cleanup of honey samples. Analytes were eluted with a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1 M HCl, and the elution was subjected to LC analysis. This method was thoroughly validated for its reproducibility, linearity, trueness, and recovery. Satisfactory recovery of pesticides was obtained ranging from 72% to 111% with intraday RSDs (n = 5) of 1%-10%. High linearity (R 2  ≥ 0.9987) was observed for all 16 pesticides. Limits of detection and quantification for all 16 compounds ranged from 0.3 to 3 μg/kg and from 1 to 10 μg/kg, respectively. Pesticide residues (9-113 μg/kg) were found in Chinese honey samples. The anion exchanger-DPX method was effective for removing sugars and retaining target analytes. Moreover, this method was highly reliable and sensitive for detecting neonicotinoids and IGRs in different floral sources of honey and will be applicable to matrixes with high sugar content. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of salt and pH-induced solidified floating organic droplets homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction for extraction of ten pyrethroid insecticides in fresh fruits and fruit juices followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbati, Mohammadali; Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Torbati, Mostafa; Nabil, Ali Akbar Alizadeh; Mohebbi, Ali; Afshar Mogaddam, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    A new microextraction method named salt and pH-induced homogeneous liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed in a home-made extraction device for the extraction and preconcentration of some pyrethroid insecticides from different fruit juice samples prior to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In the present work, an extraction device made from two parallel glass tubes with different lengths and diameters was used in the microextraction procedure. In this method, a homogeneous solution of a sample solution and an extraction solvent (pivalic acid) was broken by performing an acid-base reaction and the extraction solvent was produced in whole of the solution. The produced droplets of the extraction solvent went up through the solution and solidified using an ice-bath. They were collected without centrifugation step. Under the optimum conditions, limits of detection and quantification were obtained in the ranges of 0.006-0.038, and 0.023-0.134ngmL -1 , respectively. The enrichment factors and extraction recoveries of the selected analytes ranged from 365-460 to 73-92%, respectively. The relative standard deviations were lower than 9% for intra- (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 4) precisions at a concentration of 1ngmL -1 of each analyte. Finally, some fruit juice samples were effectively analyzed by the proposed method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of neonicotinoid pesticides residues in agricultural samples by solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Han, Chao; Qian, Yan; Ding, Huiying; Chen, Xiaomei; Xi, Junyang

    2011-07-15

    This work reports a new sensitive multi-residue liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for detection, confirmation and quantification of six neonicotinoid pesticides (dinotefuran, thiamethoxam, clothiandin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid and thiacloprid) in agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Activated carbon and HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for cleaning up the extracts. Analysis is performed by LC-MS/MS operated in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, acquiring two specific precursor-product ion transitions per target compound. Quantification was carried by the internal standard method with D(4)-labeled imidacloprid. The method showed excellent linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) and precision (relative standard deviation, RSD≤8.6%) for all compounds. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.01 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample and 0.02 mg kg(-1) for tea sample. The average recoveries, measured at three concentrations levels (0.01 mg kg(-1), 0.02 mg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1) for chestnut, shallot, ginger sample, 0.02 mg kg(-1), 0.04 mg kg(-1) and 0.2 mg kg(-1) for tea sample), were in the range 82.1-108.5%. The method was satisfactorily validated for the analysis of 150 agricultural samples (chestnut, shallot, ginger and tea). Imidacloprid and acetamiprid were detected at concentration levels ranging from 0.05 to 3.6 mg kg(-1). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Artificial neural network modelling of pharmaceutical residue retention times in wastewater extracts using gradient liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Kelly; Miller, Thomas H; Martins, Claudia P B; Edge, Anthony M; Cowan, David A; Barron, Leon P

    2015-05-29

    The modelling and prediction of reversed-phase chromatographic retention time (tR) under gradient elution conditions for 166 pharmaceuticals in wastewater extracts is presented using artificial neural networks for the first time. Radial basis function, multilayer perceptron and generalised regression neural networks were investigated and a comparison of their predictive ability for model solutions discussed. For real world application, the effect of matrix complexity on tR measurements is presented. Measured tR for some compounds in influent wastewater varied by >1min in comparison to tR in model solutions. Similarly, matrix impact on artificial neural network predictive ability was addressed towards developing a more robust approach for routine screening applications. Overall, the best neural network had a predictive accuracy of <1.3min at the 75th percentile of all measured tR data in wastewater samples (<10% of the total runtime). Coefficients of determination for 30 blind test compounds in wastewater matrices lay at or above R(2)=0.92. Finally, the model was evaluated for application to the semi-targeted identification of pharmaceutical residues during a weeklong wastewater sampling campaign. The model successfully identified native compounds at a rate of 83±4% and 73±5% in influent and effluent extracts, respectively. The use of an HRMS database and the optimised ANN model was also applied to shortlisting of 37 additional compounds in wastewater. Ultimately, this research will potentially enable faster identification of emerging contaminants in the environment through more efficient post-acquisition data mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  13. Fast and easy extraction combined with high resolution-mass spectrometry for residue analysis of two anticonvulsants and their transformation products in marine mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Bueno, M J; Boillot, C; Fenet, H; Chiron, S; Casellas, C; Gómez, E

    2013-08-30

    Environmental field studies have shown that carbamazepine (Cbz) is one of the most frequently detected human pharmaceuticals in different aquatic compartments. However, little data is available on the detection of this substance and its transformation products in aquatic organisms. This study was thus mainly carried out to optimize and validate a simple and sensitive analytical methodology for the detection, characterization and quantification of Cbz and oxcarbazepine (Ox), two anticonvulsants, and six of their main transformation products in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). A modified QuEChERS extraction method followed by analysis with liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used. The analyses were performed using two-stage fragmentation to reveal the different fragmentation pathways that are highly useful for the identification of isomeric compounds, a common problem when several transformation products are analyzed. The developed analytical method allowed determination of the target analytes in the lower ng/g concentration levels. The mean recovery ranged from 67 to 110%. The relative standard deviation was under 11% in the intra-day and 18% in the inter-day analyses, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to marine mussel samples collected from Mediterranean Sea cultures in southeastern France. Residues of the psychiatric drug Cbz were occasionally found at levels up to 3.5ng/g dw. Lastly, in this study, other non-target compounds, such as caffeine, metoprolol, cotinine and ketoprofen, were identified in the real samples analyzed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ionic liquid and aqueous two-phase extraction based on salting-out coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan-Jie; Jin, Yong-Ri; Wang, Xiao-Zhong; Liu, Ying; Wu, Qian; Shi, Xiao-Lei; Li, Xu-Wen

    2015-09-01

    A method of ionic liquid salt aqueous two-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed for the analysis of seven rare ginsenosides including Rg6 , F4 , 20(S)-Rg3 , 20(R)-Rg3 , Rk3 , Rk1 , and Rg5 in Xue-Sai-Tong injection. The injection was mixed with ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide aqueous solution, and a mixture was obtained. With the addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate and dipotassium phosphate into the mixture, the aqueous two-phase mixture was formed after ultrasonic treatment and centrifuged. Rare ginsenosides were extracted into the upper phase. To obtain a high extraction factors, various influences were considered systematically, such as the volume of ionic liquid, the category and amount of salts, the amount of sodium dodecyl sulfate, the pH value of system, and the time of ultrasonic treatment. Under the optimal condition, rare ginsenosides in Xue-Sai-Tong injection were enriched and detected, the recoveries of seven rare ginsenosides ranged from 90.05 to 112.55%, while relative standard deviations were lower than 2.50%. The developed method was reliable, rapid and sensitive for the determination of seven rare ginsenosides in the injections. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. pH-potentiometric determination of solubility of barely soluble organic extracting agents in water and aqueous solutions of neutral salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovskaya, E.M.; Charykov, A.K.; Tikhomirov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    A pH-potentiometric method has been used to estimate the solubility of chloroform, benzene and nitrobenzene in water. The desalting effect is studied of alkali metal chlorides on chloroform solubility to establish the following phenomenological series of alkali metal cations by their desalting action: Li + + + + + . The non-conformity of chloroform solubility values in water-isoactive solutions of different salts is indicative of the high specificity of desalting processes with respect to the chemical nature of the desalting cation. Salt effects also essentially depend on the chemical nature of the desalted substance, particularly on its acid-base properties

  16. Salt cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    If you are a professional associated with system and infrastructure management, looking at automated infrastructure and deployments, then this book is for you. No prior experience of Salt is required.

  17. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for the tyrosine kinase inhibitor afatinib in mouse plasma using salting-out liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparidans, Rolf W; van Hoppe, Stephanie; Rood, Johannes J M; Schinkel, Alfred H; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative bioanalytical liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay for afatinib, an irreversible inhibitor of the ErbB (erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog) tyrosine kinase family, was developed and validated. Plasma samples were pre-treated using salting-out

  18. Extraction of natural coagulant from peanut seeds for treatment of turbid water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birima, A H; Desa, M N M; Muda, Z C; Hammad, H A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the potential of peanut seeds as an environmental friendly and natural coagulant for the treatment of high turbid water. The peanut seeds have been used after oil extraction; and the active coagulation component was extracted by distilled water and salt solution of different salt concentrations. The salts used were NaCl, KNO 3 , KCl, NH 4 Cl and NaNO 3 . Synthetic water with 200 NTU turbidity was used. Peanut extracted with NaCl (PC-NaCl) could effectively remove 92% of the 200 NTU turbidity using only 20 mg/l, while peanut seeds extracted with distilled water (PC-DW) could remove only 31.5% of the same turbidity with the same dosage. The coagulant dosage did not affected by the concentration of the salt solution, however, residual turbidity decreased with increasing the concentration of the salt; and the relationship was found to be a second order polynomial curve with R 2 of 0.9312. The other salts tested were also found to be good solvents to extract the active coagulation component with no much difference from NaCl solution in terms of efficiency.

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Rajput, Shahid; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Mohamed Khalil, Mahmoud; Gao, Xin; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-11-15

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B₁-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB₁ in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB₁ contaminated corn (AFB₁); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB₁ + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB₁ (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB₁ + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB₁ alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB₁ significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB₁ contaminated diet reduced AFB₁ residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB₁ negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB₁ in broiler chickens.

  20. Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Ling, Zhao; Zhu, Luoyi; Khan, Farhan Anwar; Zhang, Jiacai; Qi, Desheng

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis is a grave threat to the poultry industry. Dietary supplementation with antioxidants showed a great potential in enhancing the immune system; hence, protecting animals against aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) one of the most well-known and powerful antioxidants. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate the effectiveness of GSPE in the detoxification of AFB1 in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old Cobb chicks were randomly allocated into five treatments of six replicates (10 birds per replicate), fed ad libitum for four weeks with the following dietary treatments: 1. Basal diet (control); 2. Basal diet + 1 mg/kg AFB1 contaminated corn (AFB1); 3. Basal diet + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (GSPE 250 mg/kg) 4. Basal diet + AFB1 (1 mg/kg) + GSPE 250 mg/kg; (AFB1 + GSPE 250 mg/kg) 5. Basal diet + AFB1 (1mg/kg) + GSPE 500 mg/kg, (AFB1 + GSPE 500 mg/kg). When compared with the control group, feeding broilers with AFB1 alone significantly reduced growth performance, serum immunoglobulin contents, negatively altered serum biochemical contents, and enzyme activities, and induced histopathological lesion in the liver. In addition, AFB1 significantly increased malondialdehyde content and decreased total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxide, glutathione-S transferase, glutathione reductase activities, and glutathione concentration within the liver and serum. The supplementation of GSPE (250 and 500 mg/kg) to AFB1 contaminated diet reduced AFB1 residue in the liver and significantly mitigated AFB1 negative effects. From these results, it can be concluded that dietary supplementation of GSPE has protective effects against aflatoxicosis caused by AFB1 in broiler chickens. PMID:29140290

  1. Comparison of Antioxidant Capability after Isopropanol Salting-Out Pretreatment and n-Butanol Partition Extraction, and Identification and Evaluation of Antioxidants of Sedum formosanum N.E.Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jung-Hui; Lai, Wen-Hui; Lin, Shang-Dung; Lan, Cheng-Fong; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Liao, Ming-Yuan

    2016-04-19

    Crude extracts of Sedum formosanum N.E.Br. obtained from n-butanol partition (BP) and isopropanol salting-out pretreatment (ISP) were analyzed using antioxidation assays. The results indicated that the extract from ISP contained more potent antioxidants and thus exhibited more antioxidant activity in all the assays. The superoxide radical-scavenging activity and inhibition of nitric oxide radicals achieved after ISP were 3.65 and 2.18 times higher than those achieved through BP, respectively. Eight bioactive natural products were isolated and identified according to an analysis of antioxidation activity in different fractions of the ISP crude extract, namely three cyanophoric glycosides 1-3, three flavonoids 4-6 and two phenolic compounds (7 and a new compound 8). Among them, compounds 5 and 6 exhibit the highest antioxidation capability, and the ISP is suitable for obtaining compounds 5 and 6 using HPLC chromatograms. Therefore, ISP is an excellent extraction technology that can be used to extract antioxidant compounds in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries.

  2. Disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salts from the Molten Salt Reactor experiment at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretz, F.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) is an 8 MW reactor that was operated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1965 through 1969. The reactor used a unique liquid salt fuel, composed of a mixture of LIF, BeF 2 , ZrF 4 , and UF 4 , and operated at temperatures above 600 degrees C. The primary fuel salt circulation system consisted of the reactor vessel, a single fuel salt pump, and a single primary heat exchanger. Heat was transferred from the fuel salt to a coolant salt circuit in the primary heat exchanger. The coolant salt was similar to the fuel salt, except that it contains only LiF (66%) and BeF, (34%). The coolant salt passed from the primary heat exchanger to an air-cooled radiator and a coolant salt pump, and then returned to the primary heat exchanger. Each of the salt loops was provided with drain tanks, located such that the salt could be drained out of either circuit by gravity. A single drain tank was provided for the non-radioactive coolant salt. Two drain tanks were provided for the fuel salt. Since the fuel salt contained radioactive fuel, fission products, and activation products, and since the reactor was designed such that the fuel salt could be drained immediately into the drain tanks in the event of a problem in the fuel salt loop, the fuel salt drain tanks were provided with a system to remove the heat generated by radioactive decay. A third drain tank connected to the fuel salt loop was provided for a batch of flush salt. This batch of salt, similar in composition to the coolant salt, was used to condition the fuel salt loop after it had been exposed to air and to flush the fuel salt loop of residual fuel salt prior to accessing the reactor circuit for maintenance or experimental activities. This report discusses the disposition of the fluoride fuel and flush salt

  3. Structural evidence for solvent-stabilisation by aspartic acid as a mechanism for halophilic protein stability in high salt concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Samuel; Walsh, Danielle L; Rhys, Natasha H; Soper, Alan K; Dougan, Lorna

    2016-07-21

    Halophilic organisms have adapted to survive in high salt environments, where mesophilic organisms would perish. One of the biggest challenges faced by halophilic proteins is the ability to maintain both the structure and function at molar concentrations of salt. A distinct adaptation of halophilic proteins, compared to mesophilic homologues, is the abundance of aspartic acid on the protein surface. Mutagenesis and crystallographic studies of halophilic proteins suggest an important role for solvent interactions with the surface aspartic acid residues. This interaction, between the regions of the acidic protein surface and the solvent, is thought to maintain a hydration layer around the protein at molar salt concentrations thereby allowing halophilic proteins to retain their functional state. Here we present neutron diffraction data of the monomeric zwitterionic form of aspartic acid solutions at physiological pH in 0.25 M and 2.5 M concentration of potassium chloride, to mimic mesophilic and halophilic-like environmental conditions. We have used isotopic substitution in combination with empirical potential structure refinement to extract atomic-scale information from the data. Our study provides structural insights that support the hypothesis that carboxyl groups on acidic residues bind water more tightly under high salt conditions, in support of the residue-ion interaction model of halophilic protein stabilisation. Furthermore our data show that in the presence of high salt the self-association between the zwitterionic form of aspartic acid molecules is reduced, suggesting a possible mechanism through which protein aggregation is prevented.

  4. A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction to simultaneously determine trans-resveratrol and its glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zhixia; Yu, Jiaojiao; Dai, Yu; Yang, Yue; Lu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jiaqiu; Qin, Zhiying; Huang, Fang; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    A simple LC-MS/MS method facilitated by salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was applied to simultaneously investigate the pharmacokinetics of trans-resveratrol (Res) and its major glucuronide and sulfate conjugates in rat plasma. Acetonitrile-methanol (80:20, v/v) and ammonium acetate (10 mol L -1 ) were used as extractant and salting-out reagent to locate the target analytes in the supernatant after the aqueous and organic phase stratification, then the analytes were determined via gradient elution by LC-MS/MS in negative mode in a single run. The analytical method was validated with good selectivity, acceptable accuracy (>85%) and low variation of precision (extraction efficiency of target glucuronide and sulfate conjugates (>80%). The method was successfully applied to determine Res and its four conjugated metabolites in rat after Res administration (intragastric, 50 mg kg -1 ; intravenous, 10 mg kg -1 ). The systemic exposures to Res conjugates were much higher than those to Res (AUC 0-t , i.v., 7.43 μm h; p.o., 8.31 μm h); Res-3-O-β-d-glucuronide was the major metabolite (AUC 0-t , i.v., 66.1 μm h; p.o., 333.4 μm h). The bioavailability of Res was estimated to be ~22.4%. The reproducible SALLE method simplified the sample preparation, drastically improved the accuracy of the concomitant assay and gave full consideration of extraction recovery to each target analyte in bio-samples. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Mixing of zeolite powders and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.; Zyryanov, V.N.; Lewis, M.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products in a molten salt can be incorporated into zeolite A by an ion exchange process and by a batch mixing or blending process. The zeolite is then mixed with glass and consolidated into a monolithic waste form for geologic disposal. Both processes require mixing of zeolite powders with molten salt at elevated temperatures (>700 K). Complete occlusion of salt and a uniform distribution of chloride and fission products are desired for incorporation of the powders into the final waste form. The relative effectiveness of the blending process was studied over a series of temperature, time, and composition profiles. The major criteria for determining the effectiveness of the mixing operations were the level and uniformity of residual free salt in the mixtures. High operating temperatures (>775 K) improved salt occlusion. Reducing the chloride levels in the mixture to below 80% of the full salt capacity of the zeolite significantly reduced the free salt level in the final product

  6. Salt bridges: geometrically specific, designable interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Jason E; Kulp, Daniel W; DeGrado, William F

    2011-03-01

    Salt bridges occur frequently in proteins, providing conformational specificity and contributing to molecular recognition and catalysis. We present a comprehensive analysis of these interactions in protein structures by surveying a large database of protein structures. Salt bridges between Asp or Glu and His, Arg, or Lys display extremely well-defined geometric preferences. Several previously observed preferences are confirmed, and others that were previously unrecognized are discovered. Salt bridges are explored for their preferences for different separations in sequence and in space, geometric preferences within proteins and at protein-protein interfaces, co-operativity in networked salt bridges, inclusion within metal-binding sites, preference for acidic electrons, apparent conformational side chain entropy reduction on formation, and degree of burial. Salt bridges occur far more frequently between residues at close than distant sequence separations, but, at close distances, there remain strong preferences for salt bridges at specific separations. Specific types of complex salt bridges, involving three or more members, are also discovered. As we observe a strong relationship between the propensity to form a salt bridge and the placement of salt-bridging residues in protein sequences, we discuss the role that salt bridges might play in kinetically influencing protein folding and thermodynamically stabilizing the native conformation. We also develop a quantitative method to select appropriate crystal structure resolution and B-factor cutoffs. Detailed knowledge of these geometric and sequence dependences should aid de novo design and prediction algorithms. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. A novel ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of xanthones and steroidal saponins in crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, De; Su, Xiaonan; Huang, Ziyan; Wang, Qiaohan; Lu, Tulin

    2018-06-01

    We established a rapid and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of xanthones and steroidal saponins in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C 18 column with a mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid. The detection was performed by negative electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The validated method showed good linearity within the tested range (r > 0.9945). The intra- and interday precision at high, medium, and low concentrations was less than 7.96%. The bias of accuracies ranged from -1.92 to 9.62%. The extraction recoveries of the compounds ranged from 84.78 to 88.69%, and the matrix effects ranged from 96.76 to 108.59%. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic comparison of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma aqueous extracts after oral administration in rats. The maximum plasma concentration and area under concentration-time curve of timosaponin BIII and timosaponin AIII increased significantly (P < 0.05 or 0.01) and those of timosaponin BII decreased significantly (P < 0.05) after processing. These results could contribute to the clinical application of crude and salt-processed Anemarrhenae Rhizoma and reveal the processing mechanism. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Validation Study on a Rapid Method for Simultaneous Determination of Pesticide Residues in Vegetables and Fruits by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tamaki; Miyamoto, Iori; Uemura, Masako; Nakatani, Tadashi; Kakutani, Naoya; Yamano, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    A validation study was carried out on a rapid method for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits by LC-MS/MS. Preparation of the test solution was performed by a solid-phase extraction technique with QuEChERS (STQ method). Pesticide residues were extracted with acetonitrile using a homogenizer, followed by salting-out and dehydration at the same time. The acetonitrile layer was purified with C18 and PSA mini-columns. The method was assessed for 130 pesticide residues in 14 kinds of vegetables and fruits at the concentration level of 0.01 μg/g according to the method validation guideline of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. As a result 75 to 120 pesticide residues were determined satisfactorily in the tested samples. Thus, this method could be useful for a rapid and simultaneous determination of multi-class pesticide residues in various vegetables and fruits.

  9. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxing; Xie, Shuyu; Ni, Tengteng; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Cheng, Guyue; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Tao, Yanfei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles, comprising ferroferric oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, were prepared through a simple one-step synthesis method and subsequently applied to magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food coupled with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The components within the nanocomposites endowed the material with high extraction performance and manipulative convenience. Compared with carbon nanotubes, the as-prepared carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles showed better extraction and separation efficiencies for polyether antibiotics and s-triazine drugs thanks to the contribution of the iron-containing magnetic nanoparticles. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency had been investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the good linearity ranging from 1 to 200 μg/kg for diclazuril, toltrazuril, toltrazuril sulfone, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, nanchangmycin, and maduramicin, low limits of detection ranging from 1 to 5 μg/kg, and satisfactory spiked recoveries (77.1-91.2%, with the inter relative standard deviation values from 4.0 to 12.2%) were shown. It was confirmed that this novel method was an efficient pretreatment and enrichment procedure and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of polyether and s-triazine drug residues in complex matrices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Salt balance, fresh water residence time and budget for non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water and salt budgets suggest that in order to balance the inflow and outflow of water at Makoba bay, there is net flux of water from the bay to the open ocean during wet season. Residual salt fluxes between the bay and the open ocean indicate advective salt export. Exchange of water between the bay with the open ocean ...

  11. Caleosin from Chlorella vulgaris TISTR 8580 is salt-induced and heme-containing protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuchinda, Pairpilin; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Kageyama, Hakuto; Yamada, Daisuke; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and functional properties of lipid droplet-associated proteins in algae remain scarce. We report here the caleosin gene from Chlorella vulgaris encodes a protein of 279 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence alignment showed high similarity to the putative caleosins from fungi, but less to plant caleosins. When the C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 cells were treated with salt stress (0.3 M NaCl), the level of triacylglycerol increased significantly. The mRNA contents for caleosin in Chlorella cells significantly increased under salt stress condition. Caleosin gene was expressed in E. coli. Crude extract of E. coli cells exhibited the cumene hydroperoxide-dependent oxidation of aniline. Absorption spectroscopy showed a peak around 415 nm which was decreased upon addition of cumene hydroperoxide. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggests caleosin existed as the oligomer. These data indicate that a fresh water C. vulgaris TISTR 8580 contains a salt-induced heme-protein caleosin.

  12. The chemistry of molten salt mixtures: application to the reductive extraction of lanthanides and actinides by a liquid metal; Chimie des melanges de sels fondus. Application a l'extraction reductrice d'actinides et de lanthanides par un metal liquide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finne, J

    2005-10-15

    The design of a process of An/Ln separation by liquid - liquid extraction can be used for on-line purification of the molten salt in a molten salt nuclear reactor (Generation IV) as well as reprocessing various spent fuels. In order to establish the chemical properties of An and Ln in molten salt mediums, E - pO{sub 2} - diagrams were established for the relevant chemical elements. With the purpose of checking the possibilities of separating the An from Ln, the real activity coefficients in liquid metals were measured. An experimental protocol was developed and validated on the Gd/Ga system. It was then transferred to radioactive environment to measure the activity coefficient of Pu in Ga. The results made it possible to estimate the effectiveness of the Pu extraction and its separation from Gd and Ce. The selectivity was shown to decrease with the temperature and Al and Ga showed a good selectivity between Pu and the Ce in fluoride medium. (author)

  13. Nickel and vanadium extraction from the Syrian petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Syrian petroleum coke samples were characterized and submitted for salt-roasting treatment in electric furnace to evaluate the convenience of this procedure for the extraction of the vanadium, nickel and sulfur from coke. Both solution and solid residue remaining after salt roasting were separated by filtration and were analyzed for vanadium, nickel and sulfur. The solution was analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy for vanadium and nickel and gravimetrically for sulfur. The solid residue and the untreated samples of petroleum coke were analyzed by XRF spectrometry. Results showed that more than 90% of sulfur and 60% of vanadium could be extracted by salt roasting treatment. An alternative procedure has been suggested, in which, more than 80% of sulfur and small percentage of vanadium can be leached by 0.75 M of Na 2 CO 3 solution at 70-80 Co. Vanadium was selectively extracted by DEHPA/TBP from the loaded leached solution. The extraction procedure flowsheet was also suggested. (authors)

  14. Bath Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... deaths and been blamed for a handful of suicides and murders. Two of the chemicals in bath salts (mephedrone and MDPV) are Schedule I class drugs. That means they have a high potential for abuse and no accepted medical use . People who are ...

  15. Development of multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides in cereal matrices by isotopic dilution associated to liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry after pressurized liquid extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mrabet, Khadija

    2008-01-01

    Pesticides are nowadays considered as toxic for human health. The maximal residues levels authorized in water and foodstuff are more and more strict. Therefore, selective analytical techniques are necessary for their identification and their quantification. The aim of this thesis was to develop a multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides by isotopic dilution associated to liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS"2) after pressurized liquid extraction. In a first step, an analysis method of phenyl-ureas and triazines in groundwater by isotopic dilution associated to LC/MS"2 after solid phase extraction has been developed. The method has been validated and evaluated by participating to an inter-laboratory study. Concerning cereals, an extraction method of pesticides associated to an analysis by LC/MS"2 has been developed for thirty-eight pesticides representative of twenty-six chemicals families and fourteen labeled compounds in wheat. The analysis has been carried out in reversed phase chromatography. Separation and detection conditions have been optimized. A global analytical protocol consisting of a pressurized liquid extraction step using acetonitrile at 100 deg. C and at 100 bars and followed by purification step of the resulting extract on a polymeric sorbent was developed. The developed method enables to extract thirty-eight pesticides and fourteen labeled compounds from wheat with recovery yield about 85% (RSD =4%, n=3). Moreover, the results show that the application of isotopic dilution can be complex. Although some improvements need to be added regarding experimentation of aged matrices or contaminated samples, the potential of the method has been demonstrated. (author) [fr

  16. Trace determination of five triazole fungicide residues in traditional Chinese medicine samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuping; Yuan, Xucan; Zhao, Pengfei; Sun, Hong; Ye, Xiu; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Longshan

    2017-08-01

    A novel and reliable method for determination of five triazole fungicide residues (triadimenol, tebuconazole, diniconazole, flutriafol, and hexaconazol) in traditional Chinese medicine samples was developed using dispersive solid-phase extraction combined with ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction before ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The clean up of the extract was conducted using dispersive solid-phase extraction by directly adding sorbents into the extraction solution, followed by shaking and centrifugation. After that, a mixture of 400 μL trichloromethane (extraction solvent) and 0.5 mL of the above supernatant was injected rapidly into water for the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure. The factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 2.0-400 (tebuconazole, diniconazole, and hexaconazole) and 4.0-800 ng/g (triadimenol and flutriafol) with the regression coefficients higher than 0.9958. The limit of detection and limit of quantification for the present method were 0.5-1.1 and 1.8-4.0 ng/g, respectively. The recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 80.2 to 103.2%. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the analysis of five triazole fungicides in traditional Chinese medicine samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Microwave assisted solvent extraction and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography with UV detection use of an analytical restricted-access-medium column for the efficient multi-residue analysis of acidic pesticides in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoom, E A; Huls, R; Dijkman, E; Hoogerbrugge, R

    2001-12-14

    A screening method has been developed for the determination of acidic pesticides in various types of soils. Methodology is based on the use of microwave assisted solvent extraction (MASE) for fast and efficient extraction of the analytes from the soils and coupled-column reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC-LC) with UV detection at 228 nm for the instrumental analysis of uncleaned extracts. Four types of soils, including sand, clay and peat, with a range in organic matter content of 0.3-13% and ten acidic pesticides of different chemical families (bentazone, bromoxynil, metsulfuron-methyl, 2,4-D, MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-DP, 2,4,5-T, 2,4-DB and MCPB) were selected as matrices and analytes, respectively. The method developed included the selection of suitable MASE and LC-LC conditions. The latter consisted of the selection of a 5-microm GFF-II internal surface reversed-phase (ISRP, Pinkerton) analytical column (50 x 4.6 mm, I.D.) as the first column in the RAM-C18 configuration in combination with an optimised linear gradient elution including on-line cleanup of sample extracts and reconditioning of the columns. The method was validated with the analysis of freshly spiked samples and samples with aged residues (120 days). The four types of soils were spiked with the ten acidic pesticides at levels between 20 and 200 microg/kg. Weighted regression of the recovery data showed for most analyte-matrix combinations, including freshly spiked samples and aged residues, that the method provides overall recoveries between 60 and 90% with relative standard deviations of the intra-laboratory reproducibility's between 5 and 25%; LODs were obtained between 5 and 50 microg/kg. Evaluation of the data set with principal component analysis revealed that the parameters (i) increase of organic matter content of the soil samples and (ii) aged residues negatively effect the recovery of the analytes.

  18. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Multiclass method for the determination of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in compost from sewage sludge using ultrasound and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction followed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Muñoz, A; Vílchez, J L; Zafra-Gómez, A

    2017-07-21

    An analytical method for the analysis of 16 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in compost from sewage sludge is successfully validated. Ultrasound assisted extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) containing 10% (v/v) of acetic acid was carried out. Two cycles of extraction of 10min were applied. A clean-up of the extracts using salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) was also included. Experimental design was used for the optimization of the main parameters involved in the extraction and cleaned-up steps. The chromatographic separation was carried out by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography using a mobile phase gradient mixture of a 13mM buffer ammonium formate solution (pH 9.25) (solvent A) and methanol (solvent B). An ACQUITY UPLC ® BEH C18 column (1.7μm; 2.1×50mm) column was used. Analytes were separated in less than 11min. The compounds were detected and quantified using single reaction monitoring electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The limits of detection calculated ranged from 0.5 to 4ngg -1 d.w., and the limits of quantification from 2 to 13ngg -1 d.w. Recoveries from 93% to 111%, with relative standar deviations lower than 11% in all cases, were obtained. The method was applied to natural compost samples. High concentrations of some analytes were found. Ketoprofen (510ngg -1 d.w.), methylparaben (240ngg -1 d.w.), diclofenac (175ngg -1 d.w.) and flufenamic acid (128ngg -1 d.w.) were the most abundant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Stabilization of plutonium bearing residues at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronson, M.C.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.; Ebbinghaus, B.B.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (US DOE) Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has plutonium holdings including metal, oxide and residue materials, all of which need stabilization of some type. Residue materials include calcined ash, calcined precipitates, pyrochemical salts, glove box sweepings, metallurgical samples, graphite, and pyrochemical ceramic crucibles. These residues are typical of residues stored throughout the US DOE plutonium sites. The stabilization process selected for each of these residues requires data on chemical impurities, physical attributes, and chemical forms of the plutonium. This paper outlines the characterization and stabilization of LLNL ash residues, pyrochemical salts, and graphite

  1. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in the American Ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn Extraction Residue by Fermentation with Lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma Lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (人参 Rén Shēn has been widely employed in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. Owing to the high consumer demand of ginseng products, a large amount of ginseng residue is generated after extraction of ginseng. However, the ginseng residue still contains many bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The objective of this research was to convert ginsenosides in American ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn extraction residue (AmR by fermentation with lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma lucidum and the fermentation products will be used for further hypoglycemic activity research. Thus, this study was primarily focused on the ginsenosides that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. In this study, the changes in seven ginsenoside [Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg3(S, compound K (CK, and Rh2(S] in the products as affected by fermentation were investigated. Our results showed that the levels of ginsenosides, namely, Rg1, Rg3(S, and CK increased, while the other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1, and Rc decreased during the fermentation process.

  2. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-10-15

    In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, particularly bottom ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). A life cycle assessment (LCA) based approach was outlined for environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation, in which leaching of trace elements as well as other emissions to air and water and the use of resources were regarded as constituting the potential environmental impact from the system studied. Case studies were performed for i) road construction with or without MSWI bottom ash, ii) three management scenarios for MSWI bottom ash and iii) three management scenarios for wood ash. Different types of potential environmental impact predominated in the activities of the system and the scenarios differed in use of resources and energy. Utilising MSWI bottom ash in road construction and recycling of wood ash on forest land saved more natural resources and energy than when these materials were managed according to the other scenarios investigated, including dumping in landfill. There is a potential for trace element leaching regardless of how the ash is managed. Trace element leaching, particularly of copper (Cu), was identified as being relatively important for environmental assessment of MSWI bottom ash utilisation. CuO is suggested as the most important type of Cu-containing mineral in weathered MSWI bottom ash, whereas in the leachate Cu is mainly present in complexes with dissolved organic matter (DOM). The hydrophilic components of the DOM were more important for Cu

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) consists of the fly ash, and, in dry and semi-dry systems, also the reaction products from the flue gas cleaning process. APC residue is considered a hazardous waste due to its high alkalinity, high content of salt...

  4. Clean-up of cereal extracts for gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry pesticide residues analysis using primary secondary amine and C18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2015-01-01

    The level of co-extracted matrix in wheat and oat extracts obtained by the QuEChERS method (EN 15662) is high and the occurrence of free fatty acids generates a major matrix peak in TIC chromatograms (rt. 13-22min). Matrix can compromise the analytical performance in pesticide analysis using GC-M...

  5. The therapeutic effect of a preparation extracted from tremella fuciformic berk (TFP) on the hematopoietic residual injury in mice induced by fractionated doses of 60Co γ-ray exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shaoping; Yang Fengtong; Xu Chengxiong

    1989-01-01

    Hematopoietic residual injury, which is identified by the permanent defect of the blood forming system, could be induced in mice by repeated sublethal 60 Co γ-ray exposures. The number of hematopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) in mouse femora could be enhanced to a normal or near normal level if the 3 or 5 doses of 4.0 Gy irradiated mice were treated with a preparation extracted from an edible fungus Tremella Fuciformis Berk (TFP) 2 months after the irradiation. The number of endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight also increased markedly after the treatment. Because of the similarity found in the changes of hemaopoietic functions between the mice of residual injury and the patients of aplastic anemia, it is suggested that TFP may be useful to the patients of such blood disorder

  6. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas; Smith, Paul Herrick; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Prochnow, David Adrian; Schulte, Louis D.; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher; Fife, Keith William; Rubin, Jim; Worl, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U 3 O 8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl 3 , and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a commercially-available phosphate

  7. Water Solubility of Plutonium and Uranium Compounds and Residues at TA-55

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Sean Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Jarvinen, Gordon D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Prochnow, David Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Schulte, Louis D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; DeBurgomaster, Paul Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Fife, Keith William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Rubin, Jim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States; Worl, Laura Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States

    2016-06-13

    Understanding the water solubility of plutonium and uranium compounds and residues at TA-55 is necessary to provide a technical basis for appropriate criticality safety, safety basis and accountability controls. Individual compound solubility was determined using published solubility data and solution thermodynamic modeling. Residue solubility was estimated using a combination of published technical reports and process knowledge of constituent compounds. The scope of materials considered includes all compounds and residues at TA-55 as of March 2016 that contain Pu-239 or U-235 where any single item in the facility has more than 500 g of nuclear material. This analysis indicates that the following materials are not appreciably soluble in water: plutonium dioxide (IDC=C21), plutonium phosphate (IDC=C66), plutonium tetrafluoride (IDC=C80), plutonium filter residue (IDC=R26), plutonium hydroxide precipitate (IDC=R41), plutonium DOR salt (IDC=R42), plutonium incinerator ash (IDC=R47), uranium carbide (IDC=C13), uranium dioxide (IDC=C21), U3O8 (IDC=C88), and uranium filter residue (IDC=R26). This analysis also indicates that the following materials are soluble in water: plutonium chloride (IDC=C19) and uranium nitrate (IDC=C52). Equilibrium calculations suggest that PuOCl is water soluble under certain conditions, but some plutonium processing reports indicate that it is insoluble when present in electrorefining residues (R65). Plutonium molten salt extraction residues (IDC=R83) contain significant quantities of PuCl3, and are expected to be soluble in water. The solubility of the following plutonium residues is indeterminate due to conflicting reports, insufficient process knowledge or process-dependent composition: calcium salt (IDC=R09), electrorefining salt (IDC=R65), salt (IDC=R71), silica (IDC=R73) and sweepings/screenings (IDC=R78). Solution thermodynamic modeling also indicates that fire suppression water buffered with a

  8. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A. J.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a continuous assessment of the impact of solid urban waste (SUW) landfills in the central Iberian Peninsula that were sealed with a layer of soil 20 years ago. cover soils and soils from discharge areas have been periodically analysed. Soil concentrations of salts and heavy metals affect the biotic components of these ecosystems. (Author)

  9. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  10. Method for the analysis of triadimefon and ethofumesate from dislodgeable foliar residues on turfgrass by solid-phase extraction and in-vial elution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runes, H B; Jenkins, J J; Field, J A

    1999-08-01

    Triadimefon, a fungicide, and ethofumesate, an herbicide, are commonly applied to turfgrass in the Pacific Northwest, resulting in foliar residues. A simple and rapid method was developed to determine triadimefon and ethofumesate concentrations from dislodgeable foliar residues on turfgrass. Turfgrass samples were washed, and wash water containing surfactant (a 0.126% solution) was collected for residue analysis. This analytical method utilizes a 25 mm C(8) Empore disk and in-vial elution to quantitatively determine triadimefon and ethofumesate in 170 mL aqueous samples. The analytes were eluted by placing the disk in a 2 mL autosampler vial with 980 microL of ethyl acetate and 20 microL of 2-chlorolepidine, the internal standard, for analysis by GC/MS. The method quantitation limits are 0.29 microg/L for ethofumesate and 0.59 microg/L for triadimefon. The method detection limits are 0.047 microg/L and 0.29 microg/L for ethofumesate and triadimefon, respectively. Concentrations of triadimefon and ethofumesate from dislodgeable foliar residues from a field study are reported.

  11. Uses of extraction and ion exchange chromatography in the thorium and rare earths separation from industrial residue generated in thorium purification unity at IPEN. Application of rare earths as catalysts for generation of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, Josiane

    2010-01-01

    In the 70's a pilot plant for studies of different concentrates processing obtained from the chemical processing of monazite was operated at IPEN / CNEN-SP, with a view to obtaining thorium of nuclear purity. This unity was operated on an industrial scale since 1985, generating around 25 metric tons of residue and was closed in 2002. This waste containing thorium and rare earths was named Retoter (Rejeito de Torio e Terras Raras, in portuguese) and stored in the IPEN Safeguards shed. This paper studies the treatment of the waste, aimed at environmental, radiological and technology. Were studied two cases for the chromatographic separation of thorium from rare earths. One of them was the chromatographic extraction, where the extracting agent tributyl phosphate was supported on polymeric resins Amberlite XAD16. The other method is studied for comparison purposes, since the material used in chromatographic extraction is unprecedented with regard to the separation of thorium, was the ion-exchange chromatography using DOWEX 1-X8 strong cationic resin. Was studied also the chromatographic process of extraction with the extracting agent DEHPA supported on Amberlite XAD16 for the fractionation in groups of rare earths elements. Thorium was separated with high purity for strategic purposes and rare earths recovered free from thorium, were tested as a catalyst for ethanol reforming to hydrogen obtaining which is used in fuel cells for power generation. (author)

  12. Separation of adhered salt from uranium deposits generated in electro-refiner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.W.; Park, K.M.; Lee, H.S.; Kim, J.G.; Ahn, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to increase a throughput of the salt removal process from uranium deposits which is generated on the solid cathode of electro-refiner in pyroprocess. In this study, it was proposed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt from the uranium deposits. The feasibility of liquid salt separation was examined by salt separation experiments on a stainless steel sieve. It was found that the amount of salt to be distilled could be reduced by the liquid salt separation prior to the salt distillation. The residual salt remained in the deposits after the liquid salt separation was successfully removed further by the vacuum distillation. It was concluded that the combination of a liquid salt separation and a vacuum distillation is an effective route for the achievement of a high throughput performance in the salt separation process. (author)

  13. Leaching Behavior of Circulating Fluidised Bed MSWI Air Pollution Control Residue in Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, air pollution control (APC residue is conducted with water washing process to reduce its chloride content. A novel electrical conductivily (EC measurement method is proposed to monitor the dynamic change of chloride concentrations in leachate as well as the chloride content of the residue. The method equally applies to various washing processes with different washing time, liquid/solid ratio and washing frequency. The results show that washing effectively extracts chloride salts from APC residues, including those from circulating fluidized bed (CFB municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI. The most appropriate liquid/solid ratio and washing time in the first washing are found to be around 4 L water per kg of APC residue and 30 min, respectively, and washing twice is required to obtain maximum dissolution. The pH value is the major controlling factor of the heavy metals speciation in leachate, while chloride concentration also affects the speciation of Cd. Water washing causes no perceptible transfer of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs from the APC residue to leachate. The chloride concentration is strongly related with electrical conductivity (EC, as well as with the concentrations of calcium, sodium and potassium of washing water. Their regression analyses specify that soluble chloride salts and EC could act as an indirect indicator to monitor the change of chloride concentration and remaining chloride content, thus, contributing to the selection of the optimal washing conditions.

  14. Methodology for the determination of residues of organophosphorous pesticides in milk of domestic consumption by means of gas chromatography and extraction in solid phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero Blanco, Eric; Meza Nunez, Humberto; Poveda Calvo, Vanessa

    2005-01-01

    A new method oriented to the detection and quantification of 15 organophosphate pesticide in raw milk samples for national consumption has been developed by using a gas chromatograph equipped with polydimethylsiloxane capillary column and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector (NPD), in combination with the extraction technique in solid phase (SPE) for the sample cleaning process and pesticide extraction. Recovery percentages obtained were close to 100% and the detection limits obtained were lower than 20 μg/L for 13 of the organophosphates analyzed. Overall, the method showed important improvement as compared to conventional liquid/liquid extraction methodologies. (Author) [es

  15. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conocar, O.

    2007-06-01

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose

  16. Liquid-liquid reductive extraction in molten fluoride salt/liquid aluminium as a core of process for the An/Ln group separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    2007-06-15

    This report concerns a pyrochemical process based on liquid-liquid extraction in a molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system as a core process for actinide (An)/lanthanide (Ln) group separation, studied at CEA. The basic and demonstrative experiments have established the feasibility of the An/Ln group separation in the molten fluoride/liquid aluminium system (U, Pu, Np, Am, Cm traces from Nd, Ce, Eu, Sm, Eu, La - An/Ln separation factors over 1000 - An recovery yield over 98 % in one batch). The main experimental efforts must now be targeted on the recovery of actinides from the Al matrix. A thermodynamic and bibliographical survey has been done. It shows that back-extraction in a molten chloride melt could be a promising technique for this purpose.

  17. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  18. Green and simple analytical method to determine benzimidazoles in milk samples by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; García-Campaña, Ana M; Lara, Francisco J

    2018-08-01

    A green and simple multiresidue method using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) with UV-diode array detection (DAD) has been developed for the determination of sixteen benzimidazoles (BZs) and its metabolites in milk samples. The separation was achieved in  0.9985 for all BZs) with limits of detection (LOD) between 1.0 and 2.8 μg kg -1 . Relative standard deviations of repeatability and intermediate precision were below 1.6 and 14.2%, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries between 79.1 and 99.6% were also obtained for three types of milk samples (cow, sheep and goat). The advantages of a miniaturized technique such as CLC in terms of better efficiencies and reduced solvent consumption, combined with the simplicity of the SALLE procedure, make this method a useful alternative for the monitoring of these residues at trace level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Aproveitamento de peles de tilápia-do-nilo congeladas e salgadas para extração de gelatina em processo batelada Utilization of frozen and salted Nile tilapia skin for batch-processed gelatin extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Bordignon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se caracterizar peles de tilápia-do-nilo, conservadas por congelamento e salga a seco, visando à extração de gelatina em processo batelada. Após a filetagem, as peles foram descarnadas e distribuídas em dois lotes. Um dos lotes foi congelado a -18 ºC por sete dias e o outro foi salgado e mantido a 25 ºC por sete dias. As peles foram lavadas, pesadas e pré-tratadas em solução de H2SO4 a10N (pH 3,0, na proporção de 1:6 (pele:água por uma hora a 24 ºC. Extraiu-se a gelatina em banho-maria a 50 ºC por uma hora e retirou-se uma amostra para análise do perfil molecular. O restante foi congelado a -18 ºC. Foram realizadas análises físico-químicas das peles e das gelatinas líquidas, do perfil molecular com as gelatinas e análises microbiológicas das peles. As peles congeladas e salgadas apresentaram, respectivamente, 78,13 e 76,46% de umidade; 18,16 e 19,59% de proteína bruta; 2,26 e 1,90% de extrato etéreo e 1,44 e 2,06% de cinzas. Nas gelatinas líquidas extraídas das peles congeladas e salgadas, a umidade foi de 97,68 e 96,08%, o conteúdo de proteína bruta de 3,18 e 4,12%, de extrato etéreo 0,29 e 0,18% e de cinzas de 2,31 e 3,03%, respectivamente. Os valores da força de gel e viscosidade foram maiores para a gelatina de peles salgadas (200 g e 19,02mPas em comparação à gelatina de peles conservadas pelo congelamento (12,7 g e 9,16mPas. O perfil molecular foi menor na gelatina extraída a partir de peles congeladas, portanto houve perda de β e γ-componentes, que indica grande degradação do colágeno decorrente do método de conservação.The objective was to characterize Nile tilapia skins, freeze- and dry salt dry-preserved to extract gelatins by batch processing. After filleting, the skins were separated from the meat and distributed into two lots: In one, skins were frozen for 7 days (-18 ºC; and in the other, skins were salted for seven days (25 ºC. The skins were rinsed, weighed and pretreated in

  20. Sol-gel-graphene-based fabric-phase sorptive extraction for cow and human breast milk sample cleanup for screening bisphenol A and residual dental restorative material before analysis by HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Filippou, Olga; Marinou, Eirini; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric-phase sorptive extraction has already been recognized as a simple and green alternative to the conventional sorbent-based sorptive microextraction techniques, using hybrid organic-inorganic sorbent coatings chemically bonded to a flexible fabric surface. Herein, we have investigated the synergistic combination of the advanced material properties offered by sol-gel graphene sorbent and the simplicity of Fabric phase sorptive extraction approach in selectively extracting bisphenol A and residual monomers including bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate derived dental restorative materials from cow and human breast milk samples. Different coatings were evaluated. Final method development employed sol-gel graphene coated media. The main experimental parameters influencing extraction of the compounds, such as sorbent chemistry used, sample loading conditions, elution solvent, sorption stirring time, elution time, impact of protein precipitation, amount of sample, and matrix effect, were investigated and optimized. Absolute recovery values from standard solutions were 50% for bisphenol A, 78% for T triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 110% for urethane dimethacrylate, and 103% for bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, while respective absolute recovery values from milk were 30, 52, 104, and 42%. Method validation was performed according to European Decision 657/2002/EC in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  2. Rapid analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and pulse glow discharge ion source ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Nan; Gu, Kejia; Liu, Shaowen; Hou, Yanbing; Zhang, Jialei; Xu, Xiang; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-03-01

    An analytical method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction with a multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent coupled with positive pulse glow discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for analysis of 30 pesticide residues in drinking water samples. Reduced ion mobilities and the mass-mobility correlation of 30 pesticides were measured. The pesticides were divided into five groups to verify the separation capability of pulse glow discharge in mobility spectrometry. The extraction conditions such as desorption solvent, ionic strength, conditions of adsorption and desorption, the amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and solution pH were optimized. The enrichment factors of pesticides were 5.4- to 48.7-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 50-fold). The detection limits of pesticides were 0.01∼0.77 μg/kg. The linear range was 0.005-0.2 mg/L for pesticide standard solutions, with determination coefficients from 0.9616 to 0.9999. The method was applied for the analysis of practical and spiked drinking water samples. All results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed method was proven to be a commendably rapid screening qualitative and semiquantitative technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples on site. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Development and validation of a solid-phase extraction method coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the determination of fluoroquinolone residues in powdered infant formulae. Application to the analysis of samples from the Spanish and Latin American market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, E; Moreno-Bondi, M C; Marazuela, M D

    2008-10-31

    This paper describes a new method for the effective extraction, clean-up and chromatographic analysis of residues of four fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin and sarafloxacin) in powdered infant formulae and follow-on preparations. Samples were reconstituted following the manufacturer's recommendations and treated with trichloroacetic acid in methanol 10% (w/v) for deproteinization. Two solid-phase extraction cartridges have been evaluated for sample clean-up and preconcentration, Strata Screen A and Strata X and the later provided the best recoveries for all the analytes tested. Chromatographic analysis has been carried out using a polar endcapped column (AQUA C(18)) and fluorescence detection, with lomefloxacin (LOME) as internal standard. Method validation has been performed according to European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria, in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, specificity, decision limit (CC(alpha)) and detection capability (CC(beta)). Typical recoveries ranged between 70 and 110% at levels below and above the maximum residue limits of the target analytes in bovine milk, with an excellent intralab reproducibility (RSDsmarket, using LC-MS/MS as confirmatory technique.

  4. Tannins extracted starting from residual bark of pinus caribaea morelet like protective of the adn before the damage induced by gamma rays a cellular cultivation of escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernhe, M.; Fuentes, J.L.; Prieto, E.F.; Cuetara, E.B.; Sanchez Lamar, A.; Santana, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate genotoxicity and anti genotoxicity activity against rays of the a tannins fraction obtained from barks of Pinus caribaea Morelet, as well as to elucidate the anti genotoxic mechanisms implicated in radioprotection using deferent's approaches as pre- co- and post-irradiation cell treatments with plant extract. The tannins fraction was not genotoxic to E. coli cells in experiments using different exposure times. This extract was anti genotoxic against rays when the cells were pre- or co-treated with this extracts, but not during post-irradiation treatments, suggesting a possibly anti genotoxic action through free radicals scavenging mechanisms. The results are discussed in relation to the chemo preventive and therapeutic potential of the studied plant species

  5. Optimization and application of parallel solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of 11 aminoglycoside residues in honey and royal jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinran; Yang, Shupeng; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Zhao, Wen; Zhang, Yongxin; Huang, Jingping; Wang, Peng; Wu, Cuiling; Zhou, Jinhui

    2018-03-23

    A robust and sensitive method of solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was established and performed for the simultaneous determination of eleven aminoglycosides (AGs) in royal jelly and honey. After sample extraction by a phosphate buffer containing trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and ethylenediaminetetracetic acid disodium salt (Na 2 EDTA), the extraction solution was subjected to a parallel solid-phase extraction for clean-up prior to the LC-MS/MS analysis. The same method was applied to analyze two completely different matrices, honey and royal jelly. Good sensitivity, repeatability, and recovery were obtained by using the mobile phase without an ion-pairing reagent such as heptafluorobutyric acid (HFBA) or sodium heptanesulfonate. The calibration curves of the honey and royal jelly samples exhibited a good linear response (R 2  > 0.99) at six concentrations in the range of 10-1000 μg/mL. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the AGs ranged from 10 to 25 μg/kg in the honey and from 12.5 to 25 μg/kg in the royal jelly. The recoveries of the AGs for the honey and royal jelly samples were in the range of 79.48% to 108.95% and 74.61% to 113.70% respectively and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were between 1.23% and 9.59%, and between 1.51% and 9.98%, respectively. The proposed approach has been allowed in China as a reference method for the simultaneous determination of eleven AGs in honey and royal jelly. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cooking without salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000760.htm Cooking without salt To use the sharing features on ... other dishes to add zest. Try Salt-free Cooking Explore cooking with salt substitutes. Add a splash ...

  7. Evaluation of a method for assaying sulfonamide antimicrobial residues in cheese: hot-water extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Giorgio; Bogialli, Sara; Curini, Roberta; Di Corcia, Antonio; Laganá, Aldo

    2006-06-28

    Several sulfonamide antimicrobials (SAAs) are largely used in veterinary medicine. A rapid, specific, and sensitive procedure for determining 12 SAAs in cheese is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion technique followed by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS) equipped with an electrospray ion source. Target compounds were extracted from Mozzarella, Asiago, Parmigiano, Emmenthal, and Camembert cheese samples by 6 mL of water modified with 10% methanol and heated at 120 degrees C. The addition of methanol to hot water served to improve remarkably extraction yields of the most lipophilic SAAs, that is, sulfadimethoxine and sulfaquinoxaline. After acidification and filtration, 100 microL of the aqueous extract was injected in the LC column. MS data acquisition was performed in the multireaction monitoring mode, selecting two precursor-to-product ion transitions for each target compound. Methanol-modified hot water appeared to be an efficient extractant, because absolute recovery ranged between 67 and 88%. Using sulfamoxole as surrogate analyte, recovery of the 12 analytes spiked in the five types of cheese considered at the 50 ng/g level ranged between 75 and 105% with RSD not higher than 11%. Statistical analysis of the mean recovery data showed that the extraction efficiency was not affected by the type of cheese analyzed. This result indicates this method could be applied to other cheese types not considered here. The accuracy of the method was determined at three spike levels, that is, 20, 50, and 100 ng/g, and varied between 73 and 102% with relative standard deviations ranging between 4 and 12%. On the basis of a signal-to-noise ratio of 10, limits of quantification were estimated to be <1 ng/g.

  8. Comparison of magnesium sulfate and sodium sulfate for removal of water from pesticide extracts of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Frank J; Callery, Patrick; Gannett, Peter M; Daft, Jonathan R; Lehotay, Steven J

    2002-01-01

    Water-miscible solvents, such as acetone and acetonitrile, effectively extract both polar and nonpolar pesticide residues from nonfatty foods. The addition of sodium chloride to the resulting acetonitrile-water or acetone-water extract (salting out) results in the separation of the water from the organic solvent. However, the organic solvent layer (pesticide extract) still contains some residual water, which can adversely affect separation procedures that follow, such as solid-phase extraction and/or gas chromatography. Drying agents, such as sodium sulfate or magnesium sulfate, are used to remove the water from the organic extracts. In the present study, we used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the composition of the phases resulting from salting out and to compare the effectiveness of sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate as drying agents. The study showed that considerable amounts of water remained in the organic phase after phase separation. Sodium sulfate was a relatively ineffective drying agent, removing little or no residual water from the organic solvent. Magnesium sulfate proved to be a much more effective drying agent.

  9. Sample Preparation of Eggs From Laying Hens Using QuEChERS Dispersive Extraction for the Simultaneous Determination of Melamine and Cyromazine Residues by HPLC-DAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsali, Niki; Samanidou, Victoria F

    2015-01-01

    A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) dispersive extraction method is proposed herein for the isolation and cleanup of melamine and cyromazine from chicken egg yolk. Analytes are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using photodiode array detector after separation on a LiChroCART® (250 × 4 mm)-LiChrospher® RP-8e, 5 μm analytical column using a mobile phase of 0.1% trifluoracetic acid and methanol (80:20 v/v) delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute. Extraction of isolated compounds was achieved by methanol and acetonitrile mixture (1:1 v/v). Recovery rates ranged between 74.5% and 115.8%. The method was validated in terms of 657/2002/EC decision. The within-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as a relative standard deviation, was evaporation temperature, and vortex time.

  10. Chemistry and technology of Molten Salt Reactors - history and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlir, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Molten Salt Reactors represent one of promising future nuclear reactor concept included also in the Generation IV reactors family. This reactor type is distinguished by an extraordinarily close connection between the reactor physics and chemical technology, which is given by the specific features of the chemical form of fuel, representing by molten fluoride salt and circulating through the reactor core and also by the requirements of continuous 'on-line' reprocessing of the spent fuel. The history of Molten Salt Reactors reaches the period of fifties and sixties, when the first experimental Molten Salt Reactors were constructed and tested in ORNL (US). Several molten salt techniques dedicated to fresh molten salt fuel processing and spent fuel reprocessing were studied and developed in those days. Today, after nearly thirty years of discontinuance, a renewed interest in the Molten Salt Reactor technology is observed. Current experimental R and D activities in the area of Molten Salt Reactor technology are realized by a relatively small number of research institutions mainly in the EU, Russia and USA. The main effort is directed primarily to the development of separation processes suitable for the molten salt fuel processing and reprocessing technology. The techniques under development are molten salt/liquid metal extraction processes, electrochemical separation processes from the molten salt media, fused salt volatilization techniques and gas extraction from the molten salt medium

  11. High temperature salting of mince of small sized fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sorinmade, S.O.; Talabi, S.O.; Aliu, A.

    1982-01-01

    Freshly caught small sized fish species were transported to the laboratory gutted and washed before mechanical separation into bone and mince. Duplicate batches of the mince were then treated with seven different concentrations (wt/wt) of sodium chloride before cooking. The cooked mince was divided into two groups, pressed and unpressed. Percentage residual salt in the salted cooked mince, free and press water and salted cooked pressed mince were determined. Also, the moisture contents of...

  12. A numerical investigation into the ability of the Poisson PDE to extract the mass-density from land-based gravity data: A case study of salt diapirs in the north coast of the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    AllahTavakoli, Yahya; Safari, Abdolreza

    2017-08-01

    This paper is counted as a numerical investigation into the capability of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) at Earth's surface to extract the near-surface mass-density from land-based gravity data. For this purpose, first it focuses on approximating the gradient tensor of Earth's gravitational potential by means of land-based gravity data. Then, based on the concepts of both the gradient tensor and Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface, certain formulae are proposed for the mass-density determination. Furthermore, this paper shows how the generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy can be used for enhancing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, in a real case study, the formulae are applied to 6350 gravity stations located within a part of the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The case study numerically indicates that the proposed formulae, provided by Poisson's PDE, has the ability to convert land-based gravity data into the terrain mass-density which has been used for depicting areas of salt diapirs in the region of the case study.

  13. Management of NORM Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-06-01

    The IAEA attaches great importance to the dissemination of information that can assist Member States in the development, implementation, maintenance and continuous improvement of systems, programmes and activities that support the nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear applications, and that address the legacy of past practices and accidents. However, radioactive residues are found not only in nuclear fuel cycle activities, but also in a range of other industrial activities, including: - Mining and milling of metalliferous and non-metallic ores; - Production of non-nuclear fuels, including coal, oil and gas; - Extraction and purification of water (e.g. in the generation of geothermal energy, as drinking and industrial process water; in paper and pulp manufacturing processes); - Production of industrial minerals, including phosphate, clay and building materials; - Use of radionuclides, such as thorium, for properties other than their radioactivity. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) may lead to exposures at some stage of these processes and in the use or reuse of products, residues or wastes. Several IAEA publications address NORM issues with a special focus on some of the more relevant industrial operations. This publication attempts to provide guidance on managing residues arising from different NORM type industries, and on pertinent residue management strategies and technologies, to help Member States gain perspectives on the management of NORM residues

  14. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  15. Rapid monitoring of residual UV-stabilizers in seawater samples from beaches using fabric phase sorptive extraction and UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerra, Romualdo B; Montesdeoca-Esponda, Sarah; Sosa-Ferrera, Zoraida; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G; Santana-Rodríguez, José Juan

    2016-12-01

    Benzotriazole UV stabilizers (BUVSs) are a group of compounds added to personal care products such as sunscreens, hair dyes, make up formulations, soaps or shampoos, among others. Direct input from beaches or another aquatic recreational areas is the main source of BUVSs incorporation to the environment, where they can be mutagenic, toxic, pseudo-persistent and bioaccumulative. Due to the low levels of concentration of these compounds found in environmental samples, an extraction process is required prior to their determination. Fabric phase sorptive extraction integrates the advanced material properties of sol-gel hybrid inorganic-organic sorbents with flexible, permeable and functionally active fabric substrates, being a highly responsive, efficient and cheap device that also can be reused. In this paper, we applied fabric phase sorptive extraction methodology to analyse six BUVSs in twenty-four seawater samples from different coastal areas of Gran Canaria Island (Spain). It was coupled to ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in order to achieve a fast, reliable and sensitive separation and determination of the analytes from different simple matrices, regardless of its complexity and composition. Under the optimum conditions, the proposed method provided enrichment factors of 25 times with limits of detection from 1.06 to 8.96 ng L -1 and limits of quantification from 3.54 to 29.9 ng L -1 for the analytes under study in spiked samples. Intra and inter-day relative standard deviations were between 3.97 and 20.8% for all compounds. The application of the optimized methodology to non-spiked seawater samples allows detecting and quantifying the UV 360 in the range from 41.12 to 544.9 ng L -1 . Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fuel processing for molten-salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Research devoted to development of processes for the isolation of protactinium and for the removal of fission products from molten-salt breeder reactors is reported. During this report period, engineering development progressed on continuous fluorinators for uranium removal, the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal, the fuel reconstitution step, and molten salt--bismuth contactors to be used in reductive extraction processes. The metal transfer experiment MTE-3B was started. In this experiment all parts of the metal transfer process for rare-earth removal are demonstrated using salt flow rates which are about 1 percent of those required to process the fuel salt in a 1000-MW(e) MSBR. During this report period the salt and bismuth phases were transferred to the experimental vessels, and two runs with agitator speeds of 5 rps were made to measure the rate of transfer of neodymium from the fluoride salt to the Bi--Li stripper solution. The uranium removed from the fuel salt by fluorination must be returned to the processed salt in the fuel reconstitution step before the fuel salt is returned to the reactor. An engineering experiment to demonstrate the fuel reconstitution step is being installed. In this experiment gold-lined equipment will be used to avoid introducing products of corrosion by UF 6 and UF 5 . Alternative methods for providing the gold lining include electroplating and mechanical fabrication

  17. Sample Preparation of Eggs from Laying Hens Using QuEChERS Dispersive Extraction for the Simultaneous Determination of Melamine and Cyromazine Residues by HPLC-DAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki Tsartsali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS dispersive extraction method is proposed herein for the isolation and cleanup of melamine and cyromazine from chicken egg yolk. Analytes are determined by high-performance liquid chromatography using photodiode array detector after separation on a LiChroCART® (250 × 4 mm–-LiChrospher® RP-8e, 5 µm analytical column using a mobile phase of 0.1% trifluoracetic acid and methanol (80:20 v/v delivered isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/minute. Extraction of isolated compounds was achieved by methanol and acetonitrile mixture (1:1 v/v. Recovery rates ranged between 74.5% and 115.8%. The method was validated in terms of 657/2002/EC decision. The within-laboratory reproducibility, expressed as a relative standard deviation, was <11%. Decision limits (CCalfa were 2.56 mg/kg for melamine and 0.22 mg/kg -1 for cyromazine, and the corresponding results for detection capability (CCbeta were 2.8 mg/kg for melamine and 0.24 mg/kg for cyromazine. Ruggedness was estimated according to the Youden approach studying egg yolk mass, sorbent mass, centrifugation time, organic solvents volume, evaporation temperature, and vortex time.

  18. Simultaneous analysis of aminoglycosides with many other classes of drug residues in bovine tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an ion-pairing reagent added to final extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Lightfield, Alan R

    2018-01-01

    The way to maximize scope of analysis, sample throughput, and laboratory efficiency in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in food animals is to determine as many analytes as possible as fast as possible in as few methods as possible. Capital and overhead expenses are also reduced by using fewer instruments in the overall monitoring scheme. Traditionally, the highly polar aminoglycoside antibiotics require different chromatographic conditions from other classes of drugs, but in this work, we demonstrate that an ion-pairing reagent (sodium 1-heptanesulfonate) added to the combined final extracts from two sample preparation methods attains good separation of 174 targeted drugs, including 9 aminoglycosides, in the same 10.5-min ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The full method was validated in bovine kidney, liver, and muscle tissues according to US regulatory protocols, and 137-146 (79-84%) of the drugs gave between 70 and 120% average recoveries with ≤ 25% RSDs in the different types of tissues spiked at 0.5, 1, and 2 times the regulatory levels of interest (10-1000 ng/g depending on the drug). This method increases sample throughput and the possible number of drugs monitored in the US National Residue Program, and requires only one UHPLC-MS/MS method and instrument for analysis rather than two by the previous scheme. Graphical abstract Outline of the streamlined approach to monitor 174 veterinary drugs, including aminoglycosides, in bovine tissues by combining two extracts of the same sample with an ion-pairing reagent for analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS.

  19. A simple multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides in fruits and vegetables using a methanolic extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: optimization and extension of scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanot, V; Goscinny, S; Deridder, M

    2015-03-06

    In 2004, a new multi-residue pesticides method had been published using methanol as extraction solvent. Our goal for this study was to optimize the analytical scheme while extending the compound scope from 19 to 200 pesticides. The main changes from the original method take place at the sample extraction and processing with a special attention to make the overall method fit for routine analysis with minimal cost. Hence, after a quick Ultra-Turrax homogenization with a methanolic solution, the sample is simply diluted before the separation and detection by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography and MS/MS detection for quantitative and confirmatory purposes. The performance of the method including limits of quantification (LOQs), linearity, matrix effect, precision was evaluated during validation in accordance with the European Union SANCO/12571/2013 regulatory guidelines. Two representative matrices, lettuce and orange, were selected and fortified at two concentration levels for these experiments. At the LOQ and ten times the LOQ, recoveries of the analytes were mostly within 70-120%, with coefficients of variation lower than 25% in intra-day repeatability conditions. In addition to being simple and fast, these results demonstrate the suitability of the optimized method for the analysis of large scope pesticides in routine laboratories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study on quality standards of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenbing; Hu, Changjiang; Long, Lanyan; Huang, Qinwan; Xie, Xiuqiong

    2010-12-01

    To establish the quality criteria for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia. Decoction pieces of salt Alpinia were measured with moisture, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils according to the procedures recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010. The content of Nootkatone was determined by HPLC, and NaCl, by chloridion electrode method. We obtained results of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, water-extract and volatile oils of 10 batches of decoction pieces of salt Alpinia moisture; Meanwhile we set the HPLC and chloridion electrode method. This research established a fine quality standard for decoction pieces of salt Alpinia.

  1. Salt-soluble proteins from wheat-derived foodstuffs show lower allergenic potency than those from raw flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gregorio, Marta; Armentia, Alicia; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Palacín, Arantxa; Dueñas-Laita, Antonio; Martín, Blanca; Salcedo, Gabriel; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa

    2009-04-22

    Salt-soluble proteins from wheat flour have been described as main allergens associated with both baker's asthma and food allergy. However, most studies have used raw flour as starting material, thus not considering potential changes in allergenic properties induced by the heat treatment and other industrial processing to produce wheat-derived foodstuffs. Salt extracts from different commercial wheat-derived products were obtained and their allergenic properties investigated by IgE-immunodetection, ELISA assays, and skin prick test. The IgE-binding capacity of salt-soluble proteins from commercial breads and cooked pastas was reduced around 50% compared with that of raw flour, the reduction being less dramatic in noncooked pastas and biscuits. Several wheat-derived foodstuffs showed major IgE-binding components of 20 and 35 kDa, identified as avenin-like and globulin proteins, respectively. These proteins, as well as most flour and bread salt-soluble proteins, were hydrolyzed when subjected to simulated gastrointestinal digestion. However, the digested products still exhibited a residual IgE-binding capacity. Therefore, processing of wheat flour to obtain derived foodstuffs decreases the IgE binding-capacity of the major salt-soluble wheat proteins. Moreover, simulated gastric fluid digestion further inactivates some heat-resistant IgE-binding proteins.

  2. The determination of UO2 and UF4 in fused fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batiste, D.J.; Lee, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    The determination of uranium oxide solubilities in fused fluoride salts is important in the electrolytic preparation of uranium metal. This project was initiated to develop a method for the determination of UO 2 separately from UF 4 in UF 4 -CaF 2 -LiF fused salts. Previous methods used for the determination of UO 2 in fused fluoride salts involved inert gas fusions where oxygen was liberated as CO 2 , and hydrofluorination where oxygen was released as H 2 O; but the special equipment used for these procedures was no longer available. These methods assumed that all of the oxygen liberated was due to UO 2 and does not consider impurities from reagents and other oxygen sources that amount to a bias of approximately 0.3 wt %. This titrimetric method eliminates the bias by selectively extracting the UF 4 with a Na 2 EDTA-H 3 BO 3 solution. The remaining uranium oxide residue is treated and titrated gravimetrically to a potentiometric endpoint with NBS standard K 2 Cr 2 O 7 . An aliquot of the Na 2 EDTA-H 3 BO 3 extract is also titrated gravimetrically to a potentiometric endpoint, this uranium component is determined and calculated as UF 4 . 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Simultaneous determination of kasugamycin and validamycin-A residues in cereals by consecutive solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Chenchen; Li, Huidong; Nie, Yan; Fang, Liping; Chen, Zilei

    2018-03-01

    Two polar aminoglycosides, kasugamycin and validamycin-A, were determined in cereals (brown rice, wheat and corn) by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The analytes were extracted from samples using methanol and water (70:30, v/v) at pH 5.5, purified using both a hydrophilic-hydrophobic-balanced cartridge and a strong cation-exchange cartridge, and then analysed using multiple reaction monitoring in positive electrospray ionisation mode with a special ReproSil 100 C 18 high-performance liquid chromatography column. This newly proposed method yielded good sensitivity and excellent chromatographic performance. The limits of quantification for kasugamycin and validamycin-A were 4.1 µg/kg and 1.0 µg/kg, respectively. The recoveries for both compounds at three fortification levels (4, 100 and 500 µg/kg for kasugamycin; 1, 10 and 100 µg/kg for validamycin-A) ranged from 75% to 110%, and the relative standard deviations were below 15%.

  4. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  6. Influence of organic waste and residue mud additions on chemical, physical and microbial properties of bauxite residue sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin E H; Haynes, Richard J; Phillips, Ian R

    2011-02-01

    wet sieving, was greatest where poultry manure was applied. Although total organic C and soluble organic C were greater in biosolids than poultry manure treatments, the reverse was the case for microbial biomass C and basal respiration. In the biosolids and poultry manure treatments, increasing residue mud additions tended to increase soluble C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration. Germination index of watercress was highest in control samples and reduced by additions of biosolids and poultry manure which was attributed to the high EC and possibly high extractable P and NH (4) (+) . The concurrent addition of residue mud and organic wastes can improve chemical, microbial and particularly physical properties of residue sand. Future research should include neutralisation of the mud (e.g. with gypsum) and subsequent leaching to remove salts originating from both the mud and organic wastes.

  7. Salt-bridge energetics in halophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Arnab; Sen Gupta, Parth Sarthi; Banerjee, Shyamashree; Mondal, Buddhadev; Bandyopadhyay, Amal K

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic proteins have greater abundance of acidic over basic and very low bulky hydrophobic residues. Classical electrostatic stabilization was suggested as the key determinant for halophilic adaptation of protein. However, contribution of specific electrostatic interactions (i.e. salt-bridges) to overall stability of halophilic proteins is yet to be understood. To understand this, we use Adaptive-Poison-Boltzmann-Solver Methods along with our home-built automation to workout net as well as associated component energy terms such as desolvation energy, bridge energy and background energy for 275 salt-bridges from 20 extremely halophilic proteins. We then perform extensive statistical analysis on general and energetic attributes on these salt-bridges. On average, 8 salt-bridges per 150 residues protein were observed which is almost twice than earlier report. Overall contributions of salt-bridges are -3.0 kcal mol-1. Majority (78%) of salt-bridges in our dataset are stable and conserved in nature. Although, average contributions of component energy terms are equal, their individual details vary greatly from one another indicating their sensitivity to local micro-environment. Notably, 35% of salt-bridges in our database are buried and stable. Greater desolvation penalty of these buried salt-bridges are counteracted by stable network salt-bridges apart from favorable equal contributions of bridge and background terms. Recruitment of extensive network salt-bridges (46%) with a net contribution of -5.0 kcal mol-1 per salt-bridge, seems to be a halophilic design wherein favorable average contribution of background term (-10 kcal mol-1) exceeds than that of bridge term (-7 kcal mol-1). Interiors of proteins from halophiles are seen to possess relatively higher abundance of charge and polar side chains than that of mesophiles which seems to be satisfied by cooperative network salt-bridges. Overall, our theoretical analyses provide insight into halophilic signature in its

  8. Electroremediation of air pollution control residues in a continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Célia M. D.; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration is considered hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist, however most commercial solutions involve landfilling. A demand...... were made with raw residue, water-washed residue, acid washed residue and acid-treated residue with emphasis on reduction of heavy metal mobility. Main results indicate that the reactor successfully removes toxic elements lead, copper, cadmium and zinc from the feed stream, suggesting...

  9. Multi-residue determination of the sorption of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals to wastewater suspended particulate matter using pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    Presented is the first comprehensive study of drugs of abuse on suspended particulate matter (SPM) in wastewater. Analysis of SPM is crucial to prevent the under-reporting of the levels of analyte that may be present in wastewater. Analytical methods to date analyse the aqueous part of wastewater samples only, removing SPM through the use of filtration or centrifugation. The development of an analytical method to determine 60 compounds on SPM using a combination of pressurised liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (PLE-SPE-LC-MS/MS) is reported. The range of compounds monitored included stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, and their metabolites. The method was successfully validated (parameters studied: linearity and range, recovery, accuracy, reproducibility, repeatability, matrix effects, and limits of detection and quantification). The developed methodology was applied to SPM samples collected at three wastewater treatment plants in the UK. The average proportion of analyte on SPM as opposed to in the aqueous phase was 10% with regard to methadone, EDDP, EMDP, BZP, fentanyl, nortramadol, norpropoxyphene, sildenafil and all antidepressants (dosulepin, amitriptyline, nortriptyline, fluoxetine and norfluoxetine). Consequently, the lack of SPM analysis in wastewater sampling protocol could lead to the under-reporting of the measured concentration of some compounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. High-throughput multipesticides residue analysis in earthworms by the improvement of purification method: Development and application of magnetic Fe3 O4 -SiO2 nanoparticles based dispersive solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuhan; Qi, Peipei; Cang, Tao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Xiangyun; Yang, Xuewei; Wang, Lidong; Xu, Xiahong; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Xinquan; Zhao, Changshan

    2018-06-01

    As a key representative organism, earthworms can directly illustrate the influence of pesticides on environmental organisms in soil ecosystems. The present work aimed to develop a high-throughput multipesticides residue analytical method for earthworms using solid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile as the solvent and magnetic material-based dispersive solid-phase extraction for purification. Magnetic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were modified with a thin silica layer to form Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 nanoparticles, which were fully characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The Fe 3 O 4 -SiO 2 nanoparticles were used as the separation media in dispersive solid-phase extraction with primary secondary amine and ZrO 2 as the cleanup adsorbents to eliminate matrix interferences. The amounts of nanoparticles and adsorbents were optimized for the simultaneous determination of 44 pesticides and six metabolites in earthworms by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The method performance was systematically validated with satisfactory results. The limits of quantification were 20 μg/kg for all analytes studied, while the recoveries of the target analytes ranged from 65.1 to 127% with relative standard deviation values lower than 15.0%. The developed method was subsequently utilized to explore the bioaccumulation of bitertanol in earthworms exposed to contaminated soil, verifying its feasibility for real sample analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. [Historical roles of salt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, E; Ritz, C

    2004-12-17

    Recently increasing evidence has been provided pointing to a close relation of salt consumption to hypertension as well as to target organ damage. It is interesting to note that the discussion concerning salt is unusually emotional. This may be explained, at least in part, by the fact that since ancient times salt had deep symbolic significance, as exemplified, mostly subconsciously, by many customs and expressions still in current use. In the past salt was essential to preserve food. The past importance of salt as a commodity can well be compared with that of oil today. These and further historical aspects of the role of salt are briefly dealt with in this article.

  12. Determination of the water insoluble residuum in potassium salts using gamma logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishin, G.T.; Gavrilova, L.I.

    1976-01-01

    For potassium salts the relationship has been established between the concentration of heavy radioelements (the uranium-radium and thorium series) and the content of the water-insoluble, residue which is mainly represented by the clay-iodine fraction. A method is described for determining the content of the insoluble residue with the aid of PRKS-2 equipment. The results are given of experimental investigations aimed at studying the content of the insoluble residue in salts along the section of rising production wells. The results of the determination of the insoluble residue in potassium salts define their quality with an accuracy sufficient for industrial purposes

  13. On-line solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for insect repellent residue analysis in surface waters using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Delgado, Daniel; García-Sillero, Daniel; Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Barceló, Damià

    2018-04-06

    Insect repellents (IRs) are a group of organic chemicals whose function is to prevent the ability of insects of landing in a surface. These compounds have been found in the environment and may pose a risk to non-target organisms. In this study, an on-line solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multiresidue method was developed using an atmospheric photoionization source (SPE-HPLC-(APPI)-MS/MS). The use of the APPI as an alternative ionization technique to electrospray (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) allowed expanding the range of analytical techniques suitable for the analysis of IRs, so far relied in gas chromatography. High sensitivity and precision was reached with method limits of quantification between 0.2 and 4.6 ng l -1 and interday and intraday precision equal or below 15%. The validated method was applied to the study of surface water samples from three European river basins with different flow regime (Adige River in Italy, Sava River in the Balkans, and Evrotas River in Greece). The results showed that two IRs (DEET and Bayrepel) were ubiquitous in the Sava and Evrotas basins, reaching concentrations as high as 105 μg l -1 of Bayrepel in the Sava River, and 5 μg l -1 of DEET in the Evrotas River. Densely populated areas and effluent waste waters are pointed out as the responsible for this pollution. In the alpine river Adige, only three samples showed low levels of IRs (6.01-37.8 ng l -1 ). The concentrations measured were used to perform an environmental risk assessment based on the hazard quotients (HQs) estimation approach by using the chronic and acute eco-toxicity data available. The results revealed that despite the high frequency and eventually high concentrations of these IRs determined in the three basins, only few sites were at risk, with 1 < HQs < 3.3. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME in Determination of Pesticide Residues in Soil Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rada Đurović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic principles and application possibilities of the methods based on solid phase microextraction (SPME in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented in the paper. The most important experimental parameters which affect SPME efficacy inpesticide determination (type and thickness of microextraction fiber, duration of microextraction,temperature at which it is conducted, effect of addition of salts (the effect of efflorescence,temperature and time of desorption, the choice of optimal solvent for pesticide exctraction from the soil and the optimal number of extraction steps, as well as general guidelines for their optimization are also shown. In the end, current applications of SPMEmethods in the analysis of pesticide residues in soil samples are presented.

  15. In-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichapong, Jitlada; Burakham, Rodjana; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2015-07-01

    A simple and fast method namely in-coupled syringe assisted octanol-water partition microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for the extraction, preconcentration and determination of neonicotinoid insecticide residues (e.g. imidacloprid, acetamiprid, clothianidin, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, and nitenpyram) in honey. The experimental parameters affected the extraction efficiency, including kind and concentration of salt, kind of disperser solvent and its volume, kind of extraction solvent and its volume, shooting times and extraction time were investigated. The extraction process was carried out by rapid shooting of two syringes. Therefore, rapid dispersion and mass transfer processes was created between phases, and thus affects the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The optimum extraction conditions were 10.00 mL of aqueous sample, 10% (w/v) Na2SO4, 1-octanol (100µL) as an extraction solvent, shooting 4 times and extraction time 2min. No disperser solvent and centrifugation step was necessary. Linearity was obtained within the range of 0.1-3000 ngmL(-1), with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The high enrichment factor of the target analytes was 100 fold and low limit of detection (0.25-0.50 ngmL(-1)) could be obtained. This proposed method has been successfully applied in the analysis of neonicotinoid residues in honey, and good recoveries in the range of 96.93-107.70% were obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sea Salt vs. Table Salt: What's the Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and healthy eating What's the difference between sea salt and table salt? Answers from Katherine Zeratsky, R.D., L.D. The main differences between sea salt and table salt are in their taste, texture ...

  17. Low-salt diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-sodium diet; Salt restriction ... control many functions. Too much sodium in your diet can be bad for you. For most people, ... you limit salt. Try to eat a balanced diet. Buy fresh vegetables and fruits whenever possible. They ...

  18. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  19. Use of gypsum residues as a corrective for saline-sodic soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Medeiros dos Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the hugest problems faced by the civil construction sector is the final destination of residues, especially gypsum, which presents recycling restrictions. However, these residues present a high amount of calcium in their composition, and can be alternatively used for replacing mined gypsum as a saline-sodic soil corrective. This study aimed at evaluating the efficiency of gypsum residues from the civil construction, when compared to mined gypsum, for correcting a saline-sodic soil. A randomized blocks design was used, in a factorial arrangement consisting of two kinds of corrective (gypsum residue and mined gypsum and five leaching depths (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 times the soil pores volume, with three replications. Electric conductivity, soluble cations and sodium adsorption ratio were evaluated in the soil saturation extract. The use of gypsum residue proved to be effective in leaching salts and soluble sodium in saline-sodic soil, and can be recommended as a calcium source for recovering from sodicity.

  20. Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs

  1. A novel optimised and validated method for analysis of multi-residues of pesticides in fruits and vegetables by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE)-dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE)-retention time locked (RTL)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with Deconvolution reporting software (DRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, Gouri; Tyagi, Yogesh Kumar; Gupta, Rajinder Kumar

    2011-08-01

    A rapid, effective and ecofriendly method for sensitive screening and quantification of 72 pesticides residue in fruits and vegetables, by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE), retention time locked (RTL) capillary gas-chromatographic separation in trace ion mode mass spectrometric determination has been validated as per ISO/IEC: 17025:2005. Identification and reporting with total and extracted ion chromatograms were facilitated to a great extent by Deconvolution reporting software (DRS). For all compounds LOD were 0.002-0.02mg/kg and LOQ were 0.025-0.100mg/kg. Correlation coefficients of the calibration curves in the range of 0.025-0.50mg/kg were >0.993. To validate matrix effects repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and overall uncertainty were calculated for the 35 matrices at 0.025, 0.050 and 0.100mg/kg. Recovery ranged between 72% and 114% with RSD of <20% for repeatability and intermediate precision. The reproducibility of the method was evaluated by an inter laboratory participation and Z score obtained within ±2. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial soluti...

  3. Adjusting membrane lipids under salt stress: the case of the moderate halophilic organism Halobacillus halophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopalco, Patrizia; Angelini, Roberto; Lobasso, Simona; Köcher, Saskia; Thompson, Melanie; Müller, Volker; Corcelli, Angela

    2013-04-01

    The lipid composition of Halobacillus halophilus was investigated by combined thin-layer chromatography and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses of the total lipid extract. Main polar lipids were found to be sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol, while cardiolipin was a minor lipid together with phosphatidic acid, alanyl-phosphatidylglycerol and two not yet fully identified lipid components. In addition the analyses of residual lipids, associated with denatured proteins after the lipid extraction, revealed the presence of significant amounts of cardiolipin, indicating that it is a not readily extractable phospholipid. Post decay source mass spectrometry analyses allowed the determination of acyl chains of main lipid components. On increasing the culture medium salinity, an increase in the shorter chains and the presence of chain unsaturations were observed. These changes in the lipid core structures might compensate for the increase in packing and rigidity of phospholipid and sulfoglycolipid polar heads in high-salt medium, therefore contributing to the homeostasis of membrane fluidity and permeability in salt stress conditions. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Double salts of ionic-liquid-based surfactants in microextraction: application of their mixed hemimicelles as novel sorbents in magnetic-assisted micro-dispersive solid-phase extraction for the determination of phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2015-11-01

    The use of mixed hemimicelles of ionic liquid (IL)-based surfactants in a magnetic-based micro-dispersive solid-phase extraction (m-μdSPE) approach is described. Not only is the symmetric monocationic IL-based surfactant 1,3-didodecylimidazolium bromide (C12C12Im-Br) studied for first time in m-μdSPE, but double-salt (DS) IL (DSIL)-based surfactants are also examined. Nine DSIL-based surfactants were formed by combination of C12C12Im-Br with other IL-based surfactants, including nonsymmetric monocationic and dicationic ILs combined at three different molar fractions. The analytical application was focused on the determination of a group of eight phenols, including bisphenol A, in water samples. The best results were obtained with the DSIL formed by C12C12Im-Br (molar fraction 0.5) and 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C16MIm-Br), after proper optimization of the overall method in combination with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and diode-array detection (DAD). The optimum conditions for 100 mL of water samples require a small amount (10 mg) of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles, a low content (5.0 mg of C12C12Im-Br and 3.9 mg of C16MIm-Br) of the selected DSIL, pH 11, a sonication time of 2.5 min, and an equilibration time of 5 min with the aid of NdFeB magnets, followed by elution of phenols, evaporation, and reconstitution with 0.5 mL of acetonitrile. The overall m-μdSPE-HPLC-DAD method is characterized for limits of detection down to 1.3 μg · L(-1), intraday relative standard deviations lower than 13 % (n = 3), and interday relative standard deviations lower than 17 % (n = 9), with a spiking level of 15 μg · L(-1); with enrichment factors between 15.7 and 141, and average relative recoveries of 99.9 %.

  5. High-throughput method for macrolides and lincosamides antibiotics residues analysis in milk and muscle using a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Campos Motta, Tanara Magalhães; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-11-01

    A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A fabric phase sorptive extraction-High performance liquid chromatography-Photo diode array detection method for the determination of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues in human plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Kabir, Abuzar; Innosa, Denise; Lopatriello, Teresa; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues that include ketoconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, tioconazole, econazole, butoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and itraconazole in human plasma and urine samples. The selected azole antimicrobial drugs were well resolved by using a Luna C 18 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 36min. The analytical method was calibrated and validated in the range from 0.1 to 8μg/mL for all the drug compounds. Blank human plasma and urine were used as the sample matrix for the analysis; while benzyl-4-hydroxybenzoate was used as the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification of the FPSE-HPLC-PDA method was found as 0.1μg/mL and the weighted-matrix matched standard calibration curves of the drugs showed a good linearity upto a concentration of 8μg/mL. The parallelism tests were also performed to evaluate whether overrange sample can be analyzed after dilution, without compromising the analytical performances of the validated method. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were found ≤13.1% and ≤13.9%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day trueness (bias%) values were found in the range from -12.1% to 10.5%. The performances of the validated FPSE-HPLC-PDA were further tested on real samples collected from healthy volunteers after a single dose administration of itraconazole and miconazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied on plasma and urine samples for the simultaneous determination of twelve azole drugs possessing a wide range of logK ow values (extending from 0.4 for fluconazole to 6.70 of butoconazole) and could be adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for clinical and

  7. Validation of an off line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of systemic insecticide residues in honey and pollen samples collected in apiaries from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chao, María; Agruña, María Jesús; Flores Calvete, Gonzalo; Sakkas, Vasilis; Llompart, María; Dagnac, Thierry

    2010-07-05

    The use of pesticides to protect crops against plagues and insects is one of the most important ways to assure agricultural quality and productivity. However, bad application practices may cause the contamination of different environmental compartments and animal species, as a consequence of migration or accumulation of those compounds. Fipronil, imidacloprid and thiametoxam are systemic or systemic-like insecticides widely used in maize crops. Their heavy action in the nervous system of target insects also means a high toxicity to non-target pollinator insects such as honey bees which can get in touch with them through pollen and nectar during foraging activities. These insecticides have even been suspected to cause a significant decrease of honeybee colonies that has been observed in many countries since the past decade. Since September 1st 2008, the European Commission set new MRLs in food and feed of plant and animal origin. The pesticides included in this study have MRLs in honey and pollen between 10 and 50 ng g(-1). In the present work, an analytical method was developed with the aim of determining residues of fipronil and some of its metabolites (fipronil sulfone, fipronil sulfide, fipronil desulfinyl and fipronil carboxamide), thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in honey and pollen samples. The extraction optimization was performed using a Doehlert experimental design by studying two factors, the mixture and the ratio of solvents used. Prior to the extraction procedure, raw hive samples containing honey, pollen and wax were centrifuged at 4000 rpm. The upper solid material was removed, and 1 g of the lower phase was mixed with 3 mL of the optimized mixture of methanol/water (10/90). The extract was passed through a florisil cartridge and the target compounds were eluted with methanol and analysed by LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was validated according to the guidelines included in the SANCO/10684/2009 document and the ISO

  8. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  9. System Requirements Document for the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigner, R.D.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the conversion process is to convert the {sup 233}U fluoride compounds that are being extracted from the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) equipment to a stable oxide for long-term storage at Bldg. 3019.

  10. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  11. Submarine Salt Karst Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Augustin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst terrains that develop in bodies of rock salt (taken as mainly of halite, NaCl are special not only for developing in one of the most soluble of all rocks, but also for developing in one of the weakest rocks. Salt is so weak that many surface-piercing salt diapirs extrude slow fountains of salt that that gravity spread downslope over deserts on land and over sea floors. Salt fountains in the deserts of Iran are usually so dry that they flow at only a few cm/yr but the few rain storms a decade so soak and weaken them that they surge at dm/day for a few days. We illustrate the only case where the rates at which different parts of one of the many tens of subaerial salt karst terrains in Iran flows downslope constrains the rates at which its subaerial salt karst terrains form. Normal seawater is only 10% saturated in NaCl. It should therefore be sufficiently aggressive to erode karst terrains into exposures of salt on the thousands of known submarine salt extrusions that have flowed or are still flowing over the floors of hundreds of submarine basins worldwide. However, we know of no attempt to constrain the processes that form submarine salt karst terrains on any of these of submarine salt extrusions. As on land, many potential submarine karst terrains are cloaked by clastic and pelagic sediments that are often hundreds of m thick. Nevertheless, detailed geophysical and bathymetric surveys have already mapped likely submarine salt karst terrains in at least the Gulf of Mexico, and the Red Sea. New images of these two areas are offered as clear evidence of submarine salt dissolution due to sinking or rising aggressive fluids. We suggest that repeated 3D surveys of distinctive features (± fixed seismic reflectors of such terrains could measure any downslope salt flow and thus offer an exceptional opportunity to constrain the rates at which submarine salt karst terrains develop. Such rates are of interest to all salt tectonicians and the many

  12. Tratamento dos resíduos gerados na síntese de polianilina em escala pré-piloto Treatment of the residues generated by polyaniline synthesis in pre-pilot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Arromba de Sousa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyaniline (PAni is one of the most studied conducting polymer. It can be synthesized by two methods: electrochemical or chemical oxidation. The chemical oxidation is more adequate to produce large quantities of polymer. Regardless of the synthesis scale, the treatment of the residues before its final destination is very important and necessary because it contains toxic aniline derivatives (carcinogens in some cases, acids and inorganic salts, both with low toxicity. In this work we discuss the methods used to treat these residues and to eliminate and discard the toxic substances. These were extracted from the reaction residues by using activated coal and the pH of the residue was neutralized.

  13. Characterization and Potential Use of Biochar for the Remediation of Coal Mine Waste Containing Efflorescent Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Díaz Muegue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In open pit coal mining, soil and vegetation are removed prior to the start of mining activities, causing physical, chemical, and microbiological changes to the soil and landscape. The present work shows the results of an integrated study of the remediation of mine waste with a high level of salt contamination in areas of the Cesar Department (Colombia, employing biochar as an amendment. Physical-chemical properties including Munsell color, texture, pH, electrical conductivity, water-holding capacity, cation exchange capacity, metal content, organic carbon, sulfates, extractable P, and total nitrogen were characterized both in the soils contaminated with mine residues and the biochar sample. A high concentration of sulfates, calcium, iron, and aluminum and a significant presence of Na, followed by minor amounts of Mg, K, Cu, and Mn, were observed in efflorescent salts. X-ray diffraction indicated a high presence of quartz and gypsum and the absence of pyrite and Schwertmannite in the efflorescent salt, while showing broad peaks belonging to graphene sheets in the biochar sample. Soil remediation was evaluated in Petri dish seed germination bioassays using Brachiaria decumbens. Biochar was shown to be effective in the improvement of pH, and positively influenced the germination percentage and root length of Brachiaria grass seeds.

  14. Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera lam. seeds flour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protein extractability from defatted Moringa oleifera seed flour was studied under various conditions of pH (2-10), time (5-60 minutes), salts (NaCl and CaCl ), salt concentrations (0-2 M) and solvent to flour ratio (10:1-30:1). 2 Results showed that protein extractability was dependent on pH, type of salt, salt concentrations and ...

  15. Worth its salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea that all underground salt deposits can serve as storage sites for toxic and nuclear waste does not always hold water—literally. According to Daniel Ronen and Brian Berkowitz of Israel's Weizmann Institute of Science and Yoseph Yechieli of the Geological Survey of Israel, some buried salt layers are in fact highly conductive of liquids, suggesting that wastes buried in their confines could easily leech into groundwater and nearby soil.When drilling three wells into a 10,000-year-old salt layer near the Dead Sea, the researchers found that groundwater had seeped into the layer and had absorbed some of its salt.

  16. Aqueous methods for recovery of plutonium from pyrochemical residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscatello, A.C.; Killion, M.E.; Fisher, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the recovery of plutonium from the pyrochemical residue salts from the Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) and Electrorefining (ER) processes have shown that chloride anion exchange is useful and effective. Our previous studies have defined the operating limits for obtaining low level effluent plutonium losses on the order of 10 -3 g/l. The knowledge obtained in work on DOR salt was extended to ER salt and a process has been demonstrated to be feasible on a larger scale. Studies of oxalate precipitation of plutonium (III) from the eluat exhibit the expected losses to the filtrate as a function of the acidity. Two alternatives to chloride anion exchange, caustic leaching and direct oxalate precipitation are also shown to be feasible for the recovery of plutonium from ER salts. The results of studies of coprocessing DOR and ER residue salts to increase ER salt throughput and decrease HC1 requirements are also presented. The feasibility of coprocessing other pyrochemical residues, such as black salts, anode heel, and ER scrapeout will be discussed

  17. Molten salts and nuclear energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Brun, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Molten salts (fluorides or chlorides) were considered near the beginning of research into nuclear energy production. This was initially due to their advantageous physical and chemical properties: good heat transfer capacity, radiation insensitivity, high boiling point, wide range solubility for actinides. In addition it was realised that molten salts could be used in numerous situations: high temperature heat transfer, core coolants with solid fuels, liquid fuel in a molten salt reactor, solvents for spent nuclear solid fuel in the case of pyro-reprocessing and coolant and tritium production in the case of fusion. Molten salt reactors, one of the six innovative concepts chosen by the Generation IV international forum, are particularly interesting for use as either waste incinerators or thorium cycle systems. As the neutron balance in the thorium cycle is very tight, the possibility to perform online extraction of some fission product poisons from the salt is very attractive. In this article the most important questions that must be addressed to demonstrate the feasibility of molten salt reactor will be reviewed

  18. Waste salt recovery, recycle, and destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickman, R.G.

    1992-12-01

    Starting in 1943 and continuing into the 1970s, radioactive wastes resulting from plutonium processing at Hanford were stored underground in 149 single shell tanks. Of these tanks, 66 are known or believedto be leaking, and over a period are believed to have leaked about 750,000 gal into the surrounding soil. The bulk of the aqueous solution has been removed and transferred to double shell tanks, none of which are leaking. The waste consists of 37 million gallons of salt cake and sludge. Most of the salt cake is sodium nitrate and other sodium salts. A substantial fraction of the sludge is sodium nitrate. Small amounts of the radionuclides are present in the sludge as oxides or hydroxides. In addition, some of the tanks contain organic compounds and ferrocyanide complexes, many of which have undergone radiolytic induced chemical changes during the years of storage. As part of the Hanford site remediation effort, the tank wastes must be removed, treated, and the residuals must be immobilized and disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. Removal methods of the waste from the tanks fall generally into three approaches: dry removal, slurry removal, and solution removed. The latter two methods are likely to result in some additional leakage to the surrounding soil, but that may be acceptable if the tank can be emptied and remediated before the leaked material permeates deeply into the soil. This effort includes three parts: salt splitting, acid separation, and destruction, with initial emphasis on salt splitting

  19. Electrodialytic remediation of municipal solid waste incineration residues using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parés Viader, Raimon; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, three different commercial membrane brands were used in an identical electrodialytic cell setup and operating conditions, in order to reduce the leaching of metals and salt anions of two types of municipal solid waste incineration residues: air pollution control residues...... as a technology to upgrade municipal solid waste incineration residues....

  20. Preliminary characterization of residual biomass from Hibiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa calyces are mainly used for different agro-food and beverages applications. The residual biomass generated contains various useful substances that were extracted and characterized. It contained 23% (w/w) soluble pectic material, a food additive, extracted with hot acidified water (80°C, pH = 1.5) and ...

  1. High-temperature vacuum distillation separation of plutonium waste salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.

    1996-01-01

    In this task, high-temperature vacuum distillation separation is being developed for residue sodium chloride-potassium chloride salts resulting from past pyrochemical processing of plutonium. This process has the potential of providing clean separation of the salt and the actinides with minimal amounts of secondary waste generation. The process could produce chloride salt that could be discarded as low-level waste (LLW) or low actinide content transuranic (TRU) waste, and a concentrated actinide oxide powder that would meet long-term storage standards (DOE-DTD-3013-94) until a final disposition option for all surplus plutonium is chosen

  2. MSO spent salt clean-up recovery process; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, M G; Brummond, W A; Hipple, D L; Hsu, P C; Summers, L J; Von Holtz, E H; Wang, F T

    1997-01-01

    An effective process has been developed to separate metals, mineral residues, and radionuclides from spent salt, a secondary waste generated by Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). This process includes salt dissolution, pH adjustment, chemical reduction and/or sulfiding, filtration, ion exchange, and drying. The process uses dithionite to reduce soluble chromate and/or sulfiding agent to suppress solubilities of metal compounds in water. This process is capable of reducing the secondary waste to less than 5% of its original weight. It is a low temperature, aqueous process and has been demonstrated in the laboratory[1

  3. Mixed Waste Salt Encapsulation Using Polysiloxane - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.M.; Loomis, G.G.; Prewett, S.W.

    1997-01-01

    A proof-of-concept experimental study was performed to investigate the use of Orbit Technologies polysiloxane grouting material for encapsulation of U.S. Department of Energy mixed waste salts leading to a final waste form for disposal. Evaporator pond salt residues and other salt-like material contaminated with both radioactive isotopes and hazardous components are ubiquitous in the DOE complex and may exceed 250,000,000 kg of material. Current treatment involves mixing low waste percentages (less than 10% by mass salt) with cement or costly thermal treatment followed by cementation to the ash residue. The proposed technology involves simple mixing of the granular salt material (with relatively high waste loadings-greater than 50%) in a polysiloxane-based system that polymerizes to form a silicon-based polymer material. This study involved a mixing study to determine optimum waste loadings and compressive strengths of the resultant monoliths. Following the mixing study, durability testing was performed on promising waste forms. Leaching studies including the accelerated leach test and the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure were also performed on a high nitrate salt waste form. In addition to this testing, the waste form was examined by scanning electron microscope. Preliminary cost estimates for applying this technology to the DOE complex mixed waste salt problem is also given

  4. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual and Destroyed Accessible Information after Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rui; Leuchs, Gerd; Grassl, Markus

    2018-04-01

    When quantum states are used to send classical information, the receiver performs a measurement on the signal states. The amount of information extracted is often not optimal due to the receiver's measurement scheme and experimental apparatus. For quantum nondemolition measurements, there is potentially some residual information in the postmeasurement state, while part of the information has been extracted and the rest is destroyed. Here, we propose a framework to characterize a quantum measurement by how much information it extracts and destroys, and how much information it leaves in the residual postmeasurement state. The concept is illustrated for several receivers discriminating coherent states.

  6. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  7. Geomechanics of bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serata, S.; Milnor, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Creep data from the literature search is reinterpreted by SGI, resulting in a better understanding of the temperature and stress state dependence of the octahedral creep rate and the octahedral shear strength. The concept of a transition strength between the elastic and the plastic states is in agreement with the data. The elastic and rheological properties of salt are described, and a set of constitutive equations is presented. The dependence of material properties on parameters such as temperature is considered. Findings on the permeability of salt are summarized, and the in-situ behavior of openings in bedded salt is described based on extensive engineering experience. A stress measuring system utilizing a finite element computer code is discussed. Geological factors affecting the stability of salt openings are considered, and the Stress Control Technique for designing stable openings in bedded salt formations is explained

  8. Salt og forbrugervalg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Trine; Grunert, Klaus G

    af saltreducerede fødevarer og deres købsintention af disse. Dette blev undersøgt ved at måle forbrugerens viden om salt, anvendelse af salt, ønske om reduktion af salt og købsintention af saltreducerede fødevarer i en web-baseret undersøgelse. Efter den web-baserede undersøgelse, blev de samme mål...... undersøgt, men i et supermarked, hvor deltagerne blev inddelt i fire grupper for at undersøge effekten af priming og saltmærkning. Desuden blev der foretaget 15 kvalitative interviews, for at studere hvem og hvad der karakteriserer de deltagere i eksperimentet, som enten ender med ingen salt......-reducerede produkter at købe eller som ender med at købe alle de salt-reducerede produkter....

  9. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  10. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, Carrie J.; Quach, Anh P.; Birnie, Dunbar P.; Ela, Wendell P.; Saez, Avelino E.; Zelinski, Brian J.; Smith, Harry D.; Smith, Gary Lynn L.

    2004-01-01

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  11. Lowering Salt in Your Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Lowering Salt in Your Diet Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... Subscribe: FDA Consumer Health Information Everyone needs some salt to function. Also known as sodium chloride, salt ...

  12. Residual radioactivity of treated green diamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassette, Philippe; Notari, Franck; Lépy, Marie-Christine; Caplan, Candice; Pierre, Sylvie; Hainschwang, Thomas; Fritsch, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Treated green diamonds can show residual radioactivity, generally due to immersion in radium salts. We report various activity measurements on two radioactive diamonds. The activity was characterized by alpha and gamma ray spectrometry, and the radon emanation was measured by alpha counting of a frozen source. Even when no residual radium contamination can be identified, measurable alpha and high-energy beta emissions could be detected. The potential health impact of radioactive diamonds and their status with regard to the regulatory policy for radioactive products are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of thermal degradation of coal with residual salts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plevová, Eva; Kaloč, M.; Šugárková, Věra; Vaculíková, Lenka; Vallová, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2010), s. 15-19 ISSN 0976-6294 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1398; GA ČR GP105/07/P416 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : chlorides * impregnation * coal Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry

  14. Extraction of aggrecan-peptide from cartilage by tissue autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takuo; Srichamroen, Anchalee; Ozimek, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Aggrecan is a cartilage specific proteoglycan containing chondroitin sulfate (CS) and keratan sulfate (KS). CS is an acidic polysaccharide having wide range of applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. CS is extracted from cartilage by tissue proteolysis with an exogenous proteinase or by activating endogenous proteinases (autolysis) to release aggrecan-peptides from the tissue. This review is focused on the latter technique. Bovine nasal and tracheal cartilages, and broiler chicken sternum cartilage have been used for autolysis studies. To extract aggrecan-peptide, cartilage tissues are cut into small pieces, and incubated in a monovalent or divalent salt solution (e.g., 0.1 M sodium or calcium acetate) at pH 4.5 and 37 °C for 7 - 24 h. Most (~80% or more) of total tissue uronic acid, a constituent sugar of aggrecan, is extracted and released into the salt solution during incubation. Reextraction of the tissue residue results in release of a small amount of uronic acid. Aggrecan-peptides purified using anion exchange chromatography are large compounds containing CS and KS. On gel chromatography, they are excluded from the column of Sephacryl S-300. Chemical composition analysis demonstrated that aggrecan-peptides from either bovine or chicken cartilage contain >90% CS with small amount (autolysis has been used as a plate coating antigen in enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to determine KS.

  15. Evaluation of gastrointestinal solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in soil using an in vitro physiologically based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N; Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Aston, David; Yun, Mao; Kengsoontra, Jenny

    2002-03-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbon residues in weathered soils may pose risks to humans through the ingestion pathway. To understand the factors controlling their gastrointestinal (GI) absorption, a newly developed experimental extraction protocol was used to model the GI solubility of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residues in highly weathered soils from different sites. The GI solubility of TPH residues was significantly higher for soil contaminated with diesel than with crude oil. Compared to the solubility of TPH residues during fasted state,the solubility of TPH residues during fat digestion was much greater. Diesel solubility increased from an average of 8% during the "gallbladder empty" phase of fasting (and less than 0.2% during the otherfasting phase) to an average of 16% during fat digestion. For crude oil, the solubility increased from an average of 1.2% during the gallbladder empty phase of fasting (and undetectable during the other fasting phase) to an average of 4.5% during fat digestion. Increasing the concentration of bile salts also increased GI solubility. GI solubility was reduced by soil organic carbon but enhanced by the TPH content.

  16. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  17. Persistence of pirimiphos methyl residues in stored wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zennouche, B.; Bennaceur, M.

    1991-03-01

    The persistence of 14C pirimiphos methyl in stored wheat was investigated under local conditions during a storage period of 6 months. Surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were quantified. There was a gradual increase in the surface residues over the storage period. 27,97% of the applied amount was found in the surface residues and 54,16% in the extractable and bound residues one month after treatment. After 6 months storage, about 17,8% of the total quantity of the applied pirimiphos methyl remained on the surface and about 58,6% was present in the grains (extractable and bound residues). During cooking 10,91% of the extractable and bound residues were lost

  18. Molten salt reactors. The AMSTER concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, J.; Garzenne, C.; Lecarpentier, D.; Mouney, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the concept of actinide molten salt transmuter (AMSTER). This reactor is graphite-moderated and is dedicated to the burning of actinides. The main difference with a molten salt reactor is that its liquid fuel undergoes an on-line partial reprocessing in which fission products are extracted and heavy nuclei are reintroduced into the fuel. In order to maintain the reactivity regular injections of 235 U-salt are made. In classical reactors, fuel burn-up is limited by the swelling of the cladding and the radiation fuel pellets resistance, in AMSTER there is no limitation to the irradiation time of the fuel, so all the actinides can be burnt or transmuted. (A.C.)

  19. Crushed Salt Constitutive Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt is presented in this report. Two mechanisms -- dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solution -- are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Upon complete consolidation, the crushed-salt model reproduces the Multimechanism Deformation (M-D) model typically used for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) host geological formation salt. New shear consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on WIPP and southeastern New Mexico salt. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to the database produced two sets of material parameter values for the model -- one for the shear consolidation tests and one for a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests. Using the parameter values determined from the fitted database, the constitutive model is validated against constant strain-rate tests. Shaft seal problems are analyzed to demonstrate model-predicted consolidation of the shaft seal crushed-salt component. Based on the fitting statistics, the ability of the model to predict the test data, and the ability of the model to predict load paths and test data outside of the fitted database, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt reasonably well

  20. Molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Dufour, P.; Guidez, J.; Simon, N.; Renault, C.

    2014-01-01

    Molten salt reactors are one of the 6 concepts retained for the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. The principle of this reactor is very innovative: the nuclear fuel is dissolved in the coolant which allows the online reprocessing of the fuel and the online recovery of the fission products. A small prototype: the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE - 8 MWt) was operating a few years in the sixties in the USA. The passage towards a fast reactor by the suppression of the graphite moderator leads to the concept of Molten Salt Fast Reactor (MSFR) which is presently studied through different European projects such as MOST, ALISIA and EVOL. Worldwide the main topics of research are: the adequate materials resisting to the high level of corrosiveness of the molten salts, fuel salt reprocessing, the 3-side coupling between neutron transport, thermohydraulics and thermo-chemistry, the management of the changing chemical composition of the salt, the enrichment of lithium with Li 7 in the case of the use of lithium fluoride salt and the use of MSFR using U 233 fuel (thorium cycle). The last part of the article presents a preliminary safety analysis of the MSFR. (A.C.)

  1. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  2. Determination of aminoglycoside residues in milk and muscle based on a simple and fast extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Jank, Louíse; Martins, Magda Targa; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Sirtori, Carla

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine mainly for treatment and prevention of diseases. The aminoglycosides are one of the antibiotics classes that have been extensively employed in animal husbandry for the treatment of bacterial infections, but also as growth promotion. The European Union has issued strict Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) for aminoglycosides in several animal origin products including bovine milk, bovine, swine and poultry muscle. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (spectinomycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, hygromycin, apramycin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, amikacin and neomycin) in bovine milk and bovine, swine and poultry muscle. For sample preparation, an extraction method was developed using trichloroacetic acid and clean up with low temperature precipitation and C18 bulk. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to carry out quantitative analysis and liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was used to screening purposes. Both methods were validated according to the European Union Commission Directive 2002/657/EC. Good performance characteristics were obtained for recovery, precision, calibration curve, specificity, decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) in all matrices evaluated. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were ranging from 5 to 100ngg(-1) and 12.5 to 250ngg(-1), respectively. Good linearity (r)-above 0.99-was achieved in concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 2.0×MRL. Recoveries ranged from 36.8% to 98.0% and the coefficient of variation from 0.9 to 20.2%, noting that all curves have been made into their own matrices in order to minimize the matrix effects. The CCβ values obtained in qualitative method were between 25 and 250ngg(-1). The proposed method showed to be simple, easy, and adequate for high-throughput analysis of a large

  3. Arsenic removal from As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata biomass: Coupling extraction with precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evandro B; de Oliveira, Letuzia M; Wilkie, Ann C; Liu, Yungen; Ma, Lena Q

    2018-02-01

    Proper disposal of As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata biomass (Chinese brake fern) enhances its application in phytoremediation. The goal of this study was to optimize As removal from P. vittata (PV) biomass by testing different particle sizes, extractants, extraction times and solid-to-liquid ratios. PV biomass was extracted using different extractants followed by different Mg-salts to recover soluble As via precipitation. Water-soluble As in PV biomass varied from 6.8% to 61% of total As depending on extraction time, with 99% of As being arsenate (AsV). Extraction with 2.1% HCl, 2.1% H 3 PO 4 , 1 M NaOH and 50% ethanol recovered 81, 78, 47 and 14% of As from PV biomass. A follow-up extraction using HCl recovered 27-32% with ethanol recovering only 5%. Though ethanol showed the lowest extractable As, residual As in the biomass was also the lowest. Among the extractants, 35% ethanol was the best to remove As from PV biomass. Approximately 90% As was removed from PV biomass using particle size phytoremediation more feasible. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Minimization of zirconium chlorinator residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, G.K.; Harbuck, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    Zirconium chlorinator residues contain an array of rare earths, scandium, unreacted coke, and radioactive thorium and radium. Because of the radioactivity, the residues must be disposed in special waste containment facilities. As these sites become more congested, and with stricter environmental regulations, disposal of large volumes of wastes may become more difficult. To reduce the mass of disposed material, the US Bureau of Mines (USBM) developed technology to recover rare earths, thorium and radium, and unreacted coke from these residues. This technology employs an HCl leach to solubilize over 99% of the scandium and thorium, and over 90% of the rare earths. The leach liquor is processed through several solvent extraction stages to selectively recover scandium, thorium, and rare earths. The leach residue is further leached with an organic acid to solubilize radium, thus allowing unreacted coke to be recycled to the chlorinator. The thorium and radium waste products, which comprise only 2.1% of the original residue mass, can then be sent to the radioactive waste facility

  5. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  6. Electrodialytically treated MSWI APC residue as substitute for cement in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Geiker, Mette Rica; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and/or elect......Air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) are considered hazardous waste and need pretreatment prior to possible reuse. Here, two MSWI APC residues, from which the most mobile fraction of heavy metals and salts has been removed by carbonation and....../or electrodialytic remediation, were used in Portland cement mortar. Mortar bars with 15 % weight replacement of cement by APC residues showed compressive strengths up to 40 MPa after 28/32 days. Heavy metal and salt leaching from both crushed and monolithic mortars with APC residues was generally similar...

  7. Extraction chromatography of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, W.

    1978-01-01

    Extraction chromatography of actinides in the oxidation state from 2 to 6 is reviewed. Data on using neutral (tbp), basic (substituted ammonium salts) and acidic [di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phosphoric acid (D2EHPA)] extracting agents ketones, esters, alcohols and β-diketones in this method are given. Using the example of actinide separation using D2EHPA, discussed are factors influencing the efficiency of their chromatography separation (nature and particle size of the carrier materials, extracting agents amount on the carrier, temperature and elution rate)

  8. What Are Bath Salts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bath salts can produce: feelings of joy increased social interaction increased sex drive paranoia nervousness hallucinations (see or ... Institutes of Health; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Cite this article APA Style MLA Style ...

  9. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  10. Calcium phosphate stabilization of fly ash with chloride extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzihou, Ange; Sharrock, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator by products include fly ash and air pollution control residues. In order to transform these incinerator wastes into reusable mineral species, soluble alkali chlorides must be separated and toxic trace elements must be stabilized in insoluble form. We show that alkali chlorides can be extracted efficiently in an aqueous extraction step combining a calcium phosphate gel precipitation. In such a process, sodium and potassium chlorides are obtained free from calcium salts, and the trace metal ions are immobilized in the calcium phosphate matrix. Moderate calcination of the chemically treated fly ash leads to the formation of cristalline hydroxylapatite. Fly ash spiked with copper ions and treated by this process shows improved stability of metal ions. Leaching tests with water or EDTA reveal a significant drop in metal ion dissolution. Hydroxylapatite may trap toxic metals and also prevent their evaporation during thermal treatments. Incinerator fly ash together with air pollution control residues, treated by the combined chloride extraction and hydroxylapatite formation process may be considered safe to use as a mineral filler in value added products such as road base or cement blocks.

  11. Mass transport in bedded salt and salt interbeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1989-08-01

    Salt is the proposed host rock for geologic repositories of nuclear waste in several nations because it is nearly dry and probably impermeable. Although experiments and experience at potential salt sites indicate that salt may contain brine, the low porosity, creep, and permeability of salt make it still a good choice for geologic isolation. In this paper we summarize several mass-transfer and transport analyses of salt repositories. The mathematical details are given in our technical reports

  12. Molten salt reactor type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This document is one of the three parts of a first volume devoted to the compilations of American data on the molten salt reactor concept. Emphasize is put essentially on the fuel salt of the primary circuit inside which fission reactions occur. The reasons why the (LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 -UF 4 ) salt was chosen for the M.S.B.R. concept are examined; the physical, physicochemical and chemical properties of this salt are discussed with its interactions with the structural materials and its evolution in time. An important part of this volume is devoted to the continuous reprocessing of the active salt, the project designers having deemed advisable to take advantage at best from the availability of a continuous purification, in a thermal breeding. The problem of tritium formation and distribution inside the reactor is also envisaged and the fundamentals of the chemistry of the secondary coolant salt are given. The solutions proposed are: the hydrogen scavenging of the primary circuit, a reduction in metal permeability by an oxyde layer deposition on the side in contact with the vapor, and tritium absorption through an isotope exchange with the hydroxifluoroborate [fr

  13. Geothermal studies of seven interior salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    This report defines and compares the geothermal environments of eight selected Gulf Coast salt domes. The thermal regimes in and around Gulf Coast salt domes are not well documented. The data base used for this study is an accumulation of bottom-hole temperature readings from oil and gas exploration wells and temperature logs run for the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program. The bottom-hole tempreatures were corrected in order to estimate the actual geothermal environments. Prior thermal studies and models indicate temperatures in and around salt domes are elevated above the norm by 1 0 F to 25 0 F. Using existing geothermal data and accepted theory, geothermal gradients for the selected domes and surrounding sediments were estimated. This study concludes that salt domes within a given basin have similar geothermal gradients, but that the basins differ in average geothermal gradients. This relationship is probably controlled by deep basement structural trends. No evidence of residual heat of emplacement was found associated with any of the selected domes

  14. Extraction of some acids using aliphatic amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matutano, L.

    1964-06-01

    Hydrochloric, nitric, sulphuric, perchloric, phosphoric, acetic and formic acids in aqueous solution (0.05 to 10 M) are extracted by amberlite LA2 and trilaurylamine in solution, 5 per cent by volume, in kerosene and xylene respectively. The extraction process consists of: neutralization of the amine salt; a 'molecular extraction', i.e. an extraction using an excess of acid with respect to the stoichiometry of the amine salt. According to the behaviour of the acid during the extraction, three groups may be distinguished: completely dissociated acids, carboxylic acids, phosphoric acid. This classification is also valid for the extraction of the water which occurs simultaneously with that of the acid. An extraction mechanism is put forward for formic acid and the formation constant of its amine salt is calculated. (author) [fr

  15. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P.M.; Ares, Osvaldo; Botbol, Jose.

    1989-01-01

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  16. Experimental and molecular docking investigation on metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) as a sorbent for vortex assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction of trace 5-nitroimidazole residues in environmental water samples prior to UPLC-MS/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Nan; Wang, Ting; Zhao, Pan; Zhang, Lianjun; Lun, Xiaowen; Zhang, Xueli; Hou, Xiaohong

    2016-11-01

    In the presented work, metal-organic framework (MOF) material MIL-101(Cr) (MIL, Matérial Institute Lavoisier) was used as a sorbent for vortex assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-D-μ-SPE) of trace amount of metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ), secnidazole (SNZ), dimetridazole (DMZ), tinidazole (TNZ), and ornidazole (ONZ) in different environmental water samples. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to quantify the target analytes. The extraction conditions, including type of sorbents, amount of MIL-101(Cr), solution pH, extraction method, extraction time, effect of salt, and elution conditions were investigated. Upon the optimal conditions, the developed method showed an excellent extraction performance with the average recovery ranging from 75.2 to 98.8 %. Good sensitivity levels were achieved with the detection limits of 0.03∼0.06 μg/L and the quantitation limits of 0.09∼0.20 μg/L. The linear ranges were varied from 0.1 to 20 for SNZ and ONZ and from 0.2 to 40 μg/L for MNZ, RNZ, DMZ, and TNZ (r 2  > 0.992), and repeatability of the method was satisfactory with the relative standard deviations (RSD) extraction and determination of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NDZs) in 12 real water samples, showing the positive findings of MNZ and TNZ ranging from 0.3 to 1.0 μg/L. Furthermore, molecular docking was applied to explain the molecular interactions and free binding energies between MIL-101(Cr) and 5-NDZs, providing a deep insight into the adsorption mechanism. The proposed method exhibited the advantages of simplicity, rapidly, less solvent consumption, ease of operation, higher sensitivity, and lower matrix effect. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of the extraction process and molecular docking investigation.

  17. Bioavailability of zinc and copper in biosolids compared to their soluble salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemsbergen, Diane A.; McLaughlin, Mike J.; Whatmuff, Mark; Warne, Michael St.J.; Broos, Kris; Bell, Mike; Nash, David; Barry, Glenn; Pritchard, Deb; Penney, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    For essential elements, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the bioavailability in biosolids is important from a nutrient release and a potential contamination perspective. Most ecotoxicity studies are done using metal salts and it has been argued that the bioavailability of metals in biosolids can be different to that of metal salts. We compared the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in biosolids with those of metal salts in the same soils using twelve Australian field trials. Three different measures of bioavailability were assessed: soil solution extraction, CaCl 2 extractable fractions and plant uptake. The results showed that bioavailability for Zn was similar in biosolid and salt treatments. For Cu, the results were inconclusive due to strong Cu homeostasis in plants and dissolved organic matter interference in extractable measures. We therefore recommend using isotope dilution methods to assess differences in Cu availability between biosolid and salt treatments. - Metals in biosolids are not necessarily less bioavailable than their soluble salt.

  18. Bioavailability of zinc and copper in biosolids compared to their soluble salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemsbergen, Diane A., E-mail: diane.heemsbergen@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); McLaughlin, Mike J., E-mail: mike.mclaughlin@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Whatmuff, Mark, E-mail: mark.whatmuff@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); NSW Department of Primary Industries, Locked Bag 4 Richmond, NSW 2753 (Australia); Warne, Michael St.J., E-mail: michael.warne@csiro.a [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Broos, Kris, E-mail: kris.broos@vito.b [Centre for Environmental Contaminants Research, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, Adelaide, SA 5064 (Australia); Bell, Mike, E-mail: Mike.Bell@dpi.qld.gov.a [Department of Primary Industries, Kingaroy, Queensland 4610 (Australia); Nash, David, E-mail: David.Nash@dpi.vic.gov.a [Department of Primary Industries, Ellinbank, Victoria 3821 (Australia); Barry, Glenn, E-mail: Glenn.Barry@nrw.qld.gov.a [Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Indooroopilly, Queensland 4068 (Australia); Pritchard, Deb, E-mail: D.Pritchard@curtin.edu.a [Curtin University of Technology, Muresk Institute, Northam, Western Australia 6401 (Australia); Penney, Nancy, E-mail: Nancy.Penney@WaterCorporation.com.a [Water Corporation of Western Australia, Leederville, Western Australia 6001 (Australia)

    2010-05-15

    For essential elements, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), the bioavailability in biosolids is important from a nutrient release and a potential contamination perspective. Most ecotoxicity studies are done using metal salts and it has been argued that the bioavailability of metals in biosolids can be different to that of metal salts. We compared the bioavailability of Cu and Zn in biosolids with those of metal salts in the same soils using twelve Australian field trials. Three different measures of bioavailability were assessed: soil solution extraction, CaCl{sub 2} extractable fractions and plant uptake. The results showed that bioavailability for Zn was similar in biosolid and salt treatments. For Cu, the results were inconclusive due to strong Cu homeostasis in plants and dissolved organic matter interference in extractable measures. We therefore recommend using isotope dilution methods to assess differences in Cu availability between biosolid and salt treatments. - Metals in biosolids are not necessarily less bioavailable than their soluble salt.

  19. One-Step Extraction of Antimony in Low Temperature from Stibnite Concentrate Using Iron Oxide as Sulfur-Fixing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new process for one-step extraction of antimony in low temperature from stibnite concentrate by reductive sulfur-fixation smelting in sodium molten salt, using iron oxide as sulfur-fixing agent, was presented. The influences of molten salt addition and composition, ferric oxide dosage, smelting temperature and duration on extraction efficiency of antimony were investigated in details, respectively. The optimum conditions were determined as follows: 1.0 time stoichiometric requirement (α of mixed sodium saltsalt = 1.0, WNaCl:Wsalt = 40%, αFe2O3 = 1.0, Wcoke:Wstibnite = 40%, where W represents weight, smelting at 850 °C (1123 K for 60 min. Under the optimum conditions, the direct recovery rate of antimony can reach 91.48%, and crude antimony with a purity of 96.00% has been achieved. 95.31% of sulfur is fixed in form of FeS in the presence of iron oxide. Meanwhile, precious metals contained in stibnite concentrate are enriched and recovered comprehensively in crude antimony. In comparison to traditional antimony pyrometallurgical process, the smelting temperature of present process is reduced from 1150–1200 °C (1423–1473 K to 850–900 °C (1123–1173 K. Sulfur obtained in stibnite is fixed in FeS which avoids SO2 emission owing to the sulfur-fixing agent. Sodium salt can be regenerated and recycled in smelting system when the molten slag is operated to filter solid residue. The solid residue is subjected to mineral dressing operation to obtain iron sulfide concentrate which can be sold directly or roasted to regenerate into iron oxide.

  20. Environmental assessment of incinerator residue utilisation

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

     In Sweden, utilisation of incinerator residues outside disposal areas is restricted by environmental concerns, as such residues commonly contain greater amounts of potentially toxic trace elements than the natural materials they replace. On the other hand, utilisation can also provide environmental benefits by decreasing the need for landfill and reducing raw material extraction. This thesis provides increased knowledge and proposes better approaches for environmental assessment of incinerat...