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Sample records for extraction residual biotreatment

  1. Cyanide residues biotreatment and their relation with public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Jaramillo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To propose a bio-treatment for cyanide residues generated by medico-legal procedures and to identify risk factors from handling. Methodology: cyanide residues, from the Institute of Legal Medicine, Medellin, were characterized by their physical state and identified its management, and risk factors. For the residues degradation 22 pre-essays and 9 bioassays were done with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans at different cyanide concentrations. Results: there were failures in all risk factors analyzed, predominating the chemical component which sources of pollution. In studies of degradation, Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed a 87% removal percentage at a concentration of 50 mg / L and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, 79% removal at a concentration of 500 mg / L. We conducted a technical guide for the management of cyanide residues. Conclusions: The evaluation of the routes of cyanide from seizure to final disposal, were found that the Institute of Forensic Medicine had no documented guidelines on the management of them. Biological treatment with bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were efficient in the degradation of cyanide.

  2. Biotreatment of hydrocarbons from petroleum tank bottom sludges in soil slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrari, M.D.; Neirotti, E.; Albornoz, C.; Mostazo, M.R.; Cozzo, M. [Administracion Nacional de Combustibles, Alcohol y Portland Pando, Canelones (Uruguay). Centro de Investigaciones Tecnologicas

    1996-11-01

    Biotreatment of oil wastes in aqueous slurries prepared with sandy loam soil and inoculated with selected soil cultures was evaluated. After 90 days, oil removal was 47%. Removal of each hydrocarbon class was 84% for saturates, 20% for aromatics, and 44% for asphaltenes. Resins increased by 68%. The use of a soil with a lower level of fine particles or minor organic matter content, or reinoculation with fresh culture did not improve oil elimination. Residual oil recovered from slurries was biotreated. Oil removal was 22%. Slurry-phase biotreatment showed less variability and faster oil removal than solid-phase biotreatment. (author)

  3. Biotreatment of oily sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks, J. [Biogenie Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation discussed a biotreatment process used at a petrochemical plant near Montreal, Quebec. The plant used a sedimentation pond that contained oily sludge with a total polycyclic hydrocarbon (TPH) content averaging 170,000 mg/kg. The aim of the remediation project was to remove the oily sludge and impacted clay at the bottom of the pond, and redesign the pond to meet current provincial regulations. Studies were conducted to evaluate bulking agents, estimate performance and determine the presence of potential inhibitors. Organic and inorganic nutrients were tested as a means of amending the sludge. An ex-situ biopile was used to treat the impacted waste. After a period of 5 months, concentrations were below the applicable criteria for Montreal urban community and provincial guidelines. A drainage system and membrane was then added to the pond. tabs., figs.

  4. Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor

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    M. Arbabi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their insolubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-phase biological treatment is one of the innovative technologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction and also oil refinery sites in Iran, this research was designed based on slurry phase biotreatment to find out a solution to decontamination of oil compounds polluted sites. Approach: Soil samples were collected from Tehran oil refinery site and Bushehr oil zones. Two compositions of soils (clay and silt were selected for slurry biotreatment experiment. Soil samples were contaminated with three rates of phenanthrene (a 3 ring PAH, 100, 500 and 1000 mg kg-1 and mixed with distilled water in solid concentration of 30% by weight after washing out with strong solvent (hexane and putting in to the oven. Bacterial consortium was revived in culture medium which consisted of Mineral Salt Medium (MSM based on phenanthrene concentrations and ratio of C/N/P in the range of 100/10/2. Prepared soil samples were mixed with distilled water, nutrient and bacterial consortium together in the 250 mL glass Erlenmeyer and putted in the shaker incubator with 200 rpm revolutions and 25°C for 7 weeks (45 days. Samples were analyzed for residual phenanthrene, bacterial population every week. For statistical analysis, general linear model with repeated measures (type III analysis was applied. Results: The concentration of 100 mg Ll of phenanthrene in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 5 and 6 weeks, respectively. While concentration of 500 mg L-1 of phenanthrene both in clayey and silty soils reached to non detectable limit after 6 weeks. But concentration of 1000 mg L-1both in clayey and silty soil samples has not met this limitation after 7

  5. Extracting sea level residual in tidally dominated estuarine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jennifer M.; Bolaños, Rodolfo; Howarth, Michael J.; Souza, Alejandro J.

    2012-07-01

    Sea level comprises a mean level, tidal elevation and a residual elevation. Knowledge of what causes maximum water levels is often key in coastal management. However, different methods to extract deviations in water level (residuals) from modelled and observed elevation can give different results. The Dee Estuary, northwest England is a macrotidal estuary that undergoes periodic stratification. It is used here to demonstrate methods to extract the residual water level in response to the following interactive processes: tidal, river-induced stratification and flow, meteorology and waves. Using modelling techniques, the interaction and contribution of different physical processes are investigated. Classical harmonic tidal analysis, model simulations and filtering techniques have been used to "de-tide" the total elevation for short-term (approximately month long) records. Each technique gives a different result highlighting the need to select the correct method for a required study. Analysis of the residual components demonstrates that all processes inducing residuals interact with the tide generating a semi-diurnal residual component. It is suggested that modelling methods enable the full effect of tidal interaction to remain in the residual, whilst harmonic tidal analysis (partly) modify and filtering methods (fully) remove this component of the residual. The analysis methods presented and their influences on the resultant residual are applicable to other study sites. However, when applied specifically to the mouth of the Dee Estuary, the external surge is found to be the main contributor to the total residual, whilst local wind and stratification effects are of secondary importance.

  6. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea

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    Yating Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  7. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth.

  8. Residual soil DNA extraction increases the discriminatory power between samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Clarke, Laurence J; Cooper, Alan

    2015-06-01

    Forensic soil analysis relies on capturing an accurate and reproducible representation of the diversity from limited quantities of soil; however, inefficient DNA extraction can markedly alter the taxonomic abundance. The performance of a standard commercial DNA extraction kit (MOBIO PowerSoil DNA Isolation kit) and three modified protocols of this kit: soil pellet re-extraction (RE); an additional 24-h lysis incubation step at room temperature (RT); and 24-h lysis incubation step at 55°C (55) were compared using high-throughput sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer I ribosomal DNA. DNA yield was not correlated with fungal diversity and the four DNA extraction methods displayed distinct fungal community profiles for individual samples, with some phyla detected exclusively using the modified methods. Application of a 24 h lysis step will provide a more complete inventory of fungal biodiversity, and re-extraction of the residual soil pellet offers a novel tool for increasing discriminatory power between forensic soil samples.

  9. A water and hydrocarbon emulsion for extracting residual oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verderevskiy, Yu.L.; Abramzon, A.A.; Gusev, V.I.; Kulikov, Yu.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Starosud, A.N.; Tavrin, A.Ye.; Zheranin, V.L.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the oil displacing properties of the composition in conditions of high mineralization of the stratum waters and to reduce the cost of the emulsion. To do this, the water and hydrocarbon emulsion for extracting residual oil, which includes water, liquid hydrocarbons, water and oil soluble surfacants (PAV), contains oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-10 type as the water soluble surfacant and contains oxytehylated alkylphenol of the OP-4 type as the oil soluble surfacant in the following component relationship (percent by mass): oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-4 type, 3.9 to 5.5; oxyethylated alkylphenol of the OP-10 type, 0.1 to 0.2; liquid hydrocargon, 40 to 41 and water, the remainder.

  10. Extraction of Chromium from Carbon Ferrochromium Residual Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevskiy, P. P.; Gizatulin, R. A.; Romanenko, Yu E.; Valuev, D. V.; Valueva, A. V.; Serikbol, A.

    2015-09-01

    This work reports the problem of processing residual wastes after producing carbon ferrochrome by recycling dust using a hydrometallurgical method with the purpose of extracting the basic component - chromium, The X-ray diffraction analysis results, chemical and granulometric compositions of dust from the carbon ferrochrome production are given, The method for the production of chemical-enrichment concentrate (CEC) by processing ferrous dust is described, with obtaining a middling product - sodium mono-chromate with its further reduction to chromium hydroxide, followed by autoclave leaching, and resulting in the production of chemically enriched chrome concentrate, The plant used for autoclave leaching and filtering is schematically depicted, The smelting process of metallic chromium using the ladle aluminothermic method is described,

  11. Formation of non-extractable pesticide residues: observations on compound differences, measurement and regulatory issues

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    Mordaunt, Catriona J.; Gevao, Bondi; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-01-01

    Six major use pesticides (Atrazine, Dicamba, Isoproturon, Lindane, Paraquat and Trifluralin) with differing physico-chemical properties were evaluated for the significance of 'bound' or non extractable residue formation. Investigations were carried out in purpose-built microcosms where mineralization, volatilisation, 'soil water' extractable and organic solvent extractable residues could be quantified. Extractable residues were defined as those accessible by sequential extraction where the solvent used became increasingly non-polar. Dichloromethane was the 'harshest' solvent used at the end of the sequential extraction procedure. {sup 14}C-labelled volatilised and {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fractions were trapped on exit from the microcosm. The pesticides were categorised into 3 classes based on their behaviour. (i) Type A (Atrazine, Lindane and Trifluralin) in which ring degradation was limited as was the formation of non-extractable residues; the remainder of the {sup 14}C-activity was found in the extractable fraction. (ii) Type B (Dicamba and Isoproturon) in which approximately 25% of the {sup 14}C-activity was mineralised and a large portion was found in the non-extractable fraction after 91 days. Finally, Type C (Paraquat) in which almost all of the {sup 14}C-activity was quickly incorporated into the non-extractable fraction. The implications of the data are discussed, with respect to the variability and significance of regulatory aspects of non-extractable residues.

  12. Environmental impacts of the extraction of forestry residues. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brierley, E.; Truckell, I.; Brewer, T.; Towers, W.; Malcolm, A.; Walker, W.

    2004-07-01

    The environmental implications of the changes in forestry operations and practices necessary to remove significant quantities of forest residues for use as a fuel were investigated in this study commissioned by the UK Department of Trade and Industry. The project involved: a review of current practices for the treatment of residues and the production of wood fuels in Great Britain; an assessment of the impact of these practices on soils, landscape, water, flora, fauna and air; and the modelling of scenarios to identify the quantity of forestry land from which residues could be obtained to help meet UK targets for the use of renewable energy. This allowed an assessment of how practices may develop and how environmental impacts may change as a result of increased removal of forestry residues. The study included a literature review, discussions with the forestry and biomass industries and the selection of case study areas with a range of soil types. Differences in opportunities for residue harvesting between upland forestry in the north and west of the UK and lowland forestry in the south of the UK were highlighted by the model outputs.

  13. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hee Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid–liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE and without heating (CEE were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE. The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA, but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  15. Antioxidant Effect of Extracts from the Coffee Residue in Raw and Cooked Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hee; Ahn, Dong Uk; Eun, Jong Bang; Moon, Sun Hee

    2016-07-04

    The residue of ground coffee obtained after the brewing process (spent coffee) still contains various functional components with high antioxidant capacity and health benefits, but no attempts have been made to use it as a resource to produce value-added food ingredients. This study evaluates the antioxidant activity of ethanol or hot water extracts from the residues of coffee after brewing. An extraction experiment was carried out using the conventional solid-liquid methods, including ethanol and water as the extraction media at different temperatures and liquid/solid ratios. The antioxidant activity of extracts was tested for total phenolic compound (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) using oil emulsion and raw/cooked meat systems. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of the ethanol extracts with heating (HEE) and without heating (CEE) were higher than that of the hot water extracts (WE). The highest DPPH value of HEE and CEE at 1000 ppm was 91.22% and 90.21%, respectively. In oil emulsion and raw/cooked systems, both the water and ethanol extracts had similar antioxidant effects to the positive control (BHA), but HEE and CEE extracts showed stronger antioxidant activities than WE extract. These results indicated that the ethanol extracts of coffee residue have a strong antioxidant activity and have the potential to be used as a natural antioxidant in meat.

  16. Vector valued logarithmic residues and the extraction of elementary factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bart (Harm); T. Ehrhardt; B. Silbermann

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAn analysis is presented of the circumstances under which, by the extraction of elementary factors, an analytic Banach algebra valued function can be transformed into one taking invertible values only. Elementary factors are generalizations of the simple scalar expressions λ – α, the bui

  17. Lignin extraction from straw by ionic liquids and enzymatic hydrolysis of the cellulosic residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Dongbao; Mazza, Giuseppe; Tamaki, Yukihiro

    2010-03-10

    Lignocellulose is a promising starting material for bioproducts, ranging from biofuels to specialty chemicals; however, lignocellulose is resistant to enzymatic degradation. Overcoming this resistance is therefore an important priority for the development of the lignocellulosic biorefinery concept. In this work, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([emim]Ac) was selected from six ionic liquid candidates for the extraction of lignin from triticale and wheat straw and flax shives. Lignin extractability, composition, and cellulose enzymatic digestibility of the residues after extraction by [emim]Ac were determined at various temperatures (70-150 degrees C) and time intervals (0.5-24 h). The optimal result (52.7% of acid insoluble lignin in triticale straw) was obtained at 150 degrees C after 90 min, yielding >95% cellulose digestibility of the residue. Little cellulose was extracted, and the extracted lignin was recovered by acid precipitation. Selective extraction of lignin by ionic liquids is a potentially efficient technique for the comprehensive utilization of lignocellulose.

  18. [Determination of five pyrethroid pesticides residues in Anoectochilus roxburghii by cloud point extraction-back extraction and GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Bo; Zhao, Xiao-Fang; Shi, Gui-Ying; Shao, Qing-Song; Li, Mine-Van

    2014-08-01

    A method for residual determination of 5 pyrethroid pesticides in Anoectochilus roxburghii by cloud point extraction-back extraction-GC-MS was established. PEG 6000 was used as extraction agent and isooctane was used for back-extractant. The con- tent was calculated by external standard method. The linear range was from 15 to 2 000 μg x kg(-1) with the good correlation coefficients (0.955-0.999). The recoveries at spiked concentrations of 50-500 μg x kg(-1) ranged from 85.12% to 101.6%. The limit of detection and quantification of 5 pyrethroid pesticides were in the range of 0.63-3.10 μg x kg(-1) and 2.10-10.31 μg x kg(-1), respectively. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of pyrethroid pesticides residues in A. roxburghii.

  19. Integration of galacturonic acid extraction with alkaline protein extraction from green tea leaf residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Chen; Bozileva, Elvira; Klis, van der Frits; Dong, Yiyuan; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf pectin can be used as a feedstock for galacturonic acid (GA) production, but high extraction costs limit economic feasibility. To improve the extraction efficiency, leaf pectin extraction was integrated with an already cost-effective alkaline protein extraction, focusing on high yield of GA

  20. Occurrence of non extractable pesticide residues in physical and chemical fractions of two soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Kostas; Semple, Kirk; Jones, Kevin

    2010-05-01

    Soils are considered to be a significant sink for organic contaminants, including pesticides, in the environment. Understanding the distribution and localisation of aged pesticide residues in soil is of great importance for assessing the mobility and availability of these chemicals in the environment. This study aimed to characterise the distribution of radiolabeled herbicide isoproturon and the radiolabeled insecticides diazinon and cypermethrin in two organically managed soils. The soils were spiked and aged under laboratory conditions for 17 months. The labile fraction of the pesticides residues was recovered in CaCl2 (0.01M) and then subjected to physical size fractionation using sedimentation and centrifugation steps, with >20μm, 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm soil factions collected. Further, the distribution of the pesticide residues in the organic matter of the fractionated soil was investigated using a sequential alkaline extraction (0.1N NaOH) into humic and fulvic acid and humin. Soil fractions of 20-2μm and 2-0.1μm had the largest burden of the 14C-residues. Different soil constituents have different capacities to form non-extractable residues. Soil solid fractions of 20-2 µm and pesticide residues than the coarser fraction (>20 µm). Fulvic acid showed to play a vital role in the formation and stabilisation of non-extractable 14C-pesticide residues in most cases.Assessment of the likelihood of the pesticide residues to become available to soil biota requires an understanding of the structure of the SOM matrix and the definition of the kinetics of the pesticide residues in different SOM pools as a function of the time.

  1. Optimization of the extraction process of polyphenols from cashew apple agro-industrial residues

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    Renata Araújo Milanez de Sena Andrade

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the chemical composition of cashew apples agro-industrial residue and optimize the process of polyphenols extraction in this residue. The extraction process conditions were defined using a 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design using acetone and methanol as solvents. The independent variables were: time (30 to 90 min, temperature (30 to 50 °C, solvent concentrations (50% to 90%, agitation speed (100 to 300 rpm; the dependent variables were: total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging capacity. The optimized process was carried out by applying the Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD considering the results obtained with the 24-1 fractional factorial experimental design. The residue presented bioactive compounds in its composition, with emphasis on the content of total phenolic compounds (1975.64 mg/ 100 g. The extraction process was not affected by methanol; however, acetone affected the amounts of extracted phytochemicals. Extracts with high levels of polyphenols and strong DPPH scavenging capacity (> 80% were obtained using 55% acetone, 30 minutes, 30 °C, and 150 rpm. The results showed that cashew apple residue is a potential natural source of bioactive compounds with strong antioxidant capacity. These compounds could be used partially or totally to replace synthetic antioxidants.

  2. The effect on increased harvest residue extraction on forest soil carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Carina; Lundblad, Mattias; Lundström, Anders; Stendahl, Johan

    2015-04-01

    The demand and potential for increasing the use of bioenergy from harvest residues in Sweden are large. Commercial forest residues such as tops, branches and stumps, can be left at the harvest site to gradually decompose and contribute to the soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover, or it can be collected for energy purposes as means to mitigate climate changes. The climate mitigation potential of using logging residues (tree tops and branches) for bioenergy has been debated mostly due to that harvest residue and stump extraction negatively affect SOC accumulation. The Swedish forest management system Hugin and the decomposition model Q were used to estimate the carbon stock changes in the Swedish forests at a national level. Several extraction scenarios were branches and tops and stumps are removed from the forest were simulated. In all scenarios the short term effects on SOC were greater than the long term effects. The main reason for this is because the extraction potential decreases with time. The decrease in SOC accumulation was largest for stump extraction, with 0.15 Mg C ha -1 y loss on average over a 100-year simulation period which was equivalent to an energy supply of 25 TWh. Despite the negative effects of soil carbon changes by extracting harvest residues, the study presented here, show that the extraction and use of harvest residues in the energy system results in a positive effect on reducing carbon emissions to the atmosphere when substituting coal with the extracted biomass. The uncertainties of decomposition of woody organic matter in the context of extraction of harvest residues will also be highlighted. First by showing that the choice of decomposition model is important in assessing the SOC changes since the models differ in process approach. Therefore, a comparison of the decomposition functions of the Q model and Yasso07 will be presented. Secondly by presenting how the stump extraction is associated with soil disturbance. A sensitivity analysis of

  3. MEMBRANE-MEDIATED EXTRACTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF VOCS FROM AIR

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    The paper discusses a project designed to evaluate the feasibility of using a membrane-supported extraction and biotreatment process to meet the National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for aircraft painting and depainting facilities. The proposed system...

  4. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation during biodegradation of ibuprofen in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Karolina M., E-mail: karolina.nowak@ufz.de [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Girardi, Cristobal; Miltner, Anja [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Gehre, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Schäffer, Andreas [Department of Environmental Biology and Chemodynamics, Institute for Environmental Research (Biology V), RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Kästner, Matthias [UFZ, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Permoserstraße 15, 04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    Non-extractable residues (NER) formed during biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil are considered to be mainly composed of parent compounds or their primary metabolites with hazardous potential. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, the soil NER may also contain microbial biomass components, for example fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are subsequently incorporated into non-living soil organic matter (SOM) and are stabilised ultimately forming hardly extractable residues of biogenic origin. We investigated biodegradation of {sup 13}C{sub 6}-ibuprofen, in particular the metabolic incorporation of the {sup 13}C-label into FA and AA and their fate in soil over 90 days. {sup 13}C-FA and {sup 13}C-AA amounts in the living microbial biomass fraction initially increased, then decreased over time and were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool. The {sup 13}C-FA in the non-living SOM remained stable from day 59 whereas the contents of {sup 13}C-AA slightly increased until the end. After 90 days, nearly all NER were biogenic as they were made up almost completely by natural biomass compounds. The presented data demonstrated that the potential environmental risks related to the ibuprofen-derived NER are overestimated. - Highlights: ► Biogenic residue formation during microbial degradation of ibuprofen was studied. ► Nearly all non-extractable residues derived from ibuprofen were biogenic. ► Fatty acids and amino acids formed biogenic non-extractable residues and were stabilised in soil. ► Environmental risks of ibuprofen-derived non-extractable residues are overestimated.

  5. Effect of Chitin Extraction Processes on Residual Antimicrobials in Shrimp Shells

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the influences of industrial chitin extraction processes on the residual oxytetracycline (OTC) and oxolinic acid (OA) in shrimp carapaces and shells. The drugs were orally administered by catheter to the kuruma shrimp (Penaeus japonicus) and vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The shrimps were sampled at 6-h post-dosing and their carapaces and shells were collected and used as raw material in the chitin extraction. Residua...

  6. Pink shrimp (P. brasiliensis and P. paulensis) residue: influence of extraction method on carotenoid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Maestri, Bianca; dos Santos, Renata Lazzaris; Maraschin, Marcelo; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2011-09-15

    The main residue from the shrimp processing is formed by head and carapace and represents from 40 to 50% (w/w) of the integral shrimp. The recovery of the carotenoid fraction from this residue stands for an alternative to increase its aggregated value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the pink shrimp waste as raw material to obtain carotenoid enriched extracts, evaluating different pre-treatments and extraction methods. The shrimp waste was supplied by a local public market (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil). The investigation of the different pre-treatments applied to the raw material shows that cooking associated with milling and drying produced the extract richest in carotenoid fraction. The extraction methods considered in this work were Soxhlet, maceration and ultrasound by means of different organic solvents and also a vegetable oil as solvent. The extracts were evaluated in terms of yield, carotenoid profile, total carotenoid content (TCC), UV-Visible scanning spectrophotometry and mid-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that shrimp waste can provide carotenoid enriched extracts, particularly astaxanthin, in concentrations up to 252 μg(astaxanthin)g(extract)(-1). The most adequate solvents were acetone and hexane: isopropanol (50:50, v/v) used in the maceration procedure. The UV-Vis results revealed the presence of carotenoids and flavonoids in the extracts while the FTIR spectroscopy indicated the existence of fatty acids, proteins, and phenolics.

  7. Post-extraction algal residue in steam-flaked corn-based diets for beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of post-extraction algal residue (PEAR) as N source 23 in steam-flaked corn-based (SFC) beef cattle finishing diets on intake, duodenal flow, digestion, ruminal microbial efficiency, ruminal parameters, and blood constituents were evaluated. Ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers (BW...

  8. [Determination of residual aluminium Ion in Huoxiang Zhengqi pellets by GFAAS with EDTA complexation extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Na; Ran, Cong-Cong; Li, Qing-Lian; Du, Chao-Hui; Jiang, Ye

    2015-06-01

    To establish an EDTA complexation extraction pretreatment combining with GFAAS method for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets without digestive treatment, systematical investigation was made on sample preparation, and EDTA was used for the complexation extraction of residual aluminium ion in samples. The pH, concentration and volume of extraction solution, the temperature and time of microwave extraction, and graphite furnace temperature program were investigated. The results were compared with the microwave digestion. It was showed that, 0.1 g of sample weight was added in 20 mL 0.05 mol x L(-1) EDTA solution (pH 3.5), followed by heating at 150 degrees C for 10 min in the microwave extraction device. The determination of GFAAS was performed at optimized detection wavelength (257.4 nm) as well as graphite furnace temperature program, the detection limits and quantification limits were 2.37 μg x L(-1) and 7.89 μg x L(-1), respectively. The precision (RSD) was less than 2.3%. The average recovery was 96.9% -101%. The present method is easy, rapid and accurate for the determination of residual aluminium ion in Huoxiang zhengqi pellets.

  9. Oxidation of Lingwu Coal Extraction Residue in Aqueous Sodium Hypochlorite under Mild Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yunpeng; Zong Zhimin; Li Jinna; Wang Yuelun; Fan Xing; Wei Xianyong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the structural features and provide an alternative method for high value-added utilization of coal, Lingwu coal was first extracted with organic solvent at room temperature. Then its extraction residue was oxi-dized in aqueous sodium hypochlorite(ASHC) under mild conditions. Theeffects of oxidation conditions, such as temperature, reaction time, the ratio of Lingwu coal extraction residue(LCER, g) to ASHC(mL) and pH value, on the product distributions and compositions were investigated. The results of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) suggested that 53 kinds of methyl esterified products were detected in total, and benzene carboxylic acids were the main oxidation products, while chloro-substituted benzene carboxylic acids were the main by-products. Higher yield and fewer kinds of organic acids could be obtained at lower pH value, especially for the main objective product, benzene carboxylic acids.

  10. COMPARISON BETWEEN ASPHALTENES (SUBFRACTIONS EXTRACTED FROM TWO DIFFERENT ASPHALTIC RESIDUES: CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PHASE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silas R. Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Asphaltenes are blamed for various problems in the petroleum industry, especially formation of solid deposits and stabilization of water-in-oil emulsions. Many studies have been conducted to characterize chemical structures of asphaltenes and assess their phase behavior in crude oil or in model-systems of asphaltenes extracted from oil or asphaltic residues from refineries. However, due to the diversity and complexity of these structures, there is still much to be investigated. In this study, asphaltene (subfractions were extracted from an asphaltic residue (AR02, characterized by NMR, elemental analysis, X-ray fluorescence and MS-TOF, and compared to asphaltene subfractions obtained from another asphaltic residue (AR01 described in a previous article. The (subfractions obtained from the two residues were used to prepare model-systems containing 1 wt% of asphaltenes in toluene and their phase behavior was evaluated by measuring asphaltene precipitation onset using optical microscopy. The results obtained indicated minor differences between the asphaltene fractions obtained from the asphaltic residues of distinct origins, with respect to aromaticity, elemental composition (CHN, presence and content of heteroelements and average molar mass. Regarding stability, minor differences in molecule polarity appear to promote major differences in the phase behavior of each of the asphaltene fractions isolated.

  11. Efficient anaerobic digestion of whole microalgae and lipid-extracted microalgae residues for methane energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baisuo; Ma, Jingwei; Zhao, Quanbao; Laurens, Lieve; Jarvis, Eric; Chen, Shulin; Frear, Craig

    2014-06-01

    The primary aim of this study was to completely investigate extensive biological methane potential (BMP) on both whole microalgae and its lipid-extracted biomass residues with various degrees of biomass pretreatment. Specific methane productivities (SMP) under batch conditions for non-lipid extracted biomass were better than lipid-extracted biomass residues and exhibited no signs of ammonia or carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio inhibition when digested at high I/S ratio (I/S ratio⩾1.0). SMP for suitably extracted biomass ranged from 0.30 to 0.38LCH4/gVS (volatile solids). For both whole and lipid-extracted biomass, overall organic conversion ranged from 59.33 to 78.50 as a measure of %VS reduction with greater percentage biodegradability in general found within the lipid-extracted biomass. Higher production levels correlated to lipid content with a linear relationship between SMP and ash-free lipid content being developed at a R(2) of 0.814.

  12. Novel functional polysaccharides from Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residue: Preliminary characterization and immunomodulatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Xu, Yi; Zou, Sheng; Zhang, Xiaodan; Cao, Kun; Fan, Qi

    2016-02-10

    The alkali-extractable polysaccharides (APMPs) were isolated from the water extracted residues of Radix Polygoni Multiflori, and further purified by DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography to obtain a homogeneous polysaccharide (APMP-2) with molecular weights of 7724.8 Da. HPLC chromatography analysis identified that APMP-2 was a heteropolysaccharides and mainly composed of Galactose and Xylose with a molar ratio of 4.31: 1.06. It was shown that both APMP and APMP-2 were of activation effects on splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages, and also significantly restore the proliferation rate, phagocytic index and cytokine (IL-2 and TNF-α) production level of 5-FU-treated splenocytes/peritoneal macrophages in a dosage-dependent manner. The results suggested that polysaccharides presented in Radix Polygoni Multiflori water-extracted residues possessed immunomodulatory activity and could be used as potential immunomodulators, and this finding could be a reference for the utilization of Radix Polygoni Multiflori water extracted residues.

  13. Acetonitrile extraction and dual-layer solid phase extraction clean-up for pesticide residue analysis in propolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia

    2016-05-06

    Propolis is a very complex mixture of substances that is produced by honey bees and is known to be a rather challenging matrix for residue analysis. Besides resins, flavonoids and phenols, high amount of wax is co-extracted resulting in immense matrix effects. Therefore a suitable clean-up is crucial and indispensable. In this study, a reliable solid phase extraction (SPE) clean-up was developed for pesticide residue analysis in propolis. The clean-up success was quickly and easily monitored by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with different detection possibilities. The final method consists of the extraction of propolis with acetonitrile according to the QuEChERS method followed by an effective extract purification on dual-layer SPE cartridges with spherical hydrophobic polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin/primary secondary amine as sorbent and a mixture of toluene/acetone (95:5, v/v) for elution. Besides fat-soluble components like waxes, flavonoids, and terpenoids, more polar compounds like organic acids, fatty acids, sugars and anthocyanins were also removed to large extent. Method performance was assessed by recovery experiments at spiking levels of 0.5 and 1mg/kg (n=5) for fourteen pesticides that are relevant for propolis. Mean recoveries determined by HPLC-MS against solvent standards were between 40 and 101%, while calculation against matrix-matched standards provided recoveries of 79-104%. Precision of recovery, assessed by relative standard deviations, were below 9%. Thus, the developed dual-layer SPE clean-up enables the reliable pesticide residue analysis in propolis and provides a suitable alternative to time-consuming clean-up procedures proposed in literature.

  14. Relationship between dieldrin uptake in cucumber and solvent-extractable residue in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mizuki; Seike, Nobuyasu; Murano, Hirotatsu; Otani, Takashi

    2009-12-09

    To prevent the distribution of cucumbers with dieldrin contamination exceeding the limit set by the Japanese Food Sanitation Law, the extraction solvent for dieldrin-contaminated soil was selected prior to cultivation so that the dieldrin residue level in cucumber could be predicted. The exhaustive extraction from soil could not explain the dieldrin uptake by cucumber plants. However, significant correlation (R(2) = 0.966, P dieldrin concentrations in cucumber and dieldrin concentrations extracted with 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution from soils. This was a result of the phytoavailability of dieldrin to the cucumber plants. The extractability of soil dieldrin with the methanol-water solution decreased as the organic carbon content in the soils increased. This suggested that a 50% (v/v) methanol-water solution is the optimal solution for predicting dieldrin concentrations in cucumbers by soil analysis.

  15. Catalytic gasification of oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hideo; Li, Dalin; Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Tomishige, Keiichi; Watanabe, Makoto M

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic gasification of the oil-extracted residue biomass of Botryococcus braunii was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale continuous feeding dual bed reactor. Steam gasification at 1023 K over Ni-Fe/Mg/Al catalyst can completely reform tar derived from pyrolysis of the residue biomass into C1 gases and hydrogen, and has achieved 91%-C conversion to gaseous product (CO+CO2+CH4). Composition of product gas has higher contents of CO and H2 with their ratio (H2/CO) of around 2.4 which is slightly H2-rich syngas. Maximum hydrogen yield of 74.7 mmol g-biomass(-1) obtained in this work is much higher than that from gasification of other algal biomass reported in literature. The residue biomass of B. braunii can be a superior renewable source of syngas or hydrogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A validated method for halquinol extraction from chicken liver matrix for residual HPLC studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushigeri, Sadanand; Ganesh, M; Radhakrishna, P M

    2006-01-01

    Extraction is the key step in the analysis of food samples, from either plant or animal sources for residues of veterinary drugs and pesticides. Such residues pose an unacceptable risk to the consumer and information is insufficient to allow a full assessment. This paper presents a method for extracting and determining Halquinol, a veterinary drug in liver of chicken. The first step of the study was to establish and validate a method for determination of Halquinol, which was achieved using HPLC equipped with a C18 reversed-phase, monomeric column and a MWD-UV detector. In the second step, we extracted and purified the liver samples. Liver samples were homogenized in buffer, extracted with ethyl acetate, and cleaned up using a solid-phase extraction column. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.1 microg/l mL, and detection limit was 0.01 microg/l mL. Mean recoveries in chicken liver ranged from 57% to 91%.

  17. Biotransformation of ginsenoside Rd in the ginseng extraction residue by fermentation with lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bo Yang; Lu, Ting Jang; Chen, Chia Hui; Wang, Shing Jung; Hwang, Lucy Sun

    2013-12-15

    Ginseng and lingzhi (Ganoderma lucidum) both are valuable traditional Chinese medicines and have been extensively utilised in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. However, massive quantity of ginseng residue is produced after extraction of ginseng which still contains a lot of bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The goal of this study was to reuse the American ginseng extraction residue as the fermentation medium of G. lucidum to produce bioactive ginsenoside enriched biotransformation products. The changes of ginsenosides in the fermentation products were analysed during fermentation. Our results showed that after 30 days of fermentation, ginsenoside Rg1, Rd, and compound K (CK) significantly increased, especially Rd, while other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1 and Rc) decreased during fermentation. Ginsenoside Rd is the major ginsenoside in the final fermentation product. Furthermore, the biotransformation of ginsenosides was the major reaction in this fermentation process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    Sitohy, M. Z.; Badr, E. H.; Perifanova-Nemska, M.; Khadjiski, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  19. The occurrence of extractible ink residuals in packaging materials used in the Czech Republic.

    OpenAIRE

    Dupáková, Zdeňka; Dobiáš, Jaroslav; Votavová, Lenka; Klaudisová, Kamila; Voldřich, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The residuals of printing ink components were determined in 94 samples of packaging materials commercially used in the Czech Republic for food packaging. Tested samples included printed polyethylene and polypropylene films, coextruded and laminated films, paperboard beverages boxes, foils for thermo sealing of polystyrene cups and polypropylene cups. Printing ink components were extracted with diethylether, then separated and determined using gas chromatography coupled wit...

  20. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5) 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S), temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed t...

  1. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril processing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry using a polyethylene glycol polar capillary column as stationary phase. The pineapple residues constituted mostly of esters (35%, followed by ketones (26%, alcohols (18%, aldehydes (9%, acids (3% and other compounds (9%. Odor-active volatile compounds were mainly identified in the distillate obtained using hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas, namely decanal, ethyl octanoate, acetic acid, 1-hexanol, and ketones such as γ-hexalactone, γ-octalactone, δ-octalactone, γ-decalactone, and γ-dodecalactone. This suggests that the use of an inert gas and lower temperatures helped maintain higher amounts of flavor compounds. These data indicate that pineapple processing residue contained important volatile compounds which can be extracted and used as aroma enhancing products and have high potential for the production of value-added natural essences.

  2. Stability of the anthocyanins extracted from residues of the wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Clemente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are highly important due to their antioxidant capacity. They are the most important among the phenolic compounds and one of the main natural dyes used in the food industry. In this research, residue of processed grapes was used to investigate the presence of anthocyanins, the possibility of their extraction from the residue, and their stability. The extraction solution consisted of 70 mL of ethanol 70% and 30 mL of HCl 0.1% at pH 2.0. The results found for the processed grapes residue was 26.20 mg.100 g-1. In order to evaluate stability, caffeic acid was added at 0.5:1 w/v; 0.8:1 w/v; and 1:1 w/v concentrations. Anthocyanins extract reached the greatest stability at 0.5:1 w/v concentration, with 82.47% color retention and a half-life period of 15 days. Therefore, the use of this organic acid as a stabilizer for anthocyanins is feasible.

  3. Optimization of extraction and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Long; Zhang, Li; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Yonghong; Ding, Chunbang; Yang, Ruiwu; Wang, Xiaoli; Yu, Lin

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the process of extracting polysaccharides from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge residue was optimized by using a Box-Behnken design. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the linear and quadratic terms of the three variables of the extraction process had significant effects. The optimal conditions are as follows: extracting time of 2.6 h, extraction temperature of 89 °C, and ratio of water to raw material of 32 mL/g. Moreover, a new polysaccharide with antioxidant activity [i.e., SMWP-1 (∼5.27×10(5) Da)] was isolated from S. miltiorrhiza residue. The carbohydrate, uronic acid, and protein contents of SMWP-1 were 90.11%, 0.13%, and 0.53%, respectively. The SMWP-1 is composed of glucose, xylose, mannose, and galactose. The preliminary structural characterization of SMWP-1 was determined via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. This polysaccharide exhibited strong reducing power and free-radical scavenging activities in vitro against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl. Therefore, SMWP-1 can be investigated further as a novel natural antioxidant.

  4. Nutrients intake and digestibility in sheep fed with residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate nutrient intake and digestibility by sheep fed diets containing residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp (RETP. We used four sheep with a mean body weight (BW of 40.38 kg, whose pens were distributed in a Latin square design. The diet treatments contained 0, 5, 10 and 15% of RETP. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and the differences observed were tested using regression equations at 5% significance. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, total carbohydrates (TC, and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC,expressed in g day-1, % BW and g kg0,75-1, were not significantly affected (p>0.05 by the inclusion of RETP. The intake of ether extract (EE and neutral detergent fiber (NDF showed a linear increase (p<0.05 as RETP content rose. However, the digestibility of DM, CP, TC, and total digestible nutrients (TDN decreased linearly (p<0.05, while the digestibility of EE, NDF, ADF, and NFC, with average values of 62.12%; 79.95%; 41.59%; 37.12%, and 91.57%, respectively, were not significantly affected (p>0.05 when RETP was included in the diet. The inclusion of up to 15% of the residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp changes the intake of ether extract and neutral detergent fiber, and reduced dry matter, crude protein, and total carbohydrates in the sheep’s diet.

  5. Enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of fresh plant residues and their extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoliang; Yuan, Miaoxin

    2012-02-01

    The feasibility of using fresh plant residues and their extracts to stimulate the bio-dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were highlighted. Wood chip, bamboo leave, orange peel and their water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) were chosen as amendment materials. Effect of WEOM on bio-dissipation (bioaccumulation and biodegradation) of phenanthrene and pyrene from water by two bacteria were investigated. Orange peel extract demonstrated the highest efficiency for stimulating PAHs removal by bacterium B1 (Pseudomonas putida), while bamboo leave extract was the best one to enhance PAHs bio-dissipation by bacterium B2 (unidentified bacterium isolated from PAHs-contaminated soil). Amended the actual contaminated soil with 1% plant residues, PAHs dissipation were increased by 15-20%, 20-39%, 14-24%, 12-23% and 17-26%, respectively, for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-ring PAHs via stimulating indigenous microbial degradation activity. Bamboo leave exhibited the most effective one to stimulate dissipation of PAHs in contaminated soil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) as an alternative general method for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihlström, Tuija; Isaac, Giorgis; Waldebäck, Monica; Osterdahl, Bengt-Göran; Markides, Karin E

    2002-04-01

    A pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) multi-method has been developed for the determination of pesticide residues in rape seed. The method was validated for 25 different pesticides and metabolites. The reliability and efficiency of PFE for extracting pesticide residues from rape seed was investigated. The traditional extraction solvent, hexane saturated with acetonitrile, was used at elevated temperature and pressure. With increased temperature, the extraction kinetics were improved but at the same time more co-extractives were obtained in the form of lipids. When 1 g of rape seed was extracted at temperatures from 60 degrees C to 150 degrees C, the lipid content extracted was found to be as high as 17-26%. An additional clean-up step was therefore required and lipid co-extractives were effectively removed by gel permeation chromatography. The interpretation of the chromatograms and the quantification of the results were satisfactorily improved by the removal of interfering lipids. The developed method was used to extract vinclozolin and iprodione from incurred samples, resulting in a concentration in accordance with the results using conventional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) between hexane and acetonitrile and also supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide. The results of the present study suggest that PEE is a good alternative extraction technique for the determination of pesticide residues in oil seed. Despite the necessity for a lipid-removal clean-up step, the PFE technique facilitated the extraction process by faster extractions and the possibility of automated analysis.

  7. Biotreatment of air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor in biotrickling filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safari Variani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of waste air containing volatile organic compounds (VOCs using cheap and environmentally friendly methods is one of active fields in air pollution control. Objective: The aim of this study was to treat air containing triethylamine (TEA vapor using biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the School of Health affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Biotreatment was performed with biotrickling filter inoculated with microbial species decomposing TEA for two months. The biotrickling filter was set up with air containing TEA as the sole source of carbon, at Empty Bed Residence Times (EBRT of 36 sec, and inlet concentration of 84 ppm. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings: Treatment of TEA contaminated air was made after an adaptation period of 11 days. Despite an increase in mass loading to 111 g/m3/h, TEA was eliminated with 109 g/m3/h capacity and 94-100% removal efficiency by zero order kinetics.Elimination capacity and removal efficiency were close to each other and confirmed109 g/m3/h as loading region with critical elimination capacity. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it is possible to treat air containing TEA vapor in biotrickling filter.

  8. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  9. Bactericidal Action of Photo-Irradiated Aqueous Extracts from the Residue of Crushed Grapes from Winemaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Mana; Sheng, Hong; Tada, Mika; Mokudai, Takayuki; Oizumi, Satomi; Kamachi, Toshiaki; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies revealed that photo-irradiation of polyphenols could exert bactericidal action via reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, the photo-irradiation-induced bactericidal activity of the aqueous extract from the residue of crushed grapes from winemaking was investigated in relation to ROS formation. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in the extract was irradiated with LED light at 400 nm. This solution killed the bacteria, and a 3-4 log and a >5-log reduction of the viable counts were observed within 10 and 20 min, respectively. LED light irradiation alone also killed the bacteria, but the viable counts were 2-4 log higher than those of the photo-irradiated extract. In contrast, almost no change occurred in the suspension without LED irradiation. When hydroxyl radical scavengers were added to the suspension, the bactericidal effect of the photo-irradiated extract was attenuated. Furthermore, electron spin resonance analysis demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals were generated by the photo-irradiation of the extract. The present study suggests that polyphenolic compounds in the extract exert bactericidal activity via hydroxyl radical formation upon photo-irradiation.

  10. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents.

  11. [Purification technology of procymidone residues in ginseng extracts by macroporous resins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li-Li; Zheng, Pei-He; Wang, Ying-Ping

    2014-07-01

    The macroporous resin separation technology has been mainly applied in the enrichment of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids and other ingredients, and used in the removal of heavy metal impurities and pesticide residues in recent years. This paper focuses on the synthesis of the new-type macroporous adsorption resin LKS-11 according to the molecular structure characteristics of procymidone. Specifically, the selective absorptive property and other advantages of macroporous resin were utilized to analyze the procymidone removal efficiency in ginseng extracts from different sources. The type of macroporous resins, absorptive property and desorption conditions were observed respectively by static and dynamic adsorption methods to determined the optimum process conditions. According to the results, LKS-11 showed a good absorptive property to procymidone in ginseng extracts and provided a theoretical basis for studies on the removal of procymidone residues from ginseng extracts by using macroporous adsorption resin. Because of no secondary pollution on samples, low production and operation costs, high procymidone removal efficiency and high product recovery rate, this method is suitable to be applied in production.

  12. Dilute alkali and hydrogen peroxide treatment of microwave liquefied rape straw residue for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingyan Huang; Cornelis F. De Hoop; Feng Li; Jiulong Xie; Chung-Yun Hse; Jinqiu Qi; Yongze Jiang; Yuzhu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Microwave-assisted liquefaction of rape straw in methanol was conducted to collect the liquefied residues for the extraction of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs).The liquefied residue with content of 23.44% from 180∘C/7.5 min was used to fibrillate CNCs with dilute alkali (2% NaOH) and hydrogen peroxide (5% H2O2...

  13. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius.

  14. The influence of maize residues on the mobility and binding of benazolin: Investigating physically extracted soil fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnitzler, Frauke [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: f.schnitzler@fz-juelich.de; Lavorenti, Arquimedes [Escola Superior de Agricultura ' Luiz de Queiroz' , Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Padua Dias, 11, Caixa Postal 9, CEP 13418-900 Piracicaba (SP) (Brazil); Berns, Anne E. [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Drewes, Norbert [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Vereecken, Harry [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Burauel, Peter [Agrosphere, ICG IV, Institute of Chemistry and Dynamics of the Geosphere, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    The amount of non-extractable residues and the distribution of benazolin and its metabolites were evaluated three months after herbicide application ({sup 14}C-labelled) in physically extracted soil fractions of topsoil layers of undisturbed soil columns with and without incorporated maize straw ({sup 14}C-labelled). In addition, a variety of wet-chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to characterise the structure of organic carbon within the different soil fractions. The addition of crop residues increased the amount of dissolved organic carbon, enhanced the aromaticity of the organic carbon structure and enforced the aggregation of organomineral complexes. After incorporation of crop residues, an increase in the formation of metabolic compounds of benazolin and of non-extractable residues was detected. These results indicate that the addition of crop residues leads to a decrease in mobility and bioaccessibility of benazolin and its metabolites. - Addition of crop residues increases the amount of non-extractable residues and decreases the mobility of benazolin and its metabolites.

  15. Nonidet P-40 extraction of lymphocyte plasma membrane. Characterization of the insoluble residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A A; Wigglesworth, N M; Allan, D; Owens, R J; Crumpton, M J

    1984-04-01

    Purified preparations of lymphocyte plasma membrane were extracted exhaustively with Nonidet P-40 in Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline medium. The insoluble fraction, as defined by sedimentation at 10(6) g-min, contained about 10% of the membrane protein as well as cholesterol and phospholipid. The lipid/protein ratio, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio and sphingomyelin content were increased in the residue. Density-gradient centrifugation suggested that the lipid and protein form a common entity. As judged by sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, the Nonidet P-40-insoluble fractions of the plasma membranes of human B lymphoblastoid cells and pig mesenteric lymph-node lymphocytes possessed similar qualitative polypeptide compositions but differed quantitatively. Both residues comprised major polypeptides of Mr 28 000, 33 000, 45 000 and 68 000, together with a prominent band of Mr 120 000 in the human and of Mr 200 000 in the pig. The polypeptides of Mr 28 000, 33 000, 68 000 and 120 000 were probably located exclusively in the Nonidet P-40-insoluble residue, which also possessed a 4-fold increase in 5'-nucleotidase specific activity. The results indicate that a reproducible fraction of lymphocyte plasma membrane is insoluble in non-ionic detergents and that this fraction possesses a unique polypeptide composition. By analogy with similar studies with erythrocyte ghosts, it appears likely that the polypeptides are located on the plasma membrane's cytoplasmic face.

  16. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further impr

  17. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further

  18. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, C.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Xiao, T.T.; Bruins, M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further impr

  19. Rapid determination of pesticide residues in herbs using selective pressurized liquid extraction and fast gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Gang; Xiao, Yao; Yang, Hua-Rong; Wang, Li; Song, Yue-Lin; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2012-08-01

    A selective pressurized liquid extraction and gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer method was developed for simultaneous determination of 52 pesticide residues in medicine and food dual-purpose herbs. The developed extraction method integrated extraction and cleanup processes for sample preparation. The sorbents, 5 g Florisil and 100 mg graphitized carbon black, were placed inside the extraction cell to remove matrix interferences. Optimized conditions of selective pressurized liquid extraction were ethyl acetate as extraction solvent, 120°C of extraction temperature, 6 min of static extraction time, 50% of flush volume extracted for two cycles. An ultra inert capillary GC-MS HP-5 UI column (20 m × 0.18 mm id, 0.18 μm) and column backflush system were used for the analysis. Multiple-reaction monitoring was employed for the quantitative analysis with electron ionization mode. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r(2) > 0.995) within the test ranges. The average recoveries of most pesticides were from 81 to 118%. The validated method was successfully applied for the determination of pesticide residues in four herbs. The results indicate that selective pressurized liquid extraction and GC-MS/MS is a sensitive and reliable analytical method for the simultaneous determination of multiple pesticide residues in herbs.

  20. 从提金渣中回收金银%Extraction of Gold and Silver from Gold-extraction Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海辉; 王云; 袁朝新; 李云

    2011-01-01

    Study on extraction of gold and silver from gold-extraction residue with the process of high temperature chloridization was conducted. The results indicate that the volatilization rate of gold and silver is 95. 19% and 59.26%, respectively, under the conditions including adopt dry type mixing and powdered roasting, chloridization volatilization temperature of 1 000 ℃, chloridization time of 30 min, and the consumption of CaCl2 of 5%.%采用高温氯化工艺对新疆某提金渣进行提取金、银等有价元素的研究.结果表明:在干式混料,粉状焙烧,氯化挥发温度1 000℃,氯化时间30 min,CaCl2用量5%的条件下,金、银挥发率分别为95.19%和59.26%.

  1. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Zhang; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-pr...

  2. Extraction of metals from automotive shredder residue:Preliminary results of different leaching systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Ferella; Ida De Michelis; Agostino Scocchera; Mario Pelino; Francesco Vegliò

    2015-01-01

    The study is focused on the extraction of valuable metals from automotive shredder residue (ASR) by different leaching solutions. First, ASR samples were roasted at 600 °C to simulate a thermal treatment processing. Distil ed water, citric and sulphuric acid were preliminarily investigated, thus two further full factorial systems entailing H2SO4–H2O2 and H2SO4–H2O2–Fe3+ were tested. The preliminary experimental results showed that 0.1 mol·L−1 H2SO4 solution extracted 100%of Cu, Fe and Zn, whereas citric acid leached 100%of Zn and Pb, 59%of Fe and 62%of Cu;whereas, H2SO4–H2O2 and H2SO4–H2O2–Fe3+(Fenton's) leaching media showed that Cu, Fe and Zn can be extracted simultaneously and completely from the ASR ashes before final disposal.

  3. Discoloration of Indigo Carmine Using Aqueous Extracts from Vegetables and Vegetable Residues as Enzyme Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Solís

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several vegetables and vegetable residues were used as sources of enzymes capable to discolor indigo carmine (IC, completely or partially. Complete discoloration was achieved with aqueous extracts of green pea seeds and peels of green pea, cucumber, and kohlrabi, as well as spring onion leaves. The source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO, pH, time, and aeration is fundamental for the discoloration process catalyzed by PPO. The PPO present in the aqueous extract of green pea seeds was able to degrade 3,000 ppm of IC at a pH of 7.6 and magnetic stirring at 1,800 rpm in about 36 h. In addition, at 1,800 rpm and a pH of 7.6, this extract discolored 300 ppm of IC in 1:40 h; in the presence of 10% NaCl, the discoloration was complete in 5:50 h, whereas it was completed in 4:30 h with 5% NaCl and 2% laundry soap.

  4. Characterization of enzymatically extracted sunflower seed oil as well as the protein residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitohy, M. Z.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Sunflower seed oil was enzymatically extracted with six different enzymes: cellulase, hemicellulase, animal proteinase, acid proteinase, pectinase and pectinex under the following conditions: substrate concentration in phosphate buffer (0.5M, pH 5 30%, enzyme concentration 2% (E/S, temperature 50°C and time 3 hours. The obtained oils were analyzed for physicochemical properties and fatty acid profiles. The protein residues were analyzed for amino acid compositions. The results showed that the enzymatic extraction with cellulase or hemicellulase could maintain good oil quality of the extracted oils as their levels of linoleic and oleic acids recorded similar values to those of the control oil extracted with organic solvents. Also the level of iodine value was in the same level of control. On the other hand, the use of proteases in the enzymatic extraction of sunflower seed oil caused some reductions in the levels of the unsaturated fatty acids as well as the iodine value. The pectinases showed a similar trend to that of the proteinase with the least recovery of linoleic acid among the different oils under study. Similarly, the use of cellulases did not change the amino acid composition of the protein residue as compared to the control, in the contrary to the extraction with the proteinases which caused reduction of some amino acids from the protein residues especially lysine, leucine, iso-leucine, alanine, arginine and aspartic. In that respect the use of pectinases behaved similar to cellulases.

    Aceite de semilla de girasol fue extraído enzimáticamente con seis enzimas diferentes: celulasa, hemicelulasa, proteinasa animal, proteinase acida, pectinasa y pectinex bajo las condiciones siguientes: concentración de sustrato en tampón fosfato (0,5M, pH 5 30%, concentración enzimática 2% (E/S, temperatura 50°C y tiempo 3 horas. Los aceites obtenidos fueron analizados por sus propiedades fisicoquímicas y perfiles de ácidos grasos

  5. Contribution of microorganisms to non-extractable residue formation from biodegradable organic contaminants in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, K. M.; Girardi, C.; Miltner, A.; Schäffer, A.; Kästner, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biodegradation of organic contaminants in soil is actually understood as their transformation into various primary metabolites, microbial biomass, mineralisation products and non-extractable residues (NER). NER are generally considered to be composed of parent compounds or primary metabolites with hazardous potential. Up to date, however, their chemical composition remains still unclear. Studies on NER formation are limited to quantitative analyses in soils or to simple humic acids-contaminant systems. However, in the case of biodegradable organic compounds, NER may also contain microbial biomass components, e.g. fatty acids (FA) and amino acids (AA). After cell death, these biomolecules are incorporated into soil organic matter (SOM) and stabilised, ultimately forming biogenic residues which are not any more extractable. We investigated the incorporation of the 13C-label into FA and AA and their fate during biodegradation experiments in soil with isotope-labelled 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (13C6-2,4-D) and ibuprofen (13C6-ibu) as model organic contaminants. Our study proved for the first time that nearly all NER formed from 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu in soil derived from harmless microbial biomass components stabilised in SOM. 13C-FA and 13C-AA contents in the living microbial biomass fraction decreased over time and these components were continuously incorporated into the non-living SOM pool in biotic experiments with 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu. The 13C-AA in the non-living SOM were surprisingly stable from day 32 (13C6-2,4-D) and 58 (13C6-ibu) until the end of incubation. We also studied the transformation of 13C6-2,4-D and 13C6-ibu into NER in the abiotic soil experiments. In these experiments, the total NER contents were much lower than in the corresponding biotic experiments. The absence of labelled biomolecules in the NER fraction in abiotic soils demonstrated that they consist of the potentially hazardous parent compounds and / or their metabolites. Biogenic

  6. Process Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Arabinogalactan from Dihydroquercetin Extracted Residues by Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaizhi Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound was used for the extraction of larch arabinogalactan from Larix gmelinii. The optimal conditions for ultrasound extraction were determined by response surface methodology. Specifically, the Box-Behnken design was employed to evaluate the effects of three independent variables: ultrasound time, temperature, and liquid-solid ratio. The highest arabinogalactan yield (11.18% was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 41.5°C, extraction time 24.3 min, and liquid-solid ratio 40 mL/g. In addition, the antioxidant activity of arabinogalactan that was extracted from dihydroquercetin extraction residues exhibited a moderate and concentration-dependent hydroxyl radical-scavenging capacity, ferric-reducing power, and reducing power. The wood material was characterized before and after processing by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

  7. Preparation and Performance Evaluation of Biochars from Neem Seed Active Substance Extracted Residues (NSASER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialei; Lu, Shuwen

    2017-05-01

    Neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) is industrial by-product, which is often discarded as a waste. It would lead to a certain degree of harm to the environment. The aim of this study was to prepare the biochars with neem seed active substance extracted residues (NSASER) under the anaerobic pyrolysis conditions. The pyrolysis process was studied with different pyrolysis power (200W, 500W, 800W, 1100W and 1400W), and the performance of the prepared biochars was evaluated. The results showed that the required time was to complete the pyrolysis process that gradually decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the final pyrolysis temperature was to complete the pyrolysis process that increased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W. The biochars yield decreased with pyrolysis power increased from 200 to 1400 W, and the biochars yield has the maximum value when the pyrolysis power was of 200W. And the prepared biochars still had some characteristics of the plant cell and kept uniform porous structure, which was beneficial to absorb the small molecule substance. The water content of the prepared biochars was 7.18±0.53, the ash content of the prepared biochars was 5.92±0.31 and the fixed carbon content of the prepared biochars was 81.27±0.89. Compared with the bamboo charcoal, the performance index of the prepared biochars was in according with National Standard of the People’s Republic of China GBT26913-2011 of the bamboo charcoal. The prepared biochars had a potential value in application.

  8. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Luna Guevara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  9. The removal of dinitrochlorobenzene from industrial residuals by liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. M. Ferreira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrochlorobenzenes (NCBs are very important in the chemical industry since they have been used as raw material for the manufacture of crop protection products, as active ingredients in the pharmaceutical industry, as pigments and as antioxidants as well as for other uses. In industrial processes, NCBs are produced by monochlorobenzene (MCB nitration reactions and one of the main residuals formed is dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB, which is mainly composed of the isomer 2,4DNCB. This subproduct, although of commercial interest when in its pure state, is generally incinerated due to the high costs of recovery treatment and purification. The objective of this study is to present an alternative to the treatment of industrial residuals containing DNCB. The technique consists of converting DNCB into sodium dinitrophenolate, which is very soluble in water and is also easy to reuse. For this purpose, liquid-liquid extraction with chemical reaction (alkaline hydrolysis with a rotating disc contactor (RDC is used. Experimental data on MCB nitration reactions as well as alkaline hydrolysis using a rotating disc contactor are presented.

  10. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) Residues

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X1: 80%–90...

  11. Removal of residual chlorine from Indiana 5 coal by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, B.S.; Azzam, F.O.; Lee, S. (University of Akron, Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The perchloroethylene coal desulfurization process has unique advantages as a precombustion coal cleaning process, that include high cleaning efficiencies, mild process conditions, minimal output of undesirable byproducts, and cost effectiveness. However, the use of perchloroethylene in the process renders an important process engineering problem of complete recovery and reuse of perchloroethylene, thus requiring a 'zero discharge' condition of the solvent. Therefore, the treated coal must be stripped of any residual perchloroethylene. Carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) in its supercritical state has been investigated for its ability to remove chlorine from Indiana 5 coal, that has been desulfurized by the perchloroethylene (PCE) process. The reduction of Cl content from a PCE treated and filtered coal has been as high as 78% by mass. The experiments have been carried out following a statistical experimental design and the discerning characteristics of the process have been identified. The solvent density and extraction conditions can be tailored in such a way as to optimally remove C from the coal without any detrimental effects on the coal matrix. The supercritical CO[sub 2] extraction process can be successfully implemented to the PCE coal cleaning process by replacing energy intensive steps of steam stripping and vacuum drying. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Solid-liquid extraction of alkali metals and organic compounds by leaching of food industry residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaowei; Zheng, Yi; Cheng, Yu-Shen; Jenkins, Bryan M; Zhang, Ruihong; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2010-06-01

    Leaching was studied for its application in extracting inorganic and organic constituents from fresh fermented grape pomace, air-dried fermented grape pomace and air-dried sugar beet pulp. Samples of each feedstock were leached in water at ambient temperature for 30 or 120 min at dry solid-to-liquid ratios of 1/20 and 1/50 kg/L. Leaching removed 82% of sodium, 86% of potassium, and 76% of chlorine from sugar beet pulp, and reduced total ash concentration in air-dry fermented grape pomace from 8.2% to 2.9% of dry matter, 8.2% to 4.4% in fresh fermented grape pomace, and 12.5% to 5.4% in sugar beet pulp. Glycerol (7-11 mg/dry g), ethanol (131-158 mg/dry g), and acetic acid (24-31 mg/dry g) were also extracted from fermented grape pomace. These results indicate that leaching is a beneficial pretreatment step for improving the quality of food processing residues for thermochemical and biochemical conversion.

  13. Application of Ultrasound in a Closed System: Optimum Condition for Antioxidants Extraction of Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinatzin Y. Zafra-Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X1: 80%–90% and extraction time (X2: 10–15 min, and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/100 g dry weight basis (dw; 379.12 mg/100 g·dw; 6318.98 µmol Trolox equivalent (TE/100 g·dw and 9617.22 µmol TE/100 g·dw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol, ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.

  14. Simultaneous Determination of TetracyclinesResidues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mesgari Abbasi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tetracyclines (TCs are widely used in animal husbandry and their residues in milk may resultinharmful effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of TCs residues in various bovine milk samples from local markets of Ardabil, Iran. Methods:One hundred and fourteen pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were collected from markets of Ardabil. Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline (TCs residues extraction carried out by Solid Phase Extraction method. Determination of TCs residues were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using Fluorescence detector.Results: The mean of total TCs residues in all samples (114 samples was 97.6 ±16.9ng/g and that of pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were 87.1 ± 17.7, 112.0 ± 57.3 and 154.0 ± 66.3ng/g respectively. Twenty five point four percent of the all samples, and24.4%, 30% and 28.6% of the pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples, respectively had higher TCs residues than the recommended maximum levels (100ng/g. Conclusion:This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues more than allowed amount. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs.

  15. Liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction for determination of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples by ultra fast liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunzhu; Sun, Ying; Yu, Xi; Gao, Yan; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuanpeng; Zhang, Hanqi; Song, Daqian

    2013-09-30

    In this study, liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid-phase extraction was successfully developed for the extraction of pyrethroid residues in vegetable samples. The analytes were determined by ultra fast liquid chromatography. The pyrethroids were extracted by liquid-solid extraction and then adsorbed onto magnetic adsorbent. Magnetic adsorbent, C18-functionalized ultrafine magnetic silica nanoparticles, was synthesized by chemical coprecipitation, silanization and alkylation. The analytes adsorbed onto the magnetic adsorbent can be simply and rapidly isolated from sample solution with a strong magnet on the bottom of the extraction vessel. The extraction parameters, such as liquid-solid extraction solvent, liquid-solid extraction time, the amount of magnetic adsorbent, magnetic solid-phase extraction time and magnetic solid-phase extraction desorption solvent, were optimized to improve the extraction efficiency. The analytical performances of this method, including linear range, detection limit, precision, and recovery were evaluated. The limits of detection for pyrethroid were between 0.63 and 1.2 ng g(-1). Recoveries obtained by analyzing the four spiked vegetable samples were between 76.0% and 99.5%. The results showed that the present method was a simple, accurate and high efficient approach for the determination of pyrethroids in the vegetable samples.

  16. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gómez-Muñoz, Beatriz; García-Ruiz, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Fruits of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) are used for essential oil extraction. The extraction process is very efficient, because up to 3% of the fresh fruits can be transformed into essential oil; however, a considerable amount of waste is concurrently produced (>97% of the fresh biomass). Recent developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation in combination with other raw materials (kitchen leftovers, pig manure, goat manure, and King Grass), for agrochemical use and for carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) decomposition in two soils with different textures. The results showed that the vermicompost mixtures (VMM) were valuable for agricultural utilisation, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition if the VM of the pure waste was added. This likely occurred because of the relatively low total N (1.16%) content and high C/N ratio (35.0). However, the comparatively low C decomposition of this VM type makes its application highly recommendable as a strategy to increase the levels of organic matter and C, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture.

  17. Feasibility of biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yan, Xi-Luan; Fan, Jie-Ping; Zhu, Jian-Hang; Zhou, Wen-Bin

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this work was to examine the feasibility of biogas production from the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were carried out under mesophilic anaerobic conditions. Batch experiments revealed that the highest specific biogas yield was 294 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solids added, obtained at 50% of herbal-extraction residues and 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Specific methane yield from swine manure alone was 207 mL CH(4) g(-1) volatile solid added d(-1) at 3.50 g volatile solids g(-1) mixed liquor suspended solids. Furthermore, specific methane yields were 162, 180 and 220 mL CH(4) g (-1) volatile solids added d(-1) for the reactors co-digesting mixtures with 10%, 25% and 50% herbal-extraction residues, respectively. These results suggested that biogas production could be enhanced efficiently by the anaerobic co-digestion of herbal-extraction residues with swine manure.

  18. Residual intrahepatic stones after percutaneous biliary extraction : longterm follow up of complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung Min; Shim, Hyung Jin; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Lim, Sang Jun; Park, Hyo Jin; Kim, Yang Soo; Choi, Young Hee [Chungang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Byung Kuck [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Young [Sung Ae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    To evaluate and compare the radiologic and clinical follow-up of complications between a group in whom stone removal after percutaneous biliary extraction had been complete, and a group in whom this had been incomplete. Twenty-two patients in whom stone removal had been incomplete, and 20 from whom stones had been completely removed were evaluated with particular attention to complications such as cholangitis, liver abscess, biliary sepsis, and pain. Cholangitis was diagnosed on the basis of typical clinical symptoms such as pain, high fever, jaundice and leukocytosis. Pain without other cholangitic symptoms was excluded. Liver abscess was diagnosed by percutaneous aspiration of pus, and biliary sepsis by bacterial growth on blood culture, or laboratory findings such as increased fibrinogen products, decreased fibrinogen, and increased prothrombin time with cholangitic symptoms. 'Complete removal' means no residual stones on follow-up sonogram and cholangiogram performed within three to seven days after pecutaneous biliary extraction. Mean follow-up period was 26.5 months in the incomplete removal group and 34.2 months in the complete removal group. In twelve of 22 patients (54.5%) in the incomplete removal group, complications occurred, as follows:cholangitis, ten cases (45.5%);liver absces, one (4.5%);biliary sepsis, one (4.5%);and pain, seven(31.8%). In contrast, only two of twenty patients (10%) in the complete removal group suffered complications, all of which involved the recurrence of stones in the common duct, and cholangitis. Complete removal of intrahepatic stones significantly helps to reduce the incidence of possible complications. Even in the case of an impacted stone, aggressive interventional procedures, aimed at complete removal, should be considered. If nonsurgical procedures fail, early partial hepatectomy should be considered, particulary for the stones localized in the left intrahepatic duct.

  19. The use of DNA technologies in determining the biotreatability of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, A. [HydroQual, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    HydroQual Laboratories is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Golder Associates and uses biological testing for measuring the effect of toxins and their impact on various links in the food chain in order to evaluate and improve environmental health. It has expertise in various fields of the natural sciences and is ISO certified. This presentation discussed the use of DNA technologies in determining the biotreatability of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The paper presented biotreatability studies run by the company which included bench scale testing on various types of contaminants. The testing involved multiple treatments, determination of dosage, and additional amendments. The strategy may vary based on bench test results and legislation. Trichloroethylene/perchloroethylene remediation strategies were also presented for chemical oxidation; aerobic bioremediation; abiotic remediation; and anaerobic biostimulation and augmentation. Biostimulation was defined as the addition of nutrients to influence the redox potential. The presentation also reviewed anaerobic dehalorespiration; detection methods; DNA isolation; polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and biotreatability case studies. The presentation concluded with some future directions and other uses of PCR. tabs., figs.

  20. Biotreatment of coals and coal related compounds by hydrogen-utilizing microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murty, M.V.S.; Aleem, M.I.H.; Kermode, R.I.; Bhattacharyya, D. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Acidianus brierleyi were used to study hydrogenation of coal, pretreated coal, asphaltenes and model compounds (diphenyl methane (DPM) and fumarate) under anaerobic conditions. This study involved three primary aspects: (1) determination of net hydrogen-uptake, (2) identification of the biohydrogenated product of fumarate, and (3) testing the influence of hydrogen uptake/biohydrogenation of coal in terms of direct liquefaction yield. The net hydrogen uptake values (from Warburg and GC assays) by the coals or the model compounds (controls) were less than that of the biotreated samples. The greatest hydrogen uptake occurred in untreated coal KCER No. 4677 in the presence of D. desulfuricans. The net hydrogen uptake by coals varied depending upon the coal type and the microorganism. Model compound DPM showed its highest hydrogen uptake rate when catalysed by D. desulfuricans. D. desulfuricans also hydrogenated 36% of the fumarate to succinate in the presence of hydrogen. Biotreated coal KCER No. 4677 was subsequently subjected to direct liquefaction. It showed a net increase in liquefaction yield of 5-4% as a result of biotreatment.

  1. Enhanced extraction of phenolic compounds from coffee industry’s residues through solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Rossana PALOMINO García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of agroindustrial residues is an economical solution to industrial biotechnology. Coffee husk and pulp are abounding residues from coffee industry which can be used as substrates in solid state fermentation process, thus allowing a liberation and increase in the phenolic compound content with high added value. By employing statistical design, initial moisture content, pH value in the medium, and the incubation temperature were evaluated, in order to increase the polyphenol content in a process of solid state fermentation by Penicillium purpurogenum. The main phenolic compounds identified through HPLC in fermented coffee residue were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin. Data obtained through HPLC with the radical absorbance capacity assay suggest the fermented coffee husk and pulp extracts potential as a source of phenolic acids and flavonoids. Results showed good perspectives when using P. purpurogenum strain to enhance the liberation of phenolic compounds in coffee residues.

  2. ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT OF PARSLEY (Petroselinum crispum Mill. COGERMINATION, WATER EXTRACTS AND RESIDUES ON HOARY CRESS (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ravlić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine allelopathic effect of parsley (Petroselinum crispum Mill. on germination and growth parameters of weed species hoary cress (Lepidium draba (L. Desv.. Cogermination of hoary cress with parsley seeds, water extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass in concentrations of 5 and 10% (50 and 100 g per litre of distilled water were evaluated in Petri dishes. Effect of water extracts from fresh parsley biomass in aforementioned concentrations as well as effects of fresh and dry parsley residues in two rates (10 and 20 g/kg of soil were examined in pots with soil. Cogermination of seeds stimulated root length, but decreased shoot length and fresh weight of hoary cress seedlings. In the Petri dish assay, extracts from fresh and dry parsley biomass reduced germination of hoary cress, but had both stimulatory as well as inhibitory effect on other parameters. The highest concentration of dry biomass extract completely reduced germination rate of hoary cress (by 100%. In the pot experiment, extracts from fresh parsley biomass had stimulatory effect on weed growth parameters except for root length which was inhibited with higher concentration by 4.2%. Fresh parsley residues reduced germination, root and shoot length of hoary cress, while dry parsley residues promoted measured parameters, with the exception of root length.

  3. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation from xenobiotics in soil - a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestner, Matthias; Nowak, Karolina; Miltner, Anja; Trapp, Stefan; Schaeffer, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    This presentation provides a comprehensive overview about the formation of non-extractable residues (NER) from organic pesticides and contaminants in soil and tries classifying the different types. Anthropogenic organic chemicals are deliberately (e.g. pesticides) or unintentionally (e.g. polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], chlorinated solvents, pharmaceuticals) released in major amounts to nearly all compartments of the environment. Soils and sediments as complex matrices provide a wide variety of binding sites and are the major sinks for these compounds. Many of the xenobiotics entering soil undergo turnover processes and can be volatilised, leached to the groundwater, degraded by microorganisms or taken up and enriched by living organisms. Xenobiotic NER may be derived from parent compounds and primary metabolites that are sequestered (sorbed or entrapped) within the soil organic matter (type I NER) or can be covalently bound (type II NER). Especially type I NER may pose a considerably environmental risk of potential release. However, NER resulting from productive biodegradation, which means the conversion of carbon (or nitrogen) from the compounds into microbial biomass molecules during microbial degradation (type III, bioNER), do not pose any risk. Experimental and analytical approaches to clearly distinguish between the types are provided and a model to prospectively estimate their fate in soil is proposed.

  4. CHEMICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF STARCHES FROM LEGUMES AND APPLICATION OF THE EXTRACTION RESIDUES IN EXPANDED EXTRUDED SNACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Eduardo FERREIRA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Starches from legumes (carioca bean, white bean and chickpea were extracted, aiming at their chemical and morphological characterization, as well as evaluating the use ofthe extraction residues to elaborate expanded extruded snacks. The analyses carried out for the starches and their respective residues were moisture, proteins, lipids, ash, dietary fiber and carbohydrates. The starches were also evaluated with respect to their morphological characteristics, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. The residues were used in formulations containing corn flour to produce expanded extruded snacks. These snacks were evaluated as to their expansion index (EI, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI. WAI and WSI analyses were also performed for the residues. The results demonstrated that the starches presented similar composition regarding moisture and carbohydrates, with a high carbohydrate content (close to 91%. The starch granules presented sizes between 15 and 25μm and a flat oval shape, with the chickpea starch granules being the smallest with a tendency to form agglomerates. The residues presented significant amounts ofcarbohydrates (between 70 and 75%, apart from expressive quantities ofdietary fibers (between 25 and 39%. In the evaluation ofWAI and WSI ofthe residues, IAA values were close for the sources studied (close to 11g/g, WSI was greater for carioca bean (close to 15.6%. The snacks containing the carioca bean residues had the highest EI value (6.3, while the highest values for WAI and WSI (respectively, 14.4g/g and 31.1% were found for the snacks with white bean residues.

  5. Extraction of high added value biological compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Vincenza; Carvalho, Ana P; Piccirillo, Clara; Santos, Manuela M; Castro, Paula M L; Pintado, Manuela E

    2013-08-01

    Different valuable compounds, which can be employed in medicine or in other industries (i.e. food, agrochemical, pharmaceutical) can be recovered from by-products and waste from the fish canning industries. They include lipids, proteins, bio-polymers, minerals, amino acids and enzymes; they can be extracted from wastewaters and/or from solid residues (head, viscera, skin, tails and flesh) generated along the canning process, through the filleting, cooking, salting or smoking stages. In this review, the opportunities for the extraction and the valorisation of bioactive compounds from sardine, sardine-type fish and mackerel canning residues are examined and discussed. These are amongst the most consumed fishes in the Mediterranean area; moreover, canning is one of the most important and common methods of preservation. The large quantities of by-products generated have great potentials for the extraction of biologically desirable high added value compounds.

  6. Recovery of anthocyanins from residues of Rubus fruticosus, Vaccinium myrtillus and Eugenia brasiliensis by ultrasound assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction and their combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Paula Da Fonseca; Pereira, Ana Luiza Duarte; Barbero, Gerardo Fernández; Martínez, Julian

    2017-09-15

    This work investigated the extraction efficiency of polyphenols (anthocyanins) from blackberry, blueberry and grumixama residues using combined ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) (UAE+PLE). The performance of UAE+PLE was compared to those achieved by the isolated PLE and UAE methods and conventional Soxhlet extraction. The effects of the extraction methods and solvents (acidified water pH 2.0, ethanol+water 50% v/v and ethanol+water 70% ethanol v/v) on total phenolics content, anthocyanin composition and antioxidant capacity of extracts were investigated by a full factorial design. The extraction efficiency for total phenolics and antioxidant capacity in decreasing order was: UAE+PLE>PLE≈Soxhlet>UAE, and for anthocyanins it was: Soxhlet≈UAE>UAE+PLE>PLE, using hydroethanolic mixtures as solvents. Extractions with acidified water and ultrasound were not effective to recover phenolics. Two, four and fourteen anthocyanins were identified in the extracts from grumixama, blackberry and blueberry, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Residual aqueous fraction of stem bark extract of Xeromphis nilotica and behavioral effects in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N M Danjuma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Xeromphis nilotica is a lowland shrub widespread in Northern Nigeria where it is used for treatment of mental disorders. This study aimed at evaluating the behavioral effects of the residual aqueous fraction of the stem bark extract of X. nilotica which is of relevance to its application in folklore medicine. The tests conducted were diazepam induced sleep in mice, beam walk assay in mice, hole-board test as well as acute toxicity test and Phytochemical analysis. The results revealed a high yield of the extract (3.02%. The LD50 was calculated to be 471.2 mg/kg intraperitoneally. Phytochemical analysis revealed tannins. The extract also showed a dose dependent prolongation of diazepam induced sleep which was significant (p≤ 0.05 at 40 mg/kg (from 75±4.0 min in normal saline to 130.2±10.2 min. No significant effect on onset of sleep was however observed. In the hole-board test, an overall increase in exploratory activity was observed (22.0±1.2 mean number of head dips at 40 mg/kg compared to diazepam 2 mg/kg (8.6±1.4 mean number of head dips. The extract had no effect on time spent on beam in the beam walk assay in mice but a significant (p≤ 0.05 difference was observed in the number of foot slips compared to diazepam 1 mg/kg, used as a standard reference drug. The extract showed 0.8±0.2, 1.0±0.4 and 1.2±0.2 mean number of slips at 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg compared to diazepam with 7.2±2.0 mean number of slips. The overall results of this study revealed sedative effect of this fraction which might have contributed to the application of the stem bark of Xeromphis nilotica in ethno-medicine for treatment of mental disorders.   Industrial relevance: According to the World Health Organization (WHO about 450 million people suffer from a mental or behavioral disorder. Only a few of this population receives basic treatment. Many of them in the developing countries still rely on traditional healing practices and medicinal plants for

  8. Assessment of residual bio-efficacy and persistence of Ipomoea cairica plant extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiagaletchumi, Maniam; Zuharah, Wan Fatma; Ahbi Rami, Rattanam; Fadzly, Nik; Dieng, Hamady; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2014-09-01

    Specification on residual action of a possible alternative insecticide derived from plant materials is important to determine minimum interval time between applications and the environmental persistence of the biopesticides. The objective of this study is to evaluate crude acethonilic extract of Ipomoea cairica leaves for its residual and persistence effects against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Wild strain of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae were used for the purpose of the study. Two test designs, replenishment of water and without replenishment of water were carried out. For the first design, a total of 10 ml of test solution containing Ip. cairica extracts was replenished daily and replaced with 10 ml of distilled water. For the second design, treatment water was maintained at 1500 ml and only evaporated water was refilled. Larval mortality was recorded at 24 hours post-treatment after each introduction period and trials were terminated when mortality rate falls below 50%. Adult emergences from survived larvae were observed and number of survivals was recorded. For the non-replenishment design, mortality rate significantly reduced to below 50% after 28 days, meanwhile for replenishment of water declined significantly after 21 days (P water design. The short period of residual effectiveness of crude acethonilic extract of Ip. cairica leaves with high percentage of larval mortality on the first few days, endorses fewer concerns of having excess residues in the environment which may carry the risk of insecticide resistance and environmental pollution.

  9. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P M; Xiao, Ting T; Bruins, Marieke E

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  10. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Xiao, Ting T.; Bruins, Marieke E.

    2015-01-01

    Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured) protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results. PMID:26200774

  11. How Does Alkali Aid Protein Extraction in Green Tea Leaf Residue: A Basis for Integrated Biorefinery of Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhang

    Full Text Available Leaf protein can be obtained cost-efficiently by alkaline extraction, but overuse of chemicals and low quality of (denatured protein limits its application. The research objective was to investigate how alkali aids protein extraction of green tea leaf residue, and use these results for further improvements in alkaline protein biorefinery. Protein extraction yield was studied for correlation to morphology of leaf tissue structure, protein solubility and hydrolysis degree, and yields of non-protein components obtained at various conditions. Alkaline protein extraction was not facilitated by increased solubility or hydrolysis of protein, but positively correlated to leaf tissue disruption. HG pectin, RGII pectin, and organic acids were extracted before protein extraction, which was followed by the extraction of cellulose and hemi-cellulose. RGI pectin and lignin were both linear to protein yield. The yields of these two components were 80% and 25% respectively when 95% protein was extracted, which indicated that RGI pectin is more likely to be the key limitation to leaf protein extraction. An integrated biorefinery was designed based on these results.

  12. Comparison between different bio-treatments of a hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramya

    2011-10-31

    Oct 31, 2011 ... DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.1705. ISSN 1684–5315 © 2011 Academic Journals .... is designed to avoid, reduce, reuse, recycle, recover, treat and dispose of .... water holding capacity) or in this modified nutrient solution. .... (a) i. Figure 1. Average residual total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in different laboratory.

  13. Effect of serial extraction alone on crowding: relationship between closure of residual extraction space and changes in dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Matsumoto, Yuko; Suzuki, Junichi; Ogura, Tadashi

    2002-01-01

    Mandibular dentitions from 33 subjects who had undergone serial extraction without appliances were analyzed at three stages: before extraction of deciduous canines (T1), after extraction of first premolars (T2), and at the end of the observation (T3). It was suggest that the mesial movement or tipping of the second premolars was associated with most of the space closure from T2 to T3, although the distal movement or tipping of canines might also contribute space closure.

  14. Analysis of six organophosphorus pesticide residues in apples and pears using cloud-point extraction coupled with HPLC-UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijin; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Wenhuan; Pan, Canping

    2014-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method with Triton X-114 has been developed for analysis of six organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) in apples and pears. In this CPE procedure, the effects of the surfactant volume, mass of sodium chloride, equilibrium temperature, equilibrium time, and pH on the extraction procedure were investigated. Under the optimal CPE conditions, the analytes were enriched 20-fold and the LODs dropped to 0.44-5.20 microg/kg. Furthermore, the proposed extraction method was validated by the correlation coefficient (R2) of the calibration curve, repeatability (RSD, n = 6), and fortified recoveries, which were 0.9967-0.9993, 2.7-6.5, and 74.7-104.5%, respectively. Based on these results, it could be concluded that the proposed CPE method with Triton X-114 was suitable for the effective extraction and enrichment of OPP residues in the apple and pear samples.

  15. Bioethanol production from carbohydrate-enriched residual biomass obtained after lipid extraction of Chlorella sp. KR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ok Kyung; Oh, You-Kwan; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2015-11-01

    The residual biomass of Chlorella sp. KR-1 obtained after lipid extraction was used for saccharification and bioethanol production. The carbohydrate was saccharified using simple enzymatic and chemical methods using Pectinex at pH 5.5 and 45°C and 0.3N HCl at 121°C for 15min with 76.9% and 98.2% yield, respectively, without any pretreatment. The residual biomass contained 49.7% carbohydrate consisting of 82.4% fermentable sugar and 17.6% non-fermentable sugar, which is valuable for bioethanol fermentation. Approximately 98.2% of the total carbohydrate was converted into monosaccharide (fermentable+non-fermentable sugar) using dilute acid saccharification. The fermentable sugar was subsequently fermented to bioethanol through separate hydrolysis and fermentation with a fermentation yield of 79.3%. Overall, 0.4g ethanol/g fermentable sugar and 0.16g ethanol/g residual biomass were produced.

  16. A NEW APPROACH TO DVC COMBINED WITH ROI EXTRACTION AND RESIDUAL VIDEO CODING FOR MULTIMEDIA SENSOR NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhaoxiao; Sun Lijuan; Xiao Fu; Wang Ruchuan

    2013-01-01

    The Wyner-Ziv distributed video coding scheme is characterized for its intraframe encoder and interframe decoder which can also approach the efficiency of an interframe encoder-decoder system.In Wyner-Ziv residual coding of video,the residual of a frame with respect to a reference frame is Wyner-Ziv encoded,which can reduces the input entropy and leads to a higher coding efficiency than directly encoding the original frame.In this paper,we propose a new approach of residual coding combined with Region Of Interest (ROI) extraction.Experimental results show that,the proposed scheme achieves better rate-distortion performance compared to conventional Wyner-Ziv coding scheme.

  17. Extraction of thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, and camphor residues from honey and beeswax. Determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Jiménez, J J; González, M J; Higes, M

    2002-04-19

    A gas chromatographic method to determine thymol, eucalyptol (cineole), menthol and camphor residues in honey and beeswax is proposed. To isolate the compounds, three methods involving liquid-liquid extraction with methylene chloride, distillation, or solid-phase extraction on octadecylsilica cartridges can be used. The GC separation is carried out on a 60 m x 0.53 mm Stabilwax DA capillary column, using a flame ionization detector. The method is applied to the analysis of natural honey and also honey and beeswax samples from beehives treated with the above compounds.

  18. Extraction and Determination of Pectin from Sisal Residue%剑麻渣果胶提取与测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶进转; 陈伟南

    2014-01-01

    从剑麻的麻渣、纤维中提取果胶,测定果胶的含量、纯度和酯化度。将湿麻渣在密封与敞开空气中自然发酵后提取果胶,探讨湿麻渣在发酵后对果胶品质的影响。结果表明,果胶得率最高的是湿麻渣(13.342%),最低的是直纤维(0.450%),干麻渣的果胶得率(1.662%)略高于湿纤维(1.326%)与乱纤维(1.264%)的;果胶纯度最高的是直纤维(73.360%),最低的是干麻渣(32.567%)。直纤维果胶的酯化度(45.452%)略大于麻渣和乱纤维的(32%~35%);湿麻渣经过自然发酵后,果胶得率与纯度均降低,但湿麻渣完全发酵后的果胶酯化度(33.432%)接近于干麻渣的(33.156%)。%To extract pectin from sisal residue and fiber , the content , purity and esterification de-gree of pectin were determined.Pectin was extracted from fresh sisal residue after fermentation in the air-proof and ample air , and the effects on the quality of pectin were investigated.The results showed that fresh sisal residue yields the most pectin ( 13.342%) , and the fiber yields the least ( 0.450%) .The yield of pectin extracted from dry sisal residue (1.662%) was higher than these extracted from wet kinky fiber (1.326%) and dry kinky fiber ( 1.264%) slightly.The highest purity of pectin was from fiber (73.360%) , and the lowest was from dry sisal residue (32.567%) .The esterification degree of pec-tin extracted from fiber (45.452%) was higher than these of dry sisal residue and the kinky fiber (32%~35%) .The yield and purity of pectin decreased while the fresh sisal residue was fermented in nature condition.But the result of esterification degree of pectin extracted from sisal residue ( 33.432%) fer-mented completely was close to the one of dry sisal residue (33.156%) .

  19. 枪弹射击残留物检验方法%Extraction and Inspection Methods of Gunshot Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝红飞; 杨飞宇; 秦真科; 严岩; 董立敏; 孙奋进; 刘文斌

    2015-01-01

    Gunshot residues are the most important evidence for the criminal cases related with guns. Gunshot residues can be divided into organic gunshot residues and inorganic gunshot residues mainly from the unburnt or partially burnt propellant and primer. Investigators use different extraction methods for different places and different inspection methods. In this paper the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods for gunshot residues are discussed.%射击残留物作为涉枪案件的重要物证,是法庭科学领域的重要研究对象。射击残留物主要源于未燃烧或者部分燃烧的发射药、底火等,主要残留于射击者、枪支及被射客体上。随着各类分析检验方法的发展,针对射击残留物中的有机成分和无机成分,射击残留物的检验方法也从简单的化学检验发展到更加准确的仪器分析。

  20. Lipid extracted microalgal biomass residue as a fertilizer substitute for Zea mays L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahulkumar eMaurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volumes of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs are expected to be produced upon commencement of biodiesel production on a large scale, thus necessitating its value addition for sustainable development. LMBRs of Chlorella variabilis and Lyngbya majuscula were employed to substitute the nitrogen content of recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF for Zea mays L. The pot experiment comprised of 10 treatments, i.e. T1 (No fertilizer; T2 (RRF-120 N: 60 P2O5: 40 K2O kg ha-1; T3 to T6 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of the Chlorella sp., respectively; T7 to T10 -100, 75, 50 and 25% N through LMBR of Lyngbya sp., respectively. It was found that all LMBR substitution treatments were at par to RRF with respect to grain yield production. T10 gave the highest grain yield (65.16 g plant-1, which was closely followed by that (63.48 g plant-1 under T5. T10 also recorded the highest phosphorus and potassium contents in grains. T4 was markedly superior over control in terms of dry matter accumulation (DMA as well as carbohydrate content, which was ascribed to higher pigment content and photosynthetic activity in leaves. Even though considerably lower DMA was obtained in Lyngbya treatments, which might have been due to the presence of some toxic factors, no reduction in grain yield was apparent. The length of the tassel was significantly higher in either of the LMBRs at any substitution rates over RRF, except T6 and T7. The ascorbate peroxidase activity decreased with decreasing dose of Chlorella LMBR, while all the Lyngbya LMBR treatments recorded lower activity, which were at par with each other. Among the Chlorella treatments, only T5 recorded significantly higher values of glutathione reductase activity over RRF, while the rest were at par. There were significant increases in carbohydrate and crude fat, respectively, only in T4 and T3 over RRF, while no change was observed in crude protein due to LMBR treatments. Apparently, there was no

  1. Use of the modified Ames test as an indicator of the carcinogenicity of residual aromatic extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boogaard, P.; Hedelin, A.; Riley, A.; Rushton, E.; Vaissiere, M.; Minsavage, G.; Rohde, A.; Dalbey, W.

    2013-01-15

    Existing data demonstrate that residual aromatic extracts (RAEs) can be either carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic. CONCAWE had previously concluded that 'Although limited data available indicate that some RAEs are weakly carcinogenic, it is not possible to provide a general recommendation. Classify on a case-by-case basis' (CONCAWE 2005). Therefore CONCAWE's Health/Toxicology Subgroup (H/TSG) has developed a proposal for the use of the modified Ames test as a short-term predictive screening tool for decisions on the classification of RAEs for carcinogenicity. The relationship between RAE chemistry and carcinogenic potential is not as well understood as it is for some other categories of substances, e.g. Other Lubricant Base Oils (OLBO). However, a correlation has been found between the results of the skin carcinogenicity bioassay and the mutagenicity index (MI) obtained from the modified Ames test. Data supporting this correlation are summarised in this report. The H/TSG confirmed that the modified Ames test can be used as a predictive screening tool and that a cut-off value can be established to make a distinction between carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic products. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 demonstrated carcinogenic potential upon dermal application to mouse skin with chronic exposure. RAEs with a MI > 0.4 did not demonstrate a carcinogenic potential. To justify the use of the modified Ames test with RAEs, additional analysis of the repeatability of the test with RAEs was required. With this objective, CONCAWE sponsored a round robin study with different samples of RAEs from member companies, at three different laboratories. The repeatability demonstrated in the round robin study with RAEs support the proposed use of the modified Ames test. As part of the tools available for use by member companies, the H/TSG proposed a standard operating procedure (SOP) (included as an Appendix to this report) on the conduct of the modified Ames test with RAEs. The H

  2. Effluent characteristics of advanced treatment for biotreated coking wastewater by electrochemical technology using BDD anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunrong; Zhang, Mengru; Liu, Wei; Ye, Min; Su, Fujin

    2015-05-01

    Effluent of biotreated coking wastewater comprises hundreds of organic and inorganic pollutants and has the characteristics of high toxicity and difficult biodegradation; thus, its chemical oxygen demand cannot meet drainage standards in China. A boron-doped diamond anode was selected for advanced treatment of biotreated coking wastewater, and considering the efficiency of the removal of total organic carbon and energy consumption, optimal conditions were obtained as current density of 75 mA cm(-2), electrolysis time of 1.5 h, and an electrode gap of 1.0 cm in an orthogonal test. Effluent characteristics were investigated at different electrolysis times. The ratio of the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) to the chemical oxygen demand increased from an initial value of 0.05 to 0.65 at 90 min. Fluorescence spectra were used to evaluate the evolution of refractory organics. Two fluorescence peaks for raw wastewater, corresponding to an aromatic protein-like substance II and humic acid-like substance, weakened at 30 and at 90 min, only the former was detected. The specific oxygen uptake rate was used to assess effluent toxicity, and an obvious inhibition effect was found at 15 min; then, it was significantly faded at 30 and 45 min. The BOD5/NO3 (-)-N ratio increased from an initial value of 0.48 to 1.25 at 45 min and then gradually dropped to 0.69 at 90 min. According to the above effluent characteristics, it is strongly suggested that electrochemical technology using boron-doped diamond anodes is combined with biological denitrification technology for the advanced treatment of biotreated coking wastewater.

  3. Exploitation of hazelnut, maize germ and sesame seed aqueous extraction residues in the stabilisation of sesame seed paste (tahini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evlogimenou, Anthi; Paraskevopoulou, Adamantini; Kiosseoglou, Vassilios

    2017-01-01

    Sesame seed paste is a highly nutritious food product which, upon long-term storage, tends to exhibit undesirable phenomena of oiling-off and particle sedimentation. The ability of rich-in-fibre aqueous extraction powders originating from oleaginous raw materials to enhance the physical stability of sesame paste is investigated in this study. The extraction residues remaining after treating hazelnut, sesame seed or maize germ with aqueous media in order to extract and exploit their oil bodies, were collected, dehydrated and milled into fine powders. The powders were then incorporated at various levels into a commercially available sesame paste product to assess their potential as paste stabilisers against oil separation. The solids from maize germ exhibited the highest stabilising ability followed by the solids from hazelnut. In contrast, the solids originating from the sesame seed were less effective in stabilising the sesame paste. Shear stress-rate of shear measurements of sesame paste incorporating the extraction residue solids were conducted in an attempt to explain the different stabilising behaviour of the three powders. The intensity of interactions between the incorporated solids within the sesame paste structure may determine the rheological properties of the blend and hence its stability against oiling-off upon long-term storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  5. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  6. Gold-plating of Mylar lift films to capitalize on surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy for chemical extraction of drug residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, James D; Waverka, Kristin N; Verbeck, Guido F

    2012-03-10

    The method of residue extraction through electrostatic lifting provides a distinctive mode of performing ultra-trace analysis. These lifts provide a medium for analyte extraction via nanomanipulation-coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry (NSI-MS). This method of extraction can be coupled to Raman spectroscopy for supplemental verification of analytes using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The gold surface used for SERS provides an enhanced effect on peak signal intensity allowing ultra-trace amounts to be detected more effectively. The aim of this research is to utilize gold-coated films with electrostatic lifting in order to collect latent materials and analyze chemicals of interest contained in them via SERS.

  7. Effect of different extracting solvents on antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of a fruit and vegetable residue flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica C. P. Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantify antioxidant capacity in food products, several methods have been proposed over the years. Among them, DPPH radical is widely used to determine the antioxidant capacity of different substrates. However, it is known that different types of extractants, providing different responses, can extract a variety of bioactive compounds. Besides, storage time seems to interfere in the stability of these substances. Integral use of fruits and vegetables has been proposed along the years as a means of reducing environmental pollution and give a better destination to by-products from food industries. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential of a fruit and vegetables residue flour (FVR with sequential and non-sequential extraction, in order to evaluate its antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds. And these compounds stability during storage of 180 days. It was observed that in non-sequential extraction, water was able to reduce by 74% the radical; however, at sequential extraction process, using six different extractors, each one was able to reduce at least 40% of DPPH. The total soluble phenolic contents in sequential extraction were 22.49 ± 1.59 mg GAE/g FVR on the first day and 5.35 ± 0.32 mg GAE/g FVR after 180 days.

  8. A preliminary study of local administration of dexamethasone after tooth extraction: Better preservation of residual alveolar ridge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poštić Srđan D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. It is important that the height of the edentulous alveolar ridge after tooth extraction remains at a reasonable acceptable level for as long as possible. The aim of this study was to report preliminary results of the clinical effect of local oral submucous administration of dexamethasone after tooth extractions in order to prepare alveolar supporting tissues for acceptance of removable dentures. Methods. In a total of 15 patients (11 partially and 4 completely edentulous the quantity of 0.25 mL to 0.5 mL of dexamethasone was injected bucally and orally in the region of the tooth socket after complicated extractions. Results. Healing of extraction wounds was uneventful in all the patients, without pain or local inflammation. Conclusion. Dexamethasone can be locally applied to oral tissues to prevent post-extraction inflammation and extensive resorption of the residual alveolar ridge. The obtained results are promising for patients undergoing classic prosthodontic rehabilitation soon after tooth extraction, demonstrating that there are no adverse effects after local oral corticosteroids administration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175021

  9. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils

  10. Dual-fuel production from restaurant grease trap waste: bio-fuel oil extraction and anaerobic methane production from the post-extracted residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Maeda, Kouji; Tsuji, Tomoya; Xu, Kaiqin

    2014-10-01

    An effective way for restaurant grease trap waste (GTW) treatment to generate fuel oil and methane by the combination of physiological and biological processes was investigated. The heat-driven extraction could provide a high purity oil equivalent to an A-grade fuel oil of Japanese industrial standard with 81-93 wt% of extraction efficiency. A post-extracted residue was treated as an anaerobic digestion feedstock, and however, an inhibitory effect of long chain fatty acid (LCFA) was still a barrier for high-rate digestion. From the semi-continuous experiment fed with the residual sludge as a single substrate, it can be concluded that the continuous addition of calcium into the reactor contributed to reducing LCFA inhibition, resulting in the long-term stable operation over one year. Furthermore, the anaerobic reactor performed well with 70-80% of COD reduction and methane productivity under an organic loading rate up to 5.3g-COD/L/d. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Residuals of autoregressive model providing additional information for feature extraction of pattern recognition-based myoelectric control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lizhi; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Myoelectric control based on pattern recognition has been studied for several decades. Autoregressive (AR) features are one of the mostly used feature extraction methods among myoelectric control studies. Almost all previous studies only used the AR coefficients without the residuals of AR model for classification. However, the residuals of AR model contain important amplitude information of the electromyography (EMG) signals. In this study, we added the residuals to the AR features (AR+re) and compared its performance with the classical sixth-order AR coefficients. We tested six unilateral transradial amputees and eight able-bodied subjects for eleven hand and wrist motions. The classification accuracy (CA) of the intact side for amputee subjects and the right hand for able-bodied subjects showed that the CA of AR+re features was slightly but significantly higher than that of classical AR features (p = 0.009), which meant that residuals could provide additional information to classical AR features for classification. Interestingly, the CA of the affected side for amputee subjects showed that there was no significant difference between the CA of AR+re features and classical AR features (p > 0.05). We attributed this to the fact that the amputee subjects could not use their affected side to produce consistent EMG patterns as their intact side or the dominant hand of the able-bodied subjects. Since the residuals were already available when the AR coefficients were computed, the results of this study suggested adding the residuals to classical AR features to potentially improve the performance of pattern recognition-based myoelectric control.

  12. Chemical analysis and biorefinery of red algae Kappaphycus alvarezii for efficient production of glucose from residue of carrageenan extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarin, Fernando; Cedeno, Fernando Roberto Paz; Chavez, Eddyn Gabriel Solorzano; de Oliveira, Levi Ezequiel; Gelli, Valéria Cress; Monti, Rubens

    2016-01-01

    Biorefineries serve to efficiently utilize biomass and their by-products. Algal biorefineries are designed to generate bioproducts for commercial use. Due to the high carbohydrate content of algal biomass, biorefinery to generate biofuels, such as bioethanol, is of great interest. Carrageenan is a predominant polysaccharide hydrocolloid found in red macroalgae and is widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. In this study, we report the biorefinery of carrageenan derived from processing of experimental strains of the red macroalgae Kappaphycus alvarezii. Specifically, the chemical composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of the residue produced from carrageenan extraction were evaluated to determine the conditions for efficient generation of carbohydrate bioproducts. The productivity and growth rates of K. alvarezii strains were assessed along with the chemical composition (total carbohydrates, ash, sulfate groups, proteins, insoluble aromatics, galacturonic acid, and lipids) of each strain. Two strains, brown and red, were selected based on their high growth rates and productivity and were treated with 6 % KOH for extraction of carrageenan. The yields of biomass from treatment with 6 % KOH solution of the brown and red strains were 89.3 and 89.5 %, respectively. The yields of carrageenan and its residue were 63.5 and 23 %, respectively, for the brown strain and 60 and 27.8 %, respectively, for the red strain. The residues from the brown and red strains were assessed to detect any potential bioproducts. The galactan, ash, protein, insoluble aromatics, and sulfate groups of the residue were reduced to comparable extents for the two strains. However, KOH treatment did not reduce the content of glucan in the residue from either strain. Glucose was produced by enzymatic hydrolysis for 72 h using both strains. The glucan conversion was 100 % for both strains, and the concentrations of glucose from the brown and red strains were 13.7 and 11.5 g L(-1

  13. Isolation of Cellulose Nanofibers: Effect of Biotreatment on Hydrogen Bonding Network in Wood Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekumar Janardhnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulose nanofibres as high-strength reinforcement in nano-biocomposites is very enthusiastically being explored due to their biodegradability, renewability, and high specific strength properties. Cellulose, through a regular network of inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, is organized into perfect stereoregular configuration called microfibrils which further aggregate to different levels to form the fibre. Intermolecular hydrogen bonding at various levels, especially at the elementary level, is the major binding force that one need to overcome to reverse engineer these fibres into their microfibrillar level. This paper briefly describes a novel enzymatic fibre pretreatment developed to facilitate the isolation of cellulose microfibrils and explores effectiveness of biotreatment on the intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the fiber. Bleached Kraft Softwood Pulp was treated with a fungus (OS1 isolated from elm tree infected with Dutch elm disease. Cellulose microfibrils were isolated from these treated fibers by high-shear refining. The % yield of nanofibres and their diameter distribution (<50 nm isolated from the bio-treated fibers indicated a substantial increase compared to those isolated from untreated fibers. FT-IR spectral analysis indicated a reduction in the density of intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonding within the fiber. X-ray spectrometry indicated a reduction in the crystallinity. Hydrogen bond-specific enzyme and its application in the isolation of new generation cellulose nano-fibers can be a huge leap forward in the field of nano-biocomposites.

  14. Comparison of conventional and bio-treated methods as dust suppressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Maryam; Chu, Jian

    2017-08-24

    Dust is an environmental, geotechnical, health, and economical hazard. Fugitive dust emanating along transportation systems such as roads, railways, and airports especially can have significant impacts on health, safety, material loss, cost of maintenance, and interfere with the facilities. Quantitative studies on the effectiveness of the proper dust palliatives and their environmental impact have been studied with a number of biological and chemical methods. The objective of this study was to establish a method for using the microbial Induced calcium carbonate precipitation (MICP) approach to reduce the percent of mass loss against erosive force of wind regarding to the concentration and characteristics of aggregate used, climate, and traffic amounts. The results of this study showed that the required precipitation for dust control of sand by 70% is less than 15 g CaCO3/m(2) between sand grains in bio-treated sand. The wind tunnel test results of this study also indicate that the effectiveness of the bio-treatment method for dust control depends on many variables, such as the percent of precipitated calcium carbonate and tensile strength.

  15. Non-operative residual biliary stone extraction by using steerable catheter and basket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. W.; Chang, J. C.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-06-15

    Nonoperative residual biliary stone removal through the T-tube sinus tract was performed in 9 patients by using steerable catheter and basket under fluoroscopic guidance and the result was satisfactory. There is no significant complication or morbidity. We concluded that this method is 1. easy of performance, highly successful and of no demonstrable risk. 2. can be performed without any medication and in our patient department. 3. the method of choice of treatment in post-op residual biliary stone with T-tube.

  16. Comparison of two extraction methods for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon residues in mallard duck eggs by GC and GC-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belisle, A.A.; Gay, M.L.; Coon, N.C.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrocarbon residues in pooled eggs from a mallard duck on a diet of 25,000 ppm South Louisiana crude oil were compared after cleanup with and without saponification. The saponification procedure yielded superior reproducibility and extraction efficiency

  17. Characterization of lecithin isolated from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) residues deoiled by supercritical carbon dioxide and organic solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Mi; Asaduzzaman, A K M; Chun, Byung-Soo

    2012-07-01

    Lecithin was isolated and characterized from anchovy (Engraulis japonica) deoiled residues using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) at a semibatch flow extraction process and an organic solvent (hexane) extraction. SC-CO(2) extraction was carried out to extract oil from anchovy at different temperatures (35 to 45 °C) and pressures (15 to 25 MPa). Extraction yield of oil was influenced by physical properties of SC-CO(2) with temperature and pressure changes. The major phospholipids of anchovy lecithin were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) (68%± 1.00%) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (29%± 0.50%) were the main phospholipids. Thin layer chromatography was performed to purify the individual phospholipids. The fatty acid compositions of lecithin, PC, and PE were analyzed by gas chromatography. A significant amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid were present in both phospholipids of PC and PE. Emulsions of lecithin in water were prepared through the use of a homogenizer. Oxidative stability of anchovy lecithin was high in spite of its high concentration of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lecithin can be totally metabolized by humans, so is well tolerated by humans and nontoxic when ingested. Lecithin from anchovy contain higher amounts of ω-3 fatty acids especially EPA and DHA, it may have positive outcome to use in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... BE and Novozym 89 protease showed no effect. A decrease in pomace particle sizes from 500-1000 mum to wine pomace. Four selected black currant...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  19. Distributions and Losses of Logging Residues at Clear-Felled Areas during Extraction for Bioenergy: Comparing Dried- and Fresh-Stacked Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Nilsson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that a large proportion of available logging residues intended for extraction will not reach the energy-conversion industry, because some are lost during transportation or left on the clear-felled area. However, there is little understanding of where logging residue losses occur in the supply chain. In this study, the distribution of logging residues for two methods (dried- and fresh-stacked method to extract logging residues were studied in one clear-felled area. In addition, residue fractions were examined in a detailed comparison. Even though the fresh-stacked method left somewhat more logging residues at the clear-felled area, the differences are small between the methods. Approximately 30% of the total amount of logging residues was left behind between the harvester heaps, with an additional 10%–15% under these heaps and approximately 2%–3% beneath the windrows. The final product that was delivered to the energy-conversion industry was very similar, regardless of the extraction method used. The delivered chipped logging residues had moisture contents of 37% and 36% following fresh- and dried-stacked methods respectively, and in both cases the needle content in the processed logging residues was approximately 10%. However, the total amount of fine fractions (needles and fines was slightly higher following dried-stacking.

  20. Pyrethroid residue determination in organic and conventional vegetables using liquid-solid extraction coupled with magnetic solid phase extraction based on polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi; Yang, Hongshun

    2017-02-15

    A detection method using polystyrene-coated magnetic nanoparticles based extraction technique coupled to HPLC was developed for trace amount of pyrethroids residue detection in vegetable matrixes. The recoveries for five kinds of commonly used pyrethroids were in the range of 91.6%-116.2%. The sensitivity and precision of the method were satisfactory with the limits of detection and limits of quantification in the range of 0.0200-0.0392ngg(-1) and 0.072-0.128ngg(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations for the recoveries of the analytes were lower than 6.8% and 10.7%, respectively. The nanoparticles can be washed and recycled after use. The results indicate that the developed method was efficient, fast, economical and environmentally friendly. The method was successfully applied to detect the pyrethroids residue in ten pairs of commonly consumed organic and conventional fresh vegetables in Singapore. Pyrethroids residue was detected in four kinds of conventional vegetables and one kind of organic vegetable.

  1. A rapid, solid phase extraction (SPE technique for the extraction and gas chromatographic determination lindane pesticide residue in tissue and milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuningsih

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine pesticide contamination in feed can cause residue in animal product (tissue and milk, so its become a problem in food safety. Solid phase extraction (SPE has been carried out for determination organochlorine pesticide residues in food animal production. The technique was rapid, not costly and produce limited amount of hazardous-waste. Samples were homogenized with acetonitrile trough cartridge C18, eluted in fluorocyl column with 2% ether-petroleum or acetonitrile fortissue and milk samples respectively. The recoveries of tissue sample by addition lindane standard solution: 0.50 and 1.00 μg are 85.10 and 103.10% respectively, while that of milk with the addition of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 μg are 83.80, 88.69 and 91.24% respectively. Three replicates were carried out for every sample. According of validation criteria of FAO/IAEA the recovery for analysis of pesticide residues was 70-110%. Therefore, the method is applicable.

  2. Inhibition of residual n-hexane in anaerobic digestion of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes and microbial community shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Oh, You-Kwan; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Converting lipid-extracted microalgal wastes to methane (CH4) via anaerobic digestion (AD) has the potential to make microalgae-based biodiesel platform more sustainable. However, it is apparent that remaining n-hexane (C6H14) from lipid extraction could inhibit metabolic pathway of methanogens. To test an inhibitory influence of residual n-hexane, this study conducted a series of batch AD by mixing lipid-extracted Chlorella vulgaris with a wide range of n-hexane concentration (∼10 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L). Experimental results show that the inhibition of n-hexane on CH4 yield was negligible up to 2 g COD/L and inhibition to methanogenesis became significant when it was higher than 4 g COD/L based on quantitative mass balance. Inhibition threshold was about 4 g COD/L of n-hexane. Analytical result of microbial community profile revealed that dominance of alkane-degrading sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and syntrophic bacteria increased, while that of methanogens sharply dropped as n-hexane concentration increased. These findings offer a useful guideline of threshold n-hexane concentration and microbial community shift for the AD of lipid-extracted microalgal wastes.

  3. Comparison of leaching characteristics of heavy metals in APC residue from an MSW incinerator using various extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Tsai, Chen-Chiu; Wang, Kuen-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates four extraction methods (water extraction, toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP), modified TCLP with pH control, and sequential chemical extraction (SCE)), each representing different liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratios, pH controls, and types of leachant, and their effects on the leaching concentration of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator air pollution control (APC) residue. The results indicated that for extraction with distilled water, the heavy metal leaching concentration (mg/l) decreased with L/S ratio, but the amount of heavy metal released (AHMR), defined as the leached amount of heavy metals to the weight of the tested sample (mg/kg), increased with an increase in L/S ratio, in the range of 2-100. The results also showed that both the leaching concentration and the amount of released metals were strongly pH-dependent in the TCLP and modified TCLP tests. In the case of pHs lower than 6.5, the leaching concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr decreased with an increase in pH. As pH increased higher than 6.5, Cr and Zn were almost insoluble. Meanwhile, Cd and Cu also showed a similar trend but at pHs of 8.5 and 7.5, respectively. Due to the nature of amphoteric elements, in the case of pHs higher than 7, the Pb leaching concentration increased with increasing pH. In modified TCLP tests with the pH value controlled at the same level as in the SCE test, the heavy metal speciation approached the extractable carbonate bound fraction by the SCE. Both amounts of targeted metals leached from the SCE and modified TCLP tests were much higher than those for the regular TCLP and water extraction tests.

  4. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  5. Simultaneous determination of herbicide residues in tobacco using ultraperformance convergence chromatography coupled with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weiyun; Bian, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Daohong; Tang, Gangling; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jianlong; Li, Zhonghao; Yang, Fei

    2015-03-01

    A time-saving and organic solvent efficient method to simultaneously determine six kinds of herbicide residues in tobacco using solid-phase extraction for sample clean-up and preconcentration and the highly sensitive ultraperformance convergence chromatography method was developed. Parameters for ultraperformance convergence chromatography, including the choice of stationary phase and modifiers, autobackpressure regulator pressure, column temperature, and the flow rate of mobile solvents, were optimized. The herbicide residues of napropamide, alachlor, quizalofop-ethyl, diphenamid, metolachlor, and clomazone in tobacco samples were successfully separated and detected at levels as low as 0.0043-0.0086 mg/kg within 5 min using a nonpolar high strength silica C18 selectivity for bases column and methanol as the cosolvent of the mobile phase of carbon dioxide (75-99.9%, v/v). Analysis of tobacco samples had recoveries of 69.8-95.0%, limit of quantitation of 0.0127-0.0245 mg/kg, limit of detection of 0.0043-0.0086 mg/kg, and correlation coefficient of >0.9990. Results support this method as an efficient alternative to current methodologies for the determination of herbicide residues in tobacco.

  6. Enzyme-assisted extraction of antioxidative phenols from black current juice press residues (Ribes nigrum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landbo, Anne-Katrine Regel; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge

    2001-01-01

    Enzymatic release of phenolic compounds from pomace remaining from black currant (Ribes nigrum) juice production was examined. Treatment with each of the commercial pectinolytic enzyme preparations Grindamyl pectinase, Macer8 FJ, Macer8 R, and Pectinex BE, as well as treatment with Novozym 89...... protease, significantly increased plant cell wall breakdown of the pomace. Each of the tested enzyme preparations except Grindamyl pectinase also significantly enhanced the amount of phenols extracted from the pomace. Macer8 FJ and Macer8 R decreased the extraction yields of anthocyanins, whereas Pectinex...... pomace extracts all exerted a pronounced antioxidant activity against human LDL oxidation in vitro when tested at equimolar phenol concentrations of 7.5-10 muM....

  7. Biofuels from microalgae: lipid extraction and methane production from the residual biomass in a biorefinery approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, D; Solana, M; Riaño, B; García-González, M C; Bertucco, A

    2014-10-01

    Renewable fuels and energy are of major concern worldwide and new raw materials and processes for its generation are being investigated. Among these raw materials, algae are a promising source of lipids and energy. Thus, in this work four different algae have been used for lipid extraction and biogas generation. Lipids were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction (SCCO2), while anaerobic digestion of the lipid-exhausted algae biomass was used for biogas production. The extracted oil composition was analyzed (saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids) and quantified. The highest lipid yields were obtained from Tetraselmis sp. (11%) and Scenedesmus almeriensis (10%), while the highest methane production from the lipid-exhausted algae biomass corresponded to Tetraselmis sp. (236mLCH4/gVSadded). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of acaricide residues in saudi arabian honey and beeswax using solid phase extraction and gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Determination of acaricide residues of flumethrin, tau-fluvalinate, coumaphos, and amitraz in honey and beeswax was carried out using a rapid extraction method utilizing C-18 SPE cartridges and an analytical method utilizing GC with ECD, NPD, and MSD detectors for the four acaricides. Recovery percentages from the extraction method ranged from 90-102%, while the minimum detection levels ranged from 0.01-0.05 mg/kg for the acaricides. Nine of the 21 analyzed samples were found to be contaminated with the acaricides tau-fluvalinate and coumaphos. Neither flumethrin nor amitraz was detected in any of the honey or wax samples. Coumaphos was found only in honey samples in which two samples exceeded the tolerance levels set by EPA and EC regulations. It has not been detected in beeswax. Five honey samples and eight beeswax samples were found to be contaminated with tau-fluvalinate. One of the wax samples was contaminated with a relatively high residue of tau-fluvalinate and contained above 10 mg/kg.

  9. Cascade approach of red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis sustainable valorization by extraction of phycobiliproteins and pyrolysis of residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francavilla, M; Manara, P; Kamaterou, P; Monteleone, M; Zabaniotou, A

    2015-05-01

    Phycobiliproteins extraction (primary refining) from Gracilaria gracilis seaweed, harvested in Lesina Lagoon (Italy) and further valorization of the residual algal via pyrolysis (secondary refining), were investigated with a cascade biorefinery approach. R-phycoerythrin (7 mg/g d.w.), allophycocyanin (3.5 mg/g d.w.) and phycocyanin (2 mg/g d.w.) were the main phycobiliproteins extracted. Pyrolysis of G.gracilis residue followed, aiming to investigate the production of bio-oil and biochar within a pyrolysis temperature range of 400-600 °C. Results showed that the bio-oil yield is high (∼65 wt%) at pyrolysis temperature ∼500 °C, but its high content in nitrogenous compounds prevents its use as a biofuel, unless some further de-nitrogenation takes place. Biochar yield ranged between 33 wt% (400 °C) and 26.5 wt% (600 °C). Interestingly, inorganic nutrients including P, K, Ca, Fe and Mg were detected in biochar, suggesting its potential use as recovering system of natural mineral resources from the oceanic reservoir.

  10. Assessing the phytoavailability of dieldrin residues in charcoal-amended soil using tenax extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilber, Isabel; Bucheli, Thomas D; Wyss, Gabriela S; Schulin, Rainer

    2009-05-27

    Consecutive and single Tenax extractions were applied to characterize the effectiveness of activated charcoal (AC) amendments to reduce the phytoavailability of dieldrin in a natively contaminated horticultural soil. Dieldrin desorption from untreated and 800 mg(AC) kg(-1) soil was well described by a model with three dieldrin fractions of different kinetics: a rapidly (F(rap)), slowly (F(slow)), and very slowly (F(v.slow)) desorbing fraction. The AC amendment resulted in a transfer of dieldrin from the F(slow) to the F(v.slow) fraction. The F(v.slow) increased by nearly 10% compared to the control soil. Dieldrin extractability by Tenax from AC amended soils was not influenced by the cultivation of cucumber plants indicating the stability of this remediation technique. Dieldrin extractability by Tenax at the beginning of plant growth correlated only weakly with the dieldrin content of the cucumbers at harvest. Therefore, the potential of Tenax extractions to predict the uptake of dieldrin by cucumbers appears to be limited.

  11. Optimization of Manganese Reduction in Biotreated POME onto 3A Molecular Sieve and Clinoptilolite Zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, Mohammed S; Rosli, Nurul-Shafiqah; Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-06-01

    Availability of quality-certified water is pertinent to the production of food and pharmaceutical products. Adverse effects of manganese content of water on the corrosion of vessels and reactors necessitate that process water is scrutinized for allowable concentration levels before being applied in the production processes. In this research, optimization of the adsorption process conditions germane to the removal of manganese from biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) using zeolite 3A subsequent to a comparative adsorption with clinoptilolite was studied. A face-centered central composite design (FCCCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted for the study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) for response surface quadratic model revealed that the model was significant with dosage and agitation speed connoting the main significant process factors for the optimization. R(2) of 0.9478 yielded by the model was in agreement with predicted R(2). Langmuir and pseudo-second-order suggest the adsorption mechanism involved monolayer adsorption and cation exchanging.

  12. ENCAPSULATION OF EXTRACT FROM WINERY INDUSTRY RESIDUE USING THE SUPERCRITICAL ANTI-SOLVENT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Mezzomo

    Full Text Available Abstract Grape pomace (seed, skin and stem is a winery byproduct with high levels of biologically active compounds, such as antioxidants and antimicrobials, that could be converted into high added-value products. Since these components are easily degraded by oxygen, light and high temperature exposure, stabilization is important, for instance, by a microencapsulation process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence on the particle characteristics of the operational conditions applied in the Supercritical Anti-Solvent (SAS process for the co-precipitation of grape pomace extract and poly(-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA. The morphology and size of the particles formed, their stability and thermal profile were evaluated, and also the co-precipitation efficiency. The conditions studied allowed the production of microparticles with spherical shape for all operational conditions, with estimated particle size between 4 ± 2 and 11 ± 5 µm, and very good co-precipitation efficiencies (up to 94.4 ± 0.6%. The co-precipitated extract presented higher stability compared to the crude extract, indicating the effectiveness of the co-precipitation process and coating material against degradation processes.

  13. Trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor fractions removal by coagulation and adsorption for bio-treated municipal wastewater: Molecular weight, hydrophobicity/hydrophily and fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qi; Yan, Han; Zhang, Feng; Xue, Nan; Wang, Yan; Chu, Yongbao; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-10-30

    Due to concerns over health risk of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), removal of trihalomethanes (THMs) precursor from bio-treated wastewater by coagulation and adsorption was investigated in this study. Ultrafiltration (UF) membranes and nonionic resins were applied to fractionate THMs precursor into various molecular weight (MW) fractions and hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions. Characteristics of coagulated water and adsorbed water were evaluated by the three-dimensional excitation and emission matrix (3DEEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Results showed that coagulation and adsorption were suitable for removing different hydrophobic/hydrophilic and fluorescent fractions. Coagulation decreased THMs concentration in hydrophobic acids (HoA) fraction from 59 μg/L to 39 μg/L, while the lowest THMs concentration (9 μg/L) in hydrophilic substances (HiS) fraction was obtained in adsorbed water. However, both coagulation and adsorption were ineffective for removing fractions with MWadsorption processes could reduce THMs formation, some specific THMs formation potential (STHMFP) in residual dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions increased in this study. Hydrophobic acid and hydrophilic fractions increased after coagulation treatment, and low MW and hydrophobic fractions increased after adsorption treatment. In addition, active carbon adsorbed more organic matter than coagulant, but brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) in adsorbed water turned to the major THMs species after chlorination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Classification and modelling of non-extractable residue (NER) formation from pesticides in soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästner, M.; Nowak, K. M.; Miltner, A.

    2015-01-01

    undergo turnover processes and can be volatilised, leached to the groundwater, degraded by microorganisms or taken up and enriched by living organisms. Xenobiotic NER may be derived from parent compounds and primary metabolites that are sequestered (sorbed or entrapped) within the soil organic matter......This presentation provides a comprehensive overview about the formation of nonextractable residues (NER) from organic pesticides and contaminants in soil and tries classifying the different types. Anthropogenic organic chemicals are deliberately (e.g. pesticides) or unintentionally (e.......g. polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAH], chlorinated solvents, pharmaceuticals) released in major amounts to nearly all compartments of the environment. Soils and sediments as complex matrices provide a wide variety of binding sites and are the major sinks for these compounds. Many of the xenobiotics entering soil...

  15. Rapid analytical method for the determination of pesticide residues in sunflower seeds based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction prior to gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados-Rosales, R C; Luque García, J L; Luque de Castro, M D

    2003-04-18

    A rapid analytical method for determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in sunflower seeds based on focused microwave-assisted Soxhlet extraction has been developed. The main factors affecting the extraction efficiency--namely microwave power, irradiation time, volume of extractant and number of cycles--were optimized by a two-level factorial fractional design. After extraction, a liquid-liquid extraction and a clean-up step including the use of Florisil macrocolumns were required prior to injection of the extracts into the chromatograph in order to isolate the pesticide residues from the lipid fraction of the original extract. The MS-MS ion preparation mode was selected due to the high sensitivity and selectivity it provides. Seed samples were used collected near a crop subjected to aerial pesticide application. Residues of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers and endosulfan were found in the seeds although they were not subjected to pesticide application, thus showing the spray-drift contamination. The validation of the proposed approach was carried out by comparison with the ISO 659-1988 reference extraction method obtaining similar, or even better efficiencies by the proposed approach.

  16. Treatment of advanced breast cancer with cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and prednisone with and without methanol-extracted residue of BCG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britell, J C; Ahmann, D L; Bisel, H F; Frytak, S; Ingle, J N; Rubin, J; O'Fallon, J R

    1979-01-01

    The value of immunotherapy as an adjuvant to chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer is an unsettled question. To clarify this issue, 71 women with measurable or evaluable metastatic breast cancer were randomized to receive cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and prednisone (CFP) with or without methanol-extracted residue of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (MER). The total regression rates were 52% (CFP) and 39% (CFP + MER), including complete regression rates of 13% (CFP) and 65% (CFP + MER). The median duration of regressions for CFP-treated patients was 257-261 days and for CFP + MER-treated patients was 385 days. The median time to progression was 248-261 days in the CFP group and 159 days in the CFP-MER group. Projected median survival for both treatment groups is 20 months. Immunotherapy (MER) as used in this study does not appear to augment regression rates or vurvival for patients with advanced breast cancer receiving CFP.

  17. From Waste to Healing Biopolymers: Biomedical Applications of Bio-Collagenic Materials Extracted from Industrial Leather Residues in Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The biomedical properties of a porous bio-collagenic polymer extracted from leather industrial waste residues have been investigated in wound healing and tissue regeneration in induced wounds in rats. Application of the pure undiluted bio-collagen to induced wounds in rats dramatically improved its healing after 7 days in terms of collagen production and wound filling as well as in the migration and differentiation of keratinocytes. The formulation tested was found to be three times more effective than the commercial reference product Catrix® (Heal Progress (HP: 8 ± 1.55 vs. 2.33 ± 0.52, p < 0.001; Formation of Collagen (FC: 7.5 ± 1.05 vs. 2.17 ± 0.75, p < 0.001; Regeneration of Epidermis (RE: 13.33 ± 5.11 vs. 5 ± 5.48, p < 0.05.

  18. Agrochemical characterization of vermicomposts produced from residues of Palo Santo (Bursera graveolens) essential oil extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrión-Paladines, Vinicio; Fries, Andreas; Gomez Muñoz, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    developments in Ecuadorian policies to foster environmentally friendly agroforestry and industrial practices have led to widespread interest in reusing the waste. This study evaluated the application of four vermicomposts (VMs), which are produced from the waste of the Palo Santo fruit distillation......, because total N (min. 2.63%) was relatively high and the C/N ratio (max. 13.3), as well as the lignin (max. 3.8%) and polyphenol (max. 1.6%) contents were low. In addition, N availability increased for both soil types after the application of the VMM. In contrast, N became immobile during decomposition......, as well as for soil reclamation. Overall, these results suggest that the residues of the Palo Santo essential oil extraction are a potential source for vermicompost production and sustainable agriculture....

  19. Novel strategy for the revalorization of olive (Olea europaea) residues based on the extraction of bioactive peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, C; Marina, M L; García, M C

    2015-01-15

    This work proposes a new strategy for the revalorization of residual materials from table-olive and olive oil production based on the extraction of bioactive peptides. Enzymatic hydrolysates of olive seed protein isolate were prepared by treatment with five different proteases: Alcalase, Thermolysin, Neutrase, Flavourzyme and PTN. Although all hydrolysates presented antioxidant properties, Alcalase was the enzyme that yielded the hydrolysate with the highest antioxidant capacity. All hydrolysates showed antihypertensive capacity, obtaining IC50 values from 29 to 350 μg/ml. Thermolysin was the enzyme which yielded the hydrolysate with the highest ACE-inhibitory capacity. Hydrolysates were fractionated by ultrafiltration showing a high concentration of short chain peptides, which exhibited significantly higher antioxidant and antihypertensive capacities than fractions with higher molecular weights. Peptides in most active fractions were identified by LC-MS/MS, observing homologies with other recognized antioxidant and antihypertensive peptides. Finally, their antioxidant and antihypertensive capacities were evaluated after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

  20. Extraction of Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Alkaline Leaching Followed by Fusion of the Leaching Residue with Caustic Soda

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵由才; R.Stanforth

    2004-01-01

    Extractability of zinc from two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing 24.8% and 16.8% of zinc respectively (denoted as Sample A and Sample B) were tested using direct alkaline leaching followed by fusion of the resulting leaching residues with caustic soda. The experimental results show that the extraction of zinc is heavily dependent on the contents of iron in the dusts. The higher iron content, the lower extraction of zinc is obtained. 53% and 38% of zinc can be extracted when both dusts were directly contacted with 5mol·L-1 NaOH solution for 42h. The remaining zinc left in the leaching residues, which supposed to be present as zinc ferrites, can be further leached when the residues were fused with caustic soda. Quantitative extraction of zinc can be obtained from the leaching residue of Sample A while only 85% from Sample B. The extractability of zinc from dusts wit hvarious contents of iron is compared. The production flowsheet for zinc from the dusts using the process proposed is discussed.

  1. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Li, Peijun; Wilke, B M; Alef, Kassem

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soil for a remediation purpose, with some of the oil remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soil was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soil properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soil, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth of A. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oil addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oil in the soils was proved by the soil organic carbon content.

  2. Effects of vegetable oil residue after soil extraction on physical-chemical properties of sandy soil and plant growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Zongqiang; LI Peijun; B.M.Wilke; Kassem Alef

    2008-01-01

    Vegetable oil has the ability to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated sandy soft for a remediation purpose, with some of the oft remaining in the soil. Although most of the PAHs were removed, the risk of residue oil in the soft was not known. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the vegetable oil residue on higher plant growth and sandy soft properties after soil extraction for a better understanding of the soil remediation. Addition of sunflower oil and column experiment were performed on a PAH contaminated soil and/or a control soft, respectively. Soils were incubated for 90 d, and soil pH was measured during the soil incubation. Higher plant growth bioassays with Avena sativa L. (oat) and Brassica rapa L. (turnip) were performed after the incubation, and then soil organic carbon contents were measured. The results show that both the nutrient amendment and the sunflower oil degradation resulted in the decrease of soil pH. When these two process worked together, their effects were counteracted due to the consumption of the nutrients and oil removal, resulting in different pH profiles. Growth ofA. sativa was adversely affected by the sunflower oil, and the nutrient amendments stimulated the A. sativa growth significantly. B. rapa was more sensitive to the sunflower oil than A. sativa. Only 1% sunflower oft addition plus nutrient amendment stimulated B. rapa growth. All the other treatments on B. rapa inhibited its growth significantly. The degradation of the sunflower oft in the soils was proved by the soft organic carbon content.

  3. Identification and determination of inorganic anions in real extracts from pre- and post-blast residues by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Varenne, Anne; Vial, Jérôme; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Minet, Jean-Jacques; Gareil, Pierre

    2010-10-29

    Fast, selective, and sensitive analysis of inorganic anions is compulsory for the identification of explosives in post-blast or environmental samples. For the last twenty years, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has become a valuable alternative to ion chromatography (IC) for the analysis of inorganic-based explosives because of its low running costs and its simplicity of use. This article focuses on the development and validation of a CE method for the simultaneous analysis of 10 anions (chloride, nitrite, nitrate, thiosulphate, perchlorate, chlorate, thiocyanate, carbonate, sulphate, and phosphate) which can be found in post-blast residues, plus for the first time azide anion, possibly present in the composition of detonators, and the internal standard (formate) in 20 min total runtime. Intermediate precisions were 2.11% for normalized areas and 0.72% for normalized migration times. Limits of detection close to 0.5 ppm for all anions were obtained with the use of preconcentration techniques, thanks to a fast and simple sample preparation allowing the analysis of a large variety of matrices with the developed generic CE method. The matrix effects were statistically studied for the first time in the explosive field for different matrices, containing interfering anions and cations, sometimes at high levels. In fact, no significant matrix effect occurred (tests with blank matrix extracts of soil, cloth, glass, plastic, paper, cotton, and metal). Finally, analyses of real post-blast residues and real detonator extracts were performed. The CE results were compared with those obtained with the IC method used routinely and showed excellent correlation.

  4. Cellulosic biofuels from crop residue and groundwater extraction in the US Plains: the case of Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmero, Juan P

    2014-11-01

    This study develops a model of crop residue (i.e. stover) supply and derived demand for irrigation water accounting for non-linear effects of soil organic matter on soil's water holding capacity. The model is calibrated for typical conditions in central Nebraska, United States, and identifies potential interactions between water and biofuel policies. The price offered for feedstock by a cost-minimizing plant facing that stover supply response is calculated. Results indicate that as biofuel production volumes increase, soil carbon depletion per unit of biofuel produced decreases. Consumption of groundwater per unit of biofuel produced first decreases and then increases (after a threshold of 363 dam(3) of biofuels per year) due to plants' increased reliance on the extensive margin for additional biomass. The analysis reveals a tension between biofuel and water policies. As biofuel production raises the economic benefits of relaxing water conservation policies (measured by the "shadow price" of water) increase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of captan and folpet pesticide residues in apples by solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuju; Yu, Yanbin; Tan, Peigong; Miao, Zaijing; Wei, Yishan

    2007-03-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of captan and folpet pesticide residues in apples was developed by solid-phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. The sample was extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned-up by a mixture of homemade sorbent and silica gel with hexane-dichloromethane-acetonitrile (50:49: 1, v/v) as the eluent. The cleaned effects by using Florisil column, amino column, the mixed sorbent were compared, and the effect of the mixed sorbent was the best. The optimal analytical conditions were follow as: an methanol-acetonitrile-water (50: 5:45, v/v) containing 0. 1 mmol/L acetic-acetate buffer (pH 3. 80) as the mobile phase, detection at 210 nm. The method had a good linear relationship in the range of 0. 40 - 8. 00 mg/kg for captan and folpet (r > 0. 999 9). The detection limits of captan and folpet were 0. 27 mg/kg and 0. 20 mg/kg, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of retention time were no more than 0. 60%. The average recoveries of captan and folpet from the apples spiked at three levels ranged from 69. 3% - 106% and 101% - 108%, with RSD of 3. 7% - 4. 7% and 1. 3% - 5. 4%, respectively.

  7. Lipid Production of Heterotrophic Chlorella sp. from Hydrolysate Mixtures of Lipid-Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues and Molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hongli; Ma, Xiaochen; Gao, Zhen; Wan, Yiqin; Min, Min; Zhou, Wenguang; Li, Yun; Liu, Yuhuan; Huang, He; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of lipid production of Chlorella sp. from waste materials. Lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) and molasses were hydrolyzed, and their hydrolysates were analyzed. Five different hydrolysate mixture ratios (w/w) of LMBRs/molasses (1/0, 1/1, 1/4, 1/9, and 0/1) were used to cultivate Chlorella sp. The results showed that carbohydrate and protein were the two main compounds in the LMBRs, and carbohydrate was the main compound in the molasses. The highest biomass concentration of 5.58 g/L, Y biomass/sugars of 0.59 g/g, lipid productivity of 335 mg/L/day, and Y lipids/sugars of 0.25 g/g were obtained at the hydrolysate mixture ratio of LMBRs/molasses of 1/4. High C/N ratio promoted the conversion of sugars into lipids. The lipids extracted from Chlorella sp. shared similar lipid profile of soybean oil and is therefore a potential viable biodiesel feedstock. These results showed that Chlorella sp. can utilize mixed sugars and amino acids from LMBRs and molasses to accumulate lipids efficiently, thus reducing the cost of microalgal biodiesel production and improving its economic viability.

  8. Effects of bacterially produced precipitates on the metabolism of sulfate reducing bacteria during the bio-treatment process of copper-containing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A large volume of bacterially produced precipitates are generated during the bio-treatment of heavy metal wastewater.The composition of the bacterially produced precipitates and its effects on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in copper-containing waste stream were evaluated in this study.The elemental composition of the microbial precipitate was studied using electrodispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX),and it was found that the ratio of S:Cu was 1.12.Combining with the results of copper distribution in the SRB metabolism culture,which was analyzed by the sequential extraction procedure,copper in the precipitates was determined as covellite (CuS).The bacterially produced precipitates caused a decrease of the sulfate reduction rate,and the more precipitates were generated,the lower the sulfate reduction rate was.The particle sizes of bacterially generated covellite were ranging from 0.03 to 2 m by particles size distribution (PSD) analysis,which was smaller than that of the SRB cells.Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the microbial covellite was deposited on the surface of the cell.The effects of the microbial precipitate on SRB metabolism were found to be weakened by increasing the precipitation time and adding microbial polymeric substances in later experiments.These results provided direct evidence that the SRB activity was inhibited by the bacterially produced covellite,which enveloped the bacterium and thus affected the metabolism of SRB on mass transfer.

  9. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Thamani T.; Mmualefe, Lesego C.; Okatch, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly). The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS). Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58 ± 7.20 to 113 ± 15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2 > 0.9900) in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.48 ± 0.16 to 1.50 ± 0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants. PMID:27725893

  10. Employing Solid Phase Microextraction as Extraction Tool for Pesticide Residues in Traditional Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamani T. Gondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HS-SPME was optimised using blank plant sample for analysis of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs of varying polarities in selected medicinal plants obtained from northern part of Botswana, where OCPs such as DDT and endosulfan have been historically applied to control disease carrying vectors (mosquitos and tsetse fly. The optimised SPME parameters were used to isolate analytes from root samples of five medicinal plants obtained from Maun and Kasane, Botswana. The final analytes determination was done with a gas chromatograph equipped with GC-ECD and analyte was confirmed using electron ionisation mass spectrometer (GC-MS. Dieldrin was the only pesticide detected and confirmed with MS in the Terminalia sericea sample obtained from Kasane. The method was validated and the analyte recoveries ranged from 69.58±7.20 to 113±15.44%, with RSDs ranging from 1.19 to 17.97%. The method indicated good linearity (R2>0.9900 in the range of 2 to 100 ng g−1. The method also proved to be sensitive with low limits of detection (LODs ranging from 0.48±0.16 to 1.50±0.50 ng g−1. It can be concluded that SPME was successfully utilized as a sampling and extraction tool for pesticides of diverse polarities in root samples of medicinal plants.

  11. Comparative estrogenic activity of wine extracts and organochlorine pesticide residues in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaido, K; Dohme, L; Wang, F; Chen, I; Blankvoort, B; Ramamoorthy, K; Safe, S

    1998-12-01

    The human diet contains industrial-derived, endocrine-active chemicals and higher levels of naturally occurring compounds that modulate multiple endocrine pathways. Hazard and risk assessment of these mixtures is complicated by noadditive interactions between different endocrine-mediated responses. This study focused on estrogenic chemicals in the diet and compared the relative potencies or estrogen equivalents (EQs) of the daily consumption of xenoestrogenic organochlorine pesticides in food (2.44 micrograms/day) with the EQs in a single 200-ml glass of red cabernet wine. The reconstituted organochlorine mixture contained 1,1,1-trichloro-2-(p-chlorophenyl)-2-(o-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene, endosulfan-1, endosulfan-2, p,p'-methoxychlor, and toxaphene; the relative proportion of each chemical in the mixture resembled the composition reported in a recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration market basket survey. The following battery of in vitro 17 beta-estradiol (E2)-responsive bioassays were utilized in this study: competitive binding to mouse uterine estrogen receptor (ER); proliferation in T47D human breast cancer cells; luciferase (Luc) induction in human HepG2 cells transiently cotransfected with C3-Luc and the human ER, rat ER-alpha, or rat ER-beta; induction of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells transfected with E2-responsive cathepsin D-CAT or creatine kinase B-CAT plasmids. For these seven in vitro assays, the calculated EQs in extracts from 200 ml of red cabernet wine varied from 0.15 to 3.68 micrograms/day. In contrast, EQs for consumption of organochlorine pesticides (2.44 micrograms/day) varied from nondetectable to 1.24 ng/day. Based on results of the in vitro bioassays, organochlorine pesticides in food contribute minimally to dietary EQ intake.

  12. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of glabridin from Glycyrrhiza glabra L. residues by screening the library of non-imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingxiao; Ji, Wenhua; Duan, Wenjuan; Wang, Xiao; Gao, Qianshan; Geng, Yanling; Huang, Luqi

    2014-08-15

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with high selectivity and affinity to glabridin were designed based on the screening results of the library of non-imprinted polymers (NIPs). The NIP library contained 48 polymers that were polymerized with the combinations of different functional monomers, cross-linkers, and porogenic solvents. The distribution coefficient (k) values were used to estimate the affinity of NIPs to glabridin. The corresponding MIPs of the best three NIPs were prepared. After evaluating the imprinting effects and selectivity of the three MIPs, the performance of the best MIP as solid phase extraction sorbent was investigated. Glabridin with percent recovery of 83 was obtained from the extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (G. glabra L.) residues by molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE). Thus, this material can be successfully used for the extraction and purification of glabridin from G. glabra L. residues.

  13. A Numerical Technique for Removing Residual Gate-Source Capacitances When Extracting Parasitic Inductance for GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Residual Gate-source Capacitances When Extracting Parasitic Inductance for GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors ( HEMTs ) Benjamin Huebschman and Pankaj...Extracting Parasitic Inductance for GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors ( HEMTs ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...nitride ( GaN ) high electron mobility transistors ( HEMTs ) begin to realize their performance potential, and to transition from experimental devices to

  14. Chemical and toxicological characterization of slurry reactor biotreatment of explosives-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Vass, A.A.; Ho, C.H.

    1998-08-01

    Treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT)-contaminated soil in the Joliet Army Ammunition Plant (JAAP) soil slurry bioreactor (SSBR) eliminated detectable TNT but left trace levels of residual monoamino and diamino metabolites under some reactor operating conditions. The reduction of solvent-extractable bacterial mutagenicity in the TNT-contaminated soil was substantial and was similar to that achieved by static pile composts at the Umatilla Army Depot Activity (UMDA) field demonstration. Aquatic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia from TNT in the leachates of TNT-contaminated soil was eliminated in the leachates of JAAP SSBR product soil. The toxicity of soil product leachates to Ceriodaphnia dubia was reasonably predicted using the specific toxicities of the components detected, weighted by their leachate concentrations. In samples where TNT metabolites were observed in the soil product and its leachates, this method determined that the contribution to predicted toxicity values was dominated by trace amounts of the diamino-metabolites, which are very toxic to ceriodaphnia dubia. When the SSBR operating conditions reduced the concentrations of TNT metabolites in the product soils and their leachates to undetectable concentrations, the main contributors to predicted aquatic toxicity values appeared to be molasses residues, potassium, and bicarbonate. Potassium and bicarbonate are beneficial or benign to the environment, and molasses residues are substantially degraded in the environment. Exotoxins, pathogenic bacteria, inorganic particles, ammonia, and dissolved metals did not appear to be important to soil product toxicity.

  15. In vitro ruminal fermentation and in situ ruminal degradation of tamarind kernel powder extract residue in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Oishi, Kazato; Sato, Yoshiaki; Nakanishi, Takashi; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Kei; Kumagai, Hajime

    2017-07-01

    We examined the in vitro fermentation characteristics and in situ dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability of tamarind kernel powder extract residue (TKPER), a by-product of polysaccharides thickener processing. Two types of TKPER (I and II), of which the CP and neutral detergent fiber organic matter basis contents (%) were 41.4 and 42.0 and 1.4 and 0.5, respectively, were compared with dry heat soybean (SB), soybean meal (SBM) and dry soybean curd residue (SBCR). The TKPERs had significantly lower in vitro gas production compared to the other products at each observation time (P < 0.05). The in vitro DM and CP digestibility (%) of TKPER I and II were 67.7 and 64.9, and 64.5 and 58.0, respectively, significantly lower than those of SB and SBM (P < 0.05). We used four wethers (55.6 ± 4.6 kg) with ruminal cannulas to investigate the in situ degradability of TKPER I, SB, SBM and SBCR. At the ruminal outflow rate of 0.05/h, the effective degradability (%) values of the DM and CP of TKPER I were 64.1 and 49.7, respectively, which were similar to those of SBM. In conclusion, TKPER had high CP and exhibited in situ degradability similar to that of SBM, suggesting that TKPER could be used as a protein source feed. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Polyphenols extracted from black tea (Camellia sinensis) residue by hot-compressed water and their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Miyuki; Suzuki, Manabu; Asano, Yuzo; Ochi, Hiroshi; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-12-01

    Polyphenols, retained in black tea wastes following the commercial production of tea beverages, represent an underutilized resource. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential use of hot-compressed water (HCW) for the extraction of pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea residues. Black tea residues were treated with HCW at 10 °C intervals, from 100 to 200 °C. The resulting extracts were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and assayed to determine their inhibitory effect on pancreatic lipase activity in vitro. Four theaflavins (TF), 5 catechins, 2 quercetin glycosides, quinic acid, gallic acid, and caffeine were identified. The total polyphenol content of extracts increased with increasing temperature but lipase inhibitors (TF, theaflavin 3-O-gallate, theaflavin 3'-O-gallate, theaflavin 3,3'-O-gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, and epicatechin gallate) decreased over 150 °C. All extracts inhibited pancreatic lipase but extracts obtained at 100 to 140 °C showed the greatest lipase inhibition (IC(50) s of 0.9 to 1.3 μg/mL), consistent with the optimal extraction of TFs and catechins except catechin by HCW between 130 and 150 °C. HCW can be used to extract pancreatic lipase-inhibiting polyphenols from black tea waste. These extracts have potential uses, as dietary supplements and medications, for the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  17. Effect of Extracted Compositions of Liquefaction Residue on the Structure and Properties of the Formed-coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yong-hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of extracted compositions of the de-ash liquefaction residue (D-DCLR on pyrolysis products yields, compressive strength and composition of the formed-coke, which was prepared by co-pyrolysis of the low metamorphic pulverized coal and D-DCLR. The scanning electron microscope (SEM and the Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR were used to characterize the morphology and functional group of the formed-coke, respectively. The results showed that the extracted compositions of D-DCLR were heavy oil (HS, asphaltene (A, pre-asphaltene (PA and tetrahydrofuran isolusion (THFIS, whose contents were 5.10%, 40.90%, 14.4%, 39.60%, respectively. During the pyrolysis process, HS was the main source of tar, and HS, A as well as PA were conducive to improve gas yields. The THFIS helped to improve the yield of the formed-coke up to 89.5%, corresponding to the compressive strength was only 147.7N/ball for the coke. A and PA were the key factors affecting the compressive strength and surface structure of the formed-coke. The compressive strength of coke could be up to 728.0N/ball with adding D-DCLR, which reduced by 50% after the removal of A and PA. The FT-IR analysis showed that the types of surface functional groups of the formed-coke were remained the same after co-pyrolysis, but the absorption peak intensity of each functional group was changed.

  18. Preparation of Nano-Scale Biopolymer Extracted from Coconut Residue and Its Performance as Drag Reducing Agent (DRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Muhammad Luqman Bin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag or frictional force is defined as force that acts opposite to the object’s relative motion through a fluid which then will cause frictional pressure loss in the pipeline. Drag Reducing Agent (DRA is used to solve this issue and most of the DRAs are synthetic polymers but has some environmental issues. Therefore for this study, biopolymer known as Coconut Residue (CR is selected as the candidate to replace synthetic polymers DRA. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nano-scale biopolymer DRA on the application of water injection system. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC is extracted by synthesizing the cellulose extracted from CR under the alkali-catalyzed reaction using monochloroacetic acid. The synthesize process is held in controlled condition whereby the concentration of NaOH is kept at 60%wt, 60 °C temperature and the reaction time is 4 hours. For every 25 g of dried CR used, the mass of synthesized CMC yield is at an average of 23.8 g. The synthesized CMC is then grinded in controlled parameters using the ball milling machine to get the Nano-scale size. The particle size obtained from this is 43.32 Nm which is in range of Nano size. This study proved that Nano-size CMC has higher percentage of drag reduction (%DR and flow increase (%FI if compared to normal-size CMC when tested in high and low flow rate; 44% to 48% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in low flow rate, and 16% to 18% increase in %DR and %FI when tested in high flow rate. The success of this research shows that Nano-scale DRA can be considered to be used to have better performance in reducing drag.

  19. Coupling solar photo-Fenton and biotreatment at industrial scale: Main results of a demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)]. E-mail: Sixto.malato@psa.es; Blanco, Julian [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Maldonado, Manuel I. [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Oller, Isabel [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Gernjak, Wolfgang [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Perez-Estrada, Leonidas [Plataforma Solar de Almeria-CIEMAT, Crta. Senes km 4, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain)

    2007-07-31

    This paper reports on the combined solar photo-Fenton/biological treatment of an industrial effluent (initial total organic carbon, TOC, around 500 mg L{sup -1}) containing a non-biodegradable organic substance ({alpha}-methylphenylglycine at 500 mg L{sup -1}), focusing on pilot plant tests performed for design of an industrial plant, the design itself and the plant layout. Pilot plant tests have demonstrated that biodegradability enhancement is closely related to disappearance of the parent compound, for which a certain illumination time and hydrogen peroxide consumption are required, working at pH 2.8 and adding Fe{sup 2+} = 20 mg L{sup -1}. Based on pilot plant results, an industrial plant with 100 m{sup 2} of CPC collectors for a 250 L/h treatment capacity has been designed. The solar system discharges the wastewater (WW) pre-treated by photo-Fenton into a biotreatment based on an immobilized biomass reactor. First, results of the industrial plant are also presented, demonstrating that it is able to treat up to 500 L h{sup -1} at an average solar ultraviolet radiation of 22.9 W m{sup -2}, under the same conditions (pH, hydrogen peroxide consumption) tested in the pilot plant.

  20. Coupling solar photo-Fenton and biotreatment at industrial scale: main results of a demonstration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malato, Sixto; Blanco, Julián; Maldonado, Manuel I; Oller, Isabel; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Pérez-Estrada, Leonidas

    2007-07-31

    This paper reports on the combined solar photo-Fenton/biological treatment of an industrial effluent (initial total organic carbon, TOC, around 500mgL(-1)) containing a non-biodegradable organic substance (alpha-methylphenylglycine at 500mgL(-1)), focusing on pilot plant tests performed for design of an industrial plant, the design itself and the plant layout. Pilot plant tests have demonstrated that biodegradability enhancement is closely related to disappearance of the parent compound, for which a certain illumination time and hydrogen peroxide consumption are required, working at pH 2.8 and adding Fe(2+)=20mgL(-1). Based on pilot plant results, an industrial plant with 100m(2) of CPC collectors for a 250L/h treatment capacity has been designed. The solar system discharges the wastewater (WW) pre-treated by photo-Fenton into a biotreatment based on an immobilized biomass reactor. First, results of the industrial plant are also presented, demonstrating that it is able to treat up to 500Lh(-1) at an average solar ultraviolet radiation of 22.9Wm(-2), under the same conditions (pH, hydrogen peroxide consumption) tested in the pilot plant.

  1. Miniaturized graphene-based pipette tip extraction coupled with liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfonamide residues in bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongyuan; Sun, Ning; Liu, Shijia; Row, Kyung Ho; Song, Yanxue

    2014-09-01

    A miniaturized graphene-based pipette tip extraction (M-G-PTE) method coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was developed for rapid screening of sulfadimidine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, and sulfachloropyrazine residues in bovine milk. Because of the large surface area and unique chemical structure of graphene, an M-G-PTE device packed with 3.0mg graphene could handle 2.0mL of milk samples at one time. This M-G-PTE device showed better adsorption performance for sulfonamides (SAs) than those packed with other adsorbents such as C18, HLB, SCX, PCX, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Under the optimized conditions, good linearity was obtained in the range of 0.05-6.0 μg g(-1), with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of ⩾0.9991. The recoveries at three spiking levels ranged from 90.1% to 113.5% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of ⩽3.9%. The proposed M-G-PTE method was simple, economical, sensitive, and produced less organic pollution. Thus, it could be applied to the rapid screening of SAs in complicated bovine milk samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Extraction of Pectin from Sisal Residue%剑麻渣果胶提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳艳; 王林川; 杨艳; 陈希; 刘伟强

    2012-01-01

    The method of pectin extraction from sisal residue was optimized by orthogonal experiments, and pectin separation and decoloration were also studied. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows ; 2. 2 mol ? L"' oxalic acid-ammonium oxalate buffer as extracting agent, the solid to liquid ratio 0. 1 g ? mL"', time 90 min, temperature 80 t. Pectin was precipitated by alcohol at pH 4. 0; the yield of sisal pectin was 14. 87%. The primrose yellow pectin was decolored by 1. 8% -2.4% H2O2. The results of physicochemical property were that the degree of esterification of sisal pectin was 23% , galactu-ronic acid 66% , pH and ash all complying with Chinese light industey standards.%以剑麻渣为原料提取果胶,采用正交试验优化提取条件,并对剑麻果胶的分离及脱色进行研究,得出制备剑麻果胶的最佳工艺条件为:以2.2 mol· L-1的草酸-草酸铵缓冲溶液为提取剂,料液比为0.1 g· mL-1,时间90min,温度80℃,在pH4.0条件下用乙醇沉淀果胶,果胶产率为14.87%;用ω为1.8%~2.4%的过氧化氢脱色,获得浅黄色果胶.理化性质研究表明,剑麻果胶为酯化度23%的低酯果胶,ω(半乳糖醛酸)为66%,pH、灰分等指标均符合国家轻工行业标准.

  3. 水提紫甘薯色素废渣总黄酮提取工艺研究%Study on the extraction of flavonoids from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晴; 殷建忠; 王瑞欣; 吴志霜; 周建于; 徐芳; 王琦; 吴少雄; 吴丽莎; 李桑柔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To research the extraction process of the total flavonoids from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L., which could provide the theoretical basis and reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L.. Methods Traditional solution method, ultrasonic-assisted method and microwave-assisted method were adopted to extract total flavonoids from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L.. The best extraction method and process conditions were determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. Results Microwave-assisted extraction was confirmed as the optimum method for extracting total flavonoids from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L.. The optimum extraction process was extracted for 4 min at microwave power 708 W by the ratio of material to liquid 1:40 with the 70%volume fraction of ethanol. Total flavonoids was extracted on this condition by 6 times, and the content of total flavonoids in residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L. was 3.83 g±0.03 g/100 g. The best extraction times is 2 times. Conclusion The content of flavonoids in residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L. is higher and residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L. has greater utilization value.%目的:研究水提紫甘薯色素废渣总黄酮的提取工艺,旨在为紫甘薯废渣的综合开发利用提供理论基础和参考依据。方法采用溶液浸提法、超声波辅助法、微波萃取法对水提紫甘薯色素废渣中的总黄酮进行提取研究,通过单因素实验和正交实验确定最佳提取方法及工艺条件。结果水提紫甘薯色素废渣总黄酮最佳提取方法为微波萃取法,其最佳提取工艺:乙醇体积分数70%,提取时间4 min,微波功率708 W,料液比1:40。在此条件下累计6次提取结果得水提紫甘薯色素废渣中总黄酮含量为3

  4. Study on the extraction of anthocyanins from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L%水提紫甘薯色素废渣花色苷提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲燊宇; 殷建忠; 王瑞欣; 吴志霜; 徐芳; 周建于; 王琦; 吴少雄; 李桑柔; 吴丽莎

    2014-01-01

    Objective The study on extracting the anthocyanins from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L. aims to provide the reference for the comprehensive development and utilization of residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L.. Methods Traditional solution method, ultrasonic-assisted method and microwave-assisted method were adopted to extract anthocyanins from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L.. The best extraction method and process condition were determined by single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment. Results Microwave-assisted extraction were confirmed as the optimum method for extracting anthocyanins from residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L.. The optimum extraction process was extracted for 4 min at microwave power 708 W by the ratio of material to liquid 1:20 in the pH 1.5 citric acid solution. Anthocyanins was extracted 6 times on this condition, and the total amount of anthocyanins in residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L. was 178.33 mg/100 g. The best extraction times were 2 times. Conclusion The content of anthocyanins in residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L. is higher and residue of water-extracting pigment of Ipamoea batatas L. could be applied in food industry, ecological animal feed production and other industries.%目的:研究水提紫甘薯色素废渣花色苷的提取工艺,旨在为紫甘薯废渣的综合开发利用提供参考依据。方法采用溶液浸提法、超声波辅助法、微波萃取法对水提紫甘薯色素废渣中的花色苷进行提取研究,通过单因素实验和正交实验确定最佳提取方法及工艺条件。结果水提紫甘薯色素废渣花色苷最佳提取方法为微波萃取法,其最佳提取工艺: pH 1.5柠檬酸溶液,料液比1:20,微波功率708 W,时间4 min。在此条件下累计提取6次并测得水提紫甘薯色素废渣中花色苷总量178.33 mg/100 g

  5. Biodegradability enhancement of a pesticide-containing bio-treated wastewater using a solar photo-Fenton treatment step followed by a biological oxidation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Moreira, Francisca C; Ferreira, Ana C C; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2012-10-01

    This work proposes an efficient combined treatment for the decontamination of a pesticide-containing wastewater resulting from phytopharmaceutical plastic containers washing, presenting a moderate organic load (COD=1662-1960 mg O₂ L⁻¹; DOC=513-696 mg C L⁻¹), with a high biodegradable organic carbon fraction (81%; BOD₅=1350-1600 mg O₂ L⁻¹) and a remaining recalcitrant organic carbon mainly due to pesticides. Nineteen pesticides were quantified by LC-MS/MS at concentrations between 0.02 and 45 mg L⁻¹ (14-19% of DOC). The decontamination strategy involved a sequential three-step treatment: (a) biological oxidation process, leading to almost complete removal of the biodegradable organic carbon fraction; (b) solar photo-Fenton process using CPCs, enhancing the bio-treated wastewater biodegradability, mainly due to pesticides degradation into low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions; (c) and a final polishing step to remove the residual biodegradable organic carbon, using a biological oxidation process. Treatment performance was evaluated in terms of mineralization degree (DOC), pesticides content (LC-MS/MS), inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions (IC) concentrations. The estimated phototreatment energy necessary to reach a biodegradable wastewater, considering pesticides and low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions concentrations, Zahn-Wellens test and BOD₅/COD ratio, was only 2.3 kJ(UV) L⁻¹ (45 min of photo-Fenton at a constant solar UV power of 30 W m⁻²), consuming 16 mM of H₂O₂, which pointed to 52% mineralization and an abatement higher than 86% for 18 pesticides. The biological oxidation/solar photo-Fenton/biological oxidation treatment system achieved pesticide removals below the respective detection limits and 79% mineralization, leading to a COD value lower than 150 mg O₂ L⁻¹, which is in agreement with Portuguese discharge limits regarding water bodies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a screening tool to prioritize testing for the carcinogenic hazard of residual aromatic extracts and related petroleum streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyak, Katy O; Kung, Ming H; Chen, Min; Aldous, Keith K; Freeman, James J

    2016-12-15

    Residual aromatic extracts (RAE) are petroleum substances with variable composition predominantly containing aromatic hydrocarbons with carbon numbers greater than C25. Because of the high boiling nature of RAEs, the aromatics present are high molecular weight, with most above the range of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, refinery distillations are imperfect; some PAHs and their heteroatom-containing analogs (collectively referred to as polycyclic aromatic content or PAC) may remain in the parent stream and be extracted into the RAE, and overall PAC content is related to the carcinogenic potential of an RAE. We describe here a real-time analytical chemistry-based tool to assess the carcinogenic hazard of RAE via the development of a functional relationship between carcinogenicity and boiling point. Samples representative of steps along the RAE manufacturing process were obtained from five refineries to evaluate relationships between mutagenicity index (MI), PAC ring content and gas chromatographic distillation (GCD) curves. As expected, a positive linear relationship between MI and PAC ring content occurred, most specifically for 3-6 ring PAC (R(2)=0.68). A negative correlation was found between MI and temperature at 5% vaporization by GCD (R(2)=0.72), indicating that samples with greater amounts of lower boiling constituents were more likely to be carcinogenic. The inverse relationship between boiling range and carcinogenicity was further demonstrated by fractionation of select RAE samples (MI=0.50+0.07; PAC=1.70+0.51wt%; n=5) into low and high boiling fractions, where lower boiling fractions were both more carcinogenic than the higher boiling fractions (MI=2.36±0.55 and 0.17±0.11, respectively) and enriched in 3-6 ring PACs (5.20+0.70wt% and 0.97+0.35wt%, respectively). The criteria defining carcinogenicity was established as 479°C for the 5% vaporization points by GCD, with an approximate 95% probability of a future sample having

  7. Membrane-aerated biofilms for high rate biotreatment: performance appraisal, engineering principles, scale-up, and development requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syron, Eoin; Casey, Eoin

    2008-03-15

    Diffusion of the electron acceptor is the rate controlling step in virtually all biofilm reactors employed for aerobic wastewater treatment. The membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) is a technology that can deliver oxygen at high rates and transfer efficiencies, thereby enhancing the biofilm activity. This paper provides a comparative performance rate analysis of the MABR in terms of its application for carbonaceous pollutant removal, nitrification/denitrification and xenobiotic biotreatment. We also describe the mechanisms influencing process performance in the MABR and the inter-relationships between these factors. The challenges involved in scaling-up the process are discussed with recommendations for prioritization of research needs.

  8. Extraction and preconcentration of residual solvents in pharmaceuticals using dynamic headspace-liquid phase microextraction and their determination by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Mir Ali; Dehghani, Hamideh; Yadeghari, Adeleh; Khoshmaram, Leila

    2017-02-01

    The present study describes a microextraction and determination method for analyzing residual solvents in pharmaceutical products using dynamic headspace-liquid phase microextraction technique followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. In this method dimethyl sulfoxide (μL level) placed into a GC liner-shaped extraction vessel is used as a collection/extraction solvent. Then the liner is exposed to the headspace of a vial containing the sample solution. The effect of different parameters influencing the microextraction procedure including collection/extraction solvent type and its volume, ionic strength, extraction time, extraction temperature and concentration of NaOH solution used in dissolving the studied pharmaceuticals are investigated and optimized. Under the optimum extraction conditions, the method showed wide linear ranges between 0.5 and 5000 mg L(-1) . The other analytical parameters were obtained in the following ranges: enrichment factors 240-327, extraction recoveries 72-98% and limits of detection 0.1-0.8 mg L(-1) in solution and 0.6-3.2 μg g(-1) in solid. Relative standard deviations for the extraction of 100 mg L(-1) of each analyte were obtained in the ranges of 4-7 and 5-8% for intra-day (n = 6) and inter-day (n = 4) respectively. Finally the target analytes were determined in different samples such as erythromycin, azithromycin, cefalexin, amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav by the proposed method.

  9. Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Leaves and Fruit Residues of Brazilian Savanna Plants Aiming Its Use as Safe Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Caroline Alves; Gasperini, Alessandra Marcon; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide.

  10. A multi-residue method for the determination of pesticides in tea using multi-walled carbon nanotubes as a dispersive solid phase extraction absorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xue; Lei, Shaorong; Qiu, Shiting; Guo, Lingan; Yi, Shengguo; Liu, Wei

    2014-06-15

    A modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a dispersive solid phase extraction (d-SPE) absorbent was established for analysis of 78 pesticide residues in tea. A 6 mg MWCNT sample was selected as the optimised amount based on the distribution of pesticide recoveries and clean-up efficiency from 6 mL acetonitrile extracts. The matrix effects of the method were evaluated and matrix-matched calibration was recommended. The method was validated employing gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) at the spiked concentration levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mg kg(-1). For most of the targeted pesticides, the percent recoveries range from 70% to 120%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) absorbent with excellent cleanup efficiency, which could be widely applied for the analysis of pesticide residues.

  11. Compositional zonation of the shallow La Gloria pluton (Central Chile) by late-stage extraction/redistribution of residual melts by channelization: Numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravena, A.; Gutiérrez, F. J.; Parada, M. A.; Payacán, Í.; Bachmann, O.; Poblete, F.

    2017-07-01

    The origin of highly evolved magmas (e.g. rhyolites) has been a long-standing controversy in earth sciences. They are commonly thought to be generated in the upper crust by melt extraction from mush zones, but due to the rapid cooling of magma reservoirs in such shallow and typically cold environments, high magma emplacement rates of intermediate magmas are thought to be necessary to maintain large silicic mushes above the solidus long enough for the high-SiO2 melts extraction to occur. Late-stage redistribution of interstitial melts (i.e. heat and mass) by channels/dikes within those mushes has been invoked as a mechanism to preserve silicic mushes above their solidi for longer periods (i.e. delaying their final crystallization), but the nature of this process and its implications on plutons zonation are still poorly understood. Here, using time-dependent numerical modeling, we study the feasibility of late-stage interstitial melt extraction/redistribution by channels/dikes from a crystalline mush. Our model accounts for magma fluid dynamics, extraction of residual melts and thermal evolution of the crystallizing magma system and its hosting rocks, considering the thermal effect of the redistributing material. The model was applied to explain the anatomy of the well-documented La Gloria pluton (LGP, Central Chile), which exhibits increasing contents of SiO2 and abundant leucocratic dikes toward the margins, interpreted as trapped residual melts generated elsewhere in the magma chamber. Our results suggest that favorable conditions for extracting late-stage residual melts are reached at temperatures of 750 °C (60 vol% crystallinity), at least for compositions similar to LGP dikes. Simulations correspond to 30 kyr of reservoir cooling, when the concentric compositional zonation of LGP is reproduced after a short period of extraction (< 15 kyr) and outward redistribution of silicic melt, with an extracted mass fraction of up to 0.17. An inward growing crystal

  12. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    OpenAIRE

    A.Ismail; Mohamed, M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Wan Ahmad, W. A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 ...

  13. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Patrícia Maia Pereira; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2010-01-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by...

  14. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytena, Ana Paula Lorenzen; Fanan, Simone; Pitz, Heloísa; Coelho, Daniela Sousa; Horstmann, Ana Luiza; Pereira, Aline; Uarrota, Virgílio Gavicho; Hillmann, Maria Clara; Varela, Lucas Andre Calbusch; Ribeiro-do-Valle, Rosa Maria; Maraschin, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE), their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA), allantoin (positive control), and carbopol (negative control). The treatments' performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p < 0.05) for the green coffee AE (78.20%) with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%), allantoin (70.83%), and carbopol (23.56%). CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake. PMID:27965732

  15. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and the Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Coffee (Coffea arabica L. Bean Residual Press Cake on the Skin Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celis Lopes Affonso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The world coffee consumption has been growing for its appreciated taste and its beneficial effects on health. The residual biomass of coffee, originated in the food industry after oil extraction from coffee beans, called coffee beans residual press cake, has attracted interest as a source of compounds with antioxidant activity. This study investigated the chemical composition of aqueous extracts of coffee beans residual press cake (AE, their antioxidant activity, and the effect of topical application on the skin wound healing, in animal model, of hydrogels containing the AE, chlorogenic acid (CGA, allantoin (positive control, and carbopol (negative control. The treatments’ performance was compared by measuring the reduction of the wound area, with superior result (p<0.05 for the green coffee AE (78.20% with respect to roasted coffee AE (53.71%, allantoin (70.83%, and carbopol (23.56%. CGA hydrogels reduced significantly the wound area size on the inflammatory phase, which may be associated with the well known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions of that compound. The topic use of the coffee AE studied improved the skin wound healing and points to an interesting biotechnological application of the coffee bean residual press cake.

  16. Structural Characterization and Antioxidative Activity of Low-Molecular-Weights Beta-1,3-Glucan from the Residue of Extracted Ganoderma lucidum Fruiting Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai-Feng Kao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The major cell wall constituent of Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum is β-1,3-glucan. This study examined the polysaccharide from the residues of alkaline-extracted fruiting bodies using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC, and it employed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and mass spectrometry (MS to confirm the structures. We have successfully isolated low-molecular-weight β-1,3-glucan (LMG, in high yields, from the waste residue of extracted fruiting bodies of G. lucidum. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay evaluated the capability of LMG to suppress H2O2-induced cell death in RAW264.7 cells, identifying that LMG protected cells from H2O2-induced damage. LMG treatment decreased H2O2-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production. LMG also influenced sphingomyelinase (SMase activity, stimulated by cell death to induce ceramide formation, and then increase cell ROS production. Estimation of the activities of neutral and acid SMases in vitro showed that LMG suppressed the activities of both neutral and acid SMases in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that LMG, a water-soluble β-1,3-glucan recycled from extracted residue of G. lucidum, possesses antioxidant capability against H2O2-induced cell death by attenuating intracellular ROS and inhibiting SMase activity.

  17. Spectroscopic characterization of dissolved organic matter in coking wastewater during bio-treatment: full-scale plant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ronghua; Ou, Huase; Yu, Xubiao; He, Runsheng; Lin, Chong; Wei, Chaohai

    2015-01-01

    This paper taking a full-scale coking wastewater (CWW) treatment plant as a case study aimed to characterize removal behaviors of dissolved organic matter (DOM) by UV spectra and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix-parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), and investigate the correlations between spectroscopic indices and water quality parameters. Efficient removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total nitrogen (TN) after the bio-treatment were 91.3%, 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. UV270 was proven to be a stable UV absorption peak of CWW that could reflect the mixture of phenols, heterocyclics, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Molecular weight and aromaticity were increased, and also the content of polar functional groups was greatly reduced after bio-treatment. Three fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC: C1 (tyrosine-like), C2 (tryptophan-like) and C3 (humic-like). The removal rate of protein-like was higher than that of humic-like and C1 was identified as biodegradable substance. Correlation analysis showed UV270 had an excellent correlation with COD (r=0.921, n=60, Ptreatment.

  18. Natural deep eutectic solvent mediated pretreatment of rice straw: bioanalytical characterization of lignin extract and enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Adepu K; Parikh, Bhumika S; Pravakar, Mohanty

    2016-05-01

    The present investigation demonstrated pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass rice straw using natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs), and separation of high-quality lignin and holocellulose in a single step. Qualitative analysis of the NADES extract showed that the extracted lignin was of high purity (>90 %), and quantitative analysis showed that nearly 60 ± 5 % (w/w) of total lignin was separated from the lignocellulosic biomass. Addition of 5.0 % (v/v) water during pretreatment significantly enhanced the total lignin extraction, and nearly 22 ± 3 % more lignin was released from the residual biomass into the NADES extract. X-ray diffraction studies of the untreated and pretreated rice straw biomass showed that the crystallinity index ratio was marginally decreased from 46.4 to 44.3 %, indicating subtle structural alterations in the crystalline and amorphous regions of the cellulosic fractions. Thermogravimetric analysis of the pretreated biomass residue revealed a slightly higher T dcp (295 °C) compared to the T dcp (285 °C) of untreated biomass. Among the tested NADES reagents, lactic acid/choline chloride at molar ratio of 5:1 extracted maximum lignin of 68 ± 4 mg g(-1) from the rice straw biomass, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual holocellulose enriched biomass showed maximum reducing sugars of 333 ± 11 mg g(-1) with a saccharification efficiency of 36.0 ± 3.2 % in 24 h at 10 % solids loading.

  19. Coagulation-Sedimentation-Extraction Pretreatment Methods for The Removal of Suspended Solids and Residual Oil From Palm Oil Mill Effluent (Pome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif Ahmad, Norliza Ibrahim , Suzylawati Ismail and Subhash Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Suspended solids and residual oil removal in a liquid are relevant to numerous research areas and industry. The suspended solid cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Large and heavy particles can settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. Because of this, it requires efficient physical-chemical pretreatment methods.   Our current research is to study the pretreatment methods in the removal of suspended solids and residual oil content in POME. Preliminary analysis shows that POME contains 40,000 mg/L suspended solid and 4,000 mg/L oil and grease content that relatively very high compared to the maximum allowable limit by the Malaysian Department of Environment which are only 400 mg/L and 50 mg/L respectively. The methods chosen were coagulation-sedimentation method for suspended solids removal and solvent extraction for residual oil removal.  Jar test apparatus was used as the standard procedure for bench-scale testing and alum was used as the coagulant. Parameters studied were alum dosage, mixing time, mixing speed, sedimentation time and pH. For removal of residual oil, six different organic solvents; n-hexane, n-heptane, benzene, petroleum ether, pentane and petroleum benzene were used. For every solvent the effect of solvent ratio, mixing time, mixing speed and pH were analyzed. The results show that the optimum conditions in removal of suspended solid from POME were at pH 4.11, sedimentation time of 100 minutes and 150 rpm mixing speed with 1.5 hr mixing time. N-hexane give the best performance in extracting residual oil from POME with solvent to POME ratio of 6:10. It was estimated about 0.54 grams of oil and grease can be extracted with optimum variables at pH 4, mixing speed of 200 rpm, and 20 minutes mixing time.  Key Words: palm oil mill effluent, coagulation, suspended solid, residual oil, solvent extraction.

  20. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan

    2017-03-06

    Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration (X₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time (X₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature (X₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve extraction yield

  1. Fabric phase sorptive extraction of selected penicillin antibiotic residues from intact milk followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Michaelidou, Katia; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a novel sorbent-based microextraction method, was evaluated as a simple and rapid strategy for the extraction of four penicillin antibiotic residues (benzylpenicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and oxacillin) from cows' milk, without prior protein precipitation. Time-consuming solvent evaporation and reconstitution steps were eliminated successfully from the sample preparation workflow. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric substrate, chemically coated with sol-gel derived, highly efficient, organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent as the extraction medium. Herein short-chain poly(ethylene glycol) provided optimum extraction sensitivity for the selected penicillins, which were analysed using an RP-HPLC method, validated according to the European Decision 657/2002/EC. The limit of quantitation was 10μg/kg for benzylpenicillin, 20μg/kg for cloxacillin, 25μg/kg dicloxacillin and 30μg/kg oxacillin. These are a similar order of magnitude with those reported in the literature and (with the exception of benzylpenicillin) are less than the maximum residue limits (MRL) set by European legislation.

  2. [Determination of estrogen residues in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction based on sol-gel technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Su, Min; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Yana; Wang, Minmin; He, Jinxing

    2014-02-01

    A method for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES), hexestrol (HEX) and dienestrol (DS) residues in drinking water was established by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The material synthesized on the base of sol-gel technology was employed as adsorbent. This material was prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent, and acetic acid as the initiator. The synthesized adsorbent showed outstanding property for the estrogen extraction. The estrogen can be caught effectively from water samples and the extraction can be achieved rapidly. Some important parameters, such as pH of sample solution, eluent solvents, loading flow rate, which might influence extraction efficiency, were optimized. The results indicated that the limit of detection (S/N = 3) of the developed method could reach 0.07-0.13 microg/L under the conditions of pH 7.0 of sample solution, methanol and 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the eluent solvent and the loading flow rate of 2 mL/min. The recoveries of the three estrogens from the water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.31% to 99.43% with RSD of 1.61%-7.15%. The method was simple, rapid, and suitable to detect the trace residues of estrogens in drinking water.

  3. Determination of low-level ink photoinitiator residues in packaged milk by solid-phase extraction and LC-ESI/MS/MS using triple-quadrupole mass analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-xu; Lian, Hong-zhen; Ding, Tao; Xu, Jin-zhong; Shen, Chong-yu

    2009-12-01

    A confirmatory and quantitative method based on liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS) has been developed for simultaneous determination of seven photoinitiator residues: benzophenone, (1-hydroxycyclohexyl)phenylketone (Irgacure 184), isopropylthioxanthone (ITX), 2-ethylhexyl-(4-dimethylamino)benzoate (EHA or EHDAB), 2-methyl-1-[4-(methylthio)phenyl]-2-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanone (Irgacure 907), (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)diphenylphosphine oxide (TPO) and 2-benzyl-2-(dimethylamino)-1-(4-morpholinophenyl)-1-butanone (Irgacure 369) in packaged milk and related packaging materials. Residues of photoinitiators were extracted from milk using acetonitrile, and further enriched and purified on HLB solid-phase extraction cartridges prior to being analyzed by LC-ESI/MS/MS with selected reaction monitoring mode, while photoinitiators in packaging materials were extracted using the same solvent. Satisfactory recovery (from 80 to 111%), intra- and inter-day precision (below 12%), and low limits of quantification (from 0.1 to 5.0 microg kg(-1)) were evaluated from spiked samples at three concentration levels (5.0, 10.0 and 25.0 microg kg(-1) for Irgacure 184 and 2.5, 5.0 and 25.0 microg kg(-1) for others). These excellent validation data suggested the possibility of using the LC-ESI/MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of low-level photoinitiator residues migrating from printed food-packaging materials into milk. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of real samples of different fat contents ranging from 8 to 30 g L(-1). The photoinitiator residues were revealed to be higher in milk with higher fat content and the most important contaminations were benzophenone and ITX in concentration ranges of 2.84-18.35 and 0.83-8.87 microg kg(-1), respectively.

  4. Comparison of extraction solvents and conditions for herbicide residues in milled rice with liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis (LC-DAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, S; Pareja, L; Geis Asteggiante, L; Cesio, M V; Heinzen, H

    2010-02-01

    Different extraction procedures and clean-up methods were compared in order to develop a sample preparation procedure for the multi-residue analysis of six post-emergence herbicides (metsulfuron methyl, bensulfuron methyl, pyrazosulfuron ethyl, bentazone, bispyribac sodium and cyhalofop butyl) in rice grains followed by liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD). Optimum results were obtained dispersing milled rice grain in water, followed by the addition of 1% acetic acid in acetonitrile, MgSO(4) and sodium acetate as a modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) method but no primary and secondary amine (PSA) sorbent was added due to the acidic nature of the herbicides. The method was further expanded to other post-emergence herbicides (quinclorac, clomazone and propanil). Except for quinclorac, which cannot be analysed with this method, the recoveries of the other eight herbicides were in the range 73-111%, with relative standard deviations lower than 12%. Limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.03 to 0.08 mg kg(-1). A single analyst can extract twelve samples in 4 h. The method presented here allows the simultaneous residue determination of the most common post-emergence herbicides employed in cultivating rice. It is simple, rapid, sensitive, and can be applied routinely to polished rice grain herbicide residue analysis.

  5. Pyrolysates of raw vitrinites and their residues after CS2-NMP solvent extraction and its significance for petroleum geology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dayong; PENG Ping'an

    2006-01-01

    Binary solvent (CS2-NMP) has extreme high extraction ability to coals, and it can extract most bitumens out of coals and vitrinites. And large amount of messages on side chains and their distribution character in vitrinites should be acquired through flash pyrolysis before and after binary solvent (CS2-NMP) extraction. A few low maturated coals have been selected and vitrinites are handpicked from coals. Then vitrinites have been extracted using different solvents in the order of polarity. Flash pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass spectrum has been applied to samples. The result shows that CS2-NMP is efficient for the extraction of vitirnites, giving much higher extraction yield than common solvents. Production ratio of liquid hydrocarbons in pyrolysates of vitrinites extracted with CS2-NMP is lower than that of raw vitrinites. And relative ratio of each component in pyrolysates has changed apparently. Production ratio of aliphatic hydrocarbons, especially those long chain aliphatics have decreased much after mixed solvent extraction. It shows that bitumens extracted with CS2-NMP have largely contributed to pyrolysates, especially those aliphatics in pyrolysates.

  6. Novel method for the rapid and specific extraction of multiple β2 -agonist residues in food by tailor-made Monolith-MIPs extraction disks and detection by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Gan, Ning; Chen, Yinji; Ding, Qingqing; Huang, Jie; Lin, Saichai; Cao, Yuting; Li, Tianhua

    2016-09-01

    A quick and specific pretreatment method based on a series of extraction clean-up disks, consisting of molecularly imprinted polymer monoliths and C18 adsorbent, was developed for the specific enrichment of salbutamol and clenbuterol residues in food. The molecularly imprinted monolithic polymer disk was synthesized using salbutamol as a template through a one-step synthesis process. It can simultaneously and specifically recognize salbutamol and clenbuterol. The monolithic polymer disk and series of C18 disks were assembled with a syringe to form a set of tailor-made devices for the extraction of target molecules. In a single run, salbutamol and clenbuterol can be specifically extracted, cleaned, and eluted by methanol/acetic acid/H2 O. The target molecules, after a silylation derivatization reaction were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The parameters including solvent desorption, sample pH, and the cycles of reloading were investigated and discussed. Under the optimized extraction and clean-up conditions, the limits of detection and quantitation were determined as 0.018-0.022 and 0.042-0.049 ng/g for salbutamol and clenbuterol, respectively. The assay described was convenient, rapid, and specific; thereby potentially efficient in the high-throughput analysis of β2 -agonists residues in real food samples.

  7. Effect of cyclodextrin and transformer oil amendments on the chemical extractability of aged [14C]polychlorinated biphenyl and [14C]polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Burauel, Peter; Jones, Kevin C; Semple, Kirk T

    2005-09-01

    Sequestration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in soils limits chemical and biological availability. Concerns exist regarding the long-term stability of sequestered contaminants in the environment, and stability needs to be demonstrated if bioavailability considerations are to be adopted into the risk assessment and remediation of contaminated land. The aim of the present study was to test the short-term influence of two organic amendments on the chemical extractability of HOC residues that had been present in soils for more than 12 years. The amendments investigated were cyclodextrin and transformer oil (a light, nonaqueous phase liquid [LNAPL]). The contaminants investigated were fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene in one soil and the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 28 and 52 in a second soil. The addition of cyclodextrin to the soils did not result in a significant increase in chemical extractability of the residues after a 36-d contact time. The addition of transformer oil resulted in an increase in chemical extractability of the PCBs after a 14-d soil-LNAPL contact time and a further increase after a 36-d contact time. The present study demonstrates that the chemical availability of aged HOCs in soil may be influenced by the presence of other chemicals and has implications for the long-term management of contaminated land.

  8. Selective dissolution followed by EDDS washing of an e-waste contaminated soil: Extraction efficiency, fate of residual metals, and impact on soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiyuan, Jingzi; Tsang, Daniel C W; Valix, Marjorie; Zhang, Weihua; Yang, Xin; Ok, Yong Sik; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i.e., cytotoxicity, enzyme activities, and available nutrients). The reductants (dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride) effectively extracted metals by mineral dissolution, but elevated the leachability and bioaccessibility of metals due to the transformation from Fe/Mn oxides to labile fractions. Subsequent EDDS washing was found necessary to mitigate the residual risks. In comparison, prior washing by oxidants (persulphate, hypochlorite, and hydrogen peroxide) was marginally useful because of limited amount of soil organic matter. Prior washing by alkaline solvents (sodium hydroxide and sodium bicarbonate) was also ineffective due to metal precipitation. In contrast, prior washing by low-molecular-weight organic acids (citrate and oxalate) improved the extraction efficiency. Compared to hydroxylamine hydrochloride, citrate and oxalate induced lower cytotoxicity (Microtox) and allowed higher enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, and urease) and soil nutrients (available nitrogen and phosphorus), which would facilitate reuse of the treated soil. Therefore, while sequential washing proved to enhance extraction efficacy, the selection of chemical agents besides EDDS should also include the consideration of effects on metal leachability/bioaccessibility and soil quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Phenolics Extracted from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue and Its Antioxidant and Depigmenting Activity In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of phenolics from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue was optimized by the maximization of the yield in total phenolics, using the response surface methodology. The optimized conditions were 50% ethanol, 5 h extraction time, 1 : 40 liquid to solid ratio, and 80°C extraction temperature. The experimental average total phenolics yield was 54.49±4.26 mg/g. These antioxidant properties of phenolics were comprehensively analyzed for the first time. All the extracts not only demonstrated the significant free radical scavenging activities and metal chelating activity but also inhibited lipid, lipoprotein peroxidation and revealed reducing power activity. Ethyl acetate extraction (EAE also inhibited mushroom tyrosinase activity and significantly increased the average skin-whitening index (L value of the skin of C57BL/6 mice, indicating its potential use for skin hyperpigmentation in humans. The results of cell experiments showed EAE could strongly inhibit cellular tyrosinase activity, which had led to the decrease of melanogenesis in B16 mouse melanoma cells. Overall, EAE is an excellent natural antioxidant and depigmenting agent, which can be developed as a new food additive, medicine, and cosmetic.

  10. Determination of pesticide residues in wine by membrane-assisted solvent extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeder, M; Bauer, C; Popp, P; van Pinxteren, M; Reemtsma, T

    2012-06-01

    The determination of pesticides in food products is an essential issue to guarantee food safety and minimise health risks of consumers. A protocol based on membrane-assisted solvent extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) that allows the determination of 18 pesticides in red wine at minimum labour effort for sample preparation was developed and validated. Ten millilitres of wine were extracted using 100 μL of toluene filled in a non-porous polyethylene membrane bag which is immersed in the wine sample. After 150 min extraction under stirring, an aliquot of the extraction solution is analysed using HPLC-MS/MS. The limits of quantification ranged from 3 ng/L for Pirimicarb to 1.33 μg/L for Imidacloprid. Quantification by matrix-matched calibration provided relative standard deviations ≤16 % for most of the target pesticides. The linearity of calibration was given over three to four orders of magnitude, which enables the reliable measurement of a broad range of pesticide concentrations, and for each target pesticide, the sensitivity of the protocol meets the maximum residue levels set by legislations at least for wine grapes. Good agreement of results was found when the new method was compared with a standard liquid-liquid extraction protocol. In five wine samples analysed, Carbendazim and Metalaxyl were determined at micrograms per litre concentrations, even in some of the organic wines. Tebuconazol and Cyprodinitril were determined at lower abundance and concentration, followed by Spiroxamin and Diuron.

  11. Utilizing a novel sorbent in the solid phase extraction for simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Feifei; Tang, Hua; Wu, Xue; Chen, Dazhou; Zhao, Tan; Liu, Pei; Li, Lei

    2016-06-15

    Pesticide residues exceeding standard in green tea is a widespread problem of the world's attention, containing organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs), and pyrethroids. In this research, three dimensionally honeycomb Mg-Al layered double oxide (TDH-Mg-Al-LDO) combined with graphitized carbon black (GCB), packed as a column, was used as a novel solid phase extraction sorbent, applying in simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in green tea coupled with GC-MS. Compared with different type of SPE column, it showed that TDH-Mg-Al-LDO exhibited great advantages in the extraction of 15 pesticide residues from green tea, which was seldom reported before. Different experiment conditions, such as combination order of Mg-Al-LDO and GCB, dosage of sorbents, type and volume of eluting solvent were thoroughly studied and optimized. The limits of detection (LODs) of 15 pesticides ranged from 0.9 to 24.2ng/g and the limits of quantifications (LOQs) were ranging from 3.0 to 80.0ng/g. The recoveries using this method at three spiked concentration levels (10, 100 and 500ng/g for Fenthion, P,P'-DDE, O,P'-DDT, P,P'-DDD and Bifenthrin, 100, 500 and 2000ng/g for the others) range from 71.1 to 119.0%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was from 0.1 to 7.6% in all case. The result indicated that the proposed analytical method had been successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of 15 pesticide residues in commercial green tea.

  12. Blind Analysis of Fortified Pesticide Residues in Carrot Extracts using GC-MS to Evaluate Qualitative and Quantitative Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlike quantitative analysis, the quality of the qualitative results in the analysis of pesticide residues in food are generally ignored in practice. Instead, chemists tend to rely on advanced mass spectrometric techniques and general subjective guidelines or fixed acceptability criteria when makin...

  13. Benzimidazole Carbamate Residues in Milk: Detection by SPR Biosensor; using a Modified QuEChERS Method for Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor screening assay was developed and validated to detect 11 benzimidazole carbamate (BZT) veterinary drug residues in milk. The polyclonal antibody used was raised in sheep against a methyl 5 (6)-[(carboxypentyl)-thio]-2-benzimidazole carbamate protein conjug...

  14. Distribution, fate and formation of non-extractable residues of a nonylphenol isomer in soil with special emphasis on soil derived organo-clay complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefer, Patrick; Klausmeyer, Timm; Schäffer, Andreas; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Anthropogenic contaminants like nonylphenols (NP) are added to soil, for instance if sewage-sludge is used as fertilizer in agriculture. A commercial mixture of NP consists of more than 20 isomers. For our study, we used one of the predominate isomers of NP mixtures, 4-(3,5-dimethylhept-3-yl)phenol, as a representative compound. The aim was to investigate the fate and distribution of the isomer within soil and soil derived organo-clay complexes. Therefore, (14)C- and (13)C-labeled NP was added to soil samples and incubated up to 180 days. Mineralization was measured and soil samples were fractionated into sand, silt and clay; the clay fraction was further separated in humic acids, fulvic acids and humin. The organo-clay complexes pre-incubated for 90 or 180 days were re-incubated with fresh soil for 180 days, to study the potential of re-mobilization of incorporated residues. The predominate incorporation sites of the nonylphenol isomer in soil were the organo-clay complexes. After 180 days of incubation, 22 % of the applied (14)C was mineralized. The bioavailable, water extractable portion was low (9 % of applied (14)C) and remained constant during the entire incubation period, which could be explained by an incorporation/release equilibrium. Separation of organo-clay complexes, after extraction with solvents to release weakly incorporated, bioaccessible portions, showed that non-extractable residues (NER) were preferentially located in the humic acid fraction, which was regarded as an effect of the chemical composition of this fraction. Generally, 27 % of applied (14)C was incorporated into organo-clay complexes as NER, whereas 9 % of applied (14)C was bioaccessible after 180 days of incubation. The re-mobilization experiments showed on the one hand, a decrease of the bioavailability of the nonylphenol residues due to stronger incorporation, when the pre-incubation period was increased from 90 to 180 days. On the other hand, a shift of these residues from the

  15. 海带废渣中提取岩藻聚糖硫酸酯的工艺研究%Extraction of fucoidan from Laminaria japonica residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘旭; 曲桂燕; 周裔彬; 袁毅; 韩丽君

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction of fucoidan by calcium chloride solution from Laminaria japonica residue. On the basis of single factor experiment, mathematical modeling was established to analyze the significance and interactions between extraction temperature, extraction time and material/liquid ratio. The optimum extraction conditions were extraction temperature of 68℃, extraction time of 6 h and material/liquid ratio of 1 : 80 (g :mL). Under this optimum condition the extraction rate was up to 3.95%. The contents of fucose and sulfate group were 17.47% and 37.14%, respectively.%采用响应曲面分析法研究了氯化钙水提法从海带废渣中提取岩藻聚糖硫酸酯的制备技术.在单因素试验的基础上,根据Box-Behnken试验设计原理,通过建立数学模型对提取温度、提取时间、料液比等因素进行显著性和交互性分析研究,获得了最佳提取制备参数.结果表明,提取温度68℃,提取时间6h,料液比1:80时,可以获得3.95%的岩藻聚糖硫酸酯.其中岩藻糖含量为17.47%,硫酸根含量为37.14%.

  16. [A Simultaneous Determination Method with Acetonitrile-n-Hexane Partitioning and Solid-Phase Extraction for Pesticide Residues in Livestock and Marine Products by GC-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizaki, Mayuko; Kobayashi, Yukari; Shimizu, Masanori; Maruyama, Kouichi

    2015-01-01

    A simultaneous determination method was examined for 312 pesticides (including isomers) in muscle of livestock and marine products by GC-MS. The pesticide residues extracted from samples with acetone and n-hexane were purified by acetonitrile-n-hexane partitioning, and C18 and SAX/PSA solid-phase extraction without using GPC. Matrix components such as cholesterol were effectively removed. In recovery tests performed by this method using pork, beef, chicken and shrimp, 237-257 pesticides showed recoveries within the range of 70-120% in each sample. Validity was confirmed for 214 of the target pesticides by means of a validation test using pork. In comparison with the Japanese official method using GPC, the treatment time of samples and the quantity of solvent were reduced substantially.

  17. Multi-residue quantification of veterinary drugs in milk with a novel extraction and cleanup technique: salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2014-04-11

    A quantitative liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of more than one hundred compounds belonging to a variety of veterinary drug classes in bovine milk. Salting out supported liquid extraction (SOSLE), a novel extraction and cleanup technique, was introduced to ensure high extraction efficiency and good sample cleanup. The high salt (ammonium sulfate) concentration in the aqueous donor phase permits supported liquid/liquid extraction (SLE) with a relative polar organic acceptor phase (acetonitrile). This is different from traditional SLE, in which the need for phase separation results in the selection of organic solvents with intermediate polarities (e.g., ethyl acetate or dichloromethane). Hence, SOSLE is more efficient in recovering polar analytes than conventional SLE. SOSLE was also compared to classical approaches like solid phase extraction, QuEChERS and ultra-filtration. The proposed technique resulted in extracts of equal or superior cleanliness and with higher average recoveries than those obtained with QuEChERS or SPE. The recovery (median for all compounds) was 73% for QuEChERS, 83% for SPE and 91% for SOSLE. The most significant improvements were observed for polar analytes (penicillines, quinolones and tetracyclines) which are hardly recovered by QuEChERS. The chromatographic separation and detection was based on an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography Q-Orbitrap system (Q-Exactive plus). The developed analytical method has been validated (based on the commission decision 2002/957/EC) as required for quantitative veterinary drug methods.

  18. Microwave technique extraction of flavonoids from apple residue%微波提取苹果渣中总黄酮的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕铃; 周文富

    2011-01-01

    采用微波辐射技术,以乙醇提取苹果渣中黄酮类化合物.考察了乙醇浓度、微波功率、处理时间、料液比和浸泡时间对总黄酮提取率的影响.结果表明,最佳工艺条件为:70%乙醇,微波萃取2 min,微波功率为350 W,料液比1:30(g/mL),总黄酮1次提取率0.683 7%.%Apple residue was extracted of flavonoids by using microwave technology.The effect of ethanol concentration, microwave power, processing time,liquid materials ratio of flavonoids and soaking time extraction on extraction rate were investigated.The optimal conditions were as follows; concentration of ethanol 70% , the time of microwave extraction 2 min, the power of microwave oven 350 W, solid/liquid ratio 1∶30(g/mL) ,the total flavonoids of yield was 0.6837% by 1 time.

  19. Enhanced Retention of Chelating Reagents in Octadecylsilyl Silica Phase by Interaction with Residual Silanol Groups in Solid Phase Extraction of Divalent Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmuro, Satoshi; Fujii, Kan; Yasui, Takashi; Takada, Kazutake; Yuchi, Akio; Kokusen, Hisao

    2016-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) of divalent metal ions with a lipophilic and potentially divalent hexadentate chelating reagent (H2L), with which octadecylsilyl silica (ODS), was impregnated with was studied to gain more insight into and develop the potential of this methodology. This is the first time to demonstrate that this reagent as well as other common nitrogen-containing reagents were retained both by adsorption due to hydrogen bonding between nitrogen atoms of the reagent and residual silanol groups in the ODS phase and by simple distribution into the hydrophobic space. An appreciably large amount of this reagent could be retained by the adsorption mechanism even with a relatively thin loading solution. The divalent metal ions of Mn(2+), Co(2+) and Zn(2+) were extracted as 1:1 neutral complexes ([ML]), while Ni(2+) and Cu(2+) as ion-pairs of 1:1 cationic complex ([MHL](+)) with anion in SPE with H2L. The extractability and selectivity were substantially the same as that in liquid-liquid extraction.

  20. Monitoring of N-methyl carbamate pesticide residues in water using hollow fibre supported liquid membrane and solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The aim of this work was to develop a method for the determination of N-methyl carbamates in water involving hollow fibre supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) and solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample preparation methods. Four N-methyl carbamate pesticides, aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb sulfoxide, were simultaneously extracted and analysed by a liquid chromatograph with a diode array detector (LC-UV/DAD) and a liquid chromatograph coupled to a ion trap quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-MS). The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of carabamate extracts was performed on a C18 column with water-acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The mass spectrometry analyses were carried out in the positive mode, operating under both the selected ion monitoring (SIM) and full scan modes. The solid phase recoveries of the extracts ranged between 8% and 98%, with aldicarb having the highest recoveries, followed by carbaryl, carbofuran and methiocarb had the lowest recovery. The HFSLM recovery ranged between 8% and 58% and the order of recovery was similar to the SPE trend. Factors controlling the efficiency of the HFSLM extraction such as sample pH, stripping phase pH, enrichment time, stirring speed as well as organic solvent used for entrapment of analytes, were optimised to achieve the highest enrichment factors.

  1. Homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography-electron capture detector for the determination of three pesticide residues in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xuedong [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)], E-mail: zjuwxd@yahoo.com.cn; Zhao Xinna; Liu Xiujuan; Li Yanyan; Fu Lingyan; Hu Jia [Key Laboratory of Pesticide and Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Huang Changjiang [School of Environmental Science and Public Health, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou 325035 (China)

    2008-07-14

    In this study, a new method was developed for analyzing malathion, cypermethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin from soil samples by using homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (HLLE) and gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Acetone was used as extraction solvent for the extraction of target pesticides from soil samples. When the extraction process was finished, the target analytes in the extraction solvent were rapidly transferred from the acetone extract to carbon tetrachloride, using HLLE. Under the optimum conditions, linearity was obtained in the range of 0.05-40 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for malathion, 0.04-10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for lambda-cyhalothrin and 0.05-50 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for cypermethrin, respectively. Coefficients of correlation (r{sup 2}) ranged from 0.9993 to 0.9998. The repeatability was carried out by spiking soil samples at concentration levels of 2.5 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for lambda-cyhalothrin, and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} for malathion and cypermethrin, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) varied between 2.3 and 9.6% (n = 3). The limits of detection (LODs), based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3, varied between 0.01 and 0.04 {mu}g kg{sup -1}. The relative recoveries of three pesticides from soil A1, A2 and A3 at spiking levels of 2.5, 5 and 10 {mu}g kg{sup -1} were in the range of 82.20-91.60%, 88.90-110.5% and 77.10-98.50%, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed method can be successfully applied for the determination of target pesticide residues in real soil samples.

  2. Characterization of residues from thermal treatment of treated wood and extraction of Cu, Cr, As and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren

    2005-01-01

    , that the charcoal contained a high concentration of Zn, probably from paint. Chemical extraction experiments in HNO were conducted with the charcoal and it was found that the order of extraction (in percentage) was Zn > Cu > As > Cr. A SEM/EDX investigation of the mixed ash from combustion showed the presence...... of small particles with wood structure with elevated Cu and Cr concentrations, but most particles were irregular shaped matrix particles rich in Si, Al and K. Cr was abundant in many different particles including the lignin skeleton of the small, unburned wood pieces, but also inside silica-based matrix...... form in a small layer on the surface of some matrix particles indicating condensation of volatile Cu species. Chemical extraction with inorganic acids showed the order of percentages mobilized as: As > Cu > Cr....

  3. High performance liquid chromatography for the simultaneous analysis of penicillin residues in beef and milk using ion-paired extraction and binary water-acetonitrile mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, Chunyapuk; Burakham, Rodjana; Chailapakul, Orawon; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2012-04-15

    An ion-paired extraction (IPE) has been developed for the analysis of penicillin antibiotics (penicillin G, oxacillin and cloxacillin) in beef and milk samples using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) as ion-pairing agent and binary water-acetonitrile as extractant. The factors affecting the IPE efficiency were optimized including solution pH, volume of acetonitrile (ACN), concentration of TBABr and electrolyte salt (NH(4))(2)SO(4). The optimum IPE conditions were 10 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer pH 8, 2 mL of ACN, 6 mmol L(-1) of TBABr and 2.5 mL of saturated ammonium sulfate. Under the HPLC condition: an Xbridge™ C18 reversed-phase column, isocratic elution of 5 mmol L(-1) phosphate buffer (pH 6.6) and acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) and a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1), with UV detection at 215 nm, the separation of three penicillins was achieved within 10 min. Under the selected optimum conditions, the enhancement of 21-53 folds compared to that without preconcentration and limits of detection (LODs) of 1-2 ng mL(-1) were obtained. Good reproducibility was achieved with RSDpenicillin residues in beef and milk with LOD lower than the maximum residue limits.

  4. Miniaturization of self-assembled solid phase extraction based on graphene oxide/chitosan coupled with liquid chromatography for the determination of sulfonamide residues in egg and honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yazhen; Li, Zhaoqian; Wang, Weiping; Zhong, Shuxian; Chen, Jianrong; Wang, Ai-Jun

    2016-05-20

    The miniaturization of self-assembled solid phase extraction (m-SASPE) based on graphene oxide/chitosan (GO/CS) coupled with liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection was developed for rapid screening of five sulfonamide residues in egg and honey. GO/CS was synthesized by solution blending method and characterized by FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Parameters that affected extraction efficiency including sample pH, amount of the GO/CS, elution solvent and rotation speed were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, good linear relationships between the peak area and the concentrations of the analytes were obtained. The linear ranges were 0.01-10.00μgg(-1) with correlation coefficients (r)≧0.9989. The method detection limits (MDLs) were in the range of 0.71-0.98ngg(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of intra- and inter-day analysis were less than 3.5 and 7.1%, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of sulfonamide residues in egg and honey. The average recoveries for two samples spiked at levels from 0.02 to 2.0μgg(-1) were in the range of 75.3-105.2% with RSDs less than 13.5%.

  5. The QuEChERS analytical method combined with low density solvent based dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for quantitative extraction of multiclass pesticide residues in cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bedassa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a combination QuEChERS and low density solvent based DLLME was developed for extraction and preconcentration of five multiclass pesticide residues including atrazine, ametryn, terbutryn, carbaryl and chlorothalonil, from selected cereals: Teff, barley and maize samples. Liquid chromatography with variable wavelength detector (VWD was used for quantitative determination of the pesticides. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction and the preconcentration efficiencies were optimized. Calibration curves constructed using Teff samples were linear over wide ranges, 7.1-200 μg kg-1 with R2 ≥ 0.990. LODs of the method were ≤ 8.9 μg kg-1, below the MRLs of EU for maize and barley. The RSDs were in the range of 2.3–9.5%. The method has also been applied to different cereal samples and satisfactory average recoveries ranging 69.0–117% were obtained for the spiked cereal samples at two concentration levels. Therefore, the developed method can be successfully utilized as a simple alternative for the analysis of multiclass pesticide residues in cereals and other related samples.

  6. Multi-residue determination of pesticides in water using multi-walled carbon nanotubes solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Peng; Min, Guang; Fang, Guozhen

    2007-09-21

    A reliable multi-residue method which was based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as adsorbent was developed for determination and quantitation of 12 pesticides (carbofuran, iprobenfos, parathion-methyl, prometryn, fenitrothion, parathion-ethyl, isocarbofos, phenthoate, methidathion, endrin, ethion, methoxychlor) in surface water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Parameters that might influence the extraction efficiency such as the eluent volume, the sample flow rate and the sample loading volume were optimized. The experimental results showed the excellent linearity of 12 pesticides (R(2)>0.99) over the range of 0.04-4 microg L(-1), and the precisions (RSD) were 3.1-15.1% under the optimal conditions. The detection limits of proposed method could reach 0.01-0.03 microg L(-1) based on the ratio of chromatographic signal to base line noise (S/N=3). Good recoveries achieved with spiked water samples were in the range of 82.0-103.7%. The results indicated that MWCNTs have good adsorbability to the 12 pesticides tested in this study. With less cost, less analytical time and less solvent-consuming, the developed multi-residue method could be used to determine multi-class pesticides in water simultaneously.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis analysis of inorganic cations in post-blast residue extracts applying a guanidinium-based electrolyte and bilayer-coated capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarazin, Cédric; Delaunay, Nathalie; Costanza, Christine; Eudes, Véronique; Gareil, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    A new CE method was developed for the identification and quantitation of inorganic cations in post-blast residues. The simultaneous analysis in 20 min total runtime of eight cations in post-blast residues (ammonium, potassium, monomethylammonium, calcium, sodium, magnesium, strontium), plus lithium cation as the internal reference, was carried out with a BGE involving a non-CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic, and harmful to reproduction) chromophore (guanidinium cation) and a double-layer modified capillary (hexadimethrine bromide/polyvinylsulfonate). A study of UV detection conditions using guanidinium ion as the probe led us to set the analysis and reference wavelengths and their associated bandwidths as well as the probe concentration fixed at 15 mM. The successive multiple ionic-polymer layer approach limited the cation adsorption on capillary wall and improved the EOF stability. These caused a significant improvement in method repeatability. Intermediate precisions were 2.4% for corrected areas and 1.3% for normalized migration times. Limits of detection close to 1 mg/L for all cations were obtained. The matrix effects were studied with chemometric approach for different matrices representative of those collected after explosion. Tests with blank matrix extracts of soil, cloth, and with simulated matrix extract containing 800 mg/L Ca²⁺ and 500 mg/L Fe²⁺ were carried out and no significant matrix effects were observed. Finally, analyses of real residues collected after cash dispenser and homemade firework explosions demonstrate excellent correlation between the CE results and those obtained with the ion chromatography method used routinely.

  8. Impact of Reed Canary Grass Cultivation and Mineral Fertilisation on the Microbial Abundance and Genetic Potential for Methane Production in Residual Peat of an Abandoned Peat Extraction Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenberg, Mikk; Truu, Marika; Truu, Jaak; Maddison, Martin; Nõlvak, Hiie; Järveoja, Järvi; Mander, Ülo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined physiochemical conditions and prokaryotic community structure (the bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes and mcrA gene abundances and proportions), and evaluated the effect of reed canary grass cultivation and mineral fertilisation on these factors, in the 60 cm thick residual peat layer of experimental plots located on an abandoned peat extraction area. The archaeal proportion was 0.67–39.56% in the prokaryotic community and the methanogens proportion was 0.01–1.77% in the archaeal community. When bacterial abundance was higher in the top 20 cm of peat, the archaea were more abundant in the 20–60 cm layer and methanogens in the 40–60 cm layer of the residual peat. The bacterial abundance was significantly increased, but archaeal abundance was not affected by cultivation. The fertiliser application had a slight effect on peat properties and on archaeal and methanogen abundances in the deeper layer of cultivated peat. The CH4 emission was positively related to mcrA abundance in the 20–60 cm of the bare peat, while in case of reed canary grass cultivation these two parameters were not correlated. Reed canary grass cultivation mitigated CH4 emission, although methanogen abundance remained approximately the same or even increased in different layers of residual peat under cultivated sites over time. This study supports the outlook of using abandoned peat extraction areas to produce reed canary grass for energy purposes as an advisable land-use practice from the perspective of atmospheric impact in peatland-rich Northern Europe. PMID:27684377

  9. Optimization and validation of DNA extraction and real-time PCR assay for the quantitative measurement of residual host cell DNA in biopharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, B; Sellers, J; Kupec, J; Ngo, W; Fenton, S; Yang, T-Y; Grebanier, A

    2014-01-01

    Host cell DNA contamination occurs during the production of biopharmaceuticals and must be controlled and monitored for the purity and safety of the drug products. A sodium iodide-based DNA extraction and a subsequent real time PCR assay were developed and validated for the quantitative measurement of residual host cell DNA impurity in monoclonal antibody therapeutic products. A sodium iodide-based commercial kit was optimized for the removal of interfering matrices. Several incubation steps from the kit protocol were combined and a neutralization buffer was introduced to protein digestion step to eliminate any precipitation from the detergent. The elimination of the two washing steps significantly reduced assay variability from loss of DNA pellets. The optimized DNA extraction procedure can recover DNA close to 100% for DNA concentrations from 10 to 100,000pg/mL. Of the published sequences of repetitive interspersed nuclear elements, we identified a nucleotide mismatch from the published CHO probe. Correction of this nucleotide increased DNA amplification by a thousand fold. The optimized assay was further validated for the quantitation of residual CHO DNA according to ICH guidelines with preset assay acceptance criteria. The method met all assay acceptance criteria and was found linear, accurate and precise for the quantitation of residual CHO in the linear range of 10-100,000pg DNA/mL. LOQ was measured at 10pg DNA/mL and LOD at 1pg DNA/mL. No matrix interference to our validated assay was detected from bioreactor harvest, Protein A eluate or eluate from ion exchange columns.

  10. [Rapid determination of six preservative residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography using dispersive solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haidan; Zou, Zhifei; Qin, Yan; Xie, Shouxin; Chen, Yufang; Xu, Juan; Wang, Lan; Chen, Chuying

    2013-02-01

    A dispersive solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous determination of 2,4-D, thiabendazole, 2-naphthol, o-phenyl phenol, diphenyl ether and biphenyl in the fruits and vegetables. The samples were vortexed for extraction with acetonitrile containing sodium chloride and anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The acetonitrile extraction was purified by acidic alumina dispersed solid phase extraction. The analysis was performed on an Agilent TC C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) and an ultraviolet detector at 235 nm with a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 mol/L (pH 6) potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution, at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with gradient elution. Good linearities were observed in the range of 0.5-20 mg/L with correlation coefficients greater than 0.99. The average recoveries of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables were in the range of 84.2% -99. 1% at three spiked levels of 1, 2 and 10 mg/kg (n = 6) and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were in the range of 1.67%-10.3%. The limits of quantification were 1 mg/kg. This method is simple, accurate and suitable for the determination of the six preservatives in fruits and vegetables.

  11. Study on roasting pretreatment process of silver extraction from industrial residues%工业废渣焙烧预处理提取银工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖子球; 曾斌; 余攀; 蓝金莲

    2014-01-01

    Roasting-sulfuric acid leaching-cyanide leaching process is used to extract silver from complex industri-al residues.The effects of roasting atmosphere ,additives and their dosage ,roasting temperature and time have on ex-traction rate of silver were investigated by experiments .The results show that the optimal roasting conditions include rich oxygen ,3 %of sodium carbonate dosage ,903 K of roasting temperature ,and 3 h of roasting time .With the calci-ning leached by sulfuric acid and cyanide ,the extraction rate of silver was 78.41%,and then the content of silver in residues can be reduced from 0.049 %to 0.014 5 %.%采用焙烧-硫酸浸出-氰化浸出工艺,从某复杂工业废渣中提取银。通过试验考察了焙烧气氛、添加剂种类和加入量、焙烧温度、焙烧时间等预处理因素对银浸出率的影响。试验结果表明:优化焙烧预处理条件为富氧气氛、温度903 K、焙烧时间3 h、添加剂硫酸钠加入量3%;焙砂经酸浸-氰化浸出后,银的提取率为78.41%;废渣中银质量分数由原来的0.049%降低至0.0145%。

  12. Monitoring quinolone antibacterial residues in bovine tissues: extraction with hot water and liquid chromatography coupled to a single- or triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogialli, Sara; D'Ascenzo, Giuseppe; Di Corcia, Antonio; Innocenti, Giorgiana; Laganà, Aldo; Pacchiarotta, Tiziana

    2007-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive procedure for determining residues of seven quinolone antibacterials in bovine muscle, kidney and liver is presented. The method is based on the matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique with hot water as extractant followed by liquid chromatography/single quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS) or triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). After dispersing tissue samples on hydrazine sulfate treated sand, target compounds were eluted from the MSPD column by passing through it 4 mL of water heated at 100 degrees C. After pH adjustment and filtration, 200 and 5 microL of the aqueous extracts were respectively injected into the LC/MS and LC/MS/MS instruments. With the former instrument, MS data were acquired in the three-ion selected ion monitoring mode, while MS/MS data acquisition was performed in the multi-reaction monitoring mode by selecting two precursor ion to product ion transitions for each target compound. Hot water appeared to be an efficient extracting medium, since absolute recoveries of the analytes were 84-102%. Using norfloxacin (a quinolone not used in veterinary medicine) as surrogate internal standard, the accuracy of the method at three concentration levels equal to 0.5, 1 and 1.5 times the maximum residue limits (MRLs) set by the european union was 88-109% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) not higher than 7%. The use of LC/MS/MS allowed detection and quantification of the analytes in any tissue considered to be performed at concentrations by far lower than half of their MRLs. Vice versa, the single-quadrupole MS arrangement, while succeeding in monitoring quinolones in muscle tissue at the 0.5 MRL level, showed to be not sufficiently selective for unambiguous identification of some quinolones in kidney and liver.

  13. Study on extraction process of dietary fiber from navel orange residue%脐橙渣膳食纤维提取工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴笑臣; 王科军; 钟金莲; 罗序中

    2011-01-01

    Navel orange residue was used as raw material for extraction of dietary fiber (DF) by alkali solution. On the basis of single factor experiments, the extraction process of dietary fiber was discussed with L9(34) orthogonal experiments and the optimum parameters were confirmed as follows: NaOH concentration 8%, extraction temperature 60℃, extraction time Sh, ratio of liquid tomaterial Isml/g. Under these conditions, the extraction rate of dietary fiber was 52.8%, and soluble dietary fiber (SDF) and insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) accounted for 25.7% and 27.1%, respectively. The water-holding capacity and expansive capacity of the product were 8.59g/g and 9.67ml/g, respectively.%以脐橙渣为原料,用碱法制备膳食纤维.在单因素试验的基础上,采用L9(34)正交试验对脐橙渣膳食纤维的提取工艺进行研究,确立了最佳工艺条件为:NaOH质量分数8%、浸提温度60℃、浸提时间5h、液料比15∶1.在该条件下膳食纤维提取率达52.8%,其中SDF占25.7%,IDF占27.1%.产品持水力8.59g/g,溶胀力9.67mL/g.

  14. Multi-residue determination of micropollutants in Phragmites australis from constructed wetlands using microwave assisted extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Bruce; Smith, Benjamin D; Youdan, Jane; Barden, Ruth; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2017-03-22

    In constructed wetlands micropollutants can be removed from water by phytoremediation. However, micropollutant uptake and metabolism by plants here is poorly understood due to the lack of good analytical approaches. Reported herein is the first methodology developed and validated for the multi-residue determination of 81 micropollutants (pharmaceuticals, personal care products and illicit drugs) in the emergent macrophyte Phragmites australis. The method involved extraction by microwave accelerated extraction (MAE), clean-up using off-line solid phase extraction and analysis by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Development of the MAE method found the influence of studied variables on micropollutant recovery to be: extraction temperature > sample mass > solvent composition. Validation of the developed extraction protocol revealed method recoveries were in the range 80-120% for the majority of micropollutants. Method quantitation limits (MQLs) were generally <5 ng g(-1) dry weight demonstrating the sensitivity of the methodology. Application of the method to P. australis from a constructed wetland used to treat trickling filter effluent found 17 micropollutants above their MQL, up to concentrations of 200 ng g(-1). Other than uptake, the presence of several metabolites (carbamazepine 10,11 epoxide, desvenlafaxine, 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine, N-desmethyltramadol and norketamine) indicated metabolism within the plant may also occur. This new analytical methodology will enable a process mass balance of the constructed wetland to be attained for the first time, and thus help understand the role of phytoremediation in micropollutant removal by such systems.

  15. The Subcritical Water Extraction-Solid Phase Extraction to Pretreatment Organophosphorous Residues%亚临界水-固相萃取有机磷残留前处理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王啸; 林翠萍; 张燕

    2013-01-01

      The combination of subcritical water extraction (SCWE) and solid phase extraction for determining organophosphorus pesticides in vegetables was studied. In the experiments , organophosphorous residues were determinated by gas chromatography (GC). The optimum conditions were the extraction temperature of 90℃, the extraction time of 5 min, the volume of 10 mL, pH=8.0, the average recoveries of organophosphorus pesticides were in the range of 70%-96%.%  建立了一种使用亚临界水萃取-固相萃取技术对蔬菜中有机磷农药进行萃取、检测的方法。实验中使用气相色谱对有机磷农药进行检测。研究表明,在萃取温度90℃,萃取时间5 min,萃取溶剂pH=8.0,萃取液体积为10 mL的条件下,对有机磷农药进行了萃取,其回收率在70%~96%。

  16. Effect of ultrasonic extraction conditions on antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of a Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide originated from fermented soybean curd residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Min; Yang, Yingnan; Hu, Xuansheng; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-07-15

    A crude Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLPL) was extracted from fermented soybean curd residue by ultrasonic assisted extraction. The optimal extraction conditions were 30 min at 80 °C with 80 W and water to solid ratio of 10, and with this method 115.47 ± 2.95 mg/g of GLPL yield was obtained. Additionally, the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of GLPL were investigated. The results showed that GLPL exhibited strong antioxidant effects, which included scavenging activities against DPPH radicals, hydrogen oxide and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 0.23, 0.48 and 0.69 mg/mL, respectively. For immunomodulatory activities, GLPL was shown to strongly stimulate the proliferation of macrophages (158.02 ± 13.12%), the production of nitric oxide and phagocytosis (21.16 ± 1.65 μM), and, at 40.00 μg/mL, protected macrophage from Doxorubicin (DOX) (0.16 ± 0.003).

  17. Multi-residue analysis of free and conjugated hormones and endocrine disruptors in rat testis by QuEChERS-based extraction and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouech, Charlène; Tournier, Mikaël; Quignot, Nadia; Kiss, Agneta; Wiest, Laure; Lafay, Florent; Flament-Waton, Marie-Magdeleine; Lemazurier, Emmanuel; Cren-Olivé, Cécile

    2012-03-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are suspected to be responsible for many disorders of the human reproductive system. To establish a causality relationship between exposure to endocrine disruptors and disease, experiments on animals must be performed with improved or new analytical tools. Therefore, a simple, rapid, and effective multi-residue method was developed for the determination of four steroid hormones (i.e., testosterone, androstenedione, estrone, and estradiol), glucuronide and sulfate conjugates of estrone and estradiol and four endocrine disruptors in rat testis (i.e., bisphenol A, atrazine, and active metabolites of methoxychlor and vinclozolin). The sample preparation procedure was based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. An analytical method was then developed to quantify these compounds at ultra-trace levels by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The QuEChERS extraction was optimized with regard to the acetonitrile/water ratio used in the extraction step, the choice of the cleanup method and the acetonitrile/hexane ratio used in the cleanup step. The optimized extraction method exhibited recoveries between 89% and 108% for all tested compounds except the conjugates (31% to 58%). The detection limits of all compounds were below 20 ng g(-1) of wet weight of testis. The method was subsequently applied to determine the levels of hormones and EDCs in seven rat testis samples.

  18. Multi-residue off-flavour profiling in wine using stir bar sorptive extraction-thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franc, Céline; David, Frank; de Revel, Gilles

    2009-04-10

    A multi-residue method (MRM) for the detection and quantification of eight compounds responsible for off-flavours in wine using stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by thermal desorption (TD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis is presented. The extraction and desorption conditions were optimised in order to get the best compromise for the simultaneous analysis of the eight target solutes, belonging to different chemical classes. The analytical conditions enable the quantification of the solutes below their respective organoleptic perception thresholds in wine. The method displayed good linearity over the concentration ranges explored in wine as well as excellent repeatability (RSD below 6%) and good reproducibility (RSD below 24%). The developed methodology was applied to the analysis of several wines and showed good agreement with the results collected with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by GC-MS or electron capture detection (ECD). Good correlation was also found between the analytical and sensory results.

  19. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  20. Urban mining: quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-12-01

    The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20mm particle size fractions.

  1. Optimization of Lead and Silver Extraction from Zinc Plant Residues in the Presence of Calcium Hypochlorite Using Statistical Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-12-01

    In this work, a chloride/hypochlorite leaching process was performed for zinc plant residues. Sodium chloride and calcium hypochlorite were used as leaching and oxidizing agents, respectively. Fractional factorial method has been used to test main effects, and interactions among factors were investigated. The statistical software named Design-Expert 7 has been utilized to design experiments and subsequent analysis. Parameters and their levels were reaction time ( t = 16 and 120 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 303 K and 343 K (30 °C and 70 °C)], solid-to-liquid ratio ( S/ L = 1/6 and 1/38), pH (pH = 0.5 and 2), and Ca(OCl)2 concentration ( C = 0.6 and 3 g/L). Analysis of variance was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. Results showed that reaction temperature and pH were significant parameters for both lead and silver extractions but solid-to-liquid ratio had significant effect only on lead extraction. Increasing pH reduced leaching efficiency of lead and silver. However, increasing reaction temperature promoted the extraction of lead and silver. Ultimate optimum conditions from this study were t 1: 16 min, T 2: 343 K (70 °C), ( S/ L)2: 1/38, pH1: 0.5, and C 1: 0.6 g/L. Under these conditions, extractions of lead and silver were 93.60 and 49.21 pct, respectively.

  2. Production of quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosidic derivatives from the aqueous-organic extracted residue of litchi pericarp with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Zhu, Qinqin; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2014-02-15

    Our previous work exhibited Aspergillus awamori fermentation of the litchi pericarp increased significantly antioxidant activity and DNA protection effect. In this present study, the litchi pericarp and its aqueous-organic extracted residues were fermented by A. awamori in order to elucidate the enhanced beneficial effects. The study identified that rutin which present in litchi pericarp could be deglycosylated to form quercetin and quercetin-3-glucoside after the fermentation. Application the standard compounds (rutin, quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin, kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol) further revealed the effective biotransformation by A. awamori fermentation. It was hypothesised that rutin was initially dehydroxylated to form kaempferol-3-rutinoside and then deglycosylated to form kaempferol-3-glucoside and kaempferol. To our best knowledge, it is the first report on dehydroxylated effect of polyphenols caused by A. awamori fermentation. Thus, A. awamori fermentation can provide an effective way to produce health benefiting value-added products from litchi pericarp in food industry.

  3. A correlation between the fate and non-extractable residue formation of 14C-metalaxyl and enzymatic activities in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botterweck, Jens; Claßen, Daniela; Zegarski, Thordis; Gottfroh, Christian; Kalathoor, Roshni; Schäffer, Andreas; Schwarzbauer, Jan; Schmidt, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular, oxidative soil enzymes like monophenol oxidases and peroxidases play an important role in transformation of xenobiotics and the formation of organic matter in soil. Additionally, these enzymes may be involved in the formation of non-extractable residues (NERs) of xenobiotics during humification processes. To examine this correlation, the fate of the fungicide (14)C metalaxyl in soil samples from Ultuna (Sweden) was studied. Using different soil sterilization techniques, it was possible to differentiate between free, immobilized, and abiotic ("pseudoenzyme"-like) oxidative activities. A correlation between the formation of metalaxyl NER and soil organic matter content, biotic activities, as well as extracellular phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities in the bulk soil and its particle size fractions was determined. Extracellular soil-bound enzymes were involved in NER formation (up to 8% of applied radioactivity after 92 days) of the fungicide independently from the presence of living microbes and different distributions of the NER in the soil humic subfractions.

  4. The effects of the aqueous extract and residue of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Ying, Le; Hong, Gaojie; Wang, Yuefei

    2016-01-01

    Matcha is a kind of powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill. In the present study, the preventive effects of the aqueous extract (water-soluble) and residue (water-insoluble) of Matcha on the antioxidant status and lipid and glucose levels in mice fed a high-fat diet were investigated. Mice were fed seven different experimental diets for 4 weeks: a normal diet control (NC), a high-fat diet (HF), a high-fat diet with 0.025% Matcha (MLD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha (MMD), a high-fat diet with 0.075% Matcha (MHD), a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha aqueous extracts (ME), and a high-fat diet with 0.05% Matcha residues (MR). It was found that serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels of the MHD group were significantly decreased compared to those of the HF group. Furthermore, in the MHD group, the level of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated, on the contrary the level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) was suppressed. Moreover, Matcha could significantly lower the blood glucose levels, and improve the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MAD) contents both in serum and liver; besides, the serum GSH-Px activity indicated that the oxidative stress caused by HF could be reversed by administration of Matcha. These findings suggest that Matcha has beneficial effects through the suppression of the blood glucose (BG) accumulation and promotion of the lipid metabolism and antioxidant activities. Moreover, the water-insoluble part of Matcha is suggested to play an important role in the suppression of diet-induced high levels of lipid and glucose.

  5. Determination of pharmaceutical residues in drinking water in Poland using a new SPE-GC-MS(SIM) method based on Speedisk extraction disks and DIMETRIS derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, Magda; Lis, Ewa; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2015-12-15

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in drinking water, even at very low concentrations, has raised concerns among stakeholders such as drinking-water regulators, governments, water suppliers and the public, with regard to the potential risks to humans. Despite this, the occurrence and the fate of pharmaceuticals in drinking waters of many countries (e.g. in Poland) remains unknown. There is a lack of sufficiently sensitive and reliable analytical methods for such analyses and a need for more in-depth hydrogeological analysis of the possible sources of drug residues in drinking water. In this paper, a multi-residual method for the simultaneous determination of seventeen human pharmaceuticals in drinking waters has been developed. Large-volume extractions using Speedisk extraction disks, and derivatization prior to GC-MS-SIM analysis using a new silylating agent DIMETRIS were applied. The method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 0.9 to 5.7ng/L and the absolute recoveries of the target compounds were above 80% for most analytes. The developed method was successfully applied in the analysis of the target compounds in drinking water collected in Gdansk (Poland), and of the 17 pharmaceuticals, 6 compounds were detected at least once. During the investigation, the geomorphology of the site region was taken into account, possible sources of pharmaceuticals in the analysed drinking water samples were investigated, and the presence of the drugs in ground and surface waters, raw and treated drinking waters was determined. Concentrations were also compared with those observed in other countries. As a result, this study has not only developed a new analytical method for determining pharmaceuticals in drinking waters as well as rendering missing information for Poland (a country with one of the highest consumptions of pharmaceuticals in Europe), but it also presents a modelled in-depth hydrogeological analysis of the real sources of drugs in drinking waters.

  6. Enhanced bioenergy recovery from oil-extracted microalgae residues via two-step H2/CH4 or H2/butanol anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai-Hsuan; Whang, Liang-Ming; Wu, Shu-Hsien

    2016-03-01

    Algae-based biodiesel is considered a promising alternative energy; therefore, the treatment of microalgae residues would be necessary. Anaerobic processes can be used for treating oil-extracted microalgae residues (OMR) and at the same time for recovering bioenergy. In this study, anaerobic batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the potential of recovering bioenergy, in the forms of butanol, H2, or CH4, from pretreated OMR. Using pretreated OMR as the only substrate, a butanol yield of 0.086 g/g-carbohydrate was obtained at carbohydrate of 40 g/L. With supplemented butyrate, a highest butanol yield of 0.192 g/g-carbohydrate was achieved at pretreated OMR containing 25 g/L of carbohydrate with 15 g/L of butyrate addition, attaining the highest energy yield of 3.92 kJ/g-OMR and energy generation rate of 0.65 kJ/g-OMR/d. CH4 production from pretreated OMR attained an energy yield of 8.83 kJ/g-OMR, but energy generation rate required further improvement. H2 production alone from pretreated OMR might not be attractive regarding energy yield, but it attained a superb energy generation rate of 0.68 kJ/g-OMR/d by combining H2 production from pretreated OMR and butanol production from pretreated OMR with supplementary butyrate from H2 fermentation supernatant. This study demonstrated an integrated system as an option for treating OMR and recovering bioenergy.

  7. Simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and antioxidants in blended oil using a liquid-liquid extraction combined with dispersive solid phase extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yong; Tian, Wen; Pei, Fei; Li, Peng; Shao, XiaoLong; Fan, Yan; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-08-15

    This article developed a method to detect two antioxidants (butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA), butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT)) and twelve pesticides (dichlorvos, pirimicarb, prothiofos, fenitrothion, ethoprophos, malathion, beta-Cypermethrin, profenofos, diazinon, propoxur, procymidon, captan) in blended oil samples after their extraction simultaneously. The establishment of the method was based on two-step process of screening and optimization experiment design. With a Plackett-Burman (PB) design, significant parameters were found by screening experiment and single factor experiment accompanied by a central composite design (CCD) experiment were used to make important parameters optimal. The coefficients of determination (r(2)) was between 0.9931 and 0.9996 while the limits of quantification (LOQs) and limits of detection (LODs) were found in scope of 0.002-0.04mg·kg(-1) and 0.0006-0.0012mg·kg(-1). Recovery values of analytes were above 74%, at the same time the relative standard deviations (RSDs) under 10% at the concentrations ranging from 0.05mg·kg(-1) to 0.20mg·kg(-1). To sum up, this method with shorter time and fewer consumption of reagents could be employed in various occasions to detect antioxidants and pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 微波预处理水浸取茶籽油后茶粕中皂素的提取研究%Extraction of Tea Saponin from the Residue that after Extracted Oil of Camellia oleifera by Microwave Pretreatment Water Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江国忠; 金晓鹏; 郑小非; 杨森兴

    2014-01-01

    以微波预处理水浸取茶籽油后的茶粕为原料,采用超声波-乙醇法,通过因素分析及正交试验,研究皂素的提取并获得了最佳工艺,为微波预处理水浸取茶籽油技术应用延伸提供理论依据,提升该技术的应用价值。%With the residue that after extracte d oil of C. oleifera seed by microwave pretreatment water extraction method as materials, by ultrasonic-ethanol extraction method, through single factors analysis and orthogonal test, the best extraction technology of saponin were obtained. It provided a theoretical basis for the extended application of the technology of microwave pretreatment water extraction method, and enhanced the application value of this technology.

  9. Determination of Rotenone Residues in Foodstuffs by Solid-Phase Extraction(SPE)and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dun-ming; ZHOU Yu; LIN Li-yi; ZHANG Zhi-gang; ZHANG Jin; LU Sheng-yu; YANG Fang; HUANG Peng-ying

    2010-01-01

    We developed a novel approach to determine rotenone residues in foodstuffs,by integrating solid-phase extraction(SPE)and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS)technologies,to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity.In our method,the solvent extraction with n-hexane-dichloromethane(50:50,v/v)and cleanup with florisil SPE cartridges using ethyl acetate-ethyl ether(25:75,v/v)as eluents provided adequate recovery of rotenone.The detection of rotenone was then carried out by LC-MS/MS using acetonitrile-water with the 0.1% formic acid(w/v)as the mobile phase.The multiple reaction monitoring(MRM)scheme employed in the approach involved the transitions of the precursor ion to three selected product ions,in which one pair for quantification was m/z 395.3>213.2 and the other two pairs for identification were m/z 395.3>192.2 and 395.3>367.0.The limits of quantification(LOQs)of the method ranged from 0.001 to 0.005 mg kg-1 depending on the matrix,Intra-and inter-day precisions(relative standard deviations,RSDs)for rotenone were less than 7.1 and 14.8%,respectively.Results from repetitive analysis suggested good reproducibility of the method for rotenone residue detection.The recoveries at three concentrations(LOQ,10LOQ and 100LOQ)ranged from 79.3-118.3% in cabbage,potato,onion,carrot,apple,orange,banana,lichee,tea,and Shiitake mushroom.The proposed procedure was then applied to the analysis of 129 real samples collected from Xiamen,Fujian Province,China.The existence of rotenone was found in two tea products with concentrations of 0.012 and 0.016 mg kg-1,respectively.The method has great potential for routine analysis of monitoring rotenone residue in foodstuffs.

  10. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sposina S. Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR, Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN, Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR, and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR. The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h. The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  11. Validation and application of a multi-residue method, using accelerated solvent extraction followed by gas chromatography, for pesticides quantification in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Morales, J B; Valdez-Torres, J B; Bastidas-Bastidas, P J; Betancourt-Lozano, M

    2015-01-01

    A multi-residue method was developed to determine different types of pesticides in soils. An extraction with pressure and temperature, through accelerated solvent extraction (dichloromethane:acetone, 50:50, v/v). The pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with several selective detectors: electron capture detector, pulsed flame photometric detector and thermionic specific detector. The following parameters were determined: limit of detection, limit of quantification, equipment linearity (working interval), method linearity as well as, method accuracy and precision. The average recoveries ranged between 76 and 106%, with the exception of chlorothalonil, which had an average recovery of 46%. Additionally, detection limits from 0.9 to 7.6ng g -: (1) and the quantification limits from 3.00 to 25.47ng g -: (1) were estimated. In terms of linearity and precision, the results obtained were in the ranges considered adequate (R(2) ≥ 0.98 and coefficient of variation (CV) ≤ 20%), with the exception of aldrin (R(2) = 0.946, CV = 35.79%), lindane (R(2) = 0.917, CV = 32.91%) and chlorothalonil (R(2) = 0.8184, CV = 81.35%). The proposed method was used to evaluate pesticides in real soil samples, detecting concentrations over 1000ng g -: (1) for some pesticides. The method was correctly validated and provided for the rapid determination of pesticides in soil.

  12. Supercritical Extraction from Vinification Residues: Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, and Phenolic Compounds in the Oil Seeds from Different Varieties of Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agostini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction has been widely employed in the extraction of high purity substances. In this study, we used the technology to obtain oil from seeds from a variety of grapes, from vinification residues generated in the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This work encompasses three varieties of Vitis vinifera (Moscato Giallo, Merlot, and Cabernet Sauvignon and two of Vitis labrusca (Bordô e Isabel, harvested in 2005 and 2006. We obtained the highest oil content from Bordô (15.40% in 2005 and from Merlot (14.66%, 2006. The biggest concentration of palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids was observed in Bordô, 2005, and in Bordô, Merlot, and Moscato Giallo, 2006. Bordô showed the highest concentration of oleic acid and α-tocopherol in both seasons too. For the equivalent of procyanidins, we did not notice significant difference among the varieties from the 2005 harvest. In 2006, both varieties Isabel and Cabernet Sauvignon showed a value slightly lower than the other varieties. The concentration of total phenolics was higher in Bordô and Cabernet Sauvignon. The presence of these substances is related to several important pharmacological properties and might be an alternative to conventional processes to obtain these bioactives.

  13. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S

    2010-11-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80-90%, 1 h) and RBBR (80-90%, 24 h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85-97%, 1 h) and DMBBLN (63-84%, 24 h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  14. Performance and matrix effect observed in QuEChERS extraction and tandem mass spectrometry analyses of pesticide residues in different target crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucini, Luigi; Molinari, Gian Pietro

    2011-10-01

    The method performance and matrix effect related to quantitative determination of pesticide residues was assessed after QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS-MS analysis. Dicloran, phosmet and phosmet-oxon, pirimiphos-methyl, and BNOA were analyzed in peach, apple, melon, cereals, tomato, and strawberry. The matrix effects, as well as recovery and process efficiencies, were determined for a fungicide, two insecticides, and a plant growth regulator. Crop samples were spiked either pre- or post-extraction, then the peak area was compared with the peak area in neat solvent. The mean recovery ranged from 73% to 98%, and repeatability (as RSD) was between 3% and 16%, depending on the compound and spiking level. The matrix effect occurred as ionic suppression and was found in the range of 5% to 22% depending on the compound. Recovery efficiencies were good and substantially comparable, being in the range of 93-96%. Although the suppression observed still appears to be acceptable considering the overall process efficiency, it seems evident that the matrix effect is important when a reliable quantitative method must be applied.

  15. Nickel Oxide Nanoparticle-Deposited Silica Composite Solid-Phase Extraction for Benzimidazole Residue Analysis in Milk and Eggs by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Huan; Yu, Qiong-Wei; He, Hai-Bo; Lu, Qian; Shi, Zhi-Guo; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-01-13

    A novel nickel oxide nanoparticle-deposited silica (SiO2@NiO) composite was prepared via liquid-phase deposition (LPD) and then employed as a solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent. When the SPE was coupled with liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) analysis, an analytical platform for the sensitive determination of benzimidazole residues in egg and milk was established. The limits of detection of nine benzimidazoles were in the range of 0.8-2.2 ng/mL in milk and 0.3-2.1 ng/g in eggs, respectively, which was 5-10 times superior to the methods with other adsorbents for SPE. The recoveries of nine benzimidazoles spiked in milk and egg ranged from 70.8 to 118.7%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) being less than 18.9%. This work presented the excellent extraction performance of NiO on benzimidazoles for the first time, and the applicability of the LPD technique used as sorbents for trace analysis in complex matrices was also demonstrated.

  16. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ricardo Sposina S.; Pereira, Patrícia Maia; Ferreira-Leitão, Viridiana S.

    2010-01-01

    Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR), Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN), Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR), and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR). The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h) and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h) with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h) and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h). The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h. PMID:21052547

  17. Determination of pesticide residues in olives by liquid extraction surface analysis followed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez-Almenar, M. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, pesticides are essential in modern agriculture for crop protection, however, this use supposes a potential risk for human health and the environment. Traditional techniques of pesticide determination require the use of laborious and complex extraction methods to separate pesticides from the matrix, above all in fatty matrices like olives. For this reason, a new simple, rapid, cheap and selective method for the extraction and quantification of the most frequently used pesticides in olive growing has been developed. Pesticide determination was carried out by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS. Mean recoveries were found in a range between 73 and 114% with relative standard deviations lower than 20% in most pesticides evaluated and the limits of detection (LODs and quantification (LOQs were lower than 4 μg· kg-1 and 8 μg· kg-1, respectively. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 25 olive samples where Dimethoate and Terbuthylazine were detected in some cases, but their results were lower than 15 μg· kg-1.Hoy en día los pesticidas son esenciales en la agricultura moderna para la protección de los cultivos pero su uso supone un riesgo para la salud y el medio ambiente. Las técnicas tradicionales de determinación de pesticidas requieren el uso de métodos de extracción complejos a fin de separar los pesticidas de la matriz, sobre todo en matrices grasas como las aceitunas. Por ello, se ha desarrollado un nuevo método simple, rápido, barato y selectivo para la extracción y cuantificación de los pesticidas más frecuentemente utilizados en el cultivo del olivo, empleando cromatografía líquida de ultra-resolución (UPLC acoplada a espectrometría de masas (MS/MS. Las recuperaciones alcanzadas variaron entre el 73 y 114% obteniendo desviaciones estándar relativas inferiores al 20%. Los límites de detección (LD y cuantificación (LQ fueron

  18. Biotreatability of wastewater generated during machinery washing in a wood-based industry: COD, formaldehyde and nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczala, Fabio; Marques, Marcia; Hogland, William

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes biotreatability tests for treating a wastewater stream generated by wood-floor industries after cleaning and washing of machinery used to apply urea-formaldehyde resins onto wood-fiber boards. A biological system consisting of an anaerobic-intermittently aerated reactor in lab-scale was constructed. Since the investigated wastewater is intermittently generated, the system was designed to operate in batch mode. The treatment focused on removal of formaldehyde and COD, as well as the efficiency of nitrification-denitrification. The proposed cheap and relatively simple-to-operate biological system achieved COD and formaldehyde removal rates of 65+/-11% and 93+/-4% respectively. In spite of anaerobic ammonium removal and denitrification, the intermittently-aerated reactor showed poor performance for nitrification. Therefore, a better understanding of constraints for the process improvement is necessary. Regardless the constraints faced during the investigation, the proposed system can be considered feasible to partially reduce a great amount of biodegradable compounds in urea-formaldehyde-based wastewaters. However, to comply with strict threshold limits for industrial effluent discharges, the use of biological treatment combined with more advanced processes is needed to achieve a better quality of the final effluent.

  19. Biotreatment of industrial olive washing water by synergetic association of microalgal-bacterial consortia in a photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza-Márquez, P; González-Martínez, A; Martínez-Toledo, M V; Fenice, M; Lasserrot, A; González-López, J

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an effective technology for the olive processing industry to remediate olive washing water. A 14.5-L enclosed tubular photobioreactor was inoculated with a stable microalgal-bacterial consortium obtained by screening strains well adapted to olive washing water. The capacity of an enclosed tubular photobioreactor to remove toxic compounds was evaluated under photosynthesis conditions and without any external supply of oxygen. The results showed that the dominant green microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus, Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacteria Anabaena sp. and bacteria present in olive washing water (i.e. Pantoea agglomerans and Raoultella terrigena) formed a synergistic association that was resistant to toxic pollutants present in the effluent and during the initial biodegradation process, which resulted in the breakdown of the pollutant. Total phenolic compounds, COD, BOD5, turbidity and colour removals of 90.3 ± 11.4, 80.7 ± 9.7, 97.8 ± 12.7, 82.9 ± 8.4 and 83.3 ± 10.4 %, respectively, were recorded in the photobioreactor at 3 days of hydraulic retention time. Graphical abstract Biotreatment of industrial olive washing water by synergetic association of microalgal-bacterial consortia in a photobioreactor.

  20. Changes of benthic bacteria and meiofauna assemblages during bio-treatments of anthracene-contaminated sediments from Bizerta lagoon (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Olfa; Louati, Hela; Soltani, Amel; Preud'homme, Hugues; Cravo-Laureau, Cristiana; Got, Patrice; Pringault, Olivier; Aissa, Patricia; Duran, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Sediments from Bizerta lagoon were used in an experimental microcosm setup involving three scenarios for the bioremediation of anthracene-polluted sediments, namely bioaugmentation, biostimulation, and a combination of both bioaugmentation and biostimulation. In order to investigate the effect of the biotreatments on the benthic biosphere, 16S rRNA gene-based T-RFLP bacterial community structure and the abundance and diversity of the meiofauna were determined throughout the experiment period. Addition of fresh anthracene drastically reduced the benthic bacterial and meiofaunal abundances. The treatment combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation was most efficient in eliminating anthracene, resulting in a less toxic sedimentary environment, which restored meiofaunal abundance and diversity. Furthermore, canonical correspondence analysis showed that the biostimulation treatment promoted a bacterial community favorable to the development of nematodes while the treatment combining biostimulation and bioaugmentation resulted in a bacterial community that advantaged the development of the other meiofauna taxa (copepods, oligochaetes, polychaetes, and other) restoring thus the meiofaunal structure. The results highlight the importance to take into account the bacteria/meiofauna interactions during the implementation of bioremediation treatment.

  1. Metal-ion pillared clays as hydrocracking catalysts (II): effect of contact time on products from coal extracts and petroleum distillation residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.D. Bodman; W.R. McWhinnie; V. Begon; M. Millan; I. Suelves; M.-J. Lazaro; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti [Aston University, Birmingham (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    2003-11-01

    Novel catalysts have been prepared, based on montmorillonite (a natural clay) and laponite (a synthetic clay) pillared with tin, chromium and aluminium pillars as well as layered double hydroxides based on polyoxo-vanadate and -molybdate as previously described. These novel catalysts were compared initially with a standard Ni/Mo catalyst supported on alumina and a dispersed catalyst, Mo(CO){sub 6} in hydrocracking a coal extract for a short contact time of 10 min at 440{sup o}C in a microbomb reactor with tetralin solvent and hydrogen at a pressure of 190 bar. In the present work, the best of the novel catalysts, chromium montmorillonite calcined at 500{sup o}C and tin laponite, have been compared with the supported catalyst and a dispersed catalyst (Mo(CO){sub 6}) in the repeated hydrocracking of fresh coal extract over three sequential periods of 1 h. Also, the chromium montmorillonite calcined at 500{sup o}C has been used in the hydrocracking of primary coal extracts, prepared in the flowing solvent liquefaction rig from Pittsburgh No. 8 and Illinois No. 6 coals, for reaction times of 10 min and 2 h. Further, the chromium montmorillonite calcined at 500{sup o}C and tin laponite, have been compared with the supported catalyst and in the absence of a catalyst, in the hydrocracking of a petroleum distillation residue with 10 min and 2 h reaction times. Results were compared by size exclusion chromatography in NMP solvent and by UV-fluorescence and evaluated by the extent of the shift of the SEC profile to small molecules and by the shift of the synchronous UV-fluorescence profiles to shorter wavelengths. The performances of both catalysts at short, long or repeated reaction times are seen to be better than that of the conventional NiMo catalyst for the hydrocracking of coal-derived materials and a petroleum residue. Trials on a longer time scale are necessary in the next level of evaluation. 37 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Extraction of phytosterols from residue of biodiesel production%生物柴油生产废渣中植物甾醇的提取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄雪红; 孟永宏; 黄百祺; 徐志文; 秦培勇

    2011-01-01

    以酶法生产生物柴油的废渣为原料,通过预处理、深度皂化、溶剂提取可得到天然植物甾醇.研究结果表明,1 moL/L KOH乙醇溶液体积与原料质量比为10:1,皂化时间为5 h,皂化温度为80℃,正己烷体积与原料质量比为40:1的条件下,粗植物甾醇的提取率和纯度分别为95.0%和50.1%.粗甾醇经无水乙醇重结晶2次后,其纯度可达90.13%.%Phytosterols were extracted from the residue of biodiesel by pretreatment, deep saponification,and solvent extraction.The results showed that the yield and the purity of the crude phytosterols were 95.0%and 50.1%, respectively, under the following conditions: saponification solvent 1 moL/L potassium hydroxide - ethanol solution, ratio of saponification solvent volume to pretreated material mass 10: 1, saponification time 5 h, saponification temperature 80 ℃, extraction solvent n - hexane, ratio of n - hexane volume to the pretreated material 40: 1.After crystallization for 2 times with anhydrous ethanol, the purity of the refined phytosterols was 90.13%.

  3. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticide residues in lotus seeds by a modified QuEChERS-based extraction and GC-ECD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Qing; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Shihai; Yang, Meihua

    2013-05-01

    A modified quick, easy, cheap, efficient, rugged and safe method (QuEChERS) coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was developed for rapid extraction and simultaneous determination of 36 pesticides in lotus seeds. The extraction solvent (acetone, ethyl acetate, acetonitrile, n-hexane and n-hexane in combination with ethyl acetate) and purifying agent (neutral alumina, primary secondary amine, graphite carbon block and florisil) for QuEChERS extraction were optimized. The GC-ECD method was in-house validated in terms of linearity, selectivity, reproducibility, stability and recovery. The limits of detection (LODs) of the developed GC-ECD method for all investigated pesticides ranged from 0.01 to 3.0μgL(-1) and limits of quantification (LOQs) from 0.05 to 10.0μgL(-1). The satisfactory data demonstrated the good reproducibility and stability of the method with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 15%. Recoveries for spiked lotus seed samples were from 60.84% to 119.91% with RSDs lower than 13.06%. Two out of 24 batches of lotus seeds collected in China were found to be contaminated with trans-chlordane, which were below LOQ. This is the first attempt in China using QuEChERS to GC-ECD to determine 36 major pesticides with differences in physio-chemical properties in lotus seeds. The method described here was found to be practicable in the routine residue analysis of pesticides in lotus seeds.

  4. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  5. Supercritical solvent extraction of direct liquefaction residue from Shenhua coal%神华煤直接液化残渣超临界溶剂萃取研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋飞; 张永奇; 房倚天; 赵建涛

    2012-01-01

    利用甲苯、苯和乙醇三种溶剂在反应釜中对神华煤直接液化残渣进行了超临界溶剂萃取,考察了压力、温度、萃取时间、溶剂/残渣比等对萃取产物收率和重质液体萃取组成的影响.结果表明,以甲苯为溶剂进行萃取时,萃取时间对重质液体产率及HS和A收率的影响不大,而温度、压力以及溶剂/残渣质量比都会影响萃取产物的产率及组成.溶剂超临界萃取过程中,有其他组分向HS组分转化,提高了HS的收率.三种溶剂中,苯显示了和甲苯相似的萃取性能,而乙醇的萃取性能相比苯和甲苯则较差,但乙醇萃取得到的重质液体中轻质组分含量高于苯和甲苯.萃取过程中,残渣中的灰分和硫分主要富集至萃取残渣中.%Extraction of direct liquefaction residue from Shenhua coal with three solvents was investigated in a batch autoclave at supercritical conditions to clarify the impacts of pressure, temperature, and extraction time on the yields of heavy liquid and its compositions. It is found that when toluene is used as a solvent, extract time has no obvious effect on yield of heavy liquid, hexane soluble(HS) and asphaltene( A). Extract temperature, extract pressure and mass ratio of solvent to residue have significant effect on yield and composition of residue extract. During the supercritical solvent extraction of liquefaction residue, some other components are transformed into HS and this results in increasing yield of HS. Benzene shows similar extraction ability to toluene while ethanol is poor in dissolving heavy liquid. There are more light components in heavy liquid extracted by ethanol than those by benzene and toluene. Sulfur and ash are mainly enriched in extract residue during extraction process.

  6. Extraction and analysis of residual lipids in soybean meal%豆粕中残余脂质的提取与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩冉; 孔祥珍; 华欲飞

    2012-01-01

    豆粕中含有部分正己烷未能去除的残余脂质,采用体积比为2∶1的氯仿-甲醇溶液及水饱和正丁醇从豆粕中提取残余脂质,并对残余脂质成分进行了分析.传统的氯仿-甲醇溶液法可以将豆粕中大部分脂质提取出来,而与蛋白结合能力较强的极性脂需要进一步通过强极性的水饱和正丁醇提取.研究结果显示,豆粕中总脂质含量为2.10%,其中中性脂占25.24%,极性脂占74.76%,中性脂主要包括甘油三酯、FFA、甘油二酯;极性脂主要包括磷脂酰胆碱(PC)、磷脂酰肌醇(PI)、磷脂酰乙醇胺(PE)、磷脂酸(PA).%Soybean meal has residual lipids which can not be extracted by n - hexane. The meal was extracted consecutively by two solvents of chloroform - methanol (2:1 of volume ratio) and water - saturated butanol, and the obtained lipids were analyzed. Chloroform - methanol regarded as conventional solvent could extract most of lipid from the meal, and the polar lipid interacted with protein more closely should be extracted by water - saturated butanol. The results indicated that the soybean meal contained 2. 10% total lipids which was composed of 25. 24% neutral lipids and 74. 76% polar lipids, the polar lipids were mainly consisted of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and phosphatidic acid, while the neutral lipids mainly included triglycerides, FFA and diglycerides.

  7. 杏皮渣中类胡萝卜素的提取工艺研究%Study on Extraction of Carotenoids from Skin Residue of Apricot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小贸; 刘昌蒙

    2013-01-01

    类胡萝卜素普遍存在于动物、高等植物等中的黄色、橙红色或红色的色素之中,具有广泛的生理活性,如抗氧化、防癌症、预防夜盲症等.随着对天然类胡萝卜素制品的需求量的增加,果渣或其他下脚料成为获取天然类胡萝卜素的新途径之一.本文中合理利用杏酒发酵过程中的下脚料-杏皮渣,以无水乙醇∶丙酮(3∶7)为提取溶剂,结果表明当料液比为1∶15、提取温度55℃、提取时间120 min、重复操作2次时,类胡萝卜素的得率最高,可达228.62 μg/g.%Carotenoids are groups of important bioactive compounds, which possess important physiological functions as anu'oxidant, anti-aging, and preventing cancer or cardiovascular disease. With the growing demand of natural Carotenoids, people focus on the pomace or some processing wastes, gradually. In consideration of comprehensive utilization of the waste from apricot wine fermentation- residues, the effect of organic solvents on carotenoids from apricot residues was researched in this paper. The experimental results showed that the best solvent was the mixture of absolute ethyl alcohol-acetone (3:7) and the optimal parameters were as follows: the Carotenoids were extracted at 55 ℃ for 120minutes, at the ratio between material and solvent of 1:15, operated twice totally. Under the conditions, the yield of Carotenoids from apricot skin residue could reach up to228.62 μg/g.

  8. 钒钛磁铁矿提钒尾渣浸取钒%Leaching vanadium from extracted vanadium residue of vanadium titanomagnetite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志敢; 魏昶; 李兴彬; 徐红胜; 李旻廷; 李存兄; 樊刚

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium was leached by composed leaching reagent of sulphuric acid, hydrofluoric acid and sodium hypochlorite from extracted vanadium residues of vanadium titanomagnetite. The process parameters, which impact on the vanadium leaching percent, such as reagent concentration, ratio of liquid to solid, temperature, leaching time, mineral granularity, were investigated. The results show that the vanadium leaching rate increases with the increase of reagent concentration, ratio of liquid to solid, temperature, leaching time and decreases with diminishment of the mineral granularity when the mineral granularity is less than 0.20 mm. The effect of sodium hypochlorite is smaller. When the extracted vanadium residues is leached with granular size of 0.15-0.25 mm, sulphuric acid concentration of 135 g/L, hydrofluoric acid concentration of 30 g/L, sodium hypochlorite dosage of 1.5%, ratio of liquid to solid of 6:1, stirring velocity of 500 r/min at 90 'C for 6 h, the leaching rate of vanadium is above 85%.%采用硫酸-氢氟酸-次氯酸钠组合浸出体系浸取钒钛磁铁矿提钒尾渣中的钒,研究浸出过程中试剂浓度、浸出液固比、浸出温度、浸出时间、物料粒度对钒浸出率的影响.结果表明:钒的浸出率随试剂浓度、液固比、温度和时间的升高而增大;当矿物粒度小于0.20 mm时,钒浸出率有随矿物粒度变小而减小的趋势.在物料粒度0.15~0.25 mm、初始硫酸浓度150 g/L、初始氢氟酸浓度30 g/L、次氯酸钠加入量为矿量1.5%、矿浆液固比6:1、浸出温度90℃、浸出时间6h、搅拌速度500 r/min的条件下,钒的浸出率可达85%以上.

  9. Validated method for determination of ultra-trace closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hanwen; Wang, Fengchi; Ai, Lianfeng

    2007-12-21

    A liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-ESI-MS/MS) with solid extraction was developed and validated for the detection and determination of closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk. An acetonitrile-acetone mixture (80:20, v/v) was used for one-stage extraction of closantel residues in bovine tissues and milk samples, and the extract was cleaned by solid phase extraction with Oasis MAX cartridges. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reactions monitoring mode with negative electrospray interface. The limits of detection in different matrices were in the range of 0.008-0.009 microg/kg. The overall recoveries for bovine muscle, liver, kidney and milk samples spiked at four levels including MRL were in the range of 76.0-94.3%. The overall relative standard deviations were in the range of 3.57-8.61%. The linearity is satisfactory with a correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.9913-0.9987 at both concentration ranges of 0.02-100 microg/kg and 200-5000 microg/kg. The method is capable of identifying closantel residues at > or =0.02 microg/kg levels and was applied in the determination of closantel residues in animal origin foods.

  10. Accelerated solvent extraction -gas chromatography to the residue of pesticides measurement%加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱法对土壤中农药残留的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志伟

    2015-01-01

    文章论述了加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱法对土壤中农药残留的测定方法.%This paper introduced the accelerated solvent extraction -gas chromatography to the residue of pesticides measurement.

  11. 利用茶渣提取水不溶性膳食纤维%Extraction of insoluble dietary fiber from tea residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安凤平; 宋江良; 黄彩云; 宋洪波

    2011-01-01

    Tea residue was used as raw material. Based on the analysis results of main componont in the tea residue, tea insoluble dietary fiber extraction technology with acid and alkali treatment and degreasing was studied. The results showed that the type of acid had no significant effect on insoluble dietary fiber content, while pH value had a significant effect. After investigated the single factor influencing regularities of the pH value of HCl solution and extraction temperature and time on insoluble dietary fiber content, optimized HCl hydrolyzation conditions with L9(34) orthogonal experiment are as follows: pH value is 1, temperature is 90 ℃ and time is 1.5 h. On the conditions, obtained initial product has an insoluble dietary fiber content of 31.27%, yield is 58.30%. Then the initial product hydrolyzed with NaOH solution. Based on the single factor influencing regularities of the pH value and extraction temperature and time on insoluble dietary fiber content, optimized NaOH extraction conditions are as follows: pH value is 13.5,temperature is 90 ℃ and time is 3 h. Obtained intermediate product has an insoluble dietary fiber content of 85.25%, yield is 21.47. The intermediate product further degreased by aether, final product has 91.32% insoluble dietary fiber, yield is 20.11%.%在分析茶渣主要成分含量基础上,研究以酸、碱处理和脱脂制备茶叶水不溶性膳食纤维.结果表明,酸的种类对水不溶性膳食纤维含量的影响不显著,pH的影响显著.在考察HC1溶液的pH、温度及时间对水不溶性膳食纤维含量的单因素影响规律基础上,采用L9(34)正交试验优化酸提取工艺,优化的结果为:pH为1、温度90℃、时间1.5 h,获得水不溶性膳食纤维含量为31.27%的初品,初品得率为58.30%.采用NaOH溶液对初品进一步处理,在研究pH、温度及时间对水不溶性膳食纤维含量的单因素影响规律基础上,采用L9(34)正交试验优化碱提取工艺

  12. Multi-residue analysis of 36 priority and emerging pollutants in marine echinoderms (Holothuria tubulosa) and marine sediments by solid-liquid extraction followed by dispersive solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, J; Zafra-Gómez, A; Hidalgo, F; Ibáñez-Yuste, A J; Alonso, E; Vilchez, J L

    2017-05-01

    Marine echinoderms are filter-feeding invertebrates widely distributed along the coasts, and which are therefore extensively exposed to anthropogenic xenobiotics. They can serve as good sentinels for monitoring a large variety of contaminants in marine ecosystems. In this context, a multi-residue analytical method has been validated and applied to Holothuria tubulosa specimens and marine sediments for the determination of 36 organic compounds, which belong to some of the most problematic groups of emerging and priority pollutants (perfluoroalkyl compounds, estrogens, parabens, benzophenones, plasticizers, surfactants, brominated flame retardants and alkylphenols). Lyophilization of samples prior to solvent extraction and clean-up of extracts with C18, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, is proposed. A Box-Behnken design was used for optimization of the most influential variables affecting the extraction and clean-up steps. For validation, matrix-matched calibration and recovery assay were applied. Linearity (% r(2)) higher than 99%, recoveries between 80% and 114% (except in LAS and NP1EO), RSD (precision) lower than 15% and limits of quantification between 0.03 and 12.5ngg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) were achieved. The method was applied to nine samples of Holothuria collected along the coast of Granada (Spain), and to marine sediments around the animals. The results demonstrated high bioaccumulation of certain pollutants. A total of 25 out of the 36 studied compounds were quantified, being surfactants, alkylphenols, perfluoroalkyl compounds, triclocarban and parabens the most frequently detected. Nonylphenol was found in the highest concentration (340 and 323ngg(-1) d.w. in sediment and Holothuria samples, respectively).

  13. Artificial neural network modelling of pharmaceutical residue retention times in wastewater extracts using gradient liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Kelly; Miller, Thomas H; Martins, Claudia P B; Edge, Anthony M; Cowan, David A; Barron, Leon P

    2015-05-29

    The modelling and prediction of reversed-phase chromatographic retention time (tR) under gradient elution conditions for 166 pharmaceuticals in wastewater extracts is presented using artificial neural networks for the first time. Radial basis function, multilayer perceptron and generalised regression neural networks were investigated and a comparison of their predictive ability for model solutions discussed. For real world application, the effect of matrix complexity on tR measurements is presented. Measured tR for some compounds in influent wastewater varied by >1min in comparison to tR in model solutions. Similarly, matrix impact on artificial neural network predictive ability was addressed towards developing a more robust approach for routine screening applications. Overall, the best neural network had a predictive accuracy of <1.3min at the 75th percentile of all measured tR data in wastewater samples (<10% of the total runtime). Coefficients of determination for 30 blind test compounds in wastewater matrices lay at or above R(2)=0.92. Finally, the model was evaluated for application to the semi-targeted identification of pharmaceutical residues during a weeklong wastewater sampling campaign. The model successfully identified native compounds at a rate of 83±4% and 73±5% in influent and effluent extracts, respectively. The use of an HRMS database and the optimised ANN model was also applied to shortlisting of 37 additional compounds in wastewater. Ultimately, this research will potentially enable faster identification of emerging contaminants in the environment through more efficient post-acquisition data mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Field Demonstration of a Novel Biotreatment Process for Perchlorate Reduction in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Certification Program FeCO3 siderite FOB freight on board ID inside diameter Mo molybdenum MPN most probably number NaHCO3 sodium bicarbonate...of an organic substrate.  Possibility of treating both perchlorate and possible co-contaminants such as nitrate, chlorinated solvents such as TCE...continuously extracted from a single well, from where it was distributed to the different demonstration projects. The water average contaminant

  15. 超声辅助提取柑桔鲜皮渣果胶的工艺研究%Ultrasonic assisted extraction pectin from fresh sweet orange residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚琴; 吴厚玖; 周志钦; 孙志高; 王华

    2012-01-01

    以水为提取溶剂,研究了超声辅助提取柑桔鲜皮渣中果胶的工艺条件。与常规的浸泡提取方法比较,在酸度和物料比相同的条件下,在80℃超声处理40min柑桔鲜皮渣中的果胶,比在90℃浸泡水解1h其果胶得率提高了82.3%。在单因素实验基础上,利用二次旋转组合实验设计及响应面分析法,评价了超声功率、超声时间和提取温度对果胶得率的影响,并建立了数学回归模型。方差分析结果表明:一次项、二次项对果胶得率的影响均达到显著水平;交互项X1X2的影响极显著,X1X3、X2X3不显著。通过响应面分析法得出最佳超声提取条件:超声功率177W,提取温度71℃,超声时间49min,模型预测果胶得率为3.34%。在此超声条件下,果胶实际得率为3.32%。%Ultrasound assisted-extraction(UAE) was used to extraction pectin from sweet orange residue with water as extraction solvent.Comparison with maceration extraction method,under the same pH and ratio of sample and solvent conditions, pectin yields of extracts from citrus fresh peel by UAE at 80℃ for 40min was increased by 82.3% than maceration extraction at 90℃ for l h.On the basis of single factor experiments, quadratic rotational combination design combined with response surface methodology (RSM)was used to evaluate the effects of ultrasonic power and treatment time, temperature on pectin yield, and mathematical regression models were established.Analysis of variance showed that the effects of linear and quadratic terms on pectin yields were significant;X~X2 of interactive term was also significant, however, X~X3 and X2X3 were insignificant. The optimal ultrasonic conditions in range under study by RSM for the highest yields of pectin was determined as:ultrasonic power of 177W,extraction temperature of 71℃,ultrasonic time of 49rain.The predicted yield of pectin by RSM was 3.34% ,closed to the practical yield of pectin of 3.32%.

  16. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  17. Study of the extraction of residual heat for a steam generator in the presence of incondensables modeling with TRACE: PKL experiment III G1.1; Estudio de la extraccion del calor residual por un generador de vapor en presencia de incondensables modelado con TRACE: experimento PKL III G1.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berna, C.; Escriva, A.; Munuz-Cobo, J. L.; Romero, A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper made the simulation of the PKL III G1.1 experiment using SNAP interface and the TRACE code. This experiment aims to essentially the study of the extraction of the residual heat of the steam generator in the presence of gases incondensables.

  18. Physiological Regulation of an Alkaline-Resistant Laccase Produced by Perenniporia tephropora and Efficiency in Biotreatment of Pulp Mill Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerapatsakul, Churapa

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of alkaline-resistant laccase from Perenniporia tephropora KU-Alk4 was proved to be controlled by several factors. One important factor was the initial pH, which drove the fungus to produce different kinds of ligninolytic enzymes. P. tephropora KU-Alk4 could grow at pH 4.5, 7.0, and 8.0. The fungus produced laccase and MnP at pH 7.0, but only laccase at pH 8.0. The specific activity of laccase in the pH 8.0 culture was higher than that in the pH 7.0 culture. At pH 8.0, glucose was the best carbon source for laccase production but growth was better with lactose. Low concentrations of glucose at 0.1% to 1.0% enhanced laccase production, while concentrations over 1% gave contradictory results. Veratryl alcohol induced the production of laccase. A trace concentration of copper ions was required for laccase production. Biomass increased with an increasing rate of aeration of shaking flasks from 100 to 140 rpm; however, shaking at over 120 rpm decreased laccase quantity. Highest amount of laccase produced by KU-Alk4, 360 U/mL, was at pH 8.0 with 1% glucose and 0.2 mM copper sulfate, unshaken for the first 3 days, followed by addition of 0.85 mM veratryl alcohol and shaking at 120 rpm. The crude enzyme was significantly stable in alkaline pH 8.0~10.0 for 24 hr. After treating the pulp mill effluent with the KU-Alk4 system for 3 days, pH decreased from 9.6 to 6.8, with reduction of color and chemical oxygen demand at 83.2% and 81%, respectively. Laccase was detectable during the biotreatment process. PMID:28154483

  19. Effects of temperature and substrate concentration on lipid production by Chlorella vulgaris from enzymatic hydrolysates of lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zheng, Hongli; Huang, He; Liu, Yuhuan; Ruan, Roger

    2014-10-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysates of the lipid-extracted microalgal biomass residues (LMBRs) from biodiesel production were evaluated as nutritional sources for the mixotrophic growth of Chlorella vulgaris and lipid production at different temperature levels and substrate concentrations. Both parameters had a significant effect on cell growth and lipid production. It was observed that C. vulgaris could grow mixotrophically in a wide range of temperatures (20∼35 °C). The optimal temperature for cell growth and lipid accumulation of the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris was between 25 and 30 °C. The neutral lipids of the culture at 25 °C accounted for as much as 82 % of the total lipid content in the microalga at culture day 8. Fatty acid composition analysis showed that the increase of saturated fatty acids was proportional to the increase in temperature. The maximum biomass concentration of 4.83 g/L and the maximum lipid productivity of 164 mg/L/day were obtained at an initial total sugar concentration of 10 g/L and an initial total concentration of amino acids of 1.0 g/L but decreased at lower and higher substrate concentrations. The present results show that LMBRS could be utilized by the mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris for microalgal lipid production under the optimum temperature and substrate concentration.

  20. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium polyanthum (Wight Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP and residual methanolic (met-AESP extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n=5. AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α-adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n=5 for each group partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α-adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β-adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N-ω-nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (n=5 for each group partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β-adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production.

  1. Autonomic Nervous System Mediates the Hypotensive Effects of Aqueous and Residual Methanolic Extracts of Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum Leaves in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, A; Mohamed, M; Sulaiman, S A; Wan Ahmad, W A N

    2013-01-01

    Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. var. polyanthum leaves are consumed as a traditional Malay treatment of hypertension. This study investigates hypotensive potential of aqueous (AESP) and residual methanolic (met-AESP) extracts of S. polyanthum leaves and possible involvement of autonomic receptors. AESP and met-AESP (20 to 100 mg/kg) were intravenously administered into anaesthetized Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Blood pressure and heart were monitored for 20 min. AESP and met-AESP induced significant dose-dependent hypotension, but only 100 mg/kg AESP caused mild bradycardia (n = 5). AESP-induced hypotension was more potent than that of met-AESP in WKY. AESP has a faster onset time than that of met-AESP in both WKY and SHR. However, met-AESP-induced hypotension was more sustained than that of AESP in SHR. Blockages of autonomic ganglion and α -adrenergic receptors using hexamethonium and phentolamine (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of α -adrenergic receptors. Blockages of autonomic ganglion, β -adrenergic, cholinergic receptors, and nitric oxide production using hexamethonium, propranolol, atropine, and N- ω -nitro-l arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (n = 5 for each group) partially attenuated met-AESP-induced hypotension, suggesting involvement of β -adrenergic and cholinergic receptors via nitric oxide production.

  2. β-lactam antibiotics residues analysis in bovine milk by LC-ESI-MS/MS: a simple and fast liquid-liquid extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, L; Hoff, R B; Tarouco, P C; Barreto, F; Pizzolato, T M

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the development and validation of a simple method for the detection and quantification of six β-lactam antibiotics residues (ceftiofur, penicillin G, penicillin V, oxacillin, cloxacillin and dicloxacillin) in bovine milk using a fast liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) for sample preparation, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LLE consisted of the addition of acetonitrile to the sample, followed by addition of sodium chloride, centrifugation and direct injection of an aliquot into the LC-MS/MS system. Separation was performed in a C(18) column, using acetonitrile and water, both with 0.1% of formic acid, as mobile phase. Method validation was performed according to the criteria of Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Limits of detection ranged from 0.4 (penicillin G and penicillin V) to 10.0 ng ml(-1) (ceftiofur), and linearity was achieved. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ), accuracy, inter- and intra-day repeatability of the method are reported.

  3. In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ye

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC and α-tocopherol (VE. Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions.

  4. Fast and easy extraction combined with high resolution-mass spectrometry for residue analysis of two anticonvulsants and their transformation products in marine mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Bueno, M J; Boillot, C; Fenet, H; Chiron, S; Casellas, C; Gómez, E

    2013-08-30

    Environmental field studies have shown that carbamazepine (Cbz) is one of the most frequently detected human pharmaceuticals in different aquatic compartments. However, little data is available on the detection of this substance and its transformation products in aquatic organisms. This study was thus mainly carried out to optimize and validate a simple and sensitive analytical methodology for the detection, characterization and quantification of Cbz and oxcarbazepine (Ox), two anticonvulsants, and six of their main transformation products in marine mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). A modified QuEChERS extraction method followed by analysis with liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) was used. The analyses were performed using two-stage fragmentation to reveal the different fragmentation pathways that are highly useful for the identification of isomeric compounds, a common problem when several transformation products are analyzed. The developed analytical method allowed determination of the target analytes in the lower ng/g concentration levels. The mean recovery ranged from 67 to 110%. The relative standard deviation was under 11% in the intra-day and 18% in the inter-day analyses, respectively. Finally, the method was applied to marine mussel samples collected from Mediterranean Sea cultures in southeastern France. Residues of the psychiatric drug Cbz were occasionally found at levels up to 3.5ng/g dw. Lastly, in this study, other non-target compounds, such as caffeine, metoprolol, cotinine and ketoprofen, were identified in the real samples analyzed.

  5. Nanostructure of Poly(Acrylic Acid) Adsorption Layer on the Surface of Activated Carbon Obtained from Residue After Supercritical Extraction of Hops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, M.; Nosal-Wiercińska, A.; Ostolska, I.; Sternik, D.; Nowicki, P.; Pietrzak, R.; Bazan-Wozniak, A.; Goncharuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nanostructure of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption layer on the surface of mesoporous-activated carbon HPA obtained by physical activation of residue after supercritical extraction of hops was characterized. This characterization has been done based on the analysis of determination of adsorbed polymer amount, surface charge density, and zeta potential of solid particles (without and in the PAA presence). The SEM, thermogravimetric, FTIR, and MS techniques have allowed one to examine the solid surface morphology and specify different kinds of HPA surface groups. The effects of solution pH, as well as polymer molecular weight and concentration, were studied. The obtained results indicated that the highest adsorption on the activated carbon surface was exhibited by PAA with lower molecular weight (i.e., 2000 Da) at pH 3. Under such conditions, polymeric adsorption layer is composed of nanosized PAA coils (slightly negatively charged) which are densely packed on the positive surface of HPA. Additionally, the adsorption of polymeric macromolecules into solid pores is possible.

  6. Combination of microwave-assisted extraction and ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for separation and enrichment of pyrethroids residues in Litchi fruit prior to HPLC determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Xie, Xiujuan; Zhang, Yi; Huang, Yuanxiang; Zhou, Shiyu; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Yuyang; Fan, Huajun

    2018-02-01

    A novel method for simultaneous determination of pyrethroids residues in Litchi fruit has been developed by HPLC-UV detection using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) coupled with ultrasonic-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UADLLME). Extraction conditions of MAE and UADLLME were respectively investigated by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology. Optimized experimental conditions included 310μL of chlorobenzene as extraction solvent, 1.3mL of ethanol as dispersive solvent and 3min of extraction time for UADLLME. In the case of MAE, extraction temperature of 70°C, extraction time of 4min and solvent-to-materials ratio of 40:1 were adopted. Results demonstrated that the proposed method had good performance with linearity of 0.0050-4.98mg/L, recovery of 83.3-91.5%, RSDs below 5.6% and detection limit (LOD) of 1.15-2.46μg/L for six pyrethroids, offering higher extraction efficiency and larger enrichment factor. MAE-UADLLME provided a sensitive and efficient alternative to determination of trace amounts of pesticides residues in food samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2013-09-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment.

  8. Combination of solid-phase extraction with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by GC-MS for determination of pesticide residues from water, milk, honey and fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Yazdanfar, Najmeh; Ghambarian, Mahnaz

    2016-08-01

    In this work, an effective preconcentration method for the extraction and determination of traces of multi-residue pesticides was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Variables affecting the performance of both extraction steps such as type and volume of elution and extraction solvents, breakthrough volume, salt addition, extraction time were thoroughly investigated. The proposed method resulted in good linearities (R(2)>0.9915) over the ranges of 1-10,000ngkg(-1), limits of detection (LODs) in the range of 0.5-1.0ngkg(-1) at S/N=3, and precision of RSD% of ⩽11.8. Under optimal conditions, the preconcentration factors were obtained in the range of 2362-10,593 for 100mL sample solutions. Comparison of the proposed method with other ones demonstrated that SPE-DLLME method provides higher extraction efficiency and larger preconcentration factor for determination of pesticides residues. Further, it is simple, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and can be successfully applied to separation, preconcentration and determination of the pesticides (and other noxious materials) in different real food samples.

  9. Detection of minimal residual disease in patients with multiple myeloma using clonotype-specific PCR primers designed from DNA extracted from archival bone marrow slides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Yoshiyasu; Kobayashi, Noriko; Obata, Kazue; Narisawa, Tadashi; Nakayama, Kouji; Munemoto, Saori; Aoki, Go; Ohata, Kinya; Kumano, Yoshihisa; Ozaki, Jun; Murata, Ryoichi; Kondo, Yukio; Terasaki, Yasushi; Kurokawa, Toshiro; Miyamoto, Toshihiro; Shimizu, Naomi; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Akira; Ueda, Takanori; Yoshida, Takashi; Nakao, Shinji

    2013-10-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-negative molecular complete remission (mCR) can be induced by stem cell transplantation in some patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and is associated with long-term progression-free survival (PFS). The detection of molecular minimal residual disease (MRD), however, requires fresh or frozen materials for designing clone-specific primers, which are not always readily available. In this study, we used DNA extracted from archival bone marrow (BM) slides for PCR to detect MRD in 50 patients with MM who received various induction therapies and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Clonotype-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) H PCR primers were prepared for 32 of 50 cases (64%) using BM slides, and for 9 of 14 cases (64%) using fresh BM cells. DNA in peripheral blood stem cell autografts of the 22 patients who achieved at least a partial response after ASCT was subjected to PCR to amplify clonotype-specific rearranged IgH gene sequences. The median PFS of the eight patients with MRD-positive autografts was 18 months, whereas that of 14 patients with MRD-negative autografts was not reached at a median follow-up of 27 months (p = 0.012). Post-ASCT PFS of the four patients who achieved mCR was 100% at a median follow-up of 47 months. These results indicate that archival BM slides can serve as a source of DNA for preparing clonotype-specific primers for MRD monitoring in patients with MM whose cryopreserved myeloma cells are not available for DNA preparation. Our results also suggest that patients with MM who received MRD-negative autografts and achieved mCR have a long PFS.

  10. On-line preconcentration and determination of tetracycline residues in milk using solid-phase extraction in conjunction with flow injection spectrophotometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prinya Masawat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple, cheap and highly sensitive system with on-line preconcentration using solid-phase extraction in conjunction with flow injection spectrophotometry for the determination of tetracycline residues in milk samples is described. C18 was used as packing material in a designed minicolumn used for preconcentration of tetracyclines. Tetracycline standard or sample solutions were dissolved in a mixed buffer solution of pH 4.0 containing boric acid, citric acid and sodium phosphate, then loaded to the minicolumn for 6 min followed by elution with a solution containing methanol : mixed buffer solution (40:60 by volume of pH 6.5 The absorbance of the eluate was measured at 370 nm. The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.20-1.00, 0.20-4.00, and 0.20-1.00 mg L-1 for tetracycline (TC, oxytetracycline (OTC, and chlortetracycline (CTC respectively. The limits of detection were 0.08, 0.10, and 0.09mg L-1 for TC, OTC, and CTC respectively. Relative standard deviations for 20 replicated determinations of 0.20, 0.40, and 0.60 mg L-1 of TC were 7.03, 7.23, and 6.55 % respectively. Per cent recoveries for four commercial types of milk: U.H.T., pasteurised, raw, and sterilised milk were in the range of 86–109 (TC, 90–109 (OTC, and 89–108 (CTC. The sample throughput was 6 h-1.

  11. 甘薯渣果胶超声波辅助盐法提取工艺的优化%Optimization of Ultrasonics-assisted Salt Extraction Technology for Pectin from Sweet Potato Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩倩

    2015-01-01

    以淀粉加工后的甘薯渣为原料,采用超声波辅助盐法提取果胶,通过单因素试验和响应面优化试验,探讨提取液质量浓度、提取时间、提取温度、pH值、超声波功率、提取液料比6个因素对果胶提取率的影响,并对提取工艺条件进行优化。结果表明,超声波辅助盐法提取甘薯渣果胶的最佳工艺条件为:提取液质量浓度3.95 mg/mL、提取温度66℃、提取时间1.7 h、pH值2.0、超声波功率375 W、提取液料比20∶1(mL∶g),在此工艺条件下,果胶提取率达15.48%。该工艺可以有效地从甘薯渣中提取果胶。%The pectin from sweet potato residues were extracted by ultrasonic-assisted salt method,and the effects of extracting solution concentration,extraction time,extraction temperature,pH value,ultrasonic powers,liquid to material ratio on extraction rate of pectin were studied by single-factor experiments and response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimum conditions of ultrasonic-assisted salt extraction technology for pectin from sweet potato residues were extracting solution concentration of 3.95 mg/mL,extraction temperature of 66 ℃,extraction time of 1.7 h,pH value of 2.0,ultrasonic powers of 375 W,liquid to material ratio of 20∶1, under the above conditions, the extraction rate of pectin was 15.48%.Overall,pectin could be extracted from sweet potato residues effectively with the above technology.

  12. A confirmatory method for the simultaneous extraction, separation, identification and quantification of Tetracycline, Sulphonamide, Trimethoprim and Dapsone residues in muscle by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Mark; Mannion, Celine; Rafter, Paul

    2009-11-13

    A rapid confirmatory multi-residue method for the analysis of tetracyclines, sulphonamides, trimethoprim and dapsone by UPLC-MS/MS is described. The method is able to quantify and confirm the following 19 compounds, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, sulfadiazine, sulfathiazole, sulfapyridine, trimethoprim, sulfamerazine, sulfamethizole, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxypyridazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfachlorpyridazine, dapsone, sulfamethoxazole, sulfisoxazole, sulfaquinoxaline and sulfadimethoxine. Samples are extracted with 0.1M EDTA and acetonitrile, which is then evaporated under a stream of nitrogen and reconstituted in water. Following centrifugation and filtering, an aliquot is analysed by UPLC-MS/MS using positive electrospray ionisation and multiple reaction monitoring. The method is deemed rapid as all analytes are extracted by a single extraction technique, with no solid-phase extraction clean up required. Validation is according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and was carried out for bovine, porcine, ovine and poultry species. Specificity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility, CCalpha and CCbeta data is presented.

  13. Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor: A New Technology for Biotreatment of Airborne Volatile Organic Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ghorbani Shahna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological treatment is a new established technology for the air pollutants. This technology can be an alternative for physical and chemical treatment methods. Among bioreators, the Bioactive Foamed Emulsion Reactor (BFER is a new alternative that has not the problems of the conventional ones. In this reactor bed clogging in the conventional bioreactor was resolved by bioactive foam as a substitute of packing bed. The pollutant absorption has been increased using biocompatible organic phase in liquid .This reactor can be used for higher inlet toluene concentration. The objective of this study was designing and optimizing the operational parameters of BFER for toluene treatment.Materials & Methods: In the first step of this experimental-analytic study, the toluene degradation microorganisms were identified, extracted and concentrated for injection to bioreactor. Then the effect of several parameters such as Kind and concentration of organic phase,and residence time oxygen content on bioreactor performance were studied and the optimum conditions were selected for continuous operation. The continuous operation of bioreactor was monitored at the optimum conditions.Results: Experimental results showed that the residence time of 15s, oxygen content of 40%, and the 4 % (v/v n-hexadecane as organic phase were the optimum conditions. The average elimination capacity (EC and removal efficiency of bioreactor were 231.68 g/m3h and 88.44% respectively for the inlet concentration about of 1 g/m3. The statistical developed model predicted that the maximum EC of this reactor could reach to 426.21 g/m3h.Conclusion: Since the elimination capacity of this reactor is several times more than the other bioreactors, it has the potential to be applied instead of biofilters and biotrickling filters.

  14. 绿茶渣中膳食纤维提取工艺的研究%Study on the Extraction Technology of Dietary Fiber from Green-tea Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳

    2011-01-01

    本文以热水浸泡过的绿茶渣为原料,采用碱性提取法制备膳食纤维。利用正交试验设计确定绿茶渣中不溶性膳食纤维的最佳提取工艺,结果表明:绿茶渣中可溶性膳食纤维含量极少,没有提取的经济价值;不溶性膳食纤维的最佳提取工艺参数为:NaOH浓度为0.4mol/L、处理时间为60min、提取温度为50℃,此时提取率为34.64%。%Dietary fiber was prepared by alkalinity extration from green-tea residue soaked in hot water. Through orthogonal experiment design, the optimun extration technology of dietary fiber was determined. The results showed that there was little soluble dietary fiber in the green-tea residue. Therefore, there was no economic value on the extraction of soluble dietary fiber from green tea residue. The optimum conditions of the extration of insoluble dietary fiber were as follow: the NaOH concentraion was 0.4 tool/L, the extraction time was 60 rain and the extraction temperature was at 50℃. Under the condition, the extraction rate of insoluble dietary fiber from green-tea residue was 34.64%.

  15. In vitro and in vivo nutrient digestibility in sheep of rations with and without residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the digestibility of nutrients by, and parameters associated with, in vitro fermentation using different inocula (sheep ruminal fluid and feces as well as the in vivo digestibility in sheep that were fed rations with 50% concentrate containing either no (0% residue from the extraction of tamarind pulp (RETP or 15% RETP. To determine the in vitro digestibility (IVD of nutrients, two sheep, weighing 40.38 ± 2.10 kg, were used as inoculum donors. To determine the in vivo digestibility of nutrients, we used four sheep and a 3×2 factorial experimental design, with three methods of digestion of nutrients and two experimental rations (0% and 15% RETP. The variables were subjected to analysis of variance and the variables that showed differences at 5% probability were further analyzed using the Tukey test at 5% significance. The IVD using different inocula did not significantly differ (p>0.05 from the in vivo digestibility in sheep for dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. The different methods for determining nutrient digestibility did not affect (p>0.05 the digestibility of DM, OM, crude protein (CP, NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in rations with 0% and 15% RETP. However, the IVD of CP for rations containing 0% and 15% RETP incubated with both inocula was lower (p<0.05 than the CP digestibility in vivo. The in vivo digestibility of ADF for rations containing 0% and 15% RETP was higher (P<0.05 than the IVD using sheep ruminal fluid and feces as inocula. The pH values and concentration of ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N after in vitro incubation for 24 h and the in vivo assay were not different (p>0.05 for the rations containing 0% and 15% RETP, but the pH and NH3-N of both fermented and rumen contents differed (p<0.05 depending on the inocula used and the in vivo assay. In summary, the digestibility of DM, OM, and NDF can be determined by the in vitro fermentation method using the ruminal fluid or

  16. The key role of biogenic manganese oxides in enhanced removal of highly recalcitrant 1,2,4-triazole from bio-treated chemical industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruiqin; Wu, Haobo; Jiang, Xinbai; Shen, Jinyou; Faheem, Muhammad; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Han, Weiqing; Wang, Lianjun; Liu, Xiaodong

    2017-04-01

    The secondary effluent from biological treatment process in chemical industrial plant often contains refractory organic matter, which deserves to be further treated in order to meet the increasingly stringent environmental regulations. In this study, the key role of biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) in enhanced removal of highly recalcitrant 1,2,4-triazole from bio-treated chemical industrial wastewater was investigated. BioMnOx production by acclimated manganese-oxidizing bacterium (MOB) consortium was confirmed through scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Pseudomonas and Bacillus were found to be the most predominant species in acclimated MOB consortium. Mn(2+) could be oxidized optimally at neutral pH and initial Mn(2+) concentration below 33 mg L(-1). However, 1,2,4-triazole removal by BioMnOx produced occurred optimally at slightly acidic pH. High dosage of both Mn(2+) and 1,2,4-triazole resulted in decreased 1,2,4-triazole removal. In a biological aerated filter (BAF) coupled with manganese oxidation, 1,2,4-triazole and total organic carbon removal could be significantly enhanced compared to the control system without the participation of manganese oxidation, confirming the key role of BioMnOx in the removal of highly recalcitrant 1,2,4-triazole. This study demonstrated that the biosystem coupled with manganese oxidation had a potential for the removal of various recalcitrant contaminants from bio-treated chemical industrial wastewater.

  17. 微创拔牙法与普通拔牙法拔除残根残冠的效果比较%Comparison of minimally invasive and general tooth extraction in pulling out residual roots and crowns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 刘长春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the clinical effect of minimally invasive and general tooth extraction in pulling out residual roots and crowns.Methods Six hundred teeth of residual roots and crowns that needed to be extracted were divided into two groups. The minimally invasive tooth extraction and general tooth extraction were applied,respectively.Results The minimally invasive group was obviously superior to the traditional group in rates of incomplete teeth extraction socket,fractured dental root and gum laceration. Conclusion The curative effect of minimally invasive tooth extraction is positive and it should be widely used in clinic.%目的:对比微创拔牙法与普通拔牙法拔除残根残冠的临床效果。方法选择需拔除的残根残冠600颗,按随机数字表法分为微创组与传统组各30例,分别采用微创拔牙方法与普通拔牙方法拔除残根残冠,观察两组的临床治疗效果。结果微创组在拔牙窝的不完整率、断根率、牙龈撕裂发生率等方面明显优于传统组,差异均有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论微创拔牙法疗效肯定,值得在临床普遍采用。

  18. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples.

  19. Bioconversion of Ginsenosides in the American Ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn Extraction Residue by Fermentation with Lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma Lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Yang Hsu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng (人参 Rén Shēn has been widely employed in functional foods and traditional medicines in many Asian countries. Owing to the high consumer demand of ginseng products, a large amount of ginseng residue is generated after extraction of ginseng. However, the ginseng residue still contains many bioactive compounds such as ginsenosides. The objective of this research was to convert ginsenosides in American ginseng (西洋參 Xī Yáng Shēn extraction residue (AmR by fermentation with lingzhi (靈芝 Líng Zhī, Ganoderma lucidum and the fermentation products will be used for further hypoglycemic activity research. Thus, this study was primarily focused on the ginsenosides that have been reported to possess hypoglycemic activity. In this study, the changes in seven ginsenoside [Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rc, Rg3(S, compound K (CK, and Rh2(S] in the products as affected by fermentation were investigated. Our results showed that the levels of ginsenosides, namely, Rg1, Rg3(S, and CK increased, while the other ginsenosides (Re, Rb1, and Rc decreased during the fermentation process.

  20. Optimization of the enzymatic extraction process of protein in tea residue by response surface methodology%响应面优化酶法提取茶渣蛋白的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李圆圆; 王洪新; 殷飞; 兰海崇; 佘世凤

    2013-01-01

    To optimize the extraction parameters of protein in tea residue,the Central Composite Design was used to analyze the factors that affect the protein extraction rate.Alcalase was selected to extract the protein in tea residue. Based on single factor experiment results,enzyme hydrolysis temperature,reaction time,the ratio of liquid to solid, enzyme amount and enzyme hydrolysis pH were chosen as influencing factors and the protein yield was selected as the response value. The results showed that the optimal extraction conditions were: enzyme hydrolysis temperature 60℃,reaction time 1.5h,the ratio of liquid to solid 20:1,enzyme amount 2.5% and enzyme hydrolysis pH9.5.ln this optimal process condition,the yield of protein in tea residue was 56.95%.Compared with the previous report,extraction rate of protein in tea residue increased significantly with the application of response surface analysis methodology.%以茶渣为原料,选用碱性蛋白酶,利用中心组合实验设计对影响茶渣蛋白提取率的因素水平进行综合研究,优化茶渣蛋白的提取工艺参数根据单因素实验结果,以提取温度、提取时间、液固比、加酶量和pH为影响因子,茶渣蛋白提取率为响应值,确定最优提取条件为:提取温度60℃,提取时间1.5h,液固比20∶1,加酶量2.5%,pH9.5,此时茶渣蛋白提取率为56.95% 与之前报道相比,应用响应面分析法研究酶法提取茶渣蛋白,提取率有显著提高.

  1. Residuation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Blyth, T S; Sneddon, I N; Stark, M

    1972-01-01

    Residuation Theory aims to contribute to literature in the field of ordered algebraic structures, especially on the subject of residual mappings. The book is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on ordered sets; directed sets; semilattices; lattices; and complete lattices. Chapter 2 tackles Baer rings; Baer semigroups; Foulis semigroups; residual mappings; the notion of involution; and Boolean algebras. Chapter 3 covers residuated groupoids and semigroups; group homomorphic and isotone homomorphic Boolean images of ordered semigroups; Dubreil-Jacotin and Brouwer semigroups; and loli

  2. Critical assessment of extraction methods for the simultaneous determination of pesticide residues and mycotoxins in fruits, cereals, spices and oil seeds employing ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacina, Ondrej; Zachariasova, Milena; Urbanova, Jana; Vaclavikova, Marta; Cajka, Tomas; Hajslova, Jana

    2012-11-01

    This study addresses a current trend in chemical food safety control represented by an effort to integrate analyses of various groups of food contaminants/toxicants into a single, high-throughput method. The choice of optimal sample preparation step is one of the key conditions to achieve good performance characteristics. In this context, we investigated the possibility to expand the scope of the three multi-analyte extraction procedures employed earlier in other studies for rapid isolation of either pesticides or mycotoxins from plant matrices. Following procedures were tested: A - aqueous acetonitrile extraction followed by partition (QuEChERS-like method), B - aqueous acetonitrile extraction, and C - pure acetonitrile extraction. On the list of target analytes, we had 288 pesticides (including 'troublesome' acidic, basic and base-sensitive compounds) together with 38 mycotoxins (including all EU regulated ones and many 'emerging' toxins on the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) list). The matrices selected for the experiments, apple baby food, wheat flour, spices and sunflower seeds, represented various composition categories in terms of moisture, fat and extractable compounds (e.g. pigments and essential oils) content. In preliminary experiments, acceptable recoveries (70-120%) for most of analytes were obtained by the analysis of spiked matrices, regardless which extraction procedure was used. However, when analysing dry samples with incurred pesticide residues/mycotoxins, the method C did not enable efficient extraction of some common contaminants. Procedure A, thanks to a higher matrix equivalent compared to the method B and relatively less pronounced matrix effects, enabled lower quantification limits for all analyte/matrix combinations, with the exception of polar mycotoxins and/or pesticides. Higher recoveries for the latter group of analytes could be achieved by the method B; on the other hand, extraction efficiency of non-polar pesticides from fatty

  3. Clean-up of cereal extracts for gas chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry pesticide residues analysis using primary secondary amine and C18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Poulsen, Mette Erecius

    2015-01-01

    The level of co-extracted matrix in wheat and oat extracts obtained by the QuEChERS method (EN 15662) is high and the occurrence of free fatty acids generates a major matrix peak in TIC chromatograms (rt. 13-22min). Matrix can compromise the analytical performance in pesticide analysis using GC...

  4. RNA extracted from blood samples with a rapid automated procedure is fit for molecular diagnosis or minimal residual disease monitoring in patients with a variety of malignant blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechlian, Didier; Honstettre, Amélie; Terrier, Michèle; Brest, Christelle; Malenfant, Carine; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joëlle; Chabannon, Christian

    2009-06-01

    Scientific studies in oncology, cancer diagnosis, and monitoring tumor response to therapeutics currently rely on a growing number of clinico-pathological information. These often include molecular analyses. The quality of these analyses depends on both pre-analytical and analytical information and often includes the extraction of DNA and/or RNA from human tissues and cells. The quality and quantity of obtained nucleic acids are of utmost importance. The use of automated techniques presents several advantages over manual techniques, such as reducing technical time and thus cost, and facilitating standardization. The purpose of this study was to validate an automated technique for RNA extraction from cells of patients treated for various malignant blood diseases. A well-established manual technique was compared to an automated technique, in order to extract RNA from blood samples drawn for the molecular diagnosis of a variety of leukemic diseases or monitoring of minimal residual disease. The quality of the RNA was evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RQ-PCR) analyses of the Abelson gene transcript. The results show that both techniques produce RNA with comparable quality and quantity, thus suggesting that an automated technique can be substituted for the reference and manual technique used in the daily routine of a molecular pathology laboratory involved in minimal residual disease monitoring. Increased costs of reagents and disposables used for automated techniques can be compensated by a decrease in human resource.

  5. Solid phase extraction using magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for residue analysis of cephalosporins in milk by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Yu, Yingjia; Zhao, Meiyan; Zhang, Haiying; Li, Yan; Duan, Gengli

    2014-05-01

    A fast and effective extraction method has been developed for measuring the residue of cephalosporins (cefalexin, cefazolin, cefoperazone) in milk by using magnetic core-mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls (C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2) as adsorbent. With no need for any protein precipitation procedure, the cephalosporins were directly adsorbed onto the C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres through hydrophobic interaction with C18-groups (Octadecyl functional groups) functionalized in the interior walls of mesopore channels while the abundant proteins in milk sample were excluded out of the channel due to the size exclusion effect. Thereafter, the cephalosporins-absorbed C18-Fe3O4@mSiO2 microspheres were rapidly isolated by placing a magnet, and followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis after eluted by methanol. Various parameters which could affect the extraction performance were optimised. The newly developed extraction method was successfully applied in determination of cephalosporin residues in milk samples, offering a valuable alternative to simplify and speed up the sample preparation step.

  6. Comparison of SPE/d-SPE and QuEChERS-Based Extraction Procedures in Terms of Fungicide Residue Analysis in Wine Samples by HPLC-DAD and LC-QqQ-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzimski, Tomasz; Rejczak, Tomasz; Pieniążek, Dominika; Buszewicz, Grzegorz; Teresiński, Grzegorz

    2016-11-01

    Two different extraction and clean-up protocols, based on either the SPE/dispersive SPE (d-SPE) or the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe approach, were optimized and compared for determination of six selected fungicides (benalaxyl, metalaxyl, triadimenol, tebuconazole, diniconazole, and epoxiconazole) in wine samples. The pilot study was performed by applying HPLC with diode-array detection, and optimized procedures were easily transferred to the LC triple-quadrupole MS system. Both extraction procedures presented good performance for all the analytes, with recoveries in the range of 70-132% and SDs ≤20%. The d-SPE clean-up step included in both procedures allows obtaining colorless extracts with the majority of coextracted matrix compounds removed. LC with electrospray ionization and tandem MS operating in the multiple reaction monitoring mode provide high sensitivity and selectivity for trace analysis. Both developed procedures were evaluated in terms of commercial wine sample analysis. In three wine samples, metalaxyl and tebuconazole residues were detected at concentrations from 0.14 to 30.7 ng/mL. Both approaches showed satisfactory feasibility for fungicide residue analysis in wine samples.

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Direct Coal Liquefaction Residue Basing on Hansen Solubility Parameters%基于Hansen溶度参数的煤直接液化残渣超临界萃取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜广策; 林雄超; 张生娟; 王中奇; 王永刚; 陈强; 朱豫飞

    2015-01-01

    以丙酮、异丙醇和苯为溶剂在超临界状态下对煤直接液化残渣进行萃取,应用溶度参数分析了超临界萃取环境中溶剂和萃取原料的变化;基于Hansen拓展方法建立了关联Hansen溶度参数和萃取收率的理论方程。结果表明,临界温度较高。以色散力溶度参数为主的苯的萃取收率明显高于其它2种溶剂;液化残渣中可萃出组分的理想溶解度随温度的升高而增大,该效应也是超临界溶剂萃取重质组分时萃取收率提高的重要原因;萃取收率与Hansen溶度参数之间的回归模型与实验结果具有较好的一致性,证明Hansen溶度参数理论和Hansen拓展方法适用于描述煤直接液化残渣的超临界萃取过程。%The supercritical fluid extraction( SFE) of direct coal liquefaction residue using acetone, isopro-panol and benzene as solvents was investigated. The Hansen solubility parameters were used to clarify the variations of both solvent and the solute in SFE process. An empirical equation in terms of the extended Hansen approach was proposed to correlate the extraction capacity with the Hansen solubility parameters of solvents. The results show that the extraction yield using supercritical benzene, of which the dispersive compo-nent is the major in total solubility parameters, obtained the highest extraction yield. The ideal solubility on organic components in direct coal liquefaction residue improved with the extraction temperature increasing. The empirical equation shows high consistency with experimental results. As a consequence, the theory of Hansen solubility parameter and extended Hansen approach are applicable to the study on supercritical fluid extraction of direct coal liquefaction residue.

  8. Effect of the different extracting methods on functional properties of tea-residue protein%不同提取方法对茶渣蛋白功能特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢蓝华; 杜冰; 张嘉怡; 杨公明

    2012-01-01

    The effects of modification and functional properties were investigated by the alkali solution extraction, alkali solution extraction with extrusion pretreatment and enzymatic extraction with extrusion pretreatment from the Danzong tea-residue.The results showed that the hydroscopicity,waterholding capacity,foamability and emulsibility of tea-residue protein by alkali solution extraction with extrusion pretreatment increased by 25% ,43.43% ,8.79% and 5.57% respectively and oil absorbability decreased by 8.67% compared with the alkali solution extraction.The same case with the functional properties increased by 34.73%, 86.87%, 18.01% and 12.46% respectively and oil absorbability decreased by 18.50% of enzymatic extraction with extrusion pretreatment.The conclusion was a most useful processing method to improve tea-residue protein functional properties for extrusion pretreatment.%以单枞茶叶为实验材料,研究了单一碱法提取、挤压膨化预处理碱法提取、挤压膨化预处理酶法提取对茶渣蛋白功能特性的影响。结果表明,与单一碱法提取的茶渣蛋白相比较,挤压膨化预处理碱法提取的茶渣蛋白吸水性、持水力、起泡性和乳化性分别提高了25%、43.43%、8.79%、5.57%,吸油性降低了8.67%;挤压膨化预处理酶法提取茶渣蛋白吸水性、持水力、起泡性和乳化性分别提高了34.73%、86.87%、18.01%、12.46%,吸油性降低了18.50%;挤压膨化预处理对茶渣蛋白功能特性有一定的改善作用。

  9. Evaluation of a recent product to remove lipids and other matrix co-extractives in the analysis of pesticide residues and environmental contaminants in foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study demonstrates the application of a novel lipid removal product to the residue analysis of 65 pesticides and 52 environmental contaminants in kale, pork, salmon, and avocado by fast, low pressure gas chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LPGC-MS/MS). Sample preparation involves QuEChE...

  10. 酱油渣中油脂提取工艺的研究及其脂肪酸成分分析%Fat extraction from soy sauce residues and fatty acids composition analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨莹莹; 姚舜; 万海清; 余佳; 宋航

    2011-01-01

    Fat extraction from soy sauce residues and the analysis of composition and contents of fatty acids was studied. The extraction conditions were investigated and optimized by single factor and orthogonal experiments. The extracted fatty acids were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the optimum extraction conditions were as follows: the ratio of petroleum ether to 80%vol ethanol 3:2, solid-liquid ratio 1 -1, extraction temperature 65℃, extraction time 2h and extraction 3 times. Under these conditions, the optimal entraction rate was 6.3%. Results of GC/MS indicated that there were 4 kinds of fatty acids in soy sauce oil, and among which the content of palmitic acid was 46.90% and the linoleic acid was 33.26%. This study was expected to provide support for further exploitation of the oil from soy sauce residues.%提取酱油渣中油脂,并对油脂中脂肪酸成分及含量进行了分析.通过单因素和正交试验,研究了油脂的最佳提取条件,采用气相-质谱(GC/MS)联用分析其脂肪酸组成及含量.试验表明:以石油醚和80%vol乙醇为溶剂,料液比1∶7,温度65℃,提取时间2h,3次提取,可以得到油脂的最佳提取率为6.3%.GC/MS分析表明,油脂中含有4种脂肪酸,其中软脂酸含量较高,为46.90%,亚油酸的含量次之,为33.26%.以上研究为酱油渣中油脂的进一步开发利用提供了依据.

  11. Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography method for determination of ractopamine residue in pork samples by solid phase extraction and pre-column derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guanglong; Li, Deguang; Qin, Jiao; Zhu, Juanli; Wang, Baitao; Geng, Qianqian; Guo, Mingcheng; Punyapitak, Darunee; Cao, Yongsong

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine (RAC) has been approved as a feed additive for swine, cattle or turkey, and is likely to have residue in edible animal products and may pose a potential risk for consumer health. Therefore, it is essential to establish a method to detect the residue of RAC in animal products. This work presents a rapid and sensitive HPLC method for the determination of RAC in pork samples with pre-column derivatization. The RAC derivative was separated on a kromasil C18 column and detected at 284nm with a UV detector. The detection capability (CCβ) was 0.078μgg(-1) and the linearity was established over the concentration range of 0.15-100.0μgg(-1). The overall mean recovery in spike range of 0.2μgg(-1) to 100μgg(-1) was 89.9% with the overall mean relative standard deviation of 4.1%. This method can be used for the quantification of RAC in pork samples and help to establish adequate monitoring of the residue of RAC.

  12. Determination of 14 Organophosphorous Pesticide Residues in Seawater by Solid Phase Extraction%固相萃取法测定海水中14种有机磷农药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莹莹; 高晓飞; 姜洋; 门宇; 李宏晖

    2012-01-01

    通过对固相萃取法中萃取剂的选择、用量和样品溶液pH值等条件进行优化处理,建立海水中常见有机磷农药的分析方法。研究结果表明,pH值对萃取结果无影响,当萃取剂选择二氯甲烷、且萃取剂用量为20mL时,萃取结果最优。关键词:有机磷农药;固相萃取;气相色谱;海水%The influence factors in solid phase extraction were studied, such as the extraction solvent, the dosage of extraction solvent, and the pH of solvent. The determination of 14 organophosphorous pesticide residues in seawater were done by gas chromatography. The results showed that the pH values of solvent have unconspicuous effects on the test result. So the best conditions of the solid phase ex- traction were dichloromethane and extraction solvent for 20 mL.

  13. [Determination of 19 antibiotic and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in wild fish muscle in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay using accelerated solvent extraction and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sisi; Du, Juan; Chen, Jingwen; Zhao, Hongxia

    2014-12-01

    A sample preparation and analytical method with accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/ MS) was developed to detect 19 antibiotic (9 sulfonamides, 4 quinolones, 3 macrolides and 3 others) and 2 sulfonamide metabolite residues in fish muscle. The target compounds were extracted using ASE and purified simultaneously by a C18 resin in the extraction cell. The extracts were evaporated to dryness, and redissolved with the initial mobile phase for HPLC-MS/MS analysis after freezing centrifugation (10,000 r/min, -4 °C) to remove the fat and other matrix compounds further. The separation of the analytes was carried out on an Xterra MS C18 column with methanol-acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as mobile phase A and 0. 1% formic acid (containing 0. 1% ammonium formate) as mobile phase B. The spiked recoveries of the method were 55. 2%-113. 3%, with the relative standard deviations of 0. 1% - 17. 6% (n = 6). The limits of detection ranged from 0. 003 to 0. 6 ng/g. The method was applied to two fish (Synechogobius hasta and Liza haematocheilus) collected in mariculture areas of Laizhou Bay and six antibiotics were detected, in which the mass concentrations of norfloxacin were highest with mean values of 67. 01 and 27. 58 ng/g, respectively. The method is simple, rapid, highly sensitive, and useful in the study on exposure levels and environmental behavior of the antibiotics.

  14. Review of Cloud Point Extraction Technology and Its Application in Pesticide Residue Analysis%浊点萃取技术及其在农药残留分析中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建波; 王云飞; 奚道珍

    2011-01-01

    浊点萃取技术是基于表面活性剂溶液相分离现象的一种新兴的液-液萃取技术,已经成功的与多种分析仪器联用,用于农药残留样品的前处理中.介绍了浊点萃取技术的原理和影响因素,重点综述了浊点萃取作为气相色谱、液相色谱、分光光度计、荧光光度计的前处理技术在农药残留分析中的应用进展,探讨了该技术方法的发展前景.%Cloud point extraction (CPE) is a new liquid-liquid extraction technique based on the separation in aqueous surfactant solution. It has been combined with many analytical instruments and used for the pretreatment of pesticide residue. In this paper, the principle of CPE was introduced. The applications of CPE to the pretreatment technique of pesticide residue analysis by gas chromatography (GC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),spectrophotometer and fluorophotometer were emphatically summarized. The development trend of the CPE was also presented.

  15. Rapid analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples by dispersive solid-phase extraction based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes and pulse glow discharge ion source ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Nan; Gu, Kejia; Liu, Shaowen; Hou, Yanbing; Zhang, Jialei; Xu, Xiang; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2016-03-01

    An analytical method based on dispersive solid-phase extraction with a multiwalled carbon nanotubes sorbent coupled with positive pulse glow discharge ion mobility spectrometry was developed for analysis of 30 pesticide residues in drinking water samples. Reduced ion mobilities and the mass-mobility correlation of 30 pesticides were measured. The pesticides were divided into five groups to verify the separation capability of pulse glow discharge in mobility spectrometry. The extraction conditions such as desorption solvent, ionic strength, conditions of adsorption and desorption, the amounts of multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and solution pH were optimized. The enrichment factors of pesticides were 5.4- to 48.7-fold (theoretical enrichment factor was 50-fold). The detection limits of pesticides were 0.01∼0.77 μg/kg. The linear range was 0.005-0.2 mg/L for pesticide standard solutions, with determination coefficients from 0.9616 to 0.9999. The method was applied for the analysis of practical and spiked drinking water samples. All results were confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The proposed method was proven to be a commendably rapid screening qualitative and semiquantitative technique for the analysis of pesticide residues in drinking water samples on site.

  16. 固态发酵植物药提取残渣生产饲料蛋白工艺条件%Research on technique of producing feeding protein from extractive residue of chinese herbs by fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨威; 左金龙; 车春波; 李俊生; 梁金钟; 王丽萍

    2014-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation of extractive residue of Chinese herbs which comes from a traditional Chi-nese medicine plant to produce feeding-protein by the mixed fermentation was studied and the technique parame-ters in solid-state fermentation process was optimized with the aid of orthogonal experiments based on analyzing the component of the extractive residue of Chinese herbs. The results indicated that the optimum technique param-eters in the fermentation process are as below: cultivate temperature is 30℃, inoculated quantity is 15%(W/W), moisture content is 65% and cultivate time is 60h when the proportion of Yeast stain is 2∶1 (Candida utilis:En-domycopsis fibuligera) and 40g residue,35g corn steep liquor,8g corn flour, 15g wheat bran and 2g urea were chosen to make up of fermentation medium. Under the optimum fermentation condition, the content of crude pro-tein in fermentation product could be reach 29.98%. Producing feeding protein from extractive residue of Chinese herbs by fermentation is feasible.%以某制药厂双黄连制剂生产过程中产生的废弃药渣作为研究对象,在对药渣成份进行了全分析的基础上,利用正交实验法研究了混菌固态发酵植物药提取残渣生产饲料蛋白工艺参数的不同,对发酵产物蛋白含量的影响。结果表明:以40g药渣,35g玉米浆,8g玉米面,15g麸皮,2g尿素组成固态发酵培养基,产朊假丝酵母与扣囊拟内孢霉的菌种配比为2∶1时,最佳发酵条件为:发酵温度30℃,接种量15%,含水量65%,培养时间60h。在最佳发酵条件下,发酵产物的粗蛋白含量可达29.98%。以废弃药渣为主要原料发酵生产蛋白饲料是切实可行的。

  17. Quantification of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in soils from cocoa plantations using a QuEChERS extraction procedure and LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dankyi, Enock; Gordon, Christopher; Carboo, Derick

    2014-01-01

    of neonicotinoids in the environment extremely important. The present study was aimed at assessing the levels of five major neonicotinoids in soils from cocoa farmlands in Ghana. Extraction and cleanup of analytes were performed by use of a method based on the original QuEChERS procedure after optimizing salts...

  18. 600℃下油茶饼粕乙醇提取物与提取残渣热裂解产物的组分分析%Component analysis of pyrolysates of ethanol extractive and extracting residues fromCamellia oleiferameal at 600℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓蕾; 章怀云; 张党权; 刘欢; 李碧霞; 莫薇

    2016-01-01

    Camellia oleifera meal is the byproduct of producingCamellia oil from seeds, and contains many bioactive components. In order to provide a theoretical basis for high efficient utilization ofC. oleifera meal resources, after frozen, dried and water removal,C. oleifera meal was ifrstly extracted in ethanol by Soxhlet extraction method, and the extractives and extraction residues were vacuum concentrated and dried, and then were pyrolyzed at 600℃, and ifnally the compounds of the pyrolysates were analyzed by Py-GC/MS. The results showed that the pyrolysates of ethanol extractives fromC. oleifera meal contain heterocycles, ketones, esters, phenols, hydrocarbons, and aldehydes, while the pyrolysates of extraction residues contain heterocycles, ketones, acids, esters, ethers, phenols, sugars, amino acids, and nitrile. Some components of pyrolyzates of ethanol extractives and extraction residues fromC. oleifera meal could be used as materials of biomedicine, spicery and cosmetics.%油茶饼粕是油茶种子制备茶油后的副产物,含有多种生物活性成分。为给油茶饼粕资源的高效利用提供理论依据,采用索氏抽提方法,以乙醇为浸提溶剂,对冷冻干燥除水后的油茶饼粕进行浸提,对其提取物和提取残渣进行真空浓缩干燥处理,并在600℃的条件下分别进行热裂解,然后对热裂解产物的组分进行热裂解-气质联用(Py-GC/MS)分析。结果表明:油茶饼粕乙醇提取物的热裂解组分中含有杂环类、酮、酯、酚、烃类、醛等成分,而其提取残渣的热裂解组分中含有杂环类、酮、酸、酯、醚、酚、糖类、氨基酸、腈等成分;油茶饼粕乙醇提取物与提取残渣的热裂解产物中的部分组分可用作生物医药、香料、化妆品的生产原料。

  19. Extraction of squalene as value-added product from the residual biomass of Schizochytrium mangrovei PQ6 during biodiesel producing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Hien; Ha, Nguyen Cam; Thom, Le Thi; Tam, Luu Thi; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai; Hong, Dang Diem

    2014-12-01

    Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source of squalene for commercial application. The species Schizochytrium mangrovei, a heterotrophic microalga, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of squalene, polyunsaturated fatty acids and has good profiles for biodiesel production. Our work was aimed at examining the squalene contents in Vietnam's heterotrophic marine microalga S. mangrovei PQ6 biomass and residues of the biodiesel process from this strain. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were successfully applied to the determination of squalene in S. mangrovei PQ6. The squalene content and production of S. mangrovei PQ6 reached 33.00 ± 0.02 and 33.04 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of dry cell weight; and 0.992 g L(-1) and 1.019 g L(-1) in 30 and 150 L bioreactors, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. In addition, squalene was also detected in spent biomass (approximately 80.10 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of spent biomass) from the S. mangrovei PQ6 biodiesel production process. The structure of squalene in residues of the biodiesel process was confirmed from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results obtained from our work suggest that there is tremendous potential in the exploitation of squalene as a value-added by-product besides biodiesel from S. mangrovei PQ6 to reduce biodiesel price.

  20. Chemometric-assisted QuEChERS extraction method for the residual analysis of thiacloprid, spirotetramat and spirotetramat's four metabolites in pepper: Application of their dissipation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shasha; Liu, Xingang; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Xu, Hanqing; Hu, Mingfeng; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-02-01

    Chemometric tools equipped with a Plackett-Burman (P-B) design, a central composite design (CCD) and a desirability profile were employed to optimise the QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method for the quantification of thiacloprid, spirotetramat and spirotetramat's four metabolites in pepper. The average recoveries were in the range of 71.6-119.5%, with relative standard deviations ⩽ 12.1%. The limit of quantification for the method was less than 0.01 mg/kg. The method was applied to field samples to evaluate the residual characteristics of thiacloprid and spirotetramat. The data showed that the first+first-order model is a better fit than the first order model for the dissipation of thiacloprid and spirotetramat in pepper. The half-lives of thiacloprid and spirotetramat in pepper are 0.81 and 1.21 days, respectively. The final residues were between 0.016 mg/kg and 0.13 mg/kg for thiacloprid and 0.08 mg/kg and 0.12 mg/kg for spirotetramat.

  1. Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater using recycled waste iron shavings as a catalyst: Removal and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin; Ma, Luming; Chen, Yunlu; Cheng, Yunqin; Liu, Yan; Zha, Xiaosong

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic ozonation of organic pollutants from actual bio-treated dyeing and finishing wastewater (BDFW) with iron shavings was investigated. Catalytic ozonation effectively removed organic pollutants at initial pH values of 7.18-7.52, and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) level decreased from 142 to 70 mg·L(-1) with a discharge limitation of 80 mg·L(-1). A total of 100% and 42% of the proteins and polysaccharides, respectively, were removed with a decrease in their contribution to the soluble COD from 76% to 41%. Among the 218 organic species detected by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, 58, 77, 79 and 4 species were completely removed, partially removed, increased and newly generated, respectively. Species including textile auxiliaries and dye intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The inhibitory effect decreased from 51% to 33%, suggesting a reduction in the acute toxicity. The enhanced effect was due to hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants. The proteins were removed by OH oxidation (6%), by direct ozonation, co-precipitation and oxidation by other oxidants (94%). The corresponding values for polysaccharides were 21% and 21%, respectively. In addition, the iron shavings behaved well in successive runs. These results indicated that the process was favorable for engineering applications for removal of organic pollutants from BDFW.

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction and determination of cyanuric acid residue in pet food samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chao; Zhou, Yongfang; Xia, Biqi; Zhu, Zhenou; Liu, Cuiping; Shen, Yan

    2011-02-01

    Cyanuric acid (CYA) is attracting more attention due to its potential toxicity. In the present work, microwave-assisted extraction method in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was proposed for the determination of CYA in pet food samples. Among different solvents, diethylamine-acetonitrile-water mixture (1:5:4, v/v) was found to be the best one as the extractant due to the strong polarity of CYA in the pet food. An internal standard, (13) C(3) -labeled CYA, was used in the extractions. The separation was performed on a MERCK ZIC HILIC column (150 mm × 2.1 mm id, 5 μm) with gradient elution of 20 mM ammonium acetate solution-acetonitrile. CYA was well retained (Rt = 5.10 min) and eluted with good peak shape. The method could respond linearly with CYA at concentrations from 1.0 to 50 ng/mL with a quantification limit of 0.25 mg/kg. The intra- and inter-day precision was less than 4.0% and the recovery of the assay was in the range of 90.4-108.1%. In the analysis of practical spiked pet food samples, the new method yielded satisfactory results. Due to its simplicity and accuracy the straightforward method is particularly suitable for routine CYA detection. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using low-temperature cleanup and solid phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jie; Peng, Tao; Zhu, Ailing; He, Jianli; Chang, Qiaoying; Hu, Xueyan; Chen, Hui; Fan, Chunlin; Jiang, Wenxiao; Chen, Min; Li, Jiancheng; Ding, Shuangyang; Jiang, Haiyang

    2015-10-01

    A multi-class multi-residue analysis method for determination of veterinary drugs, pesticides and mycotoxins in dairy products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been established. These 17 classes, a total of 40 kinds of target compounds were chosen because their administration to food-producing animals is banned or regulated in China and may be potentially abused or misused. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (49.5+49.5+1, v/v/v). Most of lipids in the extract were removed by low-temperature cleanup, prior to solid phase extraction on HLB cartridges. The quantification and confirmation of the 40 analytes were performed by LC-MS/MS with electro-spray ionization (ESI) interface in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.006-0.3μg/kg and 0.02-1.0μg/kg, respectively. The spiked recoveries in milk, yogurt, milk powder and cheese samples were from 67.3% to 106.9%. The repeatability and the within-laboratory reproducibility were less than 12.7% and 13.9%. Applying this method, our results revealed the presences of chloramphenicol, cimeterol, and flunixin at the concentration of 0.027-0.452μg/kg in some samples.

  4. Development of a molecular recognition based approach for multi-residue extraction of estrogenic endocrine disruptors from biological fluids coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousoumah, Radia; Antignac, Jean Philippe; Camel, Valérie; Grimaldi, Marina; Balaguer, Patrick; Courant, Frederique; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Morvan, Marie-Line; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Multi-residue methods permitting the high-throughput and affordable simultaneous determination of an extended range of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with reduced time and cost of analysis is of prime interest in order to characterize a whole set of bioactive compounds. Such a method based on UHPLC-MS/MS measurement and dedicated to 13 estrogenic EDCs was developed and applied to biological matrices. Two molecular recognition-based strategies, either molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) with phenolic template or estrogen receptors (ERα) immobilized on a sorbent, were assessed in terms of recovery and purification efficiency. Both approaches demonstrated their suitability to measure ultra-trace levels of estrogenic EDCs in aqueous samples. Applicability of the MIP procedure to urine and serum samples has also been demonstrated.

  5. Antioxidant therapy attenuates oxidative stress in the blood of subjects exposed to occupational airborne contamination from coal mining extraction and incineration of hospital residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm Filho, D; Avila, S; Possamai, F P; Parisotto, E B; Moratelli, A M; Garlet, T R; Inácio, D B; Torres, M A; Colepicolo, P; Dal-Pizzol, F

    2010-10-01

    Coal mining and incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) generate several contaminants that are delivered into the environment, such as heavy metals and dioxins. These xenobiotics can lead to oxidative stress overgeneration in organisms and cause different kinds of pathologies, including cancer. In the present study the concentrations of heavy metals such as lead, copper, iron, manganese and zinc in the urine, as well as several enzymatic and non-enzymatic biomarkers of oxidative stress in the blood (contents of lipoperoxidation = TBARS, protein carbonyls = PC, protein thiols = PT, α-tocopherol = AT, reduced glutathione = GSH, and the activities of glutathione S-transferase = GST, glutathione reductase = GR, glutathione peroxidase = GPx, catalase = CAT and superoxide dismutase = SOD), in the blood of six different groups (n = 20 each) of subjects exposed to airborne contamination related to coal mining as well as incineration of solid residues of health services (SRHS) after vitamin E (800 mg/day) and vitamin C (500 mg/day) supplementation during 6 months, which were compared to the situation before the antioxidant intervention (Ávila et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1150-1157, 2009; Possamai et al., Ecotoxicology 18:1158-1164, 2009). Except for the decreased manganese contents, heavy metal concentrations were elevated in all groups exposed to both sources of airborne contamination when compared to controls. TBARS and PC concentrations, which were elevated before the antioxidant intervention decreased after the antioxidant supplementation. Similarly, the contents of PC, AT and GSH, which were decreased before the antioxidant intervention, reached values near those found in controls, GPx activity was reestablished in underground miners, and SOD, CAT and GST activities were reestablished in all groups. The results showed that the oxidative stress condition detected previously to the antioxidant supplementation in both directly and indirectly subjects

  6. 超声辅助提取佛手废渣果胶的工艺优化%Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction for Pectin from Bergamot Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓刚; 焦聪聪; 许杭琳; 徐双双

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To optimize pectin extraction from bergamot residue left after juice squeezing. Methods: Pectin extraction was achieved by ultrasonic-assisted acid extraction followed by ethanol precipitation. Response surface methodology and orthogonal array design were used to optimize the process conditions of ultrasonic-assisted acid extraction and ethanol precipitation. Results: The optimal ultrasonic-assisted acid extraction conditions were extraction at 63 ℃ and pH 1.6 for 37 min with an ultrasonic power of 395 W. The optimal ethanol precipitation conditions were precipitation at 15 ℃ and pH 2.0 for 1.5 h with a concentration ratio of 1:4. Conclusion: Under the optimal conditions, the extraction yield and precipitation recovery of pectin were 22.1% and 85.7%, respectively.%目的:对佛手废渣果胶提取工艺进行优化。方法:分别通过响应面试验和正交试验对果胶的超声辅助酸提和乙醇沉析工艺进行优化。结果:响应面试验优化后的超声辅助酸提工艺条件为浸提时间37rain、浸提温度63℃、超声功率395W、pH1.6。正交试验优化后的醇析条件为浓缩比1:4、醇析温度15℃、醇析时间1.5h、醇析液pH2.0、醇析液乙醇体积分数70%。结论:经验证在最佳工艺条件下,果胶提取得率22.1%,果胶醇析得率85.7%。

  7. A single-step pesticide extraction and clean-up multi-residue analytical method by selective pressurized liquid extraction followed by on-line solid phase extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for complex matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Alpendurada, Maria Fátima

    2016-06-24

    Pesticides, a group of compounds linked to human activity, may, when in toxic levels, have a profound effect on water quality, and hence result in adverse consequences to aquatic life and ultimately to human health. Analytical challenges arise when successfully trying to determine these levels in environmental complex matrices. Therefore, fast, simple, sensitive and selective analytical methodologies for multi-residue determination of pesticides (atrazine, azoxystrobin, bentazon, λ-cyhalothrin, penoxsulam and terbuthylazine) in sediment, macrophytes (algae and aquatic plants) and aquatic animals were developed and validated. The established methods were matrix-dependent and were based on Selective Pressurized Liquid Extraction (SPLE) followed by on-line Solid Phase Extraction and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (on-line SPE-UPLC-ESI-MS/MS). This cutting-edge research methodology uses a small amount of sample, is time saving and reduces the use of organic solvents in compliance with Green Chemistry principles. The analytical features were adequate for all compounds in all studied matrices. The established methodology was applied on real marine samples and no pesticide concentrations above their respective method quantification limits were measured in sediments or aquatic plants. However, terbuthylazine was found in the macroalgae Ulva spp. (108ngg(-1)dw) and all the prospected pesticides were measured above their respective method quantification limits in the bivalve Scrobicularia plana (atrazine: 48ngg(-1)dw, azoxystrobin: 64ngg(-1)dw, bentazon: 33ngg(-1)dw, λ-cyhalothrin: 2531ngg(-1)dw, penoxsulam: 50ngg(-1)dw, and terbuthylazine: 44ngg(-1)dw).

  8. Comparative study of multi-enzyme production from typical agro-industrial residues and ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude enzyme in fermentation with Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-jun; Xia, Jin-lan; Shan, Yang; Nie, Zhen-yuan

    2015-10-01

    Submerged fermentation (SmF) and solid-state fermentation (SSF) of Aspergillus japonicus PJ01 for multi-enzyme complexes (MEC) production were comparatively studied. The results showed that orange peel and wheat bran were the best substrates for MEC production in SmF and SSF, respectively. After 72 h of cultivation under SmF, the maximal pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase activities reached 2610, 85, and 335 U/gds (units/gram dry substrate), respectively; while after 72 h of cultivation under SSF, these three enzymes' activities reached 966, 58, and 1004 U/gds, respectively. Effects of ultrasound on extraction of crude enzymes from SSF medium were determined, the maximal activities of pectinase, CMCase, and xylanase increased to 1.20, 1.48, and 1.30-fold, respectively. Apparent different mycelia growths of SSF and SmF were observed by scanning electron microscopy; and different isoforms of the crude enzyme extracts from SSF and SmF were presented by zymogram analysis.

  9. Simultaneous determination of 15 aminoglycoside(s) residues in animal derived foods by automated solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yanfei; Chen, Dongmei; Yu, Huan; Huang, Lingli; Liu, Zhaoying; Cao, Xiaoqin; Yan, Caixia; Pan, Yuanhu; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2012-11-15

    An automated method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of 15 aminoglycosides in muscle, liver (pigs, chicken and cattle), kidney (pigs and cattle), cow milk, and hen eggs by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Homogenized samples were extracted by monopotassium phosphate buffer (including ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid), and cleaned up with auto solid-phase extraction by carboxylic acid cartridges. The analytes were separated by a specialized column for aminoglycosides, and eluted with trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile. The decision limits (CCα) of apramycin, gentamycin, tobramycin, paromomycin, hygromycin, neomycin, kanamycin, sisomicin, netilmicin, ribostamycin, kasugamycin, amikacin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin and spectinomycin were ranged from 8.1 to 11.8 μg/kg and detection capabilities (CCβ) from 16.4 to 21.8 μg/kg. High correlation coefficients (r(2)>0.99) of calibration curves for the analytes were obtained within linear from 20 to 1000 μg/kg. Reasonable recoveries (71-108%) were demonstrated with excellent relative standard deviation (RSD). This method is simple pretreatment, rapid determination and high sensitivity, which can be used in the determination of multi-aminoglycosides in complex samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Extraction of limonin from residue of berganot juice%佛手饮料废渣中分离柠檬苦素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许杭琳; 邓刚; 焦聪聪; 孔黎春; 张艺馨; 黄群晓

    2012-01-01

    采用Sephadex LH-20凝胶柱色谱分离纯化了佛手饮料废渣中的柠檬苦素,分离条件:检测器波长为207 nm;柱体积为112.5 mL,分离柱内径为1.5 cm;流动相为甲醇,流速为0.5 mL/min.用核磁共振法对分离产物进行了结构鉴定.通过高效液相色谱法测定了佛手饮料废渣中柠檬苦素的含量,测定条件:采用美国AGT Venusil XBP (L) ODS C18柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,10 μm);流动相V(乙腈):V(水)=45:55,流速为0.8mL/min;柱温为25℃;检测波长为207 nm.结果显示,佛手饮料废渣中柠檬苦素含量为1.73 mg/g,相对标准偏差为1.1%.%Limonin in waste residue of bergamot was separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and the wavelength of detector was set to 207 nm; column volume was 112. 5 mL, the diameter of column was 1. 5 cm; with methanol as 100% mobile phase and flow rate flow rate was 0. 5 mL/min, NMR was used to structural identification after the separation. HPLC was used to determine the quantity of limonin. Chromato-graphic conditions; American AGT Venusil XBP (L) ODS C18(250 mm ×4. 6 mm, 10 μm) column with ace-tonitrile-water, 45 :55 ( V/V) as mobile phase and flow rate 0. 8 mL/min. The column temperature was controlled at 25 ℃ and the wavelength of detector was set to 207 nm. The results showed that the RSD was 1.1% and the limonin content in waste residue of bergamot under those conditions reached 1.73 mg/g.

  11. Cultivation of Enterobacter Aerogenes for Hydrogen Production with Lipid Extracted Microalgal Biomass Residues%小球藻抽脂残留物培养产气肠杆菌的制氢研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUHAMMAD Jawed; 王俊; 徐莉; 闫云君

    2016-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of cultivating Enterobacter aerogenes for hydrogen production with lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues, the anaerobic batch fermentations from microalgal hydrolysate were conducted and their key parameters were optimized using response surface methodology. The central composite designs were performed, and a quadratic regression model based on temperature, pH, inoculum and hydrogen yield was obtained from the triplicate experimental data. The analysis of variances indicates that the model has good fitting degree. The predicted maximum hydrogen yield of 54.22 mL/g of lipid extracted microalgal bio⁃mass residues was obtained when the temperature, pH and inoculum were respectively at 37.55 ℃, 5.95 and 12.25%. The confirmatory experiments showed that the mutant evolved hydrogen yield of 54.61 mL/g of lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues in the optimal conditions. The coincident result verified the practicability of the model. This study indicates that a strategy of cultivating Enterobacter aerogenes for hydrogen production with lipid extracted microalgal biomass residues has great potential for the large scale of production.%为使高效产氢产气肠杆菌能够运用到实际生产中,探索并且优化以小球藻抽脂残留物的水解产物为底物的厌氧批次产氢发酵实验参数.采用中心组合设计,通过三次平行实验取得的数值,拟合得到反映温度、接种量和pH值与产氢量之间关系的多元二次回归模型,以产氢率为响应值,进行响应面分析.方差分析结果显示,该模型的显著性和可靠性较高,拟合效果良好.该模型预测出最佳产氢结果为54.22 mL/g小球藻抽脂残留物,产氢条件为温度37.55℃,接种量12.25%,pH值5.95.进行了厌氧批次发酵产氢验证实验,实际结果为小球藻抽脂残留物的产氢量为54.61 mL/g,与预测值十分接近,说明该模型能较好反应三因素对产氢量的影

  12. Extraction of Zinc from Electric Arc Furnace Dust by Alkaline Leaching Followed by Fusion of the Leaching Residue with Caustic Soda%氢氧化钠浸取-浸取渣熔融法从炼钢厂烟尘中提取锌的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵由才; R. Stanforth

    2004-01-01

    Extractability of zinc from two types of electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing 24.8% and 16.8%of zinc respectively (denoted as Sample A and Sample B) were tested using direct alkaline leaching followed by fusion of the resulting leaching residues with caustic soda. The experimental results show that the extraction of zinc is heavily dependent on the contents of iron in the dusts. The higher iron content, the lower extraction of zinc is obtained. 53% and 38% of zinc can be extracted when both dusts were directly contacted with 5 mol. L-1 NaOH solution for 42 h. The remaining zinc left in the leaching residues, which supposed to be present as zinc ferrites, can be further leached when the residues were fused with caustic soda. Quantitative extraction of zinc can be obtained from the leaching residue of Sample A while only 85% from Sample B. The extractability of zinc from dusts with various contents of iron is compared. The production flowsheet for zinc from the dusts using the process proposed is discussed.

  13. Evaluation of alternative sorbents for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in the QuEChERS method for the determination of pesticide residues in rice by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Liziara da C; Caldas, Sergiane S; Prestes, Osmar D; Primel, Ednei G; Zanella, Renato

    2016-05-01

    Many compounds are used for pest control during the production and storage of rice, making it necessary to employ multiclass methods for pesticide residues determination. For this purpose, QuEChERS-based methods are very efficient, fast and accurate, and improvements in the clean-up step are important, especially for complex matrices, like cereals. In this work, different sorbents such as chitosan, florisil(®) , alumina, diatomaceous earth, graphitized carbon black, besides the commonly used primary secondary amine and octadecylsilane, were evaluated for dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up in acetate-buffered QuEChERS method for the determination of residues of 20 representative pesticides and one metabolite in rice by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The sorbent C18 presented the best results, however, chitosan showed similar results, and the best performance among the unconventional sorbents evaluated. The method limit of quantification, attending accuracy (70-120% recovery) and precision (RSD ≤20%) criteria, ranged from 5 to 20 μg/kg. Results showed that chitosan is an effective alternative to reduce analysis costs, maintaining the method reliability and accuracy.

  14. STUDY ON ELECTROWINNING EXTRACTION OF LEAD FROM ZINC OXIDE LEACH RESIDUE OF IRONMAKING DUST%从炼铁烟尘的氧化锌浸出渣中电积提取铅的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢燕; 吴绍祥

    2013-01-01

    炼铁烟尘经挥发窑处理后得到的窑挥发物的主要成分为氧化锌和氧化铅,本研究以此挥发物提取锌后的浸出渣为试验原料,用碳酸钠将硫酸铅转化为碳酸铅,再用氟硅酸浸出,浸出液电积得到金属铅.氧化锌浸出渣中铅的转化浸出率在96%以上,整个工艺过程无废弃物外排.%The main components of kiln volatiles from the ironmaking smoke and dust treated by volatile kiln are zinc oxide and lead oxide.The study takes the zinc leaching residue of the volatile after the extraction of zinc as raw materials,transfers the lead sulfate into lead carbonate by sodium carbonate,then leaching by fluorosilicic acid,and finally the metal lead can be obtained by leaching solution electrowinning.The transformation of lead in zinc oxide leach residue leaching rate reaches over 96%,and no waste effluent during the whole process.

  15. Solid phase extraction-capillary electrophoresis determination of sulphonamide residues in milk samples by use of C18-carbon nanotubes as hybrid sorbent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo-Luque, M L; Simonet, B M; Valcárcel, M

    2013-07-07

    The exceptional sorption capabilities of carbon nanotubes were used to preconcentrate trace sulphonamides from milk samples. To this end, single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) dispersed in the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate were retained on a C18 stationary phase to obtain a hybrid material in a simple manner. In this approach ionic liquids are an excellent alternative to improve the dispersion of CNTs, without chemical modification or the use of solid substances or organic solvents. MWNTs provided better results than SWNTs. Carbon nanotubes retained in the C18 sorbent matrix were found to confer aromatic character, increasing its preconcentration capacity as a result. The conventional C18 stationary phase played a two-fold role: as a support to retain carbon nanotubes in the cartridge and as a medium to prevent their aggregation. The modified MWNT/C18 and SWNT/C18 materials were used to preconcentrate residual sulphonamides (SAs) in milk samples for their determination at concentrations as low as 0.03-0.069 mg L(-1) by capillary electrophoresis. Analyte recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 103.2 to 98.8% and precision, as RSD, from 8.2 to 5.4%.

  16. Hypouricemic and nephroprotective effects of total flavonoids from the residue of supercritical CO2 extraction of Humulus lupulus in potassium oxonate-induced mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen Jing; Li, Zhuan; Dong, Xiao Ying; Lu, Lai Feng; Wang, Chang Lu

    2017-03-01

    Total flavonoids of Humulus lupulus (TFHL) were prepared using ethanol extraction, liquid-liquid partition and purification with polyamide resin. Different dose of TFHL were orally administered to normal and hyperuricemic mice for 7 days. The xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and hypouricemic effects of TFHL on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice were examined. The TFHL showed very potent XOD inhibitory activity with IC50=66.8 μg/mL. At a single oral dose of 100mg/kg TFHL, the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic mice significantly decreased (P<0.01) compared with a hyperuricemic control group, and the XOD activity was inhibited by 22%. Moreover, TFHL has a protective role against potassium oxonate-induced renal damage in mice. The results suggested that TFHL could be used as a promising drug or ingredient for treatment of hyperuricemia and gout.

  17. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential a

  18. Extraction,Purification, and Antitumor Activity of Cordycepin from Cordyceps Militaris Residue Medium%北虫草培养残基中虫草素的提取纯化及抗肿瘤活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽冰; 吴光旭; 程薇; 范秀芝; 史德芳; 石猛; 高虹

    2016-01-01

    以北虫草固体培养残基为实验材料,比较闪式提取、超声波提取和超高压提取培养残基中虫草素的效果,用陶瓷膜过滤提取液,获得虫草素粗提液,利用高速逆流色谱分离制备虫草素,通过LC-MS/MS对产物结构进行鉴定,并验证了虫草素对小鼠S180肉瘤的抑制作用。结果显示,超高压提取培养基中虫草素较好,高速逆流色谱分离纯化条件是以V(乙酸乙酯):V(正丁醇):V(水)=2:3:5的两相溶剂系统,上相为固定相,下相为流动相,流速3.0 mL/min,主机转速900 r/min,分离温度28℃,以此分离条件经一步洗脱,高速逆流色谱收集馏分,其中峰Ⅲ产物经HPLC检测纯度达97.6%,结构经LC-MS/MS鉴定为虫草素。从100 g 北虫草培养残基中可制备得虫草素181.90 mg,并对其活性验证发现剂量为100 mg/kg时小鼠S180肉瘤瘤重抑制率为64.48%。%Flash extraction, ultrasonic extraction, and ultra-high pressure extraction technology were used to extract cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris residue medium. The extracting solution was filtered with ceramic membrane and cordycepin was separated and prepared by using high-speed countercurrent chro-matography ( HSCCC ) . The product structure was identified by LC-MS/MS. Antitumor activity of cordycepin was tested in mice S180 tumor. The results showed that ultra-high pressure extraction technol-ogy was better for cordycepin extraction. Combining a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl ace-tate-n-butanol-water (2:3:5,V/V/V) with high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC), the cordycepin was purified at 28℃ with flow rate of 3. 0 mL/min and revolution speed was 900 r/min, while the upper phase was stationary phase and the lower phase was mobile phase. Cordycepin identified was i-dentified by LC-MS/MS and the purity of cordycepin was 97. 6%. About 181. 90 mg of cordycepin was obtained from 100 g of Cordyceps militaris residue medium. The inhibition rate of cordycepin

  19. 加速溶剂萃取GC-NCI-MS法测定糙米中氯硝胺残留量%Detection of Dicloran Residue in Crude Rice by the Combination of Accelerated Solvent Extraction and GC-NCI-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何理; 吴晖

    2012-01-01

    [目的]建立一种采用加速溶剂萃取和气相色谱-质谱测定糙米中氯硝胺残留量的分析方法.[方法]试样采用丙酮-正己烷(体积比1:2)萃取,中性氧化铝固相萃取小柱净化.用HP-FFAP石英毛细管柱程序升温分离,GC-NCI-MS的选择离子监测方式(SIM)测定,外标法定量.并对提取溶剂、萃取温度、不同冲洗体积、静态萃取时间和循环次数等试验条件进行优化.[结果]当添加水平为1、2、10、20、100 μg/kg时,方法回收率为93.6% ~ 102.8%,相对标准偏差为2.2%~6.2%,检出限是1μg/kg.采用保留时间和选择监视离子丰度比对阳性样品进行确证,加速溶剂萃取法和固相萃取技术净化糙米中氯硝胺减少了分析时间和溶剂消耗.[结论]试验成功建立了GC-NC-MS的选择离子监测的测定方法测定糙米中氯硝胺残留量,有效地减少基质杂质对分析灵敏度和方法检出限的影响,提高了检测方法的特异性.%[Objective] To establish a new method of accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrography to determine the dicloran residue in kown rice. [ Method] The sample was extracted by hexane-acetone (1: 2 by volume) , purified by neutral alumina solid phase extraction column, separated by HP-FFAP silica capillary column with temperature programmed, assessed by GC-NCI-MS in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) , and quantified by external standard. The experimental conditions including extraction solvent, extraction temperature , different flush volume, static extraction time and cycle number have been optimized. [ Result] When the adding level is 1, 2, 10, 20, 100 μg/kg, the method recovery is 93.6% -102.8% ; the relative standard deviation is 2.2% -6.2% and the detection limit is 1 |xg/kg. The result was determined by comparison to positive sample with retention time and selectively monitoring ion abundances. The accelerated solvent extraction and GC-NCI-MS method purified the

  20. Chromium extraction with organic solvents. Part 3. Application to the treatment of polymetallic industrial residues; Extraction de cromo con disolventes organicos. III parte. Aplicacion al tratamiento de residuos polimetalicos industriales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, D. de; Meseguer, V.; Lozano, L. J. [Universidad de Murcia. (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The use of Primene 81R as extraction agent of chromium present in solid wastes containing nickel, iron and copper has been studied. The waste was leached with a sulphuric acid solution up to pH3 and oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) with Caro acid was also studied. Because of the negative result of oxidation, the treatment was applied on Cr(III) directly. Extraction/scrubbing/stripping process was studied in the leach. The composition of organic phase used in the extraction step was 10% v/v Primene 81R, 10% iso decanol and kerosene. All the iron, 91% Cr, 10% Ni and large part of the copper contained in the initial leach solution are recovered in the organic phase. In the scrubbing stage (with a sulphuric acid solution at pH 1,4), all the copper and nickel and 30% Cr go to the washing liquor, while all the iron and 70% Cr remained in the organic phase. In the stripping stage (with a 2N NH{sub 4}OH or 2N NaOH solution) all the iron and chromium are recovered as a precipitate of highly absorbent hydroxides. After the treatment mentioned, 63% Cr and 100% Fe are recovered as a mixture of hydroxides, and 28% of the initial chromium, all the nickel and the copper are found in the washing liquor. (Author) 4 refs.

  1. Multi-residue analysis of pharmaceuticals in aqueous environmental samples by online solid-phase extraction-ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: optimisation and matrix effects reduction by quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Leang, Sokha; Bernet, Nathalie; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Nélieu, Sylvie

    2014-07-04

    The aim of this study was to develop and optimise an analytical method for the quantification of a bactericide and 13 pharmaceutical products, including 8 antibiotics (fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolide), in various aqueous environmental samples: soil water and aqueous fractions of pig slurry, digested pig slurry and sewage sludge. The analysis was performed by online solid-phase extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (online SPE-UHPLC-MS-MS). The main challenge was to minimize the matrix effects observed in mass spectrometry, mostly due to ion suppression. They depended on the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and its origin, and ranged between -22% and +20% and between -38% and -93% of the signal obtained without matrix, in soil water and slurry supernatant, respectively. The very variable levels of these matrix effects suggested DOC content cut-offs above which sample purification was required. These cut-offs depended on compounds, with concentrations ranging from 30 to 290mgC/L for antibiotics (except tylosine) up to 600-6400mgC/L for the most apolar compounds. A modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) extraction procedure was therefore optimised using an experimental design methodology, in order to purify samples with high DOC contents. Its performance led to a compromise, allowing fluoroquinolone and tetracycline analysis. The QuEChERS extraction salts consisted therefore of sodium acetate, sodium sulfate instead of magnesium sulfate, and sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as a ligand of divalent cations. The modified QuEChERS procedure employed for the extraction of pharmaceuticals in slurry and digested slurry liquid phases reduced the matrix effects for almost all the compounds, with extraction recoveries generally above 75%. The performance characteristics of the method were evaluated in terms of linearity, intra-day and inter

  2. Determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Chaoyang; Mai, Zhibin; Yang, Yingfen; Zhu, Binghui; Xu, Xiumin; Lu, Lin; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2009-03-20

    A sorbent was synthesized and investigated for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE). Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were synthesized via precipitation polymerization procedure, where methacrylic acid (MAA) was used as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as cross-linking agent. The imprinting effect and selectivity of the MISPE were evaluated by elution experiments. The resulting MISPE showed high extraction selectivity to malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites, which may be caused by both the ion exchange and the hydrophobic interactions. The determination of multi-residue for malachite green, gentian violet and their metabolites in aquatic products by HPLC coupled with MISPE was also investigated. The mean recoveries calculated by solvent calibration curve for malachite green (MG), gentian violet (GV), leucomalachite green (LMG) and leucogentian violet (LGV) were from 89.8% to 99.1% for grass carp, 90.6% to 101.2% for shrimp and 91.3% to 96.3% for shellfish. The decision limit (CCalpha) and the detection capability (CCbeta) obtained for MG, GV, LMG and LGV were in the range of 0.11-0.14 and 0.19-0.24 microg kg(-1) for grass carp, shrimp and shellfish. The MISPE was successfully used off-line for the determination of MG, GV and their metabolites in aquatic products.

  3. Study on Extraction Technology of Dietary Fiber from Angelica sinensis Residue%当归提取剩余物中提取膳食纤维的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 周益平; 郭明

    2012-01-01

    The technology for extracting the dietary fiber from Angelica sinensis residue by a combined chemical and enzymatic method was studied. The optimal conditions were obtained by the single factor and orthogonal experiment as follows:alkali concentration 2 %, alkali-hydrolyzable time 2 h, alkali-hydrolyzable temperature 30℃ and particle size 80 mesh. Under these conditions the extracting rate of dietary fiber was 71%, the waterholding capacity of dietary fiber was 2.1g·g-1 and the comprehensive value was 0. 988.%以中药材当归的提取剩余物为研究对象,运用酶-化学结合法制备膳食纤维,并采用单因素实验法与正交实验法结合以选取最优提取工艺:碱处理质量分数为2%、碱处理时间为0.5h、碱处理温度为30℃、粒度为80目,在此条件下得到当归膳食纤维的得率为71%,持水力为2.1g.g-1,其综合得分为0.988。

  4. A novel analytical method for the determination of residual moisture in plutonium dioxide: Supercritical fluid extraction/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, A.M.; Hollis, W.K.; Rubin, J.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Jasperson, M.N.; Vance, D.E.; Rodriguez, J.B.

    1999-02-01

    A novel approach has been developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for the quantitative determination of moisture content in impure plutonium oxide. The method combines a commercial supercritical fluid extraction instrument using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO{sub 2}) with on-line detection using a high-pressure Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) cell. The combined SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR system has been modified for use inside a fully enclosed glove box. A series of validation experiments were performed using a pure, surrogate oxide (ThO{sub 2}) and an inorganic hydrate (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O). The level of agreement between LOI and SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR for the surrogate oxide is excellent. The results for the inorganic hydrate showed excellent correlation with the known amount of water present. Results obtained for a group of nominally pure PuO{sub 2} samples were verified by independent measurement. The results of SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR for impure PuO{sub 2} samples is consistently lower than the results of obtained from the current analytical method (Loss On Ignition), indicating that the current method is inadequate for analytical purposes. While further verification experiments of the SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR method are underway, these initial results suggest that SCCO{sub 2}/FTIR could be used as an alternative analytical method for the Materials Identification and Surveillance program.

  5. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-09

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development, validation and application of a methodology based on solid-phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) for the determination of pesticide residues in mangoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes Filho, Adalberto; dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula

    2010-04-15

    A method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 14 pesticide residues (clofentezine, carbofuran, diazinon, methyl parathion, malathion, fenthion, thiabendazole, imazalil, bifenthrin, permethrin, prochloraz, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in mango fruit, based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as fiber type, extraction mode (direct immersion and headspace), temperature, extraction and desorption times, stirring velocities and ionic strength. The best results were obtained using polyacrylate fiber and direct immersion mode at 50 degrees C for 30 min, along with stirring at 250 rpm and desorption for 5 min at 280 degrees C. The method was validated using mango samples spiked with pesticides at concentration levels ranging from 33.3 to 333.3 microg kg(-1). The average recoveries (n=3) for the lowest concentration level ranged from 71.6 to 117.5%, with relative standard deviations between 3.1 and 12.3%, respectively. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 1.0 to 3.3 microg kg(-1) and from 3.33 to 33.33 microg kg(-1), respectively. The optimized method was then applied to 16 locally purchased mango samples, all of them containing the pesticides bifenthrin and azoxystrobin in concentrations of 18.3-57.4 and 12.7-55.8 microg kg(-1), respectively, although these values were below the MRL established by Brazilian legislation. The method proved to be selective, sensitive, and with good precision and recovery rates, presenting LOQ below the MRL admitted by Brazilian legislation.

  7. Extraction of soluble dietary fiber from Costaria costata residue%多肋藻(Costaria costata)渣可溶性膳食纤维提取工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付慧; 汪秋宽; 何云海

    2012-01-01

    Soluble dietary fiber(SDF)was extracted from Costaria costata residue using ethanol precipitation method,sodium chloride activation method and alginic acid conversion method.Extraction factors of ethanol precipitation method were optimized by orthogonal experiment when taking extraction yield of SDF as indicator.The concentration of sodium chloride and reaction time of sodium chloride activation method was determined by the expansion capacity and extraction yield of SDF.The results showed that sodium chloride activation method was superior to the other methods,and the extraction yield was 55.41%.The expansion,water-holding and fat absorption capacities were 55.06 mL/g,2391% and 269% respectively for sodium chloride activation method.The absorption capacities of SDF to cholesterol were measured to be 13.25 mg/g and 18.21 mg/g at pH 7 and pH 2 separately.%采用乙醇沉淀法、氯化钠活化法、褐藻酸转化法3种方法从多肋藻(Costaria costata)渣中提取可溶性膳食纤维(SDF),以SDF的提取率为指标,通过正交试验优化了乙醇沉淀法的提取条件,由SDF提取率及膨胀力分析结果确定了氯化钠的活化法的最优活化浓度和活化时间。实验结果表明氯化钠活化法优于乙醇沉淀法与褐藻酸转化法,其提取率为55.41%,SDF的膨胀力为55.06mL/g,持水力为2391%,吸脂力为269%,在pH值为2与pH值为7的条件下吸收胆固醇的能力分别为18.21mg/g和13.25mg/g。

  8. Capacidade extratora de plantas em sistemas alagados utilizados no tratamento de águas residuárias de laticínios Extraction capacity of plants grown in constructed wetland systems used for treatment of dairy wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio T. de Matos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a capacidade extratora de duas espécies vegetais quando cultivadas em sistemas alagados construídos (SAC utilizados no tratamento de águas residuárias de laticínios (ARL. As unidades experimentais foram constituídas por cinco SAC cultivados com capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum schum e cinco SAC cultivados com capim tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., com escoamento subsuperficial horizontal. A ARL foi aplicada numa vazão média de 60 L d-1 e tempo de residência hidráulica de 4,8 dias, sendo os SAC submetidos a Taxas de Carregamento Orgânico (TCO de 66, 130, 190, 320 e 570 kg ha-1 d-1 de DBO. O capim tifton 85 extraiu mais nitrogênio e sódio enquanto o capim elefante extraiu maior quantidade de potássio da ARL, quando cultivado sob as taxas de carregamento orgânico (TCO avaliadas. A concentração de fósforo na parte aérea e a capacidade extratora foram semelhantes nos dois capins; entretanto, existem evidências de aumento na capacidade de extração desse nutriente pelo capim tifton 85, com o aumento da TCO aplicada nos SAC.The objective of this research was to evaluate the extraction capacity of two plant species when grown in constructed wetland systems (CWS used for dairy wastewater (DW treatment. The experimental units were formed by five CWS grown with Pennisetum purpureum schum grass and five CWS cultivated with grass tifton 85 (Cynodon spp., with horizontal subsurface flow. The DW was applied at an average flow of 60 L d-1 and hydraulic residence time of 4.8 days, and subjected to organic loading rates (ORL of 66, 130, 190, 320 and 570 kg ha-1 d-1 of BOD. The grass tifton 85 extracted more nitrogen and sodium, while the elephant grass extracted a larger amount of potassium from the DW, when grown under the evaluated organic loading rates (ORL. The concentration of phosphorus in aerial parts of plants and extraction capacity were similar in the two grasses, however, there is evidence of an

  9. Protein nutritional quality of cowpea and navy bean residue fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and navy bean residue-wheat diets was determined using in-vivo and in-vitro protein ... Phytohemagglutinin activity was only detectable in the raw cowpea ... Legume residues after protein extraction could be recommended for human food if

  10. Extraction and in Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Jujube-wine Residue Polysaccharide%枣酒渣多糖的提取和体外抗氧化性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林静雅; 刘邻渭; 严陇兵; 原田

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Search for the extraction condition and determine antioxidation ability of jujube-wine residue polysaccharide (ZRP). Methods: The supersonic extraction condition of ZRP was optimized through single factor and central combination design experiments. The antioxidation ability of the polysaccharide was tested and compared with ascorbic acid, jujube polysaccharide(ZP) and jujube-wine polysaccharide(ZWP). Results; Using the lab ultrasonic cleaner with 40 KHZ, the optemized extraction condition was that extracting by water at 85 °C for 47 min with liquid solide ratio of 30: 1, then the yeild of ZRP was 12.52 mg/g. The ZRP IC50 of ·OH and DPPH· was 2.10 mg/mL and 1.83 mg/mL respectively, and the ZRP reducing power was stronger than ZP and ZWP but weeker than ascobic acid. Conclusions: ZRP had preferable antioxidation ability in vitro test and could be used as food antioxidant.%目的:探讨枣酒渣多糖(ZRP)的提取务件及其抗氧化活性.方法:采用单因素及中心组合试验,建立超声辅助提取ZRP的优化条件,并以红枣多糖(ZP)、枣酒多糖(ZWP)及抗坏血酸为对照,对ZRP清除·OH、DPPH·的能力及还原力进行研究.结果:在超声频率40 kHz条件下,ZRP的最佳热水浸提工艺为:提取时间47 min、提取温度85 ℃、液固比5∶1,在此条件下多糖的提取率为12.52 mg/g.ZRP清除·OH和DPPH·的IC50值分别为2.10 mg/mL和1.83 mg/mL,还原力强于ZP和ZWP,弱于抗坏血酸.结论:枣酒渣多糖具有较强的体外抗氧化能力,可作为食品抗氧化剂.

  11. Composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions of hot-water extractable soil organic matters from soils with plant residue compost or mineral fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriizumi, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Uezono, I.; Kato, N.

    2009-04-01

    The hot-water extractable organic nitrogen is well known as a laboratory index of mineralizable nitrogen. This available nitrogen is indispensable for growth of plants because of being absorbed in crops. We measured the composition of the amino acid and amino sugar for molecular weight fractions in hot-water extractable organic matters to understand the source of the available nitrogen in soils inserted a compost. Two soil samples were collected from fields (Soil Type; Andosol) in National Agricultural Research Center in Tsukuba, Japan. A plant residue compost of 2 kga-1y-1 during 25 year has been applied to a soil and another soil was under the mineral fertilization. Organic matters were extracted from the soils of 3 g in the water of 50 ml at 80 degree centigrade for16 hours. The molecular size distribution of the hot-water extractable organic matters was analyzed by HPSCE (column YMC Diol-120, elution; 50mM phosphate buffer under pH=7.0, flow rate 1 mlmin-1), and 20 fractions were collected at regular intervals in the retention time. The chromatograms were monitored under the absorbance at 280 nm and fluorescence intensity at Ex.280 nm: Em.330nm. The concentrations of the 15 amino acids and three amino sugars (muramic acid, glucosamine, and galactosamine) for the molecule weight fractions were measured by HPLC as o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) derivatives after the vapor HCl hydrolysis. Organic nitrogen concentrations of the hot-water extractable organic matters in the soil inserted the compost (C-soil) and the mineral fertilization soil (M-soil) were 133 and 35 mgkg-1, respectively. The extracted organic matters had the variable molecule weight (103- 104 Da). The concentrations of the amino acid and amino sugar of organic nitrogen in the C-soil were higher than those in the M-soil in all fractions. The fractions were classified into 3 groups (LW, MW, and SW) based on the molecule weight and spectroscopic characteristics. Each group had unique composition of the amino

  12. 西番莲果中嘧霉胺残留的SPE-RP-HPLC降解分析%Degradation analysis of pyrimethanil residue in passion fruit by RP-HPLC with solid-phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高智席; 敖克厚; 曾启华; 李新发; 刘焱; 牟青松; 邓传跃

    2012-01-01

    建立固相萃取-反相高效液相色谱法测定西番莲果中嘧霉胺的残留降解分析的方法.色谱柱为Shim-pack VP-ODS 150 mm×4.6 mm,流动相为甲醇:1%冰乙酸=90:10(V/V),流速为0.4 mL/min,进样量20μL.嘧霉胺在0.0760~21.20 mg/L(r=0.9964)范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系,检出限为0.05 mg/L,嘧霉胺的回收率为85.6%~102.3%,相对标准偏差0.89%~2.7%.方法可作为西番莲果中嘧霉胺含量监测的控制方法.同时,还对嘧霉胺由西番莲果皮向西番莲果肉的迁移,在西番莲果体上的降解动态进行了测定.%A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatograghic method with solid-phase extraction was used for the degradation analysis of pyrimethanil residue in passion fruit. The HPLC conditions were as follows: the column was Shim-pack VP-ODS 150 mm ×4. 6 mm. CH3OH: 1% CH3COOH = 90:10 ( V/V)as mobile phase, flow rate 0. 4 mL /min, injection volume 20 μL and detection wavelength at 270 nm. Good linearity of pyrimeth-anil was obtained over the range of 0.0760 ~21.20 mg/L(r =0.9964). The detection limit was 0. 0500 mg/L for pyrimedianil. The average recoveries ranged from 85. 6% to 102. 3% with relative standard deviation of 0. 89% ~2. 7% . The method is fast and simple for the residue detection and analysis of pyrimethanil in passion fruit, and it is suitable for the determination of fungicide residue of pyrimethanil in passion fruit.

  13. 固相萃取-高效液相色谱法检测药渣中残留泰乐菌素%Determination of tylosin residue in pharmaceutical waste using solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 常璇; 马玉龙; 孙瑞珠; 王敏

    2013-01-01

    目的:建立了药渣中残留泰乐菌素的固相萃取-高效液相色谱测定方法.方法:药渣中残留泰乐菌素经甲醇提取,正己烷脱脂,C18固相萃取柱净化,然后用Agilent HC-C18反相色谱柱,紫外检测器,外标法定量检测.流动相为乙腈-0.02mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液,等度洗脱,流速1 mL·min-1.结果:泰乐菌素含量在0.1 ~100 mg·L-1的范围内呈良好线性关系,在16,20,24 mg·L-1添加水平下的回收率为92.9% ~ 107.1%,RSD为2.4% ~4.1%,检出限为0.05 mg·L-1.结论:本法适用于药渣、饲料等样品中泰乐菌素残留量的测定.%Objective: To develop a method for the determination of tylosin residue in pharmaceutical waste using solid phase extraction ( SPE ) - high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detection system. Methods: Tylosin in pharmaceutical waste was extracted using methanol,defatted with hexane,purified on a C18 -SPE column, and then determined using C18 - reversed - phase column with external standard. The mobile phase was aceto-nitrile -0. 02 mol · L-1 phosphate buffer and the flow rate was 1. 0 mL · min-1 with isocratic elution. Results: The tylosin concentrations within the range of 0. 1 - 100 mg · L-1 exhibited a better linearity. The recoveries at spiked concentration of 16,20,24 mg · L-1 were in the range of 92. 9% -107. 1% , and the relative standard deviations were 2. 4% -4. 1%. The detection limit was 0. 05 mg · L-1. Conclusion: This method can be used utilization for the detection of tylosin residue in pharmaceutical waste and feed.

  14. Study on Extraction Technology of Dietary Fiber from Potato Residue%马铃薯皮渣中膳食纤维提取条件的优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉梅; 董轶; 刘磊; 王列娟; 刘华

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber was extracted from potato residue by enzymic and alkaline hydrolysis. The principe of orthogonal test was adopted to optimization study on potato decolorization and starch hydrolysis.The results showed that optimal conditions of potato decolorization were using 95%ethanol ertraction ,ratio of material to liquid was 1:4 (g/mL),temperature was 50℃,pH was 5,extraction time was 150 min. The optimal conditions of starch hydrolysis were that temperature was 65℃,time was 120 min,ratio of material to liquid was 1:9(g/mL), pH was 6.5,enzyme concentration was 0.8%.The recovery ratio of dietary fiber was up to 57.00%.%采用酶碱法提取马铃薯皮渣中的膳食纤维,并分别设计正交试验对马铃薯皮渣脱色及淀粉水解条件进行了优化研究,结果表明:脱色的最佳工艺条件是用95%乙醇浸提,料液比为1:4(g/mL),温度为50℃,pH为5,浸提时间为150 min;水解淀粉的最佳工艺是温度为65℃,时间为120 min,料液比为1:9(g/mL),pH为6.5,酶浓度为0.8%.膳食纤维提取率可达57.00%.

  15. 核桃渣中油脂和蛋白的水剂法同步提取工艺%Study on Aqueous Synchronous Extraction of Oil and Protein from Walnut Milk Residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彬球; 陈朝银; 葛锋; 刘迪秋; 段秀

    2012-01-01

    Aqueous synchronous extraction of oil and protein from walnut milk residues was investigated.Through single factor experiment,the best process conditions was: pH 11.5,ratio of solid to liquid 1∶8,lixiviated at 50℃ for 5h.Under the above conditions,the oil yield was 26.05%,the protein yield was 10.72%.Freezing and thawing demulsification was used to increased oil yield.The average yield of the free oilⅡ after demulsification was 43.05%.%对核桃渣中油脂和蛋白质进行了水剂法同步提取分离工艺研究。经单因素实验,获得了适宜的工艺条件为:兑水pH 11.5,料液比(g∶ml)1∶8,浸提温度50℃和浸提时间5 h。在此条件下,油脂得率为26.05%,蛋白质得率为10.72%。工艺过程中采用冻融法破乳增加油脂得率,破乳后的清油Ⅱ平均得率为43.05%以上。

  16. Synthesis and application of molecularly imprinted poly(methacrylic acid)-silica hybrid composite material for selective solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography determination of oxytetracycline residues in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yun-Kai; Wang, Li-Min; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Chen-Xi; Sun, Han-Wen

    2012-03-01

    A novel molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid composite material (MIP-HCM) was developed based on molecular imprinting technique in combination with hybrid composite synthesis and sol-gel technology for selective solid-phase extraction (SPE) of tetracyclines residues in milk. The MIP-HCM was prepared using oxytetracycline as the template, methacrylic acid as organic functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane as inorganic precursor and methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane as the coupling agent. Synthesis conditions are optimized by changing some factors to obtain sorbent with the controllable adsorption capacity, selectivity, hardness and toughness. Binding study demonstrated that the imprinted hybrid composites showed excellent affinity and high selectivity to oxytetracycline. An enrichment factor of 18.8 along with a good sample clean-up was obtained under the optimized SPE conditions. The average recoveries of three tetracyclines antibiotics spiked milk at 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5 mg kg⁻¹ were in the range of 80.9-104.3% with the precision of 1.5-5.0%. The limits of detection and quantitation of the proposed method were in a range of 4.8-12.7 μg kg⁻¹ and 16.0-42.3 μg kg⁻¹, respectively.

  17. High-throughput method for macrolides and lincosamides antibiotics residues analysis in milk and muscle using a simple liquid-liquid extraction technique and liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jank, Louise; Martins, Magda Targa; Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Campos Motta, Tanara Magalhães; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara

    2015-11-01

    A fast and simple method for residue analysis of the antibiotics classes of macrolides (erythromycin, azithromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin and spiramycin) and lincosamides (lincomycin and clindamycin) was developed and validated for cattle, swine and chicken muscle and for bovine milk. Sample preparation consists in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with acetonitrile, followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS), without the need of any additional clean-up steps. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 column and a mobile phase composed by acidified acetonitrile and water. The method was fully validated according the criteria of the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Validation parameters such as limit of detection, limit of quantification, linearity, accuracy, repeatability, specificity, reproducibility, decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were evaluated. All calculated values met the established criteria. Reproducibility values, expressed as coefficient of variation, were all lower than 19.1%. Recoveries range from 60% to 107%. Limits of detection were from 5 to 25 µg kg(-1).The present method is able to be applied in routine analysis, with adequate time of analysis, low cost and a simple sample preparation protocol.

  18. 电镍含钴废渣提取氧化钴新工艺%NEW TECHNOLOGY FOR EXTRACTING COBALT OXIDE FROM COBALT CONTAINING RESIDUE IN ELECTROLYTIC NICKEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉楠

    2001-01-01

    详述了利用电镍含钴废渣,经过硫酸还原溶解,黄钠铁矾法除铁、P-204萃取除杂质和萃取分离钴镍、氟化铵除钙镁、草酸铵沉淀钴、煅烧等步骤,提取氧化钴的新工艺流程及其生产方法。并介绍了采用此新工艺所制氧化钴粉状产品质量及钴镍的回收率(钴的总回收率不低于92%,镍的总回收率不低于95%)等。%The reactiving mechanism,technological process,every step operating methods and the technical economical effect of the new technology for using the cobalt containing waste residues to extract cobalt oxide was described.The quality of the product and the recovery efficiency of cobalt and nickel were also introduced.

  19. Inhibitory effect of high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a municipal solid waste incineration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhao; Dang, Yan; Li, Caihua; Sun, Dezhi, E-mail: sdzlab@126.com

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • High NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations inhibit anaerobic treatment of leachate. • Inhibitory effect of NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations on anaerobic granular sludge is reversible. • High NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentrations inhibit bioactivities of microorganisms instead of survival. - Abstract: Fresh leachate from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants generally contains extremely high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration which could inhibit the bioactivity of microorganisms. The inhibitory effect of high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration on anaerobic biotreatment of fresh leachate from a MSW incineration plant in China has been investigated in this study. The inhibition processes was studied by both static tests and a laboratory-scale expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The specific methanogenic activity (SMA) of the microorganisms in anaerobic granular sludge was inhibited with the NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration increasing to 1000 mg/L in static tests. As well the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and the methane yield decreased in the EGSB reactor, while the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulated and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the anaerobic granular sludge increased with NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration rising to 1000 mg/L, without any rebounding during 30 days of operation. Decreasing NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration to 500 mg/L in influent, the COD removal efficiency recovered to about 85% after 26 days. 1000 mg/L of NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N in leachate was suggested to be the inhibition threshold in EGSB reactor. High-throughput sequencing results showed little changes in microbial communities of the sludge for a high NH{sub 4}{sup +}–N concentration, indicating that the survival of most microorganisms was not affected under such a condition. It inhibited the bioactivity of the microorganisms, resulting in decrease of the COD removal efficiency.

  20. Biotreatment of Odor Waste Gases by Immobilized Ceramsite Biofilter%陶粒负载生物滴滤塔净化恶臭气体研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万俊杰; 曾志聪; 谢键羽; 庄煜培; 罗凯平; 柯志梅; 黎志坤

    2016-01-01

    Objective] To find out the process conditions and influence factors for the biotreatment of odor gases of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and ammonia (NH3). [Method] The degradation performances on H2S and NH3 were investigated during the start-up and stable operation process of biofilter with ceramsites as the packing microorgan-isms. [Result] The biofilm formation of the biofilter system to purify the waste gas of H2S was completed within 9 d, and the removal rate of H2S could reach up to 99% with the initial concentration of 100-1 000 mg/m3 and empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 142-290 s. The biofilm formation of the biofilter system to purify the waste gas of NH3 was completed within 10 d with the removal rate reaching up to 94.61%. [Conclusion] Under suitable conditions, the biofilter showed high removal rates to both H2S and NH3.%[目的]探讨净化单一恶臭气体 H2S和NH3工艺条件及影响因素。[方法]以陶粒作为生物滴滤塔的填料负载微生物,考察了生物滴滤塔于挂膜启动及稳定运行阶段对 H2S和 NH3的降解性能。[结果]①净化 H2S废气的生物滴滤塔系统在9 d内即完成挂膜,在进口浓度100-1000 mg/m3,空床停留时间( EBRT)142-290 s的条件下,H2S的去除率均可达到99%以上;②净化NH3废气的生物滴滤塔在10 d内即完成挂膜,对 NH3去除率均达到94.61%。[结论]适宜条件下,生物滴滤塔对于 H2S和 NH3的去除率均较高。

  1. 酶碱法提取梨渣水不溶性膳食纤维的研究%Research on extraction of water insoluble dietary fiber from pear residue by alkali enzymic hydrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓丽; 宿娅

    2014-01-01

    Water insoluble dietary fiber extracted and decoloration from pear residue by using enzyme method and al-kali extraction method was studied. Effects of enzyme dosage, the ratio of material to solution, alkali concentration, temperature and time on extraction yield of water insoluble dietary fiber were investigated trough single-factor experi-ment method. Subsequently,a central composition experimental design was performed to attain the optimum decoloring project of water insoluble dietary fiber. The optimized conditions were as follows:amylase (4 U/g) at the conditions of pH6.0, and then with the ratio of material to solution 1 g∶15 mL,NaOH concentration 1.0 mol/L,temperature 50℃and time 1 h,the yield of water insoluble dietary fiber was found to be 12.9%. The optimum decoloring conditions were:the concentration of H2O2 8%,the reaction temperature 60℃,the reaction time 3 h. Under the optimal conditions, the expansibility,water-holding capability were 7.1 mL/g,6.167 g/g,respectively.%以梨渣为原料,用酶与碱结合提取的方法,探讨了酶用量、料液比、氢氧化钠溶液浓度、温度和时间对酶碱法提取梨渣水不溶性膳食纤维得率的影响,并对其脱色工艺进行了研究。结果表明,用淀粉酶4 U/g在pH6.0下处理后,在料液比1 g∶15 mL、氢氧化钠溶液浓度1.0 mol/L,温度50℃,时间1 h的条件下提取,梨渣水不溶性膳食纤维的得率最高,达到12.9%。最优的脱色条件是H2O2溶液体积浓度8%,温度60℃,时间3 h。产品的膨胀力、持水力分别达到6.167 g/mL、7.1 g/g。

  2. Extraction and characterization of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin from cellulosic ethanol fermentation residue%纤维乙醇发酵残渣中酶解木质素的提取与表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘奇; 陈介南; 张新民; 詹鹏; 张林

    2015-01-01

    The resource of the wastes from cellulosic ethanol production gets more and more attention. Enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) was extracted and characterized from the residue of bioethanol fermentation using enzymatic poplar fiber. The single factor experiment analysis was conducted to study the effect of alkali concentration , solid-liquid ratio , reaction temperature and time on extraction of EHL. Reaction conditions were optimized by orthogonal analysis. The structure of EHL was characterized using ultraviolet (UV),Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The optimum EHL extraction conditions were NaOH 40g/L , solid-liquid ratio 1∶30 , reaction temperature 60℃ and reaction time 2.5h. UV and FT-IR spectra showed that the EHL retained intact lignin structure,mainly with syringyl lignin,holding high chemical activities.%近年来,将纤维素乙醇生产过程中所产生的废物进行资源化利用已越来越受重视。本研究利用杨木纤维酶解发酵产纤维素乙醇的残渣进行木质素的提取与表征,采用单因素试验分析碱浓度、料液比、反应温度、反应时间对酶解木质素提取效果的影响,并对反应条件进行正交优化,应用UV、FT-IR光谱仪对分离出的酶解木质素结构进行表征。结果表明:酶解木质素最佳的提取工艺条件为NaOH浓度40g/L、料液比1∶30、反应温度60℃、反应时间2.5h。紫外和红外光谱显示酶解木质素保留了完好的木质素结构,以紫丁香基木质素为主,有良好的化学活性。

  3. Validation of an off line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of systemic insecticide residues in honey and pollen samples collected in apiaries from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Chao, María; Agruña, María Jesús; Flores Calvete, Gonzalo; Sakkas, Vasilis; Llompart, María; Dagnac, Thierry

    2010-07-01

    The use of pesticides to protect crops against plagues and insects is one of the most important ways to assure agricultural quality and productivity. However, bad application practices may cause the contamination of different environmental compartments and animal species, as a consequence of migration or accumulation of those compounds. Fipronil, imidacloprid and thiametoxam are systemic or systemic-like insecticides widely used in maize crops. Their heavy action in the nervous system of target insects also means a high toxicity to non-target pollinator insects such as honey bees which can get in touch with them through pollen and nectar during foraging activities. These insecticides have even been suspected to cause a significant decrease of honeybee colonies that has been observed in many countries since the past decade. Since September 1st 2008, the European Commission set new MRLs in food and feed of plant and animal origin. The pesticides included in this study have MRLs in honey and pollen between 10 and 50 ng g(-1). In the present work, an analytical method was developed with the aim of determining residues of fipronil and some of its metabolites (fipronil sulfone, fipronil sulfide, fipronil desulfinyl and fipronil carboxamide), thiamethoxam and imidacloprid in honey and pollen samples. The extraction optimization was performed using a Doehlert experimental design by studying two factors, the mixture and the ratio of solvents used. Prior to the extraction procedure, raw hive samples containing honey, pollen and wax were centrifuged at 4000 rpm. The upper solid material was removed, and 1 g of the lower phase was mixed with 3 mL of the optimized mixture of methanol/water (10/90). The extract was passed through a florisil cartridge and the target compounds were eluted with methanol and analysed by LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was validated according to the guidelines included in the SANCO/10684/2009 document and the ISO

  4. Method of infusion extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Diaz, Franklin R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method of removing desirable constituents from an infusible material by infusion extraction, where a piston operating in a first chamber draws a solvent into the first chamber where it may be heated, and then moves the heated solvent into a second chamber containing the infusible material, and where infusion extraction takes place. The piston then moves the solvent containing the extract through a filter into the first chamber, leaving the extraction residue in the second chamber.

  5. 超声波萃取气相色谱法检测白菜干中的有机磷农药残留%Determination of organophosphorus insecticides residues in dry cabbages by ultrasonic extraction-gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红梅; 黎小鹏; 李文英

    2012-01-01

    In order to detect familiar organophosphorus insecticides residues more accurately and more conveniently, a detection method was established for the determination of 12 organophosphorus insecti- cides residues i methamidophos, isofenphos-methy n dry cabbages by ultrasonic extraction-gas chromatography, including dichlorvos, acephate, phorate, omethoate, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl, fenitrothion, 1, parathion and isocarbophos. The results showed that the 12 organophosphorus insecti- cides concentration range of linearity was 0. 01 - 1.00 μg/mL. The percent recoveries were 70. 6% - 112. 1% , coefficients of variation (CV) were 1.6% - 15.2% , and the detection limits were 0. 004 - 0. 026 mg/kg. Some samples collected from market were determined by this method system. It was found that the residue was 0. 243 mg/kg for chlorpyrifos with 1.7% of CV, and the other 11 organophosphorus insecticides were not found. This method was precise, high sensitivity and more convenient, and met the need of organophosphorus insecticides residues detection.%为了更准确、简便地检测白菜干中常见的有机磷农药残留,建立了超声波萃取气相色谱法检测白菜干中敌敌畏、甲胺磷、乙酰甲胺磷、甲拌磷、氧乐果、乐果、毒死蜱、甲基对硫磷、杀螟硫磷、甲基异柳磷、对硫磷和水胺硫磷等12种有机磷农药残留的方法.结果表明,12种有机磷农药在0.01-1.00μg/mL范围内具有良好的线性关系,回收率为70.6%-112.1%,变异系数1.6%-15.2%,方法检出限为0.004-0.026mg/kg.实际检测样品时,于白菜干样品中仅检出毒死蜱残留量为0.243mg/kg,变异系数为1.7%,其余11种有机磷农药未检出.该方法定量准确、灵敏度高、操作简便,适用于白菜干中常见的12种有机磷农药残留的检测.

  6. 乳酸菌发酵法制备茶渣可溶性膳食纤维的工艺研究%Study on preparation technology of soluble dietary fiber extracted from tea residue by Lactobacillus fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左茜; 张士康; 朱科学; 王彬; 周惠明

    2013-01-01

    Taking tea residue as the raw material, soluble dietary fiber (SDF) was prepared by mixed strain of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus fermentation (1:1).Effect of inoculating volume, fermentation temperature,fermentation time and ratios of material and liquid on yield of SDF were investigated,the fermentation conditions were optimized by single-factor experiments and orthogonal test.The result showed that the optimum condition of extracting SDF was as follows: inoculating volume 3%, fermentation temperature 4011, fermentation time 25h,ratio of material and liquid by 1:10.Under these conditions,the average SDF yield was 10.99%.%以茶渣为原料,采用保加利亚乳杆菌和嗜热链球菌(1:1)混合菌为发酵菌种,研究以微生物发酵法制备茶渣可溶性膳食纤维(SDF)的最佳工艺参数.通过单因素实验,探讨了接种量、发酵温度、发酵时间和料液比等因素对发酵工艺的影响,利用L9(34)正交实验对茶渣SDF的制备工艺进行优化.结果表明:发酵法制备茶渣SDF的最佳工艺条件为:接种量为3%,发酵温度40℃,发酵时间25h,料液比1∶10(g/mL),在此条件下得到的茶渣SDF的平均得率可达10.99%.

  7. 杏鲍菇深加工残渣多糖酶法微波辅助提取工艺优化%Optimization of microwave-assisted enzyme extraction process of polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue after deep treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯乐芹; 张东旭; 肖建中

    2014-01-01

    为了研究杏鲍菇残渣中多糖的酶处理-微波辅助提取工艺及生物活性,该文以杏鲍菇深加工后的残渣为原料,在纤维素酶处理的基础上,微波辅助法提取杏鲍菇多糖;利用响应面试验设计对提取工艺条件进行优化,并与传统热水提取方法进行比较;对杏鲍菇多糖进行抗氧化和抑菌活性评价。结果表明,微波辅助提取杏鲍菇多糖的较佳条件为:水料比35∶1 mL/g,提取时间15 min,微波功率570 W,此条件下多糖的提取率为12.11%±1.02%,比热水提取高出41.21%,且提取时间缩短了105 min。杏鲍菇多糖对1,1-二苯基-2-三硝基苯肼自由基、羟基自由基和超氧阴离子自由基具有一定的清除作用,其半数抑制浓度(IC50)分别为22.9、19和21.1 mg/mL,对枯草芽孢杆菌、大肠杆菌和金黄色葡萄球菌具有较好的抑制作用,其最低抑制质量浓度分别为8、16和16 mg/mL,对黑曲霉和酿酒酵母没有明显的抑制作用。研究结果为进一步开发杏鲍菇多糖功能和利用杏鲍菇残渣提供一定的技术依据。%Pleurotus eryngii is a kind of valuable edible and medicinal fungus, which contains a lot of effective ingredients. Modern pharmacological researches show that, Pleurotus eryngii fruit body has the function of decreasing blood pressure and reducing blood lipid. Polysaccharides are the main active components of Pleurotus eryngii, which have the antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral and antitumor effects. The polysaccharide extraction methods include hot-water extraction, ultrasound, microwave, high temperature and high-pressure extraction. At present, the extraction of Pleurotus eryngii polysaccharides is mainly performed by hot-water extraction, which has long extraction time, high energy consumption and low extraction yield. Pleurotus eryngii stalk residue is the byproducts of fruit body processing. It contains rich protein and polysaccharide, and has

  8. Determination of aminoglycoside residues in milk and muscle based on a simple and fast extraction procedure followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsand, Juliana Bazzan; Jank, Louíse; Martins, Magda Targa; Hoff, Rodrigo Barcellos; Barreto, Fabiano; Pizzolato, Tânia Mara; Sirtori, Carla

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine mainly for treatment and prevention of diseases. The aminoglycosides are one of the antibiotics classes that have been extensively employed in animal husbandry for the treatment of bacterial infections, but also as growth promotion. The European Union has issued strict Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) for aminoglycosides in several animal origin products including bovine milk, bovine, swine and poultry muscle. This paper describes a fast and simple analytical method for the determination of ten aminoglycosides (spectinomycin, tobramycin, gentamicin, kanamycin, hygromycin, apramycin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, amikacin and neomycin) in bovine milk and bovine, swine and poultry muscle. For sample preparation, an extraction method was developed using trichloroacetic acid and clean up with low temperature precipitation and C18 bulk. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to carry out quantitative analysis and liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was used to screening purposes. Both methods were validated according to the European Union Commission Directive 2002/657/EC. Good performance characteristics were obtained for recovery, precision, calibration curve, specificity, decision limits (CCα) and detection capabilities (CCβ) in all matrices evaluated. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit (LOQ) were ranging from 5 to 100ngg(-1) and 12.5 to 250ngg(-1), respectively. Good linearity (r)-above 0.99-was achieved in concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 2.0×MRL. Recoveries ranged from 36.8% to 98.0% and the coefficient of variation from 0.9 to 20.2%, noting that all curves have been made into their own matrices in order to minimize the matrix effects. The CCβ values obtained in qualitative method were between 25 and 250ngg(-1). The proposed method showed to be simple, easy, and adequate for high-throughput analysis of a large

  9. 顶空气相色谱法测定大孔树脂提取物中的残留溶剂研究%Determination of residual solvents in macroporous resin extracts by Head-space capillary gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬; 杨敬芝; 杜守颖; 张东明; 赵立敏; 陈雯

    2009-01-01

    目的:建立了测定大孔树脂淫羊藿提取物、栀子提取物以及HP中乙醇、正己烷、苯、甲苯、甲基环己烷、二甲苯、苯乙烯、二乙烯苯残留有机溶剂含量的顶空气相色谱法.方法:采用顶空气相色谱法,FID检测器,以20%~50%二甲基亚砜为溶媒,顶空预热温度为90℃,预热时间为10 min,进样口温度为180℃,检测器温度为250℃,以氮气为载气,使用DB-1交联毛细管柱(60m×0.32mm,1 μm),程序升温,实现了各组分的基线分离.结果:乙醇、正己烷、苯、甲苯、甲基环己烷、二甲苯、苯乙烯、二乙烯苯在各自对应的浓度范围内,线性关系良好;乙醇、正己烷、苯、甲苯、甲基环己烷、二甲苯、苯乙烯、二乙烯苯的最小检测限分别为2.72,0.22,0.03,0.03,0.28,0.33,0.03,0.31 μg·mL~(-1);加样回收率均在75%以上,精密度较好.结论:经方法学验证,该方法灵敏、准确、可靠,可适用于大孔树脂淫羊藿提取物、栀子提取物及HP中乙醇、正己烷、苯、甲苯、甲基环己烷、二甲苯、苯乙烯、二乙烯苯等残留有机溶剂的测定.%Objective:This paper reports a Head-space GC method for determination of enthanol,hexane,benzene,toluene,methyl cyclohexane,xylene,styrene,divinyl benzene in macroporous resin extractions.Method:The analytical coluren was DB-1(60m×0.32mm,1μm).The injector temperature was 180℃ and the detector tempemture was 250℃.The column temperature was programmed raised.The carrier gas was nitrogen and the solvent was 20%-50% dimethyl sulfoxide.Results:The stand curve were linear for each solvents in the range of each consistencv.The average recoveries were all more than 75%.Conclusion:This method is simple,rapid and precise,it is suitable for measurement of residual solvents in macroporous resin extracts.

  10. The reparation of residual roots and residual crowns and masticatory function%残根和残冠的修复与咀嚼功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张俊杰

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1 The evidences of the reparation of residual roots and residual crowns and the clinical significances Lots of patients have severe physical and mental pain and life quality decrease resulted from the extraction of residual roots and residual crowns. With science development, new material application and designing method promotion, several artificial teeth have replaced the extraction of teeth. In some degree, the method have relieved the pain of no teeth.

  11. Design calculation of fluidized bed drier for drying sludge from wastewater bio-treatment of dying house*%纺织印染废水活性污泥干燥器设计计算探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊旺; 曾雪峰; 魏彩云; 刘旭峰; 黄景怡; 吴舒红; 施艳秀; 李志群; 黄桂珍; 任洁

    2011-01-01

    The use of sludge from wastewater bio-treatment system is among the hot topics in scientist's list over the world. Bio-sludge is a fuel theoretically, but the heat from its combustion is not enough to evaporate water within the dewatered sludge. So available waste heat for drying of dewatered sludge is the key for sludge combustion economically. The drying of dewatered sludge from bio-treatment system of effluent of dyeing house by vent gas from a power plant was discussed in this paper, and the discussion included drying curve, drying rate, the drying capacuy of fluidized bed dryer, drying time, settlement velocity (or critical space velocity), diameter of the dryer and mass of wet sludge in equipment.%污泥作为再生资源加以有效利用是世界各国共同的课题.理论研究表明,脱水污泥含有一定量的有机物质,可以用作燃料.然而由于脱水泥饼含水率过高,污泥燃烧产生的热能不足于抵消水分蒸发所需的热能.因此,寻找可以利用的废热源来干燥脱水污泥成为污泥有效利用的重要一环.本文为电厂烟道气用于干燥纺织印染活性污泥的案例,文中结合其他作者的研究成果,就污泥干燥曲线、污泥干燥速率、流化床干燥污泥设备的处理能力、干燥时间和沉降速度(临界空塔速度)及塔径、塔内湿污泥存量进行了讨论.

  12. Application of Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro-extraction to GC-Determination of Residual Amounts of Pesticides%分散液液微萃取技术在气相色谱法测定农药残留量中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔淑敏; 王卫平; 缪吉根; 陈建荣

    2013-01-01

    介绍了分散液液微萃取(DLLME)技术的基本原理和萃取过程,介绍了萃取剂、分散剂、萃取时间、溶液的pH和离子强度等因素对萃取效果的影响;综述了DLLME与气相色谱法相结合在农药残留分析中的应用(引用文献55篇).%A review on the progress of application of dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction (DLLME) to gas chromatographic determination of residual amounts of pesticides was given in this paper,relating especially to the topics on the principle and procedure of extraction,the influential factors of extraction,including extraction solvent,dispersing agents,extraction time,values of pH and ionic strength (55 ref.cited).

  13. Applications of bauxite residue: A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Ajay S; Suri, Narendra M; Kant, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Bauxite residue is the waste generated during alumina production by Bayer's process. The amount of bauxite residue (40-50 wt%) generated depends on the quality of bauxite ore used for the processing. High alkalinity and high caustic content in bauxite residue causes environmental risk for fertile soil and ground water contamination. The caustic (NaOH) content in bauxite residue leads to human health risks, like dermal problems and irritation to eyes. Moreover, disposal of bauxite residue requires a large area; such problems can only be minimised by utilising bauxite residue effectively. For two decades, bauxite residue has been used as a binder in cement industries and filler/reinforcement for composite materials in the automobile industry. Valuable metals and oxides, like alumina (Al2O3), titanium oxide (TiO2) and iron oxide Fe2O3, were extracted from bauxite residue to reduce waste. Bauxite residue was utilised in construction and structure industries to make geopolymers. It was also used in the making of glass-ceramics and a coating material. Recently bauxite residue has been utilised to extract rare earth elements like scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), neodymium (Nd) and dysprosium (Dy). In this review article, the mineralogical characteristics of bauxite residue are summarised and current progresses on utilisation of bauxite residue in different fields of science and engineering are presented in detail.

  14. Glyphosate fate in soils when arriving in plant residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamy, Laure; Barriuso, Enrique; Gabrielle, Benoît

    2016-07-01

    A significant fraction of pesticides sprayed on crops may be returned to soils via plant residues, but its fate has been little documented. The objective of this work was to study the fate of glyphosate associated to plants residues. Oilseed rape was used as model plant using two lines: a glyphosate-tolerant (GT) line and a non-GT one, considered as a crucifer weed. The effects of different fragmentation degrees and placements in soil of plant residues were tested. A control was set up by spraying glyphosate directly on the soil. The mineralization of glyphosate in soil was slower when incorporated into plant residues, and the amounts of extractable and non-extractable glyphosate residues increased. Glyphosate availability for mineralization increased when the size of plant residues decreased, and as the distribution of plant residues in soil was more homogeneous. After 80 days of soil incubation, extractable (14)C-residues mostly involved one metabolite of glyphosate (AMPA) but up to 2.6% of initial (14)C was still extracted from undecayed leaves as glyphosate. Thus, the trapping of herbicides in plant materials provided a protection against degradation, and crops residues returns may increase the persistence of glyphosate in soils. This pattern appeared more pronounced for GT crops, which accumulated more non-degraded glyphosate in their tissues.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD AND BARK EXTRACTIVES AND THEIR TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE TMP EFFLUENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaokunZhang; MohiniSain

    2004-01-01

    Wood extractives in model TMP effluents and bio-treated TMP mill effluent were extracted, isolated with liquid-liquid extraction, and analyzed with GC/MS following sylilation. Acute and chronic toxicity of the effluent samples were tested with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood and bark extractives are responsible for the toxicity of the TMP effluent to aquatic life. Resin and fatty acids have a dominating contribution to acute toxicity. Removal of them from the effluent cannot deplete all toxicants, some neutral extractives such as phytosterols, are still chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood bark has a dramatic impact on acute toxicity of the TMP effluent. Only 5% of spruce bark addition can increase acute toxicity by 38.4%. However, it has a reverse trend for chronic toxicity, which indicates that some neutral wood extractives may play important role in chronic toxicity of the TMP effluent as well. Successful control of the debarking process and debark effluents is essential for achieving high-quality effluent treatment.

  16. IDENTIFICATION OF WOOD AND BARK EXTRACTIVES AND THEIR TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS ON THE TMP EFFLUENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaokun Zhang; Mohini Sain

    2004-01-01

    Wood extractives in model TMP effluents and bio-treated TMP mill effluent were extracted, isolated with liquid-liquid extraction, and analyzed with GC/MS following sylilation. Acute and chronic toxicity of the effluent samples were tested with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood and bark extractives are responsible for the toxicity of the TMP effluent to aquatic life. Resin and fatty acids have a dominating contribution to acute toxicity. Removal of them from the effluent cannot deplete all toxicants, some neutral extractives such as phytosterols, are still chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. Wood bark has a dramatic impact on acute toxicity of the TMP effluent. Only 5% of spruce bark addition can increase acute toxicity by 38.4%. However, it has a reverse trend for chronic toxicity, which indicates that some neutral wood extractives may play important role in chronic toxicity of the TMP effluent as well. Successful control of the debarking process and debark effluents is essential for achieving high-quality effluent treatment.

  17. Research on Li4SiO4 Prepared from the Residue of Serpentine after Extracting Magnesium by Acid Leaching%蛇纹石酸浸提镁残渣制备硅酸锂及其性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春全; 狄永浩; 赵德偲; 郑水林; 牛保军

    2015-01-01

    以蛇纹石酸浸提镁残渣为硅源,碳酸锂为锂源,通过高温固相反应合成了硅酸锂高温固碳材料,探究了煅烧时间、气氛以及物料配比对合成材料高温固碳性能的影响。采用热重-差热综合热分析仪(TG-DTG)研究了蛇纹石酸浸提镁残渣型硅酸锂的CO2吸收性能,并通过扫描电子显微镜(SEM)与X射线衍射仪(XRD)对合成材料的微观形貌与结构特征进行了表征。结果表明:蛇纹石酸浸提镁残渣型硅酸锂具有较好的CO2吸收性能,吸收量可达26.66%;与市售SiO2为硅源相比,蛇纹石酸浸提镁残渣型硅酸锂材料煅烧合成时间缩短,高温固碳性能更优。%Using the residue of acid leaching serpentine after extracting magnesium as the silicon source, and lithium carbonate as the lithium source, lithium silicate, a kind of high-temperature carbon absorption material was synthesized through high temperature solid state reaction. The impact of calcining time, atmosphere and material ratio on the high-temperature carbon absorption properties of synthetic materials were studied in this paper. TG-DTG was applied to study the CO2 absorption properties of lithium silicate which is synthesized by the residue of serpentine after extracting magnesium by acid leaching, and the morphology and structure of synthetic materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that:lithium silicate synthesized by the residue of serpentine after extracting magnesium has good CO2 absorption capacity, which can be up to 26.66%. Compared with commercially SiO2 as the silicon source, lithium silicate prepared from the residue of serpentine after extracting magnesium has a lower calcination time, while a better high-temperature carbon sequestration performance.

  18. Decolorization and treatment of Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater by the combination treatment involving biodecolorization and biotreatment by Penicillium oxalicum d, physical decolorization by ozonation and treatment by activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Tanaka, Miki; Masaki, Kazuo; Fujii, Tsutomu; Iefuji, Haruyuki

    2010-11-01

    Kokuto-shochu is a traditional Japanese distilled liquor made from brown sugar. Kokuto-shochu distillery wastewater (KDW) contains high concentrations of organic compounds and brown pigments (called molasses pigments) which are hardly decolorized by general biological wastewater treatment. A fungus, Penicillium oxalicum d, which we isolated in a previous study, decolorizes 47% of the color from KDW without the addition of any nutrients. P. oxalicum d decolorizes KDW by absorbing the pigments into its mycelia. Here we describe a KDW treatment system that combines biodecolorization and biotreatment by P. oxalicum d with treatment by activated sludge and physical decolorization by ozonation. Adding HClO to suppress bacterial growth and replacing fresh seed sludge at regular intervals helped to maintain the dominance and decolorization ability of P. oxalicum d. In a laboratory-scale demonstration, 48 cycles (12 days) achieved a decolorization ratio of 90% and removed more than 97% of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP). A major feature of our system is that it uses only 6% of the water used in an activated sludge-ozonation system.

  19. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazineu, M.H.P. [UNICAP, Dept. de Quimica, Recife (Brazil); Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A. [UFPE, Dept. de Energia Nuclear, Recife (Brazil); Hazin, C.A. [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares/ CNEN, Recife (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for {sup 226}Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for {sup 228}Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  20. PDMS固相萃取-气相色谱法检测甘蔗中有机磷农药残留%The Method of PDMS Solid Phase Membrane Extraction-Gas Chromatographic Analysis for Organ Phosphorus Pesticide Residue of Sugarcane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵汉民; 彭金云; 谭义秋; 农克良

    2011-01-01

    [目的]建立一套快速、简单、准确的有机磷残留量检测方法.[方法]用聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)固相萃取膜吸附萃取甘蔗汁中甲拌磷和特丁硫磷,经二氯甲烷脱附后,FTD/GC直接检测.[结果]用PDMS固相萃取-气相色谱法检测了甘蔗汁中添加甲拌磷和特丁硫磷的标准品混合液,甲拌磷和特丁硫磷得到有效的分离和确认.[结论]PDMS固相萃取-气相色谱法操作简单,能快速、准确地检测有机磷农药残留.%[ Objective ] To establish a fast, simple and accurate detection method for organophosphate residues. [ Method ] Phorate and terbufos in sugarcane juice were absorbed by the membrane extraction of PDMS solid phase extraction, then disported by dichloromethane and detected directly by FID/GC. [ Result] Mixed liquid of sugar cane juice and phorate, terbufos standard substances were detected,and phorate and terbufos were effectively separated and recognized by PDMS-SPE-GC method. [Conclusion] PDMS-SPEM-GC is a simple,fast and accurate method to be detected of organ phosphorus pesticide residues.

  1. Extraction of toxic and valuable metals from wastewater sludge and ash arising from RECICLAGUA, a treatment plant for residual waters applying the leaching technique; Extraccion de metales toxicos y valiosos de los desechos de lodos y cenizas provenientes de la planta tratadora de aguas residuales RECICLAGUA aplicando la tecnica de lixiviado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero D, J.J

    2004-07-01

    Presently work, the technique is applied of having leached using coupled thermostatted columns, the X-ray diffraction for the identification of the atomic and molecular structure of the metals toxic that are present in the residual muds of a treatment plant of water located in the municipality of the Estado de Mexico, RECICLAGUA, likewise the techniques is used of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis for the qualitative analysis. We took samples of residual sludge and incinerated ash of a treatment plant waste water from the industrial corridor Toluca-Lerma RECICLAGUA, located in Lerma, Estado de Mexico. For this study 100 g. of residual of sludge mixed with a solution to 10% of mineral acid or sodium hydroxide according to the case, to adjust the one p H at 2, 5, 7 and 10, bisulfite was added, of 0.3-1.5 g of dodecyl sulfate of sodium and 3.93 g of DTPA (triple V). Diethylene triamine penta acetate. These sludges and ashes were extracted from toxic and valuable metals by means of the leaching technique using coupled thermostated columns that which were designed by Dr. Jaime Vite Torres, it is necessary to make mention that so much the process as the apparatus with those that one worked was patented by him same. With the extraction of these metals, benefits are obtained, mainly of economic type, achieving the decrease of the volume of those wastes that have been generated; as well as the so much use of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those residuals, once the metals have been eliminated, as of those liquors, the heavy metals were extracted. It was carried out a quantitative analysis using Icp mass spectroscopy, this way to be able to know the one content of the present metals in the samples before and after of leaching them, these results reported a great quantity of elements. Another of the techniques employees was the analysis by X-ray diffraction that provides an elementary content of the

  2. Emprego de planejamento fatorial no desenvolvimento de uma metodologia para extração de zinco de resíduos galvânicos Use of factorial planning in developing a methodology for galvanic zinc residue extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plating process generates solid waste rich in heavy metals and aiming to reduce environmental impact of such waste, this work suggests a methodology for zinc reduction, through a 2(4 factorial planning, studying the influence of the following variables: acid concentration (15, 20 or 30% v/v, acid type (sulfuric or hydrochloric, acid volume (15, 20 or 25 mL and extraction time (12, 24 or 36 h. Through this methodology it is possible to establish the optimal conditions (15 mL of a 30% hydrochloric acid concentration during 12 h to get a 100% efficiency in zinc extraction.

  3. 固相萃取-双柱气相色谱法测定水中多种有机磷农药残留%Determination of multiple organophosphorous pesticide residues in water by dual-column gas chromatography coupled with solid phase extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烨; 许秀艳; 吕怡兵; 滕恩江; 邢冠华; 王超

    2011-01-01

    针对单一气相色谱柱定性分析易出现假阳性误判的情况,采用固相萃取-气相色谱双柱技术测定环境水体中多种有机磷农药的残留量.水样中的有机磷农药通过HLB固相萃取小柱富集,经洗脱浓缩后,用DB-35MS和HP-5毛细管气相色谱柱、火焰光度检测器测定.方法的平均加标回收率为86.1%~118%,相对标准偏差为3.2%~6.8%,最低检出限为20~40 ng/L,可满足环境水体中痕量有机磷农药残留的分析需要.%To avoid the case of false positive when analyzing by single column, the dual-column gas chromatography coupled with solid phase extraction was applied to the multi -residue determination of organophosphorous pesticides in environmental water. The organophosphorous pesticides were extracted from water with HLB solid phase extraction cartridges and then eluted. After concentrated, the eluents were detected by GC-FPD with DB-35MS and HP-5 capillary columns. The average recoveries of 5 replicates for analytes ranged from 86.1% to 118%, with relative standard deviations between 3.2% and 6.8%. And the method detection limits were within the range of 20 ng/L to 40 ng/L. The results showed that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of trace amounts of multiple organophosphorous pesticide residues in environmental water.

  4. 快速溶剂萃取–气相色谱质谱法测定土壤中戊唑醇残留量%Determination of Residue Tebuconazole in Soil by Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小春; 姚科伟; 魏双利; 翁际渊; 章巧林; 王鼎

    2015-01-01

    A method was established to determine residue tebuconazole in soil by accelerated solvent extraction and gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Soil sample was prepared byASE–350 fast solvent extraction,purified and concentrated by magnesium silicate (florisil) column. The extract was injected into GC for separation and followed by MS detection under EI ionization and synchronous SIM/SCAN data acquisition mode. The detection limit found for tebuconazole in soil was 0.008 mg/kg,the recovery was 84.0%–97.5%,RSD was 2.2%–11.6%(n=6). The method could be used to detect the residue tebuconazole in soil,which showed good separating result,high sensitivity,good reproducibility, pretreatment with simple operation.%建立快速溶剂萃取–气相色谱质谱法测定土壤中戊唑醇残留量的分析方法.土壤样品经ASE–350快速溶剂萃取仪萃取,萃取液用硅酸镁(弗罗里硅土)柱净化浓缩,然后用选择离子监测/全扫描(SIM/SCAN)模式,气相色谱–质谱法测定土壤中的戊唑醇含量.该方法检出限为0.008 mg/kg,加标回收率为84.0%~97.5%,测定结果的相对标准偏差为2.2%~11.6%(n=6).该方法具有分离效果好,灵敏度高,重现性好,前处理操作简便等优点,可用于测定土壤中戊唑醇的残留量.

  5. 分子印迹固相萃取技术在动物源食品中药物残留检测中的应用进展%Application of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction on drug residues in animal source foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫宏远; 杨更亮

    2011-01-01

    Due to the superior molecular recognition and good physical and chemical stability,the molecularly imprinted materials have gained more and more concern recently in extrication and separation fields. Using the imprinted materials as adsorbents, the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction ( MISPE ) allows selective extraction of the target molecules and its analogues from complex matrices, and is suitable for complex sample preparation and enrichment processes. This article describes the principle , latest progresses and parameters of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction and summarizes its extraction and applications for the determination of drug residues of animal source foods in recent years. Moreover, the shortcomings and future prospects of molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction are also mentioned.%以分子印迹材料作为特效吸附剂的分子印迹固相萃取技术具有从复杂样品中选择性吸附目标分子及其结构类似物的能力,较好地克服了由于样品复杂所带来的内源性干扰问题,因此非常适用于复杂样品的预处理与富集.本文介绍了分子印迹固相萃取技术的原理、最新进展以及相关萃取参数的优化过程,对近几年国内外分子印迹固相萃取技术在动物源食品中药物残留检测方面的应用进行了总结;阐明了分子印迹固相萃取技术在实际应用中存在的不足,并对其未来的发展进行了展望.

  6. Potencial de extratos de resíduos vegetais na mobilização do calcário no solo por método biológico Plant residue extracts potential for lime mobility in the soil using a biological method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Franchini

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O calcário aplicado na superfície do solo apresenta baixa eficiência na correção da acidez subsuperficial. A eficiência pode ser melhorada através de compostos orgânicos hidrossolúveis liberados pelos resíduos vegetais. Foi avaliado um método biológico para testar a capacidade de extratos vegetais na mobilização do calcário no solo. O método consiste das seguintes etapas: coleta e preparo do material vegetal; extração dos compostos orgânicos hidrossolúveis; preparo da coluna de solo; aplicação do calcário na superfície do solo; aplicação do extrato vegetal; irrigação com água destilada; teste biológico com a planta indicadora de trigo cv. Anahuac e avaliação do crescimento radicular. A calagem sem resíduo vegetal aumentou o pH e o teor de Ca e diminuiu o teor de Al apenas na camada 0 a 5 cm de profundidade. A calagem com resíduos de aveia preta e nabo forrageiro aumentou o pH e o teor de Ca e diminuiu o teor de Al na camada de 0 a 20 cm de profundidade. Por outro lado, a calagem com resíduos de trigo não afetou a mobilidade do calcário no solo. O crescimento das raízes acompanhou os efeitos na química do solo: calagem sem resíduo e calagem com resíduo de trigo apresentaram crescimento das raízes até 10 cm de profundidade enquanto a calagem com resíduos de aveia e nabo favoreceu o crescimento das raízes até 20 cm de profundidade. O teste biológico foi adequado para avaliar a eficiência de resíduos vegetais na mobilização do calcário no solo.Soil surface applied lime shows low efficiency in alleviating subsoil acidity. Lime efficiency is increased through water-soluble organic compounds released from plant residues. A biological test was evaluated to verify the capacity of plant extracts on lime mobility in the soil. The test presents the following steps: plant material preparation; extraction of water soluble organic compounds; soil column preparation; soil surface lime addition; plant extract

  7. Three-dimensional graphene aerogel-supported iron oxide nanoparticles as an efficient adsorbent for magnetic solid phase extraction of organophosphorus pesticide residues in fruit juices followed by gas chromatographic determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2016-04-22

    In this research, a magnetic three dimensional-graphene nanocomposite (3D-G-Fe3O4) was prepared, characterized and used as an effective nanoadsorbent in magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) from juice samples prior to gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection (GC-NPD). The properties and morphology of 3D-G-Fe3O4 were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The main experimental parameters affecting extraction recoveries including extraction time, amount of adsorbent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration and desorption conditions were carefully studied and optimized. The results showed wide linear concentration ranges with determination coefficients between 0.9973 and 0.9999. The limits of detection (S/N=3) of the method and limits of quantification (S/N=10) were from 1.2 to 5.1 ng L(-1) and 3.4-17.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The intra-day and inter-day RSDs were 2.6-5.1% and 3.5-6.9%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of OPPs in fruit juices (apple, orange, grape, sour-cherry and apricot) with recoveries in range of 86.6-107.5%. The GC-NPD results were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results demonstrated that with combination of highly interconnected 3D network structure and magnetism property of adsorbent, 3D-G-Fe3O4 aerogel exhibited exceptional extraction ability towards the OPPs.

  8. Salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of tetracycline residues in infant foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-González, David; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2017-04-15

    The use of salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) has been evaluated for the determination of tetracyclines in infant foods based on meat and vegetables or in milk. To obtain satisfactory extraction efficiencies for the studied analytes, several parameters affecting the SALLE procedure were optimized. Analytical performances of the method were satisfactory, obtaining limits of quantification lower than 0.48μgkg(-1) in all cases. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (%, RSD) was below 11.3%. The extraction efficiency for fortified samples ranged from 89.2 to 96.8%, with RSDs lower than 7.3%. Matrix effect was evaluated for all samples studied, being lower than |21|% in all cases. In relation to the low solvent consumption, the proposed methodology could be considered rapid, cheap and environmentally friendly. Its applicability has been successfully tested in a wide range of infant foods.

  9. Feature Point Accurate Extraction Algorithm of Airplane Image in Residual Ice Detection%残冰检测中飞机图像特征点精确提取算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建树; 杨涛

    2012-01-01

    传统角点检测算法无法精确提取感兴趣的特征点.为此,提出一种新的特征点提取算法.通过曲率角点检测算法提取飞机图像的特征点,并作为待匹配图像,采用像素相关性匹配算法进行特征点提取,利用飞机机身固定结构约束匹配算法去除误匹配对.实验结果表明,该算法具有较好的适应性,能够精确提取特征点.%Traditional corner detection algorithm can not extract the interested feature point. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a new template matching algorithm. In this paper, the special points of airplane image are gotten by curvature corner detection algorithm as the matching image. Template matching algorithm is used to extract the best match points. The features of the image with different illumination conditions and shooting angles are extracted and matched. Experimental results show that the algorithm has better adaptability, and improve the accuracy of matching.

  10. Multi-residue analysis of 30 currently used pesticides in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) by microwave-assisted extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Yusà, Vicent; Beser, Ma Isabel; Pastor, Agustin

    2009-12-18

    A confirmatory and rapid procedure has been developed for the determination of 30 currently used pesticides (CUP) in fine airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5) at trace level. The proposed method includes extraction of PM 2.5-bound pesticides by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) followed by a direct injection into LC-MS/MS. The main parameters affecting the MAE extraction (time, temperature and volume of solvent) were optimised using statistical design of experiments (DoE). The matrix effect was also evaluated. Recoveries ranged from 72 to 109% and the limit of quantification (LoQ) was 32.5 pg m(-3) for chlorpyrifos, 13.5 pg m(-3) for fenhexamid, imazalil and prochloraz, and 6.5 pg m(-3) for the rest of pesticides, when air volumes of 760 m(3) were collected. The method was applied to 54 samples collected from three stations of the atmospheric monitoring network of the Regional Valencia Government (Spain) during April-July 2009. Nineteen out of 30 pesticides investigated were found in at least one sample: omethoate, carbendazim, acetamiprid, thiabendazole, malathion, flusilazole, metalaxyl, azoxystrobin, iprovalicarb, myclobutanil, tebuconazole, triflumizole, cyprodinil, tebufenpyrad, buprofezin, pyriproxyfen, hexythiazox, flufenoxuron and fenazaquin. The measured concentrations ranged from 6.5 to 1208 pg m(-3). To our knowledge, 11 of the pesticides detected have been reported for the first time in ambient air.

  11. Determining of Five Alkaloids Residues in Hotpot Seasoning Using Solid-phase Extraction-highPerformance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry%固相萃取-液质联用测定火锅底料中5种生物碱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓茂; 杨志伟; 崔宗岩; 张守军; 裴岗; 李萧萧; 张进杰; 曹彦忠

    2016-01-01

    A method was developed for the determination of five alkaloids residues in hotpot seasoning by dual solid-phase extraction clean up-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The residues were extracted from the samples by acetonitrile, cleaned up with PSA and PXC solid phase extraction cartridges, then analyzed by using HPLC-MS/MS in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization with an Hillic column as the analytical column. An internal standard method was used for quantitative determination of five alkaloids. The limits of determination for papaverine, morphine, noscapine, codeine and thebaine were 0.033, 1.5, 0.066, 1.2,0.15μg/kg, respectively. The recov-eries for the five alkaloids, at three fortified levels, ranged from 96.0%to 112.5%, with relative standard de-viations between 2.0%and 5.7%.The method was simple, accurate and sensitive. It was suitable for the deter-mination of alkaloids residues in hotpot seasoning.%建立双柱串联固相萃取-高效液相色谱-串联质谱法(HPLC-MS/MS)测定火锅底料中罂粟碱、吗啡、那可丁、可待因和蒂巴因5种生物碱成分的含量.样品用酸化乙腈提取,PSA和PXC固相萃取柱串联净化,经Hillic色谱柱分离,以电喷雾离子源(ESI)在正离子多反应监测(MRM)模式下进行测定,内标法定量.在优化的试验条件下,罂粟碱、吗啡、那可丁、可待因、蒂巴因的检出限分别为0.033、1.5、0.066、1.2、0.15μg/kg.5种生物碱类药物在3个加标水平下的回收率范围为96.0%~112.5%,RSD为2.0%~5.7%.该方法操作简便、准确、灵敏度高,适用于火锅底料中罂粟碱、吗啡、那可丁、可待因和蒂巴因含量的测定.

  12. Optimized Combination of Residue Hydrodesulfurization and Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Junwu

    2003-01-01

    @@1 Introduction Combination of residue hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and resi-due fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) is a unique technologyfor processing high-sulfur residue. This paper discusses theoptimized combination of these two processes.

  13. TENORM: Coal Combustion Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burning coal in boilers to create steam for power generation and industrial applications produces a number of combustion residuals. Naturally radioactive materials that were in the coal mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag.

  14. Dinâmica de íons em solo ácido lixiviado com extratos de resíduos de adubos verdes e soluções puras de ácidos orgânicos Dynamic of ions in acid soil leached with green manure residues extracts and pure solutions of organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar Franchini

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência da aplicação de resíduos vegetais na dinâmica de íons em solos ácidos é pouco conhecida. Neste estudo, a mobilidade de íons em amostra do horizonte Bw de um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro álico lixiviado com soluções puras de ácidos cítrico e succínico e extratos aquosos de resíduos de nabo forrageiro (Raphanus sativus e aveia-preta (Avena strigosa foi avaliada em colunas de solo (5, 10, 20 e 40 cm de altura por 4 cm de diâmetro. Após a percolação das soluções e extratos pelas colunas de solo determinaram-se, nas soluções efluentes, os teores de Ca (Ca s, Mg (Mg s, K (Ks, Al total (Al st, orgânico (Al so, monomérico (Al sm e carbono orgânico dissolvido. No solo, foram determinados os teores trocáveis de Ca (Ca tr, Mg (Mg tr, K (Ktr e Al (Al tr e o pH (CaCl2. Os ácidos cítrico e succínico aumentaram os teores de Al st e Ca s, respectivamente, causando reduções nas frações trocáveis desses elementos no solo. O extrato de aveia-preta foi mais efetivo na remoção do Ca tr e o de nabo forrageiro na do Al tr. O decréscimo de Ca tr e Al tr foi seguido do aumento do Ktr. A formação de complexos entre Ca s e Al tr com compostos orgânicos de baixo peso molecular foi sugerida como o provável mecanismo responsável pela mobilidade dos íons polivalentes no subsolo de solos ácidos após a aplicação dos extratos de resíduos vegetais e das soluções puras de ácidos orgânicos.The influence of green manure residues addition in the dynamic of ions in acid soils is not well known. In this study, ion mobility in a sample of the Bw horizon of an Dark-Red Latosol (Oxisol, leached with citric and succinic acid pure solutions and with aqueous residue extracts of black oats (Avena strigosa and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus were evaluated in soil columns (5, 10, 20, and 40 cm long by 4 cm diameter. After the solutions and extracts passed through the soil columns, the following parameters were determined

  15. Modelling pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  16. One-step green synthesis of β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with high supramolecular recognition capability: Application for vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of organochlorine pesticides residue from honey samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2017-02-17

    In this research, β-cyclodextrin/iron oxide reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanostructure (β-CD/MRGO) with high water dispersability, excellent magnetic responsivity and molecular selectivity was prepared via a facile one step green strategy. The obtained nanomaterial was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), which confirmed the modification of GO with β-CD and magnetic nanoparticles. The formation mechanism of β-CD/MRGO was also discussed. The prepared magnetic nanocomposite was then applied as adsorbent in the vortex-assisted magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from honey samples prior to gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) analysis. Optimum extraction conditions have been assessed with respect to vortex time, sample pH, adsorbent amount, and salt concentration as well as desorption conditions (type and volume of desorption solvent and desorption time). A good level of linearity (2-10,000ngkg(-1)) with satisfactory determination coefficients (R(2)>0.9966) and suitable precision (%RSDs less than 7.8) was obtained for OCPs under the optimal conditions. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were obtained in the sub-parts per trillion (ppt) to parts per trillion range (LOD: 0.52-3.21ngkg(-1); LOQ: 1.73-10.72ngkg(-1)) based on 3 and 10 signal to noise ratios, respectively. The MSPE method was successfully applied to analysis of OCPs in honey samples with recoveries in the range of 78.8% to 116.2% and RSDs (n=3) below 8.1%. The results demonstrated that β-CD/MRGO could exhibit good supramolecular recognition, enrichment capability and high extraction recoveries toward OCPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Improved Supercritical-Solvent Extraction of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L.

    1982-01-01

    Raw coal upgraded by supercritical-solvent extraction system that uses two materials instead of one. System achieved extraction yields of 20 to 49 weight percent. Single-solvent yields are about 25 weight percent. Experimental results show extraction yields may be timedependent. Observed decreases in weight of coal agreed well with increases in ash content of residue.

  18. Multiresidue analysis of cotton defoliant, herbicide, and insecticide residues in water by solid-phase extraction and GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T L; Marti, L; Belflower, S; Truman, C C

    2000-09-01

    A multiresidue procedure was developed for analysis of cotton pesticide and harvest-aid chemicals in water using solid-phase extraction and analysis by GC-NPD, GC-MS, and HPLC-DAD. Target compounds included the defoliants tribufos, dimethipin, thidiazuron; the herbicide diuron; and the insecticide methyl parathion. Three solid-phase extraction (SPE) media, octadecylsilyl (ODS), graphitized carbon black (GCB), and a divinylbenzene-N-vinyl pyrollidine copolymer (DVBVP), were evaluated. On GCB and ODS, recoveries varied depending on compound type. Recoveries were quantitative for all compounds on DVBVP, ranging from 87 to 115% in spiked deionized water and surface runoff. The method detection limit was less than 0.1 microg L(-)(1). SPE with DVBVP was applied to post-defoliation samples of surface runoff and tile drainage from a cotton research plot and surface runoff from a commercial field. The research plot was defoliated with a tank mixture of dimethipin and thidiazuron, and the commercial field, with tribufos. Dimethipin was detected (1.9-9.6 microg L(-)(1)) in all research plot samples. In the commercial field samples, tribufos concentration ranged from 0.1 to 135 microg L(-)(1). An exponentially decreasing concentration trend was observed with each successive storm event.

  19. Extract of high-whiteness aluminum hydroxide from residues of novel process of magnesium production by aluminothermic reduction%新法铝热炼镁还原渣提取高白氢氧化铝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄跃忠; 王智慧; 王耀武; 彭建平; 冯乃祥

    2013-01-01

    The novel process producing magnesium metal using vacuum aluminothermic reduction, which utilizes dolomite and magnesite as raw materials and aluminum powder as reductant, produces reducing slag containing-rich CaO·2Al2O3.The reducing residue can be solved by a mixture solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate, and a solution of sodium aluminate is produced which can be decomposed by CO2 to obtain aluminum hydroxide. For the production process of aluminum hydroxide, effects of process parameters on leaching rate of alumina are investigated systematically and the performance of aluminum hydroxide obtained was detected. The results show that the alumina leaching rate from the residue is above 85% under the conditions of NaOH concentration 80 g·L-1 , Na2CO3 concentration 110 g·L-1 , leaching temperature 95℃, leaching time 120min and L/S 6. Whiteness of aluminum hydroxide obtained carbonation precipitation at 50℃ is over 98, and average particle size is 26. 98μm.%新法铝热炼镁工艺以白云石和菱镁石为原料、以铝粉为还原剂,在真空还原获得金属镁的同时得到富含CaO·2Al2O3的还原渣,该还原渣可通过氢氧化钠和碳酸钠的混合碱液溶出得到铝酸钠溶液,并通过碳酸化分解制备氢氧化铝.以该工艺所得还原渣为原料,系统地研究各溶出条件对氧化铝溶出率的影响,并对碳分所得氢氧化铝进行性能检测.结果表明,在氢氧化钠浓度80 g·L-1、碳碱浓度110 g·L-1、溶出时间120min、溶出温度95℃、液固比为6的条件下,炼镁还原渣中氧化铝的溶出率在85%以上.氢氧化铝产品白度均大于98,平均粒径为26.98 μm,能够达到高白氢氧化铝的要求.

  20. 在线萃取流动注射分光光度法测定消毒食(饮)具烷基苯磺酸钠残留量%Determination of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate residues in disinfected tableware by on-line extraction FI-spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝莉鹏; 闵巍; 李宏亮

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立在线萃取流动注射分光光度法测定食(饮)具烷基苯磺酸钠残留量的方法.方法:100 ml蒸馏水冲洗消毒后食(饮)具制成样液,用在线萃取流动注射分光光度法进行测定.结果:方法检出限1.7 μg/100 cm2,烷基苯磺酸钠的浓度在0 mg/L ~1.00 mg/L有良好的线性(相关系数0.9995),实际样品的加标回收率为92% ~104%,相对标准偏差为3% ~8.5%.结论:本方法操作简便,准确度、精密度好,对操作人员的危害小,适用于消毒食(饮)具中烷基苯磺酸钠残留量的批量检测.%Objective: To establish on - line extraction FI - spectrophotometry for the determination of sodium al-kylbenzene sulfonate residues in disinfected tableware. Methods: The disinfected tableware was rinsed by 100 ml distilled water to obtain the sample solution. Then the sample solution was determined by on - line extraction FI -spectrophotometry. Results: The detection limit was 1. 7 μg/100 cm with linear range of 0 mg/L ~ 1. 00 mg/L ( r = 0.9995). The recoveries were 92% ~ 104% , RSD=3% -8.5%. Conclusion: This method is simple, sensitive, accurate and safe for the determination of sodium alkylbenzene sulfonate residues in disinfected tableware.

  1. Use of the extraction residue of emeralds in a formulation mass of ceramic tiles; Utilizacao do residuo da extracao de esmeraldas em uma formulacao de massa de revestimento ceramico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, R. F., E-mail: ronaldofcavalcante@gmail.com [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Mecanica - PPgEM - UFRN, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil); Nascimento, R.M.; Paskocimas, C.A., E-mail: rmaribondo@ufrnet.br, E-mail: paskocimas_ca@hotmail.com [Departamento de Engenharia Materiais - DEMAT - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Lagoa Nova, RN (Brazil); Dutra, R.P.S., E-mail: ricardodutra@ct.ufpb.br [Departamento de Engenharia Materiais - DEMAT - UFPB - Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    2012-04-15

    Companies involved in mining and beneficiation of emerald represent an important area of industrial development in Brazil, with a significant contribution to world production of this ore. As a result, large volumes of waste generated and emerald are constantly abandoned in the environment, contributing negatively to their preservation. On the other hand the interest in the use of mining waste as an additive in production of ceramic materials has grown among researchers in recent years. The ceramic industry is constantly seeking to expand the market for the sector and trying to improve product quality and increase the variety of applications. The technology of obtaining ceramic coating that uses waste from mining is still a largely unexplored market. Thus, the purpose of this study was to characterize the waste generated from mining emerald as well as to evaluate its potential use as raw material for production melting of ceramic tiles. Ceramic mixtures were prepared from raw materials characterized by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Five compositions were prepared using the waste codes of emeralds from 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. Samples were prepared by pressing, sintered at 1000, 1100 and 1200 deg C and characterized to establish their mineralogical composition, water absorption, linear shrinkage and modulus of rupture. The results showed that the residue of emeralds studied can be embedded in the mass of ceramic tiles up to 20% in replacement of feldspar without compromising the end product properties. (author)

  2. Optimization of ultrasound-microwave synergistic extraction of total saponins from lily residue by response surface methodology%响应曲面法优化超声—微波协同提取百合渣中总皂苷工艺的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘青友; 童群义

    2012-01-01

    The residue of the by-products in the starch production process of Yixing lily was analyzed as the extracted material to study the optimum procedures of the ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction method. Effects of thanol concentration,liquid-solid ratio,microwave power and extraction time on yield of total saponins were determined. Based on the results of single factor test,as well as Box-Behnken experiment principle,the four factors and three levels response surface method (RSM) test was designed and the yield of total saponins was determined as response value. The optimum extracting parameters to achieve the highest total saponins yield of 6.59% was obtained as follows: ethanol concentration (v/v) of 77%, liquid to solid ratio of 11:1 (mL/g), microwave power of 503W,and extraction time 139s. The ultrasound-microwave synergy extraction technique combined with the advantages of microwave and ultrasonic was a new method of higher efficiency,lower temperature and less time consumption.%以宜兴百合淀粉生产过程中产生的副产物百合渣为原料,采用超声-微波协同提取工艺提取其中的总皂苷,通过乙醇浓度、液料比、微波功率、提取时间各单因素实验确定各因素对总皂苷得率的影响。在单因素实验的基础上,根据Box-Behnken实验原理,采用了四因素三水平的响应面分析法,以总皂苷的得率作为响应值,根据所得实验结果进行回归分析,优选出提取的最佳工艺为:乙醇浓度77%,液料比11∶1(mL/g),微波功率503W,提取时间139s,在此最佳条件下,测得总皂苷的得率为6.59‰。该工艺运用了超声与微波的协同效应,集取了超声与微波二者优势,具有提取时间短、效率高的优点。

  3. 当归提取剩余物制备新型膳食纤维及其结构特征的研究%A new dietary fiber and structural feature analysis on Angelica sinensis extraction residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱慈; 周益平; 郭明

    2013-01-01

    A new dietary fiber was prepared by the enzyme-chemical method using the residue of Angelica sinensis as the raw material.The chemical composition,structural characteristics,and physical and chemical properties of this new A.sinensis dietary fiber (ADF) were determined and analyzed.Next,an adsorption thermodynamic equation was established between the new ADF and sodium cholate,and the adsorption rate of metal ions in vitro being determined.Results showed the new ADF with the following characteristics:ADF moisture content was 1.32%,protein was 5.47%,crude fat was 0.57%,total ash was 5.24%,ADF water holding capacity was 3.2 g·g-1,swelling property was 1.3 mL·g-1,and water binding capacity was 0.105 1 g.The structural feature analysis demonstrated that ADF and the angelica residue were not the same fiber type.Maximum ADF adsorption on sodium cholate was 40 μg ·g-1 with the absorption mode corresponding to the Freundlich model.Also,the ADF adsorption rate for selected inorganic metal ions (in mg·g-1) was nickel was 30.18,copper was 17.47,and lead was 21.22.Thus,this study could provide helpful references for dietary fiber in medicinal plants.%以当归Angelica sinensis提取残渣为原料制备新型膳食纤维,对当归膳食纤维(angelica dietary fibre,ADF) 进行了化学成分测试及产品结构特征和理化性能分析,开展新型ADF吸附胆酸钠的热力学及体外模拟对金属离子吸附率的研究.结果表明:成功获得了新型ADF,其水分含量为1.32%,蛋白质质量分数为5.47%,粗脂肪质量分数0.57%,总灰分质量分数5.24%,持水力为3.2 g·g-1,溶胀力为1.3 mL·g-1,结合水力为0.105 1 g;结构特征分析表明:ADF与当归残渣是不同的纤维;ADF对胆酸钠的最大吸附量为40 μg·g-1,其吸附机制符合Freundlich 模型;体外模拟条件下ADF对无机金属离子镍、铜、铅的吸附率分别为30.18,17.47和21.22 mg·g-1.所得结果可为药用植物膳食纤维研究提供有益借鉴.

  4. 酶-物理法提取木薯渣中膳食纤维的工艺研究%Study on Process of Dietary Fiber Extraction from Cassava Residue by Physics-enzymatic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄丽婕; 蔡园园; 古碧; 刘明; 王晓彤; 周雷; 杨莹; 劳彩娴

    2016-01-01

    Dry cassava residues were physically crushed, and then the starch, fat and protein of cassava residue were hydrolyzed byα-amylase and glucoamylase (medium temperature amylase 60℃to 70℃), lipase and flavorzyme. Finally cassava dietary fiber was got and bleached it with the help of ultrasonic;the optimum technological conditions were confirmed through the single factor experiments. Experimental results showed that:whenα-amylase and glucoamylase ratio was 1∶6, the concentration of them was 0.6%, pH=7, enzymolysis time was 120 min, enzymolysis temperature was 60℃, starch removal rate was best;when lipase dosage was 0.21%, pH=7, enzymolysis time was 90 min, enzymolysis temperature was 50℃, fat removal rate was best;when the concentration of flavourzyme was 0.6%, pH=4, enzymolysis time was 150 min, enzymolysis temperature was 35℃, protein removal rate was best. When H2O2 concentration was 10%, the bleaching time was 40 min, the ultrasonic power was 60 W, and the temperature was 50℃, the bleaching effect was best.%对干木薯渣进行物理粉碎,再用α-淀粉酶和糖化酶(中温淀粉酶60℃~70℃)、脂肪酶和风味蛋白酶除去木薯渣中的淀粉、脂肪和蛋白质,得到纯净的木薯膳食纤维并用超声波辅助脱色;通过单因素试验得到了木薯渣化学成分去除率和膳食纤维脱色的最佳工艺条件。化学成分去除的最佳工艺条件为:当α-淀粉酶和糖化酶的质量比1∶6,用量为0.6%,酶解pH=7,酶解时间为120 min,酶解温度为60℃时,淀粉去除率最高;当脂肪酶用量0.21%,酶解pH=7,酶解时间90 min,酶解温度为50℃时,脂肪去除率最高;当风味蛋白酶用量0.6%,酶解pH=4,酶解时间150 min,酶解温度为35℃时,蛋白质去除率最好。脱色的最佳试验条件为:当H2O2浓度为10%,漂白时间40 min,超声功率为60 W,漂白温度50℃时,漂白效果最好。

  5. Covariant Residual Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, Veronika E

    2014-01-01

    A recently explored interesting quantity in AdS/CFT, dubbed 'residual entropy', characterizes the amount of collective ignorance associated with either boundary observers restricted to finite time duration, or bulk observers who lack access to a certain spacetime region. However, the previously-proposed expression for this quantity involving variation of boundary entanglement entropy (subsequently renamed to 'differential entropy') works only in a severely restrictive context. We explain the key limitations, arguing that in general, differential entropy does not correspond to residual entropy. Given that the concept of residual entropy as collective ignorance transcends these limitations, we identify two correspondingly robust, covariantly-defined constructs: a 'strip wedge' associated with boundary observers and a 'rim wedge' associated with bulk observers. These causal sets are well-defined in arbitrary time-dependent asymptotically AdS spacetimes in any number of dimensions. We discuss their relation, spec...

  6. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  7. 杏仁皮渣中维生素E的酶法辅助萃取工艺研究%Study on organic extraction of vitamin E from skin residue of almond assisted by pectinase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小贤; 刘昌蒙

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E (VE) is a known fat-soluble antioxidant, which possesses multiple physiological activities and is usually used to treat malnutrition and delay the reproductive system atrophy and degeneration in traditional medicine. Modern researches show that VE is also closely related to the regulation of immune function, for example, some antibodies could be increased by improving intake of VE. In consideration of comprehensive utilization of almond, the assisted effect of pectinase on organic extraction of VE from almond skin was researched in this paper. The experimental results showed that the optimal parameters for organic extraction with absolute ethyl alcohol-acetone assisted by pectinase were as follows: 0. 7% dosage of enzyme was used at the ratio between material and water of 1 : 25 by 75 minutes hydrolysis at 55 ℃ and pH 3. 50; then, the mixture of absolute ethyl alcohol and ace-tone(9 : 1)was added to extract Vitamin E for 120 minutes at 60 ℃ , at the ratio between material and solvent of 1 : 15, operated twice totally. Under the conditions, the yield of VE from almond skin could reach up to 10. 32mg/g.%维生素E是一种脂溶性抗氧化剂,具有广泛的生理活性,在传统医药上用于治疗营养不良和延缓生殖系统萎缩及退化等症.现代研究表明,维生素E还与人体免疫功能的调节有关,提高维生素E的摄入量则可增加一些抗体从而刺激许多免疫功能.本实验对杏仁资源进行综合利用,以皮渣为原料,无水乙醇∶丙酮(9∶1)为提取溶剂,研究果胶酶的辅助效果.实验结果表明∶果胶酶对细胞壁的破坏作用能够有效促进维生素E的释放,最佳工艺参数为∶酶用量0.7%,酶解温度55℃,pH3.5,酶解75 min,料液比为1∶25,在此条件下按1∶15加入无水乙醇∶丙酮(9∶1)混合溶剂于60℃下水浴浸提120 min,连续提取2次,维生素E的提取率为10.32 mg/g.

  8. Bound xenobiotic residues in food commodities of plant and animal origin: IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (40)

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary risk resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary drugs the nature of the chemical residues on food commodities needs to be determined. Elucidation of the nature of the chemical residue is carried out using radiolabelled studies where the radiolabelled xenobiotic is applied or dosed in a manner which reflects use conditions. Food commodities are exhaustively extracted to remove the individual components of the residue. Once extracted the identity and toxic...

  9. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A.N.; Webster, G.A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P.J. [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  10. Decomposition of residue currents

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Mats; Wulcan, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Given a submodule $J\\subset \\mathcal O_0^{\\oplus r}$ and a free resolution of $J$ one can define a certain vector valued residue current whose annihilator is $J$. We make a decomposition of the current with respect to Ass$(J)$ that correspond to a primary decomposition of $J$. As a tool we introduce a class of currents that includes usual residue and principal value currents; in particular these currents admit a certain type of restriction to analytic varieties and more generally to construct...

  11. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Economic models of tort law evaluate the efficiency of liability rules in terms of care and activity levels. A liability regime is optimal when it creates incentives to maximize the value of risky activities net of accident and precaution costs. The allocation of primary and residual liability...... allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  12. [The effect of the raw protein supply on the lysine requirements of young pigs of 12-40 kg. 1. Report. Feeding studies with wheat-peanut extraction residue rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, D; Bodenstein, K H; Hennig, A

    1976-09-01

    10 feedings trials were carried out with a total of more than 500 pigs weighing 12 to 40 kgs. To investigate the lysine needs of growing pigs, the animals were fed rations of wheat + extracted ground nut meal. Different food mixtures were tested containing 5 levels of crude protein (19%, 17%, 15%, 13% and 11% of the dry feed. Within each crude protein level 6 graded lysine supplements were added to the ration. The trial showed that the lysine requirements of the weaned pigs were in a decisive measure determined by the percentage proportion of crude protein contained in the ration. The crude protein portion may be calculated (for the liveweight range tested) by using the following regression equation: y=0.28+0.075x (y=lysine requirements expressed as % of the air-dried ration; x=percentage proportion of crude protein in the ration). Rations containing only protein sources of vegetable origin, with a minimum protein content of 15%, produced the same daily weight gains (520 g) as a standard diet, if the lysine demands were met through the supplementation of synthetic lysine.

  13. Multi-residue determination of 171 pesticides in cowpea using modified QuEChERS method with multi-walled carbon nanotubes as reversed-dispersive solid-phase extraction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yongtao; Song, Le; Zou, Nan; Chen, Ronghua; Qin, Yuhong; Pan, Canping

    2016-09-15

    A rapid and sensitive method for the determination of 171 pesticides in cowpea was developed using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as reversed-dispersive solid-phase (r-DSPE) extraction materials. The clean-up performance of MWCNTs was proved to be obviously superior to PSA and GCB. This method was validated on cowpea spiked at 0.01 and 0.1mgkg(-1) with five replicates. The mean recoveries for 169 pesticides ranged from 74% to 129% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) (n=5) lower than 16.4%, except diflufenican and quizalofop-ethyl. Good linearity for all pesticides was obtained with the calibration curve coefficients (R(2)) larger than 0.9970. The limit of detection (LODs) and limit of quantification (LOQs) for the 171 pesticides ranged from 0.001 to 0.003mgkg(-1) and from 0.002 to 0.009mgkg(-1), respectively. The method was demonstrated to be reliable and sensitive for the routine monitoring of the 171 pesticides in cowpea samples.

  14. Prediction of residue-residue contact matrix for protein-protein interaction with Fisher score features and deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Tianchuan; Liao, Li; Wu, Cathy H; Sun, Bilin

    2016-11-01

    Protein-protein interactions play essential roles in many biological processes. Acquiring knowledge of the residue-residue contact information of two interacting proteins is not only helpful in annotating functions for proteins, but also critical for structure-based drug design. The prediction of the protein residue-residue contact matrix of the interfacial regions is challenging. In this work, we introduced deep learning techniques (specifically, stacked autoencoders) to build deep neural network models to tackled the residue-residue contact prediction problem. In tandem with interaction profile Hidden Markov Models, which was used first to extract Fisher score features from protein sequences, stacked autoencoders were deployed to extract and learn hidden abstract features. The deep learning model showed significant improvement over the traditional machine learning model, Support Vector Machines (SVM), with the overall accuracy increased by 15% from 65.40% to 80.82%. We showed that the stacked autoencoders could extract novel features, which can be utilized by deep neural networks and other classifiers to enhance learning, out of the Fisher score features. It is further shown that deep neural networks have significant advantages over SVM in making use of the newly extracted features.

  15. 加速溶剂萃取-气相色谱质谱法测定海洋沉积物中多氯联苯残留%Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls residues in marine sediments using accelerated solvent extraction with gas chromatog raphy-mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺玉林; 刘泽伟; 邹潍力; 卢伟华; 胡浩光

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs) residues in marine sediments by accelerated solvent extraction( ASE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry( GC-MS) . The target analytes were extracted with hexane/acetone(1: 1 ,v/v) by ASE and cleaned up by composite silica gel column and graphitization carbon column. The results demonstrated that the method detection limits was (0. 005 -0. 038) × 10-9 for PCBs( wet weight). The recovery percentages and RSD of two-level spiked samples were 68. 5% - 108. 4% and 2.1% -11.8% for PCBs, respectively. The method was precise, sensitive, and highly efficient in extraction, and has been applied in the actual POPs monitoring in sediments of marine environment.%样品采用加速溶剂萃取,萃取液依次经复合硅胶和石墨化炭黑柱净化后,采用GC-MS法测定样品中的多氯联苯残留.结果表明,方法检出限为(0.005 ~0.038)×10-9(湿重),样品加标回收率为68.5%~ 108.4%,RSD为2.1%~11.8%.本方法具有提取效率高,净化效果好,回收率高,准确灵敏等优点,可应用于海洋沉积物中多氯联苯等持久性有机污染物残留的监测.

  16. 环己酮生产废水厌氧生物处理实验及中试研究%Experiment and pilot study on anaerobic biotreatment of cyclohexanone processing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斗; 李东伟; 徐中慧; 刘晋; 罗志明

    2009-01-01

    采用经絮凝-Fe/C微电解-pH调节预处理过的某化工厂环己酮生产废水对自制UBF反应器的启动和运行进行了厌氧生物处理研究,该废水主要成分为环己酮、环己醇、环己烷等难降解有机物,COD=10 000-40 000 mg/L,pH=1-4,此外废水中还含有部分有机酸、Na_2SO_4、油类物质及少量的苯.通过对实验数据的分析得出UBF的最佳运行参数:VLR=2.36-3.26 kg COD/(m~3·d)时,COD去除效率为61.74%~65.86%.中试工程依据本研究的实验结果并结合实际情况对废水进行了有效的处理,经6个多月的调试,出水水质符合相关技术标准.%A systematic study was conducted on the anaerobic biotreatment characteristics of cyclohexanone processing wastewater discharged from a chemical plant. The study was researched on the starting and running of homemade UBF reactor that adopted cyclohexanone processing wastewater, which was pretrcated by flocculation-Fc/C micro electrolysis-pH adjusting as influent. The water contained cyclohexanone, cyclohexanol, cyclohexane and so on while the COD was 10 000~40 000 rag/L, pH was 1~4,besides these compounds, the wastewater al-so contained organic acids, Na_2SO_4, oil and a little of benzene. The optimal control parameters were gained by the study: VLR =2. 36~3.26 kg COD/(m~3·d). Under this condition, the COD removal rate was 61.74% -65.86%. The pilot scale project disposes the sewage successfully depending on the study results and practice. After 4 months' debugging, the water quality accords with the technical norms.

  17. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  18. 固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留%Determination of twelve carbamate residues in drinking water by HPLC after solid-phase membrane extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓松; 余辉菊; 马子元

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立固相膜萃取-高效液相色谱法测定饮用水中灭多威、涕灭威、速灭威、残灭威、呋喃丹、甲萘威、抗杀虫威、异丙威、硫双威、仲丁威、猛杀威、杀虫威等12种氨基甲酸酯类农药残留量的方法.方法:水样经C18固相萃取膜真空抽滤,滤膜用乙酸乙酯洗脱,洗脱液经氮吹、甲醇溶解,高效液相色谱法测定.结果:12种氨基甲酸酯类农药的线性范围为0.05 mg/L~25.0 mg/L,线性相关系数大于0.999,检出限为0.31 mg/L~1.25 mg/L,水样中氨基甲酸酯类农残最低检测浓度范围为0.005 mg/L~0.019 mg/L,加标回收率为59.3%~97.3%,RSD<7.5%.结论:本方法样品前处理方便、快捷,有机试剂用量少.%Objective:To establish a method for determination of 12 carbamate residues including methomyl, al-dicarb, metolcarb, profluoralin, furadan, methyl carbamate, pirimicarb, isoprocarb, thiodicarb, fenobucarb, promecarb and tetrachlorvinphose in drinking - water by high performance liquid chromatography after solid - phase membrane extraction. Methods: The water sample was filtered through the conditioned solid - phase membrane under vacuum. The carbamales absorbed on the membrane were eluted using ethyl acetate and the eluted solution was blown to dryness under nitrogen gas. The residue was reconstituted with methanol and analyzed by HPLC. Results: The linear range of 12 carbamates residues were between 0. 05 mg/L to 25. 0 mg/L with r >0. 999. The detection limits were 0. 31 mg/L to 1.25 mg/L. The lowest detection limits of carbamate residues in the sample water were between 0.005 mg/L and 0.019 mg/L. The recoveries ranged from 59. 3% to 97. 3% with RSD <7.5% . Conclusion: The method can be used for the multi -residue analysis of carbamate residues in drinking water.

  19. Designing with residual materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walhout, W.; Wever, R.; Blom, E.; Addink-Dölle, L.; Tempelman, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many entrepreneurial businesses have attempted to create value based on the residual material streams of third parties. Based on ‘waste’ materials they designed products, around which they built their company. Such activities have the potential to yield sustainable products. Many of such companies

  20. Sharing Residual Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Guerra, Alice; Parisi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    allows policy makers to induce parties to undertake socially desirable care and activity levels. Traditionally, tort law systems have assigned residual liability either entirely on the tortfeasor or entirely on the victim. In this paper, we unpack the cheapest-cost-avoider principle to consider...

  1. Residual stresses within sprayed coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yi; XU Bin-shi; WANG Hai-dou

    2005-01-01

    Some important developments of residual stress researches for coating-based systems were studied. The following topics were included the sources of residual stresses in coatings: error analysis of Stoney's equation in the curvature method used for the measurement of coating residual stress, the modeling of residual stress and some analytical models for predicting the residual stresses in coatings. These topics should provide some important insights for the fail-safe design of the coating-based systems.

  2. Degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a coking wastewater treatment plant residual by an O3/ultraviolet fluidized bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chong; Zhang, Wanhui; Yuan, Mengyang; Feng, Chunhua; Ren, Yuan; Wei, Chaohai

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater treatment plant (CWWTP) represents a typical point source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the water environment and threatens the safety of drinking water in downstream regions. To enhance the removal of residual PAHs from bio-treated coking wastewater, a pilot-scale O3/ultraviolet (UV) fluidized bed reactor (O3/UV FBR) was designed and different operating factors including UV irradiation intensity, pH, initial concentration, contact time, and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were investigated at an ozone level of 240 g h(-1) and 25 ± 3 °C. A health risk evaluation and cost analysis were also carried out under the continuous-flow mode. As far as we know, this is the first time an O3/UV FBR has been explored for PAHs treatment. The results indicated that between 41 and 75 % of 18 target PAHs were removed in O3/UV FBR due to synergistic effects of UV irradiation. Both increased reaction time and increased pH were beneficial for the removal of PAHs. The degradation of the target PAHs within 8 h can be well fitted by the pseudo-first-order kinetics (R (2) > 0.920). The reaction rate was also positively correlated with the initial concentrations of PAHs. The health risk assessment showed that the total amount of carcinogenic substance exposure to surface water was reduced by 0.432 g day(-1). The economic analysis showed that the O3/UV FBR was able to remove 18 target PAHs at a cost of US$0.34 m(-3). These results suggest that O3/UV FBR is efficient in removing residuals from CWWTP, thus reducing the accumulation of persistent pollutant released to surface water.

  3. 全自动固相萃取-气相色谱质谱法检测动物性食品中五氯酚钠残留量%Full-automatic Solid-phase Extractions and Gas Chromatography-mass Spectrometry in Detecting the Sodium Pentachlorophenate Residual Quantity in Animal Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄季维; 梅玉琴; 刘天洁; 漆航

    2016-01-01

    目的:建立全自动固相萃取—气质法检测食品中五氯酚钠的方法。方法取20份猪肉、鸡肉样品,经乙酸乙酯—正己烷(50+50)混合液提取,氮气吹干后加2 mL乙腈溶解;通过全自动固相萃取仪以1 mL/min过SLC固相萃取柱萃取,用4 mL乙腈洗脱SLC固相萃取柱上吸附的待测物,氮气吹干,用乙酸酐—吡啶(50+50)衍生后,取有机相供气相色谱质谱测定。结果样品在0~200μg/L范围线性关系良好,相关系数r=0.999,最低检出浓度0.3μg/kg(5 g样品);10μg/L 加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为108%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为5.3%;100μg/L加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为102%,RSD为3.5%;200μg/L加标样品五氯酚钠的回收率为105%,RSD为4.8%。结论该方法简便准确,适用于动物性食品中五氯酚钠的检测。%Objective To establish a method of full-automatic solid-phase extractions and gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry in detecting the sodium pentachlorophenate residual quantity in animal food. Methods 20 pieces of pork and chicken samples were selected and extracted by the ethylacetate and normal hexane (50+50) miscible liquid, and dissolved by 2mL acetonitrile after dry under nitrogen, the full-automatic SPE apparatus was adopted for extraction through SLC solid phase extraction column at a 1mL/min rate, the adsorptive determinands on the SLC solid phase extraction column was cleared by 4mL methyl cyanide, and measured by organic phase gas chromatography mass spectrometry after dry under ni-trogen and derived from acetic anhydride- pyridine (50+50). Results The linear relationship of samples was good between 0 and 200 μg/L, and the correlation coefficient r=0.999, and the lowest detecting concentration was 0.3 μg/kg (5g samples), the recovery rate of 10μg/L spiked sample sodium pentachlorophenate was 108%, RSD was 5.3%, and the recovery rate of 10 μg/L spiked sample sodium pentachlorophenate was 102%, RSD was 3.5%, and the the recovery

  4. Residue Determination of Dimethoate in Leafy Vegetables (Spinach) using RPHPLC

    OpenAIRE

    J. BAGYALAKSHMI,; Kavitha, G.; Ravi, T. K.

    2011-01-01

    Residues of Dimethoate present in locally available Spinach varities - Palak : Beta maritima, Vendhai : Trigonella foenumgraecum, Thandan : Amarnathus mangostanus - green and red were determined. The quantification was carried out using RP-HPLC for unprocessed (fresh) and processed (washed, washed and cooked) Spinach samples. The extraction was carried out with benzene. It was found that unprocessedDimethoate Spinach contains dimethoate residue which is slightly more than the tolerance limit,...

  5. 还原铁法处理印染废水生化出水及原理%Study on iron reduction method for bio-treated effluents of textile and dyeing wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志铮; 刘勇弟; 化艳娇; 钱飞跃; 谭亮

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, reduced iron powder was used for further treatment of bio-treated effluents of textile and dyeing wastewater, and ADMI7.6 was chosen as the main indictor. Iron dosage, reaction time, and initial pH were the factors of the treatment. Iron reduction and coagulation/flocculation were the main reaction of the whole process. Two reaction conditions in the experiment were selected to analyze the mechanism. Condition 1: iron dosage =4 g·L-1, residence time = 150 min, pH =2; condition 2; iron dosage =4 g·L-1, residence time = 150 min, pH = 3. Results shows that the condition 1 could remove 80% ADMI7.6, but that would product large amount of iron sludge and led to acid/base consumption. Under this condition, 40% ADMI7.6 was removed by iron reduction, and the rest was removed by coagulation/flocculation. Condition 2 could remove 50% ADMI4.6, which product small amount of iron sludge, and is more economical. Under this condition, about 55%-63% ADMI7.6 was removed by iron reduction, and the rest was removed by coagulation/flocculation. The dissolved organic matters ( DOMs) from bio-treated effluents of textile and dyeing wastewater is divided into four different fractions, hydrophobic acids, non-acid hydrophobics, transphilics and hydrophilics, by XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins fractionation. The condition 1 could remove 95% acid hydrophobic substances, and also had a good performance on non-acid hydrophobic and transphilic. The condition 2 had a good performance on the four organics, but for non-acid hydrophobic and hydrophobic acid, removal efficiency was not as well as the condition 1.%采用还原铁粉处理印染废水生化出水,以ADMI7.6作为主要测试指标,考察铁粉投加量、反应时间以及进水pH对出水水质的影响,并研究在此过程中铁粉还原作用和混凝絮凝作用对整体效果的贡献比.结果表明,条件1:铁粉投加量=1.0 g·L-1,反应时间150 min,进水pH 2;条件2:铁粉投加量1.0 g·L-1,反应时间150 min

  6. ISOTERMAS DE SORCION DE AGUA EN RESIDUOS DE EXTRACCIÓN DE JUGO DE NARANJA ISOTERMAS DE SORCAO DA AGUA EM RESIDUOS DE EXTRACAO DE SUCO DE LARANJA SORPTION ISOTHERMS OF WATER IN ORANGE JUICE EXTRACTION RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA OMAÑA

    2010-06-01

    não varié ou alcance o equilibrio. Além demais, realizouse um ajuste com o modelo proposto pelo Smith obtendose erros medios de 8.56% e 7.57% para Túnez e Pomelo, respectivamente.Waste from orange juice extraction, such as skins, shells and seeds, are known as citrus pulp, they may cause two major impacts, be a potential source ofraw material in the food industry concentrates for animals, and reduce problem posed to the environment with unnecessary use of landfills. The purpose of this paper is to obtain experimental sorption isotherms of this waste, at a temperature of 20° in a wide range of water activity (0.33 -0.97 from the two producers of orange juice, called Túnez and Pomelo. The process used to determine isothermal sorption curves, is the method recommended by the COST Project 90, which consisted of placing a known amount of sample in an airtight container with a given relative humidity until the weight does not vary orreaches balance. In addition, an adjustment to the model proposed by Smith obtained average errors of 8.56% and 7.57% for Túnez and Pomelo, respectively.

  7. 21 CFR 172.585 - Sugar beet extract flavor base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sugar beet extract flavor base. 172.585 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.585 Sugar beet extract flavor base. Sugar beet...) Sugar beet extract flavor base is the concentrated residue of soluble sugar beet extractives from...

  8. Observer's observables. Residual diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Duch, Paweł; Świeżewski, Jedrzej

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the fate of diffeomorphisms when the radial gauge is imposed in canonical general relativity. As shown elsewhere, the radial gauge is closely related to the observer's observables. These observables are invariant under a large subgroup of diffeomorphisms which results in their usefulness for canonical general relativity. There are, however, some diffeomorphisms, called residual diffeomorphisms, which might be "observed" by the observer as they do not preserve her observables. The present paper is devoted to the analysis of these diffeomorphisms in the case of the spatial and spacetime radial gauges. Although the residual diffeomorphisms do not form a subgroup of all diffeomorphisms, we show that their induced action in the phase space does form a group. We find the generators of the induced transformations and compute the structure functions of the algebras they form. The obtained algebras are deformations of the algebra of the Euclidean group and the algebra of the Poincar\\'e group in the spat...

  9. 柠檬酸提取海带渣中多糖及其抗氧化活性与结构的研究%The extraction of polysaccharide from Laminaria japonica residue by citric acid and study on antioxidant activities and structural characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢茳虹; 林宗毅; 崔春; 游丽君; 赵谋明

    2012-01-01

    以海带渣为原料,采用柠檬酸提取法提取海带渣中多糖,并与直接柠檬酸提取的海带多糖进行抗氧化活性与结构比较。研究表明,海带渣多糖的提取率为7.00%±0.03%,其抗氧化活性与直接酸提的海带多糖相当,具有较好的氧自由基清除能力(ORAC值为130.13μmol Trolox/g)、DPPH自由基清除能力(18.89μmol Trolox/g)、ABTS自由基清除能力(53.58μmol Trolox/g)和还原力(37.56μmol Trolox/g),其中ORAC值比抗氧剂BHT高2倍。所得海带渣多糖的主要组分分子量为310182u(2.73%)和30515u(97.27%)。红外光谱图分析表明海带渣多糖与直接酸提的海带多糖结构相似。%Laminaria japonica residue was used as the material to obtain polysaccharide by the citric acid extraction,and the antioxidant activities and structural characteristics of the polysaccharide had been compared with those of polysaccharide obtained by direct citric acid extraction. The results showed that the yield of the polysaccharide was 7.00% ± 0.03%, and the antioxidant activities were similar with those of polysaccharide obtained by direct citric acid extraction, with the values of oxygen radical absorbance capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing power of 130.13μmol Trolox/g, 18.89μmol Trolox/g ,53.58μmol Trolox/g and 37.56μmol Trolox/g, respectively.Moreover,the value of ORAC was 2 times higher than that of BHT. Gel permeation chromatography analysis indicated that the polysaccharide comprised two components, the molecular weights were 310 ] 82 u ( 2.73 % ) and 305 ] 5 u (97.27 % ) separately.The infrared ( I R ) spectra analysis demonstrated that the polysaccharide had resemblant structure with that obtained by direct citric acid extraction.

  10. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-01-17

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  11. Salinomycin residues and their ionophoricity in pig tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimenna, G.P.; Lyon, F.S.; Creegan, J.A. (A.H. Robins Co., Richmond, VA (USA)); Wright, G.J. (Hill Top Pharmatest, Inc. Cincinnati, OH (USA)); Wilkes, L.C. (Analytical Development Corp., Colorado Springs, CO (USA)); Johnson, D.E.; Szymanski, T. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The effect of pretreatment with medicated feed on ({sup 14}C) salinomycin residue levels in pig tissues was studied. Pigs were fed unmedicated feed or feed medicated with salinomycin at 41 ppm in the diet for 29 days and then dosed with ({sup 14}C)salinomycin for 8 days. Total drug residue levels were below quantifiable limits of detection of kidney, fat, and muscle but at the tolerance limit of 1,800 ppb for liver. In liver, pretreatment tended to lower total residue levels, and unchanged ({sup 14}C)salinomycin accounted for <1% of the total drug residue. Approximately 15-20% of the total drug residue in liver was bound. Ionophoric activity in extracts of livers from the treated pigs was minimal, and only 2 of the 12 treated samples had ionophoric activity more than twice that obtained from the controls.

  12. Residual contaminants in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevijo Zdolec

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical agents are used during the whole production chain of milk and dairy products. Production of feedingstuffs is accompanied with pesticide usage, which may remain in environment, thus are transported through feeding into animals, animal products and finally in human organism. Preparation procedure and storage conditions of feed also influence on milk safety in the sense of mycotoxins entering into the food chain. Chemical agents are, on daily basis, used on dairy farms either as detergents or disinfections. The residuals of cleaning agents might remain in milk if the cleaning agents and its dosage are not performed adequately. Besides already mentioned agents, a great influence in milk production can bee seen through veterinary drugs usage, particularly antibacterial drugs (mastitis. Proper application of drugs and by following legal recommendation, a by-reactions can be avoided such as allergic reaction in humans, development of resisting bacteria or even undesirable influence on starter cultures in dairy products manufacture. The maximum residue limits, monitoring plan as well as sampling procedures are set up within the harmonization of Croatian and European legislation, in order to provide official control of residues in foodstuffs of animal origin.

  13. Efeito de diferentes aditivos sobre os teores de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e digestibilidade da silagem de maracujá Effects of different additives on the content of crude protein, ether extract and coefficient of digestibility of silage of passion fruit residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Prata Neiva Júnior

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os teores de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e a digestibilidade "in vitro" da matéria seca (DIVMS da silagem de resíduo de maracujá em mistura com diferentes aditivos, em níveis crescentes de adição, foi conduzido este estudo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo os tratamentos dispostos em um esquema fatorial do tipo (3 x 4 + 1, sendo três aditivos (bagaço de cana (BC, casca de café (CC e sabugo de milho (SM em quatro níveis de adição (10, 15, 20 e 25% e um tratamento testemunha (resíduo de maracujá puro ensilado. O material experimental foi ensilado em silos de PVC adaptados com válvula tipo "Bunsen" com capacidade para aproximadamente 3 kg cada. Apenas o aditivo CC promoveu aumento dos teores de PB. O aditivo CC foi o que mais contribuiu para a redução dos teores de EE. Os valores de DIVMS permitiram classificar as silagens como de boa ou média qualidade, à exceção da silagem aditivada de SM.Aminig to evaluate the content of crude protein, ether extract and the coefficient of "in vitro" dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of passion fruit residue silage in mixture with different additives at increasing levels of addition, this study was undertaken. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized, with four replicates. The treatments were arranged in a factorial scheme of the (3 x 4 + 1 type, with three treatments as follow (sugar cane bagasse (CB, coffee hulls (HC and corn cob (CC at four levels of addition (10, 15, 20 and 25% and a control treatment (ensiled unmixed passion fruit residue. The experimental material was ensiled in PVC silos, fitted with a "Bunsen" type valve, with a capacity of about 3 kg each. Only the additive CH increased in the crude protein contents. CC was the one which contributed to the reduction of ether extract contents. The values of IVDMD allowed to classify the silages as good or of medium

  14. The formation of bound residues of diazinon in four UK soils: Implications for risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenlon, Katie A., E-mail: katefenlon@hotmail.com [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Andreou, Kostas; Jones, Kevin C.; Semple, Kirk T. [Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-15

    The behaviour of diazinon in the soil determines the likelihood of further pollution incidents, particularly leaching to water. The most significant processes in the control of the fate of diazinon in the soil are microbial degradation and the formation of bound residues. Soils from four sites in the UK were amended with diazinon and its {sup 14}C labelled analogue and incubated for 100 days. After 0, 10, 21, 50 and 100 days, the formation of bound residues was assessed by solvent extraction, and the microbial degradation of diazinon by mineralisation assay. In microbially active soils, diazinon is degraded rapidly, reducing the risk of future pollution incidents. However, where there was limited mineralisation there was also significantly lower formation of bound residues, which may lead to water pollution via leaching. The formation of bound residues was dependent on extraction type. Acetonitrile extraction identified bound residues in all soils, with the bound residue fraction increasing with increasing incubation time. - Research highlights: > Bound residues are defined by extraction method. > Microbial degradation is limited by the formation of bound residues. > Bioavailability of diazinon maybe estimated by chemical extraction. - The formation of bound residues and biodegradation of diazinon are dependent on soil type and the presence of degrading bacteria.

  15. Organophosphorous residue in Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mansoreh Shayeghi; Mehdi Khoobdel; Fatemeh Bagheri; Mohammad Abtahi; Hojjatollah Zeraati

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the amount of azinphos methyl and diazinon residues in two river fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was done during 2006-2007. In this survey, 152 water and fish samples from Gorgan and Qarasu rivers, north of Iran, were investigated. Sampling was done in three predetermined stations along each river. Organophosphorus compounds (OPs) were extracted from the fishes and the water of rivers. After extraction, purification and concentration processes, the amount and type of insecticides in water and fish samples were determined by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC). Results:There was a significant difference in the residue of the insecticides in the water and fish samples between summer and other seasons in the two rivers. The highest amount of insecticides residue was seen during summer. In both rivers, the amount of diazinon and azinphos methyl residues in the two fishes was more than 2 000 mg/L in summer. There was no significant difference in insecticides residue between the fishes in two rivers. The diazinon residue was higher than the standard limits in both rivers during the spring and the summer, but the residual amount of azinphos methyl was higher than the standard limits only during the summer and only in Qarasu River. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the amount of OPs in the water and the two fishes, Liza aurata and Cyprinus carpio, is higher than the permitted levels.

  16. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  17. Study on Influences of Enzymolysis and Organic Solvent Extraction on Determination of 2 Kinds of β2-Agonist Residues in Sheep Plasma and Urine%酶解及有机溶剂提取对绵羊血浆和尿样中两种β2-受体激动剂含量测定的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李阳; 苏晓鸥; 张维; 樊霞; 王培龙; 王瑞国; 王骁

    2014-01-01

    Two kinds of β2-agonistresidues in sheep plasma and urine were disposed by enzymolysis and organic solvent extraction pretreatment methods, and UPLC-MS/MS was used for the qualitative and quantitative analysis. Detection results were compared to study the influences of two pretreatment methods. The experimental results showed that more than 95% of Ractopamine and 40% of Salbutamol exist in the conjugated form in sheep plasma. The detection results of 2 kinds of β2-agonist residues were significantly enhanced when adding β-glucuronidase/aryl sulfatase. The experimental repeatability is very poor ( RSD>40%) when the enzymolysis was not carried out. There were 57% of Ractopamine and less than 1% of Salbutamol exists in the conjugated form in sheep urine. Enzymolysis pretreatment method was useful for the Ractopamine residues determination in urine, and Enzymolysis pretreatment method was useless for Salbutamol determination in urine. Matrix effect of plasma was less than the effects of urine. The influence of organic solvent extraction pretreatment method on the detection results was unremarkable, and there was the possibility that organic solvent extraction could lead partial loss of target compound in extraction process. However, it did not influence the detection results by using internal standard calibration.%采用酶解与有机溶剂提取对绵羊血浆和尿液进行前处理,超高效液相色谱-串联质谱( UPLC-MS/MS)测定两种样品中莱克多巴胺和沙丁胺醇含量,考察了酶解、有机溶剂提取对两种β2-受体激动剂含量测定的影响。结果表明,绵羊血浆中莱克多巴胺轭合率大于95%,沙丁胺醇轭合率约为40%,添加β-葡萄糖醛苷酶/芳基硫酸酯酶进行酶解可有效解离血浆中轭合的莱克多巴胺和沙丁胺醇,测得的含量显著提高;不经酶解处理血浆中莱克多巴胺、沙丁胺醇检测结果的相对偏差均大于40%,重复性差;绵羊尿液中莱

  18. 微波辅助萃取-液相色谱-串联质谱法测定植物源产品中的阿维菌素B1a残留量%Determination of Avermectin B1a Residues in Plant-originated Foodstuffs by Microwave Assisted Extraction-Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宏; 胡贝贞; 宋伟华

    2012-01-01

    建立了植物源产品茶叶、粮谷、中药材中阿维菌素B1a残留量的液相色谱-串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)测定方法.样品用丙酮-二氯甲烷(体积比1∶1)微波辅助提取,提取液经石墨化炭黑/氨基(Carb/NH2)固相萃取小柱净化.采用Hypersil Gold C18色谱柱(150mm×2.1 mm,Sμ m),乙腈-2.5 mmol/L乙酸铵水溶液为流动相,以电喷雾电离正离子(ESI+)、多反应监测模式(MRM)定性、定量测定阿维菌素Bla,采用基质标准曲线外标法定量.在5~100 μg/L范围内,阿维菌素Bla的峰面积与质量浓度呈线性关系,相关系数大于0.998,方法的检出限(S/N>3)为5μg/kg,定量限(S/N>10)为10μg/kg.取有代表性的绿茶、小麦、丹参阴性样品进行加标回收试验,在10,50 μg/kg加标水平下,回收率为75%~87%,相对标准偏差为4.04%~6.38%(n=5).该法提取效果好、净化较彻底,灵敏度满足国内外限量标准的要求,适合复杂基质植物源产品中阿维菌素B1a残留量的测定.%A microwave assisted extraction—liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry method for the determiantion of avermectin Bla residues in tea, cereals and Chinese herbal medicine was developed. The sample was extracted by microwave assisted extraction with acetone-dichloromethane(volume ratio was 1 : 1) as solvent, the extract was cleaned up by Carb/NH2 SPE column. The separation was performed on a Hypersil Gold C18 column(150 mm × 2.1 mm,5 μm) and with the gradient elution of acetonitrile and water (containing 2.S mmol/L ammonium acetate). Avermectin Bla was determined in the mode of electrospry positive ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring(MRM). The quantification was carried out by matrix-matched external standard curve, the calibration curves showed good linearity in the concentration range of 5-100 μg/L and the correlation coefficient was more than 0.998. The limit of detection(S/N > 3) was 5 μg/kg and the limit of quantification {S/N > 10

  19. 酿酒葡萄皮渣中多酚物质的提取及其对羟基自由基的清除研究%Extraction of Polyphenols and its Free Radical Scavenging Capacities in Grape Skin Residue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静涛; 董娟; 屈静雅; 史学伟

    2012-01-01

    本文以酿酒葡萄皮渣为研究对象,通过单因素试验以及正交试验研究了超声波辅助提取对葡萄皮渣多酚得率的影响,并对工艺条件进行优化,确定了提取葡萄皮渣多酚的最佳工艺参数为:超声时间30min,温度60℃,料液比1:20(g/mL),超声功率200 W,在该条件下葡萄皮渣多酚得率为6.72 mg/g.并研究了葡萄皮渣多酚粗提物对羟基自由基的清除能力,结果表明:在实验浓度范围内,当添加的葡萄皮渣多酚的质量浓度为0.79 mg/mL时,对羟自由基的清除率可达78.64%.%The influence of yield rate from ultrasonic extraction of grape skin residue polyphenols from wine was studied by single factor experiment and the orthogonal experiment in this paper. The optimum technological parameters were determined as follows: ultrasonic time 30min, temperature 60?, ratio of material to liquid 1:20 (g/mL) and ultrasonic power 200 W. Under these conditions, grape polyphenols yield rate was 6.72 mg/g. Crude grape polyphenols were extracted to investigate hydroxyl free radical scavenging capacities by Fenton, and evaluate their antioxidant activities. When the mass concentration of grape polyphenols was 0.79 mg/mL, the ratio of hydroxyl free radical scavenging can reach 78.64%.

  20. 熔化提取-毛细管气相色谱法测定乙二醇硬脂酸酯中乙二醇的残留量%Capillary Column-GC Determination of Residual Amount of Ethylene Glycol in Ethylene Glycol Stearate with Fusion Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨辉; 贾埂美; 唐福伟; 王月芬; 王新荣

    2011-01-01

    Residual amount of ethylene glycol in ethylene glycol stearate was determined by capillary column (242. The sample was melted at 50 ;C ultrasonically and extracted with methanol. Propylene glycol was used as internal standard. An aliquot of the extract was separated on HP-5 capillary column and determined with FID. Linearity range of ethylene glycol was kept from 102.6 to 1 026.0 mg · L-1 , with value of detection limit (3S/N) of 30 mg · L-1. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of ethylene glycol stearate, values of recovery found were in the range of 93.7%-103.2%.%提出了毛细管气相色谱法测定乙二醇硬脂酸酯中乙二醇残留量的方法。样品在50。C熔化,经甲醇超声浸提,以丙二醇为内标,采用HP5毛细管色谱柱分离,用火焰离子化检测器测定。乙二醇的质量浓度在102.6~1026.0mg·L叫范围内呈线性,方法的检出限(3S/N)为30mg·L。应用此方法分析乙二醇硬脂酸酯,回收率在93.7%~103.2%之间。

  1. PYROLYSIS OF TOBACCO RESIDUE: PART 1. THERMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K. Akalin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The pyrolysis of two types of tobacco residue was carried out at different pyrolysis temperatures between 300 and 600 °C and a residence time of 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. The effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product distributions was investigated and the composition of the bio-oils identified. The variation in product distribution depended on both the temperature and the type of tobacco residues. The maximum liquid yields were obtained at 400°C for one sample and at 500°C for the other. The compositions of bio-oils from the pyrolysis of the two samples were found to be very similar. N-containing compounds were found to be the major compounds identified in ether extracts for both samples.

  2. Ethanol and chemicals from wood residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pye, K. [Lignol Innovations Corp., Media, PA (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Climate change mitigation issues have created new business opportunities for the forest products industry in terms of energy and chemicals production from renewable energy sources. Wood residues are currently used as low value solid fuel and for low efficiency liquefaction and gasification. However, wood in general is a poor choice for fuel. It is a much better source for industrial oxychemicals than coal, oil or natural gas. The market for oxychemicals is huge. Typical oxychemicals, which are made from starch and sugar, include acetic acid, ethanol, propanediol, ethylene glycol, acetone, acrylic acid, and glycerol. Wood contains the same glucose found in starch. Biorefining technology makes it possible to extract the glucose from the wood and convert it to oxychemicals. Biorefining separates the major components of woody biomass into cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and extractives. As a solid fuel, wood residues amount to $35 to $50 of electrical power per dry tonne. However, the value of wood as a purified chemical component is more than $750 per tonne. There is very strong government support in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe and Japan to develop biorefining and associated technologies. Canada is considering to invest C$575 million of its Kyoto funding to support fuel ethanol production. This paper described the Organosolv delignification process which uses aqueous ethanol at high temperature to separate wood residues into high value product streams. The characteristics of a Lignol Biorefinery demonstration plant in Miramichi, New Brunswick were described. This new technology offers the lumber industry with new opportunities to increase revenues from under-utilized wood residues. 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Study on properties of residue-residue contacts in protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向红; 柯见洪; 郑亦庄; 陈爱; 徐银香

    2004-01-01

    Residue-residue contacts are very important in forming protein structure. In this work, we calculated the average probability of residue-residue contacts in 470 globular proteins and analyzed the distribution of contacts in the different interval of residues using Contacts of Structural Units (CSU) and Structural Classification (SCOP) software. It was found that the relationship between the average probability PL and the residue distance L for four structural classes of proteins could be expressed as lgPL=a+b×L, where a and b are coefficients. We also discussed the connection between two aspects of proteins which have equal array residue number and found that the distribution probability was stable (or un-stable) if the proteins had the same (or different) comnact (for examnle svnthase) in the same structural class.

  4. Study on properties of residue-residue contacts in protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向红; 柯见洪; 郑亦庄; 陈爱; 徐银香

    2004-01-01

    Residue-residue contacts are very important in forming protein structure. In this work, we calculated theaverage probability of residue-residue contacts in 470 globular proteins and analyzed the distribution of contacts in thedifferent interval of residues using Contacts of Structural Units (CSU) and Structural Classification (SCOP) software. Itwas found that the relationship between the average probability -PL and the residue distance L for four structural classes ofproteins could be expressed as lgPL=a+b×L, where a and b are coefficients. We also discussed the connection between twoaspects of proteins which have equal array residue number and found that the distribution probability was stable (or un-stable) if the proteins had the same (or different) compact (for example synthase) in the same structural class.

  5. Quadratic residues and non-residues selected topics

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Steve

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an account of the classical theory of quadratic residues and non-residues with the goal of using that theory as a lens through which to view the development of some of the fundamental methods employed in modern elementary, algebraic, and analytic number theory. The first three chapters present some basic facts and the history of quadratic residues and non-residues and discuss various proofs of the Law of Quadratic Reciprosity in depth, with an emphasis on the six proofs that Gauss published. The remaining seven chapters explore some interesting applications of the Law of Quadratic Reciprocity, prove some results concerning the distribution and arithmetic structure of quadratic residues and non-residues, provide a detailed proof of Dirichlet’s Class-Number Formula, and discuss the question of whether quadratic residues are randomly distributed. The text is a valuable resource for graduate and advanced undergraduate students as well as for mathematicians interested in number theory.

  6. Residual Representations of Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Saller, H

    2001-01-01

    Spacetime is modelled by binary relations - by the classes of the automorphisms $\\GL(\\C^2)$ of a complex 2-dimensional vector space with respect to the definite unitary subgroup $\\U(2)$. In extension of Feynman propagators for particle quantum fields representing only the tangent spacetime structure, global spacetime representations are given, formulated as residues using energy-momentum distributions with the invariants as singularities. The associatated quantum fields are characterized by two invariant masses - for time and position - supplementing the one mass for the definite unitary particle sector with another mass for the indefinite unitary interaction sector without asymptotic particle interpretation.

  7. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  8. Bioenergy from Biofuel Residues and Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudri, B S; Baawain, Mahad

    2016-10-01

    This review includes works published in the general scientific literature during 2015 on the production of bioenergy and biofuel from waste residues generated during bioethanol and biodiesel production with a brief overview of current and emerging feedstocks. A section of this review summarizes literature on culturing algae for biofuels including bioreactors and open pond cultivation systems with the utilization of inorganic and organic sources of nutrients. New methods applicable to the mass culture of algae are highlighted. Algal cell harvesting and oil extraction techniques tested and developed for algae discussed alongwith policies and economics are also provided.

  9. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  10. Bioenergy from sisal residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungersen, G. [Dansk Teknologisk Inst. (Denmark); Kivaisi, A.; Rubindamayugi, M. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-05-01

    The main objectives of this report are: To analyse the bioenergy potential of the Tanzanian agro-industries, with special emphasis on the Sisal industry, the largest producer of agro-industrial residues in Tanzania; and to upgrade the human capacity and research potential of the Applied Microbiology Unit at the University of Dar es Salaam, in order to ensure a scientific and technological support for future operation and implementation of biogas facilities and anaerobic water treatment systems. The experimental work on sisal residues contains the following issues: Optimal reactor set-up and performance; Pre-treatment methods for treatment of fibre fraction in order to increase the methane yield; Evaluation of the requirement for nutrient addition; Evaluation of the potential for bioethanol production from sisal bulbs. The processing of sisal leaves into dry fibres (decortication) has traditionally been done by the wet processing method, which consumes considerable quantities of water and produces large quantities of waste water. The Tanzania Sisal Authority (TSA) is now developing a dry decortication method, which consumes less water and produces a waste product with 12-15% TS, which is feasible for treatment in CSTR systems (Continously Stirred Tank Reactors). (EG)

  11. Phytoavailability and mechanism of bound PAH residues in filed contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanzheng; Hu, Xiaojie; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yize; Sun, Bingqing

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the phytoavailability of bound residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils is essential to assessing their environmental fate and risks. This study investigated the release and plant uptake of bound PAH residues (reference to parent compounds) in field contaminated soils after the removal of extractable PAH fractions. Plant pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse using ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) to examine the phytoavailablility of bound PAH residues, and microcosm incubation experiments with and without the addition of artificial root exudates (AREs) or oxalic acid were conducted to examine the effect of root exudates on the release of bound PAH residues. PAH accumulation in the ryegrass after a 50-day growth period indicated that bound PAH residues were significantly phytoavailable. The extractable fractions, including the desorbing and non-desorbing fractions, dominated the total PAH concentrations in vegetated soils after 50 days, indicating the transfer of bound PAH residues to the extractable fractions. This transfer was facilitated by root exudates. The addition of AREs and oxalic acid to test soils enhanced the release of bound PAH residues into their extractable fractions, resulting in enhanced phytoavailability of bound PAH residues in soils. This study provided important information regarding environmental fate and risks of bound PAH residues in soils.

  12. Biotreatment from hot bugs to cold ducks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    There are few forms of industrial wastes that cannot be neutralized and disposed of using modern treatment methods. The challenge is to control costs and minimize liability. Such is the quandary for waste treatment facilities dealing with biological sludge. One way to reduce sludge volume is to use a high-temperature aerobic treatment process, such as the one recently commercialized by US Filter. The process relies on a strain of bacteria heated to 50--65 C. The high temperatures destroy pathogens and speed metabolism. Cultivated in a lagoon or pond treatment system, the duckweed floats on top of the water and feeds on the organics. The plants consume nitrogen, ammonia and phosphoric compounds, help retain aerobic conditions in the pond, and control algae growth by blocking sunlight.

  13. Biotreatment of red water with fungal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, TenLin S.; Turner, R.J.; Sanville, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    Red water generated during the manufacture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an environmental concern because it contaminates ground surfaces and groundwaters. Past methods for the management of this hazardous waste stream did not meet pollution compliance or were not cost effective. Biodegradation of TNT by bacteria has been reported, but no conclusive evidence supports its biotransformation to harmless products or its complete mineralization. The lignin peroxidase (ligninase) secreted by the white rot fungus (Phanerochaete chrysosporium) has been shown to degrade a broad spectrum of organic pollutants. In this study, the efficacy of treating red water with the P. chrysosporium system was investigated.

  14. 75 FR 35801 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... testing, the plant residues method has also demonstrated the ability to extract aged clothianidin residue... cream and bovine muscle, liver, kidney and fat. The method quantifies picoxystrobin in the animal... collection enforcing of thiabendazole residues. The Pesticide Analytical Manual (PAM) Vol. II lists four...

  15. An Improved Method to Extract Pesticide Residues in Fruits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    momi moto

    Key words: Natural disasters, climate change, impact, flood risk, maximal acceptable risk, Cotonou ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. ..... household heads do not go to school, 42 % have .... (2008), Plan de.

  16. An Improved Method to Extract Pesticide Residues in Fruits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    momi moto

    CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON TOGO'S AGRICULTURE PERFORMANCE: A RICARDIAN. ANALYSIS BASED ON .... climate change are agriculture, health, fisheries, water, and ..... the global concerned due to its large effects on human life.

  17. Mixture of residual fish hydrolysate and fish extract hydrolysate to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    starch with 3 gL-1 (NH4)2HPO4 increased the ... the processes, locally available protein source was used ... P7125) was from Sigma Chemical ..... alpha amylase productivity of Aspergillus oryzae in continuous culture.

  18. 78 FR 63938 - Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or on Various...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... distillation. Residues are then extracted and subjected to SPE purification. Detection and quantitation are... alkaline reflux, followed by distillation. Residues are then extracted and subjected to SPE purification... insecticide, Chromobacterium subtsugae strain SB3872, in or on all food commodities. The petitioner believes...

  19. residue and shunting pinholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorji, Nima E.

    2014-09-01

    The present work considers two observable phenomena through the experimental fabrication and electrical characterization of the rf-sputtered CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells that extremely reduce the overall conversion efficiency of the device: CdCl2 residue on the surface of the semiconductor and shunting pinholes. The former happens through nonuniform treatment of the As-deposited solar cells before annealing at high temperature and the latter occurs by shunting pinholes when the cell surface is shunted by defects, wire-like pathways or scratches on the metallic back contact caused from the external contacts. Such physical problems may be quite common in the experimental activities and reduce the performance down to 4-5 % which leads to dismantle the device despite its precise fabrication. We present our electrical characterization on the samples that received wet CdCl2 surface treatment (uniform or nonuniform) and are damaged by the pinholes.

  20. Hierarchically deflated conjugate residual

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Azusa

    2016-01-01

    We present a progress report on a new class of multigrid solver algorithm suitable for the solution of 5d chiral fermions such as Domain Wall fermions and the Continued Fraction overlap. Unlike HDCG \\cite{Boyle:2014rwa}, the algorithm works directly on a nearest neighbour fine operator. The fine operator used is Hermitian indefinite, for example $\\Gamma_5 D_{dwf}$, and convergence is achieved with an indefinite matrix solver such as outer iteration based on conjugate residual. As a result coarse space representations of the operator remain nearest neighbour, giving an 8 point stencil rather than the 81 point stencil used in HDCG. It is hoped this may make it viable to recalculate the matrix elements of the little Dirac operator in an HMC evolution.

  1. Simultaneous Determination of the Residual Contents of 21 Harmful Organic Solvents in Leather and Leather Products by GC-MS/MS Coupled with Ultrasonic Extraction%超声萃取-气相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定皮革及其制品中21种有害有机溶剂的残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成云; 李丽霞; 谢堂堂; 林君峰; 褚乃清; 唐莉纯; 李燕华

    2016-01-01

    In order to monitor the residual contents of harmful organic solvents in leath-er and leather products,a method of gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS-MS)was established for the simultaneous determination of 21 harmful organic solvents.Residual harmful organic solvents in leather and leather products were ultra-sonically extracted using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent,then the extract was purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE)column and was analyzed by GC-MS/MS.All the analyte were calibrated by the external method.The results show that the limits of quantification (LOQ)are 15 μg/kg for ethylene glycol diethyl ether (EGEE),ethylene glycol dibutyl ether (EGDBE)and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP);the limit of quantifica-tion is 20 μg/kg for ethylene glycol methyl ether (EGME);the limits of quantification are 25 μg/kg for diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DEGDME ), N ,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF ),ethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE ),N ,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA),N-methylformamide (MF)and diethylene glycol butyl ether (DEGBE);the limits of quantification are 50 μg/kg for ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME), ethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE),diethylene glycol methyl ether (DEGME),dieth-ylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE),N-methylacetamide (MA),triethylene glycol dime-thyl ether (TEGDME),formamide,triethylene glycol methyl ether (TEGME),trieth-ylene glycol ethyl ether (TEGEE)and triethylene glycol butyl ether (TEGBE);the lim-it of quantification is 100 μg/kg for diethylene glycol diethyl ether (DEGDEE).The spiked average recoveries are 80.6%-95.8% under three different spiked levels.The relative standard deviation (RSD)of precision experiment changes from 2.3% to 6.7%. By using this method,5 12 commercially available leather and leather product samples were detected and 9 target compounds such as DMF,DMA,EGEE,EGBE,DEGEE, DEGBE,TEGME,TEGBE and NMP were found to exist in 55 samples.The ratios of detection of DEGBE and DMF are the highest among these

  2. Experimental determination of residual stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Milton W.

    1991-01-01

    Residual stresses in finished parts have often been regarded as factors contributing to premature part failure and geometric distortions. Currently, residual stresses in welded structures and railroad components are being investigated. High residual stresses formed in welded structures due primarily to the differential contractions of the weld material as it cools and solidifies can have a profound effect on the surface performance of the structure. In railroad wheels, repeated use of the brakes causes high residual stresses in the rims which may lead to wheel failure and possible derailment. The goals of the study were: (1) to develop strategies for using x-ray diffraction to measure residual stress; (2) to subject samples of Inconel 718 to various mechanical and heat treatments and to measure the resulting stress using x-ray diffraction; and (3) to measure residual stresses in ferromagnetic alloys using magnetoacoustics.

  3. Residue depletion of ivermectin in broiler poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestorino, Nora; Buldain, Daniel; Buchamer, Andrea; Gortari, Lihuel; Daniele, Martín; Marchetti, María Laura

    2017-04-01

    Helminth infections are widespread in the poultry industry. There is evidence of extra-label use of some drugs, such as ivermectin (IVM), in broiler poultry. Pharmacokinetic and residual studies of IVM in poultry, however, are rather scarce. Our aim was to determine time restrictions for broiler chickens fed with balanced feed mixed with IVM for 21 days, and thus achieve acceptable residual levels for consumption as established by the European Union. Sixty 1-day-old chicks were fed with food supplemented with IVM at 5 mg kg(-1) feed for 21 days. Groups of six treated animals were sacrificed at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 10, 15, 20 and 28 days after treatment. Liver, skin/fat, kidney and muscle samples were obtained. IVM were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after automatic solid-phase extraction with SPE C18 cartridges. The highest concentrations were measured in the liver, which is logical given that IVM is a drug that undergoes extensive hepatic metabolism. The optimal withdrawal time for edible tissues of these animals to stay within the permitted residual levels were: 12 days for liver, 8 days for skin/fat, 0 days for muscle and 10 days for kidney.

  4. Determination of cutin-bound residues of chlorothalonil by immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, C; Schwack, W

    2001-03-01

    An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine photochemically cutin-bound residues of chlorothalonil in enzymatically isolated tomato and apple fruit cuticles. The samples were spiked, irradiated, exhaustively extracted, and depolymerized with boron trifluoride complex resulting in a soluble depolymerisate. With this procedure, the ELISA could be calibrated with free target molecules for the quantification of originally bound chlorothalonil residues. In fruit cuticles that were irradiated for 8 h by simulated sunlight, 0.030 and 0.068 mg/g photoinduced cutin-bound residues of wax-free cuticles (calculated as chlorothalonil) were determined for tomatoes and apples, respectively. For the used antibody mAb chl. 4/11, cross-reactivities with derivatives of chlorothalonil simulating different types of cuticle-bound residues are given and discussed.

  5. Sample Preparation for Headspace GC Analysis of Residual Solvents in Hyaluronic Acid Derivative Fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon Joo; Kim, Dong Min; Yang, Jeong Soo [LG life Sciences, Ltd./R and D Park, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Wha [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    The aim of this study is to develop efficient sample preparation method for HS-GC analysis of residual solvents in HA derivative fiber. Compared to direct extraction of residual solvents from HA derivative fiber, the extraction through the hydrolysis of HA derivative fiber by HAse gave more complete and higher reproducible quantification of residual solvent. To validate HS-GC analysis method of residual solvents, specificity, limits of detection and quantification, linearity, accuracy and precision are investigated in the study. HA derivative fiber was hydrolyzed using HAse for headspace gas chromatographic analysis of residual solvents of ethanol, acetone and isopropanol in HA derivative fiber. This study showed that the developed method had specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision. In addition, it demonstrated that HS-GC coupled with matrix-breaking method such as hydrolysis was available for the determination of residual solvents in a matrix like HA derivative fiber.

  6. Removal of uranyl ions from residual waters using some algae types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecal, A; Palamaru, [No Value; Humelnicu, D; Popa, K; Salaru, VV; Rudic, [No Value; Gulea, A

    1999-01-01

    This paper deals with a study on the bioaccumulation of uranyl ions resulted from residual effluents by means of some microbiological collectors: Scenedesmus quadricauda, Anabaena karakumica, Calothrix brevissima, Penicillinium sp, as well as the Glucide extract of Porphyridium cruentum, under

  7. Materials recovery from shredder residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, E. J.; Jody, B. J.; Pomykala, J., Jr.

    2000-07-24

    Each year, about five (5) million ton of shredder residues are landfilled in the US. Similar quantities are landfilled in Europe and the Pacific Rim. Landfilling of these residues results in a cost to the existing recycling industry and also represents a loss of material resources that are otherwise recyclable. In this paper, the authors outline the resources recoverable from typical shredder residues and describe technology that they have developed to recover these resources.

  8. Residual entropy and simulated annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Ettelaie, R.; Moore, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Determining the residual entropy in the simulated annealing approach to optimization is shown to provide useful information on the true ground state energy. The one-dimensional Ising spin glass is studied to exemplify the procedure and in this case the residual entropy is related to the number of one-spin flip stable metastable states. The residual entropy decreases to zero only logarithmically slowly with the inverse cooling rate.

  9. Accumulation of {sup 14}C-trinitrotoluene and related nonextractable (bound) residues in Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belden, Jason B., E-mail: jbelden@okstate.edu [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Lotufo, Guillerme R. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States); Chambliss, C. Kevin [Department of Chemistry, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States); Fisher, Jonathan C. [Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Dave R.; Boyd, Robert E.; Sims, Jerre G. [US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    To determine if trinitrotoluene (TNT) forms nonextractable residues in earthworms and to measure the relative degree of accumulation as compared to TNT and its deaminated metabolites, Eisenia fetida was exposed to {sup 14}C-TNT using dermal contact to filter paper or exposure to soil. Nonextractable residues made up 32-68% of total body burden depending on exposure media and depuration time. Parent TNT accounted for less than 3% of radioactivity, while ADNTs accounted for 7-38%. Elimination half-lives were 61-120 h for TNT, ADNTs, and DANTs, which was significantly lower than the half-lives found for nonextractable residues, 201-240 h. However, over 80% of the nonextractable residue was solubilized using weak acid (pH 2). Based on our findings that TNT accumulation occurs primarily as nonextractable residues, which have a longer half-life, and that nonextractable residues can be solubilized, we propose that nonextractable residues could be used as a selective biomarker for assessing TNT contamination. - Highlights: > Trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms primarily occurs as nonextractable residues. > Nonextractable residues have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites. > Nonextractable residue may be useful as a biomarker for exposure to TNT. - The majority of trinitrotoluene accumulation in earthworms occurs as nonextractable residues that have a significantly longer half life in the worm as compared to TNT and its solvent-extractable deaminated metabolites.

  10. 分子印迹固相萃取/毛细管电泳法检测牛奶中头孢噻肟残留%Determination of Cefotaxime Residue in Milk by Molecular Imprinted Solid Phase Extraction/Capillary Electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玎玎; 何东旭; 祁克宗; 陆翠珍

    2012-01-01

    采用分子印迹技术,以头孢噻肟(CTX)为模板分子,α-甲基丙烯酸(MAA)为功能单体,乙二醇二甲基丙烯酸酯(EGDMA)为交联剂合成了头孢噻肟分子印迹聚合物(CTX-MIP).以该分子印迹聚合物为固相萃取柱填料,毛细管电泳进行检测,建立了分子印迹固相萃取/毛细管电泳检测牛奶中头孢噻肟残留的方法.结果表明,CTX-MIP对CTX具有较高的选择性,萃取效果良好.该方法在CTX为5~ 100 mg/L范围内呈良好线性,相关系数(r2)为0.999 4;3种不同加标水平(10、50、100 mg/L)的回收率分别为78%、84%、86%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为3.5%~4.5%,检出限(LOD,S/N≥3)为98.52 μg/L,定量下限(LOQ,S/N≥10)为329.0 μg/L,符合兽药残留分析的要求.%A molecularly imprinted polymer for cefotaxime ( CTX - MIP) was synthesized by the molecular imprinting technique using cefotaxime ( CTX) as template molecule, ot-methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate ( EGDMA) as cross linking agent. By using the cefotaxime molecularly imprinted polymer as sorbent in solid-phase extraction column, a molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction - capillary electrophoresis (MISPE - HPCE) method was developed for the determination of cefotaxime residue in milk. The results showed that cefotaxime imprinted polymer exhibited a higher selectivity to cefotaxime compared with that of the non-imprinted polymer. The linear range of cefotaxime was in the range of 0. 5 - 100 mg/L, and the correlation coefficient was 0. 999 4. The recoveries at three spiked concentration levels of 10, 50, 100 mg/L were 78% , 84% and 86% , respectively, with RSDs of 3.5% -4.5% . The limit of detection(LOD, S/N≥3) and the limit of quantitation(LOQ, S/N≥10) were 98.52 μg/L and 329.0 μg/L, respectively. The method could meet the requirements for veterinary drug residue analysis.

  11. 从甘薯渣发酵醪液中制备的膳食纤维的物化特性研究%Study on the physico-chemical properties of dietary fiber extracted from alcoholic fermentation mash of sweet potato residues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤; 木泰华

    2012-01-01

    以甘薯渣酒精发酵后的醪液为原料,采用物理筛分法制备膳食纤维。测定酒精发酵醪液制备的膳食纤维(AFDF)的化学组成成分、显微结构、色泽、粒度、吸水膨胀性、持水性和持油性,并分剐与甘薯膳食纤维(SPDF)、大豆膳食纤维(SDF)和燕麦膳食纤维(ODF)进行比较。结果表明:AFDF纯度最高,为82.46%,其显微结构为多孔状,粒径在1—60μm范围内,具有较好的吸水膨胀性(13.26mL/g)、持水性(11.84g/g)和持油性(1.85g/g),因而是一种潜在可利用的膳食纤维资源。%The alcoholic fermentation mashes originated from sweet potato residues were used as raw materials to extract dietary fiber by using the physical sieving method.The chemical composition,microstructure, color, particle size,water-holding capacity, oil-holding capacity and swelling property of the dietary fiber extracted from alcoholic fermentation mashes(AFDF)were investigated and then compared with those of sweet potato dietary fiber(SPDF) ,soybean dietary fiber(SDF) and oats dietary fiber(ODF), respectively.The results showed that AFDF had the highest pure degree with the value of 82.46% and a porous microscopic structure.In addition,the particle size of AFDF was in the range of 1 -60μm with good water-holding capacity(11.84g/g), oil-holding capacity (1.85g/g)and swelling property(13.26mL/g).Therefore,AFDF could be used as a potential valuable dietary fiber source in food industries.

  12. Evaluation of residue-residue contact predictions in CASP9

    KAUST Repository

    Monastyrskyy, Bohdan

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the results of the assessment of the intramolecular residue-residue contact predictions submitted to CASP9. The methodology for the assessment does not differ from that used in previous CASPs, with two basic evaluation measures being the precision in recognizing contacts and the difference between the distribution of distances in the subset of predicted contact pairs versus all pairs of residues in the structure. The emphasis is placed on the prediction of long-range contacts (i.e., contacts between residues separated by at least 24 residues along sequence) in target proteins that cannot be easily modeled by homology. Although there is considerable activity in the field, the current analysis reports no discernable progress since CASP8.

  13. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  14. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  15. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  16. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, M.; Price, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  17. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  18. Residual strains in conduit arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, A; Greenwald, S E

    2003-05-01

    Residual strains and stresses are those that exist in a body when all external loads are removed. Residual strains in arteries can be characterized by the opening angle of the sector-like cross-section which arises when an unloaded ring segment is radially cut. A review of experimental methods for measuring residual strains and the main results about the variation of the opening angle with arterial localization, age, smooth muscle activity, mechanical environment and certain vascular pathologies are presented and discussed. It is shown that, in addition to their well-established ability to homogenize the stress field in the arterial wall, residual strains make arteries more compliant and thereby improve their performance as elastic reservoirs and ensure more effective local control of the arterial lumen by smooth muscle cells. Finally, evidence that, in some cases, residual strains remain in arteries even after they have been cut radially is discussed.

  19. Determination of pesticide residues in sewage sludge: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadeo, José L; Sánchez-Brunete, Consuelo; Albero, Beatriz; García-Valcárcel, Ana I

    2010-01-01

    Pesticides are widely applied to protect plants from diseases, weeds, and insect damage, and they usually come into contact with soil where they may undergo a variety of transformations and provide a complex pattern of metabolites. Spreading sewage sludge on agricultural lands has been actively promoted by national authorities as an economic way of recycling. However, as a byproduct of wastewater treatment, sewage sludge may contain pesticides and other toxic substances that could be incorporated into agricultural products or be distributed in the environment. This article reviews the determination of pesticides in sewage sludge samples. Sample preparation including pretreatment, extraction, and cleanup, as well as the subsequent instrumental determination of pesticide residues, are discussed. Extraction techniques such as Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and matrix solid-phase dispersion and their most recent applications to the determination of pesticides in sewage sludge samples are reviewed. Determination of pesticides, generally carried out by GC and HPLC coupled with different detectors, especially MS for the identification and quantification of residues, is summarized and discussed.

  20. Study on thermal cracking behavior of petroleum residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ebrahimi; J.S. Moghaddas; M.K. Razavi Aghjeh [Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran). Chemical Engineering Faculty

    2008-07-15

    Incipient coke formation was studied by heating a heavy hydrocarbon residue in isothermal batch reactor at atmospheric pressure of nitrogen at temperatures 320, 357, and 387{sup o}C over times from 0 to 7 h. The kinetics of coke formation was followed by solvent extraction (insolubility in hexane (HI), toluene (TI)) and as development of HI and TI approximate to apparent first-order kinetics. Results appeared to follow the Wiehe's phase separation model for coke formation. The density of the pyrolysis residues was found to be independent of condition and it shows a linear relation to TI content. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Water leaching of titanium from ore flotation residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Malgorzata M; Guibal, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Copper ore tailings were tested for the stability of titanium submitted to water leaching in three different reactor systems (agitated vessel, bioreactor and percolated fixed-bed column). For each of these systems, titanium extraction did not exceed 1% of the available metal. Biomass removed from ore residue adsorbed a small part of the titanium with sorption capacities below 20-30 mg g(-1), but most of this biomass was sequestered in the ore residue. Oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations were monitored and changes in concentration correlated with bacteria development at the initial stage of the process and to fungal development in the latter stages.

  2. The combined extraction of sage (Salvia officinalis L.): ultrasound followed by supercritical CO2 extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisic, Sandra B; Ristic, Mihajlo; Skala, Dejan U

    2011-01-01

    A wide spectrum of phytochemicals could be isolated from sage (Salvia officinalis L.) using different extraction or distillation technique: the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), the volatiles compounds (monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) isolation using hydrodistillation or higher molecular compounds with Soxhlet extraction or ultrasound-assisted extraction. The combination of ultrasound-assisted extraction followed by re-extraction of obtained extract with supercritical CO(2) was performed in this study. The goal of performed investigation was to concentrate diterpenes present in sage extract which are generally considered to be responsible for antioxidant activity of extracted compounds. The fractionation using the supercritical CO(2), and different combination of the ultrasound-assisted solvent extractions (water-ethanol mixture or only water) followed by supercritical CO(2) re-extraction of obtained extract or treated plant material were analyzed and compared. Based on the results of these investigations it could be proposed the best extraction procedure: the ultrasound pretreatment of plant material with distilled water and re-extraction of plant material (residue) using supercritical CO(2). That procedure gives two valuable products: the ultrasound extract which is rich in sugars and possess the immunomodulatory activity and supercritical extract which is rich in diterpenes and sesquiterpenes.

  3. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human nutrition, particularly in developing ... studied the effect of NaCl on the extractability of ... significant influence on the functional properties ..... Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  4. Tratamentos integrados em efluente metal-mecânico: precipitação química e biotratamento em reator do tipo air-lift Integrated treatments for metalworking effluent: chemistry precipitation and biotreatment in air-lift reactor type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Delgado Queissada

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: realizar a caracterização físico-química de um efluente metal-mecânico e efetuar o tratamento integrado (precipitação química e biotratamento, utilizando micro-organismos autóctones do efluente (FI e FV e uma referência (A. niger. A caracterização indicou pH de 1,7; cor de 1.495 mg Pt.L-1; demanda química de oxigênio de 9.147 mgO2.L-1; 887 mg.L-1 de óleo e graxa, além de 2,5 mgO2.L-1 de oxigênio dissolvido. Com o tratamento por precipitação química, obteve-se, em pH = 7,5, a redução de todos os íons metálicos investigados. Após o biotratamento, a cor foi reduzida em 95%, utilizando o micro-organismos FV. As reduções da demanda química de oxigênio e de óleo e graxa foram mais significativas utilizando FI, que reduziu os mesmos em 52 e 62%, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicaram que os micro-organismos autóctones do efluente foram mais eficazes no tratamento do mesmo do que o organismo de referência A. niger.The objectives of this paper were: to perform the physical-chemical characterization of a metalworking effluent and to carry out the integrated treatment (chemical precipitation and biotreatment, using effluent autochthonous microorganisms (FI and FV and a reference (A. niger. The characterization indicated pH of 1.7; color, 1,495 mg Pt.L-1; chemical oxygen demand, 9,147 mgO2.L-1; oil and grease, 887 mg.L-1, and dissolved oxygen with 2.5 mgO2.L-1. With the chemical precipitation treatment, in pH = 7.5, the reduction of all the investigated metallic ions was obtained. The color was reduced 95% after the biotreatment using the FV microorganism. The chemical oxygen demand and oil and grease reductions were more significant when using FI, which reduced the same in 52 and 62%, respectively. These results indicated that the autochthonous microorganisms were more efficient in the effluent treatment than the reference organism A. niger.

  5. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...

  6. RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT: ETHYLENE OXIDE ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the residual risk assessment for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. For stationary sources, section 112 (f) of the Clean Air Act requires EPA to assess risks to human health and the environment following implementation of technology-based control standards. If these technology-based control standards do not provide an ample margin of safety, then EPA is required to promulgate addtional standards. This document describes the methodology and results of the residual risk assessment performed for the Ethylene Oxide Commercial Sterilization source category. The results of this analyiss will assist EPA in determining whether a residual risk rule for this source category is appropriate.

  7. Bevalac extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  8. Identification of NAD interacting residues in proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghava Gajendra PS

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small molecular cofactors or ligands play a crucial role in the proper functioning of cells. Accurate annotation of their target proteins and binding sites is required for the complete understanding of reaction mechanisms. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ or NAD is one of the most commonly used organic cofactors in living cells, which plays a critical role in cellular metabolism, storage and regulatory processes. In the past, several NAD binding proteins (NADBP have been reported in the literature, which are responsible for a wide-range of activities in the cell. Attempts have been made to derive a rule for the binding of NAD+ to its target proteins. However, so far an efficient model could not be derived due to the time consuming process of structure determination, and limitations of similarity based approaches. Thus a sequence and non-similarity based method is needed to characterize the NAD binding sites to help in the annotation. In this study attempts have been made to predict NAD binding proteins and their interacting residues (NIRs from amino acid sequence using bioinformatics tools. Results We extracted 1556 proteins chains from 555 NAD binding proteins whose structure is available in Protein Data Bank. Then we removed all redundant protein chains and finally obtained 195 non-redundant NAD binding protein chains, where no two chains have more than 40% sequence identity. In this study all models were developed and evaluated using five-fold cross validation technique on the above dataset of 195 NAD binding proteins. While certain type of residues are preferred (e.g. Gly, Tyr, Thr, His in NAD interaction, residues like Ala, Glu, Leu, Lys are not preferred. A support vector machine (SVM based method has been developed using various window lengths of amino acid sequence for predicting NAD interacting residues and obtained maximum Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC 0.47 with accuracy 74.13% at window length 17

  9. Solvent deasphalting process of vacuum residue blended with coal tar based on the molecular management by atmospheric extraction%基于分子管理的渣油掺炼煤焦油常压溶剂脱沥青效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隆建; 王基铭; 沈本贤; 凌昊; 卢俊财

    2011-01-01

    考察了渣油(VR)掺炼煤焦油(CT)溶剂脱沥青过程效果的变化,优化了实验条件.结果表明,在最佳实验条件[萃取温度30.0℃,溶剂比6∶1(体积/质量)]下,当VR掺炼质量分数为10%的CT时,脱沥青油(DAO)收率较未掺炼者提高2.02个百分点,镍和钒总含量下降5μg/g,硫含量略有下降,氮含量基本不变.VR掺炼CT后黏度降低,胶体稳定性下降.实验所得脱油沥青为硬沥青,采用外掺油浆对其进行调和,随油浆加入质量分数的增加,调和沥青的延度、针入度增大,软化点降低,沥青性质得到改善.%The effect of solvent deasphalting process of vacuum residue (VR) blended with coal tar(CT) was studied and the experimental conditions were optimized. The results showed that under the conditions of extraction temperature 30.0 ℃ and solvent ratio 6:1 (volume/mass), the yield of deasphalted oil from VR blended with mass fraction of CT of 10% was 2.02 percentage points higher than that from VR,the content of Ni and V decreased by 5 μg/g,sulfur content reduced slightly,and the content of nitrogen unchanged litter. The viscosity and colloid stability of VR declined when VR blended with CT. The deoiled asphalt obtained from the experiments was hard, which was modified by slurry oil. The penetration and ductility of the modified asphalt increased, land softening point decreased with increasing slurry oil. The modified asphalt was improved significantly.

  10. 多壁碳纳米管分散固相萃取-LC-MS/MS法分析烟草中114种农药残留%Simultaneous Determination of 114 Pesticide Residues in Tobacco by Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube-based Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余斐; 陈黎; 艾丹; 潘立宁; 胡斌; 刘惠民

    2015-01-01

    建立了一种以多壁碳纳米管(MWCNTs)为吸附剂的分散固相萃取(DSPE)、液相色谱-串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)测定烟草中114种农药残留的分析方法。通过优化实验,选择并确定了MWCNTs的型号和用量,在QuEChERS方法的基础上改善了样品净化效果。结果表明:①以外径>50 nm、用量5 mg的MWCNTs为净化剂材料,可以获得比N-丙基乙二胺(PSA)更好的净化效果。②工作曲线线性良好(r2>0.999),3个添加水平(0.02,0.05,0.20 mg/kg)的平均回收率为69%~119%,相对标准偏差为1%~19%,方法定量限(LOQ)在0.2~40.0μg/kg之间。该方法准确度高、灵敏度好、操作简便,适合用于烟草样品中114种农药残留的检测。%A method combining dispersive solid phase extraction (DSPE), wherein multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used as adsorption material, with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for simultaneously determining 114 pesticide residues in tobacco. The type and adding rate of MWCNTs were optimized by experiments, and the purification of samples was improved by QuEChERS method. The results showed that: 1) It was more efficient using 5 mg MWCNTs of above 50 nm in external diameter than using N-Propylethane-1,2-diamine (PSA) in sample purification. 2) The calibration curve presented good linearity (r2>0.999). The average recoveries at spiked levels of 0.02, 0.05 and 0.20 mg/kg ranged from 69% to 119% with the relative standard deviations of 1%-19%, and the LOQs of the method were in the range of 0.2-40.0 g/kg. The developed method is accurate, sensitive, convenient, and suitable.

  11. Nitrogen availability of biogas residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed Fouda, Sara

    2011-09-07

    The objectives of this study were to characterize biogas residues either unseparated or separated into a liquid and a solid phase from the fermentation of different substrates with respect to their N and C content. In addition, short and long term effects of the application of these biogas residues on the N availability and N utilization by ryegrass was investigated. It is concluded that unseparated or liquid separated biogas residues provide N at least corresponding to their ammonium content and that after the first fertilizer application the C{sub org}:N{sub org} ratio of the biogas residues was a crucial factor for the N availability. After long term application, the organic N accumulated in the soil leads to an increased release of N.

  12. OECD Maximum Residue Limit Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the goal of harmonizing the calculation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) across the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, the OECD has developed an MRL Calculator. View the calculator.

  13. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...... of these issues focusing on pH-development in landfilled residues, effects of leaching test conditions on Cr leaching and effects of pre-treatment with FeSO4....

  14. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    Lignocellulosic substrates are abundant in agricultural areas around the world and lately, are utilized for biogas production in full-scale anaerobic digesters. However, the anaerobic digestion (AD) of these substrates is associated with specific difficulties due to their recalcitrant nature which...... solution for augmented biomass solubilization without causing inhibition to the mandatory anaerobic methanogenic community. Based on the initial microbial analysis, the bioaugmentation with the typically abundant in AD systems C. thermocellum was examined in biogas reactors fed with wheat straw...... be periodically applied in biogas reactors in order to extract the residual methane from the amassing materials and avoid potential accumulation. Additionally, the facultative anaerobic Melioribacter roseus was inoculated in a replicate CSTR following different bioaugmentation strategies, either strictly...

  15. Enhancing biogas production from recalcitrant lignocellulosic residue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis

    and lignocellulosic silage was assessed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR). Addition of mechanically pretreated silage in the feedstock positively affected the methane yield (+16%) and in parallel, reduced the risk of ammonia inhibition compared to mono-digestion of pig manure. Furthermore, metagenomic...... analysis was performed to determine differences among the microbial communities in CSTRs operating under mono- and co-digestion. Species similar to Clostridium thermocellum, with increased cellulolytic activity, were detected to be adherent to the solid fraction of digested feedstock and concluded...... be periodically applied in biogas reactors in order to extract the residual methane from the amassing materials and avoid potential accumulation. Additionally, the facultative anaerobic Melioribacter roseus was inoculated in a replicate CSTR following different bioaugmentation strategies, either strictly...

  16. Residue arithmetic in binary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barsi, Ferruccio

    1988-01-01

    A natural approach to the problem of performing mod m computations in a binary system is presented and a solution is suggested which is based upon a straightforward relation between the residues of a same integer X with respect to different moduli. The proposed solution proves fruitful in various applications, such as converting binary integers to residue notation and mod m addition or multiplication. Even if the most usual implementation approach for mod m processors is based on look-up tabl...

  17. Marine Tar Residues: a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, April M; Hagen, Scott C; Passeri, Davina L

    Marine tar residues originate from natural and anthropogenic oil releases into the ocean environment and are formed after liquid petroleum is transformed by weathering, sedimentation, and other processes. Tar balls, tar mats, and tar patties are common examples of marine tar residues and can range in size from millimeters in diameter (tar balls) to several meters in length and width (tar mats). These residues can remain in the ocean environment indefinitely, decomposing or becoming buried in the sea floor. However, in many cases, they are transported ashore via currents and waves where they pose a concern to coastal recreation activities, the seafood industry and may have negative effects on wildlife. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on marine tar residue formation, transport, degradation, and distribution. Methods of detection and removal of marine tar residues and their possible ecological effects are discussed, in addition to topics of marine tar research that warrant further investigation. Emphasis is placed on benthic tar residues, with a focus on the remnants of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in particular, which are still affecting the northern Gulf of Mexico shores years after the leaking submarine well was capped.

  18. Transesterification of oil extracted from different species of algae for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    farooq

    ISSN 1996-0786 © 2013 Academic Journals ... Extracted oil was analyzed for water ... wt%) and water contents (15, 23 and 17 mg/kg) for C. vulgaris, R. hieroglyphicum and mixed algae .... The solvent was reused .... Residual biomass (g).

  19. Structures, Mixed Types - Residual Waste Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Residual Waste Operation is a DEP primary facility type related to the Waste Management Residual Waste Program. Residual waste is waste generated at an industrial,...

  20. Speciation and recovery of chromium from chromite ore processing residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeram, K J; Ramasami, T

    2001-10-01

    The processing of chromite ore is associated with the generation of large quantities of solid wastes containing chromium, which have been disposed of as landfill for many years. The mobilization and operational speciation of chromium contained in soils contaminated with metal salts are important in terms of the environment. Several methods have been employed for the extraction and recovery of solid wastes. Chromium contained in contaminated soils and solid wastes can be categorized as exchangeable, oxidizable, carbonate-bound, reducible and residual. The results from this study indicate a need for efficient leaching methodologies in chromite ore processing plants to decrease the non-detrital fractions of chromium in the residue. Aggressive methodologies are required to recover chromium from the detrital fractions. The potential benefits of employing sodium peroxide for the complete recovery of chromium from chromite residue have been demonstrated, and the need to ensure the safety of the process has been emphasized.