WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraction remediation miser

  1. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  2. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

  3. Mis\\`ere Games and Mis\\`ere Quotients

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Aaron N.

    2006-01-01

    These lecture notes are based on a short course on mis\\`ere quotients offered at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, in November 2006. They include an introduction to impartial games, starting from the beginning; the basic mis\\`ere quotient construction; a proof of the Guy--Smith--Plambeck Periodicity Theorem; and statements of some recent results and open problems in the subject.

  4. Les Miserables (2012) : Motion Picture

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2013-01-01

    Les Miserables : In 19th-century France, Jean Valjean, who for decades has been hunted by the ruthless policeman Javert after breaking parole, agrees to care for a factory worker's daughter. The decision changes their lives for ever.

  5. Optimized remedial groundwater extraction using linear programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Groundwater extraction systems are typically installed to remediate contaminant plumes or prevent further spread of contamination. These systems are expensive to install and maintain. A traditional approach to designing such a wellfield uses a series of trial-and-error simulations to test the effects of various well locations and pump rates. However, the optimal locations and pump rates of extraction wells are difficult to determine when objectives related to the site hydrogeology and potential pumping scheme are considered. This paper describes a case study of an application of linear programming theory to determine optimal well placement and pump rates. The objectives of the pumping scheme were to contain contaminant migration and reduce contaminant concentrations while minimizing the total amount of water pumped and treated. Past site activities at the area under study included disposal of contaminants in pits. Several groundwater plumes have been identified, and others may be present. The area of concern is bordered on three sides by a wetland, which receives a portion of its input budget as groundwater discharge from the pits. Optimization of the containment pumping scheme was intended to meet three goals: (1) prevent discharge of contaminated groundwater to the wetland, (2) minimize the total water pumped and treated (cost benefit), and (3) avoid dewatering of the wetland (cost and ecological benefits). Possible well locations were placed at known source areas. To constrain the problem, the optimization program was instructed to prevent any flow toward the wetland along a user-specified border. In this manner, the optimization routine selects well locations and pump rates so that a groundwater divide is produced along this boundary

  6. Soil and groundwater remediation using dual-phase extraction technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.W.; Gan, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A gasoline underground storage tank (UST) was formerly used to fuel vehicles for a hospital in Madison, Wisconsin. Elevated concentrations of gasoline range organics (GRO) were observed in soils and groundwater at the site during the tank removal and a subsequent site investigation. Based on the extent of soil and groundwater contamination, a dual-phase extraction technology was selected as the most cost effective alternative to remediate the site. The dual-phase extraction system includes one extraction well functioning both as a soil vapor extraction (SVE) and groundwater recovery well. After six months of operation, samples collected from the groundwater monitoring wells indicated that the groundwater has been cleaned up to levels below the Wisconsin preventative action limits. The dual-phase extraction system effectively remediated the site in a short period of time, saving both operation and maintenance costs and overall project cost

  7. Remediation of flare pit soils using supercritical fluid extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, V.; Guigard, S.E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2005-09-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the ability of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to remove petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) from two flare pit soils in Alberta. SFE is a technology for remediation of contaminated soils. In order to determine the optimal extraction conditions and to understand the effects of pressure, temperature, supercritical carbon dioxide flow rate, soil type, and extraction time on the extraction efficiency of SFE, extractions were performed on two flare pit soils at various pressures and temperatures. Chemicals in the study included diesel oil, SAE 10-30W motor oil, n-decane, hexadecane, tetratriacontane and pentacontane. The best extraction conditions were defined as conditions that result in a treated soil with a PHC concentration that meets the regulatory guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in the Canada-wide standard for PHC is soil. The study results indicate that the efficiency of the SFE process is solvent-density dependent for the conditions studied. The highest extraction efficiency for both soils was obtained at conditions of 24.1 MPa and 40 degrees C. An increase in pressure at a fixed temperature led to an increase in the extraction efficiency while an increase in temperature at a fixed pressure led to a decrease in the extraction efficiency. The treated soils were observed to be lighter in colour, drier, and grainier than the soil prior to extraction. It was concluded that SFE is an effective method for remediating flare pit soils. 63 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  8. Full scale solvent extraction remedial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    Sevenson Extraction Technology, Inc. has completed the development of the Soil Restoration Unit (initially developed by Terra-Kleen Corporation), a mobile, totally enclosed solvent extraction treatment facility for the removal of organic contaminated media is greater by a closed loop, counter current process that recycles all solvents. The solvents used are selected for the individual site dependant upon the contaminants, such as PCB's, oil, etc. and the soil conditions. A mixture of up to fourteen non-toxic solvents can be used for complicated sites. The full scale unit has been used to treat one superfund site, the Traband Site in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and is currently treating another superfund site, the Pinette's Salvage Yard Site in Washburn, Maine. The full scale Soil Restoration Unit has also been used at a non-superfund site, as part of a TSCA Research and Development permit. The results from these sites will be discussed in brief herein, and in more detail in the full paper

  9. Remediation of soils combining soil vapor extraction and bioremediation: benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, António Alves; Albergaria, José Tomás; Domingues, Valentina Fernandes; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    This work reports the study of the combination of soil vapor extraction (SVE) with bioremediation (BR) to remediate soils contaminated with benzene. Soils contaminated with benzene with different water and natural organic matter contents were studied. The main goals were: (i) evaluate the performance of SVE regarding the remediation time and the process efficiency; (ii) study the combination of both technologies in order to identify the best option capable to achieve the legal clean up goals; and (iii) evaluate the influence of soil water content (SWC) and natural organic matter (NOM) on SVE and BR. The remediation experiments performed in soils contaminated with benzene allowed concluding that: (i) SVE presented (a) efficiencies above 92% for sandy soils and above 78% for humic soils; (b) and remediation times from 2 to 45 h, depending on the soil; (ii) BR showed to be an efficient technology to complement SVE; (iii) (a) SWC showed minimum impact on SVE when high airflow rates were used and led to higher remediation times for lower flow rates; (b) NOM as source of microorganisms and nutrients enhanced BR but hindered the SVE due the limitation on the mass transfer of benzene from the soil to the gas phase. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Remediation in clay using two-phase vacuum extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhult, E.C.; Tarsavage, J.M.; Foukaris, K.A.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contamination in a tight clay usually requires costly and/or time consuming remediation, due to the inherently low hydraulic conductivity of the soil. However, Dames and Moore is successfully using an innovative, cost-effective two-phase vacuum extraction (VE) technology at a former gasoline service station. Dramatic decreases in BTEX concentrations in onsite and downgradient monitoring wells are apparent

  11. Advances in vacuum extraction technology for effective subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Pezzullo, J.A.; Piniewski, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Vacuum extraction technology has become one of the most widely acclaimed methods for remediating soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds. Removal of the source of contamination in the soil is often the first step in effective control of groundwater contamination. Though originally thought effective only for removal of light-end hydrocarbons from permeable vadose-zone soils, vacuum extraction can now be adapted to address situations of low-permeable soils, heavier-end hydrocarbons and groundwater contamination. This paper reviews four innovative modifications to the vacuum extraction process and how they solve a wide variety of subsurface contamination problems. The modifications, or processes, reviewed include: vacuum-extraction-enhanced bioremediation, groundwater sparging, pneumatic soil fracturing, and soil heating

  12. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    remediation time. A three step sequential extraction scheme (BCR), with an extra residual step, was used to evaluate the heavy metal distribution in the sediments before and after electrodialytic remediation. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidisable phase of the sediment, both before and after remediation...

  13. Solvent extraction for remediation of manufactured gas plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luthy, R.G.; Dzombak, D.A.; Peters, C.; Ali, M.A.; Roy, S.B.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents the results of an initial assessment of the feasibility of solvent extraction for removing coal tar from the subsurface or for treating contaminated soil excavated at manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites. In situ solvent extraction would involve injection, recovery, and reclamation for reinjection of an environmentally-benign, water-miscible solvent. Accelerated dissolution and removal of coaltar from the subsurface might be desirable as a remedial approach if excavation is not practical (e.g., the site underlies facilities in current use), direct pumping of coal tar is ineffective, and bioremediation is not feasible because of the presence of high concentrations of coal tar. Both laboratory experiments and engineering evaluations were performed to provide a basis for the initial feasibility assessment. Laboratory work included identification and evaluation of promising solvents, measurement of fundamental properties of coal tar-solvent-water systems, and measurement of rates of dissolution of coal tar in porous media into flowing solvent-water solutions. Engineering evaluations involved identification of common hydrogeologic features and contaminant distributions at MGP sites, and identification and evaluation of possible injection-recovery well deployment schemes. A coupled flow-chemistry model was developed for simulation of the in situ process and evaluation of the well deployment schemes. Results indicate that in situsolvent extraction may be able to recover a significant amount of coal tar from the subsurface within a reasonable time frame (on the order of one year or so) provided that subsurface conditions are conducive to process implementation. Some important implementation issues remain to be addressed

  14. Melissa officinalis L. extract – an effective remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm is the popular name of Melissa officinalis L. Melissa comes from the Greek word Mélissa meaning honeybee. Within the species were distinguished three subspecies: M. officinalis ssp. altissima Arcangeli, M. officinalis ssp. officinalis, and M. officinalis ssp. indora Boran. These are the plants from Lamiaceae group, native to the Mediterranean, but also widespread distributed in moderate and subtropical climate regions. M. officinalis is commonly used for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and more recently in the treatment of Herpes simplex lesions. Leaves are pharmacopeia material. In the fresh herb a content of balm oil is 0.01-0.10% and in the dried leaves from 0.1% up to 0.3%. The main components of M. officinalis usually are: citronellal (approximately 40% of content of balm oil, citral, neral, linalool, flavonoids, chlorogenic, ferulic, rosmarinic (4% of content of balm oil and caffeic acid. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature date about the application of balm extract and oil in the contemporary medicine. The latest studies showed the evidence that the alcoholic lemon balm leaves extract has antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects. Thus could be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 or dyslipidemia by the activation of receptors PPAR playing the major role in glucose and lipids metabolism. Another importance of the lemon balm leaves extract is its antiviral activity, owes to rosmarinic acid. Melissa extract demonstrates high virucidal activity even at very low concentrations; it demonstrates low toxicity and inhibits HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro. The volatile oils included in lemon balm inhibit the replication of HSV-2. Moreover, the rosmarinic acid found out to be cytotoxic against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line. The substance contained in an alcoholic extract from M. officinalis turned out to be anti-proliferative and decrease in cell number neoplasmatic cell

  15. Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with hydrocarbons and halogenated hydrocarbons by soil vapour extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, José Tomás; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2012-08-15

    This paper presents the study of the remediation of sandy soils containing six of the most common contaminants (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene) using soil vapour extraction (SVE). The influence of soil water content on the process efficiency was evaluated considering the soil type and the contaminant. For artificially contaminated soils with negligible clay contents and natural organic matter it was concluded that: (i) all the remediation processes presented efficiencies above 92%; (ii) an increase of the soil water content led to a more time-consuming remediation; (iii) longer remediation periods were observed for contaminants with lower vapour pressures and lower water solubilities due to mass transfer limitations. Based on these results an easy and relatively fast procedure was developed for the prediction of the remediation times of real soils; 83% of the remediation times were predicted with relative deviations below 14%. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE). Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER 201326

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    USER GUIDE 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in...Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER-201326 OCTOBER 2017 Rob Hinchee Integrated Science...Technology, Inc. 1509 Coastal Highway Panacea, FL 32346 8/8/2013 - 8/8/2018 10-2017 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening

  17. Soil remediation via bioventing, vapor extraction and transition regime between vapor extraction and bioventing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Comparison of the BV, SVE and AIBV technologies indicated that all of those technologies are efficient for remediation of unsaturated zone, but after specific remediation time frames, only AIBV able to support guide line values and protect ground waters.

  18. MISER-I: a computer code for JOYO fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Yoshioki

    1976-06-01

    A computer code ''MISER-I'' is for a nuclear fuel management of Japan Experimental Fast Breeder Reactor JOYO. The nuclear fuel management in JOYO can be regarded as a fuel assembly management because a handling unit of fuel in JOYO plant is a fuel subassembly (core and blanket subassembly), and so the recording of material balance in computer code is made with each subassembly. The input information into computer code is given with each subassembly for a transfer operation, or with one reactor cycle and every one month for a burn-up in reactor core. The output information of MISER-I code is the fuel assembly storage record, fuel storage weight record in each material balance subarea at any specified day, and fuel subassembly transfer history record. Change of nuclear fuel composition and weight due to a burn-up is calculated with JOYO-Monitoring Code by off-line computation system. MISER-I code is written in FORTRAN-IV language for FACOM 230-48 computer. (auth.)

  19. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction & Air Sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, approximately one-quarter of Superfund source control projects have involved soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sorbed to soil in the unsaturated (vadose) zone.

  20. EXTRACTION, RECOVERY, AND BIOSTABILITY OF EDTA FOR REMEDIATION OF HEAVY METAL-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825549C052)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelation removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is seen as a viable remediation technique. A useful chelating agent should be strong, reusable, and biostable during metal extraction and recovery operations. This work tested the extraction, recovery, and biostability o...

  1. Remediation of soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordkamp, E.R.

    1999-01-01

    Remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and sludges by extraction with organic solvents is still in the initial stages of development. So far hardly any scientific research has been carried out into this approach. Therefore, the main objective of the present investigation was to study

  2. Case study of shallow soil mixing and soil vacuum extraction remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, M.J.; Day, S.R.; Pinewski, R.; Schroder, D.

    1995-01-01

    Shallow Soil Mixing (SSM) and Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) are techniques which have been increasingly relied on for the insitu remediation of contaminated soils. The primary applications of SSM have been to mix cement, bentonite, or other reagents to modify properties and thereby remediate contaminated soils or sludges. Soil vacuum extraction has been used at numerous applications for insitu removal of contaminants from soils. At a recent project in southern Ohio, the two technologies were integrated and enhanced to extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soils at a Department of Energy facility. Advantages of the integrated SSM/SVE technology over alternative technologies include a relatively rapid remediation compared to other in-situ techniques at a lower cost, less exposure of waste to the surface environment and elimination of off-site disposal. These advantages led to the selection of the use of both technologies on the project in Southern Ohio. The information presented in this paper is intended to provide Engineers and owners with the level of understanding necessary to apply soil mixing and vacuum extraction technology to a specific site. The most important steps in implementing the technology are site investigation, feasibility estimate, selection of performance criteria, selection of appropriate materials, bench scale testing and construction

  3. Use of in-situ Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark for remediation of soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.E.; Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dual Vacuum Extraction trademark provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and ground water contaminated with volatile organic compounds. The system involves the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole by use of entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an underground storage tank was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 ft 2 . The release produced vadose-zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 to 30 ft below ground surface (bgs) with total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. In addition, a layer of free-floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 25 ft bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 ft. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and ground water to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hr a day, with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days (28 weeks), over 17,000 lb of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations indicated that TPH and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX) concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations

  4. The use of in-situ dual vacuum extraction for remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trowbridge, B.E.; Ott, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Dual Extraction provides a rapid and cost-effective method of remediating soil and groundwater impacted by volatile organic compounds (VOC's). Dual Extraction is the removal of both water and vapors through the same borehole using entrainment. This technology provides for the remediation of the vadose zone, capillary fringe, smear zone, and existing water table. The effectiveness of this technology is shown in a case study. A release from an Underground Storage Tank (UST) was responsible for a hydrocarbon plume spreading over approximately 50,000 square feet. The release produced vadose zone contamination in the silty and sandy clays from 10 - 30 feet below ground surface with TPH concentrations up to 1,400 mg/kg. A layer of free floating liquid hydrocarbon was present on a shallow aquifer located at 30 feet bgs in thicknesses ranging from 0.5 feet to 3.0 feet. An in-situ dual-extraction system was installed to remediate the soils and groundwater to levels as required by the Los Angeles Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB). The system operated 24 hours/day for 196 days with an operating efficiency of over 99%. After 196 days, over 17,000 pounds of hydrocarbons had been extracted from the soils. Seven confirmatory soil borings were advanced in the area of highest initial hydrocarbon concentrations and indicated that TPH and BTEX concentrations had decreased over 99% from initial soil concentrations. Three confirmatory groundwater samples were obtained from monitoring wells initially exhibiting up to 3 feet of floating product. Confirmatory samples exhibited non-detectable (ND) concentrations of TPH and BTEX. Based upon the positive confirmatory results, site closure was obtained from the RWQCB in May of 1991. In only 28 weeks of operation, the groundwater contamination was reduced from free floating product to non-detectable concentrations of TPH using Dual Vacuum Extraction

  5. Sequential Application of Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioremediation Processes for the Remediation of Ethylbenzene-Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application of these technol......Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application...

  6. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  7. Integrated vacuum extraction/pneumatic soil fracturing system for remediation of low permeability soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaines, A.L.; Piniewski, R.J.; Yarbrough, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    There is wide use of vacuum extraction to remove volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from unsaturated soil. At sites with soil of low permeability, VOC extraction rates may not be sufficient to meet soil clean-up objectives within the desired time frame. During vacuum extraction in low permeability soil, the diffusion rates of VOCs through the soil matrix may limit VOC removal rates. An increase in the number of subsurface paths for advective flow through the contaminated zone results in a larger mass of contaminant being removed in a shorter time frame, accelerating site remediation. One technique for increasing the number of subsurface flow paths is Terra Vac's process of pneumatic soil fracturing (PSF). In this process, pressurized air is injected into the subsurface, creating micro-fractures for the vacuum extraction system to withdraw contaminants. Similar to hydraulic fracturing techniques long used in the petroleum industry for increasing yield from oil and gas production wells, this technique has applications for soil remediation in low permeability conditions. Two case studies, one in Louisiana at a gasoline service station and one at a manufacturing plant in New York, are presented

  8. Remediation of lead-contaminated soil with non-toxic biodegradable natural ligands extracted from soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Woo; Kim, Chulsung

    2012-01-01

    Bench-scale soil washing studies were performed to evaluate the potential application of non-toxic, biodegradable extracted soybean-complexing ligands for the remediation of lead-contaminated soils. Results showed that, with extracted soybean-complexing ligands, lead solubility extensively increased when pH of the solution was higher than 6, and approximately 10% (500 mg/kg) of lead was removed from a rifle range soil. Two potential primary factors controlling the effectiveness of lead extraction from lead-contaminated soils with natural ligands are adsorption of extracted aqueous lead ions onto the ground soybean and the pH of the extraction solution. More complexing ligands were extracted from the ground soybean as the reaction pH increased. As a result, significantly higher lead extraction efficiency was observed under basic environments. In addition, less adsorption onto soybean was observed when the pH of the solution was higher than 7. Among two available Lewis base functional groups in the extracted soybean-complexing ligands such as carboxylate and the alpha-amino functional groups, the non-protonated alpha-amino functional groups may play an important role for the dissolution of lead from lead-contaminated soil through the formation of soluble lead--ligand complexes.

  9. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Feasibility Study of the Use of Thiosulfate as Extractant Agent in the Electrokinetic Remediation of a Soil Contaminated by Mercury from Almadén

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subires-Muñoz, José Diego; García-Rubio, Ana; Vereda-Alonso, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Natural soils are rather complex, making the predictability of the behavior of some remediation techniques very complicated. In this paper, the remediation of a Hg contaminated soil close to Almadén using a thiosulfate solution as extractant agent is studied. In addition, the use of the BCR...... extraction procedure before and after the remediation was performed. Once again, a clear relationship between the remediation and the extraction results are observed, giving further support to the idea that BCR can be used as a reasonable tool for feasibility studies of EKR among other remediation techniques....

  11. Improving the two-step remediation process for CCA-treated wood. Part I, Evaluating oxalic acid extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Clausen

    2004-01-01

    In this study, three possible improvements to a remediation process for chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) treated wood were evaluated. The process involves two steps: oxalic acid extraction of wood fiber followed by bacterial culture with Bacillus licheniformis CC01. The three potential improvements to the oxalic acid extraction step were (1) reusing oxalic acid for...

  12. Phase 1 remediation of jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport using dual phase extraction and bioventing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.; Bianco, P. Rizzo, M.

    1995-01-01

    Soil and groundwater contaminated with jet fuel at Terminal One of the JFK International Airport in New York have been remediated using dual phase extraction (DPE) and bioventing. Two areas were remediated using 51 DPE wells and 20 air sparging/air injection wells. The total area remediated by the DPE wells is estimated to be 4.8 acres. Groundwater was extracted to recover nonaqueous phase and aqueous phase jet fuel from the shallow aquifer and treated above ground by the following processes; oil/water separation, iron-oxidation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration, air stripping and liquid-phase granular activated carbon (LPGAC) adsorption. The extracted vapors were treated by vapor-phase granular activated carbon (VPGAC) adsorption in one area, and catalytic oxidation and VPGAC adsorption in another area. After 6 months of remediation, approximately 5,490 lbs. of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were removed by soil vapor extraction (SVE), 109,650 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were removed from the extracted groundwater, and 60,550 lbs. of petroleum hydrocarbons were biologically oxidized by subsurface microorganisms. Of these three mechanisms, the rate of petroleum hydrocarbon removal was the highest for biological oxidation in one area and by groundwater extraction in another area

  13. Hot air vapor extraction system for remediation of petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, D.; Karr, L.; Fann, S.; Mathews, A.P.; Price, P.A.; Linginemi, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a demonstration of a technology entitled ''Hot Air Vapor Extraction (HAVE)'' at the Hydrocarbon National Test Site (HNTS), Port Hueneme, California. The demonstration of the HAVE technology at HNTS was conducted over a 3-month period between August 21, 1995 and November 22, 1995 and the lessons learned from the demonstration are discussed in details to guide the Department of Defense decision makers in analyzing the applicability of this technology to their contaminated sites. This technology demonstration was conducted under the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) as part of the National Environmental Technology Demonstration Program (NETDP). The primary objectives of the demonstration were to (1) validate the efficacy of the HAVE technology to treat a wide range of hydrocarbons contaminated soils, (2) gather data to estimate treatment costs, and (3) develop engineering guidance needed to apply this remediation technology DoD-wide. Test runs were made on 5 different treatment cells containing various fuel hydrocarbons, ranging from gasoline to heavier petroleum fractions such as lubricating oil. Computer modeling was conducted to analyze the test results and also to optimize the HAVE system design. An economic analysis conducted for various remediation project sizes ranging from 750 to 9,000 cubic yards, the per cubic yard treatment costs are found to vary from $64.05 down to $36.54 respectively

  14. Remedial design for petroleum hydrocarbons: Soil vapor extraction, product skimmers, and air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasi, F.S.; Loftin, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Site characterization activities at an Army installation in Virginia performed prior to closure identified a significant release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and piping associated with the post exchange service station. Floating liquid-phase petroleum hydrocarbons (FLPH) observed in the subsurface over an area of approximately 80,000 square feet ranged up to 5 feet in thickness. Ground water was found to be contaminated with dissolved components of gasoline over an area of approximately 150,000 square feet. A nearby lake and adjacent streams were not impacted by either free-phase or dissolved contamination. Interim remedial measures, including pilot testing of FLPH, vapor-phase, and ground water recovery technologies, were implemented following discovery of the release. Over 5,000 gallons of free-phase product were recovered by skimming and approximately 1,450 gallons of product equivalent were recovered during pilot testing of a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system. At the conclusion of these actions, hydrocarbons remain distributed in the subsurface in the adsorbed-, dissolved-, and vapor-phase. The majority of residual on-site contamination is believed to be either adsorbed to soil particles or as FLPH. The final design of an integrated remediation system based on the pilot test results addressed these conditions

  15. In situ remediation of Jet A in soil and ground water by high vacuum, dual phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.; Roth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial results of subsurface remediation at Terminal 1, Kennedy International Airport, to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with Jet A fuel. The project was driven and constrained by the construction schedule of a major new terminal at the facility. The remediation system used a combination of ground water pumping, air injection, and soil vapor extraction. In the first five months of operation, the combined processes of dewatering, volatilization, and biodegradation removed a total of 36,689 pounds of total volatile and semivolatile organic jet fuel hydrocarbons from subsurface soil and ground water. The results of this case study have shown that 62% of the removal resulted from biodegradation, 27% occurred as a result of liquid removal, and 11% resulted from the extraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  16. Um Banco na Misericórdia de Viana do Castelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Silveira Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the second half of the XIX century, the Portuguese governments believed that the development of the kingdom required the widening of the credit to agriculture and the fostering of communications and education. In 1866 and 1867, to achieve the first of those requirements, the government published two laws that allowed charity institutions like the Misericórdias to use their assets in order to create rural and industrial banks. In Viana do Castelo, the local Misericórdia took advantage of that law and created the Banco Agrícola e Industrial Vianense.

  17. DOES GARP REALLY FAIL MISERABLY? A RESPONSE TO STOCKMAN ET AL. (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman et al. (2006) found that ecological niche models built using DesktopGARP 'failed miserably' to predict trapdoor spider (genus Promyrmekiaphila) distributions in California. This apparent failure of GARP (Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production) was actually a failure ...

  18. In-situ treatment of hydrocarbons contamination through enhanced bio-remediation and two phase extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietto, I.; Brunero Bronzin, M.

    2005-01-01

    It happens frequently to find industrial site affected by contamination of subsoil and groundwater with consequent presence of free phase product floating on the water table. The remediation technologies in this case shall be properly selected and coordinated in a way that the interactions between each activities will help to decontaminate the site. The case study deals with an industrial site located near Turin, in Italy, of about 50 hectares of extension where has been found an area of about 4000 square meters with contamination of subsoil and groundwater. The compounds with higher concentrations are petroleum hydrocarbons found both in soil and in groundwater. Another big problem is represented by the presence of a layer of free product floating on the water table with a maximum measured thickness of 70 cm; this situation can be considered in fact one of the major difficulty in management of selected remediation technologies because the complete recover of the free phase is a priority for any kind of remediation system to apply subsequently. The present work is based upon the selection and implementation of a multiple treatment for definitive remediation of subsoil and groundwater. Free product recovery has been faced with a two-phase extraction technology, then for the remediation of subsoil we implemented a bio-venting system to improve biodegradation processes and finally for groundwater treatment we apply an enhanced in situ bio-remediation injecting oxygen release compounds directly into the aquifer. To reach these choices we have to pass through a complex activity of investigation of the site made up of more than 40 sampling point, 8 monitoring wells, about 140 analysis on subsoil samples and 10 on groundwater samples and one well used for an aquifer test. The preliminary design of the remediation system was therefore based on an extensive site characterization that included geological and geochemical, microbiological and hydrological data, together with

  19. Cosmetics and herbal remedies with Compositae plant extracts - are they tolerated by Compositae-allergic patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Compositae-sensitive patients are routinely warned against topical use of Compositae-containing cosmetics and herbal remedies. However, the risk of elicitation of dermatitis in presensitized persons is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to assess the significance of d...

  20. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  1. Chemopreventive and remediation effect of Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) stem bark extracts in mouse model malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, A O; Bewaji, C O

    2018-01-10

    Adansonia digitata L. Baobab (Bombacaceae) solvent extracts have been reported to possess medicinal properties and are currently been used traditionally for the treatment of malaria and several other diseases and infection; however few reports exist in literature that provides supportive scientific evidence in favour of its medicinal use. This study investigated the efficacy of Adansonia digitata stem bark extract in offering protection against experimental malaria and also examined its remediation effect when administered after established infection. Weanling albino mice were used in the study. The mice were transfected intraperitonially with an inoculums size of 1× 10 7 of chloroquine susceptible strain of plasmodium berghei infected erythrocytes. Mechanisms of action of the extract were investigated by measuring the degree of tissue peroxidation and tissue antioxidant status. Severity of malaria was determined by measuring the serum C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and serum and tissue Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. There was a significant increase in serum CRP, TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity in the control mice following Plasmodium berghei infection. All the treatment had effect on the growth of Plasmodium berghei parasites in mice. The extracts showed a significant dose dependent increase packed cell volume (PCV), percentage chemosupression/clearance and a significant decrease in percentage parasitemia at the two doses when administered after established infection. Methanolic extract (MEAD) at 400mg/kg exhibited the highest chemosupressive activity. The extract significantly reduced the degree of tissue peroxidation, increased the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), catalase and superoxide dismutase activity. Administration of the extract after established infection reduced serum CRP and TNF-α concentrations and serum and tissue ALP activity. Our study suggests that Adansonia digitata protects

  2. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips , Elizabeth J.P.; Landa, Edward R.; Lovely, Derek R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranuum-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20–94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism,Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils.

  3. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, E.J.P.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranium-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20-94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils. (author)

  4. Alkanna tinctoria leaves extracts: a prospective remedy against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Usman Ali; Rahman, Hazir; Qasim, Muhammad; Hussain, Anwar; Azizllah, Azizullah; Murad, Waheed; Khan, Zakir; Anees, Muhammad; Adnan, Muhammad

    2015-04-23

    Plants are rich source of chemical compounds that are used to accomplish biological activity. Indigenously crude extracts of plants are widely used as herbal medicine for the treatment of infections by people of different ethnic groups. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the biological potential of Alkanna tinctoria leaves extract from district Charsadda, Pakistan against multidrug resistant human pathogenic bacteria including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Anti-multi-drug resistant bacterial activity of aqueous, chloroform, ethanol and hexane extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves were evaluated by well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of different extracts were determined. Moreover qualitative phytochemicals screening of the studied extracts was performed. All four selected bacteria including A. baumannii, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were categorized as multi-drug resistant (MDR) as they were found to be resistant to 13, 10, 19 and 22 antibiotics belonging to different groups respectively. All the four extract showed potential activity against S. aureus as compare to positive control antibiotic (Imipenem). Similarly among the four extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves, aqueous extract showed best activity against A. baumannii (10±03 mm), P. aeruginosa (12±0.5 mm), and S. aureus (14±0.5 mm) as compare to Imipenem. The MICs and MBCs results also showed quantitative concentration of plant extracts to inhibit or kill MDR bacteria. When phytochemicals analysis was performed it was observed that aqueous and ethanol extracts showed phytochemicals with large number as well as volume, especially Alkaloides, Flavonoides and Charbohydrates. The undertaken study demonstrated that all the four extracts of Alkanna tinctoria leaves exhibited considerable antibacterial activity against MDR isolates. Finding from the

  5. The street demonstrations of portuguese misericórdias within the baroque context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo de Araujo, María Marta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses some of the public demonstrations of the Portuguese Misericórdias within the baroque context, highlighting some of the most relevant aspects of those moments. Magnificence, splendour, pomp and charity were some of the ingredients that would be associated in these occasions, under the goal of publicizing their charity rituals and, simultaneously grant visibility to the power of those who were members of these institutions. Gestures, prepared to the detail, ceremonies that were designed to be unique and behaviours that were expected to be adequate, such were the mechanisms that the Misericórdias activated whenever they would elevate themselves in these public street demonstrations.

    Nuestro trabajo analiza algunas de las manifestaciones públicas de las Misericordias portuguesas en el contexto barroco, destacando los aspectos más relevantes de aquellos tiempos. Grandiosidad, esplendor, brillo y caridad eran algunos de los ingredientes que se asociaban a aquellas ocasiones, con el objetivo de publicitar los rituales de caridad y, simultaneamente, dar visibilidad al poder de aquellos que dirigían estas instituciones. Gestos preparados con meticulosidad, ceremonias que pretendían ser inigualables y comportamientos que se esperaban adecuados, eran mecanismos que las Misericordias desplegaban cuando estas manifestaciones públicas salían a las calles. [pt] O nosso trabalho analisa algumas das manifestações públicas das Misericórdias portuguesas em contexto barroco, procurando destacar os aspectos mais relevantes desses momentos. Grandiosidade, esplendor, brilho e caridade eram alguns dos ingredientes que se associavam nessas ocasiões, com o objectivo de publicitar os seus rituais de caridade e simultaneamente dar visibilidade ao poder dos que compunham estas instituições. Gestos preparados com minúcia, cerimónias que se desejavam inegualáveis e comportamentos que se esperavam adequados eram

  6. Remediation Performance and Mechanism of Heavy Metals by a Bottom Up Activation and Extraction System Using Multiple Biochemical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kemeng; Li, Yunzhen; Sun, Yang; Liu, Ruyue; Li, Junjie; Zhao, Yun; Xu, Heng

    2017-09-13

    Soil contamination with heavy metals has caused serious environmental problems and increased the risks to humans and biota. Herein, we developed an effective bottom up metals removal system based on the synergy between the activation of immobilization metal-resistant bacteria and the extraction of bioaccumulator material (Stropharia rugosoannulata). In this system, the advantages of biochar produced at 400 °C and sodium alginate were integrated to immobilize bacteria. Optimized by response surface methodology, the biochar and bacterial suspension were mixed at a ratio of 1:20 (w:v) for 12 h when 2.5% sodium alginate was added to the mixture. Results demonstrated that the system significantly increased the proportion of acid soluble Cd and Cu and improved the soil microecology (microbial counts, soil respiration, and enzyme activities). The maximum extractions of Cd and Cu were 8.79 and 77.92 mg kg -1 , respectively. Moreover, details of the possible mechanistic insight into the metal removal are discussed, which indicate positive correlation with the acetic acid extractable metals and soil microecology. Meanwhile, the "dilution effect" in S. rugosoannulata probably plays an important role in the metal removal process. Furthermore, the metal-resistant bacteria in this system were successfully colonized, and the soil bacteria community were evaluated to understand the microbial diversity in metal-contaminated soil after remediation.

  7. Uranium extraction in northern Bohemia by leaching and provisions for remediation of its adverse impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, J.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of uranium extraction at the Straz pod Ralskem and Hamr sites in northern Bohemia are highlighted. The geological situation at the two deposits is described. At Hamr, uranium is mined conventionally, whereas at Straz, hydrochemical extraction is practised. The two deposits are located close to each other, they affect one another and affect adversely the rock environment. A remedial programme has been worked out, based on (i) abandoning deep mining at the Hamr 1 mine and shutting down the ore treatment plant, (ii) preparation of a membrane project to decontaminate the Turonian groundwater body and ore processing lagoons, (iii) sustaining a protective hydraulic barrier between the Hamr 1 mine and the chemical extraction site, (iv) design preparation and construction of a desalination station, (v) monitoring the Turonian drinking water quality, and (vi) preparation of technologies for a final separation and use of alum and inert leachates. The technology of thermal concentration by evaporation followed by concentrate treatment was chosen for the decontamination of the polluted waters. The entire decontamination of the deposits is expected to take 50 to 70 years. (J.B.). 1 tab., 3 figs

  8. Regeneration strategies of polymers employed in ex-situ remediation of contaminated soil: Bioregeneration versus solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-08-15

    In this study we evaluated the feasibility of two regeneration strategies of contaminated polymers employed for ex-situ soil remediation in a two-step process. Soil decontamination is achieved by sorption of the pollutants on the polymer beads, which are regenerated in a subsequent step. Tested soil was contaminated with a mixture of 4-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, and a commercial polymer, Hytrel, has been employed for extraction. Removal efficiencies of the polymer-soil extraction are in the range of 51-97% for a contact time ≤ 24 h. Two polymer regeneration strategies, solvent extraction and biological regeneration (realized in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor), were tested and compared. Performance was assessed in terms of removal rates and efficiencies and an economic analysis based on the operating costs has been performed. Results demonstrated the feasibility of both regeneration strategies, but the bioregeneration was advantageous in that provided the biodegradation of the contaminants desorbed from the polymer. Practically complete removal for 4-chlorophenol and up to 85% biodegradation efficiency for pentachlorophenol were achieved. Instead, in the solvent extraction, a relevant production (184-831 L kg(pol)(-1)) of a highly polluted stream to be treated or disposed of is observed. The cost analysis of the two strategies showed that the bioregeneration is much more convenient with operating costs of ∼12 €/kg(pol) i.e. more than one order of magnitude lower in comparison to ∼233 €/kg(pol) of the solvent extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil using chelant extraction: Feasibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.; Miller, G.; Taylor, J.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Zellmer, S.; Edgar, D.E.; Johnson, D.O.

    1993-08-01

    Results are presented of a laboratory investigation conducted to determine the efficacy of using chelating agents to extract heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ba, Cu, and Zn) from soil, the primary focus being on the extraction of lead from the soil. Results from the batch-shaker studies and emphasizes the columnar extraction studies are described. The chelating agents studied included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid, in addition to water. Concentrations of the chelants ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 M; the suspension pH was varied between 3 and 8. Results showed that the removal of lead using citric acid and water was somewhat pH-dependent. For the batch-shaker studies, the results indicated that EDTA was more effective at removing Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than was citric acid (both present at 0.01 M). EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing Cr and Ba from the soil. Heavy metals removal was slightly more effective in the more acidic region (pH {le} 5).

  10. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  11. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H 2 O 2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannis, Apostolos; Pentari, Despina; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  13. Application of sequential extraction analysis to electrokinetic remediation of cadmium, nickel and zinc from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannis, Apostolos, E-mail: apostolos.giannis@enveng.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Pentari, Despina [Department of Mineral Resources Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece); Wang, Jing-Yuan [Residues and Resource Reclamation Centre (R3C), Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore (Singapore); Gidarakos, Evangelos, E-mail: gidarako@mred.tuc.gr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Crete, Politechnioupolis, Chania 73100 (Greece)

    2010-12-15

    An enhanced electrokinetic process for the removal of cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) from contaminated soils was performed. The efficiency of the chelate agents nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and diaminocycloexanetetraacetic acid (DCyTA) was examined under constant potential gradient (1.23 V/cm). The results showed that chelates were effective in desorbing metals at a high pH, with metal-chelate anion complexes migrating towards the anode. At low pH, metals existing as dissolved cations migrated towards the cathode. In such conflicting directions, the metals accumulated in the middle of the cell. Speciation of the metals during the electrokinetic experiments was performed to provide an understanding of the distribution of the Cd, Ni and Zn. The results of sequential extraction analysis revealed that the forms of the metals could be altered from one fraction to another due to the variation of physico-chemical conditions throughout the cell, such as pH, redox potential and the chemistry of the electrolyte solution during the electrokinetic treatment. It was found that binding forms of metals were changed from the difficult type to easier extraction type.

  14. Integrated enhanced bioremediation and vacuum extraction for remediation of a hydrocarbon release in response to oscillating hydrologic conditions 'Traverse Co-Bio-Vac'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korreck, W.M.; Armstrong, J.M.; Douglass, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of enhanced in-situ biological treatment and vacuum extraction has been demonstrated to be successful in the remediation of ground water and soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. Seasonal fluctuations in the ground water causes the zone of contamination to be in the either saturated or unsaturated zone of the aquifer. In order to address these conditions, an integrated engineering design approach is being taken for the full scale remediation of an aviation of an aviation gasoline spill at the US Coast Guard Air Station at Traverse City, Township, Michigan. Enhanced aerobic biodegradation will be utilized during the periods of high water table whereby most of the contaminated interval is saturated. Carbon treated water will be utilized from the existing ground water plume. Oxygen will be injected via an oxygen generator to saturate the process stream prior to discharge to the aquifer. During low water table conditions, the same infrastructure will be utilized as a modified vacuum extraction system. The same injection wells used during the high water table would then be used during the low table condition as vapor extraction wells. The vapors will be routed to an above-ground catalytic incinerator for compound destruction. This integrated approach, entitled 'Traverse Co-Bio-Vac,' should reduce the capital costs of installing a full scale remedial system as well allowing the system to operate efficiently depending on water table conditions. The system is expected to be constructed in 1992

  15. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Sabih Ozer, M.; Cakir, Ahmet; Eskici, Mustafa; Mete, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%), (Z)-β-farnesene (15.88%), and germacrene D (10.97%). Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm), respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol) and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs)/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs)/mg extract). PMID:23762120

  16. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  17. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE FOUND IN VICTOR HUGO’S LES MISERABLE NOVEL: A SEMANTICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotma Hutasoit

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini membahas terjadinya bahasa kiasan dalam karya Victor Hugo yang berjudul Les Miserable melalui pendekatan semantik. Tujuan skripsi ini adalah (1 untuk memahami bahasa kiasan perbandingan dan pertentangan yang di temukan dalam novel “Les Miserables” karya Victor Hugo,(2 untuk memahami bahasa kiasan hubungan yang di temukan dalam novel “Les Miserables” karya Victor Hugo, (3 untuk memahami bahasa kiasan perulangan yang di temukan dalam novel “Les Miserables” karya Victor Hugo. Peneliti didukung oleh teori Leech (1981 dalam semantik terutama untuk makna konotasi dan Dancygier dan Sweetser (2014, Keraf (1994 dan Cruse (2006 untuk bahasa kiasan. Metode kualitatif digunakan dalam penelitian ini dan penelitian pustaka sebagai teknik yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data. Peneliti mengambil 55 sampel dari bahasa kiasan dari novel. Bahasa kiasan perbandingan dan pertentangan yaitu 3 personifikasi, 6 metafora, 6 simile, 6 hiperbola, 2 litotes, and 5 paradox. Bahasa kiasan hubungan yaitu 1 metonimi, 6 sinekdot, 4 alusi, dan 1elipsis. Bahasa kiasan perulangan yaitu 2 pleonasme, 2 klimaks, 1 anti-klimaks, 6 retorika, dan 4 repetisi.Temuan dari penelitian ini adalah dari 55 sampel dari bahasa kiasan yang ditemukan dalam novel, peneliti menemukan yang paling banyak 28 bahasa kiasan yang terjadi pada majas perbandingan dan pertentangan, diikuti denagn 15 bahasa kiasan yang terjadi pada majas perulangan, dan yang paling sedikit 12 bahasa kiasan yang terjadi pada majas hubungan dari setiap kategori.

  18. Arsenic Speciation and Extraction and the Significance of Biodegradable Acid on Arsenic Removal—An Approach for Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Osanai, Yasuhito; Do Nguyen, Hai; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A series of arsenic remediation tests were conducted using a washing method with biodegradable organic acids, including oxalic, citric and ascorbic acids. Approximately 80% of the arsenic in one sample was removed under the effect of the ascorbic and oxalic acid combination, which was roughly twice higher than the effectiveness of the ascorbic and citric acid combination under the same conditions. The soils treated using biodegradable acids had low remaining concentrations of arsenic that are primarily contained in the crystalline iron oxides and organic matter fractions. The close correlation between extracted arsenic and extracted iron/aluminum suggested that arsenic was removed via the dissolution of Fe/Al oxides in soils. The fractionation of arsenic in four contaminated soils was investigated using a modified sequential extraction method. Regarding fractionation, we found that most of the soil contained high proportions of arsenic (As) in exchangeable fractions with phosphorus, amorphous oxides, and crystalline iron oxides, while a small amount of the arsenic fraction was organic matter-bound. This study indicated that biodegradable organic acids can be considered as a means for arsenic-contaminated soil remediation.

  19. Feasibility study of the use of different extractant agents in the remediation of a mercury contaminated soil from Almaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subirés-Muñoz, J.D.; García-Rubio, A.; Vereda-Alonso, C.

    2011-01-01

    The soil of Almaden mining district in Spain has a high concentration of mercury (1000mgkg−1), therefore decontamination activities are necessary. This paper studies the effectiveness of some chelant agents (thiosulfate, EDTA, iodide and HNO3) for the remediation of this soil which has been...

  20. The effectiveness of electro-remediation of aged, metal-contaminated sediment in relation to sequential extraction of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, O.K.; Loch, J.P.G.; Lima, A.T.; Dijk, J.A.; Kreuk, J.F. de; Kleingeld, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil pollution is a universal environmental issue, and the clean-up of contaminated soils can be costly and time consuming. Traditional methods often do not provide an effective solution when it comes to fine-grained and highly impermeable soils and/or immobile contaminants. Electro-remediation,

  1. Automatic flow-through dynamic extraction: A fast tool to evaluate char-based remediation of multi-element contaminated mine soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, María; Beesley, Luke; Moreno-Jimenez, Eduardo; Miró, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    An automatic in-vitro bioaccessibility test based upon dynamic microcolumn extraction in a programmable flow setup is herein proposed as a screening tool to evaluate bio-char based remediation of mine soils contaminated with trace elements as a compelling alternative to conventional phyto-availability tests. The feasibility of the proposed system was evaluated by extracting the readily bioaccessible pools of As, Pb and Zn in two contaminated mine soils before and after the addition of two biochars (9% (w:w)) of diverse source origin (pine and olive). Bioaccessible fractions under worst-case scenarios were measured using 0.001 mol L(-1) CaCl2 as extractant for mimicking plant uptake, and analysis of the extracts by inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry. The t-test of comparison of means revealed an efficient metal (mostly Pb and Zn) immobilization by the action of olive pruning-based biochar against the bare (control) soil at the 0.05 significance level. In-vitro flow-through bioaccessibility tests are compared for the first time with in-vivo phyto-toxicity assays in a microcosm soil study. By assessing seed germination and shoot elongation of Lolium perenne in contaminated soils with and without biochar amendments the dynamic flow-based bioaccessibility data proved to be in good agreement with the phyto-availability tests. Experimental results indicate that the dynamic extraction method is a viable and economical in-vitro tool in risk assessment explorations to evaluate the feasibility of a given biochar amendment for revegetation and remediation of metal contaminated soils in a mere 10 min against 4 days in case of phyto-toxicity assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytochemical analysis and In-vitro Biochemical Characterization of aqueous and methanolic extract of Triphala, a conventional herbal remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romana Parveen

    2018-03-01

    Results revealed the presence of valuable bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, etc which might be responsible for biochemical activities. Extracts exhibited satisfactory radical-scavenging activity comparable with ascorbic acid. Methanolic extracts demonstrated higher antioxidant activity compared to aqueous extract. Extracts showed promising antibacterial potential against tested strain comparable to ampicillin. Hence, it can be concluded that triphala may be a promising candidate in pharmaceuticals and future medicine.

  3. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes

  4. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Benjakul Remedy Extract for Treating Primary Osteoarthritis of Knee Compared with Diclofenac: Double Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patamaporn Rachawat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of Benjakul (BJK extract for treating primary osteoarthritis (OA of the knee compared with diclofenac. Methods. A phase 2, double blind, randomized, and controlled study was conducted. The BJK group received 300 mg of BJK extract per day, while another group received 75 mg of diclofenac per day. All patients were followed up at 14 and 28 days. The changing of visual analogue scale (VAS for pain, 100-meter walking times, the modified Thai WOMAC index scores, and the global assessment were evaluated for efficacy. For safety issue, clinical signs and symptoms, complete physical examination, and renal and liver function were evaluated. Results. 39 and 38 patients for BJK extract group and diclofenac group were evaluated. For efficacy, all patients from both groups reported a decrease in the VAS pain score and 100-meter walking times but only the diclofenac group showed significant reduction of both measurements when compared with day 0. The modified Thai WOMAC scores of both groups were significantly reduced from baseline. However, all efficacy outcomes were not significantly different for both groups. For safety outcomes, the patients from both groups had no severe adverse events reported and only BJK had no toxicity in renal and liver functions. Conclusions. The BJK remedy extract showed equal clinical efficacy in relieving symptoms of OA knee when compared with diclofenac.

  5. Remediation of cadmium-contaminated soil by extraction with para-sulphonato-thiacalix[4]arene, a novel supramolecular receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yushuang; Hu Xiaojun; Song Xueying; Sun Tieheng

    2012-01-01

    Batch extractions were conducted to evaluate the performance of para-sulphonato-thiacalix[4]arene (STC[4]A), a novel supramolecular receptor, for removing cadmium (Cd) from soil. The extraction mechanism was investigated by determination of the conditional stability constants (log K) of the STC[4]A-Cd complex. The influences of various variables were examined, including pH, contact time, and extractant concentration. The Cd extraction efficiency increased with increasing pH, reaching the maximum at pH 11 and then declining at higher pH values. This pH dependence was explained by the variation in the log K value of the STC[4]A-Cd complex along with pH change. When the STC[4]A dose was increased to an STC[4]A:Cd molar ratio of 2.5:1, Cd was exhaustively removed (up to 96.8%). The comparison experiment revealed that the Cd extraction performance of STC[4]A was almost equivalent to that of EDTA and significantly better than that of natural organic acids. STC[4]A extraction could efficiently prevent co-dissolution of soil minerals. - Highlights: ► First report on para-sulphonato-thiacalix[4]arene (STC[4]A) as extractant for soil washing. ► The Cd extraction performance of STC[4]A was almost equivalent to that of EDTA. ► STC[4]A extraction could efficiently avoid the dissolution of soil minerals, such as K, Ca, Mn. ► Extraction mechanism was investigated by determination of log K values of STC[4]A-Cd complex. ► A rational explanation for the pH dependence of extraction performance was given. - This is the first report on para-sulphonato-thiacalix[4]arene as an extractant for soil washing, which proved to be very efficient for Cd removal and could prevent co-dissolution of soil minerals.

  6. Diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquids for nuclear waste remediation: extraction, luminescence, theoretical and EPR investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Kadam, R.M.; Manna, D.; Ghanty, T.K.; Iqbal, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem

    2014-01-01

    A 3.6 × 10−2 M solution of a diglycolamide-functionalized task specific ionic liquid (DGA-TSIL) in [C4mim][NTf2] was used for the extraction of actinides (mainly Am) and other elements present in high level nuclear waste. The extraction of Eu3+ was relatively higher than that of Am3+ conforming to

  7. Remediation of cadmium-contaminated soil by extraction with para-sulphonato-thiacalix[4]arene, a novel supramolecular receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yushuang; Hu, Xiaojun; Song, Xueying; Sun, Tieheng

    2012-08-01

    Batch extractions were conducted to evaluate the performance of para-sulphonato-thiacalix[4]arene (STC[4]A), a novel supramolecular receptor, for removing cadmium (Cd) from soil. The extraction mechanism was investigated by determination of the conditional stability constants (log K) of the STC[4]A-Cd complex. The influences of various variables were examined, including pH, contact time, and extractant concentration. The Cd extraction efficiency increased with increasing pH, reaching the maximum at pH 11 and then declining at higher pH values. This pH dependence was explained by the variation in the log K value of the STC[4]A-Cd complex along with pH change. When the STC[4]A dose was increased to an STC[4]A:Cd molar ratio of 2.5:1, Cd was exhaustively removed (up to 96.8%). The comparison experiment revealed that the Cd extraction performance of STC[4]A was almost equivalent to that of EDTA and significantly better than that of natural organic acids. STC[4]A extraction could efficiently prevent co-dissolution of soil minerals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  9. Enhanced bioremediation as a cost effective approach following thermally enhanced soil vapour extraction for sites requiring remediation of chlorinated solvents - 16296

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, Anna-Maria; Kahlon, Manjit S.; Langford, Steve R.; Williams, Haydn G.

    2009-01-01

    Thermally enhanced bioremediation can be a more cost-effective alternative to full scale in-situ thermal treatment especially for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents, where reductive dechlorination is or might be a dominant biological step. The effect of Thermally Enhanced Soil Vapour Extraction (TESVE) on indigenous microbial communities and the potential for subsequent biological polishing of chlorinated solvents was investigated in field trials at the Western Storage Area (WSA) - RSRL (formerly United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority - UKAEA) Oxfordshire, UK. The WSA site had been contaminated with various chemicals including mineral oil, chloroform, trichloroethane (TCA), carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethene (PCE). The contamination had affected the unsaturated zone, groundwater in the chalk aquifer and was a continuing source of groundwater contamination below the WSA. During TESVE the target treatment zone was heated to above the boiling point of water increasing the degree of volatilization of contaminants of concern (CoC), which were mobilised and extracted in the vapour phase. A significant reduction of concentrations of chlorinated solvent in the unsaturated zone was achieved by the full-scale application of TESVE - In Situ Thermal Desorption (ISTD) technology. The rock mass temperature within target treatment zone remained in the range of 35 deg. - 44 deg. C, 6 months after cessation of heating. The concentration of chlorinated ethenes and other CoC were found to be significantly lower adjacent to the thermal treatment area and 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower within the thermal treatment zone. Samples were collected within and outside the thermal treatment zone using BioTraps R (passive, in- situ microbial samplers) from which the numbers of specific bacteria were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) methods of analysis. High populations of reductive de-chlorinators such as Dechalococcoides spp. and Dehalobacter spp

  10. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  11. Alternative Remedies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Alternative Remedies Font ... medical treatment prescribed by their healthcare provider. Using this type of alternative therapy along with traditional treatments is ...

  12. Profile of Heart Donors from the Human Valve Bank of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata Maria; da Costa, Marise Teresinha Brenner Affonso; Canciglieri Junior, Osiris; Sant'Anna, Ângelo Márcio Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Human heart valves are used as replacement valves and have satisfactory functional results compared with conventional prostheses. Characterize the profile of effective heart donors from the human valve bank of the santa casa de misericórdia de curitiba and analyze the association between the profile variables. It consists of a retrospective and quantitative study of electronic medical records from heart donors for heart valves. every heart donation made to the bank between january 2004 and december 2014 was studied. 2,149 donations were analyzed, from donors aged 0 to 71 years old, with an average of 34.9 ± 15.03 years old. most donors were male 65.7% (n=1,411) and 34.3% (n=738) were female. among the most frequent causes of the donors' death are trauma at 53% (n=1,139) and cerebral vascular accident at 34.2% (n=735). there was significant statistical association between the analyzed variables. There has been an improvement in brazil's donation rate, being essential that the tissue banks work together with the state and federal district centers for notification, procurement and distribution of organs in order to increase the number of donors.

  13. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... possibilities. Genealogists use their private websites to negotiate family identity and hereby create a sense of belonging in an increasingly complex society. Digital technologies enhance the possibilities of coorporation between genealogists. Therefore, the websites are also used to present archival...

  14. Electrodialytic extraction of heavy metals from Greenlandic MSWI fly ash as a function of remediation time and L/S ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2013-01-01

    , where the fly ash was suspended in distilled water in different liquid to solid (L/S) ratios. Remediation times of 7 and 14 days were tested and the current strength was 50 mA in all experiments. The highest removal was seen when an acidic pH in the fly ash suspension was obtained. In an experiment...... lasting 14 days with L/S 10, up to 60 % Cd, 45 % Zn, 20 % Ni and Ba was removed. Regardless of the remediation time and L/S ratio, the fraction of soluble Ba, Cr and Pb decreased due to the electrodialytic remediation. The electrodialytic remediation method showed potential as a treatment method...

  15. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant: Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Sikandar; Cheng, Zhihui; Ahmad, Husain; Ali, Muhammad; Chen, Xuejin; Wang, Mengyi

    2016-01-01

    Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE) in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytophthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064, and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7, and 3.66 mg g-1, respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4, and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of Allicin aqueous standard (AAS) and AGE showed significant role of allicin as primary antifungal substance of AGE. Leaf disk bioassay against P. capsici and V. dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating reactive

  16. An in vitro based investigation of the cytotoxic effect of water extracts of the Chinese herbal remedy LD on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Lucy A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Dan Xie Gan Wan (LD, a Chinese herbal remedy formulation, is traditionally used to treat a range of conditions, including gall bladder diseases, hepatitis, hyperthyroidism, migraines but it is not used for the management or treatment of cancer. However some of its herbal constituents, specifically Radix bupleuri, Radix scutellariae and Rhizoma alismatis have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the impact of LD on cancer cells in vitro. Methods HL60 and HT29 cancer cell lines were exposed to water extracts of LD (1:10, 1:50, 1:100 and/or 1:1000 prepared from a 3 mg/30 ml stock and for both cell lines growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. The specificity of the action of LD on these cancer cell lines was also investigated by determining its effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Preliminary chemical analysis was carried out to identify cytotoxic constituents of LD using HPLC and LCMS. Results LD was significantly cytotoxic to, and induced apoptosis in, both cell lines. Apoptotic induction appeared to be cell cycle independent at all concentrations of LD used (1:10, 1:50 and 1:100 for the HL60 cell lines and at 1:10 for the HT29 cell line. At 1:50 and 1:100 apoptotic induction by LD appeared to be cell cycle dependent. LD caused significant genotoxic damage to both cell lines compared to their respective controls. The specificity study showed that LD exerted a moderate cytotoxic action against non-proliferating and proliferating blood lymphocytes but not apoptosis. Chemical analysis showed that a number of fractions were found to exert a significant growth inhibitory effect. However, the molecular weights of compounds within these fractions did not correspond to those from the herbal constituents of LD. Conclusion It is possible that LD may have some chemotherapeutic potential. However

  17. Os azulejos da Misericórdia: a imagem documento na história da cultura religiosa luso-brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eurydice de Barros Ribeiro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os azulejos portugueses em Portugal e no Brasil são considerados quase sempre como objetos da História da Arte. A proposta deste estudo consiste em abordar os azulejos não como objetos de arte, mas como documentos da história da cultura luso-brasileira. O conceito de imagem documento será desenvolvido por meio da análise de um dos ritos mais importantes da história da cultura religiosa ocidental: a procissão. A atenção do estudo recairá, em especial, sobre a Procissão dos Ossos, que se encontra representada nos painéis de azulejos (séc. XVIII da Igreja da Misericórdia em Salvador. A Procissão dos Ossos, instituída por D. Manoel em 1498, tinha como objetivo a retirada dos ossos dos justiçados, dando-lhes sepultura. Para a missão, o rei designou a Ordem da Misericórdia. O ato régio se estendeu ao Brasil, quando a primeira Casa da Misericórdia foi fundada na cidade do Salvador, em 1549. O painel, datado do século XVIII, representando a cerimônia, divide o espaço da igreja da Misericórdia com outras duas representações: a procissão do Senhor Morto, introduzida no Brasil (também pelos portugueses, e a Procissão do Fogaréu, introduzida pelos espanhóis. Entre a data da realização da primeira Procissão dos Ossos e o assentamento do painel de azulejos existe um espaço de tempo que permite avaliar a heterogeneidade dos tempos da arte, onde os ritmos diferenciados não coincidem, necessariamente, com os tempos da história.

  18. Evaluation of technical, economic and financial feasibility for recycling and reprocessing of radioactive waste from a remediation work of low and medium activity for the extraction of heavy minerals - 59231

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo de Almeida, Rodrigo; Mortagua, Valter J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: This paper aims to present the methodology and criteria used for the destination, discard and reuse of waste from the remediation activities of soil contaminated by radioactive waste of low activity in the USIN Plant. The site is located in Sao Paulo city, the city with the largest population of Brazil, with approximately 11 million inhabitants. As the environmental agency in Sao Paulo state, in this neighborhood there are several cases of severe contamination of soil and groundwater. The situation of contamination is so severe that it is forbidden the use of groundwater in the region for an indefinite period. Site of the plant running in a monazite processing plant for extraction of rare earths, have been filed across the land several fractions of soil containing monazite sand. In order to guide the remediation of the area for unrestricted use, was a plan for remediation of radioactive waste characterization based on geological, hydrogeological and environmental extensive in the area. From the calculation of the dose was established that the fractions of soil with concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra below 0.5 Bq/g result in additional effective dose less than 1.0 mSv/yr and therefore can be kept on the ground

  19. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION: BASICS AND TECHNOLOGY STATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrokinetic remediation, variably named as electrochemical soil processing, electromigration, electrokinetic decontamination or electroreclamation uses electric currents to extract radionuclides, heavy metals, certain organic compounds, or mixed inorganic species and some orga...

  20. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  1. Electrochemical remediation of copper contaminated clay soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A.; Babakina, O.A.; Mitojan, R.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The study objective focused on electrochemical remediation copper polluted soils in the presence of adjuvant substances and conditions that are more effective for the treatment. Some of these substances were studied in different researches. Moreover, authors obtained a result of extraction copper rate higher than 90%. In this connection the following problems were set: - Influence organic and inorganic substances on copper mobility in soil under the DC current. - Moisture effect on copper migration in clay. - Electrochemical remediation soils different mineralogical composition. - A washing conditions contribution to electrochemical remediation of soil from copper. - Accuracy rating experimental dates. (orig.)

  2. Horizontal wells in subsurface remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losonsky, G.; Beljin, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on horizontal wells which offer an effective alternative to vertical wells in various environmental remediation technologies. Hydrogeological advantages of horizontal wells over vertical wells include a larger zone of influence, greater screen length, higher specific capacity and lower groundwater screen entrance velocity. Because of these advantages, horizontal wells can reduce treatment time and costs of groundwater recovery (pump-and-treat), in situ groundwater aeration (sparging) and soil gas extraction (vacuum extraction). Horizontal wells are also more effective than vertical wells in landfill leachate collection (under-drains), bioremediation, and horizontal grout injection

  3. Mold: Cleanup and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) Cleanup and Remediation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... CDC and EPA on mold cleanup, removal and remediation. Cleanup information for you and your family Homeowner’s ...

  4. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  5. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil using Achromobacter sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutright, T.J.; Lee, S.

    1994-01-01

    Several technologies have the potential to effectively remediate soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): solvent extraction, coal-oil agloflotation, supercritical extraction, and bioremediation. Due to the cost effectiveness and in-situ treatment capabilities of bioremediation, studies were conducted to determine the efficiency of Achromobacter sp. to remediate an industrial contaminated soil sample. Specifically, the use of three different mineral salt solutions in conjunction with the Achromobacter sp. was investigated. The molecular identification of the contaminants and their respective levels after remediation were determined using a Hewlett-Packard 1050 HPLC. Preliminary results show a 92% remediation for the use of two of the mineral salt solutions after 20 days' treatment. After 8 weeks, the remediation efficiency reached 99%. Bioremediation was also critically compared to the other potential remediation technologies

  6. As misericórdias e as transferências de bens: o caso dos Monteiros, entre o Porto e a Ásia (1580-1640

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel dos Guimarães Sá

    Full Text Available Resumo Os testamentos de dois mercadores da mesma família, envolvidos na viagem do Japão, Antônio e Domingos Monteiro, revelam um modo de vida marcado pela mobilidade entre vários territórios do Sudeste Asiático, transacionando grande variedade de produtos. Por meio de sua rede de relações, é possível discernir a presença de parentes seus, sobretudo sobrinhos, e de outros negociantes portuenses, sugerindo que o modelo português de emigração para o Brasil já estava em ação no Oriente. Embora a transmissão de bens competisse aos provedores dos defuntos e ausentes, as misericórdias transferiam capitais de defuntos para a metrópole, em detrimento dos agentes diretos do rei, embora fosse impossível evitar a ingerência destes últimos. Apesar da vontade em fazer chegar o dinheiro à metrópole rapidamente para convertê-lo em padrões de juro, conveniências do trato, a burocracia régia e litígios sucessórios tornavam moroso o processo de transferência.

  7. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. - Behaviour of Cu and Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, E.; Ribeiro, A. B.; Mateus, E.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude...... and direction of the fluxes of Cu- and Cr-containing species in the electrodialytic cell was investigated. Oxalic acid was found to have the best performance if simultaneous removal of the two elements is required (removal efficiencies of 80.5% for Cu and 87.4% for Cr, respectively). A mixture of oxalic acid...... and formic acid also led to similar removal efficiencies. In these experiments, the target elements were accumulated in both the anode and cathode compartments of the electrodialytic cell due to the formation of negatively charged complexes with the organic acids used besides the free cationic forms...

  8. Formerly utilized MED/AEC Sites Remedial Action Program. Radiological survey of the former VITRO Rare Metals Plant, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Final report. [Plant to extract radium and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    This 18-acre site was used from 1911 to 1922 to extract radium from carnotite ore, from 1930 to 1942 to extract radium and uranium salts from onsite residues and carnotite ore, and from 1942 to 1957 to recover uranium from various ores and scrap materials. The radiological survey was conducted in two phases, Phase I included measurement of radon and radon daughter concentrations in onsite buildings; concentrations measured in this part of the survey were all above guideline levels. Phase II consisted of measurement of surface contamination levels on the site, external gamma radiation levels at 1 m above surfaces on and near the site, radionuclide concentrations in surface and subsurface soil and water on and near the site, and radon concentrations in air at offsite locations. The results of the second phase of the survey indicate that large quantities of the radioactive wastes generated during radium and uranium recovery operations still remain on the site. Radium-bearing wastes are present in soil beneath or adjacent to each of the buildings on the site and in the top few feet of soil over almost the entire site, with some areas being contaminated to a depth of 16 ft or more. Alpha contamination levels, beta--gamma dose rates, and external gamma radiation levels in some areas of the buildings and outdoors on the site are above current federal guidelines concerning the release of property for unrestricted use. Concentrations of /sup 226/Ra in water in holes drilled on the site are above the maximum permissible concentration (MPC/sub w/). Also, measurements made offsite show that contamination from the site has spread to nearby offsite locations, and that there is significant atmospheric transport of /sup 222/Rn from the site.

  9. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  10. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the remediation of contaminated sites. It was attended by all industry sectors that have an interest in learning about technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation and industrial pollutant treatments. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies. The diversified sessions at this conference were entitled: regulatory update; Montreal Centre of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; soil and groundwater remediation through the Program of Energy Research and Development at Environment Canada; technology from the Netherlands; bioremediation; hydrocarbons; in-situ remediation; phytoremediation; salt management; unique locations; and, miscellaneous issues. Some areas and case studies covered in the presentations included: biological and non-biological treatments; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; electrochemical remediation; and membrane technology. The conference featured 63 presentations, of which 23 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs

  11. FEASIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF SOILS TO IMPROVE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, a method of increasing fluid flow within the subsurface, should improve the effectiveness of several remedial techniques, including pump and treat, vapor extraction, bio-remediation, and soil-flushing. he technique is widely used to increase the yields of oi...

  12. Tutoria com médicos residentes em anestesiologia: o programa da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcolino José Álvaro Marques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A residência médica pode trazer desgaste emocional. Este artigo descreve um programa de tutoria durante o período de treinamento dos médicos em Anestesiologia. MÉTODO: O programa foi instituído na Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Vinte e sete residentes de Anestesiologia participaram do programa e quatro profissionais de saúde constituíram a equipe de tutoria. Um questionário sobre as impressões dos médicos residentes de primeiro e segundo anos, a respeito da formação médica em Anestesiologia foi desenvolvido com doze perguntas e três respostas para cada um, sendo aplicado antes e no fim do programa. Foram constituídos quatro grupos de residentes: residentes do 1º ano; residentes do 2º ano; residentes do 1º ano e 2º ano (2 grupos. As reuniões de tutoria ocorreram mensalmente às quintas-feiras, 7h00, com duração de uma hora. RESULTADOS: O cotidiano do residente foi considerado adequado. Houve redução na frustração e melhoria na auto-confiança. Um número elevado descreveu maior entusiasmo pela Anestesiologia e expectativas mais elevadas em relação ao futuro após a residência. Os tutores relataram a importância de reuniões obrigatórias, a possibilidade discutir a humanização e a possibilidade de despreparo dos tutores como um fator da limitação. CONCLUSÕES: O programa de tutoria pode ser considerado como um instrumento para a adaptação dos residentes no programa de Anestesiologia.

  13. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Implementing In Situ Thermal Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, the use of in situ thermal technologies such as electrical resistance heating, thermal conductive heating, and steam enhanced extraction to remediate contaminated sites has notably increased.

  14. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-01-01

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  15. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    The paper gives an overview of how heavy metals can be found in the soil and the theory of electrodialytic remediation. Basically electrodialytic remediation works by passing electric current through the soil, and the heavy metals in ionic form will carry some of the current. Ion-exchange membranes...... prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...... to remediate soil polluted with heavy metals be this method. When adding desorbing agents or complexing agents, chosing the right current density, electrolyte and membranes, the proces can be optimised for a given remediation situation. Also electroosmosis is influencing the system, and if extra water...

  16. Grace Omollo Misere and Anne Akoth Misere | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Combinatorics has led Grace to work on a conjecture proposed by John Conway, ... and governments in Kenya and the region improve their performance through the ... African women mathematical scientists working on climate change issues.

  17. Grace Omollo Misere et Anne Akoth Misere | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deux anciennes élèves de l'Institut africain des sciences mathématiques (AIMS) font désormais partie de la masse critique de leaders en STIM qui vont transformer le ... Journal of Combinatorics, tandis que l'autre a été accepté pour publication dans le Journal of Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science.

  18. Impact of hospital infections on patients outcomes undergoing cardiac surgery at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Marília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieni Oliveira Conterno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to determine the incidence of nosocomial infections, the risk factors and the impact of these infections on mortality among patients undergoing to cardiac surgery. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 2060 consecutive patients from 2006 to 2012 at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Marília. Results: 351 nosocomial infections were diagnosed (17%, 227 non-surgical infections and 124 surgical wound infections. Major infections were mediastinitis (2.0%, urinary tract infection (2.8%, pneumonia (2.3%, and bloodstream infection (1.7%. The in-hospital mortality was 6.4%. Independent variables associated with non-surgical infections were age > 60 years (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.31, ICU stay > 2 days (OR 5, 49, 95% CI 2.98 to 10, 09, mechanical ventilation > 2 days (OR11, 93, 95% CI 6.1 to 23.08, use of urinary catheter > 3 days (OR 4.85 95% CI 2.95 -7.99. Non-surgical nosocomial infections were more frequent in patients with surgical wound infection (32.3% versus 7.2%, OR 6.1, 95% CI 4.03 to 9.24. Independent variables associated with mortality were age greater than 60 years (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to3.0, use of vasoactive drugs (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.9 to 6, 0, insulin use (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8, surgical reintervention (OR 4.4; 95% CI 2.1 to 9.0 pneumonia (OR 4.3; 95% CI 2.1 to 8.9 and bloodstream infection (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.0 to 11.2. Conclusion: Non-surgical hospital infections are common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery; they increase the chance of surgical wound infection and mortality.

  19. Remediation of Soil at Nuclear Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, R.; Boardman, C.; Robbins, R; Fox, Robert Vincent; Mincher, Bruce Jay

    2000-01-01

    As the major nuclear waste and decontamination and decommissioning projects progress, one of the remaining problems that faces the nuclear industry is that of site remediation. The range of contamination levels and contaminants is wide and varied and there is likely to be a significant volume of soil contaminated with transuranics and hazardous organic materials that could qualify as mixed TRU waste. There are many technologies that offer the potential for remediating this waste but few that tackle all or most of the contaminants and even fewer that have been deployed with confidence. This paper outlines the progress made in proving the ability of Supercritical Fluid Extraction as a method of remediating soil, classified as mixed (TRU) transuranic waste

  20. Uranium mill tailings remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uranium milling process involves the hydrometallurgical extraction of uranium from ores and the resultant generation of large quantities of waste referred to as tailings. Uranium mill tailings have been identified as requiring remediation because they contain residual radioactive material that is not removed in the milling process. Potential radiation exposure can result from direct contact with the tailings, from radon gas emitted by the tailings, and from radioactive contamination of groundwater. As a result, the technology developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Uranium Recovery Program have focused on radon control, groundwater contamination and the long-term protection of the containment system. This paper briefly summarizes the UMTRAP and NRC remedial action technology development. 33 references, 9 figures, 5 tables

  1. Superfund Green Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of site cleanup and incorporating options – like the use of renewable energy resources – to maximize the environmental benefits of cleanups.

  2. MGP site remediation: Working toward presumptive remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1996-01-01

    Manufactured Gas Plants (MGPs) were prevalent in the United States during the 19th and first half of the 20th centuries. MGPs produced large quantities of waste by-products, which varied depending on the process used to manufacture the gas, but most commonly were tars and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. There are an estimated 3,000 to 5,000 abandoned MGP sites across the United States. Because these sites are not concentrated in one geographic location and at least three different manufacturing processes were used, the waste characteristics are very heterogeneous. The question of site remediation becomes how to implement a cost-effective remediation with the variety of cleanup technologies available for these sites. Because of the significant expenditure required for characterization and cleanup of MGP sites, owners and regulatory agencies are beginning to look at standardizing cleanup technologies for these sites. This paper discusses applicable cleanup technologies and the attitude of state regulatory agencies towards the use of presumptive remedies, which can reduce the amount of characterization and detailed analysis necessary for any particular site. Additionally, this paper outlines the process of screening and evaluating candidate technologies, and the progress being made to match the technology to the site

  3. Remediation of arsenic-contaminated soils and groundwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Robert W.; Frank, James R.; Feng, Xiandong

    1998-01-01

    An in situ method for extraction of arsenic contaminants from a soil medium and remediation of the medium including contacting the medium with an extractant solution, directing the solution within and through the medium, and collecting the solution and contaminants. The method can also be used for arsenate and/or arsenite removal.

  4. To fail is human: remediating remediation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalet, Adina; Chou, Calvin L; Ellaway, Rachel H

    2017-12-01

    Remediating failing medical learners has traditionally been a craft activity responding to individual learner and remediator circumstances. Although there have been moves towards more systematic approaches to remediation (at least at the institutional level), these changes have tended to focus on due process and defensibility rather than on educational principles. As remediation practice evolves, there is a growing need for common theoretical and systems-based perspectives to guide this work. This paper steps back from the practicalities of remediation practice to take a critical systems perspective on remediation in contemporary medical education. In doing so, the authors acknowledge the complex interactions between institutional, professional, and societal forces that are both facilitators of and barriers to effective remediation practices. The authors propose a model that situates remediation within the contexts of society as a whole, the medical profession, and medical education institutions. They also outline a number of recommendations to constructively align remediation principles and practices, support a continuum of remediation practices, destigmatize remediation, and develop institutional communities of practice in remediation. Medical educators must embrace a responsible and accountable systems-level approach to remediation if they are to meet their obligations to provide a safe and effective physician workforce.

  5. Remediating a design tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rädle, Roman; Klokmose, Clemens N.

    2018-01-01

    digital sticky notes setup. The paper contributes with a nuanced understanding of what happens when remediating a physical design tool into digital space, by emphasizing focus shifts and breakdowns caused by the technology, but also benefits and promises inherent in the digital media. Despite users......' preference for creating physical notes, handling digital notes on boards was easier and the potential of proper documentation make the digital setup a possible alternative. While the analogy in our remediation supported a transfer of learned handling, the users' experiences across technological setups impact......Sticky notes are ubiquitous in design processes because of their tangibility and ease of use. Yet, they have well-known limitations in professional design processes, as documentation and distribution are cumbersome at best. This paper compares the use of sticky notes in ideation with a remediated...

  6. Thermal soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental properties and business aspects of thermal soil remediation are described. Thermal soil remediation is considered as being the best option in cleaning contaminated soil for reuse. The thermal desorption process can remove hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene and crude oil, from contaminated soil. Nelson Environmental Remediation (NER) Ltd. uses a mobile thermal desorption unit (TDU) with high temperature capabilities. NER has successfully applied the technology to target heavy end hydrocarbon removal from Alberta's gumbo clay in all seasons. The TDU consist of a feed system, a counter flow rotary drum kiln, a baghouse particulate removal system, and a secondary combustion chamber known as an afterburner. The technology has proven to be cost effective and more efficient than bioremediation and landfarming

  7. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  8. Remediation of Site of Decommissioning Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilovich, A.S.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Potapov, V.N.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V. [National Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In the world the most widespread method of soil decontamination consists of removing the contaminated upper layer and sending it for long-term controlled storage. However, implementation of this soil cleanup method for remediation of large contaminated areas would involve high material and financial expenditures, because it produces large amounts of radioactive waste demanding removal to special storage sites. Contaminated soil extraction and cleanup performed right on the spot of remediation activities represents a more advanced and economically acceptable method. Radiological separation of the radioactive soil allows reducing of amount of radwaste. Studies performed during the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences revealed that a considerable fraction of radioactivity is accumulated in minute soil grains. So, the separation of contaminated soil by size fractions makes it possible to extract and concentrate the major share of radioactivity in the fine fraction. Based on these researches water gravity separation technology was proposed by Bochvar Institute. The method extracts the fine fraction from contaminated soil. Studies carried out by Bochvar Institute experts showed that, together with the fine fraction (amounting to 10-20% of the initial soil), this technology can remove up to 85-90% of contaminating radionuclides. The resulting 'dirty' soil fraction could be packaged into containers and removed as radwaste, and decontaminated fractions returned back to their extraction site. Use of radiological and water gravity separations consequently increases the productivity of decontamination facility. Efficiency of this technology applied for contaminated soil cleanup was confirmed in the course of remediation of the contaminated territories near decommissioning research reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. For soil cleaning purposes, a special facility implementing the technology of water gravity separation and radiometric monitoring of soil

  9. Adaptive remediation using portable treatment units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahowick, S.; Folsom, E.; Pico, T.

    1996-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is using adaptive remediation to optimize their environmental restoration strategy. Adaptive remediation uses hydrostratigraphic analysis to gain a better understanding of the subsurface characteristics, hydraulic tests to optimize contaminant transport models, and Portable Treatment Units (PTUs) as an alternative to fixed facilities. Hydrostratigraphic analysis is an optimization tool that improves the ability to identify and target contaminant migration pathways, identify the relationship between plumes and source areas, and better define hydraulic capture areas. Hydraulic tests, performed with PTUs, provide valuable data about subsurface characteristics. As clean up progresses, PTUs can be moved to the appropriate extraction wells to optimize contaminant mass removal. PTUs can also be placed to support innovative treatment technologies such as steam injection and microbial filters. Construction of PTUs will reduce by one-half the capital costs of building the rest of the fixed treatment system planned in the Record of Decision. Regulatory agencies are receptive to the use of the PTUs because the same treatment technology is being used and the PTUs will be able to clean up the plume cheaper and faster. Using adaptive remediation, LLNL is more effectively implementing remediation plans, improving cleanup time, and reducing project costs

  10. Cost and performance of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.; Kingscott, J.W.; Fiedler, L.D.

    1995-01-01

    The selection and use of more cost-effective remedies requires better access to data on the performance and cost of technologies used in the field. To make data more widely available, the US Environmental Protection Agency is working jointly with member agencies of the Federal Remediation Technologies Round table to publish case studies of full-scale remediation and demonstration projects. EPA, DoD, and DOE have published case studies of cleanup projects primarily consisting of bioremediation, soil vapor extraction, and thermal desorption. Within the limits of this initial data set, the paper evaluates technology performance and cost. In the analysis of cost factors, the paper shows the use of a standardized Work Breakdown Structure (WBS). Use of the WBS will be important in future reporting of completed projects to facilitate cost comparison. The paper notes the limits to normalization and thus cross-site comparison which can be achieved using the WBS. The paper identifies conclusions from initial efforts to compile cost and performance data, highlights the importance of such efforts to the overall remediation effort, and discusses future cost and performance documentation efforts

  11. Soil radiological characterisation and remediation at CIEMAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Cristina; Garcia Tapias, Esther; Leganes, Jose

    2012-01-01

    Located in Madrid, CIEMAT is the Spanish Centre for Energy-Related, Environmental and Technological Research. It used to have more than 60 facilities in operation that allowed a wide range of activities in the nuclear field and in the application of ionising radiations. At present, the centre includes several facilities; some of them are now obsolete, shut down and in dismantling phases. In 2000 CIEMAT started the 'Integrated plan for the improvement of CIEMAT facilities (PIMIC)', which includes activities for the decontamination, dismantling, rehabilitation of obsolete installations and soil remediation activities. A small contaminated area named with the Spanish word 'Lenteja' (Lentil), has had to be remediate and restored. In the 70's, an incidental leakage of radioactive liquid occurred during a transference operation from the Reprocessing Plant to the Liquid Treatment Installation, and contaminated about 1000 m 3 of soil. Remediation activities in this area started with an exhaustive radiological characterisation of the soil, including surface samples and up to 16 meters boreholes, and the development of a comprehensive radiological characterization methodology for pre-classification of materials. Once the framework was defined the following tasks were being carried out: preparation of the area, soil extraction activities and final radiological characterisation for release purposes. Next step will be the refilling of the resulting hole from the removal soil activities. This paper will describe the soil radiological characterization and remediation activities at the Lentil Zone in Ciemat Research Centre. (authors)

  12. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2006-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  13. Modularizing Remedial Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As remedial mathematics education has become an increasingly important topic of conversation in higher education. Mathematics departments have been put under increased pressure to change their programs to increase the student success rate. A number of models have been introduced over the last decade that represent a wide range of new ideas and…

  14. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2007-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  15. Trade Remedies: A Primer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C

    2008-01-01

    The United States and many of its trading partners use laws known as trade remedies to mitigate the adverse impact of various trade practices on domestic industries and workers. U.S. antidumping (AD) laws (19 U.S.C. 1673 et seq...

  16. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  17. 2014 Ohio Remediation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In fulfillment of Ohio Revised Code 3333.041 (A) (1) the Chancellor has published a listing by school district of the number of the 2013 high school graduates who attended a state institution of higher education in academic year 2013-2014 and the percentage of each district's graduates required by the institution to enroll in a remedial course in…

  18. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  19. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  20. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  1. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A; Lance, P E; Downs, A; Kier, Brian P [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  2. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  3. Remediating MGP brownfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Before natural gas pipelines became widespread in this country, gas fuel was produced locally in more than 5,000 manufactured gas plants (MGPs). The toxic wastes from these processes often were disposed onsite and have since seeped into the surrounding soil and groundwater. Although the MGPs--commonly called gas plants, gas-works or town gas plants--have closed and most have been demolished, they have left a legacy of environmental contamination. At many MGP sites, underground storage tanks were constructed of wood or brick, with process piping and equipment which frequently leaked. Waste materials often were disposed onsite. Releases of coal tars, oils and condensates produced within the plants contributed to a wide range of contamination from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols, benzene and cyanide. Remediation of selected MGP sites has been sporadic. Unless the site has been identified as a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) Superfund site, the regulatory initiative to remediate often remains with the state in which the MGP is located. A number of factors are working to change that picture and to create a renewed interest in MGP site remediation. The recent Brownfield Initiative by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is such an example

  4. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress

  5. Remediation of copper in vineyards – A mini review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackie, K.A.; Müller, T.; Kandeler, E.

    2012-01-01

    Viticulturists use copper fungicide to combat Downy Mildew. Copper, a non-degradable heavy metal, can accumulate in soil or leach into water sources. Its accumulation in topsoil has impacted micro and macro organisms, spurring scientists to research in situ copper removal methods. Recent publications suggest that microorganism assisted phytoextraction, using plants and bacteria to actively extract copper, is most promising. As vineyards represent moderately polluted sites this technique has great potential. Active plant extraction and chelate assisted remediation extract too little copper or risk leaching, respectively. However, despite interesting pot experiment results using microorganism assisted phytoextraction, it remains a challenge to find plants that primarily accumulate copper in their shoots, a necessity in vineyards where whole plant removal would be time consuming and financially cumbersome. Vineyard remediation requires a holistic approach including sustainable soil management, proper plant selection, increasing biodiversity and microorganisms. - Highlights: ► We describe copper distribution and availability in vineyards. ► We explain the environmental impact of copper on organisms, plants and processes. ► We detail possible remediation methods within vineyards. ► Microbially assisted phytoremediation is the most promising remediation method. ► A solution requires an interdisciplinary approach between plants, soil and vines. - This review is significant because it highlights prospective remediation methods usable in copper contaminated vineyards.

  6. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  7. DOE'S remedial action assurance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.; Denham, D.H.

    1984-10-01

    The formulation and initial implementation of DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action are described. It was initiated in FY 84 and is expected to be further implemented in FY 85 as the activities of DOE's Remedial Action programs continue to expand. Further APRA implementation will include additional document reviews, site inspections, and program office appraisals with emphasis on Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program and Surplus Facilities Management Program

  8. [Cognitive remediation and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenin-King, Palmyre; Thomas, Fanny; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Bouaziz, Noomane; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Therapies based on cognitive remediation integrate psychiatric care. Cognitive remediation helps to ease cognitive disorders and enable patients to improve their day-to-day lives. It is essential to complete nurses' training in this field. This article presents the example of a patient with schizophrenia who followed the Cognitive Remediation Therapy programme, enabling him to access mainstream employment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. In-Situ Electrokinetic Remediation for Metal Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    phytoremediation , and electrokinetic extraction. The US Army Environmental Center (USAEC) and Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC...California (CA) List Metals: Antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury , molybdenum, nickel, selenium...Comparison Technologies with which electrokinetic remediation must compete are "Dig and Haul", Soil Washing, and Phytoremediation . "Dig and haul

  10. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A.; Tolt, T.L.

    1994-01-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO 2 , U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS

  11. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  12. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II.

    1995-09-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I-Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum

  13. Chemical remediation of wood treated with micronised, nano or soluble copper preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saip Nami Kartal; Evren Terzi; Bessie Woodward; Carol A. Clausen; Stan T. Lebow

    2013-01-01

    The potential for extraction of copper from wood treated with micronised, nano or soluble forms of copper has been evaluated in view of chemical remediation. In focus were EDTA, oxalic acid, bioxalate, and D-gluconic acid for extraction of Cu from treated wood. Bioxalate extractions for 24 h resulted in Cu removal over 95% for all tested...

  14. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  15. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Wood; Caixian Tang; Ashley E. Franks; Wuxing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediat...

  16. Papers of the remediation technologies symposium 2005. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This conference was attended by over 500 delegates and provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and recent innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Sessions included presentations on in-situ, groundwater and surface water remediation. Issues concerning phytoremediation, natural attenuation, extraction and commercial redevelopment were examined. The aim of the conference was also to provide a forum for innovators in remediation to present new work. Topics included hydrocarbon and salt contamination; engineered soil cover for management of salt impacted sites; remediation and revegetation of tar sands composite tailings containing naphthenic acids; sorption of oil sands naphthenic acid mixtures; denitrification as a natural attenuation mechanism; sampling methodologies; variability assessments; stabilization treatment technologies; remediation of coal wastes; bioreactor landfills; well blowouts in Alberta; soil remediation in coarse gravelly soils; diesel-contaminated aquifers; gasoline spill remediation; soil vapour extraction systems; technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification; and cost-effective in-situ remediation strategies. Fifty-two technical presentations were given, of which 27 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  17. Papers of the remediation technologies symposium 2005. CD-ROM ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This conference was attended by over 500 delegates and provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and recent innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Sessions included presentations on in-situ, groundwater and surface water remediation. Issues concerning phytoremediation, natural attenuation, extraction and commercial redevelopment were examined. The aim of the conference was also to provide a forum for innovators in remediation to present new work. Topics included hydrocarbon and salt contamination; engineered soil cover for management of salt impacted sites; remediation and revegetation of tar sands composite tailings containing naphthenic acids; sorption of oil sands naphthenic acid mixtures; denitrification as a natural attenuation mechanism; sampling methodologies; variability assessments; stabilization treatment technologies; remediation of coal wastes; bioreactor landfills; well blowouts in Alberta; soil remediation in coarse gravelly soils; diesel-contaminated aquifers; gasoline spill remediation; soil vapour extraction systems; technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification; and cost-effective in-situ remediation strategies. Fifty-two technical presentations were given, of which 27 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  18. Remedial action technology - arid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakonson, T.E.; DePoorter, G.L.; Nyhan, J.W.; Perkins, B.A.; Lane, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    A summary is presented of the low-level waste remedial action program at Los Alamos. The experimental design and progress is described for the experiments on second generation intrusion barriers, subsidence effects on SLB components, moisture cycling effects on chemical transport, and erosion control methodologies. The soil moisture data from the bio-intrusion and moisture cycling experiments both demonstrate the overwhelming importance of vegetation in minimizing infiltration of water through trench covers and backfill. Evaporation, as a water loss component in trench covers, is only effective in reducing soil moisture within 40 cm of the trench cover surface. Moisture infiltrating past the zone of evaporation in unvegetated or poorly vegetated trench covers is in storage and accumulates until drainage out of the soil profile occurs. Judicious selection of vegetation species for revegetating a low-level waste site may prevent infiltration of moisture into the trench and, when coupled with other design features (i.e. trench cover slope, tilling and seeding practice), may greatly reduce problems with erosion. Standard US Department of Agriculture erosion plots, when coupled with a state-of-the-art water balance and erosion model (CREAMS) promises to be highly useful in screening proposed remedial action cover designs for low-level waste sites. The erosion plot configuration allows for complete accounting of the water balance in a soil profile. This feature enables the user to optimize cover designs to minimize erosion and infiltration of water into the trench

  19. Lasagna trademark soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Lasagna trademark is an integrated, in situ remediation technology being developed which remediates soils and soil pore water contaminated with soluble organic compounds. Lasagna trademark is especially suited to sites with low permeability soils where electroosmosis can move water faster and more uniformly than hydraulic methods, with very low power consumption. The process uses electrokinetics to move contaminants in soil pore water into treatment zones where the contaminants can be captured and decomposed. Initial focus is on trichloroethylene (TCE), a major contaminant at many DOE and industrial sites. Both vertical and horizontal configurations have been conceptualized, but fieldwork to date is more advanced for the vertical configuration. Major features of the technology are electrodes energized by direct current, which causes water and soluble contaminants to move into or through the treatment layers and also heats the soil; treatment zones containing reagents that decompose the soluble organic contaminants or adsorb contaminants for immobilization or subsequent removal and disposal; and a water management system that recycles the water that accumulates at the cathode (high pH) back to the anode (low pH) for acid-base neutralization. Alternatively, electrode polarity can be reversed periodically to reverse electroosmotic flow and neutralize pH

  20. Functioning of metal contaminated garden soil after remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelusic, Masa; Grcman, Helena; Vodnik, Dominik; Suhadolc, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of remediation using three EDTA doses (10, 30, 60 mmol kg −1 ) on soil functioning was assessed using column experiment and Brassica rapa. Soil washing removed up to 77, 29 and 72% of metals from soil contaminated with 1378, 578 and 8.5 mg kg −1 of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively. Sequential extraction indicated removal from the carbonate soil fraction. Metal oral-accessibility from the stomach phase was reduced by up to 75 and from the small intestine by up to 79% (Pb). Part of metals (up to 0.8% Cd) was lost due to leaching from columns. Remediation reduced toxic metal soil-root transfer by up to 61% but did not prevent metal accumulation in leaves. The fitness of plants grown on EDTA washed soils (gas exchange, fluorescence) was not compromised. Remediation initially reduced the soil DNA content (up to 29%, 30 mmol kg −1 EDTA) and changed the structure of microbial population. -- Highlights: ► Toxic metals contaminated garden soil was remediated in a pilot-scale. ► EDTA washing reduced soil Pb, Zn and Cd content and bioavailability. ► Remediated soil preserved the function of plant and microbial substrate. ► Remediation didn't prevent the accumulation of toxic metals in the test plant. -- EDTA soil washing effectively removed toxic metals and reduced their transfer from the soil to plant roots but did not prevent their accumulation in leaves

  1. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database

  2. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium, RemTech 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding environmental impacts resulting from the extraction and production of fossil fuels, many oil and gas operators are seeking ways to reduce their environmental footprint and ensure the sustainable development of the industry. This symposium provided a forum to discuss innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. It highlighted recent work conducted in the field of contamination and remediation of industrial pollutant treatments. The conference technical sessions were entitled: British Columbia perspective; DND sites; hydrocarbons; oilfield remediation; Saskatchewan perspective; brownfields; miscellaneous; Quebec perspective; laboratory analysis and testing; landfill management and remediation; and, in-situ treatment methods. Some presentations also reviewed biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; encapsulation; natural attenuation; multi-phase extraction; solar detoxification; electrochemical remediation; pre-treatment considerations; phytoremediation; and environmental management. The pre-conference workshop discussed methods of working with the federal government on future contaminated sites. The symposium featured 67 presentations, of which 26 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  3. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss - herbal remedies and supplements; Obesity - herbal remedies; Overweight - herbal remedies ... health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...

  5. Radon remediation of dwellings with suspended timber floors -case studies from the Building Research Establishment (UK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welsh, P.; Stephen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Dwellings with suspended floors and high radon levels are proving difficult to remediate. This paper reports on the experience of the Building Research Establishment in dealing with such dwellings. Brief details of the remediation of 14 houses are given, and comparisons are made between the effectiveness of the different techniques adopted. Natural ventilation, mechanical supply ventilation and mechanical extract ventilation are three techniques that have been used successfully as radon remedial measures. Preliminary results suggest that supply ventilation is more effective than extract ventilation. (author)

  6. A syphilis co-infection study in human papilloma virus patients attended in the sexually transmitted infection ambulatory clinic, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria de Sena Souza

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of syphilis worldwide, little is known about its manifestations when associated with other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI, specifically the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. Current epidemiological studies show that there is a high incidence of both diseases in ambulatory clinics all over Brazil. This study aims to estimate the incidence of syphilis - HPV co-infections, among patients from the STI ambulatory clinic at the Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two-hundred and seven patients were seen in the clinic between March and December 2005, of which 113 (54.6% sought care for an HPV infection. Blood samples were taken from all patients to check syphilis serology using the flocculation and the non-treponemic test or VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and the TPHA (Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay treponemic and confirmatory method. Of the 207 patients, 113 (54.6% consulted referring to HPV as their primary complaint, and of these, 18 (15.9% also presented with positive syphilis serology, demonstrating a high incidence of coinfection. The average age of the patients varied between 20 and 25 years, 203 (98.1% were male and 4 (1.9% were female. The predominance of the male sex in this sample confirms the profile usually treated in STI clinics across the country, and the age range is that of typically high sexually activity. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the need for a differentiated examination of all STD patients.

  7. Site remediation: The naked truth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloway, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of any company faced with an environmental site remediation project is to perform the cleanup effectively at the lowest possible cost. Today, there are a variety of techniques being applied in the remediation of sites involving soils and sludges. The most popular include: stabilization, incineration, bioremediation and off-site treatment. Dewatering may also play an integral role in a number of these approaches. Selecting the most cost-effective technique for remediation of soils and sludges can be a formidable undertaking, namely because it is often difficult to quantify certain expenses in advance of the project. In addition to providing general cost guidelines for various aspects of soil and sludge remediation, this paper will show how some significant cost factors can be affected by conditions related to specific remediation projects and the cleanup technology being applied

  8. Remediation techniques for heavy metal-contaminated soils: Principles and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianwen; Li, Wei; Song, Weiping; Guo, Mingxin

    2018-08-15

    Globally there are over 20millionha of land contaminated by the heavy metal(loid)s As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Se, with the present soil concentrations higher than the geo-baseline or regulatory levels. In-situ and ex-situ remediation techniques have been developed to rectify the heavy metal-contaminated sites, including surface capping, encapsulation, landfilling, soil flushing, soil washing, electrokinetic extraction, stabilization, solidification, vitrification, phytoremediation, and bioremediation. These remediation techniques employ containment, extraction/removal, and immobilization mechanisms to reduce the contamination effects through physical, chemical, biological, electrical, and thermal remedy processes. These techniques demonstrate specific advantages, disadvantages, and applicability. In general, in-situ soil remediation is more cost-effective than ex-situ treatment, and contaminant removal/extraction is more favorable than immobilization and containment. Among the available soil remediation techniques, electrokinetic extraction, chemical stabilization, and phytoremediation are at the development stage, while the others have been practiced at full, field scales. Comprehensive assessment indicates that chemical stabilization serves as a temporary soil remediation technique, phytoremediation needs improvement in efficiency, surface capping and landfilling are applicable to small, serious-contamination sites, while solidification and vitrification are the last remediation option. The cost and duration of soil remediation are technique-dependent and site-specific, up to $500ton -1 soil (or $1500m -3 soil or $100m -2 land) and 15years. Treatability studies are crucial to selecting feasible techniques for a soil remediation project, with considerations of the type and degree of contamination, remediation goals, site characteristics, cost effectiveness, implementation time, and public acceptability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Phyto-remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagvardieff, P.

    2014-01-01

    Some plants can be selected for their capacity to extract radionuclides from the soil, on the contrary other plants can be chosen for being able to produce food grade products in a contaminated environment. Modern genetic methods can be used to enhance these abilities and turn some plants into an efficient means in the managing of contaminated areas. The DEMETERRES project that gathers different research organisations like CEA, IRSN and INRA and industrial partners like AREVA and VEOLIA aims at developing innovative bio-technologies like phyto-extraction and environment friendly physico-chemical technologies for the remediation of contaminated soils. This project was launched in 2013 on a 5-year scheme and is expected to lead to industrial applications. (A.C.)

  10. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Object reasoning for waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.J.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    A large number of contaminated waste sites across the United States await size remediation efforts. These sites can be physically complex, composed of multiple, possibly interacting, contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) is being designed and developed to support decisions concerning the selection of remediation alternatives. The goal of this system is to broaden the consideration of remediation alternatives, while reducing the time and cost of making these considerations. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system, designed and constructed using object-oriented, knowledge- based systems, and structured programming techniques. RAAS uses a combination of quantitative and qualitative reasoning to consider and suggest remediation alternatives. The reasoning process that drives this application is centered around an object-oriented organization of remediation technology information. This paper describes the information structure and organization used to support this reasoning process. In addition, the paper describes the level of detail of the technology related information used in RAAS, discusses required assumptions and procedural implications of these assumptions, and provides rationale for structuring RAAS in this manner. 3 refs., 3 figs

  12. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    2002-01-01

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  13. Chaos and remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Current research into the nature of chaos indicates that even for systems that are well known and easily modeled, slight changes in the scale used to measure the input have unpredictable results in the model output. The conduct of a remedial investigation (RI) is dictated by well-established rules of investigation and management, yet small changes in project orientation, regulatory environment, or site conditions have unpredictable consequences to the project. The consequences can lead to either brilliant success or utter failure. The chaotic effect of a change in scale is most often illustrated by an exercise in measuring the length of the coast of Great Britain. If a straight ruler 10-kilometers long is used, the sum of the 10-kilometer increments gives the length of the coast. If the ruler is changed to five kilometers long and the exercise is repeated, the sum of the five-kilometer increments will not be the same as the sum of the 10-kilometer increments. Nor is there a way to predict what the length of the coast will be using any other scale. Several examples from the Fernald Project RI are used to illustrate open-quotes changes in scaleclose quotes in both technical and management situations. Given that there is no way to predict the outcome of scale changes in a RI, technical and project management must be alert to the fact that a scale has changed and the investigation is no longer on the path it was thought to be on. The key to success, therefore, is to develop specific units of measure for a number of activities, in addition to cost and schedule, and track them regularly. An example for tracking a portion of the field investigation is presented. The determination of effective units of measure is perhaps the most difficult aspect of any project. Changes in scale sometimes go unnoticed until suddenly the budget is expended and only a portion of the work is completed. Remedial investigations on large facilities provide new and complex challenges

  14. Spectral induced polarization for monitoring electrokinetic remediation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Losito, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology for extracting heavy metals from contaminated soils and sediments. This method uses a direct or alternating electric field to induce the transport of contaminants toward the electrodes. The electric field also produces pH variations, sorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution of species in the porous medium during remediation. Since heavy metal mobility is pH-dependent, the accurate control of pH inside the material is required in order to enhance the removal efficiency. The common approach for monitoring the remediation process both in laboratory and in the field is the chemical analysis of samples collected from discrete locations. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of Spectral Induced Polarization as an alternative method for monitoring geochemical changes in the contaminated mass during remediation. The advantage of this technique applied to field-scale is to offer higher resolution mapping of the remediation site and lower cost compared to the conventional sampling procedure. We carried out laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments on fine-grained marine sediments contaminated by heavy metal and we made Spectral Induced Polarization measurements before and after each treatment. Measurements were done in the frequency range 10- 3-103 Hz. By the deconvolution of the spectra using the Debye Decomposition method we obtained the mean relaxation time and total chargeability. The main finding of this work is that a linear relationship exists between the local total chargeability and pH, with good agreement. The observed behaviour of chargeability is interpreted as a direct consequence of the alteration of the zeta potential of the sediment particles due to pH changes. Such relationship has a significant value for the interpretation of induced polarization data, allowing the use of this technique for monitoring electrokinetic remediation at field-scale.

  15. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  16. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  17. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  18. A responsible remediation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an approach to cleaning up the residue of 150 years of intense urban and industrial development in the United States. The discussion focuses on several choices and strategies that business can adopt given the existing environmental laws and the socio-economic trends of the 1990's. The thesis of this paper is that the best business strategy for dealing with environmental liabilities is to act affirmatively and aggressively. An aggressive, pro-active approach to environmental remediation liabilities makes good business sense. It allows a company to learn the true size of the problem early. Early assessment and prioritization allows one to control the course and conduct of the cleanup. Early voluntary action is always viewed favorably by agencies. It gives one control over spending patterns which has value in and of itself. Voluntary cleanups are certainly faster and invariably more efficient. And they attain clearly acceptable standards. The volunteering company that takes the lead in a multi-party site finds that the courts are supportive in helping the volunteer collect from recalcitrant polluters. All of these pluses have a direct and positive impact on the bottom line and that means that the aggressive approach is the right thing to do for both stockholders and the communities where a business exists

  19. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  20. Remediation of lead-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1992-01-01

    Excavation and transport of soil contaminated with heavy metals has generally been the standard remediation technique for treatment of heavy-metal-contaminated soils. This approach is not a permanent solution; moreover, off-site shipment and disposal of contaminated soil involves high expense, liability, and appropriate regulatory approval. Recently, a number of other techniques have been investigated for treating such contaminated sites, including flotation, solidification/stabilization, vitrification, and chemical extraction. This paper reports the results of a laboratory investigation determining the efficiency of using chelating agents to extract lead from contaminated soils. Lead concentrations in the soils ranged from 500 to 10,000 mg/kg. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were examined for their potential extractive capabilities. Concentrations of the chelating agents ranged from 0.01 to 0.10 M. The pH of the suspensions in which the extractions were performed ranged from 4 to 12. Results showed that the removal of lead using NTA and water was ph-dependent, whereas the removal of lead using EDTA was ph-insensitive. Maximum removals of lead were 68.7%,19.1%, and 7.3% using EDTA, NTA, and water, respectively (as compared with initial lead concentrations)

  1. Architecture and environmental restoration: Remediating uranium mill tailings from buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teply, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) manages the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Program in Grand Junction, Colorado. This program is a congressionally mandated clean up of by-product waste that resulted from the extraction of yellow cake from uranium ore. The by-product waste, a fine sand commonly called open-quotes mill tailingclose quotes is contaminated with low-level radioactivity. These mill tailings were available to the community for use as construction material from approximately 1952 to 1966; their use as bedding material for concrete slabs, utilities, backfill materials, concrete sand, and mortar created unique remediation problems that required innovative solutions. This paper describes how design personnel approach the remediation of structures, the evaluation of the buildings, and the factors that must be considered in completing the remediation design. This paper will not address the health risks of the tailings in an inhabited space, the remediation of exterior areas, or the process of determining where the tailings exist in the building

  2. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  3. Technology selection for remediation of lead and hydrocarbon contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, K.E.; Sparks, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for selection of a technology for remediation of 70,000 tons of lead and hydrocarbon impacted soil resulting from an excavation at the Mobil Torrance Refinery. This methodology resulted from over two years of extensive research and technology evaluation. Twelve technologies and combination of technologies were evaluated, which often included bench scale testing, to determine the most cost effective and technically feasible remediation option. The results of the studies for each technology are discussed and presented in tabular form. The technologies investigated include: fixation/stabilization, soil washing, solvent washing, heap leach extraction, froth flotation, bioremediation, thermal desorption, electrokinetic extraction, asphalt incorporation, vitrification, off-site treatment, and off-site disposal. The associated costs and technical feasibility of each of the remediation options evaluated are presented. Laboratory analyses of the excavated soil indicate hydrocarbons range from non-detect to 11,000 ppm with an average of 2,600 ppm, soluble lead (CA test-not TCLP) range from 1.4 ppm to 100 ppm with an average of 29 ppm, and low levels of organic lead are present. Average grain size of the soil ranges from number-sign 200 to number-sign 120 mesh, and permeability averages 10--4 cm/sec. Significant odors, likely caused by hydrogen sulfide and thiophenes, were detected when the soil was excavated and control of odors during the remediation phase is a critical concern

  4. Geostatistical approach for assessing soil volumes requiring remediation: validation using lead-polluted soils underlying a former smelting works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demougeot-Renard, Helene; De Fouquet, Chantal

    2004-10-01

    Assessing the volume of soil requiring remediation and the accuracy of this assessment constitutes an essential step in polluted site management. If this remediation volume is not properly assessed, misclassification may lead both to environmental risks (polluted soils may not be remediated) and financial risks (unexpected discovery of polluted soils may generate additional remediation costs). To minimize such risks, this paper proposes a geostatistical methodology based on stochastic simulations that allows the remediation volume and the uncertainty to be assessed using investigation data. The methodology thoroughly reproduces the conditions in which the soils are classified and extracted at the remediation stage. The validity of the approach is tested by applying it on the data collected during the investigation phase of a former lead smelting works and by comparing the results with the volume that has actually been remediated. This real remediated volume was composed of all the remediation units that were classified as polluted after systematic sampling and analysis during clean-up stage. The volume estimated from the 75 samples collected during site investigation slightly overestimates (5.3% relative error) the remediated volume deduced from 212 remediation units. Furthermore, the real volume falls within the range of uncertainty predicted using the proposed methodology.

  5. The Rush to Remediate: Long Term Performance Favors Passive Systems at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.; Cauthen, K.; Beul, R. R.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the long-term performance of groundwater remediation systems at SRS and compare active versus passive systems. The presentation will focus on the limited effectiveness of active pump and treat systems and share the experience with more passive and natural systems such as soil vapor extraction, barometric pumping, bioremediation, and phytoremediation. Three remediation projects are presented. In each case the waste source is capped with clay or synthetic barriers; however, extensive groundwater contamination remains. The first project features the cleanup of the largest plume in the United States. The second project entails solvent and vinyl chloride remediation of groundwater beneath a hazardous waste landfill. The third project discusses tritium containment from a 160-acre radioactive waste disposal area. Special emphasis is placed on performance data from alternate technology cleanup. The goals are to share remediation data, successes and lessons learned, while making a case for passive systems use in groundwater remediation

  6. Optimal selection of biochars for remediating metals ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment due to possible exposure to the residuals of heavy metal extraction. Historically, a variety of chemical and biological methods have been used to reduce the bioavailability of the metals at mine sites. Biochar with its potential to complex and immobilize heavy metals, is an emerging alternative for reducing bioavailability. Furthermore, biochar has been reported to improve soil conditions for plant growth and can be used for promoting the establishment of a soil-stabilizing native plant community to reduce offsite movement of metal-laden waste materials. Because biochar properties depend upon feedstock selection, pyrolysis production conditions, and activation procedures used, they can be designed to meet specific remediation needs. As a result biochar with specific properties can be produced to correspond to specific soil remediation situations. However, techniques are needed to optimally match biochar characteristics with metals contaminated soils to effectively reduce metal bioavailability. Here we present experimental results used to develop a generalized method for evaluating the ability of biochar to reduce metals in mine spoil soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine. Thirty-eight biochars were produced from approximately 20 different feedstocks and produced via slow pyrolysis or gasification, and were allowed to react with a f

  7. Comparison of the environmental impacts of two remediation technologies used at hydrocarbon contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viikala, R.; Kuusola, J.

    2000-01-01

    Investigation and remediation of contaminated sites has rapidly increased in Finland during the last decade. Public organisations as well as private companies are investigating and remediating their properties, e.g. redevelopment or business transactions. Also numerous active and closed gasoline stations have been investigated and remediated during the last few years. Usually the contaminated sites are remediated to limit values regardless of the risk caused by contamination. The limit values currently used in Finland for hydrocarbon remediation at residential or ground water areas are 300 mg/kg of total hydrocarbons and 100 mg/kg of volatile hydrocarbons (boiling point < appr. 200 deg C). Additionally, compounds such as aromatic hydrocarbons have specific limit values. Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated sites is most often carried out by excavating the contaminated soil and taking it to a landfill by lorries. As distances from the sites to landfills are generally rather long, from tens of kilometres to few hundred kilometres, it is evident that this type of remediation has environmental impacts. Another popular technology used at sites contaminated by volatile hydrocarbons is soil vapour extraction (SVE). SVE is a technique of inducing air flow through unsaturated soils by vapour extraction wells or pipes to remove organic contaminants with an off-gas treatment system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate some of the environmental impacts caused by remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Energy consumption and air emissions related remedial activities of the two methods were examined in this study. Remediation of the sites used in this study were carried out by Golder Associates Oy in different parts of Finland in different seasons. Evaluation was made by using life cycle assessment based approach

  8. Proceedings (of the) first annual groundwater and soil remediation R, D and D (research, development and demonstration) symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A symposium was held to present results of research on the remediation of contamination of groundwater and soils. Papers were presented on groundwater/soil remediation research and demonstration programs, in-situ bioremediation, remediation of groundwater contaminated by gasoline-derived aromatics, solvent extraction of petroleum hydrocarbons from soil, bioreactors for cleaning hydrocarbon- and salt-contaminated soils, in-situ volatilization technologies, evaluations of spill cleanup technologies, remediating subsurface contamination around sour gas processing plants, and the influence of gasoline oxygenates on the persistence of aromatics in groundwater. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 9 papers from this symposium.

  9. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Commencing in 1998, the Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland carried out radon measurements in 3826 schools in the Republic of I reland on behalf of the Irish Department of Education and Science (D.E.S.). This represents approximately 97% of all schools in the country. Approximately 25% (984) schools had radon concentrations above the Irish national schools Reference Level for radon of 200 Bq/m 3 and required remedial work. The number of individual rooms with radon concentrations above 200 Bq/m 3 was 3020. Remedial work in schools commenced in early 2000. In general schools with maximum radon concentrations in the range 200 -400 Bq/m 3 in one or more rooms were remediated through the installation of passive systems such as an increase in permanent background ventilation mainly wall vents and trickle vents in windows. Schools with maximum radon concentrations greater than 400 Bq/m 3 were usually remediated through the provision of active systems mainly fan assisted sub -slab de pressurization or where this was not possible fan assisted under floor ventilation. The cost of the remedial programme was funded by central Government. Active systems were installed by specialized remedial contractors working to the specifications of a radon remedial expert appointed by the D.E.S. to design remedial systems for affected schools. Schools requiring increased ventilation were granted aided 190 pounds per affected room and had to organize the work themselves. In most schools radon remediation was successful in reducing existing radon concentrations to below the Reference Level. Average radon concentration reduction factors for sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted fan assisted under floor ventilation ranged from 5 to 40 with greater reduction rates found at higher original radon concentrations. Increasing ventilation in locations with moderately elevated radon concentrations (200 - 400 Bq/m 3 ) while not as effective as active systems produced on

  10. A new humic acid remedy with addition of silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    GP Alexandrova; G Dolmaa; E Enkhbadral; GL Grishenko; Sh Tserenpil; BG Sukhov; D Regdel; BA Trofimov

    2014-01-01

    Previously known biogenic stimulator humic acid (HA) was the subject of this current study and HA based new remediation was developed by addition of silver (Ag) nanoparticles in its macromolecule. Extracted HA from a healing mud was characterized and used as reducing agent for Ag ion as well as a stabilizer for the formed Ag nanoparticles. The properties of the obtained hybrid composite were examined by XRD, UV and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The diameter of the nanoparticles in the HA pol...

  11. The remediation of tributyltin-contaminated dredgins and waters

    OpenAIRE

    Gkenakou, Evgenia-Varvara

    2008-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is a pollutant, mainly introduced to the environment as a marine anti-fouling agent. The aim of this work was to assess and develop sustainable and cost-effective remediation technologies for TBT-contaminated dredged materials. For this purpose, analytical methods were developed for sediments and sediment leachates.For the sediments, a triple extraction followed by derivatisation and measurement by gas chromatography with pulsed flame photometric detection was employed, avoi...

  12. HANFORD GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARBONEAU, B; THOMPSON, M; WILDE, R.; FORD, B.; GERBER, M.S.

    2006-02-01

    geographically dispersed community is united in its desire to protect the Columbia River and have a voice in Hanford's future. This paper presents the challenges, and then discusses the progress and efforts underway to reduce the risk posed by contaminated groundwater at Hanford. While Hanford groundwater is not a source of drinking water on or off the Site, there are possible near-shore impacts where it flows into the Columbia River. Therefore, this remediation is critical to the overall efforts to clean up the Site, as well as protect a natural resource.

  13. The benefits from environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental remediation projects inevitably take place against a backdrop of overall social goals and values. These goals can include, for example, full employment, preservation of the cultural, economic and archaeological resources, traditional patterns of land use, spiritual values, quality of life factors, biological diversity, environmental and socio-economic sustainability, protection of public health. Different countries will have different priorities, linked to the overall set of societal goals and the availability of resources, including funding, man-power and skills. These issues are embedded within both a national and local socio-cultural context, and will shape the way in which the remediation process is structured in any one country. The context will shape both the overall objectives of a remediation activity within the framework of competing societal goals, as well as generate constraints on the decision making process. Hence, the overall benefit of a remediation project is determined by its overall efficiency and effectiveness within the given legal, institutional, and governance framework, under the prevailing socio-economic boundary conditions, and balancing technology performance and risk reduction with fixed or limited budgetary resources, and is not simply the result of the technical remediation operation itself. (author)

  14. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The majority of the planned remediation sites within the DOE complex are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In many instances the contamination has not reached the water table, does not pose an immediate threat, and is not considered a high priority problem. These sites will ultimately require remediation of some type, either by active vapor extraction, bioremediation, or excavation and ex-situ soil treatment. The cost of remediating these sites can range from $50 K to more than $150 K, depending on site characteristics, contaminants, and remediation method. Additionally, for many remediated sites, residual contamination exists which could not practically be removed by the applied remediation technology. These circumstances result in modest sites with contamination of limited risk, but by regulation they must still be controlled. A remediation solution being developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) for the Department of Energy serves as an in-situ containment and extraction methodology for sites where most or all of the contamination resides in the vadose zone soil. The approach capitalizes on the advective soil gas movement resulting from barometric pressure oscillations.

  15. Relationship between solute permeability and osmotic remediability in a galactose-negative strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassel, J; Douglas, H C

    1970-11-01

    An osmotic remedial allele, gal 7-1, in the galactose pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae responds to either penetrating (ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol) or nonpenetrating (KCl, NaCl, and sorbitol) solutes in the growth medium. Extracts from cells grown under restrictive conditions gave no increase in enzyme activity (gal-1-phosphate, uridylyl transferase) when exposed to the penetrating solutes; thus protein synthesis or possibly polymer assembly is proposed as the critical step remedied by the addition of the solutes.

  16. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  17. A remedial alternative prioritization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.A.; Travis, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    This study develops and tests a technique for evaluating and prioritizing alternative remedial actions for hazardous waste sites. The method is based on criteria involving risk, benefit and cost, and identifies the most cost-effective solution to a given remedial problem. Four sites on the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) property in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were used in a case study to develop and test the method. Results of the case study indicate that even if the cap providing in situ containment must be replaced every 10 years, it is a superior alternative to total excavation of the waste sites

  18. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  19. The possible use of soluble humic substances for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.; Jensen, Julie Katrine; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2008-01-01

    Polluted soil is a common and serious environmental problem. While reliable methods exist for cleaning soil contaminated by organic compounds through degradation, remediation of heavy metal polluted soils awaits an appropriate solution. This is because heavy metals are nondegradable and generally....... Therefore, the potential of soluble natural humic substances (HS) to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils is tested as an environmental friendly substitute for EDTA. A strongly polluted urban soil and a moderately polluted agricultural soil were extracted at neutral pH in batch mode by three HS...... extraction. Heavy metal extraction with dissolved HS is compared with EDTA at the same concentration and sequential extraction has been performed to identify extracted pools. The results indicate a clear potential of using HS solutions for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils, which is fortunate...

  20. Abstracts of Remediation Case Studies, Volume 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report, published by the Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (FRTR), is a collection of recently published abstracts summarizing 13 cost and performance case studies on the use of remediation technologies at contaminated sites.

  1. Steam Injection For Soil And Aquifer Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by...

  2. Key Principles of Superfund Remedy Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidance on the primary considerations of remedy selection which are universally applicable at Superfund sites. Key guidance here include: Rules of Thumb for Superfund Remedy Selection and Role of the Baseline Risk Assessment.

  3. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Important process parameters to optimize in electrokinetic soil remediation are those influencing remediation time and power consumption since these directly affect the cost of a remediation action. This work shows how the electrokinetic remediation (EKR) process could be improved by implementing...... bipolar electrodes in the porous material. The bipolar electrodes in EKR meant two improvements: (1) a shorter migration pathway for the contaminant, and (2) an increased electrical conductivity in the remediation system. All together the remediation proceeded faster with lower electrical resistance than...... in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...

  4. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  5. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  6. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  7. Academic Intervention: Acceleration and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Barbara Gail

    2016-01-01

    Eighth grade math students must pass a standards based test to be promoted to the next grade. Students who were at risk of failing the state's annual test faced impending retention. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to see if an intensive nine-week (55 min per day) remedial Math Connection (MC) class for 67 suburban, eighth grade…

  8. Demonstration of risk-based decision analysis in remedial alternative selection and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.K.; Duffield, G.M.; Massmann, J.W.; Freeze, R.A.; Stephenson, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of risk-based decision analysis (Massmann and Freeze 1987a, 1987b) in the selection and design of an engineering alternative for groundwater remediation at a waste site at the Savannah River Site, a US Department of Energy facility in South Carolina. The investigation focuses on the remediation and closure of the H-Area Seepage Basins, an inactive disposal site that formerly received effluent water from a nearby production facility. A previous study by Duffield et al. (1992), which used risk-based decision analysis to screen a number of ground-water remediation alternatives under consideration for this site, indicated that the most attractive remedial option is ground-water extraction by wells coupled with surface water discharge of treated effluent. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate the iterative use of risk-based decision analysis throughout the design of a particular remedial alternative. In this study, we consider the interaction between two episodes of aquifer testing over a 6-year period and the refinement of a remedial extraction well system design. Using a three-dimensional ground-water flow model, this study employs (1) geostatistics and Monte Carlo techniques to simulate hydraulic conductivity as a stochastic process and (2) Bayesian updating and conditional simulation to investigate multiple phases of aquifer testing. In our evaluation of a remedial alternative, we compute probabilistic costs associated with the failure of an alternative to completely capture a simulated contaminant plume. The results of this study demonstrate the utility of risk-based decision analysis as a tool for improving the design of a remedial alternative through the course of phased data collection at a remedial site

  9. Remediation challenges posed by the fate and transport properties of MTBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Releases of fuel from underground tank systems have been a major source of groundwater contamination for several decades. The fate and transport characteristics of fuel components significantly influence the potential risk to groundwater supplies and the methodologies to manage and remediate contamination at fuel release sites. The recognition that MTBE can be more mobile in groundwater systems than other components of oxygenated fuels has put an increased emphasis on early detection and response to fuel leaks and spills. Remediation of oxygenated fuel releases usually follows a sequence of tasks: receptor protection, source control, residual and dissolved phase remediation, and monitored natural attenuation. Good characterization of hydrogeological and geochemical conditions is required because understanding the fate and transport of fuel components is critical to developing an appropriate management plan and an efficient remediation program. Understanding the specific site conditions allows appropriate selection and sequencing of remedial technologies. The physical and chemical characteristics of MTBE can result in a higher mobility in the subsurface, compared with the BTEX components of a gasoline release. These same characteristics make MTBE more readily extractable from the subsurface compared with BTEX. There is an impression that remediating gasoline releases containing MTBE requires costly, specialized technologies compared with those employed to deal with non-oxygenated fuel releases. However, the characteristics of MTBE are well suited to traditional, physical remedial approaches that have proven to be effective with the other components of gasoline. Technologies such as groundwater extraction, soil vapor extraction (SVE), and thermal desorption work exceptionally well with MTBE due to its low adsorptive and high vapor pressure characteristics. Similarly, recent studies have demonstrated that MTBE is biodegradable under a wide variety of conditions

  10. Integrated remediation of soil and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykes, R.S.; Howles, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons and other organic chemicals frequently focuses on a single phase of the chemical in question. This paper describes an integrated approach to remediation involving selection of complimentary technologies designed to create a remedial system which achieves cleanup goals in affected media in the shortest possible time consistent with overall environmental protection

  11. 32 CFR 310.47 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil remedies. 310.47 Section 310.47 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.47 Civil remedies. In addition to specific remedial...

  12. New Mexico English Remediation Taskforce Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico Higher Education Department, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In March, 2016, the state of New Mexico established a Remediation Task Force to examine remediation reform efforts across the state's higher education institutions. On March 11, the Task Force met for the "New Mexico Corequisite Remediation at Scale Policy Institute" in order to learn about the results of the latest national reform…

  13. Remediation: Higher Education's Bridge to Nowhere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete College America, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The intentions were noble. It was hoped that remediation programs would be an academic bridge from poor high school preparation to college readiness. Sadly, remediation has become instead higher education's "Bridge to Nowhere." This broken remedial bridge is travelled by some 1.7 million beginning students each year, most of whom will…

  14. Anti-venom potentials of Friedelin isolated from hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... taenicidal, cough remedy, dysentery, cancer, diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis and snake bite remedy. In this report, an attempt has been made to evaluate the bioactive molecules in the plant that are anti-venom agents. Consequently, the stem bark was exhaustively extracted with hexane and subsequently with methanol.

  15. [Miserable labor pain? Myths and nursing care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Meei-Ling; Kao, Chien-Huei

    2013-12-01

    Pain is a common, normal, and healthy physical phenomenon during childbirth. However, widely held public and clinical perspectives treat pain as a pathologic process and consider labor pain in a negative context. These perspectives ignore the positive effects of pain in the domains of protection, new life, expectation, purpose, preparation, and progression. The pain interpretation and pain experience of new mothers deeply impact their mental health, maternal-infant relationship, and transition to motherhood. This paper introduces the common myths related to labor pain, the three stages of pain transmission, and the current approaches to pain management. The authors hope childbirth caregivers may accept labor pain as a meaningful, pleasant, and positive gift, which is the first and most important step toward effective pain management.

  16. An Investigation of Partizan Misere Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Meghan Rose

    2010-08-01

    Combinatorial games are played under two different play conventions: normal play, where the last player to move wins, and mis play, where the last player to move loses. Combinatorial games are also classified into impartial positions and partizan positions, where a position is impartial if both players have the same available moves and partizan otherwise. Mis play games lack many of the useful calculational and theoretical properties of normal play games. Until Plambeck's indistinguishability quotient and mis monoid theory were developed in 2004, research on mis play games had stalled. This thesis investigates partizan combinatorial mis play games, by taking Plambeck's indistinguishability and mis monoid theory for impartial positions and extending it to partizan ones, as well as examining the difficulties in constructing a category of mis play games in a similar manner to Joyal's category of normal play games. This thesis succeeds in finding an infinite set of positions which each have finite mis monoid, examining conditions on positions for when * + * is equivalent to 0, finding a set of positions which have Tweedledum-Tweedledee type strategy, and the two most important results of this thesis: giving necessary and sufficient conditions on a set of positions Upsilon such that the mis monoid of Upsilon is the same as the mis monoid of * and giving a construction theorem which builds all positions ξ such that the mis monoid of ξ is the same as the mis monoid of *.

  17. 'Splendeurs et miseres' of Hawking's effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajicek, P [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1977-01-01

    The paper deals with the emission of particles from a black hole, in particular Hawking's effect. Quantum field theory is applied in curved space-time. Spherically symmetrical gravitational collapse is considered.

  18. ''Splendeurs et miseres'' of Hawking's effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijicek, P

    1977-01-01

    The Hawking effect, the result that a Schwarzschild black hole will emit particles as if it were a hot body with a given temperature depending upon the mass of the hole and the sun, the Planck, Newton, and Boltzmann constants, and the light velocity, is considered. Restriction is made to the Schwarzschild space-time, in order to suppress the geometrical, purely general relativistic aspects as far as possible. The treatment includes quantum field theory in curved space--times, and spherically symmetric collapse. 23 references. (JFP)

  19. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  20. Setting a benchmark in remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Thiess Services has achieved a first in the treatment of contaminated soil, in the process assisting Orica in successfully removing a toxic legacy. In 1980, when Orica Australia's predecessor ICI Australia constructed its car park waste encapsulation (CPWE) to seal off contaminated soil at Botany Industrial Park, 12km south of the Sydney CBD, treatment methods were not available. Fast-forward more than 30 years and Thiess Services has successfully undertaken treatment of the soil, earning it the 2013 CARE award. The contaminated soil contained hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD), low levels of hexachlorobenzene and hexachloroethane, all by-products of historical manufacturing of chlorinated solvents, including dry cleaning fluid, in the 1960s and 1970s. ICI Australia decided initially to store the contaminated material in drums and place it on a bed of boiler ash. However, drum corrosion led to contamination of the ash bed and underlying soil, so the company decided to encapsulate the material within a synthetic Hypalon liner, covering it with clean soil and capping it with bitumen in a 45,000 cubic metre cell. In 2005, Orica commissioned Thiess to assess a range of remediation methods and technologies to treat the material. Three options were recommended — directly heated thermal desorption, in situ thermal desorption and indirectly heated thermal desorption. “Together with Orica, we decided that directly heated thermal desorption was the appropriate technology to use,” Thiess project manager Joshua Van Der Heiden said. “Essentially, the soil is introduced into a rotary kiln and a flame directly heats up the soil above the contaminants' boiling point (up to a maximum of 450C) so that the contaminants are volatilised and the soil comes out clean. The gas separated from the soil is then heated to around 1000C in a thermal oxidiser, converting it into carbon dioxide and water. To prevent contaminants from reforming, the gas stream is rapidly cooled by a

  1. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This conference reviewed the latest innovations regarding the remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil and groundwater, with considerable information dedicated to the field of industrial pollutant treatments. Some topics and case studies covered in the presentations included both in-situ treatment and ex-situ treatment methods; biological and non-biological treatment methods; thermal desorption; multi-phase extraction; detoxification; environmental management; hydrocarbon contamination stabilization; and unique and challenging locations. The conference featured 3 workshops addressing innovative solutions for federal contaminated sites; technology funding options; and use of chemistry in land reclamation. The technical sessions were entitled: bioremediation; military sites and gun ranges; an update on technology from the Netherlands; Sydney tar ponds update and the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) green municipal fund; in-situ treatment methods; phytoremediation and natural attenuation; solidification/stabilization; vapour management; extraction; unique situations; Alberta Environment updates; framework and tools; and investigations. The conference featured 68 presentations, of which 16 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  2. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  3. Cost considerations in remediation and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dance, J.T.; Huddleston, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Opportunities for assessing the costs associated with the reclamation and remediation of sites contaminated by oilfield wastes are discussed. The savings can be maximized by paying close attention to five different aspects of the overall site remediation and disposal process. These are: (1) highly focused site assessment, (2) cost control of treatment and disposal options, (3) value added cost benefits, (4) opportunities to control outside influences during the remedial process, and (5) opportunities for managing long-term liabilities and residual risk remaining after the remedial program is completed. It is claimed that addressing these aspects of the process will ultimately lower the overall cost of site remediation and waste disposal

  4. Sustainability likelihood of remediation options for metal-contaminated soil/sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Taylor, Jessica S; Baek, Kitae; Khan, Eakalak; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Multi-criteria analysis and detailed impact analysis were carried out to assess the sustainability of four remedial alternatives for metal-contaminated soil/sediment at former timber treatment sites and harbour sediment with different scales. The sustainability was evaluated in the aspects of human health and safety, environment, stakeholder concern, and land use, under four different scenarios with varying weighting factors. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to reveal the likelihood of accomplishing sustainable remediation with different treatment options at different sites. The results showed that in-situ remedial technologies were more sustainable than ex-situ ones, where in-situ containment demonstrated both the most sustainable result and the highest probability to achieve sustainability amongst the four remedial alternatives in this study, reflecting the lesser extent of off-site and on-site impacts. Concerns associated with ex-situ options were adverse impacts tied to all four aspects and caused by excavation, extraction, and off-site disposal. The results of this study suggested the importance of considering the uncertainties resulting from the remedial options (i.e., stochastic analysis) in addition to the overall sustainability scores (i.e., deterministic analysis). The developed framework and model simulation could serve as an assessment for the sustainability likelihood of remedial options to ensure sustainable remediation of contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... measuring the right hind paw oedema and granuloma tissue ... β-sistosterol, stigmasterol, cardiac glycosides, fat and starch. ... deficiency remedies in various ethno-medicines. ... Preparation and extraction of plant materials.

  7. AND Citrus senensis PEEL EXTRACTS ON Aeromonas hydrophila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    the two plant extracts against some clinical isolates: six Salmonella paratyphi B, one S. typhi and three A. ... century make the medicines and drugs of vegetables origin lost their ... in preventing heart disease. ... is a remedy for edema.

  8. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  9. Pre- and post-remediation characterization of acid-generating fluvial tailings material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Hoal, Karin O.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Pietersen, K.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Arkansas River south of Leadville, Colorado, USA, contains deposits of fluvial tailings from historical mining operations in the Leadville area. These deposits are potential non-point sources of acid and metal contamination to surface- and groundwater systems. We are investigating a site that recently underwent in situ remediation treatment with lime, fertilizer, and compost. Pre- and post-remediation fluvial tailings material was collected from a variety of depths to examine changes in mineralogy, acid generation, and extractable nutrients. Results indicate sufficient nutrient availability in the post-remediation near-surface material, but pyrite and acid generation persist below the depth of lime and fertilizer addition. Mineralogical characterization performed using semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction and quantitative SEM-based micro-mineralogy (Mineral Liberation Analysis, MLA) reveal formation of gypsum, jarosite, and complex coatings surrounding mineral grains in post-remediation samples.

  10. Automated sample analysis and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollen, R.; Settle, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Contaminant Analysis Automation Project is developing an automated chemical analysis system to address the current needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). These needs focus on the remediation of large amounts of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored, buried and still being processed at numerous DOE sites. This paper outlines the advantages of the system under development, and details the hardware and software design. A prototype system for characterizing polychlorinated biphenyls in soils is also described

  11. Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepp, A.J.; Isaacs, J.D.

    1997-09-01

    This document fulfills the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, Milestone M-13-81, to develop a concise statement of strategy that describe show the Hanford Site groundwater remediation will be accomplished. The strategy addresses objectives and goals, prioritization of activities, and technical approaches for groundwater cleanup. The strategy establishes that the overall goal of groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site is to restore groundwater to its beneficial uses in terms of protecting human health and the environment, and its use as a natural resource. The Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group established two categories for groundwater commensurate with various proposed landuses: (1) restricted use or access to groundwater in the Central Plateau and in a buffer zone surrounding it and (2) unrestricted use or access to groundwater for all other areas. In recognition of the Hanford Future Site Uses Working Group and public values, the strategy establishes that the sitewide approach to groundwater cleanup is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas that enter the Columbia River and to contain the spread and reduce the mass of the major plumes found in the Central Plateau

  12. Strategic planning for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapp, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Remediation projects may range from a single leaking storage tank to an entire plant complex or producing oil and gas field. Strategic planning comes into play when the contamination of soil and groundwater is extensive. If adjacent landowners have been impacted or the community at large is concerned about the quality of drinking water, then strategic planning is even more important. (1) To manage highly complex interrelated issues--for example, the efforts expended on community relations can alter public opinion, which can impact regulatory agency decisions that affect cleanup standards, which can...and so on. (2) To ensure that all potential liabilities are managed--for example, preparation for the defense of future lawsuits is essential during site investigation and remediation. (3) To communicate with senior management--when the remediation team provides a strategic plan that includes both technical and business issues, senior management has the opportunity to become more involved and make sound policy decisions. The following discusses the elements of a strategic plan, who should participate in it, and the issues that should be considered

  13. Status report: Fernald site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.R. Jr.; Saric, J.A.; Schneider, T.; Yates, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald site is rapidly transitioning from a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) site to one where design and construction of the remedies dominates. Fernald is one of the first sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to accomplish this task and real physical progress is being made in moving the five operable units through the CERCLA process. Two of the required Records of Decision (ROD) are in hand and all five operable units will have received their RODs (IROD for OU3) by the end of 1995. Pre-design investigations, design work or construction are now in progress on the operable units. The lessons learned from the work done to date include implementing innovations in the RI and FS process as well as effective use of Removal Actions to begin the actual site remediation. Also, forging close working relationships with the Federal and State Regulators, citizens action groups and the Fernald Citizens Task Force has helped move the program forward. The Fernald successes have been achieved by close coordination and cooperation among all groups working on the projects and by application of innovative technologies within the decision making process

  14. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediation strategy investigated for remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Although the efficiency of phytoextraction remains a limiting feature of the technology, there are numerous reports that soil microorganisms can improve rates of heavy metal extraction.This review highlights the unique challenges faced when remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils as compared to static aquatic systems and suggests new strategies for using microorganisms to improve phytoextraction. We compare how microorganisms are used in soil bioremediation (i.e. phytoextraction and water bioremediation processes, discussing how the engineering of microbial communities, used in water remediation, could be applied to phytoextraction. We briefly outline possible approaches for the engineering of soil communities to improve phytoextraction either by mobilizing metals in the rhizosphere of the plant or by promoting plant growth to increase the root-surface area available for uptake of heavy metals. We highlight the technological advances that make this research direction possible and how these technologies could be employed in future research.

  15. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-01-01

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning planning of any scale and for recording

  16. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Remediation plans in family medicine residency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audétat, Marie-Claude; Voirol, Christian; Béland, Normand; Fernandez, Nicolas; Sanche, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess use of the remediation instrument that has been implemented in training sites at the University of Montreal in Quebec to support faculty in diagnosing and remediating resident academic difficulties, to examine whether and how this particular remediation instrument improves the remediation process, and to determine its effects on the residents’ subsequent rotation assessments. Design A multimethods approach in which data were collected from different sources: remediation plans developed by faculty, program statistics for the corresponding academic years, and students’ academic records and rotation assessment results. Setting Family medicine residency program at the University of Montreal. Participants Family medicine residents in academic difficulty. Main outcome measures Assessment of the content, process, and quality of remediation plans, and students’ academic and rotation assessment results (successful, below expectations, or failure) both before and after the remediation period. Results The framework that was developed for assessing remediation plans was used to analyze 23 plans produced by 10 teaching sites for 21 residents. All plans documented cognitive problems and implemented numerous remediation measures. Although only 48% of the plans were of good quality, implementation of a remediation plan was positively associated with the resident’s success in rotations following the remediation period. Conclusion The use of remediation plans is well embedded in training sites at the University of Montreal. The residents’ difficulties were mainly cognitive in nature, but this generally related to deficits in clinical reasoning rather than knowledge gaps. The reflection and analysis required to produce a remediation plan helps to correct many academic difficulties and normalize the academic career of most residents in difficulty. Further effort is still needed to improve the quality of plans and to support teachers.

  18. Hydrodynamic analysis application of contaminated groundwater remediation to oil hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Predrag R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of the hydrodynamic analysis in the selected ‘pumping and treatment’ remediation method of groundwater hydrocarbon pollution in the case of the Pancevo oil refinery is examined. The applied hydrodynamic analysis represents a regular and necessary approach in modern hydrogeology. Previous chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples at observation objects revealed their pollution by oil products. New researches included the constraction of 12 piezometric boreholes of varying depths, geoelectric soil sounding, ‘in situ’ measurement of the present contaminant, detected as a hydrophobic phase of LNAPL, chemical analysis of soil and groundwater samples with emphasis on total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH content, total fats and mineral oils, mercury cations and other characteristic compounds, etc. These researches define the volume of contamination issued by the ‘light’ (LNAPL contamination phase. The selected remediation method for this type of pollution is the ‘Pump and Treat’ method, which implies the pumping of contaminated groundwater from aquifer and their subsequent treatment. A hydrodynamic method was used to select the optimal hydrotechnical solution for LNAPL extraction. On the mathematical model, the prediction calculations for two variant solutions were carried out (‘hydraulic isolation’ and complex for the application of groundwater contamination remediation characterized as front pollution substance (by extraction and injection wells or infiltration pool. By extraction wells performing, it would be possible to remove the LNAPL from the surface of the water with special pumps-skimmers. The importance of the hydrodynamic method application is, in addition to the hydrotechnical solution selection for the LNAPL drainage, the provision of quality basis for the dimensioning of these objects based on the results of the groundwater balance.

  19. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  20. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies

  2. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An ongoing problem facing the global environmental community including NASA centers is the removal and remediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCBs were...

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  5. Guidelines for active spreading during in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated aquifers depends on the extent and duration of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant (the reactants). Techniques that inject and extract in the aquifer to ‘ac...

  6. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of Soil Lead Depends on the Bioaccessible Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils...

  7. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties

  8. Alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    A study is being conducted by Electro-Pure Systems, Inc. (EPS) under the Emerging Technology portion of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program to study alternating current electrocoagulation for Superfund site remediation. Alternating current electrocoagulation has proven to be effective in agglomerating and removing colloidal solids, metals and certain organic contaminants from surrogate soils prepared from the US EPA's Synthetic Soil Matrix. Treatments under a wide range of operating conditions have enabled the optimum parameter settings to be established for multiple phase separation. Electrocoagulation enables appreciably enhanced filtration and dewatering rates to be realized for metals- and diesel fuel-spiked surrogate soil slurries; such enhancements are prompted by growth in the mean particle size of the clays and particulates from typically < 10 microns to as much as 150 microns depending on the degree of electrocoagulation. Reduction in the total suspended solids content of clays in all slurries in excess of 90% can routinely be achieved. Bench-scale experiments of the metals-spiked surrogate soils indicate that electrocoagulation preferentially concentrates soluble metals into the sludge phase; excellent metals separation (Pb, Cr, Cu, Cd) can be realized. Experiments on surrogate wastes spiked with volatile organics suggest that this technology is not capable of effecting good volatile extractions from the aqueous phase. Reductions in excess of 80% in the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the diesel fuel-spiked surrogates can, however, be achieved

  9. Site characterisation and monitoring for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsley, Ian; Davies, Michael; Murley, Robert; Pearman, Ian; Harman, Nicholas; Proctor, Lorna; Armitage, Jack; Beddow, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Radioactive contamination of nuclear and mineral processing sites can be very varied. Early work in the extraction of uranium and thorium led to the disposal of large amounts of waste containing a variety of daughter radioisotopes. Later, the development of nuclear weapon programs led to large scale processing of uranium and thorium ores, physical separation of isotopes, and the initiation of nuclear fission with the resulting production of fission product radionuclides and activated metals. Weapons testing and reprocessing of reactor fuel again led to the release of fission and activation products, together with radioelements from the chemistry of fuel extraction. Finally the recovery of oil and gas reserves have once again led to renewed interest in NORM (naturally occurring radioactive materials) in the form of Pb-210/Po-210 scales in gas pipelines and Ra-226/Ra-228 in oil pipelines. Methods of monitoring for the contamination generated from all of these processes are considered together with recommended monitoring options for contamination products using gamma, beta and alpha measuring techniques. Specific examples of several site characterisation and monitoring projects are given - covering site investigation through to in-situ and on-site monitoring during the actual remediation. Many of the projects described are of a large scale, typically involving many thousands of tons of waste material. The rapid identification and sentencing into the relevant waste categories is essential in support of on-site civil engineering processes. Consideration of tailoring the monitoring process to achieve such high throughput rates is given. (authors)

  10. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR ACTIVE CAPS - REMEDIATION OF METALS AND ORGANICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D; Xingmao Ma, X; Ioana G. Petrisor, I

    2007-05-10

    This research evaluated organoclays, zeolites, phosphates, and a biopolymer as sequestering agents for inorganic and organic contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to identify amendments and mixtures of amendments for metal and organic contaminants removal and retention. Contaminant removal was evaluated by calculating partitioning coefficients. Metal retention was evaluated by desorption studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective sequestering agents for metals in fresh and salt water. Organoclays were very effective sorbents for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Partitioning coefficients for the organoclays were 3000-3500 ml g{sup -1} for benzo(a)pyrene, 400-450 ml g{sup -1} for pyrene, and 50-70 ml g{sup -1} for phenanthrene. Remediation of sites with a mixture of contaminants is more difficult than sites with a single contaminant because metals and organic contaminants have different fate and transport mechanisms in sediment and water. Mixtures of amendments (e.g., organoclay and rock phosphate) have high potential for remediating both organic and inorganic contaminants under a broad range of environmental conditions, and have promise as components in active caps for sediment remediation.

  11. Development of site remediation technologies in European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunno, T.J.; Hyman, J.A.; Pheiffer, T.

    1988-01-01

    Site remediation is a pressing issue in European countries due to limited availability of land. Therefore, much progress is being made in the development of effective technologies for remediating contaminated sites. The purpose of this program was to investigate the most successful and innovative technologies for potential application into US markets. This EPA-sponsored project was based on a 9-month research effort which identified 95 innovative technologies in use or being researched in foreign countries. The most promising technologies were studied in-depth through personal interviews with the engineers who research and apply these technologies, and tours of laboratory models and full-scale installations. The most successful full-scale technologies investigated were developed in Holland, West Germany and Belgium. These technologies include vacuum extraction of hydrocarbons from soil, in situ washing of cadmium-polluted soil, rotating biocontractors for treating pesticides in ground water, high-temperature slagging incineration of low-level radioactive wastes, in situ steam stripping, and a number of landfarming and soil washing operations. The paper provides description of 13 site remediation techniques that have shown such promise in laboratory studies or in practice to warrant consideration of their use in the US

  12. Remediation of the closed-down uranium mine in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linder, P.; Sundblad, B.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s uranium was extracted from alum shale deposits at Ranstad in the south of Sweden. This mine was part of the development of a Swedish nuclear power program based on the heavy-water/natural uranium concept. In this report the history of Swedish uranium production is briefly presented as well as the reason for the closing-down of the mine at Ranstad. In 1985 the planning of the restoration of the area started. The aim of the remediation work was to find a permanent solution that excluded the need for any maintenance in the future. The procedures and techniques for remedial action are described for the open pit mine and the mill tailing deposits. As the leachate from the mill tailings was collected and purified, there was no urgent need for action. Investigations could be made to find an effective way for reducing the weathering of the pyrite in the tailings and the authorities concerned could accept the remediation plan after a detailed review. The main part of the plan has now been implemented and many experiences from the performance technique and the significant quality assurance program have been obtained. The old open pit mine has already been transformed into a lake and the mill tailings are covered by a leaktight barrier and a protective layer. The natural environment in the whole area has been reestablished

  13. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  14. The phyto-remediation of radioactively contaminated land - a feasible approach or just bananas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, Victoria A

    2013-01-01

    Soil is an essential component of all terrestrial ecosystems and is under increasing threat from human activity. Techniques available for removing radioactive contamination from soil and aquatic substrates are limited and often costly to implement; particularly over large areas. Frequently, bulk soil removal, with its attendant consequences, is a significant component of the majority of contamination incidents. Alternative techniques capable of removing contamination or exposure pathways without damaging or removing the soil are therefore of significant interest. An increasing number of old nuclear facilities are entering 'care and maintenance', with significant ground contamination issues. Phyto-remediation - the use of plants' natural metabolic processes to remediate contaminated sites is one possible solution. Its key mechanisms include phyto-extraction and phyto-stabilisation. These are analogues of existing remedial techniques. Further, phyto-remediation can improve soil quality and stability and restore functionality. Information on the application of phyto-remediation in the nuclear industry is widely distributed over an extended period of time and sources. It is therefore difficult to quickly and effectively identify which plants would be most suitable for phyto-remediation on a site by site basis. In response, a phyto-remediation tool has been developed to address this issue. Existing research and case studies were reviewed to understand the mechanisms of phyto-remediation, its effectiveness and the benefits and limitations of implementation. The potential for cost recovery from a phyto-remediation system is also briefly considered. An overview of this information is provided here. From this data, a set of matrices was developed to guide potential users through the plant selection process. The matrices take the user through a preliminary screening process to determine whether the contamination present at their site is amenable to phyto-remediation

  15. Some Similarities and Differences Between Compositions Written by Remedial and Non-Remedial College Freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, Elizabeth B.; House, William J.

    The essays composed by 84 remedial and 77 nonremedial college freshmen were analyzed for some features proposed by Mina Shaughnessy as being characteristic of basic writers. The students were enrolled in either a beginning remedial class (098), a class at the next level of remediation (099), or a regular English class (101). The essays were…

  16. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques. 23 refs., 7 figs

  17. Soil remediation process and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monlux, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a process for remediation of soil containing up to about 30,000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants. It comprises: providing hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in a divided condition of minus 1 1/2 double-prime to a first confined zone where it is exposed to an open flame; heating while agitating the contaminated soil in an oxidizing atmosphere in the first zone to a temperature below soil ignition within a range of from about 375 degrees F. to about 750 degrees F. for a time sufficient to drive off as vapors a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon contaminates from the soil; passing hot gases containing the hydrocarbon vapors from the first zone to a second zone; recovering heat from the hot gases in the second zone to condense a substantial percentage of the hydrocarbon vapors as liquid hydrocarbons; recovering the liquid hydrocarbons; and removing the soil from the first zone as remediated soil having below about 1000 ppm hydrocarbon contaminants

  18. Solar One demolition and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Solar One was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of generating electrical energy from solar power using a central receiver concept. An array of heliostats focused sunlight onto a central receiver, which superheated water to produce steam. Although Solar One was successful, the oil-based Thermal Storage System (TSS), used to store heat energy for power generation at night, was not efficient. When the TSS was demolished for the installation of a more efficient molten salt system, a major effort was made to salvage or recycle all of its equipment and materials. During TSS demolition, approximately 7 tons of aluminum shielding and 205 tons of steel were salvaged as scrap metal; 200 tons of concrete was used for erosion protection along the Mohave River banks; 150,000 gallons of oil was recycled and 100 tons of equipment was salvaged for use at other facilities. During remediation, approximately 9,000 tons of oil contaminated sand, gravel and soil was recycled into approximately 10,000 tons of asphalt concrete and used to pave a nearby 5-acre parking lot at Barstow College. This not only reduced project remediation costs, but also met environmental requirements and provided a much needed community service. Of the estimated 11,864 tons of equipment and material from the TSS, less than 1% was disposed of at a landfill

  19. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W.; Mattson, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil has been demonstrated for saturated and unsaturated sand in preliminary experiments using a novel transport visualization technique. Large anionic organic dyes were mixed with a portion of soil and the rate of electromigration of the dye in an imposed electric field was monitored photographically. One of the fastest current-normalized electromigration rates was measured in the driest sand, which contained 7% water by-weight. This moisture content is typical of the moisture content in the unsaturated zone of subsurface native soils found in New Mexico. The characteristics of the electromigration were similar in both the saturated and unsaturated sand. The leading edge of the dye migration front was diffuse while the trailing edge was sharp and concentrated. This and other observed behavior may indicate a concentration effect, where the electromigration rate of dilute dye is greater than that of concentrated dye. The soil left after the trailing edge passed seemed to contain no residual dye in both the saturated and unsaturated cases. The success of demonstrating electromigration of large molecules in unsaturated soil is encouraging and indicates that it may be feasible to remediate in situ anionic heavy metals such as chromate from unsaturated soil with electrokinetic techniques

  20. Biochemical basis of mercury remediation and bioaccumulation by Enterobacter sp. EMB21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arvind; Kumar, Sumit; Khare, Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate metal bioaccumulating bacterial strains and to study their applications in removal of environmental problematic heavy metals like mercury. Five bacterial strains belonging to genera Enterobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas were isolated from oil-spilled soil. Among these, one of the strains Enterobacter sp. EMB21 showed mercury bioaccumulation inside the cells simultaneous to its bioremediation. The bioaccumulation of remediated mercury was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The mercury-resistant loci in the Enterobacter sp. EMB21 cells were plasmid-mediated as confirmed by transformation of mercury-sensitive Escherichia coli DH5α by Enterobacter sp. EMB21 plasmid. Effect of different culture parameters viz-a-viz inoculum size, pH, carbon, and nitrogen source revealed that alkaline pH and presence of dextrose and yeast extract favored better remediation. The results indicated the usefulness of Enterobacter sp. EMB21 for the effective remediation of mercury in bioaccumulated form. The Enterobacter sp. EMB21 seems promising for heavy metal remediation wherein the remediated metal can be trapped inside the cells. The process can further be developed for the synthesis of valuable high-end functional alloy, nanoparticles, or metal conjugates from the metal being remediated.

  1. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes

  3. 300-FF-1 remedial design report/remedial action work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, F.W.

    1997-02-01

    The 300 Area has been divided into three operable units 300-FF-1, 300-FF-2, and 300-FF-5 all of which are in various stages of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) process. The 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the subject of this report, includes liquid waste disposal sites, landfills, and a burial ground. This Remedial Design Report/Remedial Action Work Plan (RDR/RAWP) provides a summary description of each waste site included in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit, the basis for remedial actions to be taken, and the remedial action approach and management process for implementing these actions. The remedial action approach and management sections provide a description of the remedial action process description, the project schedule, the project team, required planning documentation, the remedial action change process, the process for verifying attainment of the remedial action goals, and the required CERCLA and RCRA closeout documentation. Appendix A provides additional details on each waste site. In addition to remediation of the waste sites, waste generated during the remedial investigation/feasibility study portions of the project will also be disposed at the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). Appendix B provides a summary of the modeling performed in the 300-FF-1 Phase 3 FS and a description of the modeling effort to be used to show attainment of the remedial action goals. Appendix C provides the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for all sampling and field-screening activities performed during remediation and for verification of attainment with the remedial action goals. Appendix D provides the public involvement plan, prepared to ensure information is provided to the public during remedial design and remedial action processes.

  4. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised,

  5. Remediation of the Maxey Flats Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report describes issues associated with remedial action of Maxey Flats, a low-level radioactive waste disposal site from 1963-1977, located in Fleming County, Kentucky. Present remedial action alternatives being considered are discussed along with emergency plans, ground water monitoring plans, and budgets

  6. Foreword Special Issue on Electrokinetic remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, J.P.G.; Lima, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first symposium on Electro-remediation (EREM) in 1997 at the École des Mines d’Albi, in Albi, France, much international attention, interest and progress have been generated in the science and technology of electro-remediation of contaminated soils, sediments and construction

  7. Remedial principles and meaningful engagement in education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article evaluates the meaningful engagement doctrine in the education rights jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court in the light of a set of normative principles developed by Susan Sturm for evaluating participatory public law remedies. It commences by identifying four principles for evaluating participatory remedies ...

  8. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  9. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5 U.S.C...

  10. 10 CFR 1008.15 - Civil remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1008.15 Section 1008.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) RECORDS MAINTAINED ON INDIVIDUALS (PRIVACY ACT) Requests for Access or Amendment § 1008.15 Civil remedies. Subsection (g) of the Act provides that an individual may bring suit...

  11. Steam and electroheating remediation of tight soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balshaw-Biddle, K.; Oubre, C.L.; Ward, C.H. [eds.; Dablow, J.F. III; Pearce, J.A.; Johnson, P.C.

    2000-07-01

    In the past few decades the need for soil remediation has become urgent, even more necessary--innovative, cost effective methods. Steam and Electroheating Remediation of Tight Soils presents the results of a field study testing the cleanup of semi-volatile fuels from tight soils using combination of hydraulic fracturing and soil heating technologies.

  12. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... the total parts requirement of each person who is to perform the repair under the remedial plan to be...: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the campaign facility at which the repair...

  13. Bioventing - a new twist on soil vapor remediation of the vadose zone and shallow ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yancheski, T.B.; McFarland, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Bioventing, which is a combination of soil vapor remediation and bioremediation techniques, may be an innovative, cost-effective, and efficient remedial technology for addressing petroleum contamination in the vadose zone and shallow ground water. The objective of bioventing is to mobilize petroleum compounds from the soil and ground water into soil vapor using soil vapor extraction and injection technology, and to promote the migration of the soil vapor upward to the turf root zone for degradation by active near-surface microbiological activity. Promoting and maintaining optimum microbiological activity in the turf root rhizosphere is a key component to the bioventing technique. Preliminary ongoing USEPA bioventing pilot studies (Kampbell, 1991) have indicated that this technique is a promising remediation technology, although feasibility studies are not yet complete. However, based on the preliminary data, it appears that proper bioventing design and implementation will result in substantial reductions of petroleum compounds in the capillary zone and shallow ground water, complete degradation of petroleum compounds in the turf root zone, and no surface emissions. A bioventing system was installed at a site in southern Delaware with multiple leaking underground storage tanks in early 1992 to remediate vadose zone and shallow ground-water contaminated by petroleum compounds. The system consists of a series of soil vapor extraction and soil vapor/atmospheric air injection points placed in various contamination areas and a central core remediation area (a large grassy plot). This system was chosen for this site because it was least costly to implement and operate as compared to other remedial alternatives (soil vapor extraction with carbon or catalytic oxidation of off-gas treatment, insitu bioremediation, etc.), and results in the generation of no additional wastes

  14. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi

    2013-01-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  15. Proceedings of the remediation technologies symposium 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for industry, practitioners, researchers and regulators to discuss technical issues in environmental remediation research and the latest innovations in soil and groundwater remediation. Cost effective in-situ and ex-situ soil reclamation strategies were presented along with groundwater and surface water remediation strategies in 13 sessions entitled: hydrocarbon contamination; salt management; liability management; chemical oxidation; light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPL); Montreal Center of Excellence in Brownfields Rehabilitation; Alberta government updates; phytoremediation; natural attenuation; Lake Wabamun; ex-situ remediation; in-situ remediation; and, miscellaneous issues. Technological solutions for erosion control and water clarification were highlighted. The conference featured 52 presentations, of which 17 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses....... The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...

  17. Groundwater remediation in the Straz leaching operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.

    2001-01-01

    The locality affected by consequences of the chemical mining of the uranium during underground leaching 'in situ' is found in the area of the Czech Republic in the northeastern part of the Ceska Lipa district. In the contribution the complex groundwater remediation project is discussed. First, the risks of the current state are expressed. Then the alternatives of remediation of the both Cenomanian and Turonian aquifers are presented. Evaluation of the remediation alternatives with the view to the time-consumption, economy, ecology and the elimination of unacceptable risks for the population and environment is done. Finally, the present progress of remediation and the conception of remediation of chemical mining on deposit of Straz pod Ralskem are presented. (orig.)

  18. Remediation of spent block in Uvanas deposit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurgaziev, M.A.; Iskakov, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 by 'Kazatomprom' and 'Mining company' board decision, the branch of 'Mining company', 'Steppe ore management body' is reorganized in structure subdivision, the basic activity of which is organization and carrying out remediation works on spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit. In 2002 works are completed on OVOS for operating deposits Uvanas, Kanjugan, Northern Karamurun and Eastern Minkuduk. The results of present work were reported in IAEA conference. The working project 'Remediation of spent blocks of PSV uranium deposit PV-17 polygon of Steppe ore management body' approved in 2005 was developed for carrying out the remediation works. Works funding were carried out from liquidation fund of the current deposit established in accordance with the Republic of Kazakhstan law 'About interior and interior use'. Deposits remediation is the part of deposit operation life cycle which obliges to operate deposits with minimum expenditures for remediation.

  19. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2018-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies...... and present methodological issues to consider when conducting LCAs within the area. Within the field of contaminated site remediation , a terminology distinguishing three types of environmental impacts: primary, secondary and tertiary, is often applied. Primary impacts are the site-related impacts due...... and efficiency of remediation, which are important for assessment or primary impacts; (ii) robust assessment of primary impacts using site-specific fate and exposure models; (iii) weighting of primary and secondary (or tertiary) impacts to evaluate trade-offs between life cycle impacts from remediation...

  20. Preliminary antidiarrhoeal activity of methanolic extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Securinega virosa is used as remedy for diarrhoea in tropical Africa, but has not been investigated for its antidiarrhoeal activity. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the methanolic extracts of the leaves, stem bark and root bark for antidirrhoeal activity, using castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in mice. The effects ...

  1. Análise das atividades dos oito anos iniciais do Banco de Valvas Cardíacas Humanas do Hospital de Caridade da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba Analysis of the inicial eight years of activities of the Human Heart Valve Bank of the Hospital de Caridade da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise Teresinha Brenner Affonso da Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar, retrospectivamente, os primeiros oito anos de funcionamento do Banco de Valvas Cardíacas Humanas do Hospital de Caridade da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba (BVCHSC, analisando aspectos relacionados às atividades de captação, processamento, armazenamento e distribuição de enxertos homólogos cardiovasculares. MÉTODO: A seleção inicial dos doadores seguiu as diretrizes nacionais para captação de órgãos humanos, além de critérios específicos do BVCHSC. Os corações foram obtidos de doadores de múltiplos órgãos, doadores em parada cardíaca e receptores de transplante cardíaco, com somatória dos tempos de isquemia inferior a 48 horas. A idade dos doadores variou desde recém-nascidos até 60 anos para as valvas aórticas e 65 para as pulmonares. Os enxertos dissecados tiveram suas dimensões mensuradas e sua morfologia avaliada, sendo classificados como categoria 0 (descartados, 1 (alterações morfológicas mínimas ou 2 (perfeitos. Foram determinados a incidência e os germes responsáveis pela contaminação nos enxertos recebidos, assim como a eficiência da solução de descontaminação. Foram também avaliados aspectos relacionados à distribuição dos enxertos. RESULTADOS: De setembro de 1996 a fevereiro de 2005, 1059 corações provenientes de 19 Estados foram recebidos no BVCHSC. Destes, 977 (92,3% eram de doadores de morte encefálica. Foram processados 2105 enxertos, e dentre os aórticos e pulmonares analisados, 783 eram da categoria 2, 697 pertenciam à categoria 1 e 186 foram descartados por alterações morfológicas. No total, 433 enxertos recebidos estavam contaminados, sendo a solução de antibióticos eficiente na esterilização de 330 destes casos. Quinhentos e setenta e um (27,1% enxertos foram rejeitados em alguma fase do processo, sendo a contaminação e as alterações morfológicas as causas mais freqüentes. Foram distribu

  2. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  3. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...

  4. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  5. Deterring and remedying employee theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzogany, Bill; Mueller, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    Employee theft of patient-related information for personal financial gain is a serious threat to the success and financial viability of many healthcare providers. You can safeguard your financial interest in your patient base by taking three preventative measures designed to dissuade your employees from stealing from you. The first step is the implementation of policies and procedures that inform your employees that patient-related information is a valuable business asset that you vigorously protect from misappropriation. The second step is strictly limiting and monitoring employee access to patient-related information. The third step is educating your employees of the potential legal consequences to them in the event they steal from you and, in the event of theft, pursuing all legal remedies available to you.

  6. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate ampersand Treat (E ampersand T), and Pump ampersand Treat (P ampersand T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios

  7. Biochar based remediation of water and soil contaminated by phenanthrene and pentachlorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Maria A; Di Rauso Simeone, Giuseppe; Scelza, Rosalia; Conte, Pellegrino

    2017-11-01

    Phenanthrene (Phe) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are classified as persistent organic pollutants and represent serious concern for the environment as they are toxic and ubiquitous. Biochar based remediation is an emerging technology used in water and soil contamination. In this study we used poplar (BP) and conifer (BC) biochars to remediate water and soil contaminated by Phe and PCP. BP and BC were able to remove completely either Phe or PCP from contaminated water within one to three days. When biochar was confined in a porous membrane, BC and BP maintained their sorption efficiency for several remediation cycles. However, in these conditions BC allowed faster Phe removal. In soil remediation experiments, addition of two biochar rates, i.e. 2.5 and 5 mg g -1 , strongly reduced Phe extractability (up to 2.7% of the initially added Phe with the larger BC dose). This was similar to the behavior observed when compost was applied in order to verify the role of soil organic matter in the fate of both contaminants. PCP extractability was reduced only up to 75% (in average) in all samples including those with compost amendment. Only larger amount of biochar (20 and 50 mg g -1 ) allowed reduction of the extractable PCP and nullified phytotoxicity of the contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  9. Remedial transactions curtailment via optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method developed in this paper is aiming at transmission congestion management (CM. The new, Optimal Transactions Management method (OTM, is based on linear programming (LP, DC load flow (DCLF and linear security constraints. The OTM method is embedded in Available Transfer Capabilities (ATCs and Power Transfer Distribution Factors (PTDFs definitions' environment. Well-suited for both preventive and corrective modes of operation, the OTM method aids transmission system operator in running a congested power system network, where congestions are due to transactions. Potential congestion threat is solved by finding the 'culprit' transaction and its optimal reduction. Besides the proposed downsizing of scheduled and/or committed transactions, controls of the OTM method also include redispatching of generation and load levels. The task is to establish a system state without constraint violations. To ensure the feasible network solution, both DC and AC power flows are used. The common 5 nodes/7 lines Ward&Hale sample power system is used to clarify the OTM method. Besides, six other power system networks including the real-life power system network of Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro (part of the South East Europe - SEE grid are used to test remedial potentials and CPU-time performances of the method. The 24-hour daily demand diagram is used with all test networks to study the effects of transactions as they are being superimposed to the regional grid. The remedial, transactions-curtailing OTM method is found well suited for market-related analyses precluding the hour-ahead, the day-ahead dispatch, as well as the real-time generation dispatch. It could also suit for the novel, Day Ahead Congestion Forecast (DACF procedure used in power markets. .

  10. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  11. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hart, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS trademark) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase 1 consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project. During Phase 2, the basic nitrification process design was modified to meet the specific needs of the new waste streams available at Paducah. The system design developed for Paducah has significantly enhanced the processing capabilities of the Vortec vitrification process. The overall system design now includes the capability to shred entire drums and drum packs containing mud, concrete, plastics and PCB's as well as bulk waste materials. This enhanced processing capability will substantially expand the total DOE waste remediation applications of the technology

  12. Monitoring of Soil Remediation Process in the Metal Mining Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Han, Hyeop-jo; Lee, Sang-Ho; Na, So-Young

    2016-04-01

    Stabilization using proper additives is an effective soil remediation technique to reduce As mobility in soil. Several researches have reported that Fe-containing materials such as amorphous Fe-oxides, goethite and hematite were effective in As immobilization and therefore acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) may be potential material for As immobilization. The AMDS is the by-product from electrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage and mainly contains Fe-oxide. The Chungyang area in Korea is located in the vicinity of the huge abandoned Au-Ag Gubong mine which was closed in the 1970s. Large amounts of mine tailings have been remained without proper treatment and the mobilization of mine tailings can be manly occurred during the summer heavy rainfall season. Soil contamination from this mobilization may become an urgent issue because it can cause the contamination of groundwater and crop plants in sequence. In order to reduce the mobilization of the mine tailings, the pilot scale study of in-situ stabilization using AMDS was applied after the batch and column experiments in the lab. For the monitoring of stabilization process, we used to determine the As concentration in crop plants grown on the field site but it is not easily applicable because of time and cost. Therefore, we may need simple monitoring technique to measure the mobility or leachability which can be comparable with As concentration in crop plants. We compared several extraction methods to suggest the representative single extraction method for the monitoring of soil stabilization efficiency. Several selected extraction methods were examined and Mehlich 3 extraction method using the mixture of NH4F, EDTA, NH4NO3, CH3COOH and HNO3 was selected as the best predictor of the leachability or mobility of As in the soil remediation process.

  13. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In the environmental remediation of a given site, concerned and interested parties have diverse and often conflicting interests with regard to remediation goals, the time frames involved, reuse of the site, the efforts necessary and cost allocation. An environmental remediation policy is essential for establishing the core values on which remediation is to be based. It incorporates a set of principles to ensure the safe and efficient management of remediation situations. Policy is mainly established by the national government and may become codified in the national legislative system. An environmental remediation strategy sets out the means for satisfying the principles and requirements of the national policy. It is normally established by the relevant remediation implementer or by the government in the case of legacy sites. Thus, the national policy may be elaborated in several different strategies. To ensure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, countries are advised to formulate an appropriate policy and strategies. Situations involving remediation include remediation of legacy sites (sites where past activities were not stringently regulated or adequately supervised), remediation after emergencies (nuclear and radiological) and remediation after planned ongoing operation and decommissioning. The environmental policy involves the principles of justification, optimization of protection, protection of future generations and the environment, efficiency in the use of resources, and transparent interaction with stakeholders. A typical policy will also take into account the national legal framework and institutional structure and applicable international conventions while providing for the allocation of responsibilities and resources, in addition to safety and security objectives and public information and participation in the decision making process. The strategy reflects and elaborates the goals and requirements set

  14. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2010-01-01

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  15. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  16. Concepts for immobilized extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paine, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of cleaning actinides from geomedia. In the past actinides were often released to the ground because of their tendency to bind tightly to forms of geomedia, and in addition spills have occurred over time. To remediate these areas involves finding ways to either guarantee the retention of the actinides in the geomedia, or finding ways to extract them and leave the soils clean. One possible way to clean soils is to wash them, which in order to extract actinides means the use of ligands which bind competitively with actinides in the presence of soil fractions. An array of organic ligands is known which bind with actinides, but the larger problem of handling these ligands in a manner which allows concentration of the actinides is still open. The author addresses work to bind such ligands to different types of matrices which can then be used in packed extraction columns to remove actindes from flow streams, and finally concentrated, by using minimal volume backflushing to extract the actinides from the column

  17. Effect of soil organic matter on antimony bioavailability after the remediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamaru, Yasuo Mitsui; Martín Peinado, Francisco José

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term (18 year) and short-term (4 weeks) changes of Sb in contaminated soil with SOM increase under remediation process. In the Aznalcóllar mine accident (1998) contaminated area, the remediation measurement implemented the Guadiamar Green Corridor, where residual pollution is still detected. Soils of the re-vegetated area (O2) with high pH and high SOM content, moderately re-vegetated area (O1) and unvegetated area (C) were sampled. Soil pH, CEC, SOM amount and soil Sb forms were evaluated. Soil Sb was measured as total, soluble, exchangeable, EDTA extractable, acid oxalate extractable, and pyro-phosphate extractable fractions. Further, the short-term effect of artificial organic matter addition was also evaluated with incubation study by adding compost to the sampled soil from C, O1 and O2 areas. After 4 weeks of incubation, soil chemical properties and Sb forms were evaluated. In re-vegetated area (O2), soil total Sb was two times lower than in unvegetated area (C); however, soluble, exchangeable, and EDTA extractable Sb were 2–8 times higher. The mobile/bioavailable Sb increase was also observed after 4 weeks of incubation with the addition of compost. Soluble, exchangeable, and EDTA extractable Sb was increased 2–4 times by compost addition. By the linear regression analysis, the significantly related factors for soluble, exchangeable, and EDTA extractable Sb values were pH, CEC, and SOM, respectively. Soluble Sb increase was mainly related to pH rise. Exchangeable Sb should be bound by SOM-metal complex and increased with CEC. EDTA extractable fraction should be increased with increase of SOM as SOM-Fe associated Sb complex. From these results, it was shown that increase of SOM under natural conditions or application of organic amendment under remediation process should increase availability of Sb to plants. - Highlights: • The effect of SOM on Sb availability was evaluated after the remediation process. • Increase in SOM raised

  18. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1985-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses program to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  19. Remedial action of radium contaminated residential properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.; Eng, J.

    1986-01-01

    Since November 1983, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) have been in the process of identifying properties in Montclair, Glen Ridge and West Orange, New Jersey, which were built over radium contaminated soil landfilled areas. Elevated indoor radon concentrations prompted the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to issue a health advisory which included permanent remediation of radon progeny levels in excess of 0.02 Working Levels within two years of discovery. In order to expedite remedial action, NJDEP undertook a ten million dollar cleanup program. Remedial Action at the 12 residential properties encountered some unanticipated problems despite the efforts of numerous government agencies and their contractors to characterize the contamination as much as possible prior to remediation. Some of the unanticipated issues include contamination from other radionuclides, underestimation of removal volumes, and controversy over the transportation and disposal of the radium contaminated soil at a commercial facility in Nevada. This paper will review the approach taken by NJDEP to the remedial action for radium contaminated soil, discuss some of the issues encountered during the remedial action, and provide post remedial action data

  20. Risk-based remediation: Approach and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishmuth, R.A.; Benson, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The principle objective of remedial actions is to protect human health and the environment. Risk assessments are the only defensible tools available to demonstrate to the regulatory community and public that this objective can be achieved. Understanding the actual risks posed by site-related contamination is crucial to designing cost-effective remedial strategies. All to often remedial actions are overdesigned, resulting in little to no increase in risk reduction while increasing project cost. Risk-based remedial actions have recently been embraced by federal and state regulators, industry, government, the scientific community, and the public as a mechanism to implement rapid and cost-effective remedial actions. Emphasizing risk reduction, rather than adherence to ambiguous and generic standards, ensures that only remedial actions required to protect human health and the environment at a particular site are implemented. Two sites are presented as case studies on how risk-based approaches are being used to remediate two petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites. The sites are located at two US Air Force Bases, Wurtsmith Air Force Base (AFB) in Oscoda, Michigan and Malmstrom AFB in Great Falls, Montana

  1. DOE's Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denham, D.H.; Stenner, R.D.; Welty, C.G. Jr.; Needels, T.S.

    1984-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) is presently developing and implementing the Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) to overview DOE's Remedial Action programs. APRA's objective is to ensure the adequacy of environmental, safety and health (ES and H) protection practices within the four DOE Remedial Action programs: Grand Junction Remedial Action Program (GJRAP), Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP), Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), and Surplus Facilities Management Program (SFMP). APRA encompasses all ES and H practices of DOE and its contractors/subcontractors within the four Remedial Action programs. Specific activities of APRA include document reviews, selected site visits, and program office appraisals. Technical support and assistance to OOS is being provided by APRA contractors in the evaluation of radiological standards and criteria, quality assurance measures, radiation measurements, and risk assessment practices. This paper provides an overview of these activities and discusses progress to date, including the roles of OOS and the respective contractors. The contractors involved in providing technical support and assistance to OOS are Aerospace Corporation, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory

  2. Remediation of spatial processing disorder (SPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Kelley; Van Dun, Bram; Tomlin, Dani; Dowell, Richard; Rance, Gary

    2018-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of deficit-specific remediation for spatial processing disorder, quantify effects of remediation on functional listening, and determine if remediation is maintained. Participants had SPD, diagnosed using the Listening in Spatialised Noise-Sentences test. The LiSN and Learn software was provided as auditory training. Post-training, repeat LiSN-S testing was conducted. Questionnaires pre- and post-training acted as subjective measures of remediation. A late-outcome assessment established long-term effects of remediation. Sixteen children aged between 6;3 [years; months] and 10;0 completed between 20 and 146 training games. Post-training LiSN-S improved in measures containing spatial cues (p ≤ 0.001) by 2.0 SDs (3.6 dB) for DV90, 1.8 SDs for SV90 (3.2 dB), 1.4 SDs for spatial advantage (2.9 dB) and 1.6 SDs for total advantage (3.3 dB). Improvement was also found in the DV0 condition (1.4 dB or 0.5 SDs). Post-training changes were not significant in the talker advantage measure (1.0 dB or 0.4 SDs) or the SV0 condition (0.3 dB or 0.1 SDs). The late-outcome assessment demonstrated improvement was maintained. Subjective improvement post-remediation was observed using the parent questionnaire. Children with SPD had improved ability to utilise spatial cues following deficit-specific remediation, with the parent questionnaire sensitive to remediation. Effects of the remediation also appear to be sustained.

  3. Ability of salt marsh plants for TBT remediation in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Silva, Manuela F G M; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, A A; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2010-07-01

    The capability of Halimione portulacoides, Spartina maritima, and Sarcocornia fruticosa (halophytes very commonly found in salt marshes from Mediterranean areas) for enhancing remediation of tributyltin (TBT) from estuarine sediments was investigated, using different experimental conditions. The influence of H. portulacoides on degradation of the butyltin compounds was assessed in two different ways: (1) a 9-month ex situ study carried out in a site of Sado River estuary, center of Portugal, which used polluted sediments collected at other nonvegetated site from the same estuary; and (2) a 12-month laboratorial study, using both plant and sediment collected at a relatively clean site of Cávado River estuary, north of Portugal, the sediment being doped with TBT, DBT, and MBT at the beginning of the experiment. The role of both S. fruticosa and S. maritima on TBT remediation in sediments was evaluated in situ, in salt marshes from Marim channel of Ria Formosa lagoon, south of Portugal, which has large areas colonized by each one of these two plants. For estimation of microbial abundance, total cell counts of sediment samples were enumerated by the DAPI direct count method. Butyltin analyses in sediment were performed using a method previously validated, which consisted of headspace solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after in situ ethylation (with tetraethylborate). Sediments colonized both ex situ and at lab by H. portulacoides displayed TBT levels about 30% lower than those for nonvegetated sediments with identical initial composition, after 9-12 months of plant exposure. In addition, H. portulacoides showed to be able of stimulating bacterial growth in the plant rhizosphere, which probably included degraders of TBT. In the in situ study, which compared the levels of TBT, DBT, and MBT in nonvegetated sediment and in sediments colonized by either S. maritima or S. fruticosa from the same area, TBT and DBT were only

  4. Present status of the Zavratec remediation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Stepisnik, M.; Mele, I.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992 the responsibility for the remediation of the temporary storage of radioactive waste near Zavratec was assigned to the Agency for Radwaste Management. The project was divided into two phases. First, in a study, different options for remediation were considered. In the second phase, performed in 1996, the measurements, inventorying and repacking of radioactive waste were carried out. Simultaneously with these activities a programme for covering public relations was prepared. One of the results of the public relation campaign is also a 15-minute video film, which was prepared from documentary material recorded during remedial activities, and will be presented here. (author)

  5. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-03-15

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  6. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes

  7. Technologies to remediate hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, J.W.

    1990-03-01

    Technologies to remediate hazardous wastes must be matched with the properties of the hazardous materials to be treated, the environment in which the wastes are imbedded, and the desired extent of remediation. Many promising technologies are being developed, including biological treatment, immobilization techniques, and in situ methods. Many of these new technologies are being applied to remediate sites. The management and disposal of hazardous wastes is changing because of federal and state legislation as well as public concern. Future waste management systems will emphasize the substitution of alternatives for the use of hazardous materials and process waste recycling. Onsite treatment will also become more frequently adopted. 5 refs., 7 figs

  8. Technologies for remediation of radioactively contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-06-01

    This report presents particulars on environmental restoration technologies (control and treatment) which can be applied to land based, radioactively contaminated sites. The media considered include soils, groundwater, surface water, sediments, air, and terrestrial and aquatic vegetation. The technologies addressed in this report can be categorized as follows: self-attenuation (natural restoration); in-situ treatment; removal of contamination; ex-situ treatment; and transportation and final disposal. The report provides also background information about and a general approach to remediation of radioactively contaminated sites as well as some guidance for the selection of a preferred remediation technology. Examples of remediation experience in Australia and Canada are given it annexes Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Lessons Learned from Environmental Remediation Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Several remediation projects have been developed to date, and experience with these projects has been accumulated. Lessons learned span from non-technical to technical aspects, and need to be shared with those who are beginning or are facing the challenge to implement environmental remediation works. This publication reviews some of these lessons. The key role of policy and strategies at the national level in framing the conditions in which remediation projects are to be developed and decisions made is emphasized. Following policy matters, this publication pays attention to the importance of social aspects and the requirement for fairness in decisions to be made, something that can only be achieved with the involvement of a broad range of interested parties in the decision making process. The publication also reviews the funding of remediation projects, planning, contracting, cost estimates and procurement, and issues related to long term stewardship. Lessons learned regarding technical aspects of remediation projects are reviewed. Techniques such as the application of cover systems and soil remediation (electrokinetics, phytoremediation, soil flushing, and solidification and stabilization techniques) are analysed with respect to performance and cost. After discussing soil remediation, the publication covers issues associated with water treatment, where techniques such as ‘pump and treat’ and the application of permeable barriers are reviewed. Subsequently, there is a section dedicated to reviewing briefly the lessons learned in the remediation of uranium mining and processing sites. Many of these sites throughout the world have become orphaned, and are waiting for remediation. The publication notes that little progress has been made in the management of some of these sites, particularly in the understanding of associated environmental and health risks, and the ability to apply prediction to future environmental and health standards. The publication concludes

  10. Drama, dissensus, remediation and a fluttering butterfly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusk, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    Why is it important to pay attention to democracy and polyphony when working with remediation in a multimodal drama project in introductory schooling? This question is elucidated and investigated in this article on the basis of a drama project case study conducted at Hundborg Friskole. The study...... is analysed on the basis of the concepts of remediation (Bolter and Grusin 1999; Christoffersen 2009), dissensus (Biesta 2013; Rancière 2013), dialogue and polyphony (Dysthe, Bernhardt and Esbjørn 2012). The examples in the investigation show how dialogue, polyphony and dissensus influence the art......-based process of remediation, and how this impacts children’s democratic education....

  11. Economics of biofiltration for remediation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudelson, J.M.; Tinari, P.D.

    1995-01-01

    Biofilters with granular activated carbon (GAC) filter backup units offer substantial savings compared to conventional GAC filters and catalytic/thermal oxidation (Catox) units in controlling emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum remediation projects. Provided that the biofilter supplier is willing to satisfy the client's and consultant's risk-management concerns, biofilters offer anew method for reducing the cost of remediation projects, with savings of up to $10,000 (24%) per facility in 24-month projects and up to $16,000 (32%) per facility in 36-month projects for simple gas station remediation projects. Savings will be greater for longer projects and projects with higher average contaminant loadings

  12. Bio-prospecting of distillery yeasts as bio-control and bio-remediation agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Juan F; Maldonado, María; Briones, Ana I; Francisco, J Fernández; González, Francisco J

    2014-05-01

    This work constitutes a preliminary study in which the capacity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from ancient distilleries as bio-control agents against moulds and in the treatment of waste waters contaminated by heavy metals-i.e. bio-remediation-is shown. In the first control assays, antagonist effect between non-Saccharomyces yeasts, their extracts and supernatants against some moulds, analysing the plausible (not exhaustive) involved factors were qualitatively verified. In addition, two enzymatic degrading properties of cell wall plant polymers, quitinolitic and pectinolitic, were screened. Finally, their use as agents of bio-remediation of three heavy metals (cadmium, chromium and lead) was analysed semi-quantitatively. The results showed that all isolates belonging to Pichia species effectively inhibited all moulds assayed. Moreover, P. kudriavzevii is a good candidate for both bio-control and bio-remediation because it inhibited moulds and accumulated the major proportion of the three tested metals.

  13. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...... improvements is a 10 to 21% decrease in environmental impacts and an 8 to 20% decrease in resource depletion depending on the thermal remediation technology considered. The energy consumption was found to be the main contributor to most types of environmental impacts; this will, however, depend...

  14. Applicability of Phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera to Remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, Koji; Tani, Shigeru; Sugawara, Reiko; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of phytoextraction with a Cd-hyperaccumulator plant (Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera) to remediate Cd-contaminated Andisols. Cd absorption potentials of this plant for Andisols were examined in pot experiments. Sequentially, phytoextraction durations for remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols were calculated from the experimental data. The results were as follows: (1) Cd concentrations in the plant shoots ranged from 170-750 mgṡkg-1. (2) Cd absorption of the plant for Andisols with ALC (Autoclaved Lightweight aerated Concrete) was less than for Andisols without ALC. However, the plants absorbed the same amount of soil Cd extracted by 0.01 M HCl with or without ALC. (3) Calculations suggest that the applicability of phytoextraction with this plant is high for slightly contaminated Andisols. Therefore, phytoextraction with Arabidopsis halleri ssp. gemmifera may be a viable option for the remediation of Cd-contaminated Andisols.

  15. Field-scale multi-phase LNAPL remediation: Validating a new computational framework against sequential field pilot trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookhak Lari, Kaveh; Johnston, Colin D; Rayner, John L; Davis, Greg B

    2018-03-05

    Remediation of subsurface systems, including groundwater, soil and soil gas, contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) is challenging. Field-scale pilot trials of multi-phase remediation were undertaken at a site to determine the effectiveness of recovery options. Sequential LNAPL skimming and vacuum-enhanced skimming, with and without water table drawdown were trialled over 78days; in total extracting over 5m 3 of LNAPL. For the first time, a multi-component simulation framework (including the multi-phase multi-component code TMVOC-MP and processing codes) was developed and applied to simulate the broad range of multi-phase remediation and recovery methods used in the field trials. This framework was validated against the sequential pilot trials by comparing predicted and measured LNAPL mass removal rates and compositional changes. The framework was tested on both a Cray supercomputer and a cluster. Simulations mimicked trends in LNAPL recovery rates (from 0.14 to 3mL/s) across all remediation techniques each operating over periods of 4-14days over the 78day trial. The code also approximated order of magnitude compositional changes of hazardous chemical concentrations in extracted gas during vacuum-enhanced recovery. The verified framework enables longer term prediction of the effectiveness of remediation approaches allowing better determination of remediation endpoints and long-term risks. Copyright © 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-B/C remedial action readiness evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Cislo, G.B.

    1996-06-01

    The Readiness Evaluation Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 100-B/C Remedial Action Project. The 100 Areas Remedial Action Project will remediate the 100 Areas liquid waste site identified in the Interim Action Record of Decision for the 100- BC-1, 100-DR-1, and 100-HR-1 Operable Units. These sites are located in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington

  17. Remedial action and waste disposal project -- 300-FF-1 remedial action readiness assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Carlson, R.A.; Greif, A.A.; Johnson, C.R.; Orewiler, R.I.; Perry, D.M.; Plastino, J.C.; Roeck, F.V.; Tuttle, B.G.

    1997-04-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan presents the methodology used to assess the readiness of the 300-FF-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation involves the excavation, treatment if applicable, and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the waste sites in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The scope of the 300-FF-1 remediation is to excavate, transport, and dispose of contaminated solid from sites identified in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit

  18. Radon remedial actions in schools of Friuli Venezia Giulia region (NE Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Cappelletto, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Pividore, S.; Villalta, R.

    2004-01-01

    In the last four years the Regional Agency of Environmental Protection (ARPA) of Friuli Venezia Giulia carried out a survey to determine the radon concentration in the schools of the area. During the survey all the 1320 schools and kindergartens of the region were investigated with more than 5000 measurements. In about 2% of cases, radon concentrations exceeded the reference levels of Italian law and remedial actions were performed. In collaboration with the Building Engineering Department of Udine University, ARPA FVG edited a manual concerning indications and proposals for building protection against radon. The environmental physics section of ARPA FVG, was heavily involved in the remedial action, both in the design of the action and in the investigation of effectiveness. In more than 20 schools the owners following ARPA indications solved the problem of high radon concentrations. In this paper the authors report the main type of applied remedial actions grouped taking into account the different remedial methodology. In Friuli Venezia Giulia region the main radon source is represented by soil. The contribution of building materials to high radon concentrations is negligible. The most common remedial actions consisted in natural or artificial depressurization of the soil or the crawlspace with respect to indoor building. Sometimes air was pumped into the building or air exchange number was increased. The authors show in detail the design of the performed investigations: these involved different measurement sets with passive electrets and active instruments for continuous data collection. Measurements usually last 3 contiguous weeks and are followed by long period measurements with solid track detectors. Optimization of remedial action performance was investigated when remedial action consisted in active air extraction from the soil under the buildings and fan time regulation was possible. Very often simple and cheap actions allowed a reduction of 90% in radon

  19. 46 CFR 298.41 - Remedies after default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedies after default. 298.41 Section 298.41 Shipping... Defaults and Remedies, Reporting Requirements, Applicability of Regulations § 298.41 Remedies after default... governing remedies after a default, which relate to our rights and duties, the rights and duties of the...

  20. School Finance Reform: Acceptable Remedies for Serrano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James W.

    1974-01-01

    Article examined the remedies available to states in the wake of Serrano and its progeny. As well, it analyzed the strengths and weaknesses of "district power equalizing" and "full state assumption" as alternative methods of financing schools. (Editor/RK)

  1. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  2. 48 CFR 2009.570-10 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... addition to other remedies permitted by law or contract for a breach of the restrictions in this subpart or... to be provided for this section, the NRC may debar the contractor from subsequent NRC contracts. ...

  3. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  4. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Mining Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet describes best management practices (BMPs) that can be used to reduce the environmental footprint of cleanup activities associated with common project components, cleanup phases, and implementation of remediation technologies.

  5. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of ... There is a recognized need for intermediary institutions, such as media, ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  6. Developing a disposal and remediation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messier, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental release of wastes generated by the upstream oil and gas industry in Alberta can result in polluted soil and groundwater at several facilities across the province. Responsibility for decommissioning upstream oil and gas facilities falls under the jurisdiction of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP). This paper outlines a protocol that can serve as a framework for the development of a plan to dispose of oilfield waste and to remediate related contaminated soils. The components involved in developing a disposal and remediation plan for oilfield wastes are: (1) identifying the potential source of pollution and oilfield waste generation, (2) characterizing oilfield wastes, (3) determining the nature and extent of soil and groundwater pollution, (4) preparing a remedial action plan, (5) assessing the viability of various remediation options, and (6) preparing health and safety plan. 12 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  8. REAL TIME DATA FOR REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES (11505)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, C.T.

    2011-01-01

    Health physicists from the CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company collaborated with Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation to modify the SAM 940 isotope identifier instrument to be used for nuclear waste remediation. These modifications coupled with existing capabilities of the SAM 940 have proven to be invaluable during remediation activities, reducing disposal costs by allowing swift remediation of targeted areas that have been identified as having isotopes of concern (IOC), and eliminating multiple visits to sites by declaring an excavation site clear of IOCs before demobilizing from the site. These advantages are enabled by accumulating spectral data for specific isotopes that is nearly 100 percent free of false positives, which are filtered out in 'real time.'

  9. Kerr Hollow Quarry Remediation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The Kerr Hollow Quarry is a 3-acre flooded limestone quarry located near the Y-12 Facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The quarry was used in the 1940s as a source of construction material for the Department of Energy in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Its use was discontinued in the early 1950s, and it was allowed to flood with water. The quarry presently has a maximum water depth of approximately 55 ft. During the period between the early 1950s until about 1988, the quarry was used for the treatment and disposal of a variety of materials including water-reactive, alkali metals, shock-sensitive chemicals, and compressed gas cylinders. For some of these materials, the treatment consisted of dropping the vessels containing the materials into the quarry from a high bluff located on one side of the quarry. The vessels were then punctured by gun shot, and the materials were allowed to react with the water and sink to the bottom of the quarry. Very few disposal records exist for the period from 1952 to 1962. The records after that time, from 1962 until 1988, indicate some 50 t of hazardous and nonhazardous materials were disposed of in the quarry. This report documents remediation efforts that have taken place at the quarry beginning in September 1990

  10. Compliance monitoring for remediated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    Throughout the world, many countries have experienced problems associated with pollution of the environment. Poorly managed practices in nuclear fuel cycle, medicine, industry, weapons production and testing, research and development activities, as well as accidents, and poor disposal practices have produced a large array of radioactively contaminated facilities and sites. Structures, biota, soils, rocks, and both surface and groundwaters have become contaminated with radionuclides and other associated contaminants, a condition that raises serious concern due to potential health effects to the exposed human populations and the environment. In response to the needs of its Member States in dealing with the problems of radioactive contamination in the environment, the IAEA has established an Environmental Restoration Project. The principal aspects of current IAEA efforts in this area include (1) gathering information and data, performing analyses, and publishing technical summaries, and other documents on key technical aspects of environmental restoration; (2) conducting a Co-ordinated Research Project on Environmental Restoration; and (3) providing direct technical assistance to Member States through technical co-operation programmes. The transfer of technologies to Member States in need of applicable methodologies and techniques for the remediation of contaminated sites is a principal objective of this project

  11. Parsley! Mechanism as antiurolithiasis remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yousofy, Fayed; Gumaih, Hussein; Ibrahim, Hassan; Alasbahy, Afrah

    2017-01-01

    Parsley is a medicinal plant used widely in urolithiasis. The present study aimed to evaluate the antiurolithiatic effect of parsley and its mechanism. 24 rats divided into four groups: group A (negative control), group B (positive control), group C (cystone ® group) and group D (parsley group). Group B were treated with EG and Ammonium chloride (AC). Group C were treated as B plus cystone ® and group D was treated as B plus parsley. The period of experiment was 15 days. Urine samples were analysis on days 0 and 15 days. Kidneys of rats from all groups were removed, and histopathologically examined. The kidnies of parsley treated group appeared mostly to be calculi-free (less CaOx) even better than the cystone treated group. CaOx crystals was significantly lower both in histological sections and in urine samples in parsley treated group. We further investigated the mechanism of parsley by adding another 6 rats. The latter treated by parsley only after adaptation period. We found significant increase in urine volume and pH in parsley treated rats compared to negative control. We concluded that parsley acts as antiurolithiatic drug through decreasing urinary calcium excretion, increasing urinary pH, dieresis, decreasing urinary protein excretion and its nephroprtective activity. We recommended to use it in pharmaceutical forms as it is safe and effective as antiurolithiasis remedy.

  12. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  13. Remediation of asbestos in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, Ross; Dangerfield, David

    2012-01-01

    The former Patea Freezing Works in the Tarankai region of New Zealand began as a canning plant and tallow factory in the late 1800s. Freezing technology was introduced in 1904 and was in continuous operation until 1982. Some of the structures were destroyed by fire in 2008, leaving metal, ash and asbestos. Fragments of Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) were blown over the local town and a large area of the site. A remedial strategy was developed by Aecom and they also provided validation services. . The preferred option was to remove the top layer of ACM impacted soil and place it in an engineered containment cell on site. However this process could not be used due to local cultural objections, and the 'dig and dump' option was adopted. The Western Australian Department of Health (DOH) Guidelines, May 2009, were used in collaboration with local district New Zealand Councils. Monitoring wells were installed, however the monitoring program is not yet underway as the revegetation program is not complete.

  14. Remediation of sites with dispersed radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    To respond to the needs of Member States, the IAEA launched an environmental remediation project to deal with the problems of radioactive contamination worldwide. The IAEA environmental remediation project includes an IAEA Coordinated Research Project, as well as the participation of IAEA experts in concrete remediation projects when requested by individual Member States. The IAEA has prepared several documents dedicated to particular technical or conceptual areas, including documents on the characterization of contaminated sites, technical and non-technical factors relevant to the selection of a preferred remediation strategy and technique, overview of applicable techniques for environmental remediation,, options for the cleanup of contaminated groundwater and planning and management issues. In addition, a number of other IAEA publications dealing with related aspects have been compiled under different IAEA projects; these include TECDOCs on the remediation of uranium mill tailings, the decontamination of buildings and roads and the characterization of decommissioned sites. Detailed procedures for the planning and implementation of remedial measures have been developed over the past decade or so. A critical element is the characterization of the contamination and of the various environmental compartments in which it is found, in order to be able to evaluate the applicability of remediation techniques. The chemical or mineralogical form of the contaminant will critically influence the efficiency of the remediation technique chosen. Careful delineation of the contamination will ensure that only those areas or volumes of material that are actually contaminated are treated. This, in turn, reduces the amount of any secondary waste generated. The application of a remediation technique requires holistic studies examining the technical feasibility of the proposed measures, including analyses of their impact. Consequently, input from various scientific and engineering

  15. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils (790-1300 mg Pb kg-1), one from a garden and one from a city lot in Cleveland, OH, were incubated in a bench scale experiment for 1 yr. Six phosphate amendments, including bone meal, fish bone, poultry litter, monoammonium phosphate, diammonium phosphate, and triple superphosphate, were added to containers at two application rates. Lead IVBA was assessed using USEPA Method 1340 and three modified versions of this method. Modifications included using solutions with pH 1.5 and 2.5 as well as using solutions with and without 0.4 mol L-1 glycine. Soil amendments were effective in reducing IVBA Pb in these soils as measured by pH 1.5 with glycine buffer. The greatest reductions in IVBA Pb, from 5 to 26%, were found using pH 2.5 extractions. Lead mineral results showed several soil amendments promoted Pb phosphate formation, an indicator of remediation success. A significant negative linear relationship between reduction in IVBA Pb and Pb-phosphate formation was found only for pH 2.5 without glycine extraction solution. A modified USEPA Method 1340 without glycine and using pH 2.5 has the potential to predict P soil treatment efficacy and reductions in bioavailable Pb. Developing mana

  16. Application of LC-ESI-MS-MS for detection of synthetic adulterants in herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Maciej J; Hassan, Huda; Al-Enazi, Eid; Ibrahim, Zuhour; Al-Tufail, Mohammed

    2006-05-03

    Adulteration of allegedly "natural herbal medicines" with undeclared synthetic drugs is a common and dangerous phenomenon of alternative medicine. The purpose of the study was to develop a procedure for detection of most common synthetic adulterants in herbal remedies, using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS-MS). Eighty drugs belonging to various pharmacological classes were included in the study. For most drugs two transitions were monitored, using protonated or deprotonated molecules as precursor ions. The drugs were isolated from herbal remedies using simple methanol extraction. Chromatographic separation was done in gradient of acetonitrile-10 mM ammonium formate buffer (pH 3.0). Drugs tested were grouped in suites, comprising analgesic drugs, antibiotics, antidiabetic drugs, antiepileptic drugs, aphrodisiacs, hormones and anabolic drugs, psychotropic drugs, and weight reducing compounds. These suites were used according to the declared benefits of examined preparations. Limits of detection ranged from 5 pg to 1 ng per injected sample. Drug-free herbal remedy spiked with eight various pharmaceuticals occurring in adulterated herbal preparations was used for internal proficiency testing. The recoveries of spiked drugs ranged from 63 to 100%. The procedure was applied in everyday casework. Several undeclared drugs were identified in "herbal" remedies, like e.g. sildenafil, tadalafil, testosterone, or glibenclamide. Pharmacological properties of detected drugs always corresponded with the claims of the "natural" remedies. The method presents a valuable extension of standard GC-MS screening used for this purpose.

  17. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, A.MacG.

    2001-01-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  19. New technologies in decommissioning and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    New and emerging technologies are making decommissioning and remediation more cost effective, faster and safer. From planning to execution and control, the use of new technologies is on the rise. Before starting decommissioning or environmental remediation, experts need to plan each step of the process, and to do that, they first need a clear idea of the characteristics of the structure and the level of radiation that they can expect to encounter

  20. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  1. Waste minimization applications at a remediation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allmon, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) owned by the Department of Energy was used for the processing of uranium. In 1989 Fernald suspended production of uranium metals and was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL). The site's mission has changed from one of production to environmental restoration. Many groups necessary for producing a product were deemed irrelevant for remediation work, including Waste Minimization. Waste Minimization does not readily appear to be applicable to remediation work. Environmental remediation is designed to correct adverse impacts to the environment from past operations and generates significant amounts of waste requiring management. The premise of pollution prevention is to avoid waste generation, thus remediation is in direct conflict with this premise. Although greater amounts of waste will be generated during environmental remediation, treatment capacities are not always available and disposal is becoming more difficult and costly. This creates the need for pollution prevention and waste minimization. Applying waste minimization principles at a remediation site is an enormous challenge. If the remediation site is also radiologically contaminated it is even a bigger challenge. Innovative techniques and ideas must be utilized to achieve reductions in the amount of waste that must be managed or dispositioned. At Fernald the waste minimization paradigm was shifted from focusing efforts on source reduction to focusing efforts on recycle/reuse by inverting the EPA waste management hierarchy. A fundamental difference at remediation sites is that source reduction has limited applicability to legacy wastes but can be applied successfully on secondary waste generation. The bulk of measurable waste reduction will be achieved by the recycle/reuse of primary wastes and by segregation and decontamination of secondary wastestreams. Each effort must be measured in terms of being economically and ecologically beneficial

  2. Passive remediation strategies for petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, L.G.; Cullen, S.J.; Eccles, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA is becoming increasingly aware of costs and the limited success of existing remediation strategies. Research teams within the US EPA believe that if passive remediation can be successfully demonstrated, it is a candidate for best available technology. Passive remediation, however, must be demonstrated through the use of monitoring techniques, which demonstrate: contaminants are not moving in the dissolved, adsorbed or free product phase; and contamination is biodegrading in-place. This paper presents a concise monitoring and analysis strategy for passive remediation. Specifically, the paper presents the accuracy, precision and operating range of neutron moderation techniques as a low cost, real-time screening tool to measure the migration of the dissolved phase in soil moisture, the stabilized adsorbed phase and free product movement. In addition, the paper identifies the capillary pressure range through which the dissolved phase will move and identifies techniques for satisfying the risk analysis that movement is not taking place. The rationale for passive remediation taking place is confirmed through a discussion of gas ratios associated with bacterial assimilation of hydrocarbons. Gas ratios which are relatively constant above ground are highly inverted in the subsurface at contamination sites. The use of frequent screening of a vertical geologic profile using least cost techniques and the infrequent analysis of soil gas ratios provides the required data upon which the public will accept passive remediation as best available technology at a particular site. The paper points out that neutron moderation is a high candidate vadose zone monitoring device and identifies alternative techniques using resistivity and dielectric constants, which are in the developmental stage. The economic implications for passive remediation are enormous relative to the excavation and remediation strategies which are currently in use

  3. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords

  5. Hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently evaluating hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation technologies in existence and under development to determine applicability to remediation needs of the DOE facilities under the Albuquerque Operations Office and to determine areas of research need. To assist LANL is this effort, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) conducted an assessment of technologies and monitoring methods that have been demonstrated or are under development. The focus of this assessment is to: (1) identify existing technologies for hazardous waste treatment and environmental remediation of old waste sites; (2) identify technologies under development and the status of the technology; (3) assess new technologies that need development to provide adequate hazardous waste treatment and remedial action technologies for DOD and DOE sites; and (4) identify hazardous waste and remediation problems for environmental research and development. There are currently numerous research and development activities underway nationwide relating to environmental contaminants and the remediation of waste sites. To perform this effort, SAIC evaluated current technologies and monitoring methods development programs in EPA, DOD, and DOE, as these are the primary agencies through which developmental methods are being demonstrated. This report presents this evaluation and provides recommendations as to pertinent research needs or activities to address waste site contamination problems. The review and assessment have been conducted at a programmatic level; site-specific and contaminant-specific evaluations are being performed by LANL staff as a separate, related activity

  6. Hanford sitewide grounwater remediation - supporting technical information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-05-01

    The Hanford Sitewide Groundwater Remediation Strategy was issued in 1995 to establish overall goals for groundwater remediation on the Hanford Site. This strategy is being refined to provide more detailed justification for remediation of specific plumes and to provide a decision process for long-range planning of remediation activities. Supporting this work is a comprehensive modeling study to predict movement of the major site plumes over the next 200 years to help plan the remediation efforts. The information resulting from these studies will be documented in a revision to the Strategy and the Hanford Site Groundwater Protection Management Plan. To support the modeling work and other studies being performed to refine the strategy, this supporting technical information report has been produced to compile all of the relevant technical information collected to date on the Hanford Site groundwater contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, and description of the contaminant plumes. The primary information in the report relates to conceptualization of the source terms and available history of groundwater transport, description of the contaminant plumes, rate of movement based on the conceptual model and monitoring data, risk assessment, treatability study information, and current approach for plume remediation

  7. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  8. Remediation of lead contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Krishnamurthy, S.

    1992-01-01

    Lead contaminated soil in urban area is of major concern because of the potential health risk to children. Many studies have established a direct correlation between lead in soil and elevated blood lead levels in children. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mielke et al. (1983) reported that 50% of the Hmong children with lead poisioning were in areas where soil lead levels were between 500 and 1000 micrograms per gram (ug/g), and 40% of the children suffering from lead poisioning lived in areas where soil lead levels exceeded 1000 ug/g. In urban areas, lead pollution in soil has come from many different sources. The sources include lead paint, lead batteries and automobile exhaust. Olson and Skogerbee (1975) found the following lead compounds in soils where the primary source of pollution was from automobiles: lead sulfate, lead oxide, lead dioxide, lead sulfide, and metallic lead. The primary form of lead found was lead sulfate. Lead sulfate, lead tetraoxide, white lead, and other forms of lead have been used in the manufacture of paints for houses. At present, two remediation techniques, solidification and Bureau of Mines fluosilicic acid leaching, are available for lead-contaminated sites. The objective of the present investigation at the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL), Edison, was to try to solubilize the lead species by appropriate reagents and then recover the contaminants by precipitation as lead sulfate, using environmentally acceptable methods. The apparatus used for mixing was a LabMaster mixer, with variable speed and high-shear impeller. Previous work had used nitric acid for dissolving metallic lead. Owing to the environmental concerns, it was decided to use acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. The theoretical justification for this approach is the favorable redox potential for the reaction between metallic lead, acetic acid, and gaseous oxygen

  9. DNAPL Surface Chemistry: Its Impact on DNAPL Distribution in the Vadose Zone and its Manipulation to Enhance Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suan Power; Stefan Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2003-06-16

    The remediation of DNAPLs in subsurface environments is often limited by the heterogeneous distribution of the organic fluid. The fraction of DNAPL that is in the high conductivity regions of the subsurface can often be recovered relatively easily, although DNAPL in lower conductivity regions is much more difficult to extract, either through direct pumping or remediation measures based on interface mass transfer. The distribution of DNAPL within the vadose zone is affected by a complex interplay of heterogeneities in the porous matrix and the interfacial properties defining the interactions among all fluid and solid phases. Decreasing the interfacial tension between a DNAPL and water in the vadose zone could change the spreading of the DNAPL, thereby increase the surface area for mass transfer and the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation.

  10. Electrokinetic extraction of chromate from unsaturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, E.D.; Lindgren, E.R.

    1993-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in industrial nations. Remediation by excavation of such sites may not be cost effective or politically acceptable. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible remediation technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Previous papers discussing the work performed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Sat-Unsat, Inc. (SUI) (Lindgren et al., 1991, 1992, 1993) focused on the transport of contaminants and dyes by electrokinetics in unsaturated soils. These experiments were conducted with graphite electrodes with no extraction system. As the contaminants migrated through the soil, they increased in concentration at the electrode creating a diffusion flux in the opposite direction. This paper discusses a technique to remove the contaminants from unsaturated soils once they have reached an electrode

  11. Electrokinetic extraction of chromate from unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, E.D. [SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, E.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in industrial nations. Remediation by excavation of such sites may not be cost effective or politically acceptable. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible remediation technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Previous papers discussing the work performed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Sat-Unsat, Inc. (SUI) (Lindgren et al., 1991, 1992, 1993) focused on the transport of contaminants and dyes by electrokinetics in unsaturated soils. These experiments were conducted with graphite electrodes with no extraction system. As the contaminants migrated through the soil, they increased in concentration at the electrode creating a diffusion flux in the opposite direction. This paper discusses a technique to remove the contaminants from unsaturated soils once they have reached an electrode.

  12. Effect of soil organic matter on antimony bioavailability after the remediation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Yasuo Mitsui; Martín Peinado, Francisco José

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the long-term (18 year) and short-term (4 weeks) changes of Sb in contaminated soil with SOM increase under remediation process. In the Aznalcóllar mine accident (1998) contaminated area, the remediation measurement implemented the Guadiamar Green Corridor, where residual pollution is still detected. Soils of the re-vegetated area (O2) with high pH and high SOM content, moderately re-vegetated area (O1) and unvegetated area (C) were sampled. Soil pH, CEC, SOM amount and soil Sb forms were evaluated. Soil Sb was measured as total, soluble, exchangeable, EDTA extractable, acid oxalate extractable, and pyro-phosphate extractable fractions. Further, the short-term effect of artificial organic matter addition was also evaluated with incubation study by adding compost to the sampled soil from C, O1 and O2 areas. After 4 weeks of incubation, soil chemical properties and Sb forms were evaluated. In re-vegetated area (O2), soil total Sb was two times lower than in unvegetated area (C); however, soluble, exchangeable, and EDTA extractable Sb were 2-8 times higher. The mobile/bioavailable Sb increase was also observed after 4 weeks of incubation with the addition of compost. Soluble, exchangeable, and EDTA extractable Sb was increased 2-4 times by compost addition. By the linear regression analysis, the significantly related factors for soluble, exchangeable, and EDTA extractable Sb values were pH, CEC, and SOM, respectively. Soluble Sb increase was mainly related to pH rise. Exchangeable Sb should be bound by SOM-metal complex and increased with CEC. EDTA extractable fraction should be increased with increase of SOM as SOM-Fe associated Sb complex. From these results, it was shown that increase of SOM under natural conditions or application of organic amendment under remediation process should increase availability of Sb to plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Flare pits wastes remediation by low temperature oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalan, L. J. L.; Jamaluddin, A. K. M.; Mehta, R.; Moore, R. G.; Okazawa, N.; Ursenbach, M.

    1997-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated soil in oilfield sites, flare pits in particular, is subject to strict environmental regulations. Most current remediation techniques such as biological or thermal treatment are not particularly effective in highly contaminated sites, or effective only at costs that are considered prohibitive. This contribution describes a cost-effective method for the treatment of contaminated soil in-situ. The proposed treatment involves low temperature oxidation which converts the hydrocarbons in the contaminated soil to inert coke. In laboratory studies contaminated soil was oxidized with air at temperatures between 150 degrees C and 170 degrees C for three weeks. After the three week treatment extractable hydrocarbon levels were reduced to less than 0.1 per cent. Bioassays also demonstrated that toxicity associated with hydrocarbons was eliminated. Salts and metals remaining in the soil after treatment were removed by leaching with water. Low temperature oxidation requires no special equipment; it can occur under conditions and with equipment that are readily available in an oilfield setting. 5 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs

  14. Remedial design of the Fultz Landfill Site, Byesville, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaram, V.; Riesing, R.; Bloom, T.

    1994-01-01

    The Fultz Landfill Superfund (Fultz) site is a 30-acre hazardous waste landfill located near Byesville, Ohio. The site is approximately 75 miles east of Columbus and 3 miles southwest of Cambridge, the largest city in Guernsey County, Ohio. The landfill is situated on the north slope of a ridge that overlies abandoned coal mines in the Upper Freeport Coal seam. The north half of the landfill lies in an unreclaimed strip mine in the Upper Freeport Coal seam, where saturated portions of surface mine spoils and natural soils form the ''shallow aquifer''. The south half of the landfill lies 40 to 50 feet (ft.) above an abandoned, flooded deep mine in the same coal seam. The flooded deep mine forms an aquifer referred to as the ''coal mine aquifer''. This paper presents the results of design studies completed by PRC Environmental Management, Inc. (PRC), during 1993, and the remedial design (RD) of the components specified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision (ROD) for the Fultz site (EPA 1991). The remedy specified in the ROD includes a multilayer landfill cap that is compliant with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C guidelines, a leachate collection and groundwater extraction and treatment system, and stabilizing mine voids underlying the southern portion of the site. Vinyl chloride is the only contaminant exceeding a maximum contaminant limit (MCL) in the coal mine aquifer

  15. The Aftermath of Remedial Math: Investigating the Low Rate of Certificate Completion among Remedial Math Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2013-01-01

    Nationally, a majority of community college students require remedial assistance with mathematics, but comparatively few students who begin the remedial math sequence ultimately complete it and achieve college-level math competency. The academic outcomes of students who begin the sequence but do not complete it are disproportionately unfavorable:…

  16. Remedial action and waste disposal project: 100-DR-1 remedial action readiness evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    April, J.G.; Bryant, D.L.; Calverley, C.

    1996-08-01

    This plan presents the method used to assess the readiness of the 100- DR-1 Remedial Action Project. Remediation of the 100-D sites (located on the Hanford Site) involves the excavation (treatment if applicable) and final disposal of contaminated soil and debris associated with the high-priority waste sites in the 100 Areas

  17. 200-UP-1 groundwater remedial design/remedial action work plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    This 200-UP-1 remedial design report presents the objective and rationale developed for the design and implementation of the selected interim remedial measure for the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit, located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site

  18. Provincial labour market study : mould remediation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and

  19. Technologies for remediating radioactively contaminated land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearl, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of technologies that can be used for the remediation of radioactively contaminated ground. There are a wide variety of techniques available -most have established track records for contaminated ground, though in general many are only just being adapted to use for radioactively contaminated ground. 1) Remediation techniques for radioactively contaminated ground involve either removal of the contamination and transfer to a controlled/contained facility such as the national LLW repository at Drigg, or 2) immobilization, solidification and stabilization of the contamination where the physical nature of the soil is changed, or an 'agent' is added to the soil, to reduce the migration of the contaminants, or 3) isolation and containment of the contaminated ground to reduce contaminant migration and control potential detrimental effects to human health. Where contamination has to be removed, ex situ and in situ techniques are available which minimize the waste requiring disposal to an LLW repository. These techniques include: 1) detector-based segregation 2) soil washing by particle separations 3) oil washing with chemical leaching agents 4) electro remediation 5) phyto remediation. Although many technologies are potentially applicable, their application to the remediation of a specific contaminated site is dependent on a number of factors and related to detailed site characterization studies, results from development trials and BPEO (best practicable environmental option) studies. Those factors considered of particular importance are: 1) the clean-up target 2) technical feasibility relative to the particular site, soil and contaminant characteristics, and time frame 3) site infrastructure arrangements and needs, the working life of the site and the duration of institutional care 4) long-term monitoring arrangements for slow remedial techniques or for immobilization and containment techniques 5) validation of the remediation 6) health and

  20. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  1. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed

  2. The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestan, Domen [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Luo Chunling [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Li Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: cexdli@polyu.edu.hk

    2008-05-15

    This paper reviews current remediation technologies that use chelating agents for the mobilization and removal of potentially toxic metals from contaminated soils. These processes can be done in situ as enhanced phytoextraction, chelant enhanced electrokinetic extraction and soil flushing, or ex situ as the extraction of soil slurry and soil heap/column leaching. Current proposals on how to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil is washed are discussed. The major controlling factors in phytoextraction and possible strategies for reducing the leaching of metals associated with the application of chelants are also reviewed. Finally, the possible impact of abiotic and biotic soil factors on the toxicity of metals left after the washing of soil and enhanced phytoextraction are briefly addressed. - The use of synthetic chelants for soil washing and enhanced phytoextraction by plants has been well studied for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils in the last two decades.

  3. The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestan, Domen; Luo Chunling; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews current remediation technologies that use chelating agents for the mobilization and removal of potentially toxic metals from contaminated soils. These processes can be done in situ as enhanced phytoextraction, chelant enhanced electrokinetic extraction and soil flushing, or ex situ as the extraction of soil slurry and soil heap/column leaching. Current proposals on how to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil is washed are discussed. The major controlling factors in phytoextraction and possible strategies for reducing the leaching of metals associated with the application of chelants are also reviewed. Finally, the possible impact of abiotic and biotic soil factors on the toxicity of metals left after the washing of soil and enhanced phytoextraction are briefly addressed. - The use of synthetic chelants for soil washing and enhanced phytoextraction by plants has been well studied for the remediation of metal-contaminated soils in the last two decades

  4. Kinetics as a tool to assess the immobilization of soil trace metals by binding phase amendments for in situ remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrault, Gilles; Bermond, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Assessment of the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment. → Use of a kinetic fractionation method to assess trace metal mobility in amended soils. → Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation. → IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. → Advantages of kinetic fractionation vs. extraction schemes performed at equilibrium. - Abstract: Many soil remediation techniques consist in decreasing the mobility of trace metals by means of adding trace metal binding phases. For this study, whose aim is to assess the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment, a kinetic fractionation method that provides the labile and slowly labile trace metal amounts in soil has been introduced. Manganese oxides (vernadite) and insolubilized humic acids (IHA) have been used as binding phases for the remediation of four heavily polluted soils. Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation, whereas IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. In most cases, the labile metal fractions decrease dramatically in amended soils (up to 50%); on the other hand, the amounts of total extracted metal near the point of thermodynamic equilibrium often show no significant difference between the amended soil and the control soil. These results highlight the utility of kinetic fractionation in assessing the efficiency of soil remediation techniques and, more generally, in evaluating trace metal mobility in soils and its potential advantages compared to extraction schemes performed under equilibrium conditions. In the future, this kinetic method could be considerably simplified so as to consume much less time allowing its routine use.

  5. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  6. A new humic acid remedy with addition of silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GP Alexandrova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Previously known biogenic stimulator humic acid (HA was the subject of this current study and HA based new remediation was developed by addition of silver (Ag nanoparticles in its macromolecule. Extracted HA from a healing mud was characterized and used as reducing agent for Ag ion as well as a stabilizer for the formed Ag nanoparticles. The properties of the obtained hybrid composite were examined by XRD, UV and FTIR spectroscopic techniques. The diameter of the nanoparticles in the HA polymer was up to 8.6 nm and they were identified to be metallic Ag.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v13i0.151 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.13 2012: 7-11

  7. Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development: Results of FY 1993 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumetta, G.J.; Wagner, M.J.; Barrington, R.J.; Rapko, B.M.; Carlson, C.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes experimental results from work conducted in FY 1993 under the Sludge Treatment and Extraction Technology Development Task of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Experiments were conducted in the following six general areas: (1) sludge washing, (2) sludge leaching, (3) sludge dissolution, (4) actinide separation by solvent extraction and extraction chromatography, (5) Sr separation by solvent extraction, and (6) extraction of Cs from acidic solution

  8. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Isoflavonoids from Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blicharski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe and compare selected traditional and modern extraction methods employed in the isolation of isoflavonoids from plants. Conventional methods such as maceration, percolation, or Soxhlet extraction are still frequently used in phytochemical analysis. Despite their flexibility, traditional extraction techniques have significant drawbacks, including the need for a significant investment of time, energy, and starting material, and a requirement for large amounts of potentially toxic solvents. Moreover, these techniques are difficult to automate, produce considerable amount of waste and pose a risk of degradation of thermolabile compounds. Modern extraction methods, such as: ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and negative pressure cavitation extraction, can be regarded as remedies for the aforementioned problems. This manuscript discusses the use of the most relevant extraction techniques in the process of isolation of isoflavonoids, secondary metabolites that have been found to have a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities.

  10. Remedial Action Programs annual meeting: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Within the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy, the Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial actions at DOE facilities and sites located throughout the United States. These programs include the Surplus Facilities Management Program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings remedial Action Program and the West Valley Demonstration Project. The programs involve the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated structures and equipment, the disposal of uranium mill tailings, and the cleanup or restoration of soils and ground water that have been contaminated with radioactive hazardous substances. Each year the DOE and DOE-contractor staff who conduct these programs meet to exchange information and experience in common technical areas. This year's meeting was hosted by the Surplus Facilities Management Program and was held near DOE Headquarters, in Gaithersburg, Maryland. This volume of proceedings provides the record for the meeting. The proceedings consist of abstracts for each presentation made at the meeting, and the visual aids (if any) used by the speakers. The material is organized in the following pages according to the five different sessions at the meeting: Session 1: Environmental Compliance--Policy; Session 2: Environmental Compliance--Practice; Session 3: Reports from working groups; Session 4: DandD Technology; and Session 5: Remedial Action Technology. The agenda for the meeting and the list of meeting registrants are provided in Appendix A and B, respectively. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base

  11. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  12. Lead contamination of paint remediation workers' vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraiko, Carol; Wright, Eva M; Ralston, Faye

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to lead has been shown to be harmful to adults; it is a teratogen, it can damage the peripheral nervous system, and it adversely affects the reproductive system. Professional lead-based paint remediation workers are at risk of exposure to lead dust. The authors' study was conducted to determine if these remediation workers transfer lead from their work site to their vehicles and then potentially expose their families. It was hypothesized that remediation workers transported the lead from the remediation work site to the floorboards of their vehicles due to not following required protective equipment use. The laboratory's level of quantitation for lead on the wipe samples, 10 microg/ft2, was used to indicate lead contamination. This level was exceeded in 50% of the floorboards sampled. These results confirm that many vehicle floorboards used by remediation workers are contaminated with lead dust, potentially resulting in transfer of lead dust. The ultimate detrimental outcome could be the transfer of lead particles to other family members, causing the poisoning of a child or other at-risk person.

  13. Thermal remediation alters soil properties - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Peter L; DeSutter, Thomas M; Casey, Francis X M; Khan, Eakalak; Wick, Abbey F

    2018-01-15

    Contaminated soils pose a risk to human and ecological health, and thermal remediation is an efficient and reliable way to reduce soil contaminant concentration in a range of situations. A primary benefit of thermal treatment is the speed at which remediation can occur, allowing the return of treated soils to a desired land use as quickly as possible. However, this treatment also alters many soil properties that affect the capacity of the soil to function. While extensive research addresses contaminant reduction, the range and magnitude of effects to soil properties have not been explored. Understanding the effects of thermal remediation on soil properties is vital to successful reclamation, as drastic effects may preclude certain post-treatment land uses. This review highlights thermal remediation studies that have quantified alterations to soil properties, and it supplements that information with laboratory heating studies to further elucidate the effects of thermal treatment of soil. Notably, both heating temperature and heating time affect i) soil organic matter; ii) soil texture and mineralogy; iii) soil pH; iv) plant available nutrients and heavy metals; v) soil biological communities; and iv) the ability of the soil to sustain vegetation. Broadly, increasing either temperature or time results in greater contaminant reduction efficiency, but it also causes more severe impacts to soil characteristics. Thus, project managers must balance the need for contaminant reduction with the deterioration of soil function for each specific remediation project. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Design criteria for the 200-ZP-1 interim remedial measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudge, J.F.; Olson, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    The Interim Remedial Measure Proposed Plan for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit recommended a pump and treat action to contain contaminated groundwater and limit further degradation of groundwater due to elevated concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, and trichloroethylene in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit. This design criteria document defines the Project. The Project encompasses: site preparation; development of groundwater wells for monitoring, extraction, and injection; extraction and injection equipment; construction of a treatment system with support buildings/utilities; management; engineering design, analysis, and reporting; and operation and maintenance. A groundwater pump and treat system, hereafter the System, will be composed of extraction wells, a piping network, treatment equipment, water storage, and injection wells. Based upon engineering judgment, the selected technology in the proposed plan (DOE-RL 1994a) is air stripping of the organic contaminants followed by vapor-phase adsorption onto granulated activated carbon (GAC); liquid-phase GAC may be required as a polishing step. The Treatment Equipment refers to air stripping towers, adsorption vessels, water pumps, air blowers, instrumentation, and control devices which will be procured as a turn-key system

  15. Remediation of the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E Scott; Metheny, Maura A

    2002-01-01

    Remediation of ground water and soil contamination at the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, uses technologies that reflect differences in hydrogeologic settings, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and costs of treatment. The poorly permeable glacial materials that overlie fractured bedrock at the W.R. Grace property necessitate use of closely spaced recovery wells. Contaminated ground water is treated with hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet (UV) oxidation. At UniFirst, a deep well completed in fractured bedrock removes contaminated ground water, which is treated by hydrogen peroxide, UV oxidation, and granular activated carbon (GAC). The remediation system at Wildwood integrates air sparging, soil-vapor extraction, and ground water pumping. Air stripping and GAC are used to treat contaminated water; GAC is used to treat contaminated air. New England Plastics (NEP) uses air sparging and soil-vapor extraction to remove VOCs from the unsaturated zone and shallow ground water. Contaminated air and water are treated using separate GAC systems. After nine years of operation at W.R. Grace and UniFirst, 30 and 786 kg, respectively, of VOCs have been removed. In three years of operation, 866 kg of VOCs have been removed at Wildwood. In 15 months of operation, 36 kg of VOCs were removed at NEP. Characterization work continues at the Olympia Nominee Trust, Whitney Barrel, Murphy Waste Oil, and Aberjona Auto Parts properties. Risk assessments are being finalized that address heavy metals in the floodplain sediments along the Aberjona River that are mobilized from the Industri-Plex Superfund Site located a few miles upstream.

  16. Passive remediation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds using barometric pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossabi, J.; Looney, B.B.; Dilek, C.A.E.; Riha, B.; Rohay, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Savannah River Integrated Demonstration Program, sponsored by the Department of Energy, is to demonstrate new subsurface characterization, monitoring, and remediation technologies. The interbedded clay and sand layers at the Integrated Demonstration Site (IDS) are contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). Characterization studies show that the bulk of the contamination is located in the approximately 40 m thick vadose zone. The most successful strategy for removing contaminants of this type from this environment is vapor extraction alone or in combination with other methods such as air sparging or enhanced bioremediation. Preliminary work at the IDS has indicated that natural pressure differences between surface and subsurface air caused by surface barometric fluctuations can produce enough gas flow to make barometric pumping a viable method for subsurface remediation. Air flow and pressure were measured in wells that are across three stratigraphic intervals in the vadose zone' The subsurface pressures were correlated to surface pressure fluctuations but were damped and lagging in phase corresponding to depth and stratum permeability. Piezometer wells screened at lower elevations exhibited a greater phase lag and damping than wells screened at higher elevations where the pressure wave from barometric fluctuations passes through a smaller number of low permeable layers. The phase lag between surface and subsurface pressures results in significant fluxes through these wells. The resultant air flows through the subsurface impacts CVOC fate and transport. With the appropriate controls (e.g. solenoid valves) a naturally driven vapor extraction system can be implemented requiring negligible operating costs yet capable of a large CVOC removal rate (as much as 1--2 kg/day in each well at the IDS)

  17. Development of a sitewide groundwater remediation strategy at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, D.

    1996-01-01

    Over 440 km 2 (170 mi 2 ) of groundwater beneath the Hanford Site are contaminated by hazardous and radioactive waste, out of which almost half is over state and federal drinking water standards. In addition to the complicated nature of these plumes, remediation is further obscured by limited application of available technologies and hydrogeologic information. This paper briefly describes the processes used by the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) in developing a sitewide groundwater remediation strategy for Hanford and its outcome. As an initial approach to sitewide groundwater remediation, the strategy is to remediate the major plumes found in the reactor areas (100 Area) adjacent to the Columbia River and contain the major plumes found in the Central Plateau region (200 Area). This approach was based mainly on the qualitative risk, stakeholder's and tribe's values, and available technical feasibility. The strategy emphasizes the use of existing treatment and extraction technology for the remediation of groundwater in combination with proposed and existing site infrastructure. This work is being performed in parallel with ongoing risk and other feasibility activities. Under this strategy, innovative technologies being developed are in the areas of dense nonaqueous phase liquid identification and recovery, and problems associated with strontium-90, cesium-137, and plutonium in the vadose zone and groundwater. The final remediation strategy alternatives remain a product of risk assessment, technical feasibility, site use scenario, and cost consideration. In order to develop a strategy for the final cleanup, several issues such as aquifer restoration, natural attenuation, potential contamination of groundwater from the tank farms and from the existing contamination source in the vadose zone must be looked in detail in conjuction with public and stakeholder's values

  18. Technology development activities supporting tank waste remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, W.F.; Beeman, G.H.

    1994-06-01

    This document summarizes work being conducted under the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (EM-50) in support of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The specific work activities are organized by the following categories: safety, characterization, retrieval, barriers, pretreatment, low-level waste, and high-level waste. In most cases, the activities presented here were identified as supporting tank remediation by EM-50 integrated program or integrated demonstration lead staff and the selections were further refined by contractor staff. Data sheets were prepared from DOE-HQ guidance to the field issued in September 1993. Activities were included if a significant portion of the work described provides technology potentially needed by TWRS; consequently, not all parts of each description necessarily support tank remediation

  19. Responses of wild small mammals to arsenic pollution at a partially remediated mining site in Southern France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouhot, Séverine; Raoul, Francis; Crini, Nadia; Tougard, Christelle; Prudent, Anne-Sophie; Druart, Coline; Rieffel, Dominique; Lambert, Jean-Claude; Tête, Nicolas; Giraudoux, Patrick; Scheifler, Renaud

    2014-02-01

    Partial remediation actions at a former gold mine in Southern France led to a mosaic of contaminated and rehabilitated zones. In this study, the distribution of arsenic and its potential adverse effects on small mammals were investigated. The effectiveness of remediation for reducing the transfer of this element into wildlife was also discussed. Arsenic levels were measured in the soil and in the stomach contents, livers, kidneys, and lungs of four small mammal species (the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus), the Algerian mouse (Mus spretus), the common vole (Microtus arvalis), and the greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula)). The animals were caught at the former extraction site, in zones with three different levels of remediation treatments, and at a control site. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were highly spatially heterogeneous (ranging from 29 to 18,900 μg g(-1)). Despite the decrease in arsenic concentrations in the remediated soils, both wood mice and Algerian mice experienced higher oral exposure to arsenic in remediated zones than in the control area. The accumulated arsenic in their organs showed higher intra-zonal variability than the arsenic distribution in the soil, suggesting that, in addition to remediation processes, other variables can help explain arsenic transfer to wildlife, such as the habitat and diet preferences of the animals or their mobility. A weak but significant correlation between arsenic concentration and body condition was observed, and weak relationships between the liver/kidney/lung mass and arsenic levels were also detected, suggesting possible histological alterations. © 2013.

  20. An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, L.; Hers, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent to a marine environment was discussed. The presentation provided an introduction and illustration to the site location and history, located close to Skagway, Alaska and northwestern British Columbia. The site investigation and conceptual model were also presented. The remedial approach was also described with reference to a risk-based action approach, remedial objectives, soil vapour extraction (SVE)-bioventing, and air sparging-biosparging. The objectives were to minimize potential exposure to aquatic receptors by minimizing non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) mobility and dissolved transport of petroleum hydrocarbons. Groundwater modeling to assess the attenuation rate and to determine remedial targets was also discussed. Model validation and results of groundwater modeling as well as remediation system details and performance were then provided. It was determined that significant attenuation is occurring and that effective mass removal and concentrations have been decreasing over time. It was demonstrated that risk-based remedial goals and hydrogeology can change with land use/development. tabs., figs.

  1. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  2. Remedial action planning for Trench 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primrose, A.; Sproles, W.; Burmeister, M.; Wagner, R.; Law, J.; Greengard, T.; Castaneda, N.

    1998-01-01

    The accelerated action to remove the depleted uranium chips and associated soils and wastes from Trench 1 at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) will begin in June 1998. To ensure that the remedial action is conducted safely, a rigorous and disciplined planning process was followed that incorporates the principles of Integrated Safety Management and Enhanced Work Planning. Critical to the success of the planning was early involvement of project staff (salaried and hourly) and associated technical support groups and disciplines. Feedback was and will continue to be solicited, and lessons learned incorporated to ensure the safe remediation of this site

  3. Pulse current enhanced electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect at diffe......Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect...

  4. Volatilization of multicomponent mixtures in soil vapor extraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In soil vapor extraction (SVE) applications involving multicomponent mixtures, prediction of mass removal by volatilization as a function remediation extent is required to estimate remediation time and to size offgas treatment equipment. SVE is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination adsorbed to vadose zone soils. SVE is often applied at sites contaminated with petroleum products, which are usually mixtures of many different compounds with vapor pressures spanning several orders of magnitude. The most volatile components are removed first, so the vapor pressure of the remaining contaminant continually decreases over the course of the remediation. A method for assessing how vapor pressure, and hence the rate of volatilization, of a multicomponent mixture changes over the course of a vapor extraction remedy has been developed. Each component is listed, alone, with its mass fraction in the mixture, in decreasing order of pure component vapor pressure (where component analyses are unavailable, model compounds can be used), For most petroleum distillates, the vapor pressure for each component plotted against the cumulative mass fraction of the component in the mixture on semilog coordinates will produce a straight line with a high correlation coefficient. This regression can be integrated to produce an expression for vapor pressure of the overall mixture as a function of extent or remediation

  5. A statistical approach to evaluate hydrocarbon remediation in the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajali, P.; Marshall, T.; Overman, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of performance and cleanup effectiveness of a vapor extraction system (VES) in extracting chlorinated hydrocarbons and petroleum-based hydrocarbons (mineral spirits) from the unsaturated zone. The statistical analysis of soil concentration data to evaluate the VES remediation success is described. The site is a former electronics refurbishing facility in southern California; soil contamination from organic solvents was found mainly in five areas (Area A through E) beneath two buildings. The evaluation begins with a brief description of the site background, discusses the statistical approach, and presents conclusions

  6. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  7. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives  To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida . Methods  By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida ( Candida albicans ; Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results  There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non- Candida albicans ( Candida krusei ; Candida glabrata ; and Candida tropicalis ). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant ( p  Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin. Thieme-Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  8. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahoe, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This strategy paper identifies and defines the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) for source waste sites in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. This paper provides the basis for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to assess and approve the Environmental Restoration Contractor's (ERC) approach to RD/RA. Additionally, DOE is requesting review/agreement from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) on the strategy presented in this document in order to expedite remedial activities

  9. Remediation Using Plants and Plant Enzymes: A Progress Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... In every case, the sources are plants growing near the sediment. The use of plants for remediation of hazardous materials such as TNT or other munitions like RDX and HMX has led to a new approach to remediation-- phytoremediation...

  10. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water. ... the remediation of an oily sludge, which was part of the waste stream from the improvement ... m3 of fresh water respectively while 'treatment' reactors C and D received ...

  11. SADA: Ecological Risk Based Decision Support System for Selective Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatial Analysis and Decision Assistance (SADA) is freeware that implements terrestrial ecological risk assessment and yields a selective remediation design using its integral geographical information system, based on ecological and risk assessment inputs. Selective remediation ...

  12. Remediation General Permit (RGP) for Massachusetts & New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents, links & contacts for the Notice of Availability of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Remediation Activity Discharges – the Remediation General Permit in MA (MAG910000) and NH (NHG910000).

  13. Electrochemical Remediation of Dredged Material for Beneficial Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Gardner, Kevin H.

    2003-01-01

    Two different methods, electrodialytic and electroosmotic remediation, were used to demonstrate the potential of electrochemical methods for remediation of contaminated harbor sediments. In two three-week-long laboratory experiments using electrodialysis and electroosmosis, respectively...

  14. Functional remediation components: A conceptual method of evaluating the effects of remediation on risks to ecological receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, tribal leaders, and the public are faced with understanding and evaluating the effects of cleanup activities on species, populations, and ecosystems. While engineers and managers understand the processes involved in different remediation types such as capping, pump and treat, and natural attenuation, there is often a disconnect between (1) how ecologists view the influence of different types of remediation, (2) how the public perceives them, and (3) how engineers understand them. The overall goal of the present investigation was to define the components of remediation types (= functional remediation). Objectives were to (1) define and describe functional components of remediation, regardless of the remediation type, (2) provide examples of each functional remediation component, and (3) explore potential effects of functional remediation components in the post-cleanup phase that may involve continued monitoring and assessment. Functional remediation components include types, numbers, and intensity of people, trucks, heavy equipment, pipes, and drill holes, among others. Several components may be involved in each remediation type, and each results in ecological effects, ranging from trampling of plants, to spreading invasive species, to disturbing rare species, and to creating fragmented habitats. In some cases remediation may exert a greater effect on ecological receptors than leaving the limited contamination in place. A goal of this conceptualization is to break down functional components of remediation such that managers, regulators, and the public might assess the effects of timing, extent, and duration of different remediation options on ecological systems.

  15. The application of in situ air sparging as an innovative soils and ground water remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Hazebrouck, D.J.; Walsh, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    Vapor extraction (soil venting) has been demonstrated to be a successful and cost-effective remediation technology for removing VOCs from the vadose (unsaturated) zone. However, in many cases, seasonal water table fluctuations, drawdown associated with pump-and-treat remediation techniques, and spills involving dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLS) create contaminated soil below the water table. Vapor extraction alone is not considered to be an optimal remediation technology to address this type of contamination. An innovative approach to saturated zone remediation is the use of sparging (injection) wells to inject a hydrocarbon-free gaseous medium (typically air) into the saturated zone below the areas of contamination. The contaminants dissolved in the ground water and sorbed onto soil particles partition into the advective air phase, effectively simulating an in situ air-stripping system. The stripped contaminants are transported in the gas phase to the vadose zone, within the radius of influence of a vapor extraction and vapor treatment system. In situ air sparging is a complex multifluid phase process, which has been applied successfully in Europe since the mid-1980s. To date, site-specific pilot tests have been used to design air-sparging systems. Research is currently underway to develop better engineering design methodologies for the process. Major design parameters to be considered include contaminant type, gas injection pressures and flow rates, site geology, bubble size, injection interval (areal and vertical) and the equipment specifications. Correct design and operation of this technology has been demonstrated to achieve ground water cleanup of VOC contamination to low part-per-billion levels

  16. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  18. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Cu-Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action......Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action...

  19. Phytoavailability and geospeciation of cadmium in contaminated soil remediated by Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhong; Jia, Yingying; Li, Xiaomin; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Lin

    2012-07-01

    A microorganism was isolated from oil field injection water and identified as Rhodobacter sphaeroides. It was used for the remediation of simulated cadmium-contaminated soil. The phytoavailability of Cd was investigated through wheat seedling method to determine the efficiency of remediation. It was found that after remediation, the accumulation of Cd in wheat roots and leaves decreased by 67% and 53%, respectively. The Cd speciation in soil was determined with Tessier extraction procedure. It was found that the total Cd content in soil did not change during the experiments, but the geo-speciation of Cd changed remarkably. Among the five fractions, the concentration of exchangeable phases decreased by 27-46% and that of the phases bound to Fe-Mn oxides increased by 22-44%. The decrease of Cd accumulation in wheat showed significant positive correlation with the decrease of exchangeable phases. It could be concluded that the remediation of R. sphaeroides was carried out through the conversion of Cd to more stable forms. The decrease of sulfate concentration in supernatant indicated that the R. sphaeroides consumed sulfate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Uranium mill tailings remediation in the USA. A history and lessons learned - 59407

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rima, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Since the 1940's uranium ores have been processed at various locations in the United States to extract and produce uranium and other concentrated materials, first for government (weapons) research and production, and then for nuclear power production. The tailings residue from the uranium milling process contained radioactive (primarily Ra-226) and hazardous chemicals. Large volumes of tailings were produced during the milling process. In the early history of this process the tailings were not recognized as hazardous and were released to the general public for a wide variety of uses, resulting in significant spread of contamination in the vicinity of many operating mills. In the late 1960's and early 1970's laws were enacted at the state and federal level to begin to deal with the legacy of this contamination. Over the course of the next several decades various regulatory agencies were responsible for remediating these sites. Different approaches were used, different end points and definitions of clean were used, and very large sums of public funding were spent on remediating these sites. Rarely was the cost commensurate with the risk reduction obtained through remediation. This paper will present an overview of the history of the uranium mill tailings regulatory and remediation program in the United States, the cost of the program compared to risk reduction, successes and failures, and important lessons learned that should be applied to future efforts in this area. (author)

  1. Groundwater flow in the Venice lagoon and remediation of the Porto Marghera industrial area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Terrenghi, Jacopo

    2017-05-01

    This study aims to determine the groundwater flow in a large area of the Venice (northeast Italy) lagoon that is under great anthropogenic pressure, which is influencing the regional flow in the surficial aquifer (about 30 m depth). The area presents several elements that condition the groundwater flow: extraction by means of drainage pumps and wells; tidal fluctuation; impermeable barriers that define part of the coastline, rivers and artificial channels; precipitation; recharge, etc. All the elements were studied separately, and then they were brought together in a numerical groundwater flow model to estimate the impact of each one. Identification of the impact of each element will help to optimise the characteristics of the Porto Marghera remediation systems. Longstanding industrial activity has had a strong impact on the soil and groundwater quality, and expensive and complex emergency remediation measures in problematic locations have been undertaken to ensure the continuity of industrial and maritime activities. The land reclamation and remediation works withdraw 56-74% of the water budget, while recharge from the river accounts for about 21-48% of the input. Only 21-42% of groundwater in the modelled area is derived from natural recharge sources, untouched by human activity. The drop of the piezometric level due to the realization of the upgradient impermeable barrier can be counteracted with the reduction of the pumping rate of the remediation systems.

  2. Bioventing feasibility test to aid remediation strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pearce, K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented where the feasibility of bioventing was assessed for the remediation of a petroleum-contaminated site. This was achieved through the determination of the radius of influence of a single vent well, the soil gas permeability...

  3. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  4. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-01

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization

  5. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces

  6. Microbial Remediation of Metals in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, K. A.; Roane, T. M.

    Of metal-contaminated systems, metal-contaminated soils present the greatest challenge to remediation efforts because of the structural, physical, chemical, and biological heterogeneities encountered in soils. One of the confounding issues surrounding metal remediation is that metals can be readily re-mobilized, requiring constant monitoring of metal toxicity in sites where metals are not removed. Excessive metal content in soils can impact air, surface water, and groundwater quality. However, our understanding of how metals affect organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals, and our ability to negate the toxicity of metals are in their infancies. The ubiquity of metal contamination in developing and industrialized areas of the world make remediation of soils via removal, containment, and/or detoxification of metals a primary concern. Recent examples of the health and environmental consequences of metal contamination include arsenic in drinking water (Wang and Wai 2004), mercury levels in fish (Jewett and Duffy 2007), and metal uptake by agricultural crops (Howe et al. 2005). The goal of this chapter is to summarize the traditional approaches and recent developments using microorganisms and microbial products to address metal toxicity and remediation.

  7. On the importance of default breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment

  8. 48 CFR 903.970 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Whistleblower Protections for Contractor Employees 903.970 Remedies. (a) Contractors found to have retaliated against an employee in reprisal for such disclosure.... However, a contractor's disagreement and refusal to comply with a final decision could result in a...

  9. Screening of fungi for soil remediation potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard T. Lamar; Laura M. Main; Diane M. Dietrich; John A. Glaser

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if physiological and/or biochemical factors such as growth rate, tolerance to and ability to degrade PCP or creosote have use for predicting the potential bioremediation performance of fungi. Because we have focused the initial development of a fungal-based soil remediation technology on PCP- and/or creosote-...

  10. Remediation of Contaminated Soils by Solvent Flushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Jessup, Ron E.; Rao, P. Suresh C.; Wood, A. Lynn

    1994-01-01

    Solvent flushing is a potential technique for remediating a waste disposal/spill site contaminated with organic chemicals. This technique involves the injection of a solvent mixture (e.g., water plus alcohols) that enhances contaminant solubility, reduces the retardation factor, and increases the

  11. Remediation of soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-14

    Feb 14, 2011 ... The aim of this study was to determine ways of remediating soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with crude oil. The study involves the use of planted cowpeas, mushrooms, algae, dead vegetable and live earthworm, and fire-heating of the contaminated garden soil ...

  12. Remedial Action Program annual conference: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Within the DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration ampersand Waste Management, the Office of Environmental Restoration manages a number of programs whose purposes are to complete remedial actions at DOE facilities and sites located throughout the United States. The programs include the Surplus Facilities Management Program, the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, and the West Valley Demonstration Project. These programs involve the decontamination and decommissioning of radioactively-contaminated structures and equipment, the disposal of uranium mill tailings, and the cleanup or restoration of soils and ground water that have been contaminated with radioactive or hazardous substances. Each year the DOE and DOE-contractor staff who conduct these programs meet to exchange information and experience in common technical areas. This year's meeting was hosted by the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, DOE-AL, and was held in Albuquerque, NM. This volume of proceedings is the record of that conference. The proceedings consist of abstracts, summaries, or actual text for each presentation made and any visual aids used by the speakers

  13. Gradient remediability in linear distributed parabolic systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is the introduction of a new concept that concerned the analysis of a large class of distributed parabolic systems. It is the general concept of gradient remediability. More precisely, we study with respect to the gradient observation, the existence of an input operator (gradient efficient actuators) ensuring ...

  14. Pyramid mountain diesel fuel storage site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brolmsa, M.; Sandau, C. [Jacques Whitford Environment Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Remediation activities during the decommissioning of a microwave tower facility where a tram line was used to transfer diesel fuel from the base of a mountain to its summit were described. As the site was leased from Parks Canada, federal guidelines were used to assess levels of contamination. Underground storage tanks (USTs) used for diesel storage had been replaced with aboveground storage tanks (AST) in 1994. Remediation was also complicated by the remote location and altitude of the site, as well as by extreme weather conditions. Hand auguring and test pitting were used at both the summit and base to allow characterization and preliminary delineation of impacted soils. A heavy lift helicopter was used to place demolition and excavation equipment on the summit. An excavator was used to remove hydrocarbon impacted soils. Following the remedial excavation for the summit diesel AST, residual soil impacts in excess of the applicable remediation guidelines were present at the bottom of the tank nest and under a floor slab. An environmental liner was installed, and a quantitative screening level risk assessment demonstrated the low level of risk for the area, as well as for waste oil impacted soils on the slope below the summit. Contaminants of potential concern were barium, zinc, naphthalene, and petroleum hydrocarbon fractions F1-F4. It was concluded that there are now no unacceptable ecological or human risks from residual impacts at the site. 1 tab., 19 figs.

  15. 49 CFR 604.47 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... from receiving future Federal financial assistance from FTA; (2) Order the withholding of a reasonable percentage of available Federal financial assistance; or (3) Pursue suspension and debarment of the recipient... violations will be given greater consideration than action simply to remedy violations identified during FTA...

  16. Gamma Ray Imaging for Environmental Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B.F. Philips; R.A. Kroeger: J.D. Kurfess: W.N. Johnson; E.A. Wulf; E. I. Novikova

    2004-11-12

    This program is the development of germanium strip detectors for environmental remediation. It is a collaboration between the Naval Research Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. The goal is to develop detectors that are simultaneously capable of excellent spectroscopy and imaging of gamma radiation.

  17. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Recall Regulations § 92.705 Remedial plan. (a) When any... adequate supply of parts will be available to initiate the repair campaign, the percentage of the total... intact. (3) The label shall contain: (i) The recall campaign number; and (ii) A code designating the...

  18. Preliminary Investigations Of Effectiveness Of Herbal Remedies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed some of the widely publicised herbal remedies in use for HIV infection in Nigeria, and investigated their efficacy scientifically. Those found to be efficacious will be subjected to further analysis to identify their active chemical components. The research deals directly with patients living with HIV/AIDS that ...

  19. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  20. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  1. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms...

  2. 2-D model for electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Maroto, J.M.; Garcia Delgado, R.A.; Gomez Lahoz, C.; Garcia Herruzo, F. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain); Vereda Alonso, C. [Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica, Univ. de Malaga (Spain)]|[Inst. for Geologi and Geoteknik, Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    A simple two-dimensional numerical model is presented in this work. In this case, the model is used to examine the enhanced method of the electrokinetic remediation technique in a 2-D arrangement. Nevertheless the model with minor changes can also be used to study the effect of the electrode configuration in the performance of this technique. (orig.)

  3. Remediation of contaminated soil by cement treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimovic, S.

    2004-01-01

    This manuscript presents the most applicable remedial technologies for contaminated soil with focus on cement stabilisation/solidification treatment. These technologies are examined in the light of soil contamination with depleted uranium in the large area of south Serbia,after Nato bombing 1999. (author) [sr

  4. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...

  5. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...

  6. Remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted systems: Exploiting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... others often result in pollution of the environment, thus creating serious imbalance in the biotic and abiotic regimes of the ecosystem. Several remediation alternatives have been in use for the restoration of ... In this paper, we present an overview of bioremediation alternative vis-à-vis other ...

  7. Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State has the most diverse and largest amount of highly radioactive waste of any site in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored in large underground tanks since 1944. A Tank Waste Remediation System Program has been established within the DOE to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal in a geologic repository. The Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Waste Management 1993 Symposium Papers and Viewgraphs covered the following topics: Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Overview; Tank Waste Retrieval Issues and Options for their Resolution; Tank Waste Pretreatment - Issues, Alternatives and Strategies for Resolution; Low-Level Waste Disposal - Grout Issue and Alternative Waste Form Technology; A Strategy for Resolving High-Priority Hanford Site Radioactive Waste Storage Tank Safety Issues; Tank Waste Chemistry - A New Understanding of Waste Aging; Recent Results from Characterization of Ferrocyanide Wastes at the Hanford Site; Resolving the Safety Issue for Radioactive Waste Tanks with High Organic Content; Technology to Support Hanford Site Tank Waste Remediation System Objectives

  8. The running athlete: Roentgenograms and remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, H.; Torg, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have put together an atlas of radiographs of almost every conceivable running injury to the foot, ankle, leg, knee, femur, groin, and spine. Text material is limited to legends which describe the figures, and the remedies listed are brief. The text indicates conservative versus surgical treatment and, in some instances, recommends a surgical procedure

  9. Modelling remediation options for urban contamination situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Charnock, T.W.

    2009-01-01

    and remedial options enables the evaluation of a variety of situations or alternative recovery strategies in contexts of preparedness or decision-making. At present a number of models and modelling approaches are available for different purposes. This paper summarizes the available modelling approaches...

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4...

  11. Decision process for Hanford sitewide groundwater remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaramonte, G.R.

    1996-06-01

    This document describes a decision process for planning future investigations and remediating contaminated groundwater at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. This decision process details the following: identifies key decisions and activities; defines the criteria used in making each decision; and defines the logic that links the decisions and the activities in a stepwise manner

  12. TRADITIONAL REMEDIES IN CHILDREN AROUND EASTERN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-08-08

    Aug 8, 2003 ... remain largely unproven by the scientific method and the concern about adverse effects have led to closer scrutiny of these products (4). Whereas most traditional remedies are safe, the potential for adverse effects or intoxication exists, as does the possibility of interaction with conventional drugs (2, 5-8).

  13. Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Empowering Primary School Pupils through Literacy Remediation Project in Uyo ... and retraining in the hope that this will impact on the pupils' literacy development. ... process and often fail to engage the pupils in activities that promote literacy ... In other to empower such children for meaningful learning, reading needs to ...

  14. Remediation of feedlot effluents using aquatic plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Pedro Federico; Arreghini, Silvana; Serafini, Roberto José María; Bres, Patricia Alina; Crespo, Diana Elvira; Fabrizio de Iorio, Alicia Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Feedlots have increased in several regions of Argentina, particularly in the Pampas. The absence of adequate treatments of the effluents produced in these establishments creates serious problems to the society. Phytoremediation can be defined as inexpensive and environmentally sustainable strategy used to remove pollutants by plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the remediation potential of two ...

  15. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  16. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  17. Mine tailings dams: Characteristics, failure, environmental impacts, and remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossoff, D.; Dubbin, W.E.; Alfredsson, M.; Edwards, S.J.; Macklin, M.G.; Hudson-Edwards, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    On a global scale demand for the products of the extractive industries is ever increasing. Extraction of the targeted resource results in the concurrent production of a significant volume of waste material, including tailings, which are mixtures of crushed rock and processing fluids from mills, washeries or concentrators that remain after the extraction of economic metals, minerals, mineral fuels or coal. The volume of tailings is normally far in excess of the liberated resource, and the tailings often contain potentially hazardous contaminants. A priority for a reasonable and responsible mining organization must be to proactively isolate the tailings so as to forestall them from entering groundwaters, rivers, lakes and the wind. There is ample evidence that, should such tailings enter these environments they may contaminate food chains and drinking water. Furthermore, the tailings undergo physical and chemical change after they have been deposited. The chemical changes are most often a function of exposure to atmospheric oxidation and tends to make previously, perhaps safely held contaminants mobile and available. If the tailings are stored under water, contact with the atmosphere is substantially reduced, thereby forestalling oxygen-mediated chemical change. It is therefore accepted practice for tailings to be stored in isolated impoundments under water and behind dams. However, these dams frequently fail, releasing enormous quantities of tailings into river catchments. These accidents pose a serious threat to animal and human health and are of concern for extractive industries and the wider community. It is therefore of importance to understand the nature of the material held within these dams, what best safety practice is for these structures and, should the worst happen, what adverse effects such accidents might have on the wider environment and how these might be mitigated. This paper reviews these factors, covering the characteristics, types and magnitudes

  18. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  19. IAEA Remediation Mission Issues Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international experts today completed their assessment of the strategy and plans being considered by the Japanese authorities to remediate the areas off-site TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Their Final Report, delivered to the Japanese authorities, is available here. ''A lot of good work, done at all levels, is on-going in Japan in the area of environmental remediation,'' said Juan Carlos Lentijo, Team Leader and General Director for Radiation Protection at Spain's nuclear regulatory authority. In the report, Japan is encouraged to continue its remediation efforts, taking into account the advice provided by the Mission. ''In the early phases of the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a very cautious approach was adopted by the Japanese authorities in terms of dealing with the handling of residue materials. It is considered right to do so,'' Lentijo said. ''However, at this point in time, we see that there is room to take a more balanced approach, focussing on the real priority areas, classifying residue materials and adopting appropriate remediation measures on the basis of the results of safety assessments for each specific situation.'' The IAEA stands ready to support Japan as it continues its efforts to remediate the environment in the area off-site the Fukushima Daiichi NPP. The IAEA sent the mission to Japan from 7 to 15 October 2011 following a request from the country's government. The mission, comprising 12 international and IAEA experts from several countries, visited numerous locations in the Fukushima Prefecture and conducted meetings in Tokyo and Fukushima with Japanese officials from several ministries and institutions. A Preliminary Summary Report was issued on 14 October. Background The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP has led to elevated levels of radiation over large areas. The Government of Japan has been formulating a strategy and plans to implement countermeasures to remediate these areas. The IAEA

  20. Remediation trials of crude oil contaminated soil using different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 3 month remediation trial of the use of detergent and sawdust in different combination forms in the restoration of a crude oil contaminated tropical soil was investigated. 8 remediation treatments labeled A – H in addition to the control (I) were used in 10 kg soil artificially polluted with 300 ml crude oil each. Remediation ...

  1. Calculating the Costs of Remedial Placement Testing. CCRC Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Olga; Bowden, Brooks; Belfield, Clive; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Of the more than one million new students who enter community colleges each fall, nearly 70 percent are assigned to remedial coursework. The cost of providing this coursework is high, yet evidence about the effectiveness of remediation is not compelling. In addition, many students are misclassified in the remedial assessment process. In order for…

  2. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  3. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase...

  4. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    .... Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for Public Comment. SUMMARY... biphenyl (PCB) disposal regulations regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste. The proposed... regarding PCB bulk product and PCB remediation waste under regulations promulgated at 40 CFR part 761. The...

  5. Best Practices for Fuel System Contamination Detection and Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The University of Dayton Research Institute Best Practices for Fuel System Contamination Detection and Remediation Final Report Marlin D... Remediation Executive Summary: Fuel contamination is a broad term commonly applied to anything that causes a fuel test to fail quality assurance...Statement A: Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 1 Best Practices for Fuel System Contamination Detection and Remediation Contents

  6. 40 CFR 761.61 - PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB remediation waste. 761.61 Section... PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.61 PCB remediation waste. This section provides cleanup and disposal options for PCB remediation waste. Any person cleaning up and disposing of PCBs managed under this section...

  7. Strategy paper. Remedial design/remedial action 100 Area. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahoe, R.L.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this planning document is to identify and define the approach for remedial design and remedial action (RD/RA) in the 100 Area of the Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State. Additionally, this document will support the Hanford Site Environmental Restoration Contract (ERC) team, the US Department of Energy (DOE), and regulatory agencies in identifying and agreeing upon the complete process for expedited cleanup of the 100 Area

  8. [Cognitive remediation and work outcome in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, N

    2014-06-01

    Recovery is partly defined by the patients' capacity to work, since doing well in a job favors hope and responsibilities' taking. Diminished job placement or tenure is linked with cognitive disorders, which impact directly and indirectly (through negative symptoms) functional outcomes. Attention, executive functions and working memory disorders can result in an alteration of the ability to manage the tasks required in the workplace. Executive function, working memory and social cognition disorders may also have an impact on behavior in relationships. Cognitive disorders do not automatically directly contribute to vocational outcome, yet their effects may be mediated by other variables such as symptoms, metacognition, social skills and intrinsic motivation. Then, since all these dimensions have to be taken into account, reducing the impact of cognitive troubles becomes a major challenge for the care of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation is the more effective therapeutic tool to reduce cognitive dysfunctions. It rests in particular on the development of new strategies that allow taking concrete situations into account more efficiently. Cognitive remediation reduces the detrimental consequences of cognitive disorders and permits their compensation. It has emerged as an effective treatment, that improves not only cognitive abilities but also functioning, as it has been shown by numerous randomized controlled studies and several meta-analyses. The present article considers the effects on cognitive remediation on work function in schizophrenia. Several randomized controlled trials that compared supported employment alone versus supported employment associated with cognitive remediation showed significant improvement of employment rates in the latter condition. These results favor the use of cognitive remediation before job placement. The specific needs of the occupation that will be provided and the cognitive profile of the user should be taken into account. Copyright

  9. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2009-01-01

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation. - Bioaccumulation tests with Porcellio scaber isopods are proposed as a supplement to chemical extraction in assessing metal bioavailability before and after soil remediation.

  10. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  11. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m 3 (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program

  12. Chemical tailoring of steam to remediate underground mixed waste contaminents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Roger D.; Udell, Kent S.; Bruton, Carol J.; Carrigan, Charles R.

    1999-01-01

    A method to simultaneously remediate mixed-waste underground contamination, such as organic liquids, metals, and radionuclides involves chemical tailoring of steam for underground injection. Gases or chemicals are injected into a high pressure steam flow being injected via one or more injection wells to contaminated soil located beyond a depth where excavation is possible. The injection of the steam with gases or chemicals mobilizes contaminants, such as metals and organics, as the steam pushes the waste through the ground toward an extraction well having subatmospheric pressure (vacuum). The steam and mobilized contaminants are drawn in a substantially horizontal direction to the extraction well and withdrawn to a treatment point above ground. The heat and boiling action of the front of the steam flow enhance the mobilizing effects of the chemical or gas additives. The method may also be utilized for immobilization of metals by using an additive in the steam which causes precipitation of the metals into clusters large enough to limit their future migration, while removing any organic contaminants.

  13. Prevalência da retinopatia diabética no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy at the Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the Santa Casa de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Souza Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de retinopatia diabética encontrada na população de diabéticos tipo 1, acompanhada no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, entre 29 de agosto de 2000 e 17de agosto de 2001, e sua relação com o sexo, a idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico do diabete e a duração do diabete. MÉTODO: Foi realizado mapeamento de retina, biomicroscopia de fundo e retinografia em 81 pacientes, 41 do sexo feminino e 40 do masculino, a fim de detectar e classificar a retinopatia diabética nessa população. RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes variou entre 4 e 23 anos (média = 12,0 ± 12,0, a idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico, entre 6 meses e 15 anos (média = 3,4 ± 5,8 e a duração do diabete, entre 7 meses e 20 anos (média = 5,8 ± 4,4. A retinopatia diabética foi observada em 14 pacientes (17,3%, 7 (8,6% com a forma não proliferativa muito leve, 5 (6,2% com forma não proliferativa leve, 1 (1,2% com forma proliferativa de alto risco e 1 (1,2% com forma proliferativa avançada. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da retinopatia diabética na nossa amostra é 17,3%. Não há diferença entre os portadores e não portadores de retinopatia diabética quanto a sexo e idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico. Quanto maior a duração da diabete, maior a prevalência da retinopatia diabética.PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy found in a type I diabetic population, accompanied at the Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the "Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo", between August 29, 2000 and August 17, 2001, and it's relationship with sex, the patient's age on occasion of the diagnosis of diabetes and the duration of diabetes. METHODS: Retinal mappings, biomicroscopic fundus and retinography were accomplished in 81 patients, 41 female and 40 male, in order to detect and to classify the diabetic retinopathies in that

  14. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  15. Intrinsic remediation of JP-4 fuel in soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmithorst, W.L. Jr.; Vardy, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Intrinsic remediation methods were employed to remediate soil and ground water contaminated by JP-4 fuel at the United States Coast Guard (USCG) Support Center facility in Elizabeth City, North Carolina. By the time the release was discovered, non-aqueous phase JP-4 fuel was detected in ground water over an area of approximately 8,000 square feet. In addition, concentrations of dissolved BTEX in ground water exceeded 5,000 microg/L. Tight clays present in the upper two meters of the aquifer, underlain by highly transmissive sands, prevented remediation of the JP-4 by conventional treatment methods. Therefore, a system of air injection and air extraction wells were installed that simultaneously depressed the water table and extracted hydrocarbon vapors. The conceptual idea, developed by the EPA RS Kerr Environmental Laboratory (RSKERL) in Ada, Oklahoma, is to stimulate rapid intrinsic biodegradation of the JP-4 fuel compounds. Subsequent biorespiration measurements indicated that the fuel compounds were being rapidly biodegraded. Upon removal of the non aqueous JP-4 compounds, an investigation was conducted to determine if the aquifer had an adequate assimilative capacity to support natural aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of the contaminants. Analysis of ground water samples collected using a cone penetrometer and a direct-push sampling device indicate a sufficient concentration of electron acceptors to support natural biodegradation of the JP-4 compounds

  16. Innovative approaches to remediation for VOC sites using recirculating wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    In-well air stripping with approaches such as the patented NoVOCs system offer both cost and operational advantages over pump and treat, and in situ air sparging technologies. With in-well stripping, the water is treated in the well and discharged without being brought to the surface. Discharged water is circulated through the saturated zone acting as a carrier to continually flush contaminants from the aquifer matrix and transport them to the well for treatment. With pumping rates up to four times those of comparable extraction wells, large radii of influence can be maintained and remediation is achieved faster and more efficiently. In-well stripping is applicable to any strippable contaminant including chlorinated solvents (i.e., TCE and PCE) and hydrocarbons such as the aromatic components in petroleum fuels. Growing costs associated with water discharge, NPDES permits, water rights and, in some areas, salt water intrusion have provided economic incentives to retrofit existing pump and treat systems with NoVOCs units. A large number of wells are amenable to retrofitting depending on their diameter, location and length of screens, and back fill. Even with the new initiatives for intrinsic remediation for petroleum fuel releases, there is a role for the NoVOCs technology. Free product removal wells based on the NoVOCs design eliminate the need to treat and permit water discharges produced when generating a cone of depression for collecting the floating fuel. Additionally, the stripping action and introduction of dissolved oxygen reduce soluble hydrocarbon concentrations to risk levels that can be easily addressed through intrinsic bioremediation

  17. A review of centrifugal testing of gasoline contamination and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meegoda, Jay N; Hu, Liming

    2011-08-01

    Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS) is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced.

  18. A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced.

  19. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  20. Gunnar uranium mine environmental remediation - Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muldoon, Joe; Yankovich, Tamara; Schramm, Laurier L. [Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    The Gunnar Mine and mill site was the largest of some 38 now-abandoned uranium mines that were developed and operated in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, during the Cold War years. During their operating lifetimes these mines produced large quantities of ore and tailings. The Gunnar mine (open pit and underground) produced over 5 million tonnes of uranium ore and nearly 4.4 million tonnes of mine tailings during its operations from 1955 through 1963. An estimated 2.2 to 2.7 million m{sup 3} of waste rock that was generated during the processing of the ore abuts the shores of Lake Athabasca, the 22. largest lake in the world. After closure in the 1960's, the Gunnar site was abandoned with little to no decommissioning being done. The Saskatchewan Research Council has been contracted to manage the clean-up of these abandoned northern uranium mine and mill sites. The Gunnar Mine, because of the magnitude of tailings and waste rock, is subject to an environmental site assessment process regulated by both provincial and federal governments. This process requires a detailed study of the environmental impacts that have resulted from the mining activities and an analysis of projected impacts from remediation efforts. The environmental assessment process, specific site studies, and public involvement initiatives are all now well underway. Due to the many uncertainties associated with an abandoned site, an adaptive remediation approach, utilizing a decision tree, presented within the environmental assessment documents will be used as part of the site regulatory licensing. A critical early task was dealing with major public safety hazards on the site. The site originally included many buildings that were remnants of a community of approximately 800 people who once occupied the site. These buildings, many of which contained high levels of asbestos, had to be appropriately abated and demolished. Similarly, the original mine head frame and mill site buildings, many of which

  1. Installation of a bio-venting remediation system using directionally drilled horizontal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Stolz, A.P.

    1997-01-01

    The installation of a remediation system for off-site contamination was discussed. The site was contaminated with gasoline and diesel from an abandoned bulk fuel storage and distribution terminal located near a highway. The dissolved phase hydrocarbon plume extended beneath several houses down gradient of the site. Bioventing was considered to be the only remediation option to recover the liquid phase hydrocarbons beneath the highway in a way that would satisfy all the clean-up objectives and the design constraints. Bioventing is closely related to soil vapour extraction (SVE). The main difference is that in bioventing, the mechanism for removal of contaminants is bio-degradation by indigenous bacteria, whereas in SVE, contaminants are simply removed by volatilization. Bioventing systems enhance the activity of the indigenous bacteria by inducing air flow in the subsurface through the use of vapour injection or extraction wells. Two horizontal vapour extraction wells were installed with a directional drill. A soil pile was utilized as a bio-filter for the extracted hydrocarbon vapours and a backfilled trench was used to inject vapours recovered from the soil pile to the subsurface. The total mass of hydrocarbons degraded by this system in 230 days was estimated to be 1,000 kg. It was concluded that under appropriate conditions the in-situ treatment of contaminated soil using directionally drilled wells can be justified on both economic and technical grounds. 3 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  2. Electrochemical EDTA recycling with sacrificial Al anode for remediation of Pb contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pociecha, Maja; Lestan, Domen

    2010-01-01

    Recycling chelant is a precondition for cost-effective EDTA-based soil remediation. Extraction with EDTA removed 67.5% of Pb from the contaminated soil and yielded washing solution with 1535 mg L -1 Pb and 33.4 mM EDTA. Electrochemical treatment of the washing solution using Al anode, current density 96 mA cm -2 and pH 10 removed 90% of Pb from the solution (by electrodeposition on the stainless steel cathode) while the concentration of EDTA in the treated solution remained the same. The obtained data indicate that the Pb in the EDTA complex was replaced by electro-corroded Al after electro-reduction of the EDTA and subsequently removed from the solution. Additional soil extraction with the treated washing solution resulted in total removal of 87% of Pb from the contaminated soil. The recycled EDTA retained the Pb extraction potential through several steps of soil extraction and washing solution treatment, although part of the EDTA was lost by soil absorption. - Aluminium anode at alkaline pH in conventional electrolytic cell enables efficient recycling of EDTA as a part of soil washing remediation technology.

  3. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettin, R.W.; Carr, D.J.; Janke, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  4. RCRA corrective action ampersand CERCLA remedial action reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This reference guide provides a side-by-side comparison of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA Remedial Action, focusing on the statutory and regulatory requirements under each program, criterial and other factors that govern a site's progress, and the ways in which authorities or requirements under each program overlap and/or differ. Topics include the following: Intent of regulation; administration; types of sites and/or facilities; definition of site and/or facility; constituents of concern; exclusions; provisions for short-term remedies; triggers for initial site investigation; short term response actions; site investigations; remedial investigations; remedial alternatives; clean up criterial; final remedy; implementing remedy; on-site waste management; completion of remedial process

  5. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  6. Program management strategies for following EPA guidance for remedial design/remedial action at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, J.P.; Chew, J.R.; Kowalski, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, environmental restoration is being conducted in accordance with Federal Facilities Compliance Agreements (or Interagency Agreements). These agreements establish a cooperative working relationship and often define roles, responsibilities and authorities for conduct and oversight of the Remedial Action Programs. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has guidelines on how to initiate and perform remedial actions for sites they are remediating under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Re-Authorization Act (SARA). This paper addresses some of the difference and commonalities between the DOE project management procedures and EPA guidance documents. This report covers only the RD/RA phase of environmental restoration. On the surface, there are many apparent differences between the DOE and EPA project management processes. Upon closer review, however, many of the differences are the result of applying different terminology to the same phase of a project. By looking for the similarities in the two processes rather than hunting for differences, many communication problems are avoided. Understanding both processes also aids in figuring out when, how and to what extent EPA should participate in the RD/RA phase for DOE lead cleanup activities. The DOE Remedial Design and Remedial Action process is discussed in a stepwise manner and compared to the EPA process. Each element of the process is defined. Activities common to both the EPA and DOE are correlated. The annual DOE budget cycle for remediation projects and the four-year cycle for appropriation of remediation funds are discussed, and the constraints of this process examined. DOE orders as well as other requirements for RD/RA activities are summarized and correlated to EPA regulations where this is possible

  7. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude methanol extracts of various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parthenium hysterophorus is an aggressive and exotic weed plant traditionally reported to be used as remedy for various diseases. In the present study in vitro antibacterial activities of P. hysterophorus leaf, flower, bark and root crude methanol extracts were evaluated against five reference strains of pathogenic bacterial ...

  8. bryophyte extracts with activity against plant pathogenic fungi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT: The effects of extracts from 17 different bryophyte species were investigated against economically important plant pathogenic fungi ... remedies of diseases in various forms. Similarly, before the discovery of the synthetic ... and divided into the classes Anthocerotae (horn- worts), Hepaticae (liverworts) and Musci ...

  9. Phytochemical And In Vitro Antimicrobial Assay Of The Leaf Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has justified the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of stomach discomfort, diarrhea, dysentery and as a remedy for wound healing whose causative agents are some of the organisms used in this study. Keywords: Antimicrobial, Leaf Extracts,In Vitro, Phytochemical, Newbouldia laevis. African Journal of ...

  10. Model testing for the remediation assessment of a radium contaminated site in Olen, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeck, Lieve; Kanyar, Bela; Krajewski, Pawel; Kryshev, Alexander; Lietava, Peter; Nenyei, Arpad; Sazykina, Tatiana; Yu, Charley; Zeevaert, Theo

    2005-01-01

    Environmental assessment models are used as decision-aiding tools in the selection of remediation options for radioactively contaminated sites. In most cases, the effectiveness of the remedial actions in terms of dose savings cannot be demonstrated directly, but can be established with the help of environmental assessment models, through the assessment of future radiological impacts. It should be emphasized that, given the complexity of the processes involved and our current understanding of how they operate, these models are simplified descriptions of the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment and therefore imperfect. One way of testing and improving the reliability of the models is to compare their predictions with real data and/or the predictions of other models. Within the framework of the Remediation Assessment Working Group (RAWG) of the BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) programme coordinated by IAEA, two scenarios were constructed and applied to test the reliability of environmental assessment models when remedial actions are involved. As a test site, an area of approximately 100 ha contaminated by the discharges of an old radium extraction plant in Olen (Belgium) has been considered. In the first scenario, a real situation was evaluated and model predictions were compared with measured data. In the second scenario the model predictions for specific hypothetical but realistic situations were compared. Most of the biosphere models were not developed to assess the performance of remedial actions and had to be modified for this purpose. It was demonstrated clearly that the modeller's experience and familiarity with the mathematical model, the site and with the scenario play a very important role in the outcome of the model calculations. More model testing studies, preferably for real situations, are needed in order to improve the models and modelling methods and to expand the areas in which the models are applicable

  11. Remediation mechanisms for Cd-contaminated soil using natural sepiolite at the field scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiuling; Xu, Yingming; Huang, Rong; Huang, Qingqing; Xie, Zhonglei; Cai, Yanming; Liang, Xuefeng

    2017-12-13

    Remediation of heavy metal polluted agricultural soil is essential for human health and ecological safety and remediation mechanisms at the microscopic level are vital for their large-scale utilization. In this study, natural sepiolite was employed as an immobilization agent for in situ field-scale remediation of Cd-contaminated paddy soil and the remediation mechanisms were investigated in terms of soil chemistry and plant physiology. Natural sepiolite had a significant immobilization effect for bioavailable Cd contents in paddy soil, and consequently could lower the Cd concentrations of brown rice, husk, straw, and roots of rice plants by 54.7-73.7%, 44.0-62.5%, 26.5-67.2%, and 36.7-46.7%, respectively. Regarding soil chemistry, natural sepiolite increased the soil pH values and shifted the zeta potentials of soil particles to be more negative, enhancing the fixation or sorption of Cd on soil particles, and resulted in the reduction of HCl and DTPA extractable Cd concentrations in paddy soil. Natural sepiolite neither enhanced nor inhibited iron plaques on the rice root surface, but did change the chemical environments of Fe and S in rice root. Natural sepiolite improved the activities of antioxidant enzymes and enhanced the total antioxidant capacity to alleviate the stress of Cd. It also promotes the synthesis of GSH and NPT to complete the detoxification. In general, the remediation mechanisms of natural sepiolite for the Cd pollutant in paddy soil could be summarized as the collective effects of soil chemistry and plant physiology.

  12. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-07-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  13. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia F. S. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  14. A multidisciplinary approach to site remediation and management in a bedrock environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, G. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Micklethwaite, R.; Digel, S.; Lyons, E. [O' Connor Associates Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A multidisciplinary approach to site remediation and management in a bedrock environment was presented. This presentation provided a description of the site which was a former service station from 1985 to 2003 in Calgary. Illustrations of the subject site and stratigraphic section were presented along with initial environmental conditions. The project objectives included: managing the site so that a tenant could re-develop and occupy the site; minimizing management costs until long-term, remediation could be achieved; and, developing and implementing a plan to assess, mitigate, and manage the risk in a manner accepted by Alberta Environment and the City of Calgary. The presentation also addressed issues regarding a risk-assessment, high vacuum extraction system, and refining HVE operations. The regulatory, business and ancillary outcomes of the risk assessment were also outlined. Last, the presentation identified how the results were achieved. tabs., figs.

  15. Phyto-remediation of contaminated soils; La phytoremediation des sols contamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2002-09-01

    Plants provide new ways for soil remediation. The activity of living roots (absorption, exudation of organic compounds, action on physical soil properties) contribute to decrease the negative effects of pollutants, as they are stabilised or eliminated (extraction or degradation). In the presence of plants, hydrocarbons, a rather ubiquitous group of soil pollutants, are degraded faster than in bare soil. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria are stimulated by root exudates, which also create favourable conditions for co-metabolism. Also, the fragmentation of aggregates as well as the release of surfactants increase the exposure of organic pollutants to microorganism degradation. The phyto-remediation technology is efficient to reduce the dissemination of pollutants. On historically contaminated soils, effects are generally discrete within a short period of time and may be more effective in the long run. (author)

  16. Soil and ground-water remediation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.

    1996-01-01

    Urban areas typically contain numerous sites underlain by soils or ground waters which are contaminated to levels that exceed clean-up guidelines and are hazardous to public health. Contamination most commonly results from the disposal, careless use and spillage of chemicals, or the historic importation of contaminated fill onto properties undergoing redevelopment. Contaminants of concern in soil and ground water include: inorganic chemicals such as heavy metals; radioactive metals; salt and inorganic pesticides, and a range of organic chemicals included within petroleum fuels, coal tar products, PCB oils, chlorinated solvents, and pesticides. Dealing with contaminated sites is a major problem affecting all urban areas and a wide range of different remedial technologies are available. This chapter reviews the more commonly used methods for ground-water and soil remediation, paying particular regard to efficiency and applicability of specific treatments to different site conditions. (author). 43 refs., 1 tab., 27 figs

  17. Briefing paper -- Remedial Action Assessment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    Congress has mandated a more comprehensive management of hazardous wastes with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or ''Superfund'') and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This mandate includes restoration of disposal sites contaminated through past disposal practices. This mandate applies to facilities operated for and by the Department of Energy (DOE), just as it does to industrial and other institutions. To help implement the CERCLA/SARA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process in a consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, a methodology needs to be developed that will allow definition, sorting, and screening of remediation technologies for each operable unit (waste site). This need is stated specifically in Section 2.2.2.1 of the October 1989 Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Plan of the DOE. This Briefing Paper is prepared to respond to this need. 1 fig

  18. Analytical considerations for stress related remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybicki, E.F.; McGuire, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study described here focuses on reducing the impact of one of the factors, contributing to integranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) in BWR reactor piping, e.g., tensile residual stresses in the areas of observed cracking. There are several techniques for controlling residual stresses on the inside surface of girth welded pipes. The work described here is part of a larger study where various remedies and pipe geometries were considered. The stress remedy technique utilizes an induction heating method to alter residual stresses due to welding. The method is referred to as Induction Heating for Stress Improvement (IHSI). While IHSI was first applied to pipe-to-pipe weldments with successful results, many field applications of IHSI will be to pipe-to-tee or pipe-to-component geometries. Therefore, this study is directed toward obtaining a better understanding of the weld induced residual stress and the effect of IHSI on weldments with this type of geometry

  19. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    EM's Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form

  20. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  1. Phyto remediation of PAH contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruzzelli, G.; Pedron, F.; Barbafieri, M.; Cervelli, St.; Vigna Guidi, G.

    2005-01-01

    Phyto-remediation may enhance degradation of organic compounds promoting an adequate substrate for microbial growth. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of two plant species, Lupinus albus and Zea mais, in the bio-remediation of a PAH contaminated soil. This soil has been collected in a contaminated industrial area in Italy characterized by PAH concentrations up to 16000 mg/Kg. Microcosms experiments were carried out by planting Lupinus albus and Zea mais in the polluted soil; controls without plants were run separately. Growing period lasted by three months. Plants favoured PAH biodegradation by percentages of 32% with Lupinus albus and 22% with Zea mais, with respect to non vegetated microcosms. (authors)

  2. Installation of an innovative remedial technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, B.

    1995-01-01

    The major goal of the Lasagna trademark project was to design, construct, install, and operate an in situ remediation system in low-permeability soil. A new technology--the Lasagna process--uses electro-osmosis to move contaminated groundwater through treatment zones. The treatment zones are installed in contaminated soils, thereby forming an integrated in situ remedial process. Electro-osmosis, well known for its effectiveness and extremely low power consumption, uses a direct current to cause Groundwater to travel through low-permeability soil. When a bench-scale version of the technology was 98 percent effective in removing contamination, an actual field test was the next step. The site chosen for this first field effort was the DOE-owned Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant located in Paducah, Kentucky. The target contaminant for this project was trichloroethylene (TCE) because it is found at many sites across the country and is present at approximately 60 percent of DOE's sites

  3. Orchestrating environmental research and assessment for remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breshears, D.D.; Whicker, F.W.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1993-01-01

    The interface between science, assessment, and policy have come to the forefront of national attention recently, and the issues involved were summarized for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP). The authors of this letter consider if the lessons learned in NAPAP are being applied to the remediation of contaminated sites in the U.S. DOE nuclear weapons complex. A figure giving the authors'prospective of the role science should play in a risk management problems is presented. Three major lessons from the NAPAP experience are discussed in reference to DOE: (1) objectives must be clearly spelled out early in the assessment; (2) the importance of peer review throughout the scientific evaluation phase, including publication of a significant amount of research in peer-reviewed journal in a timely fashion; (3) the risk associated with remediation alternative should be included in any assessment. 30 refs., 1 fig

  4. In situ remediation of uranium contaminated groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, B.P.; Marozas, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to develop cost-efficient techniques for remediating uranium contaminated groundwater at DOE Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites nationwide, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) deployed a pilot scale research project at an UMTRA site in Durango, CO. Implementation included design, construction, and subsequent monitoring of an in situ passive reactive barrier to remove Uranium from the tailings pile effluent. A reactive subsurface barrier is produced by emplacing a reactant material (in this experiment various forms of metallic iron) in the flow path of the contaminated groundwater. Conceptually the iron media reduces and/or adsorbs uranium in situ to acceptable regulatory levels. In addition, other metals such as Se, Mo, and As have been removed by the reductive/adsorptive process. The primary objective of the experiment was to eliminate the need for surface treatment of tailing pile effluent. Experimental design, and laboratory and field results are discussed with regard to other potential contaminated groundwater treatment applications

  5. Remediating sites contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartzbaugh, J.; Sturgill, J.; Cormier, B.; Williams, H.D.

    1992-01-01

    This article is intended to serve as a reference for decision makers who must choose an approach to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. Its purpose is to explain pertinent chemical and physical characteristics of heavy metals, how to use these characteristics to select remedial technologies, and how to interpret and use data from field investigations. Different metal species are typically associated with different industrial processes. The contaminant species behave differently in various media (i.e., groundwater, soils, air), and require different technologies for containment and treatment. We focus on the metals that are used in industries that generate regulated waste. These include steelmaking, paint and pigment manufacturing, metal finishing, leather tanning, papermaking, aluminum anodizing, and battery manufacturing. Heavy metals are also present in refinery wastes as well as in smelting wastes and drilling muds

  6. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  7. Arsenic Remediation by Synthetic and Natural Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saqaf Jagirani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contagion of toxic metals in water is a serious environmental and health concern and threatening problem worldwide. Particularly arsenic contamination in ground water has became great dilemma in the earlier decades. With advent in research for arsenic remediation, standard of drinking water is improving and now reduced to few parts per million (ppm level of arsenic in drinking water sources. However, due to continuous enhancement in environmental pollution, remediation techniques are still needed to achieve the drinking water quality standard. Development of novel and economically feasible removal techniques or materials for selective separation of this toxic specie has been the main focus of research. Several arsenic removal techniques, including membrane separation, coagulation, precipitation, anion exchange have been developed. The aim of this article is to review briefly arsenic chemistry and previous and current available technologies that have been reported various low-cost adsorbents for arsenic removal.

  8. SRS Burial Ground Complex: Remediation in Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, M.; Crapse, B.; Cowan, S.

    1998-01-01

    Closure of the various areas in the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) represents a major step in the reduction of risk at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and a significant investment of resources. The Burial Ground Complex occupies approximately 195 acres in the central section of the SRS. Approximately 160 acres of the BGC consists of hazardous and radioactive waste disposal sites that require remediation. Of these source acres, one-third have been remediated while two-thirds are undergoing interim or final action. These restoration activities have been carried out in a safe and cost effective manner while minimizing impact to operating facilities. Successful completion of these activities is in large part due to the teamwork demonstrated by the Department of Energy, contractor/subcontractor personnel, and the regulatory agencies. The experience and knowledge gained from the closure of these large disposal facilities can be used to expedite closure of similar facilities

  9. Electrochemical soil remediation - accelerated soil weathering?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottosen, L.M.; Villumsen, A.; Hansen, H.K.; Jensen, P.E.; Pedersen, A.J. [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Ribeiro, A.B. [Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, New Univ. of Lisbon, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    In electrochemical soil remediation systems, where enhancement solutions and complexing agents are not used, a developing acidic front is mobilizing the heavy metals and the electric current is removing the mobilized elements from the soil. The hypotheses investigated in this paper is whether this process may be comparable to the chemical soil weathering that occurs in the environment due to the acidic rain, where the mobilized elements are removed from the soil by the penetrating water. Even through the weathering process is highly accelerated in the electrochemical cell. This paper shows results from electrodialytic remediation experiments performed with four different Danish heavy metal polluted soils. The main emphasis is laid on the relation between the developing acidic front and electromigration of Cu, Zn, Mn, Mg, Fe and Ca. (orig.)

  10. Electrochemical remediation technologies for soil and groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, F. [Electrochemical Processes I.I. c. Valley Forge, PA (United States)]|[P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany); Doering, N. [P2 Soil Remediation, Inc. Stuttgart (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In Direct Current Technologies (DCTs) a direct current electricity is passed between at least two subsurface electrodes in order to effect the remediation of the groundwater and/or the soil. DCTs in line with the U.S.-terminology comprise of the ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs), and GeoKinetics. The primary distinction between ECRTs and ElectroKinetics are the power input, and the mode of operation, which are electrochemical reactions vs. mass transport. ECRTs combine phenomena of colloid (surface) electrochemistry with the phenomena of Induced Polarization (IP). This report focuses on ECRTs, comprising of the ElectroChemical GeoOxidation (ECGO) for the mineralization of organic pollutants to finally carbon dioxide and water, and Induced Complexation (IC), related to the electrochemical conversion of metals enhancing the mobilization and precipitation of heavy metals on both electrodes. Both technologies are based on reduction-oxidation (redox) reactions at the scale of the individual soil particles. (orig.)

  11. Remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boni, M.R.; D' Aprile, L. [Univ. of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dept. of Hydraulic Transportation and Roads (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    In December 1999 Italy issued the national regulation (DM 471/99) for the clean-up of contaminated sites. This regulation applies both to derelict and to still operating industrial plants and waste management facilities. Target concentration values for clean-up interventions are issued and the requirements for design and planning of technical operation are defined. The selection of the appropriate clean-up technology are based on the following main criteria: - reduce the concentration in environmental media and the migration of pollutants without removing soil off-site; - in order to reduce contaminated material removal and transportation, remedial actions of soil, subsoil and groundwater should preferably be based on in-situ treatments. In-situ technologies commonly applied in Italy to the remediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb) are: - containment (caps, vertical barriers); - soil flushing; - cement based solidification/stabilization. (orig.)

  12. Decommissioning and environmental remediation: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzis, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The objective in both decommissioning and environmental remediation is to lower levels of residual radioactivity enough that the sites may be used for any purpose, without restriction. In some cases, however, this may not be practical and restrictions may be placed on future land use. Following decommissioning, for example, some sites may be reused for non-nuclear industrial activities, but not for habitation. Some former uranium mining sites may be released for reuse as nature reserves or for other leisure activities. Both decommissioning and environmental remediation are major industrial projects in which the safety of the workforce, the local public and the environment must be ensured from both radiological and conventional hazards. Hence, an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, as well as proper training for personnel both in implementation and in regulatory oversight are among the necessary preconditions to ensure safety.

  13. Decommissioning and environmental remediation: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzis, Irena

    2016-01-01

    The objective in both decommissioning and environmental remediation is to lower levels of residual radioactivity enough that the sites may be used for any purpose, without restriction. In some cases, however, this may not be practical and restrictions may be placed on future land use. Following decommissioning, for example, some sites may be reused for non-nuclear industrial activities, but not for habitation. Some former uranium mining sites may be released for reuse as nature reserves or for other leisure activities. Both decommissioning and environmental remediation are major industrial projects in which the safety of the workforce, the local public and the environment must be ensured from both radiological and conventional hazards. Hence, an appropriate legal and regulatory framework, as well as proper training for personnel both in implementation and in regulatory oversight are among the necessary preconditions to ensure safety

  14. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  15. The role of innovative remediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doesburg, J.M.

    1992-05-01

    There are currently over 1200 sites on the US Superfund's National Priorities List (NPL) of hazardous waste sites, and there are over 30, 000 sites listed by the Comprehensive Environmental Responsibility, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS). The traditional approach to remediating sites in the US has been to remove the material and place it in a secure landfill, or in the case of groundwater, pump and treat the effluent. These technologies have proven to be very expensive and don't really fix the problem. The waste is just moved from one place to another. In recent years, however, alternative and innovative technologies have been increasingly used in the US to replace the traditional approaches. This paper will focus on just such innovative remediation technologies in the US, looking at the regulatory drivers, the emerging technologies, some of the problems in deploying technologies, and a case study

  16. DOE In Situ Remediation Integrated Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISRP) supports and manages a balanced portfolio of applied research and development activities in support of DOE environmental restoration and waste management needs. ISRP technologies are being developed in four areas: containment, chemical and physical treatment, in situ bioremediation, and in situ manipulation (including electrokinetics). the focus of containment is to provide mechanisms to stop contaminant migration through the subsurface. In situ bioremediation and chemical and physical treatment both aim to destroy or eliminate contaminants in groundwater and soils. In situ manipulation (ISM) provides mechanisms to access contaminants or introduce treatment agents into the soil, and includes other technologies necessary to support the implementation of ISR methods. Descriptions of each major program area are provided to set the technical context of the ISM subprogram. Typical ISM needs for major areas of in situ remediation research and development are identified

  17. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors' facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission

  18. Groundwater remediation at the Hanford site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, W.

    1993-01-01

    Ion exchange resin and adsorption technology has been used successfully to treat diversified types of toxic waste water for many years. Even though the Hanford Site presents many unique problems, the author believes these technologies can remediate the groundwater at this site. However, treatment of the sludge in tanks generally is beyond the pale of these technologies except for the possibility of experimental studies being performed at the University of Idaho (Troescher)

  19. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bala Ramudu; R. P. Tiwari; R. K. Srivastava

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself wa...

  20. Remedial action programs annual meeting: Meeting notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office was pleased to host the 1987 Remedial Action programs Annual Meeting and herein presents notes from that meeting as prepared (on relatively short notice) by participants. These notes are a summary of the information derived from the workshops, case studies, and ad hoc committee reports rather than formal proceedings. The order of the materials in this report follows the actual sequence of presentations during the annual meeting

  1. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  2. GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    system for sediment runoff along sloped areas.  Use of excavated areas as retention basins.  Optimize amount of injection water used during...of Solid Waste and Emergency Response vii RACG remedial action cleanup goal RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ROD Record of Decision...total energy use, increase in hybrid vehicles, and reduction in water intensity. Many of the principles outlined in EO 13693 can be applied to improve

  3. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D [Augusta, GA

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  4. Cultural services remediated in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Danish Public Libraries conducted an experiment in establishing a library in the virtual world Second Life. The Info Island DK provided the framework for a number of online library services and cultural events. This study, based on interviews with most of the active participants...... in the project, discusses the experiences in remediating conventional library services into the new medium and in understanding and redefining the role of the librarian in an online virtual world....

  5. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijmans, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  6. Drug interactions in African herbal remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Werner; Steenkamp, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Herbal usage remains popular as an alternative or complementary form of treatment, especially in Africa. However, the misconception that herbal remedies are safe due to their "natural" origins jeopardizes human safety, as many different interactions can occur with concomitant use with other pharmaceuticals on top of potential inherent toxicity. Cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly polymorphic, and pose a problem for pharmaceutical drug tailoring to meet an individual's specific metabolic activity. The influence of herbal remedies further complicates this. The plants included in this review have been mainly researched for determining their effect on cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein drug transporters. Usage of herbal remedies, such as Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens and Harpagophytum procumbensis popular in Africa. The literature suggests that there is a potential for drug-herb interactions, which could occur through alterations in metabolism and transportation of drugs. Research has primarily been conducted in vitro, whereas in vivo data are lacking. Research concerning the effect of African herbals on drug metabolism should also be approached, as specific plants are especially popular in conjunction with certain treatments. Although these interactions can be beneficial, the harm they pose is just as great.

  7. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  8. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ''lessons learned'' from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors

  9. Remedial measures for nozzles susceptible to PWSCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    Remediating primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) is usually directed towards one of the three causes of PWSCC, material susceptiability, tensile stress, and an aggressive environment. The most practical remedial measures for primary loop penetration of PWSCC are considered to be shot peening, electropolishing, stress relief, and electroplating. The objective of shot peening is to induce a comprehensive residual stress on surfaces of Inconel 600 which are exposed to aggressive environments. Experience with steam generator tubes has shown this method is most effective if applied before PWSCC occurs. If it has already occurred, then the peening may retard but not arrest the corrosion. Electroplating consists of plating the inside surface of the Inconel 600 penetration with pure nickel. One of the major problems with this method was in obtaining surfaces uniformly free from pitting and roughness. Electropolishing for PWSCC remediation would remove the high strength cold work surfaces on the insides of nozzles which are produced by mechanical working e.g. machining. 5 figs

  10. Tank waste remediation system configuration management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vann, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The configuration management program for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project Mission supports management of the project baseline by providing the mechanisms to identify, document, and control the functional and physical characteristics of the products. This document is one of the tools used to develop and control the mission and work. It is an integrated approach for control of technical, cost, schedule, and administrative information necessary to manage the configurations for the TWRS Project Mission. Configuration management focuses on five principal activities: configuration management system management, configuration identification, configuration status accounting, change control, and configuration management assessments. TWRS Project personnel must execute work in a controlled fashion. Work must be performed by verbatim use of authorized and released technical information and documentation. Application of configuration management will be consistently applied across all TWRS Project activities and assessed accordingly. The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) configuration management requirements are prescribed in HNF-MP-013, Configuration Management Plan (FDH 1997a). This TWRS Configuration Management Plan (CMP) implements those requirements and supersedes the Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Program Plan described in Vann, 1996. HNF-SD-WM-CM-014, Tank Waste Remediation System Configuration Management Implementation Plan (Vann, 1997) will be revised to implement the requirements of this plan. This plan provides the responsibilities, actions and tools necessary to implement the requirements as defined in the above referenced documents

  11. Innovative technologies for in-situ remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.; Aines, R.; Knapp, R.; Matthews, S.; Yow, J.

    1994-06-01

    LLNL is developing several innovative remediation technologies as long-term improvements to the current pump and treat approaches to cleaning up contaminated soils and groundwater. These technologies include dynamic underground stripping, in-situ microbial filters, and remediation using bremsstrahlung radiation. Concentrated underground organic contaminant plumes are one of the most prevalent groundwater contamination sources. The solvent or fuel can percolate deep into the earth, often into water-bearing regions. Collecting as a separate, liquid organic phase called dense non-aqueous-phase liquids (DNAPLs), or light NAPLs (LNAPLs), these contaminants provide a source term that continuously compromises surrounding groundwater. This type of spill is one of the most difficult environmental problems to remediate. Attempts to remove such material requires a huge amount of water which must be washed through the system to clean it, requiring decades. Traditional pump and treat approaches have not been successful. LLNL has developed several innovative technologies to clean up NAPL contamination. Detailed descriptions of these technologies are given

  12. Laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskid, N.J.; Zussman, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    There are two measures of ''successful'' technology transfer in DOE's environmental restoration and waste management program. The first is remediation of DOE sites, and the second is commercialization of an environmental remediation process or product. The ideal case merges these two in laboratory/industry partnerships for environmental remediation. The elements to be discussed in terms of their effectiveness in aiding technology transfer include: a decision-making champion; timely and sufficient funding; well organized technology transfer function; well defined DOE and commercial markets; and industry/commercial partnering. Several case studies are presented, including the successful commercialization of a process for vitrification of low-level radioactive waste, the commercial marketing of software for hazardous waste characterization, and the application of a monitoring technique that has won a prestigious technical award. Case studies will include: vitrification of low-level radioactive waste (GTS Duratek, Columbia, MD); borehole liner for emplacing instrumentation and sampling groundwater (Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Santa Fe, NM); electronic cone penetrometer (Applied Research Associates, Inc., South Royalton, VT); and software for hazardous waste monitoring ConSolve, Inc. (Lexington, MA). The roles of the Department of Energy and Argonne National Laboratory in these successes will be characterized

  13. Co-remediation of the lead-polluted garden soil by exogenous natural zeolite and humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-yu; Shao, Hong-bo; Li, Hua; Shao, Ming-an; Du, Sheng

    2009-08-15

    The current study reported the co-remediation effect on the lead-polluted garden soil by zeolite and humic acids (HA), which was from comparing with the remediation of single zeolite in term of the lead fraction of sequential extraction in the soil and the distribution of lead in different parts of rape. Mixed treatment (zeolite and HA) and single treatment (zeolite) were, respectively, applied to the artificially polluted garden soil to examine the difference of their remediation effects in pot experiment. Results indicated that the co-remediation led to significantly greater (plead concentration in plants than by singly adding to zeolite. The co-application of zeolite and HA reduced the available fraction of lead compounds, but slightly increased (plead compounds in the garden soil, compared with the application of single zeolite, especially in the severe lead-polluted soil (> or =1000 mg kg(-1)). This method might be an efficient way to remediate the lead-polluted soils on a large scale, although zeolite is a kind of hazardous material.

  14. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  15. Salmon Site Remediation Investigation Report, Appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  16. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  17. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  20. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the