WorldWideScience

Sample records for extraction remediation miser

  1. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  2. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

  3. Bulb Miser

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Bulb-Miser was developed during NASA's Apollo program to protect the Saturn launch vehicle from electrical current surge. It is now being produced for the commercial market by Bulb-Miser, Inc., Houston, Texas. Technically known as a "temperature compensating thermistor," the Bulb-Miser is a simple, inexpensive device which looks like a washer about the size of a quarter. It is slipped between bulb and socket and can be used with any incandescent bulb that screws into a standard socket. In addition to delaying burnout, the Bulb-Miser also offers some reduction of electrical energy. But the economy of the device goes beyond energy use or bulb cost; to big users of bulbs, it makes possible substantially lower maintenance labor costs. One field test involving an apartment complex showed that it took two men 30 man hours monthly to replace light bulbs; after Bulb-Miser installation only nine man hours a month were needed. Bulb-Misers are used not only in private homes but also by hospitals, schools, hotels and motels, restaurants, banks and firms providing contract maintenance for large outdoor electric signs. The broadest use is in industrial facilities; the list of big companies which have purchased the Bulb-Miser reads like a Who's Who of American industry.

  4. A numerical model (MISER) for the simulation of coupled physical, chemical and biological processes in soil vapor extraction and bioventing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathfelder, Klaus M.; Lang, John R.; Abriola, Linda M.

    2000-05-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) systems for remediation of unsaturated zone soils is controlled by a complex combination of physical, chemical and biological factors. The Michigan soil vapor extraction remediation (MISER) model, a two-dimensional numerical simulator, is developed to advance our ability to investigate the performance of field scale SVE and BV systems by integrating processes of multiphase flow, multicomponent compositional transport with nonequilibrium interphase mass transfer, and aerobic biodegradation. Subsequent to the model presentation, example simulations of single well SVE and BV systems are used to illustrate the interplay between physical, chemical and biological processes and their potential influence on remediation efficiency and the pathways of contaminant removal. Simulations of SVE reveal that removal efficiency is controlled primarily by the ability to engineer gas flow through regions of organic liquid contaminated soil and by interphase mass transfer limitations. Biodegradation is found to play a minor role in mass removal for the examined SVE scenarios. Simulations of BV systems suggest that the effective supply of oxygen may not be the sole criterion for efficient BV performance. The efficiency and contaminant removal pathways in these systems can be significantly influenced by interdependent dynamics involving biological growth factors, interphase mass transfer rates, and air injection rates. Simulation results emphasize the need for the continued refinement and validation of predictive interphase mass transfer models applicable under a variety of conditions and for the continued elucidation and quantification of microbial processes under unsaturated field conditions.

  5. The Miserable Love In Toni Morrison's Beloved

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建忠

    2009-01-01

    This study tries to analyze the multiple and miserable meanings of the word "Beloved" In Beloved In few aspects.The multiple loves flow like different music notes in a great piece of jazz with an amazing effect.

  6. Investigations of Cu, Pb and Zn partitioning by sequential extraction in harbour sediments after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2010-01-01

    remediation time. A three step sequential extraction scheme (BCR), with an extra residual step, was used to evaluate the heavy metal distribution in the sediments before and after electrodialytic remediation. Cu was mainly associated with the oxidisable phase of the sediment, both before and after remediation...

  7. Remediation of Contaminated Soils By Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, A.; Zanetti, M. C.; Banchero, M.; Fiore, S.; Manna, L.

    The contaminants that can be found in soils are many, inorganic, like heavy metals, as well as organic. Among the organic contaminants, oil and coal refineries are responsi- ble for several cases of soil contamination with PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocar- bons). Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have toxic, carcinogenic and mu- tagenic effects. Limits have been set on the concentration of most contaminants, and growing concern is focusing on soil contamination issues. USA regulations set the maximum acceptable level of contamination by PAHs equal to 40 ppm at residential sites and 270 ppm at industrial sites. Stricter values are usually adopted in European Countries. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a possible alternative technology to remove volatile organic compounds from contaminated soils. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) offers many advantages over conventional solvent extraction. Super- critical fluids combine gaseous properties as a high diffusion coefficient, and liquid properties as a high solvent power. The solvent power is strongly pressure-dependent near supercritical conditions: selective extractions are possible without changing the solvent. Solute can be separate from the solvent depressurising the system; therefore, it is possible to recycle the solvent and recover the contaminant. Carbon dioxide is frequently used as supercritical fluid, because it has moderate critical conditions, it is inert and available in pure form. In this work, supercritical fluid extraction technology has been used to remove a polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon from contaminated soils. The contaminant choice for the experiment has been naphthalene since several data are available in literature. G. A. Montero et al. [1] studied soil remediation with supercrit- ical carbon dioxide extraction technology; these Authors have found that there was a mass-transfer limitation. In the extraction vessel, the mass transfer coefficient in- creases with the

  8. Melissa officinalis L. extract – an effective remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Terlecki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lemon balm is the popular name of Melissa officinalis L. Melissa comes from the Greek word Mélissa meaning honeybee. Within the species were distinguished three subspecies: M. officinalis ssp. altissima Arcangeli, M. officinalis ssp. officinalis, and M. officinalis ssp. indora Boran. These are the plants from Lamiaceae group, native to the Mediterranean, but also widespread distributed in moderate and subtropical climate regions. M. officinalis is commonly used for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and more recently in the treatment of Herpes simplex lesions. Leaves are pharmacopeia material. In the fresh herb a content of balm oil is 0.01-0.10% and in the dried leaves from 0.1% up to 0.3%. The main components of M. officinalis usually are: citronellal (approximately 40% of content of balm oil, citral, neral, linalool, flavonoids, chlorogenic, ferulic, rosmarinic (4% of content of balm oil and caffeic acid. The aim of the study was to analyze the literature date about the application of balm extract and oil in the contemporary medicine. The latest studies showed the evidence that the alcoholic lemon balm leaves extract has antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects. Thus could be used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 or dyslipidemia by the activation of receptors PPAR playing the major role in glucose and lipids metabolism. Another importance of the lemon balm leaves extract is its antiviral activity, owes to rosmarinic acid. Melissa extract demonstrates high virucidal activity even at very low concentrations; it demonstrates low toxicity and inhibits HSV-1 attachment to host cells in vitro. The volatile oils included in lemon balm inhibit the replication of HSV-2. Moreover, the rosmarinic acid found out to be cytotoxic against Human Colon Cancer Cell Line. The substance contained in an alcoholic extract from M. officinalis turned out to be anti-proliferative and decrease in cell number neoplasmatic cell

  9. Soil remediation via bioventing, vapor extraction and transition regime between vapor extraction and bioventing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Comparison of the BV, SVE and AIBV technologies indicated that all of those technologies are efficient for remediation of unsaturated zone, but after specific remediation time frames, only AIBV able to support guide line values and protect ground waters.

  10. EXTRACTION, RECOVERY, AND BIOSTABILITY OF EDTA FOR REMEDIATION OF HEAVY METAL-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825549C052)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelation removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is seen as a viable remediation technique. A useful chelating agent should be strong, reusable, and biostable during metal extraction and recovery operations. This work tested the extraction, recovery, and biostability o...

  11. EXTRACTION, RECOVERY, AND BIOSTABILITY OF EDTA FOR REMEDIATION OF HEAVY METAL-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825549C052)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelation removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil is seen as a viable remediation technique. A useful chelating agent should be strong, reusable, and biostable during metal extraction and recovery operations. This work tested the extraction, recovery, and biostability o...

  12. Field Validation of the NUFT Code for Subsurface Remediation by Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J.J.

    2000-09-23

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a widely-used method for remediation of contaminants in the unsaturated, or vadose, zone. SVE removes volatile contaminants by extracting gases from the subsurface. The pressure gradients necessary to drive gas flow are limited by at most one atmosphere of vacuum. Therefore, a common adjunct to SVE is the injection of fresh air into the subsurface at a distance from the extraction wells in order to increase overall gas pressure gradients, and, hence, flow rates. SVE has also been used for saturated zone remediation by first pumping the water table down to expose free phase contaminants. The selection of a vadose zone remediation method depends on a variety of site parameters. The type of contaminant is a major factor. Obviously, the selection of SVE as a method makes sense only for volatile contaminants since, otherwise, gas phase transport would be impossible. Bioventing is often a cost-effective candidate for contaminants that biodegrade easily in an aerobic environment, such as petroleum hydrocarbons. Bioventing shares some similarity to SVE, except that the flow rates are usually much lower. Whereas, the main goal of bioventing is to provide oxygen to the micro-organisms that break-down the contaminant; the main goal of SVE is physical removal. Biodegradation may be, for some contaminants, an important side benefit of SVE. However, bioventing and other forms of bioremediation are not considered to be effective for chlorinated vadose zone contaminants, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), which does not biodegrade readily in an aerobic environment. Soil excavation is a viable remediation method for the shallow spills where there are no existing important man-made structures. Otherwise, SVE is often the most appropriate and widely used remediation method for VOC's in the vadose zone.

  13. Sequential Application of Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioremediation Processes for the Remediation of Ethylbenzene-Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás;

    2012-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application...

  14. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crean, Daniel E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Livens, Francis R.; Sajih, Mustafa [Centre for Radiochemistry Research, School of Chemistry, The University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Stennett, Martin C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Hyatt, Neil C., E-mail: n.c.hyatt@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Batch leaching was examined to remediate soils contaminated with munitions depleted uranium. • Site specific maximum extraction was 42–50% total U in single batch with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}. • Analysis of residues revealed partial leaching and secondary carbonate phases. • Sequential batch leaching alternating between NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and citric acid was designed. • Site specific extraction was increased to 68–87% total U in three batch steps. -- Abstract: Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42–50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30–42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13–19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68–87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  15. Bioactivity of the Murex Homeopathic Remedy and of Extracts from an Australian Muricid Mollusc against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Benkendorff

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine molluscs from the family Muricidae are the source of a homeopathic remedy Murex, which is used to treat a range of conditions, including cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro bioactivity of egg mass extracts of the Australian muricid Dicathais orbita, in comparison to the Murex remedy, against human carcinoma and lymphoma cells. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS was used to characterize the chemical composition of the extracts and homeopathic remedy, focusing on biologically active brominated indoles. The MTS (tetrazolium salt colorimetric assay was used to determine effects on cell viability, while necrosis and apoptosis induction were investigated using flow cytometry (propidium iodide and Annexin-V staining, resp.. Cells were treated with varying concentrations (1–0.01 mg/mL of crude and semi-purified extracts or preparations (dilute 1 M and concentrated 4 mg/mL from the Murex remedy (4 h. The Murex remedy showed little biological activity against the majority of cell lines tested. In contrast, the D. orbita egg extracts significantly decreased cell viability in the majority of carcinoma cell lines. Flow cytometry revealed these extracts induce necrosis in HT29 colorectal cancer cells, whereas apoptosis was induced in Jurkat cells. These findings highlight the biomedical potential of Muricidae extracts in the development of a natural therapy for the treatment of neoplastic tumors and lymphomas.

  16. Remediation of soils contaminated with particulate depleted uranium by multi stage chemical extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crean, Daniel E; Livens, Francis R; Sajih, Mustafa; Stennett, Martin C; Grolimund, Daniel; Borca, Camelia N; Hyatt, Neil C

    2013-12-15

    Contamination of soils with depleted uranium (DU) from munitions firing occurs in conflict zones and at test firing sites. This study reports the development of a chemical extraction methodology for remediation of soils contaminated with particulate DU. Uranium phases in soils from two sites at a UK firing range, MOD Eskmeals, were characterised by electron microscopy and sequential extraction. Uranium rich particles with characteristic spherical morphologies were observed in soils, consistent with other instances of DU munitions contamination. Batch extraction efficiencies for aqueous ammonium bicarbonate (42-50% total DU extracted), citric acid (30-42% total DU) and sulphuric acid (13-19% total DU) were evaluated. Characterisation of residues from bicarbonate-treated soils by synchrotron microfocus X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy revealed partially leached U(IV)-oxide particles and some secondary uranyl-carbonate phases. Based on these data, a multi-stage extraction scheme was developed utilising leaching in ammonium bicarbonate followed by citric acid to dissolve secondary carbonate species. Site specific U extraction was improved to 68-87% total U by the application of this methodology, potentially providing a route to efficient DU decontamination using low cost, environmentally compatible reagents.

  17. Microbiological Assessment of Moringa Oleifera Extracts and Its Incorporation in Novel Dental Remedies against Some Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgamily, Hanaa; Moussa, Amani; Elboraey, Asmaa; EL-Sayed, Hoda; Al-Moghazy, Marwa; Abdalla, Aboelfetoh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of different parts of Moringa oleifera plant using different extraction methods in attempts to formulate natural dental remedies from this plant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three solvents extracts (Ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate) of different parts of Egyptian Moringa tree were prepared and tested against oral pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida albicans using disc diffusion method; As well as to incorporate the plant extract to formulate experimental toothpaste and mouthwash. The two dental remedies were assessed against the same microbial strains. Statistical analysis was performed using One-Way ANOVA test to compare the inhibition zone diameter and t-test. RESULTS: Ethanol extracts as well as leaves extracts demonstrated the highest significant mean inhibition zone values (P ≤ 0.05) against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. However, all extracts revealed no inhibition zone against Candida albicans. For dental remedies, experimental toothpaste exhibited higher mean inhibition than the mouthwash against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans and only the toothpaste revealed antifungal effect against Candida albicans. CONCLUSION: The different extracts of different parts of Moringa showed an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. The novel toothpaste of ethanolic leaves extract has antimicrobial and antifungal potential effects all selected strains. PMID:28028395

  18. Feasibility study of the use of different extractant agents in the remediation of a mercury contaminated soil from Almaden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subirés-Muñoz, J.D.; García-Rubio, A.; Vereda-Alonso, C.

    2011-01-01

    polluted for several millennia. The risk assessment of the contamination and the feasibility study (RA-FS) of the remediation were based on a standard sequential extraction procedure (SEP) together with lixiviation tests. Results obtained from these RA-FSs allow the prediction of the mercury removal...

  19. Synergistic in vitro antimalarial activity of plant extracts used as traditional herbal remedies in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azas, N; Laurencin, N; Delmas, F; Di, Giorgio C; Gasquet, M; Laget, M; Timon-David, P

    2002-02-01

    In Mali, where malaria is endemic, plants are extensively used for treating periodic fevers and malaria. According to the advice of traditional medicine, plants are often mixed during the preparation of febrifugal decoctions. In previous studies, we demonstrated the potent in vitro antimalarial activity of extracts isolated from four plants commonly used in traditional remedies: Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) O. Kuntze, Rubiaceae, Nauclea latifolia (Sm.), Rubiaceae, Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.), Combretaceae, and Feretia apodanthera (Del.), Rubiaceae. In the present work, we evaluate the potent in vitro synergistic antimalarial interaction between these extracts, using standard isobologram analysis. Then, we evaluate their cytotoxicity on human monocytes and their mutagenic activity on an in vitro system of two beta-carboline alkaloids isolated from Guiera senegalensis (harman and tetrahydroharman). Three combinations demonstrate a strong, synergistic, inhibitory effect on in vitro plasmodial development and are devoid of cytotoxicity towards human cells. These results justify their use in association in traditional medicine. Moreover, tetrahydroharman, isolated from G. senegalensis, presents interesting antimalarial activity, no cytotoxicity and is not genotoxic in the Salmonella Ames test with and without metabolic activation.

  20. Corn (Zea mays growth in petroleum contaminated soil, remediated with orange (Citrus sinensis peel extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Darío Marín Veláquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil pollution has a strong impact when oil activity takes place within a savanna ecosystem. Any oil spill affects agricultural soils. Biostimulation with orange peel extract (Citrus sinensis is an alternative for remediation of soil contaminated with crude oil and in this research the corn plant (Zea mays was used as a biomarker of contamination level of a savanna soil after their treatment. Three samples of savannah soil contaminated with oil light crude were treated with dissolutions 1, 3 and 5% of extract of orange peel in water at a dose of 150 mL per kg of soil treated. The content of oils and fats was measured every 7 days, up to 42 days. Corn seeds were planted in soil samples, their growth was measured every 5 days for a period of 35 consecutive days, comparing their growth with seeds planted in a soil sample without contamination. According to an analysis of rank contrast, the plant growth was statistically the same in all samples up to 20 days; from there, evident differences regarding the pattern were shown.

  1. Remediation approach for organic compounds and arsenic co-contaminated soil using pressurized hot water extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jo, Young-Tae; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2017-09-15

    Successful remediation of soil with co-existing organics contaminants and arsenic (As) is a challenge as the chemical and remediation technologies are different for each group of pollutants. In this study, the treatment effectiveness of pressurized hot water (PHW) extraction process was investigated for remediation of soil co-contaminated with phenol, crude oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and As. An elimination percentage of about 99% was achieved for phenol, and in the range of 63-100% was observed for the PAHs at 260 °C for 90 min operation. The performance of PHW extraction in the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons was found to be 86%. Of the 87 mg/kg of As in untreated soil, 67% of which was eliminated after treatment. The removal of organic contaminants was mainly via desorption, dissolution and degradation in subcritical water, while As was eliminated probably by oxidation and dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. According to the experimental results, PHW extraction process can be suggested as an alternative cleaning technology, instead of using any organic solvents for remediation of such co-contaminated soil.

  2. Feasibility Study of the Use of Thiosulfate as Extractant Agent in the Electrokinetic Remediation of a Soil Contaminated by Mercury from Almadén

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subires-Muñoz, José Diego; García-Rubio, Ana; Vereda-Alonso, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Natural soils are rather complex, making the predictability of the behavior of some remediation techniques very complicated. In this paper, the remediation of a Hg contaminated soil close to Almadén using a thiosulfate solution as extractant agent is studied. In addition, the use of the BCR...

  3. Um Banco na Misericórdia de Viana do Castelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Silveira Pereira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the second half of the XIX century, the Portuguese governments believed that the development of the kingdom required the widening of the credit to agriculture and the fostering of communications and education. In 1866 and 1867, to achieve the first of those requirements, the government published two laws that allowed charity institutions like the Misericórdias to use their assets in order to create rural and industrial banks. In Viana do Castelo, the local Misericórdia took advantage of that law and created the Banco Agrícola e Industrial Vianense.

  4. Cosmetics and herbal remedies with Compositae plant extracts - are they tolerated by Compositae-allergic patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2008-01-01

    -containing preparations, including tea, creams, ointments, and oil. 5 of 6 arnica-sensitive persons tested positive to arnica-based products. RESULTS: When the group was patch tested with cosmetic and/or herbal product ingredients, plant allergens elicited positive reactions most frequently, but fragrances, emulsifiers......BACKGROUND: Compositae-sensitive patients are routinely warned against topical use of Compositae-containing cosmetics and herbal remedies. However, the risk of elicitation of dermatitis in presensitized persons is unknown. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of this study was to assess the significance...... of direct plant allergen contact via Compositae-derived cosmetics and herbal remedies in Compositae-allergic patients with special reference to arnica (Arnica montana) and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita). METHODS: 8 of 12 chamomile-sensitive patients tested positive to chamomile...

  5. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips , Elizabeth J.P.; Landa, Edward R.; Lovely, Derek R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranuum-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20–94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism,Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in the bicarbonate extracts. In some instances unidentified dissolved extracted components, presumably organics, gave the extract a yellow color and inhibited U(VI) reduction and/or the precipitation of U(IV). Removal of the dissolved yellow material with the addition of hydrogen peroxide alleviated this inhibition. These results demonstrate that bicarbonate extraction of uranium from soil followed by microbial U(VI) reduction might be an effective mechanism for concentrating uranium from some contaminated soils.

  6. Misery is not miserly: sad and self-focused individuals spend more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryder, Cynthia E; Lerner, Jennifer S; Gross, James J; Dahl, Ronald E

    2008-06-01

    Misery is not miserly: Sadness increases the amount of money that decision makers give up to acquire a commodity. The present research investigated when and why the misery-is-not-miserly effect occurs. Drawing on William James's concept of the material self, we tested a model specifying relationships among sadness, self-focus, and the amount of money that decision makers spend. Consistent with our Jamesian hypothesis, results demonstrated that the misery-is-not-miserly effect occurs only when self-focus is high. That is, self-focus moderates the effect of sadness on spending. Moreover, mediational analyses revealed that, at sufficiently high levels, self-focus mediates (explains) the relationship between sadness and spending. Because the study used real commodities and real money, the results hold implications for everyday decisions, as well as implications for the development of theory. For example, economic theories of spending may benefit from incorporating psychological theories -- specifically, theories of emotion and the self -- into their models.

  7. High quality coal extraction and environmental remediation of fine coal refuse ponds using advanced cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Patwardhan, A. [Department of Mining Engineering, Southern Illinois University-Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois (United States)

    1998-07-01

    A vast number of coal refuse ponds represent a significant economical resource base that are also considered to be environmentally harmful. Significant amounts of cleanable fine coal generally exist in the refuse ponds due to the inability of conventional technologies to effectively separate the fine coal from the associated gangue particles. In addition, acid generation, generally a result of pyrite oxidation, has potential to adversely affect the surrounding environment. An integrated processing strategy of simultaneously recovering high quality coal and pyrite-rich products from the treatment of a coal refuse pond slurry has been successfully evaluated using an advanced physical cleaning circuit. A clean coal product having ash and pyritic sulfur contents of 10.1% and 0.41% was recovered with a mass yield of nearly 49%. In addition, a pyrite-rich product containing nearly 83% of the coal pyrite particles present in the refuse pond material was generated for neutralization purposes for the environmental remediation of the slurry pond. 4 refs.

  8. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  9. Remediation Performance and Mechanism of Heavy Metals by a Bottom-up Activation and Extraction System Using Multiple Biochemical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kemeng; Li, Yunzhen; Sun, Yang; Liu, Ruyue; Li, Junjie; Zhao, Yun; Xu, Heng

    2017-08-24

    Soil contamination with heavy metals has caused serious environmental problems and increased the risks to humans and biota. Herein, we developed an effective bottom-up metals removal system, which was based on the synergy between the activation of immobilization metals resistant bacteria (B) and the extraction of bio-accumulator material (Stropharia rugoso-annulata). In this system, the advantages of biochar (BC) produced at 400 ℃ and sodium alginate (SA) were integrated to immobilize bacteria. Optimized by response surface methodology (RSM), the biochar and the bacterial suspension were mixed with the ratio of 1:20 (w:v) for 12 hours when 2.5% sodium alginate was added into the mixture. Results demonstrated the system significantly increased the proportion of acid soluble Cd and Cu, and improved the soil micro-ecology (microbial counts, soil respiration and enzyme activities). The maximum extraction of Cd and Cu were 8.79 mg kg-1 and 77.92 mg kg-1, respectively. Besides, details of the possible mechanistic insight to the metals removal were discussed, which indicated it was positively correlated with the acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metals and soil micro-ecology. Meanwhile, the "dilution effect" in Stropharia rugoso-annulata probably played an important role in metals removal process. Furthermore, the metals resistant bacteria in this system were successfully colonized and the soil bacteria community were evaluated to understand the microbial diversity in metals contaminated soils after remediation. Soil contamination with heavy metals has caused serious environmental problems and increased the risks to humans and biota. Herein, we developed an effective bottom-up metals removal system, which was based on the synergy between the activation of immobilization metals resistant bacteria (B) and the extraction of bio-accumulator material (Stropharia rugoso-annulata). In this system, the advantages of biochar (BC) produced at 400 ℃ and sodium alginate (SA) were

  10. Remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil using chelant extraction: Feasibility studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.; Miller, G.; Taylor, J.D.; Schneider, J.F.; Zellmer, S.; Edgar, D.E.; Johnson, D.O.

    1993-08-01

    Results are presented of a laboratory investigation conducted to determine the efficacy of using chelating agents to extract heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ba, Cu, and Zn) from soil, the primary focus being on the extraction of lead from the soil. Results from the batch-shaker studies and emphasizes the columnar extraction studies are described. The chelating agents studied included ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid, in addition to water. Concentrations of the chelants ranged from 0.01 to 0.05 M; the suspension pH was varied between 3 and 8. Results showed that the removal of lead using citric acid and water was somewhat pH-dependent. For the batch-shaker studies, the results indicated that EDTA was more effective at removing Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than was citric acid (both present at 0.01 M). EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing Cr and Ba from the soil. Heavy metals removal was slightly more effective in the more acidic region (pH {le} 5).

  11. The street demonstrations of portuguese misericórdias within the baroque context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobo de Araujo, María Marta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses some of the public demonstrations of the Portuguese Misericórdias within the baroque context, highlighting some of the most relevant aspects of those moments. Magnificence, splendour, pomp and charity were some of the ingredients that would be associated in these occasions, under the goal of publicizing their charity rituals and, simultaneously grant visibility to the power of those who were members of these institutions. Gestures, prepared to the detail, ceremonies that were designed to be unique and behaviours that were expected to be adequate, such were the mechanisms that the Misericórdias activated whenever they would elevate themselves in these public street demonstrations.

    Nuestro trabajo analiza algunas de las manifestaciones públicas de las Misericordias portuguesas en el contexto barroco, destacando los aspectos más relevantes de aquellos tiempos. Grandiosidad, esplendor, brillo y caridad eran algunos de los ingredientes que se asociaban a aquellas ocasiones, con el objetivo de publicitar los rituales de caridad y, simultaneamente, dar visibilidad al poder de aquellos que dirigían estas instituciones. Gestos preparados con meticulosidad, ceremonias que pretendían ser inigualables y comportamientos que se esperaban adecuados, eran mecanismos que las Misericordias desplegaban cuando estas manifestaciones públicas salían a las calles. [pt] O nosso trabalho analisa algumas das manifestações públicas das Misericórdias portuguesas em contexto barroco, procurando destacar os aspectos mais relevantes desses momentos. Grandiosidade, esplendor, brilho e caridade eram alguns dos ingredientes que se associavam nessas ocasiões, com o objectivo de publicitar os seus rituais de caridade e simultaneamente dar visibilidade ao poder dos que compunham estas instituições. Gestos preparados com minúcia, cerimónias que se desejavam inegualáveis e comportamentos que se esperavam adequados eram

  12. Analysis of Causes of Jennies’Miserable Destination in Jennie Gerhardt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei

    2016-01-01

    Jennie Gerhardt is a representative and influential novel of Theodore Dreiser. Jennie is a sincere and kind-hearted girl with traditional virtues while she is always fooled by the fate. Her miserable destination makes thousands of readers feel regret-ful. This paper will analyze the causes of Jennie’s tragic destination from social factors, Jennie’s personality and the hurt to Jen-nie from Lester and his family. By text analysis, readers can have a better understanding of the deep significance of this great work.

  13. Simultaneous application of chemical oxidation and extraction processes is effective at remediating soil Co-contaminated with petroleum and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Chan; Lee, Chadol; Lee, Jeung-Sun; Baek, Kitae

    2017-01-15

    Chemical extraction and oxidation processes to clean up heavy metals and hydrocarbon from soil have a higher remediation efficiency and take less time than other remediation processes. In batch extraction/oxidation process, 3% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and 0.1 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) could remove approximately 70% of the petroleum and 60% of the Cu and Pb in the soil, respectively. In particular, petroleum was effectively oxidized by H2O2 without addition of any catalysts through dissolution of Fe oxides in natural soils. Furthermore, heavy metals bound to Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides could be extracted by metal-EDTA as well as Fe-EDTA complexation due to the high affinity of EDTA for metals. However, the strong binding of Fe-EDTA inhibited the oxidation of petroleum in the extraction-oxidation sequential process because Fe was removed during the extraction process with EDTA. The oxidation-extraction sequential process did not significantly enhance the extraction of heavy metals from soil, because a small portion of heavy metals remained bound to organic matter. Overall, simultaneous application of oxidation and extraction processes resulted in highly efficient removal of both contaminants; this approach can be used to remove co-contaminants from soil in a short amount of time at a reasonable cost.

  14. Nephrotoxic effects of aquoeus extract U & Dee Sweet Bitter (a Nigerian herbal remedy) in male albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezejiofor, N A; Maduagwuna, N; Igwebuike, Onyiaorah Victor; Hussaini, D C; Orisakwe, O E

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the extract of U & Dee Sweet Bitter, a Nigerian herbal remedy on the kidney was investigated in matured Wistar albino rats. Twenty male albino rats were allocated into four dose groups of five rats each, namely 0.00, 539, 1077, 1616 mg/kg of the herbal product orally for 90 days. Animals had access to deionized water and were fed ad libitum with rat chow for 90 days. The feed and fluid consumption of the animals were measured on daily basis, and the body weight was measured weekly. After 90 days, the animals were anaesthetized with ether, bled, sacrificed, kidney excised, and weighed. The parameters measured included food and fluid intake, body weight, absolute and relative weight of the kidney. A nonsignificant increase (p > .05) in feed and fluid intake occurred in all treated animals and a significant decrease (p Dee Sweet Bitter caused a significant (p Dee Sweet Bitter at all doses caused renal pathologic changes that include tubular necrosis, inflammation of the interstitial and glomerulus, and disorganization of the entire architecture. The results are indicative of nephrotoxicity.

  15. Un relato sobre los 'miserables': Para una tumba sin nombre de Juan Carlos Onetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gabriela Basile

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available En el interior del proyecto fundacional de Onetti es posible leer tanto sus elecciones como sus exclusiones, su apuesta a la invención ficcional y su rechazo de las estéticas que califica de "nativistas" y "criollistas" así como su crítica al "compromiso literario". Tracé un itinerario de las huellas de estas exclusiones en sus textos, trayecto que se inicia en El pozo (1939 y en sus escritos contemporáneos de Marcha para articularse en Para una tumba sin nombre (1959. Propongo leer esta última nouvelle a partir de la siguiente pregunta: ¿cómo es posible armar un relato sobre "los miserables" en contra del relato realista y fuera de los mandatos del compromiso político?

  16. Un relato sobre los 'miserables': Para una tumba sin nombre de Juan Carlos Onetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Gabriela Basile

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available En el interior del proyecto fundacional de Onetti es posible leer tanto sus elecciones como sus exclusiones, su apuesta a la invención ficcional y su rechazo de las estéticas que califica de "nativistas" y "criollistas" así como su crítica al "compromiso literario". Tracé un itinerario de las huellas de estas exclusiones en sus textos, trayecto que se inicia en El pozo (1939 y en sus escritos contemporáneos de Marcha para articularse en Para una tumba sin nombre (1959. Propongo leer esta última nouvelle a partir de la siguiente pregunta: ¿cómo es posible armar un relato sobre "los miserables" en contra del relato realista y fuera de los mandatos del compromiso político?

  17. GC/MS Evaluation and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oil and Solvent Extracts of an Endemic Plant Used as Folk Remedy in Turkey: Phlomis bourgaei Boiss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Sarikurkcu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was outlined to examine the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oil and in vitro antioxidant potentials of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic Phlomis bourgaei Boiss. used as folk remedy in Turkey. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS, and the predominant components in the oil were found to be β-caryophyllene (37.37%, (Z-β-farnesene (15.88%, and germacrene D (10.97%. Antioxidant potentials of the solvent extracts and the oil were determined by four testing systems including β-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, and chelating effect. In β-carotene/linoleic acid assay, all extracts showed the inhibition of more than 50% at all concentrations. In DPPH, chelating effect, and reducing power test systems, the water extract with 88.68%, 77.45%, and 1.857 (absorbance at 700 nm, respectively, exhibited more excellent activity potential than other extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol and the essential oil at 1.0 mg/mL concentration. The amount of the total phenolics and flavonoids was the highest in this extract (139.50 ± 3.98 μg gallic acid equivalents (GAEs/mg extract and 22.71 ± 0.05 μg quercetin equivalents (QEs/mg extract.

  18. Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the different extracts of Thai traditional remedy called prabchompoothaweep for allergic rhinitis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai-aue, Areeratna; Makchuchit, Sunita; Juckmeta, Thana; Itharat, Arunporn

    2014-08-01

    Prabchompoothaweep remedy (PT) has long been used in Thai traditional medicine to treat allergic rhinitis and asthma. It is composed of 23 plants. It is on National herbal drug list of Thailand, but there is no reportfor anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. To investigate anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of the crude extract from PTby different extraction method. The method of extract used was maceration in 95% ethanol and 50% ethanol; the residue of these extracts were continued extracted by boiling water, they obtained PTE95, PTE50, PTR95 andPTR50, respectively. The other method of extraction was boiling and drying by lyophilizer that obtained PTW Five crude extracts were determined anti- allergic activity by the inhibition of β-hexosaminidase release from RBL-2H3 cell lines, anti-inflammatory activity were determined by the inhibition ofnitric oxide (NO) production from RA W264. 7 cell lines induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and antioxidant activity were tested by DPPH radical scavenging assay. PTE95 showed the most potent ofanti-allergic activity, anti-inflammatory activity and antioxidant activity (IC5 = 12.97, 22.51 and EC50 = 14.62 μg/ml, respectively). These results suggest that the method of extraction PT that showed the best anti-allergy, anti-inflamation and antioxidant activity was maceration in 95% ethanol.

  19. Arsenic Speciation and Extraction and the Significance of Biodegradable Acid on Arsenic Removal—An Approach for Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thinh Nguyen Van

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of arsenic remediation tests were conducted using a washing method with biodegradable organic acids, including oxalic, citric and ascorbic acids. Approximately 80% of the arsenic in one sample was removed under the effect of the ascorbic and oxalic acid combination, which was roughly twice higher than the effectiveness of the ascorbic and citric acid combination under the same conditions. The soils treated using biodegradable acids had low remaining concentrations of arsenic that are primarily contained in the crystalline iron oxides and organic matter fractions. The close correlation between extracted arsenic and extracted iron/aluminum suggested that arsenic was removed via the dissolution of Fe/Al oxides in soils. The fractionation of arsenic in four contaminated soils was investigated using a modified sequential extraction method. Regarding fractionation, we found that most of the soil contained high proportions of arsenic (As in exchangeable fractions with phosphorus, amorphous oxides, and crystalline iron oxides, while a small amount of the arsenic fraction was organic matter-bound. This study indicated that biodegradable organic acids can be considered as a means for arsenic-contaminated soil remediation.

  20. Arsenic Speciation and Extraction and the Significance of Biodegradable Acid on Arsenic Removal—An Approach for Remediation of Arsenic-Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van, Thinh; Osanai, Yasuhito; Do Nguyen, Hai; Kurosawa, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    A series of arsenic remediation tests were conducted using a washing method with biodegradable organic acids, including oxalic, citric and ascorbic acids. Approximately 80% of the arsenic in one sample was removed under the effect of the ascorbic and oxalic acid combination, which was roughly twice higher than the effectiveness of the ascorbic and citric acid combination under the same conditions. The soils treated using biodegradable acids had low remaining concentrations of arsenic that are primarily contained in the crystalline iron oxides and organic matter fractions. The close correlation between extracted arsenic and extracted iron/aluminum suggested that arsenic was removed via the dissolution of Fe/Al oxides in soils. The fractionation of arsenic in four contaminated soils was investigated using a modified sequential extraction method. Regarding fractionation, we found that most of the soil contained high proportions of arsenic (As) in exchangeable fractions with phosphorus, amorphous oxides, and crystalline iron oxides, while a small amount of the arsenic fraction was organic matter-bound. This study indicated that biodegradable organic acids can be considered as a means for arsenic-contaminated soil remediation.

  1. The effectiveness of electro-remediation of aged, metal-contaminated sediment in relation to sequential extraction of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, O.K.; Loch, J.P.G.; Lima, A.T.; Dijk, J.A.; Kreuk, J.F. de; Kleingeld, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil pollution is a universal environmental issue, and the clean-up of contaminated soils can be costly and time consuming. Traditional methods often do not provide an effective solution when it comes to fine-grained and highly impermeable soils and/or immobile contaminants. Electro-remediation, how

  2. The effectiveness of electro-remediation of aged, metal-contaminated sediment in relation to sequential extraction of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkx, O.K.; Loch, J.P.G.; Lima, A.T.; Dijk, J.A.; Kreuk, J.F. de; Kleingeld, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Soil pollution is a universal environmental issue, and the clean-up of contaminated soils can be costly and time consuming. Traditional methods often do not provide an effective solution when it comes to fine-grained and highly impermeable soils and/or immobile contaminants. Electro-remediation, how

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Atylotus miser (Diptera: Tabanomorpha: Tabanidae), with mitochondrial genome phylogeny of lower Brachycera (Orthorrhapha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Li, Xuankun; Ding, Shuangmei; Wang, Ning; Mao, Meng; Wang, Mengqing; Yang, Ding

    2016-07-15

    Brachycera is a clade with over 80,000 described species and originated from the Mesozoic, and its larvae employ comprehensive feeding strategies. The phylogeny of the lower Brachycera has been studied intensively over the past decades. In order to supplement the lack of genetic data in this important group, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of Atylotus miser as well as the nearly complete mt genomes of another 11 orthorrhaphous flies. The mt genome of A. miser is 15,858bp, which is typical of Diptera, with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a 993bp control region. The rest of the orthorrhaphous mt genomes in our study have the similar structure with A. miser. Additionally, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 20 mt genomes using Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods in order to reconstruct the evolutionary relationship of Orthorrhapha. The results show that all infraorders of Brachycera are monophyletic, and a relationship of Tabanomorpha+((Xylophagomorpha+Stratiomyomorpha)+Muscomorpha) has been proposed. Within Xylophagomorpha, Nemestrinoidae forms the sister group of Xylophagidae.

  4. Remediation of oil contaminated soil by solvent extraction%溶剂萃取法修复石油污染土壤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华正韬; 李鑫钢; 隋红; 李洪

    2013-01-01

    对溶剂萃取法修复石油类污染土壤的新技术做了较为全面的概述.首先,介绍了溶剂萃取技术的概念、机理和适用范围;其次,介绍了包括有机溶剂、表面活性剂、环糊精、超临界流体在内的萃取剂的研究进展;再次,阐述了影响溶剂萃取效率的因素和溶剂萃取的工艺条件;最后,对溶剂萃取技术的研究和应用做了展望.%The solvent extraction technology for remediation of oil contaminated soil is reviewed in detail.The concepts,mechanism and scope of solvent extraction technology are introduced.The research progress of the extraction solvents including organic solvent,surfactants,cyclodextrins and supercritical fluid,are described.The factors influencing solvent extraction and technological conditions are analyzed.The prospect of further research and application of solvent extraction technologies are also proposed.

  5. Microbiological Assessment of Moringa Oleifera Extracts and Its Incorporation in Novel Dental Remedies against Some Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Elgamily

    2016-11-01

    CONCLUSION: The different extracts of different parts of Moringa showed an antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans growth. The novel toothpaste of ethanolic leaves extract has antimicrobial and antifungal potential effects all selected strains.

  6. Highly efficient extraction of phenolic compounds by use of magnetic room temperature ionic liquids for environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning; Li, Min; Zhao, Lijie; Lu, Chengfei; de Rooy, Sergio L; Warner, Isiah M

    2011-09-15

    A hydrophobic magnetic room temperature ionic liquid (MRTIL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium tetrachloroferrate(III) ([3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)]), was synthesized from trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride and FeCl(3) · 6H(2)O. This MRTIL was investigated as a possible separation agent for solvent extraction of phenolic compounds from aqueous solution. Due to its strong paramagnetism, [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] responds to an external neodymium magnet, which was employed in the design of a novel magnetic extraction technique. The conditions for extraction, including extraction time, volume ratio between MRTIL and aqueous phase, pH of aqueous solution, and structures of phenolic compounds were investigated and optimized. The magnetic extraction of phenols achieved equilibrium in 20 min and the phenolic compounds were found to have higher distribution ratios under acidic conditions. In addition, it was observed that phenols containing a greater number of chlorine or nitro substituents exhibited higher distribution ratios. For example, the distribution ratio of phenol (D(Ph)) was 107. In contrast, 3,5-dichlorophenol distribution ratio (D(3,5-DCP)) had a much higher value of 6372 under identical extraction conditions. When compared with four selected traditional non-magnetic room temperature ionic liquids, our [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] exhibited significantly higher extraction efficiency under the same experimental conditions used in this work. Pentachlorophenol, a major component in the contaminated soil sample obtained from a superfund site, was successfully extracted and removed by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)] with high extraction efficiency. Pentachlorophenol concentration was dramatically reduced from 7.8 μg mL(-1) to 0.2 μg mL(-1) after the magnetic extraction by use of [3C(6)PC(14)][FeCl(4)].

  7. Bioaugmentation for Groundwater Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    emulsified vegetable oil EX extraction well FRTR Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable gpm gallon per minute GSA General Services Administration...logic controller PRB permeable reactive barrier PVC polyvinyl chloride ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued) viii qPCR quantitative...situ growth of DHC and degradation of target contaminants. A slow-release carbon source, such as emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) is often utilized with

  8. Genealogy Remediated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi

    2007-01-01

    Genealogical websites are becoming an increasingly popular genre on the Web. This chapter will examine how remediation is used creatively in the construction of family history. While remediation of different kinds of old memory materials is essential in genealogy, digital technology opens new...... and technological competences, which helps to anchor the owner within the genealogical community....

  9. Osteossarcoma: experiência do Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Helaine Cristina de Castro; Karina de Cássia Braga Ribeiro; Paula Bruniera

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: Descrever as características clínico-laboratoriais das crianças e adolescentes com osteossarcoma acompanhadas no Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo e determinar as taxas de sobrevida livre de evento e sobrevida global, correlacionando-as com os principais fatores prognósticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado no Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo compreendendo o período entre abril de 1991 e sete...

  10. A percepção dos colaboradores sobre riscos e doenças profissionais (um estudo em misericórdias)

    OpenAIRE

    Flora, Eloísa Sofia Santinho

    2013-01-01

    As Organizações devem desenvolver ferramentas de gestão capazes de identificar, contextualizar e eliminar/reduzir os riscos ocupacionais para a estruturação de ambientes saudáveis de trabalho. Nas instituições associadas com a Santa Casa da Misericórdia são desempenhadas funções com níveis de exigência elevados, impondo constantes desafios aos seus colaboradores. Neste sentido, pretendeu-se caracterizar a percepção dos colaboradores de três Misericórdias (Bragança, Mirandela e Vinhais) em ...

  11. [Remediation efficiency of lead-contaminated soil at an industrial site by ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-jie; Huang, Jin-lou; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Yue, Xi

    2013-09-01

    This research chose five lead-contaminated sites of a lead-acid battery factory to analyze the speciation distribution and concentration of lead. Under the same conditions (0.1 mol x L(-1) EDTA,30 min, 25 degrees C), the removal effect of heavy metal was compared between ultrasonic-assisted chemical extraction (UCE) and conventional chemical extraction ( CCE), and the variation of lead speciation was further explored. The results showed that the lead removal efficiency of UCE was significantly better than CCE. The lead removal efficiency of WS, A, B, C and BZ was 10.06%, 48.29%, 48.69%, 53.28% and 36.26% under CCE. While the removal efficiency of the UCE was 22.42%, 69.31%, 71.00%, 74.49% and 71.58%, with the average efficiency higher by 22%. By comparing the speciation distribution of the two washing methods, it was found that the acid extractable content maintained or decreased after UCE, whereas it showed an increasing trend after CCE. The reduction effect of the reducible was as high as 98% by UCE. UCE also showed a more efficient reduction effect of the organic matter-sulfite bounded form and the residual form. Hence, it is feasible to improve the washing efficiency of heavy metal contained in soil by conducting the cleaning process with the help of ultrasonic wave, which is a simple and fast mean to remove lead from contaminated sites.

  12. Gender issues in the process of religious welfare: violence against women and Santa Casa de Misericórdia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Nader

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the practice of charitable assistance to women in religious institutions, the research aims to show how the history of Santa Casa de Misericórdia, since its creation, can provide an understanding of the significance of that establishment as an expression of longing and protection for women capixabas (do Espírito Santo - Brasil victims male aggression. Considering this issue and making reference to the paradigms of evidence-based methods can visualize the possibility of achieving a restoration of historical facts through research conducted in documents, reports from providers, theses and articles dealing with the history of women and gender relations, all based in institutes of assistance to women victims of violence. Still under development, research now appears that during the Ancient Regime, both in Portugal and Brazil, the charitable religious or secular, in the form of hospital or gathering, devoted to asylum also in women who suffered violence, time not understood as gender. Keywords: Violence against women, support charitable, religious institutions, Santa Casa de Misericordia.   Concerning the practice of charitable assistance to women in religious institutions, the research aims to show how the history of Santa Casa de Misericórdia, since its creation, can provide an understanding of the significance of that establishment as an expression of longing and protection for the capixaba women (from Espírito Santo - Brazil, victims of male aggression. Considering this issue and taking as reference  the paradigms of evidence-based methods, one  can visualize the possibility of achieving a reconstruction of historical facts by means of  research conducted in documents, reports from providers, theses and articles dealing with the history of women and gender relations, all based on institutes of assistance to women victims of violence. Still under development, research infers that during the Ancient Regime, both in Portugal

  13. Extracts of Leptadenia hastata Leaf, a Famine Food and Traditional Remedy for Furuncles, Suppress Inflammation in Murine Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezike, Adaobi Chioma; Ufere, Ifechukwu Kenneth; Akah, Peter Achunike; Ezea, Samson Chukwuemeka; Okoli, Charles Ogbonnaya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the methanol extract (LHE), hexane (LHHF), ethylacetate (LHEF) and methanol (LHMF) fractions of leaf of Leptadenia hastata on acute and chronic inflammation were studied. Furthermore, the effects of LHE on acetic acid induced increase in vascular permeability, carrageenan induced leucocyte migration and membrane stability were evaluated. The LHE and fractions were also subjected to phytochemical analysis. The LHE, LHEF and LHMF significantly (p 5 g/kg for LHE. The LHEF elicited the greatest inhibition, suggesting that the observed anti-inflammatory effects may be attributable to the flavonoids abundant in the fraction. These findings demonstrate that the effectiveness of L. hastata leaf in the treatment of furuncles may largely derive from anti-inflammatory activities mediated through inhibition of both increase in vascular permeability and leucocyte migration, and stabilization of cell membranes.

  14. Electrodialytic extraction of heavy metals from Greenlandic MSWI fly ash as a function of remediation time and L/S ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The management of Greenlandic municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash could be improved. Presently, the fly ash is disposed of in Norway as the fly ash is classified as hazardous waste. Fly ash contains high amounts of leachable heavy metals, but also resources that could be beneficial...... for reuse. In electrodialytic remediation a direct current is applied to a contaminated particulate material to remove heavy metals from the material. In this study, electrodialytic remediation was applied to a Greenlandic MSWI fly ash from a small waste incinerator in Ilulissat. The fly ash...... lasting 14 days with L/S 10, up to 60 % Cd, 45 % Zn, 20 % Ni and Ba was removed. Regardless of the remediation time and L/S ratio, the fraction of soluble Ba, Cr and Pb decreased due to the electrodialytic remediation. The electrodialytic remediation method showed potential as a treatment method...

  15. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-03-20

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  16. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  17. A relação eclesialidade e misericórdia na segunda forma celebrativa da penitência: missão da comunidade paroquial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Márcio Andrade da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Na missão da Igreja, como continuadora da obra salvífica de Cristo, está a reconciliação sacramental misericordiosa, que, ressaltando o mistério pascal como ponto máximo da revelação e atuação da misericórdia divina, expressa toda a sua eclesialidade quando vivenciada e celebrada com a comunidade eclesial. Essa forma celebrativa ressalta a importância e o papel da comunidade cristã na reconciliação dos cristãos e a sua responsabilidade de proporcionar-lhes a experiência da relação entre a eclesialidade e a misericórdia na segunda forma deste sacramento

  18. An in vitro based investigation of the cytotoxic effect of water extracts of the Chinese herbal remedy LD on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Lucy A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long Dan Xie Gan Wan (LD, a Chinese herbal remedy formulation, is traditionally used to treat a range of conditions, including gall bladder diseases, hepatitis, hyperthyroidism, migraines but it is not used for the management or treatment of cancer. However some of its herbal constituents, specifically Radix bupleuri, Radix scutellariae and Rhizoma alismatis have been shown to inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate the impact of LD on cancer cells in vitro. Methods HL60 and HT29 cancer cell lines were exposed to water extracts of LD (1:10, 1:50, 1:100 and/or 1:1000 prepared from a 3 mg/30 ml stock and for both cell lines growth, apoptotic induction, alterations in cell cycle characteristics and genotoxicity were investigated. The specificity of the action of LD on these cancer cell lines was also investigated by determining its effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Preliminary chemical analysis was carried out to identify cytotoxic constituents of LD using HPLC and LCMS. Results LD was significantly cytotoxic to, and induced apoptosis in, both cell lines. Apoptotic induction appeared to be cell cycle independent at all concentrations of LD used (1:10, 1:50 and 1:100 for the HL60 cell lines and at 1:10 for the HT29 cell line. At 1:50 and 1:100 apoptotic induction by LD appeared to be cell cycle dependent. LD caused significant genotoxic damage to both cell lines compared to their respective controls. The specificity study showed that LD exerted a moderate cytotoxic action against non-proliferating and proliferating blood lymphocytes but not apoptosis. Chemical analysis showed that a number of fractions were found to exert a significant growth inhibitory effect. However, the molecular weights of compounds within these fractions did not correspond to those from the herbal constituents of LD. Conclusion It is possible that LD may have some chemotherapeutic potential. However

  19. Garlic, from Remedy to Stimulant:Evaluation of Antifungal Potential Reveals Diversity in Phytoalexin Allicin Content among Garlic Cultivars; Allicin Containing Aqueous Garlic Extracts Trigger Antioxidants in Cucumber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Hayat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Garlic has the charisma of a potent remedy and holds its repute of a therapeutic panacea since the dawn of civilization. An integrated approach was adopted to evaluate the genetic diversity among Chinese garlic cultivars for their antifungal potency as well as allicin content distribution and, furthermore; a bioassay was performed to study the bio-stimulation mechanism of aqueous garlic extracts (AGE in the growth and physiology of cucumber (Cucumis sativus. Initially, 28 garlic cultivars were evaluated against four kinds of phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Verticillium dahliae and Phytopthora capsici, respectively. A capricious antifungal potential among the selected garlic cultivars was observed. HPLC fingerprinting and quantification confirmed diversity in allicin abundance among the selected cultivars. Cultivar G025, G064 and G074 had the highest allicin content of 3.98, 3.7 and 3.66 mg g-1 respectively, whereas G110 was found to have lowest allicin content of 0.66 mg g-1. Cluster analysis revealed three groups on the basis of antifungal activity and allicin content among the garlic cultivars. Cultivar G025, G2011-4 and G110 were further evaluated to authenticate the findings through different solvents and shelf life duration and G025 had the strongest antifungal activity in all conditions. Leaf disc bioassay against Phytophthora capsici and Verticillium dahliae to comparatively study direct action of AGE and Allicin aqueous standard (AAS during infection process employing eggplant and pepper leaves showed a significant reduction in infection percentage. To study the bioactivity of AGE, a bioassay was performed using cucumber seedlings and results revealed that AGE is biologically active inside cucumber seedlings and alters the defense mechanism of the plant probably activating ROS at mild concentrations. However, at higher concentrations, it might cause lipid peroxidation and membrane damage which temper the

  20. Profile of Heart Donors from the Human Valve Bank of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Curitiba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Renata Maria; Costa, Marise Teresinha Brenner Affonso da; Canciglieri Junior, Osiris; Sant'Anna, Ângelo Márcio Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Human heart valves are used as replacement valves and have satisfactory functional results compared with conventional prostheses. Characterize the profile of effective heart donors from the human valve bank of the santa casa de misericórdia de curitiba and analyze the association between the profile variables. It consists of a retrospective and quantitative study of electronic medical records from heart donors for heart valves. every heart donation made to the bank between january 2004 and december 2014 was studied. 2,149 donations were analyzed, from donors aged 0 to 71 years old, with an average of 34.9 ± 15.03 years old. most donors were male 65.7% (n=1,411) and 34.3% (n=738) were female. among the most frequent causes of the donors' death are trauma at 53% (n=1,139) and cerebral vascular accident at 34.2% (n=735). there was significant statistical association between the analyzed variables. There has been an improvement in brazil's donation rate, being essential that the tissue banks work together with the state and federal district centers for notification, procurement and distribution of organs in order to increase the number of donors.

  1. Water as a Reagent for Soil Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayaweera, Indira S.; Marti-Perez, Montserrat; Diaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2003-03-06

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, for remediating petroleum-contaminated soils. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise, and the implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and provide a standalone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  2. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thana Juckmeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list. Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL. Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies.

  3. Photovoltaic power for remote site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torr, S.; Jensen, E.; Dingman, C.; Brewster, M.L. [Komex International Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper described how photovoltaic solar power and remediation technologies can be integrated to remediate salt and hydrocarbon contaminated soils at remote sites. The integrated method can be applied in a variety of situations, such as groundwater extraction, reverse osmosis treatment, soil vapour extraction, and a solar mobile power station. The simplicity of the designs, the maximization of system efficiency, and minimization of operation and maintenance requirements ensure the success of the systems. The remedial goals combined with the applied technology, help in determining whether the photovoltaic powered systems should operate on an intermittent or continual basis. Higher system outputs are normally obtained with continual operation, but they also yield increased design complexity and inefficiencies. The authors stated that as the technology of photovoltaic power evolves, efficiencies and costs will improve, thereby increasing its progressive use as a renewable energy source for remote sites remediation. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  4. “I rework old masters whose copyright has expired.” Molière's The Miser and The Imaginary Invalid in the Plays by Andrej Rozman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Smolej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Andrej Rozman’s creative reception of Jean-Baptiste Poquelin Molière’s come- dies The Miser and The Imaginary Invalid. The Miser, which had been translated into Slovenian a number of times, was recast in 2007 by the Slovenian comedy writer as a comic one-man play featuring Harpagon as an entrepreneur, who discusses many topical Slovenian problems in front of the audience, with occasional allusions to his son and daughter, whom he wants to marry off according to his economic interests. In this modern version, everything is explained and solved by the daughter’s phone call. In 2011, The Imaginary Invalid inspired another of Rozman’s plays, Hiphophondrija, which features the family father as a chatty tycoon. Closest to the original is the scene with the yo- ung doctor. Both texts are travesties, rendering Molière’s plots in a lower register and setting them in contemporary Slovenia. On the other hand, certain scenes which come closest to Molière are couched in ‘precious’ idiom.

  5. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  6. Effect of different extracting solutions on the electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated wood waste Part I. - Behaviour of Cu and Cr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velizarova, E.; Ribeiro, A. B.; Mateus, E.

    2004-01-01

    Removal of Cu and Cr from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood waste under batch electrodialytic conditions was studied. The effect of different types of extracting solutions, such as deionised water or aqueous solutions of NaCl, formic acid, oxalic acid, and EDTA, on the magnitude...... and direction of the fluxes of Cu- and Cr-containing species in the electrodialytic cell was investigated. Oxalic acid was found to have the best performance if simultaneous removal of the two elements is required (removal efficiencies of 80.5% for Cu and 87.4% for Cr, respectively). A mixture of oxalic acid....... The latter were not present if EDTA was the extracting solution resulting in directing the Cu and Cr fluxes to the anode compartment. Contrary, these fluxes were exclusively to the cathode compartment if deionised water or an aqueous solution of NaCl were used. These extracting solutions proved suitable...

  7. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/....

  8. Processing of laser radar data for the extraction of an along-the-levee-crown elevation profile for levee remediation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Michael J.; McGill, Thomas E.; Taylor, Stacy R.

    2004-09-01

    Using LiDAR data collected on the levees along the Rio Grande River in New Mexico and Texas, an algorithm has been developed to automatically extract longitudinal elevation profiles. This algorithm consists of a series of filters, interpretation of geophysical properties, and digitized levee centerlines. The series of filters, in order of operation, include an alignment buffer filter, bare-earth filter, sampling filter and a maximum value filter. The result of the filter configuration is a 3-D polyline that models the levee crest. This algorithm allows for efficient identification of portions of levee that are lower than original design specifications. A comparison between the LiDAR levee crown extraction filter and a least-cost-path technique are offered.

  9. EDTA retention and emissions from remediated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2016-05-01

    EDTA-based remediation is reaching maturity but little information is available on the state of chelant in remediated soil. EDTA soil retention was examined after extracting 20 soil samples from Pb contaminated areas in Slovenia, Austria, Czech Republic and USA with 120 mM kg(-1) Na2H2EDTA, CaNa2EDTA and H4EDTA for 2 and 24 h. On average, 73% of Pb was removed from acidic and 71% from calcareous soils (24 h extractions). On average, 15% and up to 64% of applied EDTA was after remediation retained in acidic soils. Much less; in average 1% and up to the 22% of EDTA was retained in calcareous soils. The secondary emissions of EDTA retained in selected remediated soil increased with the acidity of the media: the TCLP (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure) solution (average pH end point 3.6) released up to 36% of EDTA applied in the soil (28.1 mmol kg(-1)). Extraction with deionised water (pH > 6.0) did not produce measurable EDTA emissions. Exposing soil to model abiotic (thawing/freezing cycles) and biotic (ingestion by earthworms Lumbricus rubellus) ageing factors did not induce additional secondary emissions of EDTA retained in remediated soil.

  10. Remedial effect of aqueous extract of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii Loisel and ripe fruit of Benincasa hispida Thunb in ranitidine induced-hypochlorhydric male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mandal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:  Prolonged uses of anti-gastric drugs such as ranitidine, omeprazole, famotidine suppress the gastric acid secretion and raise the gastric pH that creates a suitable environment for gastric infection by Helicobacter pylori. These drugs also reduce the vitamin C concentration in gastric juice and also in plasma. Standard concentration of vitamin C in gastric juice helps iron absorption and reduces the occurrence of gastric cancer. Therefore, hypochlorhydria is a risk factor of gastric carcinoma, Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia. In this study hypochlorhydria was (pH ³ 4 induced by ranitidine, a histamine receptor antagonist, and the aim of this present study is to evaluate the protective effect of pre-administration followed by co-administration of aqueous extract of whole plant of Fumaria vaillantii L. (AEFV or ripe fruit of Benincasa hispida T. (AEBH in individual as well as by composite manner in ranitidine-induced hypochlorhydric rat. We measured the pH, free acidity and total acidity, vitamin C concentration of gastric juice along with levels of vitamin C in plasma and hemoglobin in blood. These herbal extracts recovered the gastric secretion and it gave satisfactory results in vitamin C concentration in gastric juice though the composite extract is more potent than individual in this aspect. This study highlighted the protective activity of these two plants from the hypochlorhydric state. Industrial relevance: Herbal drugs are used for the treatment of different types of gastrointestinal ailments in Ayurveda. Hypochlorhydria is the common problemsof the older people due to aging and also problem of the different aged people due to unnecessary use of anti-secretory drugs. Now a day, hypochlorhydria is controlled by supplementation of betaine-HCl with pepsin, but its excess use can cause irritation in the gastric mucosa. These herbal extracts gave promising results in recovery of the hypochlorhydria without any toxic effect

  11. GREEN AND SUSTAINABLE REMEDIATION BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    Transition to monitored natural attenuation (MNA) as soon as conditions are favorable to effectively remediate residual contaminants.  Use of...considered to decrease energy consumption and criteria air pollution .  Use adjacent soil for backfill/ soil cover material at a landfill to...adoption. The technologies covered include air sparging, biosparging, soil vapor extraction (SVE), enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), in situ

  12. Natural Remediation at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C. M.; Van Pelt, R.

    2002-02-25

    Natural remediation is a general term that includes any technology or strategy that takes advantage of natural processes to remediate a contaminated media to a condition that is protective of human health and the environment. Natural remediation techniques are often passive and minimally disruptive to the environment. They are generally implemented in conjunction with traditional remedial solutions for source control (i.e., capping, stabilization, removal, soil vapor extraction, etc.). Natural remediation techniques being employed at Savannah River Site (SRS) include enhanced bio-remediation, monitored natural attenuation, and phytoremediation. Enhanced bio-remediation involves making nutrients available and conditions favorable for microbial growth. With proper precautions and feeding, the naturally existing microbes flourish and consume the contaminants. Case studies of enhanced bio-remediation include surface soils contaminated with PCBs and pesticides, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) contamination in both the vadose zone and groundwater. Monitored natural attenuation (MNA) has been selected as the preferred alternative for groundwater clean up at several SRS waste units. Successful implementation of MNA has been based on demonstration that sources have been controlled, groundwater modeling that indicates that plumes will not expand or reach surface water discharge points at levels that exceed regulatory limits, and continued monitoring. Phytoremediation is being successfully utilized at several SRS waste units. Phytoremediation involves using plants and vegetation to uptake, break down, or manage contaminants in groundwater or soils. Case studies at SRS include managing groundwater plumes of tritium and VOCs with pine trees that are native to the area. Significant decreases in tritium discharge to a site stream have been realized in one phytoremediation project. Studies of other vegetation types, methods of application, and other target contaminants are

  13. Impact of hospital infections on patients outcomes undergoing cardiac surgery at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Marília.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conterno, Lucieni Oliveira; Toni, Silvana Martins Dias; Konkiewitz, Rubiana Gonçalves; Guedes, Elaine Salla; Barros, Rubens Tofano de; Tiveron, Marcos Gradim

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the incidence of nosocomial infections, the risk factors and the impact of these infections on mortality among patients undergoing to cardiac surgery. Retrospective cohort study of 2060 consecutive patients from 2006 to 2012 at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Marília. 351 nosocomial infections were diagnosed (17%), 227 non-surgical infections and 124 surgical wound infections. Major infections were mediastinitis (2.0%), urinary tract infection (2.8%), pneumonia (2.3%), and bloodstream infection (1.7%). The in-hospital mortality was 6.4%. Independent variables associated with non-surgical infections were age > 60 years (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.31), ICU stay > 2 days (OR 5, 49, 95% CI 2.98 to 10, 09), mechanical ventilation > 2 days (OR11, 93, 95% CI 6.1 to 23.08), use of urinary catheter > 3 days (OR 4.85 95% CI 2.95 -7.99). Non-surgical nosocomial infections were more frequent in patients with surgical wound infection (32.3% versus 7.2%, OR 6.1, 95% CI 4.03 to 9.24). Independent variables associated with mortality were age greater than 60 years (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 t o3.0), use of vasoactive drugs (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.9 to 6, 0), insulin use (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8), surgical reintervention (OR 4.4; 95% CI 2.1 to 9.0) pneumonia (OR 4.3; 95% CI 2.1 to 8.9) and bloodstream infection (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.0 to 11.2). Non-surgical hospital infections are common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery; they increase the chance of surgical wound infection and mortality.

  14. Tutoria com médicos residentes em anestesiologia: o programa da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcolino José Álvaro Marques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A residência médica pode trazer desgaste emocional. Este artigo descreve um programa de tutoria durante o período de treinamento dos médicos em Anestesiologia. MÉTODO: O programa foi instituído na Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Vinte e sete residentes de Anestesiologia participaram do programa e quatro profissionais de saúde constituíram a equipe de tutoria. Um questionário sobre as impressões dos médicos residentes de primeiro e segundo anos, a respeito da formação médica em Anestesiologia foi desenvolvido com doze perguntas e três respostas para cada um, sendo aplicado antes e no fim do programa. Foram constituídos quatro grupos de residentes: residentes do 1º ano; residentes do 2º ano; residentes do 1º ano e 2º ano (2 grupos. As reuniões de tutoria ocorreram mensalmente às quintas-feiras, 7h00, com duração de uma hora. RESULTADOS: O cotidiano do residente foi considerado adequado. Houve redução na frustração e melhoria na auto-confiança. Um número elevado descreveu maior entusiasmo pela Anestesiologia e expectativas mais elevadas em relação ao futuro após a residência. Os tutores relataram a importância de reuniões obrigatórias, a possibilidade discutir a humanização e a possibilidade de despreparo dos tutores como um fator da limitação. CONCLUSÕES: O programa de tutoria pode ser considerado como um instrumento para a adaptação dos residentes no programa de Anestesiologia.

  15. DESCRIPTION OF MODELING ANALYSES IN SUPPORT OF THE 200-ZP-1 REMEDIAL DESIGN/REMEDIAL ACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VONGARGEN BH

    2009-11-03

    The Feasibility Study/or the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-28) and the Proposed Plan/or Remediation of the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (DOE/RL-2007-33) describe the use of groundwater pump-and-treat technology for the 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) as part of an expanded groundwater remedy. During fiscal year 2008 (FY08), a groundwater flow and contaminant transport (flow and transport) model was developed to support remedy design decisions at the 200-ZP-1 OU. This model was developed because the size and influence of the proposed 200-ZP-1 groundwater pump-and-treat remedy will have a larger areal extent than the current interim remedy, and modeling is required to provide estimates of influent concentrations and contaminant mass removal rates to support the design of the aboveground treatment train. The 200 West Area Pre-Conceptual Design/or Final Extraction/Injection Well Network: Modeling Analyses (DOE/RL-2008-56) documents the development of the first version of the MODFLOW/MT3DMS model of the Hanford Site's Central Plateau, as well as the initial application of that model to simulate a potential well field for the 200-ZP-1 remedy (considering only the contaminants carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99). This document focuses on the use of the flow and transport model to identify suitable extraction and injection well locations as part of the 200 West Area 200-ZP-1 Pump-and-Treat Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan (DOEIRL-2008-78). Currently, the model has been developed to the extent necessary to provide approximate results and to lay a foundation for the design basis concentrations that are required in support of the remedial design/remediation action (RD/RA) work plan. The discussion in this document includes the following: (1) Assignment of flow and transport parameters for the model; (2) Definition of initial conditions for the transport model for each simulated contaminant of concern (COC) (i.e., carbon

  16. Remedial design/remedial action strategy report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieffenbacher, R.G.

    1994-06-30

    This draft Regulatory Compliance Strategy (RCS) report will aid the ER program in developing and implementing Remedial Design/Remedial Action (RD/RA) projects. The intent of the RCS is to provide guidance for the implementation of project management requirements and to allow the implementation of a flexible, graded approach to design requirements depending on the complexity, magnitude, schedule, risk, and cost for any project. The RCS provides a functional management-level guidance document for the identification, classification, and implementation of the managerial and regulatory aspects of an ER project. The RCS has been written from the perspective of the ER Design Manager and provides guidance for the overall management of design processes and elements. The RCS does not address the project engineering or specification level of detail. Topics such as project initiation, funding, or construction are presented only in the context in which these items are important as sources of information or necessary process elements that relate to the design project phases.

  17. Electrodialytic Soil Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene; Hansen, Henrik K.

    1997-01-01

    It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective......It is not possible for all heavy metal polluted soils to remediate it by an applied electric field alone. A desorbing agent must in different cases be added to the soil in order to make the process possible or to make it cost effective...

  18. Solutions Remediate Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    During the Apollo Program, NASA workers used chlorinated solvents to clean rocket engine components at launch sites. These solvents, known as dense non-aqueous phase liquids, had contaminated launch facilities to the point of near-irreparability. Dr. Jacqueline Quinn and Dr. Kathleen Brooks Loftin of Kennedy Space Center partnered with researchers from the University of Central Florida's chemistry and engineering programs to develop technology capable of remediating the area without great cost or further environmental damage. They called the new invention Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron (EZVI). The groundwater remediation compound is cleaning up polluted areas all around the world and is, to date, NASA's most licensed technology.

  19. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we...

  20. Electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    prevents the protons and the hydroxides ions from the electrode processes to enter the soil. The heavy metals are collected in a concentration compartment, which is separated from the soil by ion-exchange membranes. Examples from remediation experiments are shown, and it is demonstrated that it is possible...

  1. Catalysts for Environmental Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, B. L.; Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard

    2013-01-01

    The properties of catalysts used in environmental remediation are described here through specific examples in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis. In the area of heterogeneous catalysis, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx was used as an example reaction with vanadia and tungsta...

  2. Remediation of Site of Decommissioning Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danilovich, A.S.; Ivanov, O.P.; Lemus, A.V.; Pavlenko, V.I.; Potapov, V.N.; Semenov, S.G.; Shisha, A.D.; Chesnokov, A.V. [National Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , 123182, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In the world the most widespread method of soil decontamination consists of removing the contaminated upper layer and sending it for long-term controlled storage. However, implementation of this soil cleanup method for remediation of large contaminated areas would involve high material and financial expenditures, because it produces large amounts of radioactive waste demanding removal to special storage sites. Contaminated soil extraction and cleanup performed right on the spot of remediation activities represents a more advanced and economically acceptable method. Radiological separation of the radioactive soil allows reducing of amount of radwaste. Studies performed during the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences revealed that a considerable fraction of radioactivity is accumulated in minute soil grains. So, the separation of contaminated soil by size fractions makes it possible to extract and concentrate the major share of radioactivity in the fine fraction. Based on these researches water gravity separation technology was proposed by Bochvar Institute. The method extracts the fine fraction from contaminated soil. Studies carried out by Bochvar Institute experts showed that, together with the fine fraction (amounting to 10-20% of the initial soil), this technology can remove up to 85-90% of contaminating radionuclides. The resulting 'dirty' soil fraction could be packaged into containers and removed as radwaste, and decontaminated fractions returned back to their extraction site. Use of radiological and water gravity separations consequently increases the productivity of decontamination facility. Efficiency of this technology applied for contaminated soil cleanup was confirmed in the course of remediation of the contaminated territories near decommissioning research reactor in the Kurchatov Institute. For soil cleaning purposes, a special facility implementing the technology of water gravity separation and radiometric monitoring of soil

  3. Osteossarcoma: experiência do Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo Osteosarcoma: experience of the Pediatric Oncology clinic of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Cristina de Castro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever as características clínico-laboratoriais das crianças e adolescentes com osteossarcoma acompanhadas no Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo e determinar as taxas de sobrevida livre de evento e sobrevida global, correlacionando-as com os principais fatores prognósticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo realizado no Serviço de Oncologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo compreendendo o período entre abril de 1991 e setembro de 2002. Nesse período foram diagnosticados 60 casos de osteossarcoma. Observaram-se predomínio do sexo masculino (61,7%, raça não-branca (65% e idade superior a 10 anos (70%; história de trauma prévio em 53,3%, relato de dor em 95% e aumento de volume em 80% dos casos. O joelho foi a região mais comprometida (74,9%. Em 70,7% dos casos o tumor apresentava tamanho inferior a 1/3 do comprimento do osso afetado, em 25% o nível sérico de desidrogenase láctica era igual ou maior que 500U/L e em 48,3% o nível de fosfatase alcalina era igual ou maior que 1.000U/L, 25% dos pacientes apresentavam metástase pulmonar visível ao diagnóstico e 53,3% pertenciam ao subtipo osteoblástico. O tratamento quimioterápico pré e pós-operatório foi realizado em 78,3% dos pacientes, 64% foram submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico conservador, 68,1% apresentaram necrose tumoral graus I e II e houve recidiva em 60% dos casos. RESULTADOS: Com seguimento de 48 meses observaram-se sobrevida livre de doença em 28,6% dos pacientes e sobrevida global de 38,4%. CONCLUSÕES: Os autores concluem que o diagnóstico precoce é fundamental, assim como novos estudos são necessários para aprimorar o manuseio e o tratamento desses pacientes e melhorar a sobrevida.OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical and laboratorial features of children and adolescents with osteosarcoma seen at the Pediatric Oncology clinic of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital in São Paulo

  4. Remediation Technologies Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    groundwater tainted by chlorinated solvents once used to clean rocket engine components. The award-winning innovation (Spinoff 2010) is now NASA s most licensed technology to date. PCBs in paint presented a new challenge. Removing the launch stand for recycling proved a difficult operation; the toxic paint had to be fully stripped from the steel structure, a lengthy and costly process that required the stripped paint to be treated before disposal. Noting the lack of efficient, environmentally friendly options for dealing with PCBs, Quinn and her colleagues developed the Activated Metal Treatment System (AMTS). AMTS is a paste consisting of a solvent solution containing microscale particles of activated zero-valent metal. When applied to a painted surface, the paste extracts and degrades the PCBs into benign byproducts while leaving the paint on the structure. This provides a superior alternative to other methods for PCB remediation, such as stripping the paint or incinerating the structure, which prevents reuse and can release volatized PCBs into the air. Since its development, AMTS has proven to be a valuable solution for removing PCBs from paint, caulking, and various insulation and filler materials in older buildings, naval ships, and former munitions facilities where the presence of PCBs interferes with methods for removing trace explosive materials. Miles of potentially toxic caulking join sections of runways at airports. Any of these materials installed before 1979 potentially contain PCBs, Quinn says. "This is not just a NASA problem," she says. "It s a global problem."

  5. Impact of hospital infections on patients outcomes undergoing cardiac surgery at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Marília

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucieni Oliveira Conterno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to determine the incidence of nosocomial infections, the risk factors and the impact of these infections on mortality among patients undergoing to cardiac surgery. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of 2060 consecutive patients from 2006 to 2012 at the Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Marília. Results: 351 nosocomial infections were diagnosed (17%, 227 non-surgical infections and 124 surgical wound infections. Major infections were mediastinitis (2.0%, urinary tract infection (2.8%, pneumonia (2.3%, and bloodstream infection (1.7%. The in-hospital mortality was 6.4%. Independent variables associated with non-surgical infections were age > 60 years (OR 1.59, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.31, ICU stay > 2 days (OR 5, 49, 95% CI 2.98 to 10, 09, mechanical ventilation > 2 days (OR11, 93, 95% CI 6.1 to 23.08, use of urinary catheter > 3 days (OR 4.85 95% CI 2.95 -7.99. Non-surgical nosocomial infections were more frequent in patients with surgical wound infection (32.3% versus 7.2%, OR 6.1, 95% CI 4.03 to 9.24. Independent variables associated with mortality were age greater than 60 years (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.4 to3.0, use of vasoactive drugs (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.9 to 6, 0, insulin use (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8, surgical reintervention (OR 4.4; 95% CI 2.1 to 9.0 pneumonia (OR 4.3; 95% CI 2.1 to 8.9 and bloodstream infection (OR = 4.7, 95% CI 2.0 to 11.2. Conclusion: Non-surgical hospital infections are common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery; they increase the chance of surgical wound infection and mortality.

  6. Remediation Technology Collaboration Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John; Olsen, Wade

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews programs at NASA aimed at development at Remediation Technology development for removal of environmental pollutants from NASA sites. This is challenging because there are many sites with different environments, and various jurisdictions and regulations. There are also multiple contaminants. There must be different approaches based on location and type of contamination. There are other challenges: such as costs, increased need for resources and the amount of resources available, and a regulatory environment that is increasing.

  7. The Remediation of Nosferatu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghellal, Sabiha; Morrison, Ann; Hassenzahl, Marc

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present The Remediation of Nosferatu, a location based augmented reality horror adventure. Using the theory of fictional universe elements, we work with diverse material from Nosferatu’s horror genre and vampire themes as a case study. In this interdisciplinary research we intert...... universe. We believe our approach can be more generally useful for designing future rich, enjoyable and meaningful transmedia experiences....

  8. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROMINE, L.D.

    2006-02-01

    A systematic approach to closure planning is being implemented at the Hanford Site's Central Plateau to help achieve the goal of closure by the year 2035. The overall objective of Central Plateau remediation is to protect human health and the environment from the significant quantity of contaminated material that resulted from decades of plutonium production in support of the nation's defense. This goal will be achieved either by removing contaminants or placing the residual contaminated materials in a secure configuration that minimizes further migration to the groundwater and reduces the potential for inadvertent intrusion into contaminated sites. The approach to Central Plateau cleanup used three key concepts--closure zones, closure elements, and closure process steps--to create an organized picture of actions required to complete remediation. These actions were merged with logic ties, constraints, and required resources to produce an integrated time-phased schedule and cost profile for Central Plateau closure. Programmatic risks associated with implementation of Central Plateau closure were identified and analyzed. Actions to mitigate the most significant risks are underway while high priority remediation projects continue to make progress.

  9. Remediation and Recycling of Linde FUSRAP Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, P. W.; Franz, J. P.; Rehmann, M. R.

    2002-02-27

    During World War II, the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) utilized facilities in the Buffalo, New York area to extract natural uranium from uranium-bearing ores. The Linde property is one of several properties within the Tonawanda, New York Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site, which includes Linde, Ashland 1, Ashland 2, and Seaway. Union Carbide Corporation's Linde Division was placed under contract with the Manhattan Engineering District (MED) from 1942 to 1946 to extract uranium from seven different ore sources: four African pitchblende ores and three domestic ores. Over the years, erosion and weathering have spread contamination from the residuals handled and disposed of at Linde to adjacent soils. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) negotiated a Federal Facilities Agreement (FFA) governing remediation of the Linde property. In Fiscal Year (FY) 1998, Congress transferred cleanup management responsibility for the sites in the FUSRAP program, including the Linde Site, from the DOE to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), with the charge to commence cleanup promptly. All actions by the USACE at the Linde Site are being conducted subject to the administrative, procedural, and regulatory provisions of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the existing FFA. USACE issued a Proposed Plan for the Linde Property in 1999 and a Final Record of Decision (ROD) in 2000. USACE worked with the local community near the Tonawanda site, and after considering public comment, selected the remedy calling for removing soils that exceed the site-specific cleanup standard, and transporting the contaminated material to off-site locations. The selected remedy is protective of human health and the environment, complies with Federal and State requirements, and meets commitments to the community.

  10. Case studies illustrating in-situ remediation methods for soil and groundwater contaminated with petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert A.; Lance, P.E.; Downs, A.; Kier, Brian P. [EMCON Northwest Inc., Portland, OR (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Four case studies of successful in-situ remediation are summarized illustrating cost-effective methods to remediate soil and groundwater contaminated with volatile and non-volatile petrochemicals. Each site is in a different geologic environment with varying soil types and with and without groundwater impact. The methods described include vadose zone vapor extraction, high-vacuum vapor extraction combined with groundwater tab.le depression, air sparging with groundwater recovery and vapor extraction, and bio remediation of saturated zone soils using inorganic nutrient and oxygen addition

  11. High Resolution Site Characterization as key element for proper design and cost estimation of groundwater remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Dijkshoorn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial amounts of money are spent each year on cleaning up ground water contaminations that were caused by historical industrial site activities. Too often, however, remedial objectives are not achieved within the anticipated time frame. Moreover, remedial budgets which were estimated prior to the start of remediation turn out to be largely insufficient to meet the remedial objectives. This situation, very common, creates significant troubles for all the stakeholders involved in the remediation project. The reason for not meeting remedial regulatory closure criteria or exceeding remedial budgets is often due to an incomplete conceptual site model. Having conducted high resolution site characterization programs at numerous sites where remediation was previously conducted, ERM has found several recurring themes: • Missed source areas and plumes; • Inadequate understanding of source area and plume architectures (i.e., three-dimensional contaminant distribution; • Inadequate understanding of the effects of site (hydrogeologic conditions on the ability to access contamination (i.e., via remedial additive injections of groundwater/soil gas extraction. This paper explains why remediations often fail and what the alternatives to prevent these failures (and exceeding remedial budgets are. More specifically, it focuses on alternative investigation methods and approaches that help to get to a more complete (high resolution conceptual site model. This more complete conceptual site model in return helps a more focused remedial design with a higher remedial efficiency. As a minimum, it will take away a lot of (financial uncertainty during the decision making when selecting a remedial alternative. Contaminants that have a greater density then water are known to have a greater complexity in terms of both investigation as well as remediation. Therefore, they will be the main focus of this paper.

  12. Life cycle framework for assessment of site remediation options: Investigation of six remedial options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, M.L.; Page, C.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Campbell, M. [Metro Toronto Teaching Health Units, North York, Ontario (Canada); McKenna, S. [City of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Public Health

    1997-12-31

    A Life Cycle Framework (LCF), incorporating Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Life Cycle Management (LCM) methodologies, has been developed to investigate environmental and human health burdens associated with contaminated sites and issuing from site remediation activities. The objective is to provide a tool that can guide decisions on the choice of methods that minimize environmental burden and/or to identify particular activities or processes within a remediation method that contribute most to that burden. The LCF approach is useful because it provides a systematic means of encompassing most activities within a remediation method, including those occurring beyond the contaminated site per se, and over the long term. The LCA component is used for in-depth, quantitative study of remediation options, while the more streamlined LCM is used where qualitative information and analysis is sought. The following generic remedial options were investigated using the LCM approach: no action, encapsulation, excavation and disposal, vapor extraction, in-site bioremediation, and soil washing. The analysis highlighted potential impacts for no-action, encapsulation, and excavation and disposal that involve land use and land consumption; no-action and encapsulation also effect ecosystem and human health through contaminants remaining on-site; and excavation and disposal potentially contribute to acid rain, global warming, air pollution and depletion of primary energy sources through transportation. Important potential impacts, associated with in-situ bioremediation and vapor extraction relate to contaminants remaining on-site. In addition, for in-situ bioremediation and soil washing there is concern for potential discharge of process chemicals, while for soil washing there is potential for airborne transport of contaminants to other media.

  13. CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERGMAN, T. B.; STEFANSKI, L. D.; SEELEY, P. N.; ZINSLI, L. C.; CUSACK, L. J.

    2012-09-19

    THE CENTRAL PLATEAU REMEDIATION OPTIMIZATION STUDY WAS CONDUCTED TO DEVELOP AN OPTIMAL SEQUENCE OF REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES IMPLEMENTING THE CERCLA DECISION ON THE CENTRAL PLATEAU. THE STUDY DEFINES A SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES THAT RESULT IN AN EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES FROM A STRATEGIC PERSPECTIVE WHEN CONSIDERING EQUIPMENT PROCUREMENT AND STAGING, WORKFORCE MOBILIZATION/DEMOBILIZATION, WORKFORCE LEVELING, WORKFORCE SKILL-MIX, AND OTHER REMEDIATION/DISPOSITION PROJECT EXECUTION PARAMETERS.

  14. Estudo clínico de 35 pacientes com diagnóstico de erisipela internados no Hospital Central da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo Erysipelas: a clinical study of 35 pacients hospitalized at the São Paulo Central Hospital of Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mie Oyama Okajima

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Erisipela e celulite são infecções cutâneas freqüentes. OBJETIVOS: Com o objetivo de avaliar incidência, fatores de risco, principais complicações, esquemas terapêuticos utilizados e evolução. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 35 pacientes com diagnóstico de erisipela internados nas enfermarias do Hospital Central da Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo no período de abril a agosto de 2002. RESULTADOS: A incidência de pacientes com diagnóstico de erisipela no período estudado foi de 0,87%. O fator de risco local mais encontrado foi o linfedema, seguido por episódios prévios de erisipela. Dos fatores de risco gerais, aqueles que comprometem a imunidade, como diabetes mellitus, etilismo e neoplasias, foram os mais observados em associação ao quadro de infecção dermatológica. Sinais inflamatórios locais foram encontrados em 97,8% dos casos. Verificaram-se quatro casos com complicações: necrose, abscesso, trombose venosa profunda e septicemia. A evolução dos pacientes foi satisfatória em mais de 97% dos casos. CONCLUSÕES: O tratamento com penicilina cristalina foi associado ao menor número de complicações (pBACKGROUND: Erysipelas and cellulitis are common skin infections. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to investigate the frequency, risk factors, clinical features, complications, principal drugs used for treatment and the disease course. METHODS: The authors studied 35 ward patients who had been diagnosed with erysipelas, and were admitted to the Central Hospital of Irmandade da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo between April and August 2002. RESULTS: Among the patients in the ward during the study 0.87% had been diagnosed with erysipelas. The most common local risk factor was lymphedema, followed by previous episodes of erysipelas. Among the general risk factors, diabetes mellitus, alcohol abuse and cancer were most frequently observed. Local inflammatory signs were found in 97

  15. Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anjum, Naser A

    2013-01-01

    .... The book offers an evaluation of the known plant species for their different roles in phytotechnological applications in relation to remediation of varied environmental contaminants and also explores...

  16. Remediating Remediation: From Basic Writing to Writing across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This article challenges faculty members and administrators to rethink current definitions of remediation. First year college students are increasingly placed into basic writing courses due to a perceived inability to use English grammar correctly, but it must be acknowledged that all students will encounter the need for remediation as they attempt…

  17. Remediation technologies for oil-contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashutosh; Liu, Yu

    2015-12-30

    Oil-contaminated sediments pose serious environmental hazards for both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Innovative and environmentally compatible technologies are urgently required to remove oil-contaminated sediments. In this paper, various physical, chemical and biological technologies are investigated for the remediation of oil-contaminated sediments such as flotation and washing, coal agglomeration, thermal desorption, ultrasonic desorption, bioremediation, chemical oxidation and extraction using ionic liquids. The basic principles of these technologies as well as their advantages and disadvantages for practical application have been discussed. A combination of two or more technologies is expected to provide an innovative solution that is economical, eco-friendly and adaptable.

  18. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-11-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO{sub 2}, U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS.

  19. Managing soil remediation problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okx, J P; Hordijk, L; Stein, A

    1996-12-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history but the problem addressed is a significant one. Cost estimates for the clean-up of contaminated sites in the European Union and the United States are in the order of magnitude of 1,400 billion ECU. Such an enormous operation deserves the best management it can get. Reliable cost estimations per contaminated site are an important prerequisite. This paper addresses the problems related to site-wise estimations.When solving soil remediation problems, we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines. Too often solutions are presented from the viewpoint of only one discipline. In order to benefit from the combined disciplinary knowledge and experience, we think that it is necessary to describe the interrelations between these disciplines. This can be realized by developing an adequate model of the desired process which enables to consider and evaluate the essential factors as interdependent components of the total system.The resulting model provides a binding paradigm to the contributing disciplines which will result in improved efficiency and effectivity of the decision and the cost estimation process. In the near future, we will release the "Biosparging and Bioventing Expert Support System", an expert support system for problem owners, consultants and authorities dealing with the design and operation of a biosparging and/or a bioventing system.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil;

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  1. Soil remediation : a systems approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil remediation has only a short history, but the problem addressed is a significant one. When solving soil remediation problems we have to deal with a large number of scientific disciplines, however solutions are often presented from the viewpoint of just one discipline. In order to

  2. Fermentative processes for environmental remediation

    OpenAIRE

    Grilli, Selene

    2013-01-01

    The growing interest in environmental protection has led to the development of emerging biotechnologies for environmental remediation also introducing the biorefinery concept. This work mainly aimed to evaluate the applicability of innovative biotechnologies for environmental remediation and bioenergy production, throught fermentative processes. The investigated biotechnologies for waste and wastewater treatment and for the valorisation of specific feedstocks and energy recovery, were m...

  3. Electrodialytic remediation of solid waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Karlsmose, Bodil

    1996-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted solid waste is a method that combines the technique of electrodialysis with the electromigration of ions in the solid waste. Results of laboratory scale remediation experiments of soil are presented and considerations are given on how to secure...... fly ash waste deposits from polluting the ground water....

  4. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer L. Wood; Caixian Tang; Franks, Ashley E.; Wuxing Liu

    2016-01-01

    The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediat...

  5. Analysis on the Root of the Tragic Destiny of the Characters and Humanitarian Redemption in Les Miserables%浅析《悲惨世界》人物悲剧命运根源及其人道主义救赎

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱毅君

    2015-01-01

    The author of Les Miserables described the social reality which lasted nearly half a century after the French Revolu-tion.The tragic destiny of the characters in the novel is due to the unsettled times and the dark society.Hugo praised the thought that the humanitarianism could society by creating the convict Jean Valjean.%《悲惨世界》描绘了法国大革命后长达近半个世纪的社会现实。动荡的岁月,黑暗的社会铸造了小说中一个个人物的悲惨命运。雨果借助冉阿让这个苦役犯宣扬了其人道主义救赎社会的思想。

  6. DDE remediation and degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, John E; Ou, Li-Tse; All-Agely, Abid

    2008-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites, DDD and DDE, have been shown to be recalcitrant to degradation. The parent compound, DDT, was used extensively worldwide starting in 1939 and was banned in the United States in 1973. The daughter compound, DDE, may result from aerobic degradation, abiotic dehydrochlorination, or photochemical decomposition. DDE has also occurred as a contaminant in commercial-grade DDT. The p,p'-DDE isomer is more biologically active than the o,p-DDE, with a reported half-life of -5.7 years. However, when DDT was repeatedly applied to the soil, the DDE concentration may remain unchanged for more than 20 yr. Remediation of DDE-contaminated soil and water may be done by several techniques. Phytoremediation involves translocating DDT, DDD, and DDE from the soil into the plant, although some aquatic species (duckweed > elodea > parrot feather) can transform DDT into predominantly DDD with some DDE being formed. Of all the plants that can uptake DDE, Cucurbita pepo has been the most extensively studied, with translocation values approaching "hyperaccumulation" levels. Soil moisture, temperature, and plant density have all been documented as important factors in the uptake of DDE by Cucurbita pepo. Uptake may also be influenced positively by amendments such as biosurfactants, mycorrhizal inoculants, and low molecular weight organic acids (e.g., citric and oxalic acids). DDE microbial degradation by dehalogenases, dioxygenases, and hydrolases occurs under the proper conditions. Although several aerobic degradation pathways have been proposed, none has been fully verified. Very few aerobic pure cultures are capable of fully degrading DDE to CO2. Cometabolism of DDE by Pseudomonas sp., Alicaligens sp., and Terrabacter sp. grown on biphenyl has been reported; however, not all bacterial species that produce biphenyl dioxygenase degraded DDE. Arsenic and copper inhibit DDE degradation by aerobic microorganisms. Similarly, metal chelates such as EDTA inhibit the

  7. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Vieira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Several reviews of the literature support the idea that cognitive deficits observed in a large percentage of patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the cognitive performance deficit and functional disability associated with the disease. The grow- ing importance of neurocognition in Psychiatry, especially with regard to planning strategies and rehabilitative therapies to improve the prognosis of patients contrib- utes to the interest of achieving this literature review on cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia. In this work, drawn from research in the areas of schizophrenia, cog- nition, cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive remediation (2000-2012 through PubMed and The Cochrane Collaboration, it is intended, to describe the types of psychological and behavioral therapies recommended in the treatment of cognitive disabilities in patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This review will also highlight the clinical and scientific evidence of each of these therapies, as their effect on cognitive performance, symptoms and functionality in patients with schizophrenia.

  8. Contact dermatitis to botanical extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiken, David A; Cohen, David E

    2002-09-01

    A review of the literature of reported cases of contact dermatitis to a variety of natural herbal extracts is Presented. Natural extracts are commonly used ingredients in many cosmetic preparations and homeopathic remedies. Although the term natural botanical extracts inherently purports to have beneficial and benign properties, these extracts can cause adverse reactions in individuals. As such, dermatologists should be cognizant of these agents as possible sources of allergenicity in patients presenting with contact dermatitis.

  9. Approaches for assessing sustainable remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. This paper presents an overview of available approaches for assessing the sustainability of alternative...... remediation strategies for a contaminated site. Most approaches use multi-criteria assessment methods (MCA) to structure a decision support process. Different combinations of environmental, social and economic criteria are employed, and are assessed either in qualitative or quantitative forms with various...... tools such as life cycle assessment and cost benefit analysis. Stakeholder involvement, which is a key component of sustainable remediation, is conducted in various ways. Some approaches involve stakeholders directly in the evaluation or weighting of criteria, whereas other approaches only indirectly...

  10. Plant-based remediation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Dharmendra Kumar (ed.) [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK.CEN), Mol (Belgium). Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment Division

    2013-11-01

    A valuable source of information for scientists in the field of environmental pollution and remediation. Describes the latest biotechnological methods for the treatment of contaminated soils. Includes case studies and protocols. Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that employs higher plants for the clean-up of contaminated environments. Basic and applied research have unequivocally demonstrated that selected plant species possess the genetic potential to accumulate, degrade, metabolize and immobilize a wide range of contaminants. The main focus of this volume is on the recent advances of technologies using green plants for remediation of various metals and metalloids. Topics include biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution, amendments of higher uptake of toxic metals, transport of heavy metals in plants, and toxicity mechanisms. Further chapters discuss agro-technological methods for minimizing pollution while improving soil quality, transgenic approaches to heavy metal remediation and present protocols for metal remediation via in vitro root cultures.

  11. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-10-01

    In the UK, approximately 3600 householders are believed to have taken action to reduce high radon concentrations in their homes. In 1993 a number of those householders who had taken successful remedial actions were invited to participate in a study of durability of radon remedial actions. This involved the radon concentration being remeasured annually. Results for 26 such homes where a complete set of data are available and a further 32 with incomplete data are discussed here. All remedial actions were shown to remain durable during a period of 5 years. The largest variation in effectiveness was found in houses with natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate for all remedial measures was found to be 4.0% per annum, but in most cases the problems were noticed by the householder and corrected. The frequency of failures which were not noticed until a remeasurement was carried out was 0.4% per annum. (Author).

  12. Durability of radon remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom)

    1997-07-01

    It is estimated that at least 3600 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce radon concentrations found to be above the government Action Level. A study has been carried out on the durability of these remedial actions. It involved annual reassessment of the radon levels in a number of homes. The results for 26 of these homes where data over five years are available show that in general the remedial actions remained effective. The remedy with the largest variation in efficacy was natural ventilation of the underfloor void. The failure rate was found to be 4.0% per annum for all measures, but in the majority of cases the failure was discovered by the householder and rectified. The rate of failures not noticed by the householders was 0.4% per annum. (UK).

  13. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2007-09-26

    This Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Remedial Action Report has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of Section 6.2 of the INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan. The agency prefinal inspection of the ICDF Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF) was completed in June of 2005. Accordingly, this report has been developed to describe the construction activities completed at the ICDF along with a description of any modifications to the design originally approved for the facility. In addition, this report provides a summary of the major documents prepared for the design and construction of the ICDF, a discussion of relevant requirements and remedial action objectives, the total costs associated with the development and operation of the facility to date, and identification of necessary changes to the Agency-approved INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility Remedial Action Work Plan and the ICDF Complex Operations and Maintenance Plan.

  14. Opium the Best Remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Merskey

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sydenham was the leading English physician of the 17th century and probably to the present time. He was using a well tried remedy. It had been known by then for about 4000 years, frequently mentioned by Hippocrates, and recognized in use in medieval Europe where it probably came through Arabic traders and was well established in use in Paris by the 12th century (2. Professional concerns up to the time of Sydenham were not about addiction. As can be seen from his text, they were about whether the drug was available in adequate preparations, whether there was any difference between opium and other narcotics, particularly comparing the natural juice with "its artificial preparations" (1 (all of which he thought to be about equal in effect, whether it was stimulant or restorative and invigorating, and whether it was being properly used for all the conditions in which it could be helpful. Addiction, dependence and insanity are not mentioned, although the fact that it could occasionally promote excitement ("frenzy" was known.

  15. Spectral induced polarization for monitoring electrokinetic remediation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Losito, Gabriella

    2015-12-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is an emerging technology for extracting heavy metals from contaminated soils and sediments. This method uses a direct or alternating electric field to induce the transport of contaminants toward the electrodes. The electric field also produces pH variations, sorption/desorption and precipitation/dissolution of species in the porous medium during remediation. Since heavy metal mobility is pH-dependent, the accurate control of pH inside the material is required in order to enhance the removal efficiency. The common approach for monitoring the remediation process both in laboratory and in the field is the chemical analysis of samples collected from discrete locations. The purpose of this study is the evaluation of Spectral Induced Polarization as an alternative method for monitoring geochemical changes in the contaminated mass during remediation. The advantage of this technique applied to field-scale is to offer higher resolution mapping of the remediation site and lower cost compared to the conventional sampling procedure. We carried out laboratory-scale electrokinetic remediation experiments on fine-grained marine sediments contaminated by heavy metal and we made Spectral Induced Polarization measurements before and after each treatment. Measurements were done in the frequency range 10- 3-103 Hz. By the deconvolution of the spectra using the Debye Decomposition method we obtained the mean relaxation time and total chargeability. The main finding of this work is that a linear relationship exists between the local total chargeability and pH, with good agreement. The observed behaviour of chargeability is interpreted as a direct consequence of the alteration of the zeta potential of the sediment particles due to pH changes. Such relationship has a significant value for the interpretation of induced polarization data, allowing the use of this technique for monitoring electrokinetic remediation at field-scale.

  16. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  17. Radio Frequency Heating for Soil Remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephen L; Kasevich, Raymond S; Johnson, Mark A; Wiberg, Dan; Marley, Michael C

    1999-02-01

    Radio frequency heating (RFH) is a technology that increases the cost-effectiveness of a variety of site remediation technologies by accelerating the rate of contaminant removal. Heating makes the physical, chemical, and biological properties of materials such as contaminants, soil, and groundwater more amenable to remediation. RFH brings controlled heating to the subsurface, enhancing the removal of contaminants by soil vapor extraction (SVE), groundwater aeration (air sparging), bioremediation, and product recovery. The results presented are from a bench-scale study and a field demonstration that both used RFH to enhance the performance of SVE. The bench-scale study performed on PCE-contaminated soil revealed an increase, by a factor of 8, in the removal rate when RFH was used to heat soil to 90 °C. The application of RFH for a three-week period at a former gasoline station near St. Paul, MN, resulted in raising the ambient soil temperature from 8 °C to 100 °C in the immediate vicinity of the RFH applicator and to 40 °C 1.5 m (5 ft) away. Most significantly, the use of an integrated RFH/SVE system achieved an overall 50% reduction in gasoline range organics (GRO) in soil over a two- to three-month period. The discussion includes applications of RFH for enhancing bioremediation and product recovery.

  18. Mine Waste Characterization, Management and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Hudson-Edwards

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining is a vital part of the Global economy, but the extraction of metals, metalloids, and other mineral products generates vast quantities of liquid and solid waste. Currently the volume is estimated at several thousand million tons per annum, but is increasing exponentially as demand and exploitation of lower-grade deposits increases. The high concentrations of potentially toxic elements in these wastes can pose risks to ecosystems and humans, but these risks can be mitigated by implementing appropriate management or remediation schemes. Although there are a large number of such schemes available, there is still a need to research the processes, products, and effectiveness of implementation, as well as the nature of the mine wastes themselves. This Special Issue is aimed at bringing together studies in the areas of mine waste characterization, management, and remediation, to review the current state of knowledge and to develop improvements in current schemes. Fourteen manuscripts are published for this Special Issue, and these are summarized below.[...

  19. Optimal selection of biochars for remediating metals ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 500,000 abandoned mines across the U.S. pose a considerable, pervasive risk to human health and the environment due to possible exposure to the residuals of heavy metal extraction. Historically, a variety of chemical and biological methods have been used to reduce the bioavailability of the metals at mine sites. Biochar with its potential to complex and immobilize heavy metals, is an emerging alternative for reducing bioavailability. Furthermore, biochar has been reported to improve soil conditions for plant growth and can be used for promoting the establishment of a soil-stabilizing native plant community to reduce offsite movement of metal-laden waste materials. Because biochar properties depend upon feedstock selection, pyrolysis production conditions, and activation procedures used, they can be designed to meet specific remediation needs. As a result biochar with specific properties can be produced to correspond to specific soil remediation situations. However, techniques are needed to optimally match biochar characteristics with metals contaminated soils to effectively reduce metal bioavailability. Here we present experimental results used to develop a generalized method for evaluating the ability of biochar to reduce metals in mine spoil soil from an abandoned Cu and Zn mine. Thirty-eight biochars were produced from approximately 20 different feedstocks and produced via slow pyrolysis or gasification, and were allowed to react with a f

  20. Leaching properties of estuarine harbor sediment before and after electrodialytic remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardner, Kevin H.; Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Aulisio, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) can be used to extract heavy metals from a variety of different media. In this work, contaminated harbor sediments from two locations in the United States and one in Norway were subjected to EDR, and were compared with batch extractions conducted with the sedimen...

  1. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: PNEUMATIC FRACTURING EXTRACTION™ AND HOT GAS INJECTION, PHASE I - ACCUTECH REMEDIAL SYSTEMS, INC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Pneumatic Fracturing Extraction(PFE) process developed by Accutech Remedial Systems, Inc. makes it possible to use vapor extraction to remove volatile organics at increased rates from a broader range of vadose zones. The low permeability of silts, clays, shales, etc. would ot...

  2. Risk-based economic decision analysis of remediation options at a PCE-contaminated site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Friis-Hansen, P.; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2010-01-01

    study based upon the developed methodology is presented in which the following remediation scenarios are analyzed and compared: (a) no action, (b) excavation and off-site treatment of soil, (c) soil vapor extraction and (d) thermally enhanced soil vapor extraction by electrical heating of the soil...

  3. Remedial Action Contacts Directory - 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This document, which was prepared for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), is a directory of 2628 individuals interested or involved in environmental restoration and/or remedial actions at radioactively contaminated sites. This directory contains a list of mailing addresses and phone numbers of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor offices; an index of DOE operations, area, site, project, and contractor office sorted by state; a list of individuals, presented by last name, facsimile number, and e-mail address; an index of affiliations presented alphabetically, with individual contacts appearing below each affiliation name; and an index of foreign contacta sorted by country and affiliation. This document was generated from the Remedial Action Contacts Database, which is maintained by the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC).

  4. Barometric pumping with a twist: VOC containment and remediation without boreholes. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The majority of the planned remediation sites within the DOE complex are contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In many instances the contamination has not reached the water table, does not pose an immediate threat, and is not considered a high priority problem. These sites will ultimately require remediation of some type, either by active vapor extraction, bioremediation, or excavation and ex-situ soil treatment. The cost of remediating these sites can range from $50 K to more than $150 K, depending on site characteristics, contaminants, and remediation method. Additionally, for many remediated sites, residual contamination exists which could not practically be removed by the applied remediation technology. These circumstances result in modest sites with contamination of limited risk, but by regulation they must still be controlled. A remediation solution being developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA) for the Department of Energy serves as an in-situ containment and extraction methodology for sites where most or all of the contamination resides in the vadose zone soil. The approach capitalizes on the advective soil gas movement resulting from barometric pressure oscillations.

  5. WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

    2001-11-12

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  6. Contaminated soil remediation and quality assurance; Pilaantuneen maan kunnostaminen ja laadunvarmistus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkkila, J.; Mroueh, U.M.; Leino-Forsman, H.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of contaminated soil remediation quality assurance is to carry out remediation activities according to plans. Besides the design work the appropriate implementation of the quality assurance covers source data and investigation methods as well as the requirements for documentation. Contaminated soil characterization and the selection of the most suitable remediation method is made with the help of various sampling and analysis methods. There are different kinds of requirements to the sampling plan depending on the type of remediation project. Quality assurance is taken into account in sampling, in sample handling and analysis as well as in the reporting of results. The most common unsaturated zone remediation methods used in Finland are introduced in this guide. These methods include excavation (as part of remediation), encapsulating, stabilization, thermal desorption, soil washing, composting, soil vapor extraction and bioventing. The methods are introduced on a general level with emphasis on their technical implementation and feasibility as well as on the eventual material requirements. Harmful environmental impacts of the methods must be identified and prevented. In order to monitor the remediation process, various chemical and physical quality assurance measurements are performed. Additionally the work safety issues related to remediation methods must be taken into account and proper documentation must be prepared. (orig.)

  7. Bioelectrical Perchlorate Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, C.; Achenbach, L. A.; Coates, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    low-level perchlorate (100 μg.L-1) influent as well as mixed-waste influents more typically found in the environment containing both nitrate and perchlorate. Through extended periods of operation (>70 days), no loss in treatment efficiency was noted and no measurable growth in biomass was observed. Gas phase analysis indicated that low levels of H2 produced at the cathode surface through electrolysis can provide enough reducing equivalents to mediate this metabolism. The results of these studies demonstrate that perchlorate remediation can be facilitated through the use of a cathode as the primary electron donor, and that continuous treatment in such a system approaches current industry standards. This has important implications for the continuous treatment of this critical contaminant in industrial waste streams and drinking water. Such a process has the advantage of long-term, low-maintenance operation with ease of online monitoring and control while limiting the injection of additional chemicals into the water treatment process and outgrowth of the microbial populations. This would negate the need for the continual removal and disposal of biomass produced during treatment and also the downstream issues associated with corrosion and biofouling of distribution systems and the production of toxic disinfection byproducts.

  8. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination: the heritage of industrial development Contamination is only a part of a whole set of soil degradation processes, but it is one of paramount importance since soil pollution greatly influences the quality of water, food and human health. Soil contamination has been identified as an important issue for action in the European strategy for soil protection, it has been estimated that 3.5 million of sites are potentially contaminated in Europe. Contaminated soils have been essentially discovered in industrial sites landfills and energy production plants, but accumulation of heavy metals and organic compounds can be found also in agricultural land . Remediation strategies. from incineration to bioremediation The assessment of soil contamination is followed by remedial action. The remediation of contaminated soils started using consolidates technologies (incineration inertization etc.) previously employed in waste treatment,. This has contributed to consider a contaminated soil as an hazardous waste. This rough approximation was unfortunately transferred in many legislations and on this basis soil knowledge have been used only marginally in the clean up procedures. For many years soil quality has been identified by a value of concentration of a contaminant and excavation and landfill disposal of soil has been largely used. In the last years the knowledge of remediation technology has rapidly grown, at present many treatment processes appear to be really feasible at field scale, and soil remediation is now based on risk assessment procedures. Innovative technologies, largely dependent on soil properties, such as in situ chemical oxidation, electroremediation, bioventing, soil vapor extraction etc. have been successfully applied. Hazardous organic compounds are commonly treated by biological technologies, biorememdiation and phytoremediation, being the last partially applied also for metals. Technologies selection is no longer exclusively based on

  9. 恢弘的交响诗篇——试析《悲惨世界》的复调性结构%The Great Symphonic Poem——The Polyphynic Structure of Les Miserable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婧乐

    2012-01-01

    以往对雨果小说的分析多从内容与思想内涵入手,而其叙事结构却没有得到足够的重视。文章借用"复调"这一批评术语,尝试对《悲惨世界》进行结构分析,理出卞福汝主教与冉阿让的"模仿式复调"、冉阿让与马吕斯的"对比式复调",以及冉阿让自身的"微型对话"三条脉络,从而对作者精心安排的叙事结构形成整体把握。%Previous studies analysed the Victor Hugo's novels from their content and ideological connotation and didn't give sufficient attention to their narrative structure.This paper borrows the critical term of "polyphony",tries to analyse the structure of Les Miserable and sorts the following three threads:the "imitative polyphony" between Bienvenu Bishop and Ran Agen,the "contrast polyphony" between Ran Agen and Marius aswell as Ran Agen's own "mini-dialogue" so as to have an overall grasp of the carefully arranged narrative structure.

  10. A syphilis co-infection study in human papilloma virus patients attended in the sexually transmitted infection ambulatory clinic, Santa Casa de Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria de Sena Souza

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of syphilis worldwide, little is known about its manifestations when associated with other Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI, specifically the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV. Current epidemiological studies show that there is a high incidence of both diseases in ambulatory clinics all over Brazil. This study aims to estimate the incidence of syphilis - HPV co-infections, among patients from the STI ambulatory clinic at the Santa Casa da Misericórdia Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Two-hundred and seven patients were seen in the clinic between March and December 2005, of which 113 (54.6% sought care for an HPV infection. Blood samples were taken from all patients to check syphilis serology using the flocculation and the non-treponemic test or VDRL (Venereal Disease Research Laboratory and the TPHA (Treponema Pallidum Hemagglutination Assay treponemic and confirmatory method. Of the 207 patients, 113 (54.6% consulted referring to HPV as their primary complaint, and of these, 18 (15.9% also presented with positive syphilis serology, demonstrating a high incidence of coinfection. The average age of the patients varied between 20 and 25 years, 203 (98.1% were male and 4 (1.9% were female. The predominance of the male sex in this sample confirms the profile usually treated in STI clinics across the country, and the age range is that of typically high sexually activity. Conclusion: The results demonstrated the need for a differentiated examination of all STD patients.

  11. Electrodialytic Remediation of Copper Mine Tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.K.; Rojo, A.; Ottosen, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields.......This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analysed, such as remediation time, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields....

  12. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  13. Efficacy of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naismith, S. (National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    About 2000 householders in the UK have taken remedial action to reduce high radon levels in their homes. Some 800 of these householders have sought measurements to confirm the effectiveness of the action. Results for 528 such homes are discussed. (author).

  14. Remedial Mathematics for Quantum Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Lodewijk; Brouwer, Natasa; Heck, Andre; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2008-01-01

    Proper mathematical skills are important for every science course and mathematics-intensive chemistry courses rely on a sound mathematical pre-knowledge. In the first-year quantum chemistry course at this university, it was noticed that many students lack basic mathematical knowledge. To tackle the mathematics problem, a remedial mathematics…

  15. Green Chemistry and Environmental Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Nutrient remediation and recovery is a growing concern for two key reasons: (i) the prevention of harmful algal bloom proliferation, and (ii) the recycling of nutrients (e.g., phosphates) as they are non-renewable resources which are quickly being depleted. A wide range...

  16. Remediation Technology for Contaminated Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation is the most commonly selected technology for remediation of ground water at Superfund sites in the USA. The next most common technology is Chemical treatment, followed by Air Sparging, and followed by Permeable Reactive Barriers. This presentation reviews the the...

  17. 40 CFR 85.1803 - Remedial Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Plan. 85.1803 Section 85.1803... POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Recall Regulations § 85.1803 Remedial Plan. (a) When any manufacturer is... manufacturer shall submit a plan to the Administrator to remedy such nonconformity. The plan shall contain...

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process was developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. P-2 Soil Remediation, Inc. formed a partnership with Weiss Associates and ElectroPetroleum, Inc. to apply the technology to contaminated sites. The ECRTs process was evaluated ...

  19. 48 CFR 2009.570-10 - Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Organizational Conflicts of Interest 2009.570-10 Remedies. In addition to other remedies permitted by law or contract for a breach of the restrictions in this subpart or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Remedies....

  20. The possible use of soluble humic substances for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.; Jensen, Julie Katrine; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2008-01-01

    Polluted soil is a common and serious environmental problem. While reliable methods exist for cleaning soil contaminated by organic compounds through degradation, remediation of heavy metal polluted soils awaits an appropriate solution. This is because heavy metals are nondegradable and generally....... Therefore, the potential of soluble natural humic substances (HS) to extract heavy metals from contaminated soils is tested as an environmental friendly substitute for EDTA. A strongly polluted urban soil and a moderately polluted agricultural soil were extracted at neutral pH in batch mode by three HS...... extraction. Heavy metal extraction with dissolved HS is compared with EDTA at the same concentration and sequential extraction has been performed to identify extracted pools. The results indicate a clear potential of using HS solutions for remediation of heavy metal polluted soils, which is fortunate...

  1. Thirdhand cigarette smoke: factors affecting exposure and remediation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasundhra Bahl

    Full Text Available Thirdhand smoke (THS refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS.

  2. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  3. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants.

  4. Characterization and remediation of soils contaminated with uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilescu, Maria; Pavel, Lucian Vasile; Cretescu, Igor

    2009-04-30

    Environmental contamination caused by radionuclides, in particular by uranium and its decay products is a serious problem worldwide. The development of nuclear science and technology has led to increasing nuclear waste containing uranium being released and disposed in the environment. The objective of this paper is to develop a better understanding of the techniques for the remediation of soils polluted with radionuclides (uranium in particular), considering: the chemical forms of uranium, including depleted uranium (DU) in soil and other environmental media, their characteristics and concentrations, and some of the effects on environmental and human health; research issues concerning the remediation process, the benefits and results; a better understanding of the range of uses and situations for which each is most appropriate. The paper addresses the main features of the following techniques for uranium remediation: natural attenuation, physical methods, chemical processes (chemical extraction methods from contaminated soils assisted by various suitable chelators (sodium bicarbonate, citric acid, two-stage acid leaching procedure), extraction using supercritical fluids such as solvents, permeable reactive barriers), biological processes (biomineralization and microbial reduction, phytoremediation, biosorption), and electrokinetic methods. In addition, factors affecting uranium removal from soils are furthermore reviewed including soil characteristics, pH and reagent concentration, retention time.

  5. New IAEA guidelines on environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, Sergey [International Atomic Energy Agency, A2444, Seibersdorf (Austria); Howard, Brenda [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, LA1 4AP, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Kashparov, Valery [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology, 08162, 7, Mashinobudivnykiv str., Chabany, Kyivo-Svyatoshin region, Kyiv (Ukraine); Sanzharova, Natalie [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, Russian Federation, 249032, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Vidal, Miquel [Analytical Chemistry Department-Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    In response to the needs of its Member States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has published many documents covering different aspects of remediation of contaminated environments. These documents range from safety fundamentals and safety requirements to technical documents describing remedial technologies. Almost all the documents on environmental remediation are related to uranium mining areas and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. IAEA radiation safety standards on remediation of contaminated environments are largely based on these two types of remediation. The exception is a document related to accidents, namely the IAEA TRS No. 363 'Guidelines for Agricultural Countermeasures Following an Accidental Release of Radionuclides'. Since the publication of TRS 363, there has been a considerable increase in relevant information. In response, the IAEA initiated the development of a new document, which incorporated new knowledge obtained during last 20 years, lessons learned and subsequent changes in the regulatory framework. The new document covers all aspects related to the environmental remediation from site characterisation to a description of individual remedial actions and decision making frameworks, covering urban, agricultural, forest and freshwater environments. Decisions taken to commence remediation need to be based on an accurate assessment of the amount and extent of contamination in relevant environmental compartments and how they vary with time. Major aspects of site characterisation intended for remediation are described together with recommendations on effective sampling programmes and data compilation for decision making. Approaches for evaluation of remedial actions are given in the document alongside the factors and processes which affect their implementation for different environments. Lessons learned following severe radiation accidents indicate that remediation should be considered with respect to many different

  6. A comprehensive guide of remediation technologies for oil contaminated soil - Present works and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mee Wei; Lau, Ee Von; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2016-08-15

    Oil spills result in negative impacts on the environment, economy and society. Due to tidal and waves actions, the oil spillage affects the shorelines by adhering to the soil, making it difficult for immediate cleaning of the soil. As shoreline clean-up is the most costly component of a response operation, there is a need for effective oil remediation technologies. This paper provides a review on the remediation technologies for soil contaminated with various types of oil, including diesel, crude oil, petroleum, lubricating oil, bitumen and bunker oil. The methods discussed include solvent extraction, bioremediation, phytoremediation, chemical oxidation, electrokinetic remediation, thermal technologies, ultrasonication, flotation and integrated remediation technologies. Each of these technologies was discussed, and associated with their advantages, disadvantages, advancements and future work in detail. Nonetheless, it is important to note that no single remediation technology is considered the best solution for the remediation of oil contaminated soil. This review provides a comprehensive literature on the various remediation technologies studied in the removal of different oil types from soil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sustainability likelihood of remediation options for metal-contaminated soil/sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Taylor, Jessica S; Baek, Kitae; Khan, Eakalak; Tsang, Daniel C W; Ok, Yong Sik

    2017-05-01

    Multi-criteria analysis and detailed impact analysis were carried out to assess the sustainability of four remedial alternatives for metal-contaminated soil/sediment at former timber treatment sites and harbour sediment with different scales. The sustainability was evaluated in the aspects of human health and safety, environment, stakeholder concern, and land use, under four different scenarios with varying weighting factors. The Monte Carlo simulation was performed to reveal the likelihood of accomplishing sustainable remediation with different treatment options at different sites. The results showed that in-situ remedial technologies were more sustainable than ex-situ ones, where in-situ containment demonstrated both the most sustainable result and the highest probability to achieve sustainability amongst the four remedial alternatives in this study, reflecting the lesser extent of off-site and on-site impacts. Concerns associated with ex-situ options were adverse impacts tied to all four aspects and caused by excavation, extraction, and off-site disposal. The results of this study suggested the importance of considering the uncertainties resulting from the remedial options (i.e., stochastic analysis) in addition to the overall sustainability scores (i.e., deterministic analysis). The developed framework and model simulation could serve as an assessment for the sustainability likelihood of remedial options to ensure sustainable remediation of contaminated sites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Remediation of contaminated soil using soil washing-a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Karthika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pb, Zn, Ni, Cu, Mn and Cd are heavy metals occur naturally as trace elements in many soils. The present paper reviews the remediation of heavy metals of contaminated soil by soil washing using different agents. It was noted that the contact time, pH, concentration of extract ant and agitation speed were affected the process while remediation, so accordingly select the conditions to obtain efficiency which is mainly depend upon the type of soil, contaminationtype, contamination period and metals present in it.EDTA is effective when compared with other chelating agents for heavy metals especially for lead but it has low biodegradation. Because of the nature of low biodegradability, EDTA can be reusedfurther by membrane separation and electrochemical treatment, or degraded by advanced oxidation processes.

  9. Programa de hepatopatias do Hospital da Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará: infra-estrutura e epidemiologia clínica em 10 anos de atendimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizomar de Jesus Maués Pereira Moia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O Programa de Hepatopatias do Hospital da Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará surgiu pela necessidade de prestar assistência a hepatopatas na região amazônica priorizando assistência qualificada, identificação das etiologias, seguimento clínico, e tratamento direcionado. Este trabalho visa descrever dados relativos à epidemiologia clínica, fatores etiológicos e análise histopatológica. Dos 1469 pacientes avaliados, através de exames clínicos, laboratoriais, endoscópicos e de imagem e/ou histopatológico, foram considerados hepatopatas crônicos 935 (63,6%. Nesta casuística, a média de idade foi 50 anos, 666 (71,2% do sexo masculino e maior procedência de Belém. Os agentes etiológicos mais prevalentes foram alcoolismo (53,7% e hepatites virais (39,1%. Biópsia hepática realizada em 403/935 (43,1%, demonstrou hepatite crônica (34% e cirrose (34% na maioria das amostras. Conclui-se, portanto, que a doença hepática crônica na região é mais prevalente no sexo masculino, sendo o alcoolismo a principal etiologia e mais da metade dos casos se encontravam em fase avançada no momento do diagnóstico.

  10. Pre- and post-remediation characterization of acid-generating fluvial tailings material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathleen S.; Walton-Day, Katherine; Hoal, Karin O.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Pietersen, K.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Arkansas River south of Leadville, Colorado, USA, contains deposits of fluvial tailings from historical mining operations in the Leadville area. These deposits are potential non-point sources of acid and metal contamination to surface- and groundwater systems. We are investigating a site that recently underwent in situ remediation treatment with lime, fertilizer, and compost. Pre- and post-remediation fluvial tailings material was collected from a variety of depths to examine changes in mineralogy, acid generation, and extractable nutrients. Results indicate sufficient nutrient availability in the post-remediation near-surface material, but pyrite and acid generation persist below the depth of lime and fertilizer addition. Mineralogical characterization performed using semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction and quantitative SEM-based micro-mineralogy (Mineral Liberation Analysis, MLA) reveal formation of gypsum, jarosite, and complex coatings surrounding mineral grains in post-remediation samples.

  11. Environmental Remediation Data Management Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierowski, J. V.; Henry, L. G.; Dooley, D. A.

    2002-02-26

    Computer software tools for data management can improve site characterization, planning and execution of remediation projects. This paper discusses the use of two such products that have primarily been used within the nuclear power industry to enhance the capabilities of radiation protection department operations. Advances in digital imaging, web application development and programming technologies have made development of these tools possible. The Interactive Visual Tour System (IVTS) allows the user to easily create and maintain a comprehensive catalog containing digital pictures of the remediation site. Pictures can be cataloged in groups (termed ''tours'') that can be organized either chronologically or spatially. Spatial organization enables the user to ''walk around'' the site and view desired areas or components instantly. Each photo is linked to a map (floor plan, topographical map, elevation drawing, etc.) with graphics displaying the location on the map and any available tour/component links. Chronological organization enables the user to view the physical results of the remediation efforts over time. Local and remote management teams can view these pictures at any time and from any location. The Visual Survey Data System (VSDS) allows users to record survey and sample data directly on photos and/or maps of areas and/or components. As survey information is collected for each area, survey data trends can be reviewed for any repetitively measured location or component. All data is stored in a Quality Assurance (Q/A) records database with reference to its physical sampling point on the site as well as other information to support the final closeout report for the site. The ease of use of these web-based products has allowed nuclear power plant clients to plan outage work from their desktop and realize significant savings with respect to dose and cost. These same tools are invaluable for remediation and decommissioning

  12. Heating Unsaturated Sediments Using Solar Energy to Enhance Passive Sediment Remediation Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sediment heating has been shown to enhance passive sediment remediation technologies such as bioremediation and barometric pumping (passive soil venting). Sediment heating raises the slow remediation rates that often limit the widespread use of these technologies. In bioremediation applications, a 10 degree C increase in subsurface temperature is expected to double the microbial activity, and thus the remediation rate. The removal rate of tetracholorethylene (PCE - a common subsurface contaminant) by passive soil vapor extraction is expected to nearly double in low-permeable sediments when the subsurface is heated 10 degree C from ambient temperatures due to an increased vapor pressure in the PCE. When the sediment is heated using renewable energy sources, these thermally enhanced remediation technologies can be environmentally benign alternatives to conventional remediation techniques that rely on large external energy inputs. The thermally enhanced passive technologies may be particularly useful for remediating unsaturated, low-permeable lenses that are troublesome to most conventional remediation technologies such as conventional soil vapor extraction and co-solvent flushes. The main objective of this work was to quantify subsurface sediment heating using a solar powered heat injection well. To do this, a pilot sediment heating system was installed in Vermont and high resolution meteorological and sediment temperature data were collected using a stand-alone data acquisition system. Unsaturated, silty sediments were heated in-situ by converting the direct and indirect solar energy available at the surface to heat energy in the subsurface using stand-alone renewable energy sources and a resistive element heat injection well. The heat injection well was powered by a 600-W passively tracking photovoltaic (PV) array and a small 1.2-m swept area wind turbine. It is envisioned that the heat injection well would be placed directly into an area of high subsurface

  13. Microorganisms in heavy metal bioremediation: strategies for applying microbial-community engineering to remediate soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soils is essential as heavy metals persist and do not degrade in the environment. Remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils requires metals to be mobilized for extraction whilst, at the same time, employing strategies to avoid mobilized metals leaching into ground-water or aquatic systems. Phytoextraction is a bioremediation strategy that extracts heavy metals from soils by sequestration in plant tissues and is currently the predominant bioremediation strategy investigated for remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Although the efficiency of phytoextraction remains a limiting feature of the technology, there are numerous reports that soil microorganisms can improve rates of heavy metal extraction.This review highlights the unique challenges faced when remediating heavy-metal-contaminated soils as compared to static aquatic systems and suggests new strategies for using microorganisms to improve phytoextraction. We compare how microorganisms are used in soil bioremediation (i.e. phytoextraction and water bioremediation processes, discussing how the engineering of microbial communities, used in water remediation, could be applied to phytoextraction. We briefly outline possible approaches for the engineering of soil communities to improve phytoextraction either by mobilizing metals in the rhizosphere of the plant or by promoting plant growth to increase the root-surface area available for uptake of heavy metals. We highlight the technological advances that make this research direction possible and how these technologies could be employed in future research.

  14. [Natural remedies during pregnancy and lactation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, E; Melzer, J; von Mandach, U; Saller, R

    2004-10-01

    Up to date there is a lack of systematically gathered data on the use of natural remedies (phytotherapeutic, homeopathic, anthroposophic, spagyric, Bach and Schussler remedies) during pregnancy and lactation. The aim of this non-representative pilot study on 139 women, who came for delivery to three institutions between mid-1997 and the beginning of 1998, was to receive data about how often and within which spectrum natural remedies are used during pregnancy and lactation. During pregnancy 96% and within the lactation period 84% of the women consumed at least 1 natural remedy. Phytotherapeutic drugs were used most frequently. In contrast to the widespread use of natural remedies by pregnant women and nursing mothers in this study, little information on the effectiveness and possible risks is available. Therefore it seems necessary to examine and evaluate natural remedies used during pregnancy and lactation.

  15. Air-Based Remediation Workshop - Section 8 Air-Based Remediation Technology Selection Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursuant to the EPA-AIT Implementing Arrangement 7 for Technical Environmental Collaboration, Activity 11 "Remediation of Contaminated Sites," the USEPA Office of International Affairs Organized a Forced Air Remediation Workshop in Taipei to deliver expert training to the Environ...

  16. ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES (ECRTS) - IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Innovative Technology Evaulation Report summarizes the results of the evaluation of the Electrochemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) process, developed by P2-Soil Remediation, Inc. (in partnership with Weiss Associates and Electro-Petroleum, Inc.). This evaluation was co...

  17. Antiplasmodial activity of traditional polyherbal remedy from Odisha, India:Their potential for prophylactic use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash; Bangalore; Nagendrappa; Jean-Fran?ois; Franetich; Frederick; Gay; Audrey; Lorthiois; Padma; Venkatasubramanian; Dominique; Mazier

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the potential prophylactic activity of traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria.Methods:A traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria from Odisha,India was evaluated for its potential prophylactic activity using in vitro hepatic cell lines assay and the murine malaria system Plasmodium yoelii yoelii/Anopheles stephensi.Results:The polyherbal extract inhibited the Plasmodium yoelii hepatic stages in vitro(IC500.74 mg/m L),a therapeutic index of 9.54.In mice treated with the aqueous extract(2 000 mg/kg/day),peak parasitaemia values were 81%lower in the experimental2.35%±0.14%as compared to controls 12.62%±0.52%(P<0.001),suggesting significant prophylactic activity.Conclusions:The observations provide a proof of concept for a traditional malaria prophylactic remedy used by tribal populations in India.

  18. Antiplasmodial activity of traditional polyherbal remedy from Odisha, India:Their potential for prophylactic use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prakash Bangalore Nagendrappa; Jean-Franois Franetich; Frederick Gay; Audrey Lorthiois; Padma Venkatasubramanian; Dominique Mazier

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential prophylactic activity of traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria. Methods: A traditional polyherbal remedy against malaria from Odisha, India was evaluated for its potential prophylactic activity using in vitro hepatic cell lines assay and the murine malaria system Plasmodium yoelii yoelii/Anopheles stephensi. Results: The polyherbal extract inhibited the Plasmodium yoelii hepatic stages in vitro (IC50 0.74 mg/mL), a therapeutic index of 9.54. In mice treated with the aqueous extract (2 000 mg/kg/day), peak parasitaemia values were 81% lower in the experimental 2.35% ± 0.14% as compared to controls 12.62% ± 0.52% (P Conclusions: The observations provide a proof of concept for a traditional malaria prophylactic remedy used by tribal populations in India.

  19. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.

    1996-10-03

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  20. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, N.P.; Webb, J.R.; Ferguson, S.D.; Goins, L.F.; Owen, P.T.

    1990-09-01

    The 394 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eleventh in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (8) Technical Measurements Center, (9) Remedial Action Program, and (10) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies.

  1. [Advance in enzymological remediation of polluted soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Chen, Lijun; Liu, Guifen; Wu, Zhijie

    2003-12-01

    Soils enzymes play an important role in the remediation of polluted soils. The enzymological remediation of polluted soils has the characteristics of high specialization, wide applicability, and little sensitivity to the ambient factors. This paper reviewed the advantages of enzymological remediation of polluted soils, the methods and technologies of enzyme immobilization, and the removal mechanisms of pollutants by oxidoreductases. The sources and characteristics of the enzymes used to remediation were also introduced, and some suggestions about the research in the future were put forward.

  2. Electrokinetic remediation of oil-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Vladimir A; Romanyukha, Olga V; Abyzova, Anna M

    2008-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine the factors influencing electrokinetic remediation of soils from petroleum pollutants. The remediation method was applied in two versions: (i) static and (ii) flowing, when a sample was washed with leaching solution. It was found that all the soils studied can be purified using this technique. It was also observed that the mineral and grain-size composition of soils, their properties, and other parameters affect the remediation efficiency. The static and flowing versions of the remediation method removed 25-75% and 90-95% of the petroleum pollutants, respectively from the soils under study.

  3. Assessing sustainable remediation frameworks using sustainability principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridsdale, D Reanne; Noble, Bram F

    2016-12-15

    The remediation industry has grown exponentially in recent decades. International organizations of practitioners and remediation experts have developed several frameworks for integrating sustainability into remediation projects; however, there has been limited attention to how sustainability is approached and operationalized in sustainable remediation frameworks and practices - or whether sustainability plays any meaningful role at all in sustainable remediation. This paper examines how sustainability is represented in remediation frameworks and the guidance provided for practical application. Seven broad sustainability principles and review criteria are proposed and applied to a sample of six international remediation frameworks. Not all review criteria were equally satisfied and none of the frameworks fully met all criteria; however, the best performing frameworks were those identified as sustainability remediation frameworks. Intra-generational equity was addressed by all frameworks. Integrating social, economic and biophysical components beyond triple-bottom-line indicators was explicitly addressed only by the sustainable remediation frameworks. No frameworks provided principle- or rule-based guidance for dealing with trade-offs in sustainability decisions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tank Waste Remediation System Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robershotte, M.A.; Dirks, L.L.; Seaver, D.A.; Bothers, A.J.; Madden, M.S.

    1995-06-01

    The scope, number and complexity of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) decisions require an integrated, consistent, and logical approach to decision making. TWRS has adopted a seven-step decision process applicable to all decisions. Not all decisions, however, require the same degree of rigor/detail. The decision impact will dictate the appropriate required detail. In the entire process, values, both from the public as well as from the decision makers, play a key role. This document concludes with a general discussion of the implementation process that includes the roles of concerned parties.

  5. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  6. Evaluation of the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation options: comparison of two life cycle assessment-based evaluation tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuyns, Valérie; Kessen, Bram

    2012-01-01

    The choice between different options for the remediation of a contaminated site traditionally relies on economical, technical and regulatory criteria without consideration of the environmental impact of the soil remediation process itself. In the present study, the environmental impact assessment of two potential soil remediation techniques (excavation and off-site cleaning and in situ steam extraction) was performed using two life cycle assessment (LCA)-based evaluation tools, namely the REC (risk reduction, environmental merit and cost) method and the ReCiPe method. The comparison and evaluation of the different tools used to estimate the environmental impact of Brownfield remediation was based on a case study which consisted of the remediation of a former oil and fat processing plant. For the environmental impact assessment, both the REC and ReCiPe methods result in a single score for the environmental impact of the soil remediation process and allow the same conclusion to be drawn: excavation and off-site cleaning has a more pronounced environmental impact than in situ soil remediation by means of steam extraction. The ReCiPe method takes into account more impact categories, but is also more complex to work with and needs more input data. Within the routine evaluation of soil remediation alternatives, a detailed LCA evaluation will often be too time consuming and costly and the estimation of the environmental impact with the REC method will in most cases be sufficient. The case study worked out in this paper wants to provide a basis for a more sounded selection of soil remediation technologies based on a more detailed assessment of the secondary impact of soil remediation.

  7. A temperature responsive biopolymer for mercury remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostal, Jan; Mulchandani, Ashok; Gropp, Katie E; Chen, Wilfred

    2003-10-01

    Tunable biopolymers based on elastin-like polypeptides (ELP) were engineered for the selective removal of mercury. ELP undergoes a reversible thermal precipitation within a wide range of temperatures and was exploited to enable easy recovery of the sequestered mercury. A bacterial metalloregulatory protein, MerR, which binds mercury with an unusually high affinity and selectivity, was fused to the ELP to provide the highly selective nature of the biopolymers. Selective binding of mercury was demonstrated at an expected ratio of 0.5 mercury/biopolymer, and minimal binding of competing heavy metals (cadmium, nickel, and zinc), even at 100-fold excess, was observed. The sequestered mercury was extracted easily, enabling continuous reuse of the biopolymers. In repeating cycles, mercury concentration was reduced to ppb levels, satisfying even drinking water limits. Utility of the biopolymers with mercury-contaminated Lake Elsinore water was demonstrated with no decrease in efficiency. The nanoscale biopolymers reported here using metalloregulatory proteins represent a "green" technology for environmentally benign mercury removal. As nature offers a wide selection of specific metalloregulatory proteins, this technology offers promising solutions to remediation of other important pollutants such as arsenic or chromium.

  8. The phyto-remediation of radioactively contaminated land - a feasible approach or just bananas?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesbitt, Victoria A [Nuvia Limited, The Library, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Soil is an essential component of all terrestrial ecosystems and is under increasing threat from human activity. Techniques available for removing radioactive contamination from soil and aquatic substrates are limited and often costly to implement; particularly over large areas. Frequently, bulk soil removal, with its attendant consequences, is a significant component of the majority of contamination incidents. Alternative techniques capable of removing contamination or exposure pathways without damaging or removing the soil are therefore of significant interest. An increasing number of old nuclear facilities are entering 'care and maintenance', with significant ground contamination issues. Phyto-remediation - the use of plants' natural metabolic processes to remediate contaminated sites is one possible solution. Its key mechanisms include phyto-extraction and phyto-stabilisation. These are analogues of existing remedial techniques. Further, phyto-remediation can improve soil quality and stability and restore functionality. Information on the application of phyto-remediation in the nuclear industry is widely distributed over an extended period of time and sources. It is therefore difficult to quickly and effectively identify which plants would be most suitable for phyto-remediation on a site by site basis. In response, a phyto-remediation tool has been developed to address this issue. Existing research and case studies were reviewed to understand the mechanisms of phyto-remediation, its effectiveness and the benefits and limitations of implementation. The potential for cost recovery from a phyto-remediation system is also briefly considered. An overview of this information is provided here. From this data, a set of matrices was developed to guide potential users through the plant selection process. The matrices take the user through a preliminary screening process to determine whether the contamination present at their site is amenable to phyto-remediation

  9. Electroosmosis remediation of DNAPLS in low permeability soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, S V. [Monsanto Company, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Electroosmosis is the movement of water through a soil matrix induced by a direct current (DC) electric field. The technique has been used since the 1930s for dewatering and stabilizing fine-grained soils. More recently, electroosmosis has been considered as an in-situ method for soil remediation in which water is injected into the soil at the anode region to flush the contaminants to the cathode side for further treatment or disposal. The major advantage of electroosmosis is its inherent ability to move water uniformly through clayey, silty soils at 100 to 1000 times faster than attainable by hydraulic means, and with very low energy usage. Drawbacks of electroosmosis as a stand-alone technology include slow speed, reliance on solubilizing the contaminants into the groundwater for removal, potentially an unstable process for long term operation, and necessary additional treatment and disposal of the collected liquid. Possible remediation applications of electroosmosis for DNAPLs would be primarily in the removal of residual DNAPLs in the soil pores by electroosmotic flushing. The future of electroosmosis as a broad remedial method lies in how well it can be coupled with complementary technologies. Examples include combining electroosmosis with vacuum extraction, with surfactant usage to deal with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) through enhanced solubilization or mobilization, with permeability enhancing methods (hydrofracturing, pneumatic fracturing, etc.) to create recovery zones, and with in-situ degradation zones to eliminate aboveground treatment. 33 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR ACTIVE CAPS - REMEDIATION OF METALS AND ORGANICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M; Danny D. Reible, D; Xingmao Ma, X; Ioana G. Petrisor, I

    2007-05-10

    This research evaluated organoclays, zeolites, phosphates, and a biopolymer as sequestering agents for inorganic and organic contaminants. Batch experiments were conducted to identify amendments and mixtures of amendments for metal and organic contaminants removal and retention. Contaminant removal was evaluated by calculating partitioning coefficients. Metal retention was evaluated by desorption studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays, and the biopolymer, chitosan, were very effective sequestering agents for metals in fresh and salt water. Organoclays were very effective sorbents for phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Partitioning coefficients for the organoclays were 3000-3500 ml g{sup -1} for benzo(a)pyrene, 400-450 ml g{sup -1} for pyrene, and 50-70 ml g{sup -1} for phenanthrene. Remediation of sites with a mixture of contaminants is more difficult than sites with a single contaminant because metals and organic contaminants have different fate and transport mechanisms in sediment and water. Mixtures of amendments (e.g., organoclay and rock phosphate) have high potential for remediating both organic and inorganic contaminants under a broad range of environmental conditions, and have promise as components in active caps for sediment remediation.

  11. Guidelines for active spreading during in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate contaminated aquifers depends on the extent and duration of contact between the injected treatment chemical and the groundwater contaminant (the reactants). Techniques that inject and extract in the aquifer to ‘ac...

  12. Phosphorus Amendment Efficacy for In Situ Remediation of Soil Lead Depends on the Bioaccessible Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    A validated method is needed to measure reductions of in vitro bioaccessible (IVBA) Pb in urban soil remediated with amendments. This study evaluated the effect of in vitro extraction solution pH and glycine buffer on bioaccesible Pb in P-treated soils. Two Pb-contaminated soils...

  13. 40 CFR 63.7882 - What site remediation sources at my facility does this subpart affect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not limited to, soil vapor extraction and bioremediation processes. Examples of such ex-situ remediation processes include but are not limited to, thermal desorption, bioremediation, and air stripping..., surface impoundment, container, oil-water separator, organic-water separator, or transfer system,...

  14. Use of plant and earthworm bioassays to evaluate remediation of soil from a site contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.W.; Meckes, M.C.; Smith, M.K. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Jacobs, S. [DynCorp, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Torsella, J. [Oak Ridge Inst. of Science and Education, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Soil from a site heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was treated with a pilot-scale, solvent extraction technology. Bioassays in earthworms and plants were used to examine the efficacy of the remediation process for reducing the toxicity of the soil. The earthworm toxicity bioassays were the 14-d survival test and 21-d reproduction test, using Lumbricus terrestris and Eisenia fetida andrei. The plant bioassays included phytotoxicity tests for seed germination and root elongation in lettuce and oats, and a genotoxicity test (anaphase aberrations) in Allium cepa (common onion). Although the PCB content of the soil was reduced by 99% (below the remediation goal), toxicity to earthworm reproduction remained essentially unchanged following remediation. Furthermore, phytotoxicity and genotoxicity were higher for the remediated soil compared to the untreated soil. The toxicity remaining after treatment appeared to be due to residual solvent introduced during the remediation process, and/or to heavy metals or other inorganic contaminants not removed by the treatment. Mixture studies involving isopropanol and known toxicants indicated possible synergistic effects of the extraction solvent and soil contaminants. The toxicity in plants was essentially eliminated by a postremediation, water-rinsing step. These results demonstrate a need for including toxicity measurements in the evaluation of technologies used in hazardous waste site remediations, and illustrate the potential value of such measurements for making modifications to remediation processes.

  15. Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Saranya; Thavamani, Palanisami; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Lee, Yong Bok; Naidu, Ravi; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-02-01

    For more than a decade, the primary focus of environmental experts has been to adopt risk-based management approaches to cleanup PAH polluted sites that pose potentially destructive ecological consequences. This focus had led to the development of several physical, chemical, thermal and biological technologies that are widely implementable. Established remedial options available for treating PAH contaminated soils are incineration, thermal conduction, solvent extraction/soil washing, chemical oxidation, bioaugmentation, biostimulation, phytoremediation, composting/biopiles and bioreactors. Integrating physico-chemical and biological technologies is also widely practiced for better cleanup of PAH contaminated soils. Electrokinetic remediation, vermiremediation and biocatalyst assisted remediation are still at the development stage. Though several treatment methods to remediate PAH polluted soils currently exist, a comprehensive overview of all the available remediation technologies to date is necessary so that the right technology for field-level success is chosen. The objective of this review is to provide a critical overview in this respect, focusing only on the treatment options available for field soils and ignoring the spiked ones. The authors also propose the development of novel multifunctional green and sustainable systems like mixed cell culture system, biosurfactant flushing, transgenic approaches and nanoremediation in order to overcome the existing soil- contaminant- and microbial-associated technological limitations in tackling high molecular weight PAHs. The ultimate objective is to ensure the successful remediation of long-term PAH contaminated soils.

  16. Biochemical basis of mercury remediation and bioaccumulation by Enterobacter sp. EMB21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Arvind; Kumar, Sumit; Khare, Sunil Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to isolate metal bioaccumulating bacterial strains and to study their applications in removal of environmental problematic heavy metals like mercury. Five bacterial strains belonging to genera Enterobacter, Bacillus, and Pseudomonas were isolated from oil-spilled soil. Among these, one of the strains Enterobacter sp. EMB21 showed mercury bioaccumulation inside the cells simultaneous to its bioremediation. The bioaccumulation of remediated mercury was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The mercury-resistant loci in the Enterobacter sp. EMB21 cells were plasmid-mediated as confirmed by transformation of mercury-sensitive Escherichia coli DH5α by Enterobacter sp. EMB21 plasmid. Effect of different culture parameters viz-a-viz inoculum size, pH, carbon, and nitrogen source revealed that alkaline pH and presence of dextrose and yeast extract favored better remediation. The results indicated the usefulness of Enterobacter sp. EMB21 for the effective remediation of mercury in bioaccumulated form. The Enterobacter sp. EMB21 seems promising for heavy metal remediation wherein the remediated metal can be trapped inside the cells. The process can further be developed for the synthesis of valuable high-end functional alloy, nanoparticles, or metal conjugates from the metal being remediated.

  17. An Expert support model for ex situ soil remediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okx, J.P.; Frankhuizen, E.M.; Wit, de J.C.; Pijls, C.G.J.M.; Stein, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an expert support model recombining knowledge and experience obtained during ex situ soil remediation. To solve soil remediation problems, an inter-disciplinary approach is required. Responsibilities during the soil remediation process, however, are increasingly decentralised, wh

  18. Laboratory Experiment on Electrokinetic Remediation of Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed-Ali, Alya H.; Abdel-Fattah, Tarek; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic remediation is a method of decontaminating soil containing heavy metals and polar organic contaminants by passing a direct current through the soil. An undergraduate chemistry laboratory is described to demonstrate electrokinetic remediation of soil contaminated with copper. A 30 cm electrokinetic cell with an applied voltage of 30…

  19. Mold Remediation in Schools and Commercial Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    This document describes how to investigate and evaluate moisture and mold problems in educational facilities, and presents the key steps for implementing a remediation plan. A checklist is provided for conducting mold remediation efforts along with a resource list of helpful organizations and governmental agencies. Appendices contain a glossary,…

  20. LCA of Soil and Groundwater Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    2017-01-01

    Today, there is increasing interest in applying LCA to support decision-makers in contaminated site management. In this chapter, we introduce remediation technologies and associated environmental impacts, present an overview of literature findings on LCA applied to remediation technologies and pr...

  1. Site remediation techniques in India: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anomitra Banerjee; Miller Jothi [BITS Pilani, Dubai Campus (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    India is one of the developing countries operating site remediation techniques for the entire nuclear fuel cycle waste for the last three decades. In this paper we intend to provide an overview of remediation methods currently utilized at various hazardous waste sites in India, their advantages and disadvantages. Over the years the site remediation techniques have been well characterized and different processes for treatment, conditioning and disposal are being practiced. Remediation Methods categorized as biological, chemical or physical are summarized for contaminated soils and environmental waters. This paper covers the site remediation techniques implemented for treatment and conditioning of wastelands arising from the operation of nuclear power plant, research reactors and fuel reprocessing units. (authors)

  2. Associação entre líquen plano e infecção pelo vírus da hepatite C: um estudo prospectivo envolvendo 66 pacientes da clínica de dermatologia da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo Association between lichen planus and hepatitis C virus infection: a prospective study with 66 patients of the dermatology department of the hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Dias Tavares Guerreiro

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: O líquen plano é dermatose inflamatória crônica de etiologia desconhecida. Sua associação com doença hepática, particularmente a hepatite C, é tema de diversos trabalhos em todo o mundo, desde 1990, quando a sorologia para detecção do vírus da hepatite C (VHC se tornou disponível. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo visa avaliar uma possível relação causal entre a infecção pelo vírus C e o líquen plano. MÉTODOS: Tomaram-se por grupo de estudo 66 pacientes com líquen plano matriculados na Clínica de Dermatologia da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, no período de 2000 a 2003. O grupo comparativo foi constituído pelos doadores de sangue voluntários do Banco de Sangue da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, durante o período de outubro de 2001 a outubro de 2002. RESULTADOS: Dos 66 pacientes com líquen plano, cinco apresentaram sorologia positiva para VHC, representando 7,5% em comparação com 0,69% dos doadores de sangue. CONCLUSÕES: Esse resultado é compatível com muitos dados contidos na literatura médica mundial. Entretanto, são necessários novos estudos para o melhor conhecimento dessa controversa relação.BACKGROUND: Lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory dermatosis of unknown etiology. Its association with liver diseases, particularly hepatitis C, has been widely approached since 1990, when serology for the detection of hepatitis C virus became available. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible causal relation between virus C infection and lichen planus. METHODS: Sixty-six patients with lichen planus seen at the Dermatology Department of Santa Casa de Misericórida de Sao Paulo from 2000 to 2003 were included in the study group. The control group comprised volunteer blood donors of the Blood Bank of Santa Casa de Misericórida de Sao Paulo, from October 2001 to October 2002. RESULTS: Five out of the 66 patients with lichen planus had a positive serology for HCV

  3. Light Pollution Responses and Remedies

    CERN Document Server

    Mizon, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Light pollution is a major threat to astronomy across the entire developed world. The night sky that most of us can see bears little relationship to the spectacular vistas that our ancestors have gazed at for tens of thousands of years. It is ironic that as our understanding of the universe has improved, our ability to see it has been dramatically reduced by the skyglow of our civilization. In the second edition of Light Pollution - Responses and Remedies, Bob Mizon delves into the history and practice of lighting and how its misue has not only stolen the stars, but blighted our lives and those of our fellow-creatures on this planet. This book suggests how we can win back the night sky and at the same time save energy and money, improve our health, and even lower crime rate! It also includes a list of targets for urban stargazers, and recommendations for ensuring sane lighting worldwide.

  4. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  5. Introduction: Mediating and Remediating Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dorthe Refslund; Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    In this second volume we explore how people, groups and institutions deal with death through processes of mediation (the presentation of something through media), remediation (the representation of one medium in another, see below) and mediatization (the process through which core elements...... of a social or cultural activity assume media form, see below). The volume presents a wide variety of ethnographies of death from Norway, Finland, Sweden, the US, Papua New Guinea, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Libya, Tibet, Uganda and Denmark as well as a number of online sites and social media material....... These are analyzed through a vast number of theoretical and analytical perspectives in order to investigate how very diverse practices surrounding death and dying - mourning and commemoration, ritualization, politicization, re-enactment, traditionalization, activism or documentarism: private or public, offline...

  6. Novel sorbents for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manariotis, Ioannis D.; Karapanagioti, Hrissi K.; Werner, David

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, one of the major environmental problems is the pollution of aquatic systems and soil by persistent pollutants. Persistent pollutants have been found widespread in sediments, surface waters, and drinking water supplies. The removal of pollutants can be accomplished prior to their discharge to receiving bodies or by immobilizing them onto soil. Sorption is the most commonly applied process, and activated carbons have been widely used. Rapid progress in nanotechnology and a new focus on biomass-based instead of non-renewable starting materials have produced a wide range of novel engineered sorbents including biosorbents, biochars, carbon-based nanoparticles, bio-nano hybrid materials, and iron-impregnated activated carbons. Sorbent materials have been used in environmental remediation processes and especially in agricultural soil, sediments and contaminated soil, water treatment, and industrial wastewater treatment. Furthermore, sorbents may enhance the synergistic action of other processes, such as volatilization and biodegradation. Novel sorbents have been employed for the removal or immobilization of persistent pollutants such as and include heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Pb, Cd, and Hg), halogenated organic compounds, endocrine disrupting chemicals, metalloids and non-metallic elements, and other organic pollutants. The development and evaluation of novel sorbents requires a multidisciplinary approach encompassing environmental, nanotechnology, physical, analytical, and surface chemistry. The necessary evaluations encompass not only the efficiency of these materials to remove pollutants from surface waters and groundwater, industrial wastewater, polluted soils and sediments, etc., but also the potential side-effects of their environmental applications. The aim of this work is to present the results of the use of biochar and impregnated carbon sorbents for the removal of organic pollutants and metals. Furthermore, the new findings from the forthcoming session

  7. Space Debris Environment Remediation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Klinkrad, Heiner

    2009-01-01

    Long-term projections of the space debris environment indicate that even drastic measures, such as an immediate, complete halt of launch and release activities, will not result in a stable environment of man-made space objects. Collision events between already existing space hardware will within a few decades start to dominate the debris population, and result in a net increase of the space debris population, also in size regimes which may cause further catastrophic collisions. Such a collisional cascading will ultimately lead to a run-away situation ("Kessler syndrome"), with no further possibility of human intervention. The International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) has been investigating the status and the stability of the space debris environment in several studies by first looking into space traffic management possibilities and then investigating means of mitigating the creation of space debris. In an ongoing activity, an IAA study group looks at ways of active space debris environment remediation. In contrast to the former mitigation study, the current activity concentrates on the active removal of small and large objects, such as defunct spacecraft, orbital stages, and mission-related objects, which serve as a latent mass reservoir that fuels initial catastrophic collisions and later collisional cascading. The paper will outline different mass removal concepts, e.g. based on directed energy, tethers (momentum exchange or electrodynamic), aerodynamic drag augmentation, solar sails, auxiliary propulsion units, retarding surfaces, or on-orbit capture. Apart from physical principles of the proposed concepts, their applicability to different orbital regimes, and their effectiveness concerning mass removal efficiency will be analyzed. The IAA activity on space debris environment remediation is a truly international project which involves more than 23 contributing authors from 9 different nations.

  8. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  9. The quality of meat from sheep treated with tannin- and saponin-based remedies as a natural strategy for parasite control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogna, D M R; Tansawat, R; Cornforth, D; Ward, R; Bella, M; Luciano, G; Priolo, A; Villalba, J

    2014-02-01

    Lambs were assigned to four groups of seven and treated as follows for 12 days: control group (BP) was fed beet pulp; group T (tannin remedy) received the BP diet including 80 g/kg of quebracho extract; group S (saponin remedy) received the BP diet including 15 g/kg of quillaja extract; and group C had a free choice between T and S remedies. Lipid oxidation was lower in meat from S lambs compared to T lambs (Pcontrol containing tannins and saponins do not detrimentally affect sheep meat quality. © 2013.

  10. Treatment of MSW fly ashes using the electrodialytic remediation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Celia; Ribeiro, Alexandra B.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work the electrodialytic remediation technique is applied for the treatment of fly ash, a hazardous by-product resulting from the incineration of municipal solid waste. Results are presented for an experiment conducted for 40 days at 38 mA, with a continuously stirred cell...... extraction tests and during the electrodialytic treatment. This substance was found to perform well for pH below 6 and above 9, although extractions are better in the acidic region. Other relevant observations include the retention of significant amounts of heavy metals on the cation-exchange membrane...... separating chambers III and IV and the dissolution of a large percentage of sample during the treatment. 39% of zinc, 14% of lead, 18% of copper and 60% of cadmium were removed from fly ash using the electrodialytic technique and these results are compared with previously reported experiments on similar...

  11. Cost studies of thermally enhanced in situ soil remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremser, J.; Booth, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    This report describes five thermally enhanced technologies that may be used to remediate contaminated soil and water resources. The standard methods of treating these contaminated areas are Soil Vapor Extraction (SVE), Excavate & Treat (E&T), and Pump & Treat (P&T). Depending on the conditions at a given site, one or more of these conventional alternatives may be employed; however, several new thermally enhanced technologies for soil decontamination are emerging. These technologies are still in demonstration programs which generally are showing great success at achieving the expected remediation results. The cost savings reported in this work assume that the technologies will ultimately perform as anticipated by their developers in a normal environmental restoration work environment. The five technologies analyzed in this report are Low Frequency Heating (LF or Ohmic, both 3 and 6 phase AC), Dynamic Underground Stripping (DUS), Radio Frequency Heating (RF), Radio Frequency Heating using Dipole Antennae (RFD), and Thermally Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES). In all of these technologies the introduction of heat to the formation raises vapor pressures accelerating contaminant evaporation rates and increases soil permeability raising diffusion rates of contaminants. The physical process enhancements resulting from temperature elevations permit a greater percentage of volatile organic compound (VOC) or semi- volatile organic compound (SVOC) contaminants to be driven out of the soils for treatment or capture in a much shorter time period. This report presents the results of cost-comparative studies between these new thermally enhanced technologies and the conventional technologies, as applied to five specific scenarios.

  12. Monitoring of Soil Remediation Process in the Metal Mining Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Ko, Myoung-Soo; Han, Hyeop-jo; Lee, Sang-Ho; Na, So-Young

    2016-04-01

    Stabilization using proper additives is an effective soil remediation technique to reduce As mobility in soil. Several researches have reported that Fe-containing materials such as amorphous Fe-oxides, goethite and hematite were effective in As immobilization and therefore acid mine drainage sludge (AMDS) may be potential material for As immobilization. The AMDS is the by-product from electrochemical treatment of acid mine drainage and mainly contains Fe-oxide. The Chungyang area in Korea is located in the vicinity of the huge abandoned Au-Ag Gubong mine which was closed in the 1970s. Large amounts of mine tailings have been remained without proper treatment and the mobilization of mine tailings can be manly occurred during the summer heavy rainfall season. Soil contamination from this mobilization may become an urgent issue because it can cause the contamination of groundwater and crop plants in sequence. In order to reduce the mobilization of the mine tailings, the pilot scale study of in-situ stabilization using AMDS was applied after the batch and column experiments in the lab. For the monitoring of stabilization process, we used to determine the As concentration in crop plants grown on the field site but it is not easily applicable because of time and cost. Therefore, we may need simple monitoring technique to measure the mobility or leachability which can be comparable with As concentration in crop plants. We compared several extraction methods to suggest the representative single extraction method for the monitoring of soil stabilization efficiency. Several selected extraction methods were examined and Mehlich 3 extraction method using the mixture of NH4F, EDTA, NH4NO3, CH3COOH and HNO3 was selected as the best predictor of the leachability or mobility of As in the soil remediation process.

  13. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in similar experiments but without the bipolar electrodes. The new electrokinetic remediation design was tested on copper mine tailings with different applied electric fields, remediation times and pre-treatment. The results showed that the copper removal was increased from 8% (applying 20V for 8 days...... in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  14. Eisenia fetida avoidance behavior as a tool for assessing the efficiency of remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-08-15

    Remediation by means of soil leaching with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is capable of extracting the most labile soil fractions, leaving the residual metals in biologically non-available forms. We evaluated the feasibility of the standardized earthworm (Eisenia fetida) avoidance test for assessing the efficiency of soil remediation of Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil. Chemical extraction tests (six-step sequential extraction, toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, physiologically based extraction test, diethylenediaminepentaacetic acid extraction) indicated that the mobility, oral bioaccessibility and phytoavailability of Pb, Zn and Cd were consistently reduced. However, the avoidance test showed no significant avoidance of polluted soil in favor of that which had been remediated. Pb, Zn and Cd accumulation in E. fetida mirrored the decreasing pattern of metal potential bioavailability gained by leaching the soil with increasing EDTA concentrations. The calculated bioaccumulation factors indicated the possibility of underestimating the metal bioavailability in soil using chemical extraction tests. - Tests with indicator organisms should be used for a more meaningful and holistic assessment of metal biological availability in polluted and remediated soil.

  15. Source apportionment in oil spill remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Jorge; Mudge, Stephen M; Loyola-Sepulveda, Rodrigo; Muñoz, Gonzalo; Bravo-Linares, Claudio

    2012-05-01

    A pipe rupture during unloading led to a spillage of 350-700 tonnes of Caño Limon, a light sweet crude oil, into San Vicente Bay in 2007. Initial clean-up methods removed the majority of the oil from the sandy beaches although some oil remained on the rocky shores. It was necessary for the responsible party to clean the spilled oil even though at this location there were already crude oil hydrocarbons from previous industrial activity. A biosolvent based on vegetable oil derivatives was used to solubilise the remaining oil and a statistical approach to source apportionment was used to determine the efficacy of the cleaning. Sediment and contaminated rock samples were taken prior to cleaning and again at the same locations two days after application of the biosolvent. The oil was extracted using a modified USEPA Method 3550B. The alkanes were quantified together with oil biomarkers on a GC-MS. The contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil hydrocarbons was calculated from a Partial Least Squares (PLS) analysis using Caño Limon crude oil as the source. By the time the biosolvent was applied, there had already been some attenuation of the oil with all alkanes oil in this case and the contribution that Caño Limon made to the total oil ranged from 0% to 74%. The total hydrocarbon concentrations were lower after cleaning indicating an efficacy of 90% although the reduction in Caño Limon oil was smaller. This was sufficient to make further remediation unnecessary.

  16. Ability of salt marsh plants for TBT remediation in sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Pedro N; Basto, M Clara P; Silva, Manuela F G M; Machado, Ana; Bordalo, A A; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2010-07-01

    The capability of Halimione portulacoides, Spartina maritima, and Sarcocornia fruticosa (halophytes very commonly found in salt marshes from Mediterranean areas) for enhancing remediation of tributyltin (TBT) from estuarine sediments was investigated, using different experimental conditions. The influence of H. portulacoides on degradation of the butyltin compounds was assessed in two different ways: (1) a 9-month ex situ study carried out in a site of Sado River estuary, center of Portugal, which used polluted sediments collected at other nonvegetated site from the same estuary; and (2) a 12-month laboratorial study, using both plant and sediment collected at a relatively clean site of Cávado River estuary, north of Portugal, the sediment being doped with TBT, DBT, and MBT at the beginning of the experiment. The role of both S. fruticosa and S. maritima on TBT remediation in sediments was evaluated in situ, in salt marshes from Marim channel of Ria Formosa lagoon, south of Portugal, which has large areas colonized by each one of these two plants. For estimation of microbial abundance, total cell counts of sediment samples were enumerated by the DAPI direct count method. Butyltin analyses in sediment were performed using a method previously validated, which consisted of headspace solid-phase micro-extraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after in situ ethylation (with tetraethylborate). Sediments colonized both ex situ and at lab by H. portulacoides displayed TBT levels about 30% lower than those for nonvegetated sediments with identical initial composition, after 9-12 months of plant exposure. In addition, H. portulacoides showed to be able of stimulating bacterial growth in the plant rhizosphere, which probably included degraders of TBT. In the in situ study, which compared the levels of TBT, DBT, and MBT in nonvegetated sediment and in sediments colonized by either S. maritima or S. fruticosa from the same area, TBT and DBT were only

  17. Formerly Used Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) W. R. Grace Building 23 Remedial Action-Challenges and Successes - 12247

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Brenda; Honerlah, Hans [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers - Baltimore District, 10 S. Howard St., Baltimore, Maryland, 21201 (United States); O' Neill, Mike [EA Engineering, Science, and Technology, 15 Loveton Circle, Baltimore, Maryland, 21152 (United States); Young, Carl [Cabrera Services, Inc., 1106 N. Charles St., Suite 300, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Monazite sand processing was conducted at the W. R. Grace Curtis Bay Facility (Baltimore, Maryland) from mid-May 1956 through the spring of 1957 under license to the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), for the extraction of source material in the form of thorium, as well as rare earth elements. The processing was conducted in the southwest quadrant of a ca. 100 year old, five-story, building (Building 23) in the active manufacturing portion of the facility. Building components and equipment in the southwest quadrant of Building 23 exhibited residual radiological activity remaining from the monazite sand processing. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) conducted a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) and prepared a Record of Decision (ROD) to address residual radioactivity on building components and equipment in the southwest quadrant of Building 23. The remedy selected for the southwest quadrant of Building 23, which was documented in the ROD (dated May 2005), was identified as 'Alternative 2: Decontamination With Removal to Industrial Use Levels'. The selected remedy provided for either decontaminating or removing areas of radioactivity to meet the RGs. Demonstration of compliance with the selected ARAR was performed using the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) and other appropriate guidance, as well as appropriate dose modeling codes where necessary. USACE-Baltimore District along with its private industry partner worked together under the terms of a 2008 Settlement Agreement to implement the remedial action (RA) for the southwest quadrant of Building 23. The RA was conducted in two phases: Phase 1 was completed to improve the building condition for support of subsequent remedial action and decrease scope uncertainty of the remedial action, and Phase 2 included decontamination and removal activities to meet the RGs and demonstration of compliance with the selected ARAR. Challenges encountered during the

  18. Use of phytoremediation and biochar to remediate heavy metal polluted soils: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Lu, H.; Fu, S.; Méndez, A.; Gascó, G.

    2014-02-01

    Anthropogenic activities are resulting in an increase of the use and extraction of heavy metals. Heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence accumulate in the environment, having the potential to contaminate the food chain. This pollution threatens soil quality, plant survival and human health. The remediation of heavy metals deserves attention, but it is impaired by the cost of these processes. Phytoremediation and biochar are two sound environmental technologies which could be at the forefront to mitigate soil pollution. This review provides an overview of the state of the art of the scientific research on phytoremediation and biochar application to remediate heavy-metal-contaminated soils. Research to date has attempted only in a limited number of occasions to combine both techniques, however we discuss the potential advantages of combining both, and the potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between phytoremediators and biochar. We identified specific research needs to ensure a sustainable use of phytoremediation and biochar as remediation tools.

  19. Corporate governance: remedying and ratifying directors' breaches

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    Extent to which company may relax scope and content of directors' duties, whether it can exonerate directors who default on their duties and whether it can ratify actions of defaulting directors and determine remedy for breach of duty.

  20. Nanotechnology for Site Remediation: Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    This fact sheet presents a snapshot of nanotechnology and its current uses in remediation. It presents information to help site project managers understand the potential applications of this group of technologies at their sites.

  1. Gallbladder Cleanse: A "Natural" Remedy for Gallstones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is it an effective way to flush out gallstones? Answers from Michael F. Picco, M.D. A ... an alternative remedy for ridding the body of gallstones. However, no scientific evidence suggests that a gallbladder ...

  2. List of Contractors to Support Anthrax Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2010-05-14

    This document responds to a need identified by private sector businesses for information on contractors that may be qualified to support building remediation efforts following a wide-area anthrax release.

  3. Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil | Nanda |

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. ... in intensive research aiming at understanding metal interactions in soil and their removal in an efficient way. ... This paper investigates the plant-microbial interactions in reclaiming the metal ...

  4. Porous graphene materials for water remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Zhiqiang; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Li; Chen, Xiaodong

    2014-09-10

    Water remediation has been a critical issue over the past decades due to the expansion of wastewater discharge to the environment. Currently, a variety of functional materials have been successfully prepared for water remediation applications. Among them, graphene is an attractive candidate due to its high specific surface area, tunable surface behavior, and high strength. This Concept paper summarizes the design strategy of porous graphene materials and their applications in water remediation, such as the cleanup of oil, removal of heavy metal ions, and elimination of water soluble organic contaminants. The progress made so far will guide further development in structure design strategy of porous materials based on graphene and exploration of such materials in environmental remediation.

  5. Green PCB Remediation from Sediment Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPRSS technology is an in situ remediation technique for PCB-contaminated sediments. The technique provides an effective and safe method for sediment cleanup...

  6. Civil Remedies Division Administrative Law Judge Decisions

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Decisions issued by Administrative Law Judges of the Departmental Appeals Board's Civil Remedies Division concerning fraud and abuse determinations by the Office of...

  7. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses......). In the stirred setup it is possible to shorten the transport route to few mm and to have a faster and continuous process. The present paper for the first time reports a direct comparison of the two options. The remediation of the stirred suspension showed faster than remediation of the water saturated soil even...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup....

  8. Innovative vitrification for soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jetta, N.W.; Patten, J.S.; Hnat, J.G. [Vortec Corp., Collegeville, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The objective of this DOE demonstration program is to validate the performance and operation of the Vortec Cyclone Melting System (CMS{trademark}) for the processing of LLW contaminated soils found at DOE sites. This DOE vitrification demonstration project has successfully progressed through the first two phases. Phase I consisted of pilot scale testing with surrogate wastes and the conceptual design of a process plant operating at a generic DOE site. The objective of Phase 2, which is scheduled to be completed the end of FY 95, is to develop a definitive process plant design for the treatment of wastes at a specific DOE facility. During Phase 2, a site specific design was developed for the processing of LLW soils and muds containing TSCA organics and RCRA metal contaminants. Phase 3 will consist of a full scale demonstration at the DOE gaseous diffusion plant located in Paducah, KY. Several DOE sites were evaluated for potential application of the technology. Paducah was selected for the demonstration program because of their urgent waste remediation needs as well as their strong management and cost sharing financial support for the project.

  9. Electrokinetic remediation of unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindgren, E.R.; Kozak, M.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Mattson, E.D. (SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in the DOE weapons complex, and for the nation as a whole electrokinetic remediation is one possible technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Large spills and leaks can contaminate both the soil above the water table as well as the aquifer itself. Electrodes are implanted in the soil, and a direct current is imposed between the electrodes. The application of direct current leads to a number of effects: ionic species and charged particles in the soil water will migrate to the oppositely charged electrode (electromigration and electrophoresis), and concomitant with this migration, a bulk flow of water is induced, usually toward the cathode (electroosmosis). The combination of these phenomena leads to a movement of contaminants toward the electrodes. The direction of contaminant movement will be determined by a number of factors, among which are type and concentration of contaminant, soil type and structure, interfacial chemistry of the soil-water system, and the current density in the soil pore water. Contaminants arriving at the electrodes may potentially be removed from the soil by one of several methods, such as electroplating or adsorption onto the electrode, precipitation or co-precipitation at the electrode, pumping of water near the electrode, or complexing with ion-exchange resins. Experimental results are described on the removal of sodium dichromate and food dye from soil.

  10. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Shanklin

    2006-06-01

    This Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for defining the remedial design requirements, preparing the design documentation, and defining the remedial actions for Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13, Group 3, Other Surface Soils, Remediation Sets 4-6 (Phase II) located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the design developed to support the remediation and disposal activities selected in the Final Operable Unit 3-13, Record of Decision.

  11. International experience in tailings pond remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacG. Robertson, A. [Robertson GeoConsultants Ltd., Vancouver (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Tailings pond remediation is required primarily on mine closure. While mining is an ancient industry, requirement for mine facility remediation is a comparatively new development. Requirement for remediation has come about partly as a result of mans awareness of the environmental impacts of mining and his desire to minimize this, partly, as a result of the ever-increasing scale and production rates of tailings generation and the resulting increased environmental impacts and safety risks. The paper starts with a review of the evolution of mans intolerance of environmental impacts from tailings production and the assignment of liability to remediate such impacts. Many of the tailings ponds currently undergoing remediation were designed and constructed using methods and technology that would be considered inappropriate for new impoundments being designed and developed today. The paper reviews the history of tailings impoundment design and construction practice and the resulting inherent deficiencies that must be remediated. Current practices and future trends in tailings pond remediation are reviewed. The evolution of regulatory requirements is not only in terms of technical and safety criteria, but also in terms of financial and political risk. Perhaps the most substantive driver of risk management is today the requirement for corporate governance at mining company board level and oversight of new project development in the underdeveloped countries by the large financial institutions responsible for funding projects. Embarrassment in the public eye and punishment in the stock markets for poor environmental and safety performance is driving the need for efficient and effective risk management of potential impacts and the remediation to avoid these. A basis for practical risk management is described. (orig.)

  12. Electrokinetic Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Spiked Soils

    OpenAIRE

    , M. Bilgin; , G. Akıncı

    2011-01-01

    In the presented study, remediation studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of electrokinetic method on the treatment of natural soil contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, in laboratory scale reactors. Electokinetic remediation of agricultural soil with an initial TPHs (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) concentration of 10000 ppm was investigated under 20 V or 40 V direct current by using NaOH and acetic acid as electrolyte solution, treatment efficiencies were observed accordin...

  13. On the Importance of Default Breach Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Sloof, Randolph; Oosterbeek, Hessel; Sonnemans, Joep

    2006-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment designed to address the importance of default breach remedies for actual contract outcomes. We find that default rules do have an influence. The reason for this is not that contract proposals and/or r...

  14. Project Overview: Successful Field-Scale in SITU Thermal NAPL Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butherus, Michael [S.M. Stoller Corporation; Ingle, David S. [S.M. Stoller Corporation; Juhlin, Randall [S.M. Stoller Corporation; Daniel, Joseph [S.M. Stoller Corporation; none,

    2004-10-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully completed a field-scale remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at the Northeast Site on the Young-Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center, Largo, Florida. The Young-Rainey STAR Center is a former DOE facility that was previously known as the Pinellas Plant and the Pinellas STAR Center. The remediation project encompassed an area of 10,000 ft2 and depths extending to 35 ft below ground surface. Prior to the remediation, DOE evaluated technologies that had the potential to remove NAPLs from the subsurface at the site. Because of site conditions (clay lenses and an underlying clay layer that were thought to be contaminated), steam injection and electrical heating were considered to be the only technologies that had the potential to remove these NAPLs. In July 2001, DOE’s contractor awarded a subcontract for removal of NAPLs from a portion of the Northeast Site. The technologies used for remediation were a combination of steam-enhanced extraction and Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process, an electrical resistive heating technology. Construction of the remediation system was completed in September 2002. Remedial operations began immediately after construction, and active heating ended in February 2003. After operations were completed, confirmatory sampling was conducted during a 6-month period to verify the level of cleanup achieved. Additional confirmatory sampling was conducted 18 months after operations ended. Analytical results of the confirmatory sampling showed that NAPL concentrations were reduced significantly below the required cleanup goals and, in most cases, below the regulatory maximum contaminant levels. Lessons learned relative to the design, construction, operation, confirmatory sampling approach, and subcontracting could benefit managers of similar remediation projects.

  15. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated with Organics and Radionuclides - An Innovative Approach Eases Traditional Hurdles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, J.; Case, N.; Coltman, K.

    2003-02-25

    Traditional approaches to the remediation of contaminated groundwater, such as pump-and-treat, have been used for many years for the treatment of groundwater contaminated with various organics. However the treatment of groundwater contaminated with organics and radionuclides has been considerably more challenging. Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) was recently faced with these challenges while designing a remediation system for the remediation of TCE-contaminated groundwater and soil at the RMI Extrusion Plant in Ashtabula, OH. Under contract with RMI Environmental Services (RMIES), SEC teamed with Regenesis, Inc. to design, implement, and execute a bioremediation system to remove TCE and associated organics from groundwater and soil that was also contaminated with uranium and technetium. The SEC-Regenesis system involved the injection of Hydrogen Release Compound (HRC), a natural attenuation accelerant that has been patented, designed, and produced by Regenesis, to stimulate the reductive dechlorination and remediation of chlorinated organics in subsurface environments. The compound was injected using direct-push Geoprobe rods over a specially designed grid system through the zone of contaminated groundwater. The innovative approach eliminated the need to extract contaminated groundwater and bypassed the restrictive limitations listed above. The system has been in operation for roughly six months and has begun to show considerable success at dechlorinating and remediating the TCE plume and in reducing the radionuclides into insoluble precipitants. The paper will provide an overview of the design, installation, and initial operation phase of the project, focusing on how traditional design challenges of remediating radiologically contaminated groundwater were overcome. The following topics will be specifically covered: a description of the mechanics of the HRC technology; an assessment of the applicability of the HRC technology to contaminated groundwater plumes

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Ferguson, S.D.; Fielden, J.M.; Schumann, P.L.

    1989-09-01

    The 576 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the tenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title work, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and keywords.

  17. Field analytical support during Superfund site remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, W.L.; Catherman, D.R. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    ERM-FAST{reg_sign} Services has provided cost-effective and critical field analytical support for a wide variety of investigatory and remedial projects over the past four years. Two recent projects involving soils remediation at Superfund sites exemplify the power of real time field analytical support in reducing time and expense during a project`s remedial phase. ERM-FAST on-site analytical facilities were able to meet, in a real time scenario, all data quality objectives (DQOs), all regulatory agency requirements, and satisfied the client`s needs. ERM-FAST made this possible through the development of unique analytical strategies, the proper selection of analytical technologies, and by streamlining the analytical methodologies. Both of these remedial efforts offer illustrations of the effectiveness of field analysis for vastly differing site contaminants. This case study focuses on the use of portable Gas Chromatography (GC) instrumentation as a tool for providing analytical support during a CERCLA site remediation program. The project discussed provides an example of how low cost portable analytical instrumentation can be utilized in a field setting to meet analytical DQOs consistent with CERCLA compliance and to meet the requirements for remedial activity cost control. Substantial savings were realized both by reducing total project analytical cost, and by efficient and effective process and schedule management.

  18. Remediation of DNAPLs in Low Permeability Soils. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-09-01

    Dense, non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) compounds like trichloroethene (TCE) and perchloroethene (PCE) are prevalent at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), other government, and industrial sites. Their widespread presence in low permeability media (LPM) poses severe challenges for assessment of their behavior and implementation of effective remediation technologies. Most remedial methods that involve fluid flow perform poorly in LPM. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of remediation methods such as vapor extraction, free-product recovery, soil flushing, steam stripping, bioremediation, bioventing, and air sparging in LPM by enhancing formation permeability through the creation of fractures filled with high-permeability materials, such as sand. Hydraulic fracturing can improve the performance of other remediation methods such as oxidation, reductive dechlorination, and bioaugmentation by enhancing delivery of reactive agents to the subsurface. Hydraulic fractures are typically created using a 2-in. steel casing and a drive point pushed into the subsurface by a pneumatic hammer. Hydraulic fracturing has been widely used for more than 50 years to stimulate the yield of wells recovering oil from rock at great depth and has recently been shown to stimulate the yield of wells recovering contaminated liquids and vapors from LPM at shallow depths. Hydraulic fracturing is an enabling technology for improving the performance of some remedial methods and is a key element in the implementation of other methods. This document contains information on the above-mentioned technology, including description, applicability, cost, and performance data.

  19. Remediation of trichloroethylene-contaminated soils by star technology using vegetable oil smoldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Madiha; Gerhard, Jason I; Major, David W; Pironi, Paolo; Hadden, Rory

    2015-03-21

    Self-sustaining treatment for active remediation (STAR) is an innovative soil remediation approach based on smoldering combustion that has been demonstrated to effectively destroy complex hydrocarbon nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) with minimal energy input. This is the first study to explore the smoldering remediation of sand contaminated by a volatile NAPL (trichloroethylene, TCE) and the first to consider utilizing vegetable oil as supplemental fuel for STAR. Thirty laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the relationship between key outcomes (TCE destruction, rate of remediation) to initial conditions (vegetable oil type, oil: TCE mass ratio, neat versus emulsified oils). Several vegetable oils and emulsified vegetable oil formulations were shown to support remediation of TCE via self-sustaining smoldering. A minimum concentration of 14,000 mg/kg canola oil was found to treat sand exhibiting up to 80,000 mg/kg TCE. On average, 75% of the TCE mass was removed due to volatilization. This proof-of-concept study suggests that injection and smoldering of vegetable oil may provide a new alternative for driving volatile contaminants to traditional vapour extraction systems without supplying substantial external energy.

  20. Successful Field-Scale In Situ Thermal NAPL Remediation at the Young-Rainey Star Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhlin, Randall [S.M. Stoller Corp. (United States); Butherus, Michael [S.M. Stoller Corp. (United States); Daniel, Joseph [S.M. Stoller Corp. (United States); Ingle, David S. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States); Heron, Gorm [SteamTech Environmental Services (United States); McGee, Bruce [McMillan-McGee Corp. (United States)

    2004-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) successfully completed a fieldscale remediation to remove non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) from the subsurface at a site on the Young-Rainey Science, Technology, and Research (STAR) Center, Largo, Florida. The STAR Center is a former DOE facility. The remediation project covered an area of 930 m2 (10,000 ft2) and depths extending to 10.5 m (35 ft) below ground surface. In July 2001, DOE’s contractor awarded a subcontract to SteamTech Environmental Services for removal of NAPLs from a portion of the Northeast Site. The technologies used for remediation were steam-enhanced extraction and Electro-Thermal Dynamic Stripping Process, an electrical resistive heating technology. McMillan-McGee Corporation implemented the process. Construction of the remediation system was completed in September 2002. Operations began immediately after construction, and active heating ended in February 2003. After operations were completed, confirmatory sampling was conducted over a 6-month period to verify the level of cleanup achieved. Results of the sampling showed that NAPL concentrations were reduced significantly below the required cleanup goals and, in most cases, below the regulatory maximum contaminant levels. Lessons learned relative to the design, construction, operation, confirmatory sampling approach, and subcontracting could benefit managers of similar remediation projects

  1. Activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zongqiang; Alef, Kassem; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Li, Peijun

    2007-05-08

    Vegetable oil has been proven to be advantageous as a non-toxic, cost-effective and biodegradable solvent to extract polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils for remediation purposes. The resulting vegetable oil contained PAHs and therefore required a method for subsequent removal of extracted PAHs and reuse of the oil in remediation processes. In this paper, activated carbon adsorption of PAHs from vegetable oil used in soil remediation was assessed to ascertain PAH contaminated oil regeneration. Vegetable oils, originating from lab scale remediation, with different PAH concentrations were examined to study the adsorption of PAHs on activated carbon. Batch adsorption tests were performed by shaking oil-activated carbon mixtures in flasks. Equilibrium data were fitted with the Langmuir and Freundlich isothermal models. Studies were also carried out using columns packed with activated carbon. In addition, the effects of initial PAH concentration and activated carbon dosage on sorption capacities were investigated. Results clearly revealed the effectiveness of using activated carbon as an adsorbent to remove PAHs from the vegetable oil. Adsorption equilibrium of PAHs on activated carbon from the vegetable oil was successfully evaluated by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The initial PAH concentrations and carbon dosage affected adsorption significantly. The results indicate that the reuse of vegetable oil was feasible.

  2. In Situ Remediation Integrated Program: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) was instituted out of recognition that in situ remediation could fulfill three important criteria: significant cost reduction of cleanup by eliminating or minimizing excavation, transportation, and disposal of wastes; reduced health impacts on workers and the public by minimizing exposure to wastes during excavation and processing; and remediation of inaccessible sites, including: deep subsurfaces, in, under, and around buildings. Buried waste, contaminated soils and groundwater, and containerized wastes are all candidates for in situ remediation. Contaminants include radioactive wastes, volatile and non-volatile organics, heavy metals, nitrates, and explosive materials. The ISR IP intends to facilitate development of in situ remediation technologies for hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes in soils, groundwater, and storage tanks. Near-term focus is on containment of the wastes, with treatment receiving greater effort in future years. ISR IP is an applied research and development program broadly addressing known DOE environmental restoration needs. Analysis of a sample of 334 representative sites by the Office of Environmental Restoration has shown how many sites are amenable to in situ remediation: containment--243 sites; manipulation--244 sites; bioremediation--154 sites; and physical/chemical methods--236 sites. This needs assessment is focused on near-term restoration problems (FY93--FY99). Many other remediations will be required in the next century. The major focus of the ISR EP is on the long term development of permanent solutions to these problems. Current needs for interim actions to protect human health and the environment are also being addressed.

  3. DNAPL Surface Chemistry: Its Impact on DNAPL Distribution in the Vadose Zone and its Manipulation to Enhance Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suan Power; Stefan Grimberg; Miles Denham

    2003-06-16

    The remediation of DNAPLs in subsurface environments is often limited by the heterogeneous distribution of the organic fluid. The fraction of DNAPL that is in the high conductivity regions of the subsurface can often be recovered relatively easily, although DNAPL in lower conductivity regions is much more difficult to extract, either through direct pumping or remediation measures based on interface mass transfer. The distribution of DNAPL within the vadose zone is affected by a complex interplay of heterogeneities in the porous matrix and the interfacial properties defining the interactions among all fluid and solid phases. Decreasing the interfacial tension between a DNAPL and water in the vadose zone could change the spreading of the DNAPL, thereby increase the surface area for mass transfer and the effectiveness of soil vapor extraction remediation.

  4. ICDF Complex Remedial Action Work Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Remedial Action Work Plan provides the framework for operation of the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility Complex (ICDF). This facility includes (a) an engineered landfill that meets the substantial requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, Idaho Hazardous Waste Management Act, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl landfill requirements; (b) centralized receiving, inspections, administration, storage/staging, and treatment facilities necessary for CERCLA investigation-derived, remedial, and removal waste at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prior to final disposition in the disposal facility or shipment off-Site; and (c) an evaporation pond that has been designated as a corrective action management unit. The ICDF Complex, including a buffer zone, will cover approximately 40 acres, with a landfill disposal capacity of approximately 510,000 yd3. The ICDF Complex is designed and authorized to accept INL CERCLA-generated wastes, and includes the necessary subsystems and support facilities to provide a complete waste management system. This Remedial Action Work Plan presents the operational approach and requirements for the various components that are part of the ICDF Complex. Summaries of the remedial action work elements are presented herein, with supporting information and documents provided as appendixes to this work plan that contain specific detail about the operation of the ICDF Complex. This document presents the planned operational process based upon an evaluation of the remedial action requirements set forth in the Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision.

  5. Kinetics as a tool to assess the immobilization of soil trace metals by binding phase amendments for in situ remediation purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrault, Gilles, E-mail: varrault@u-pec.fr [Universite Paris-Est, Leesu, UMR-MA102-AgroParisTech, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Bermond, Alain [AgroParisTech, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, 16 rue Claude Bernard, 75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-08-30

    Highlights: {yields} Assessment of the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment. {yields} Use of a kinetic fractionation method to assess trace metal mobility in amended soils. {yields} Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation. {yields} IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. {yields} Advantages of kinetic fractionation vs. extraction schemes performed at equilibrium. - Abstract: Many soil remediation techniques consist in decreasing the mobility of trace metals by means of adding trace metal binding phases. For this study, whose aim is to assess the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment, a kinetic fractionation method that provides the labile and slowly labile trace metal amounts in soil has been introduced. Manganese oxides (vernadite) and insolubilized humic acids (IHA) have been used as binding phases for the remediation of four heavily polluted soils. Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation, whereas IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. In most cases, the labile metal fractions decrease dramatically in amended soils (up to 50%); on the other hand, the amounts of total extracted metal near the point of thermodynamic equilibrium often show no significant difference between the amended soil and the control soil. These results highlight the utility of kinetic fractionation in assessing the efficiency of soil remediation techniques and, more generally, in evaluating trace metal mobility in soils and its potential advantages compared to extraction schemes performed under equilibrium conditions. In the future, this kinetic method could be considerably simplified so as to consume much less time allowing its routine use.

  6. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    difference in the degree of pollution and the way copper is bound within the soil.The speciation of copper in the soil from a small pilot plant did not show any measurable change during the first seven months of operation. It seems that the number of particles with very a high concentration of copper......Observations were made of copper-polluted soil to see, if any changes in the bonding type of copper in the soil were made during electrodialytic soil remediation. Three different fractions of the copper-polluted soil were used for investigation with infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction...... (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am...

  7. Electrodialytic soil remediation in a small pilot plant (Part II)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmose, Bodil; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and observations with scanning electron microscope (SEM), the last two combined with an EDX analysis unit. The three soil fractions were extracted with am-monia for observa-tion of the copper removal when copper forms copper-tetra-ammine complexes with am......-monia. Ammonia was chosen because it forms strong complexes with copper and to keep the soil basic, so that the carbonates were not dissolved. The bulk soil was treated by electrodialytic reme-dia-tion, and soil treated for seven months was investigated with XRD, TEM and SEM.Malachite was found by use of XRD...... measurements in one of the untreated soil samples. These measurements were supported by EDX measurements (combined with either SEM or TEM), where almost pure copper particles were found. The EDX measurements do not include hydrogen, carbon and oxygen, which make the figures of all other elements higher than...

  8. Tank waste remediation system operational scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.E.

    1995-05-01

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) mission is to store, treat, and immobilize highly radioactive Hanford waste (current and future tank waste and the strontium and cesium capsules) in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner (DOE 1993). This operational scenario is a description of the facilities that are necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. The TWRS Program is developing technologies, conducting engineering analyses, and preparing for design and construction of facilities necessary to remediate the Hanford Site tank wastes. An Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is being prepared to evaluate proposed actions of the TWRS. This operational scenario is only one of many plausible scenarios that would result from the completion of TWRS technology development, engineering analyses, design and construction activities and the TWRS EIS. This operational scenario will be updated as the development of the TWRS proceeds and will be used as a benchmark by which to evaluate alternative scenarios.

  9. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...... and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes...... is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic artifact or 'medium-specific' practice, but as a critical remediating process - painting as remediated painting. What could be gained from this reconceptualisation of the expanded field of painting? Firstly, it introduces an apprehension of painting...

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of heavy metal polluted soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Kirkelund, Gunvor Marie;

    2012-01-01

    Electrodialytic soil remediation is a method for removal of heavy metals. Good results have previously been obtained with both treatment of a stationary, water saturated soil matrix and with remediation of a stirred suspension of soil in water. The two different setups have different uses...... without a short distance between the membranes. The acidification of the suspended soil was fastest and following the mobilization of heavy metals. This may indicate that water splitting at the anion exchange membrane is used more efficiently in the stirred setup........ The first as in-situ or on-site treatment when there is no requirement for fast remediation, as the removal rate of the heavy metals are dependent on the distance between the electrodes (everything else equal) and in such application the electrode spacing must have a certain distance (often meters...

  11. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udovic, Metka; Drobne, Damjana; Lestan, Domen

    2009-10-01

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation.

  12. Remediation of the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, E Scott; Metheny, Maura A

    2002-01-01

    Remediation of ground water and soil contamination at the Wells G & H Superfund Site, Woburn, Massachusetts, uses technologies that reflect differences in hydrogeologic settings, concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and costs of treatment. The poorly permeable glacial materials that overlie fractured bedrock at the W.R. Grace property necessitate use of closely spaced recovery wells. Contaminated ground water is treated with hydrogen peroxide and ultraviolet (UV) oxidation. At UniFirst, a deep well completed in fractured bedrock removes contaminated ground water, which is treated by hydrogen peroxide, UV oxidation, and granular activated carbon (GAC). The remediation system at Wildwood integrates air sparging, soil-vapor extraction, and ground water pumping. Air stripping and GAC are used to treat contaminated water; GAC is used to treat contaminated air. New England Plastics (NEP) uses air sparging and soil-vapor extraction to remove VOCs from the unsaturated zone and shallow ground water. Contaminated air and water are treated using separate GAC systems. After nine years of operation at W.R. Grace and UniFirst, 30 and 786 kg, respectively, of VOCs have been removed. In three years of operation, 866 kg of VOCs have been removed at Wildwood. In 15 months of operation, 36 kg of VOCs were removed at NEP. Characterization work continues at the Olympia Nominee Trust, Whitney Barrel, Murphy Waste Oil, and Aberjona Auto Parts properties. Risk assessments are being finalized that address heavy metals in the floodplain sediments along the Aberjona River that are mobilized from the Industri-Plex Superfund Site located a few miles upstream.

  13. Mapping Contaminant Remediation with Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Power, C.; Tsourlos, P.; Karaoulis, M.; Giannopoulos, A.; Soupios, P. M.; Simyrdanis, K.

    2014-12-01

    The remediation of sites contaminated with industrial chemicals - specifically dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) like coal tar and chlorinated solvents - represents a major geoenvironmental challenge. Remediation activities would benefit from a non-destructive technique to map the evolution of DNAPL mass in space and time. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has long-standing potential in this context but has not yet become a common tool at DNAPL sites. This work evaluated the potential of time-lapse ERT for mapping DNAPL mass reduction in real time during remediation. Initially, a coupled DNAPL-ERT numerical model was developed for exploring this potential at the field scale, generating realistic DNAPL scenarios and predicting the response of an ERT survey. Also, new four-dimensional (4D) inversion algorithms were integrated for tracking DNAPL removal over time. 4D ERT applied at the surface for mapping an evolving DNAPL distribution was first demonstrated in a laboratory experiment. Independent simulation of the experiment demonstrated the reliability of the DNAPL-ERT model for simulating real systems. The model was then used to explore the 4D ERT approach at the field scale for a range of realistic DNAPL remediation scenarios. The approach showed excellent potential for mapping shallow DNAPL changes. However, remediation at depth was not as well resolved. To overcome this limitation, a new surface-to-horizontal borehole (S2HB) ERT configuration is proposed. A second laboratory experiment was conducted that demonstrated that S2HB ERT does better resolve changes in DNAPL distribution relative to surface ERT, particularly at depth. The DNAPL-ERT model was also used to demonstrate the improved mapping of S2HB ERT for field scale DNAPL scenarios. Overall, this work demonstrates that, with these innovations, ERT exhibits significant potential as a real time, non-destructive geoenvironmental remediation site monitoring tool.

  14. Remediation of Groundwater Contaminated by Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack; Palumbo, Anthony

    2008-07-01

    A Workshop on Accelerating Development of Practical Field-Scale Bioremediation Models; An Online Meeting, 23 January to 20 February 2008; A Web-based workshop sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Sciences Program (DOE/ERSP) was organized in early 2008 to assess the state of the science and knowledge gaps associated with the use of computer models to facilitate remediation of groundwater contaminated by wastes from Cold War era nuclear weapons development and production. Microbially mediated biological reactions offer a potentially efficient means to treat these sites, but considerable uncertainty exists in the coupled biological, chemical, and physical processes and their mathematical representation.

  15. How to accelerate the Fernald remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, M.K. [Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corp., Cincinnati, OH (United States). Fernald Environmental Management Project; Reising, J. [USDOE Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1996-01-10

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project is unique among Department of Energy (DOE) sites by virtue of successful efforts by the Fernald Environmental Restoration Management Corporation (FERMCO) and DOE-Fernald Area Office (FN) in securing a stak-eholder-assisted final site closure vision and all Record of Decisions (ROD) or Interim RODs required to set the stage for final remediation. DOE and FERMCO have agreed in principle on a Ten Year Plan which accelerates all activities to remediate the site in approximately half the target schedule. This paper presents the path that led to the current Ten Year Plan, the key elements of the plan and the implementation strategies.

  16. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse;

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... experiment at 40 mA, with approximately 137.5 g mine tailings on dry basis. The removal for a static (baseline) experiment only amounted 15% when passing approximately the same amount of charge through 130 g of mine tailings. The use of air bubbling to keep the tailings suspended increased the removal...

  17. An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent a marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, L.; Hers, I. [Golder Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An integrated approach to risk-based remediation of a former bulk fuel storage facility adjacent to a marine environment was discussed. The presentation provided an introduction and illustration to the site location and history, located close to Skagway, Alaska and northwestern British Columbia. The site investigation and conceptual model were also presented. The remedial approach was also described with reference to a risk-based action approach, remedial objectives, soil vapour extraction (SVE)-bioventing, and air sparging-biosparging. The objectives were to minimize potential exposure to aquatic receptors by minimizing non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) mobility and dissolved transport of petroleum hydrocarbons. Groundwater modeling to assess the attenuation rate and to determine remedial targets was also discussed. Model validation and results of groundwater modeling as well as remediation system details and performance were then provided. It was determined that significant attenuation is occurring and that effective mass removal and concentrations have been decreasing over time. It was demonstrated that risk-based remedial goals and hydrogeology can change with land use/development. tabs., figs.

  18. 32 CFR 516.64 - Comprehensive remedies plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION Remedies in Procurement Fraud and Corruption § 516.64 Comprehensive... investigation involving fraud or corruption that relates to Army procurement activities. When possible, these.... (4) Consideration of each criminal, civil, contractual, and administrative remedy available,...

  19. Functional remediation components: A conceptual method of evaluating the effects of remediation on risks to ecological receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Bunn, Amoret; Downs, Janelle; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Salisbury, Jennifer

    2016-08-30

    Governmental agencies, regulators, health professionals, tribal leaders, and the public are faced with understanding and evaluating the effects of cleanup activities on species, populations, and ecosystems. While engineers and managers understand the processes involved in different remediation types such as capping, pump and treat, and natural attenuation, there is often a disconnect between (1) how ecologists view the influence of different types of remediation, (2) how the public perceives them, and (3) how engineers understand them. The overall goal of the present investigation was to define the components of remediation types (= functional remediation). Objectives were to (1) define and describe functional components of remediation, regardless of the remediation type, (2) provide examples of each functional remediation component, and (3) explore potential effects of functional remediation components in the post-cleanup phase that may involve continued monitoring and assessment. Functional remediation components include types, numbers, and intensity of people, trucks, heavy equipment, pipes, and drill holes, among others. Several components may be involved in each remediation type, and each results in ecological effects, ranging from trampling of plants, to spreading invasive species, to disturbing rare species, and to creating fragmented habitats. In some cases remediation may exert a greater effect on ecological receptors than leaving the limited contamination in place. A goal of this conceptualization is to break down functional components of remediation such that managers, regulators, and the public might assess the effects of timing, extent, and duration of different remediation options on ecological systems.

  20. Petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites: a review of investigation and remediation regulations and processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epelbaum, Michel; Claudio, Jair R. [Bureau Veritas do Brasil Sociedade Classificadora e Certificadora Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    This paper discusses alternatives on remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated sites which include groundwater remediation techniques and soil remediation techniques. Finally, the work points out some trends of sites remediation in Brazil and abroad. 6 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  1. Electrodialytic Remediation of Different Cu-Polluted Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik K.; Hansen, Lene

    1999-01-01

    Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action......Based on characterization of a polluted soil a proper desorbing agent to be added to the soil before the remediation can be found. The desorbing agent can improve the remediation according to both energy consumption and duration of the action...

  2. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-06

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  3. 40 CFR 92.705 - Remedial plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reserves the right to waive any or all of the requirements of this paragraph (c) if he/she determines that..., adjustments or other changes to be made to bring the locomotives or locomotive engines into conformity... remanufacturer's decision as to the particular remedial changes to be used in correcting the nonconformity. (3) A...

  4. Some aspects of remediation of contaminated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Korobova, Elena; Abreu, Manuela; Bini, Claudio; Chon, Hyo-Taek; Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Roca, Núria

    2014-05-01

    Soils are essential components of the environment, a limited precious and fragile resource, the quality of which should be preserved. The concentration, chemical form and distribution of potential harmful elements in soils depends on parent rocks, weathering, soil type and soil use. However, their concentration can be altered by mismanagement of industrial and mining activities, energy generation, traffic increase, overuse of agrochemicals, sewage sludge and waste disposal, causing contamination, environmental problems and health concerns. Heavy metals, some metalloids and radionuclides are persistent in the environment. This persistence hampers the cost/efficiency of remediation technologies. The choice of the most appropriate soil remediation techniques depends of many factors and essentially of the specific site. This contribution aims to offer an overview of the main remediation methods in contaminated soils. There are two main groups of technologies: the first group dealing with containment and confinement, minimizing their toxicity, mobility and bioavailability. Containment measures include covering, sealing, encapsulation and immobilization and stabilization. The second group, remediation with decontamination, is based on the remotion, clean up and/or destruction of contaminants. This group includes mechanical procedures, physical separations, chemical technologies such as soil washing with leaching or precipitation of harmful elements, soil flushing, thermal treatments and electrokinetic technologies. There are also two approaches of biological nature: bioremediation and phytoremediation. Case studies from Chile, Ecuador, Italy, Korea, Peru, Portugal, Russia and Spain, will be discussed in accordance with the time available.

  5. Bioventing feasibility test to aid remediation strategy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pearce, K

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented where the feasibility of bioventing was assessed for the remediation of a petroleum-contaminated site. This was achieved through the determination of the radius of influence of a single vent well, the soil gas permeability...

  6. Usability Studies of a Remedial Multimedia System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjaneyulu, K. S. R.; Singer, R. A.; Harding, R.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the formative evaluation of a multimedia computer system that provides remedial support for university students learning concepts concerning the structure and function of the human brain and describes usability studies of the system using the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). Analysis of SUMI items and the student…

  7. 34 CFR 682.413 - Remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial actions. 682.413 Section 682.413 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal...

  8. Communicative and remedial effects of social blushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments (N = 90; N = 78; N = 52) examined the communicative and remedial properties of blushing. in Experiments 1 and 2, participants read scripts describing incidents that took place in shops. Following the mishap the actor left while displaying a blush (target condition), left the shop w

  9. 40 CFR 205.174 - Remedial orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial orders. 205.174 Section 205.174 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... smoothly and fully closed. An ignition disable de-vice may be used to turn off the engine at clos-ing RPM...

  10. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains...

  11. Electrokinetic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2007-01-01

    in sulphuric acidified tailings) without bipolar electrodes to 42% when bipolar electrodes were implemented. Furthermore, the results showed that in this system sulphuric acid addition prior to remediation was better than citric acid addition. In addition, applying a too strong electric field (even...

  12. Detection and Remediation of Groundwater Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is an important part of the water cycle and is also widely used as sources of drinking water. With the increasing de?velopment of groundwater exploitation, the pollution is becoming more and more serious. This paper talks about the main research direc?tions of groundwater pollution, the detection, the remediation and some conclusions.

  13. Tank waste remediation system program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, R.W.

    1998-01-05

    This program plan establishes the framework for conduct of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project. The plan focuses on the TWRS Retrieval and Disposal Mission and is specifically intended to support the DOE mid-1998 Readiness to Proceed with Privatized Waste Treatment evaluation for establishing firm contracts for waste immobilization.

  14. Proceedings: Conference on Compensatory/Remedial Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fea, Henry R., Ed.; And Others

    This document presents the papers and discussions from the Conference on Compensatory/Remedial Education. The contents include: "Institutional Programs for the Low Achievers" by Joan G. Roloff; "Communication in Compensatory Education" by Henry R. Fea; "Seminar: Special Programs for Minorities" by Constance Acholonu; "Seminar: Special Programs for…

  15. Evaluation of Remedial Programs at UC Davis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Celeste M.

    Efforts at the University of California, Davis, (UC Davis) to develop standard evaluation models for remedial programs are described, and three UC Davis evaluation studies are considered. A standard evaluation model entails a formal orientation, a singular values perspective, and a primary audience of program funders and oversight agencies. The…

  16. 24 CFR 81.46 - Remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., probation, reprimand or settlement, against lenders found to have engaged in discriminatory lending... future fair lending violations; (viii) The extent that a finding of liability against a lender is based...) Following the Secretary's decision concerning the appropriate remedial action(s) that the GSE is to...

  17. On the importance of default breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment

  18. Filling Empty Pockets: Remedial Readers Make Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Describes the effect on junior high remedial readers of a reading workshop applying principles from Nancie Atwell's "In the Middle," including self-selection of adolescent literature books, silent reading, dialogue journal writing, and sharing work with others. Augments the workshop with "mini-lessons" on elements of reading…

  19. On the importance of default breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sonnemans, J.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts that default breach remedies are immaterial whenever contracting costs are negligible. Some experimental studies, however, suggest that in practice default rules do matter, as they may affect parties' preferences over contract terms. This paper presents results from an experiment des

  20. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  1. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  2. 40 CFR 761.269 - Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Cleanup Site Characterization Sampling for PCB Remediation Waste in Accordance with § 761.61(a)(2) § 761.269 Sampling liquid PCB remediation waste. (a) If the liquid is single phase...

  3. 24 CFR 8.52 - Remedial and affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remedial and affirmative action. 8... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT Enforcement § 8.52 Remedial and affirmative action. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the responsible civil rights official finds that a recipient has...

  4. 45 CFR 83.3 - Remedial and affirmative actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial and affirmative actions. 83.3 Section 83...; Coverage § 83.3 Remedial and affirmative actions. (a) Remedial action. If the Director finds that an entity... discrimination. (b) Affirmative action. In the absence of a finding of discrimination on the basis of sex in...

  5. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  6. 40 CFR 270.68 - Remedial Action Plans (RAPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). 270.68 Section 270.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... § 270.68 Remedial Action Plans (RAPs). Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) are special forms of permits...

  7. 12 CFR 268.501 - Remedies and relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedies and relief. 268.501 Section 268.501... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.501 Remedies and relief. (a) When the... employee has been discriminated against, the Board shall provide full relief which shall include the...

  8. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedies and relief. 1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief. (a) When an agency, or the... discriminated against, the agency shall provide full relief which shall include the following elements in...

  9. Standards-Based Automated Remediation: A Remediation Manager Reference Implementation, 2011 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Status 1 2 4 7 5, 6 Derived PM TB RG X X X External Output Transmit Remediation Tasking (to Remediation RT) RTL Transmit...Format XML Specification, version 0.41. http://metadata.dod.mil/ mdr /ns/netops/shared_data/arf_index_page/0.41 (sponsored access required) 2010. 12...Relevant Websites Abbreviation Title URL ARF Assessment Results Format (DoD version 0.41) http://metadata.dod.mil/ mdr /ns/netop s/shared_data

  10. [Cognitive remediation and work outcome in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, N

    2014-06-01

    Recovery is partly defined by the patients' capacity to work, since doing well in a job favors hope and responsibilities' taking. Diminished job placement or tenure is linked with cognitive disorders, which impact directly and indirectly (through negative symptoms) functional outcomes. Attention, executive functions and working memory disorders can result in an alteration of the ability to manage the tasks required in the workplace. Executive function, working memory and social cognition disorders may also have an impact on behavior in relationships. Cognitive disorders do not automatically directly contribute to vocational outcome, yet their effects may be mediated by other variables such as symptoms, metacognition, social skills and intrinsic motivation. Then, since all these dimensions have to be taken into account, reducing the impact of cognitive troubles becomes a major challenge for the care of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation is the more effective therapeutic tool to reduce cognitive dysfunctions. It rests in particular on the development of new strategies that allow taking concrete situations into account more efficiently. Cognitive remediation reduces the detrimental consequences of cognitive disorders and permits their compensation. It has emerged as an effective treatment, that improves not only cognitive abilities but also functioning, as it has been shown by numerous randomized controlled studies and several meta-analyses. The present article considers the effects on cognitive remediation on work function in schizophrenia. Several randomized controlled trials that compared supported employment alone versus supported employment associated with cognitive remediation showed significant improvement of employment rates in the latter condition. These results favor the use of cognitive remediation before job placement. The specific needs of the occupation that will be provided and the cognitive profile of the user should be taken into account.

  11. Remediation and its effect represented on long term monitoring data at a chlorinated ethenes contaminated site, Wonju, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong-Sun; Lee, Seung Hyun; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2016-04-01

    A research for the contamination of chlorinated ethenes such as trichloroethylene (TCE) at an industrial complex, Wonju, Korea, was carried out based on 17 rounds of groundwater quality data collection from 2009 to 2015. Remediation technologies such as soil vapor extraction, soil flushing, biostimulation, and pump-and-treat have been applied to eliminate the contaminant sources of trichloroethylene (TCE) and to prevent the migration of TCE plume from remediation target zones to groundwater discharge area like a stream. The remediation efficiency according to the remedial actions was evaluated by tracing a time-series of plume evaluation and temporal mass discharge at three transects (Source, Transect-1, Transect-2) which was assigned along the groundwater flow path. Also, based on long term monitoring data, dissolved TCE concentration and mass of residual TCE in the initial stage of disposal were estimated to evaluate the efficiency of in situ remediation. The results of temporal and spatial monitoring before remedial actions showed that a TCE plume originating from main and local source zones continues to be discharged to a stream. However, from the end of intensive remedial actions from 2012 to 2013, the aqueous concentrations of TCE plume present at and around the main source areas decreased significantly. Especially, during the intensive remediation period, the early average mass discharge (26.58 g/day) at source transect was decreased to average 4.99 g/day. Estimated initial dissolved concentration and residual mass of TCE in the initial stage of disposal decreased rapidly after an intensive remedial action in 2013 and it is expected to be continuously decreased from the end of remedial actions to 2020. This study demonstrates that long term monitoring data are useful in assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions at chlorinated ethenes contaminated site. Acknowledgements This project is supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment under "The GAIA

  12. Antifungal activity of Aegle marmelos (L. Correa (Rutaceae leaf extract on dermatophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Balakumar

    2011-08-01

    Conclusions: Aegle marmelos leaf extracts significantly inhibites the growth of all dermatophytic fungi studied. If this activity is confirmed by in vivo studies and if the compound is isolated and identified, it could be a remedy for dermatophytosis.

  13. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joyce Elaine Cristina Betoni; Rebeca Passarelli Mantovani; Lidiane Nunes Barbosa; Luiz Claudio Di Stasi; Ary Fernandes Junior

    2006-01-01

    ... as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts-"guaco" ( Mikania glomerata ), guava ( Psidium guajava ), clove...

  14. Kaempferia parviflora Extract Exhibits Anti-cancer Activity against HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saranyapin Potikanond; Siriwoot Sookkhee; Mingkwan Na Takuathung; Pitchaya Mungkornasawakul; Nitwara Wikan; Duncan R. Smith; Wutigri Nimlamool

    2017-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora (KP) has been traditionally used as a folk remedy to treat several diseases including cancer, and several studies have reported cytotoxic activities of extracts of KP against a number of different cancer cell lines...

  15. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-09-19

    The remedial design/remedial action for Operable Unit 6-05 (Waste Area Group 6) and Operable Unit 10-04 (Waste Area Group 10) - collectively called Operable Unit 10-04 has been divided into four phases. Phase I consists of developing and implementing institutional controls at Operable Unit 10-04 sites and developing and implementing Idaho National Laboratory-wide plans for both institutional controls and ecological monitoring. Phase II will remediate sites contaminated with trinitrotoluene and Royal Demolition Explosive. Phase III will remediate lead contamination at a gun range, and Phase IV will remediate hazards from unexploded ordnance. This Phase III remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of lead-contaminated soils found at the Security Training Facility (STF)-02 Gun Range located at the Idaho National Laboratory. Remediation of the STF-02 Gun Range will include excavating contaminated soils; physically separating copper and lead for recycling; returning separated soils below the remediation goal to the site; stabilizing contaminated soils, as required, and disposing of the separated soils that exceed the remediation goal; encapsulating and disposing of creosote-contaminated railroad ties and power poles; removing and disposing of the wooden building and asphalt pads found at the STF-02 Gun Range; sampling and analyzing soil to determine the excavation requirements; and when the remediation goals have been met, backfilling and contouring excavated areas and revegetating the affected area.

  16. Bioaccumulation in Porcellio scaber (Crustacea, Isopoda) as a measure of the EDTA remediation efficiency of metal-polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Drobne, Damjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Vecna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen, E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.s [Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, Sl-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-10-15

    Leaching using EDTA applied to a Pb, Zn and Cd polluted soil significantly reduced soil metal concentrations and the pool of metals in labile soil fractions. Metal mobility (Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure), phytoavailability (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid extraction) and human oral-bioavailability (Physiologically Based Extraction Test) were reduced by 85-92%, 68-91% and 88-95%, respectively. The metal accumulation capacity of the terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber (Crustacea) was used as in vivo assay of metal bioavailability, before and after soil remediation. After feeding on metal contaminated soil for two weeks, P. scaber accumulated Pb, Zn and Cd in a concentration dependent manner. The amounts of accumulated metals were, however, higher than expected on the basis of extraction (in vitro) tests. The combined results of chemical extractions and the in vivo test with P. scaber provide a more relevant picture of the availability stripping of metals after soil remediation. - Bioaccumulation tests with Porcellio scaber isopods are proposed as a supplement to chemical extraction in assessing metal bioavailability before and after soil remediation.

  17. Tank waste remediation system integrated technology plan. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, B.; Ignatov, A.; Johnson, S.; Mann, M.; Morasch, L.; Ortiz, S.; Novak, P. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, is operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors. Starting in 1943, Hanford supported fabrication of reactor fuel elements, operation of production reactors, processing of irradiated fuel to separate and extract plutonium and uranium, and preparation of plutonium metal. Processes used to recover plutonium and uranium from irradiated fuel and to recover radionuclides from tank waste, plus miscellaneous sources resulted in the legacy of approximately 227,000 m{sup 3} (60 million gallons) of high-level radioactive waste, currently in storage. This waste is currently stored in 177 large underground storage tanks, 28 of which have two steel walls and are called double-shell tanks (DSTs) an 149 of which are called single-shell tanks (SSTs). Much of the high-heat-emitting nuclides (strontium-90 and cesium-137) has been extracted from the tank waste, converted to solid, and placed in capsules, most of which are stored onsite in water-filled basins. DOE established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program in 1991. The TWRS program mission is to store, treat, immobilize and dispose, or prepare for disposal, the Hanford tank waste in an environmentally sound, safe, and cost-effective manner. Technology will need to be developed or improved to meet the TWRS program mission. The Integrated Technology Plan (ITP) is the high-level consensus plan that documents all TWRS technology activities for the life of the program.

  18. Electrokinetic extraction of chromate from unsaturated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, E.D. [SAT-UNSAT, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lindgren, E.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-11-01

    Heavy-metal contamination of soil and groundwater is a widespread problem in industrial nations. Remediation by excavation of such sites may not be cost effective or politically acceptable. Electrokinetic remediation is one possible remediation technique for in situ removal of such contaminants from unsaturated soils. Previous papers discussing the work performed by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Sat-Unsat, Inc. (SUI) (Lindgren et al., 1991, 1992, 1993) focused on the transport of contaminants and dyes by electrokinetics in unsaturated soils. These experiments were conducted with graphite electrodes with no extraction system. As the contaminants migrated through the soil, they increased in concentration at the electrode creating a diffusion flux in the opposite direction. This paper discusses a technique to remove the contaminants from unsaturated soils once they have reached an electrode.

  19. Biogeochemical aspects of uranium mineralization, mining, milling, and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate M.; Gallegos, Tanya J.; Landa, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural uranium (U) occurs as a mixture of three radioactive isotopes: 238U, 235U, and 234U. Only 235U is fissionable and makes up about 0.7% of natural U, while 238U is overwhelmingly the most abundant at greater than 99% of the total mass of U. Prior to the 1940s, U was predominantly used as a coloring agent, and U-bearing ores were mined mainly for their radium (Ra) and/or vanadium (V) content; the bulk of the U was discarded with the tailings (Finch et al., 1972). Once nuclear fission was discovered, the economic importance of U increased greatly. The mining and milling of U-bearing ores is the first step in the nuclear fuel cycle, and the contact of residual waste with natural water is a potential source of contamination of U and associated elements to the environment. Uranium is mined by three basic methods: surface (open pit), underground, and solution mining (in situ leaching or in situ recovery), depending on the deposit grade, size, location, geology and economic considerations (Abdelouas, 2006). Solid wastes at U mill tailings (UMT) sites can include both standard tailings (i.e., leached ore rock residues) and solids generated on site by waste treatment processes. The latter can include sludge or “mud” from neutralization of acidic mine/mill effluents, containing Fe and a range of coprecipitated constituents, or barium sulfate precipitates that selectively remove Ra (e.g., Carvalho et al., 2007). In this chapter, we review the hydrometallurgical processes by which U is extracted from ore, the biogeochemical processes that can affect the fate and transport of U and associated elements in the environment, and possible remediation strategies for site closure and aquifer restoration.This paper represents the fourth in a series of review papers from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on geochemical aspects of UMT management that span more than three decades. The first paper (Landa, 1980) in this series is a primer on the nature of tailings and radionuclide

  20. Isooctane transport and remediation in soil using lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarieti, M. L.; Toscano, G.; Greco, G.

    2009-04-01

    The AMRA lysimeter station (near Piana di Monte Verna, Caserta, Italy) consists of eight weighable monolithic groundwater lysimeters fully equipped with sensors to provide continuous monitoring of temperature, humidity, water tension and weight, as well as ports for soil, liquid and gas sampling. An air-injection system allows to perform venting or sparging actions into contaminated soils and groundwater. A meteo station provides the indispensable data to evaluate the interactions between lysimeters and the meteorological phenomena on site. A preliminary experiment was performed last year to investigate the reactive transport of a NAPL-type contaminant under passive transport conditions and during an air-venting remediation action. 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) was chosen as a representative contaminant from gasoline fuels. Four lysimeters containing undisturbed soil extracted from a former industrial site were used. Surface vegetation was cut to avoid leaves interference during contamination phase. Two lysimeters were contaminated by distributing a fixed amount of isooctane onto the soil surface, while two more lysimeters were left uncontaminated for reference. Only for one of the two contaminated lysimeters air was vented through a port at 150 cm depth. Air injection started 30 min after the contamination, lasted all the experiment time, and was applied also to one of the reference lysimeters. Gas samples were drawn periodically at different depths of the two contaminated lysimeters and analysed for isooctane content. Evolution of isooctane concentration profiles was different in the two contaminated lysimeters. In case of air-venting the contaminant maximum concentration was lower and the maximum depth reached by the contaminant was reduced. The time needed for a complete remediation action was compared with theoretical estimates computed according to normative procedures.

  1. A Review of Centrifugal Testing of Gasoline Contamination and Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay N. Meegoda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs containing gasoline represent a significant public health hazard. Virtually undetectable to the UST owner, gasoline leaks can contaminate groundwater supplies. In order to develop remediation plans one must know the extent of gasoline contamination. Centrifugal simulations showed that in silty and sandy soils gasoline moved due to the physical process of advection and was retained as a pool of free products above the water table. However, in clayey soils there was a limited leak with lateral spreading and without pooling of free products above the water table. Amount leaked depends on both the type of soil underneath the USTs and the amount of corrosion. The soil vapor extraction (SVE technology seems to be an effective method to remove contaminants from above the water table in contaminated sites. In-situ air sparging (IAS is a groundwater remediation technology for contamination below the water table, which involves the injection of air under pressure into a well installed into the saturated zone. However, current state of the art is not adequate to develop a design guide for site implementation. New information is being currently generated by both centrifugal tests as well as theoretical models to develop a design guide for IAS. The petroleum contaminated soils excavated from leaking UST sites can be used for construction of highway pavements, specifically as sub-base material or blended and used as hot or cold mix asphalt concrete. Cost analysis shows that 5% petroleum contaminated soils is included in hot or cold mix asphalt concrete can save US$5.00 production cost per ton of asphalt produced.

  2. ELECTROKINETIC REMEDIATION STUDY FOR CADMIUM CONTAMINATED SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bala Ramudu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental research undertaken to evaluate different purging solutions to enhance the removal of cadmium from spiked contaminated field soil by electrokinetic remediation. Three experiments were conducted when soil was saturated with deionised water and subsequently deionised water, ammonium citrate and sodium citrate were used as purging solutions at anode end. One experiment was conducted when the soil was saturated with ammonium citrate and itself was used as the purging solution. Results showed that 49% reduction of cadmium concentration was achieved in the case of soil saturated (washed with ammonium citrate as well as purging solution also was ammonium citrate. The soil pH and washing solutions were the most important factors in controlling the removal of cadmium in electrokinetic remediation process.

  3. Briefing paper -- Remedial Action Assessment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buelt, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    Congress has mandated a more comprehensive management of hazardous wastes with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund'') and the Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act (SARA). This mandate includes restoration of disposal sites contaminated through past disposal practices. This mandate applies to facilities operated for and by the Department of Energy (DOE), just as it does to industrial and other institutions. To help implement the CERCLA/SARA remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) process in a consistent, timely, and cost-effective manner, a methodology needs to be developed that will allow definition, sorting, and screening of remediation technologies for each operable unit (waste site). This need is stated specifically in Section 2.2.2.1 of the October 1989 Applied Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT E) Plan of the DOE. This Briefing Paper is prepared to respond to this need. 1 fig.

  4. Enhanced Remediation of a Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Wokoma and C.C.Wokocha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use NPKs, saw dust and poultry manure as enhanced remediation techniques of a crude oil polluted soil, using a 42-day study period, time length. Polluted soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm depth from different polluted sites of the same area. Physicochemical parametres such as pottasium concentration and total hydrocarbon recorded a decrease at the 6th week, after application and lab testing. Total organic carbon recorded an increase on the 6th week, for treatments containing; PS+SD, PS+NPK and PS+PM. pH ranged between 5.21-10.1. The results suggest that a combination of ammendments in the right proportion w ould be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted soil.

  5. Radioactive tank waste remediation focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    EM`s Office of Science and Technology has established the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to manage and carry out an integrated national program of technology development for tank waste remediation. The TFA is responsible for the development, testing, evaluation, and deployment of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in the underground stabilize and close the tanks. The goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. Within the DOE complex, 335 underground storage tanks have been used to process and store radioactive and chemical mixed waste generated from weapon materials production and manufacturing. Collectively, thes tanks hold over 90 million gallons of high-level and low-level radioactive liquid waste in sludge, saltcake, and as supernate and vapor. Very little has been treated and/or disposed or in final form.

  6. An ancient Greek pain remedy for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Else M; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian P

    2006-09-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"--(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's." In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms of pain relief, the novelty of transdermal pain management, and the ability of ancient physicians to attend to the sports-related needs of highly tuned athletes.

  7. Examples from the Greenland-Project - Gentle Remediation Optiones (GROs) on Pb/zn Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang; Kidd, Petra; Siebielec, Grzegorz

    2017-04-01

    The GREENLAND-project brought together "best practice" examples of several field applied gentle remediation techniques (EUFP7-project "Gentle remediation of trace element-contaminated land - GREENLAND; www.greenland-project.eu) with 17 partners from 11 countries. Gentle remediation options (GRO) comprise environmentally friendly technologies that have little or no negative impact on the soil. The main technologies are • phytoextraction • in situ immobilization and • assisted phytostabilization. Mining and processing activities affecting many sites worldwide negatively. The huge amounts of moved and treated materials have led to considerable flows of wastes and emissions. Alongside the many advantages of processed ores to our society, adverse effects in nature and risks for the environment and human health are observed. Three stages of impact of Pb/Zn-ore-treatment on the environment are discussed here: (1) On sites where the ores are mined impacts are the result of crushing, grinding, concentrating activities, and where additionally parts of the installations remain after abandoning the mine, as well as by the massive amounts of remaining deposits or wastes (mine tailings). (2) On sites where smelting and processing takes place, depending on the process (Welz, Doerschel) different waste materials are deposited. The Welz process waste generally contains less Cd and Pb than the Doerschel process waste which additionally shows higher water- extractable metals. (3) On sites close to the emitting source metal contamination can be found in areas for housing, gardening, and agricultural use. Emissions consist mainly from oxides and sulfides (Zn, Cd), sulfates (Zn, Pb, and Cd), chlorides (Pb) and carbonates (Cd). All these wastes and emissions pose potential risks of dispersion of pollutants into the food chain due to erosion (wind, water), leaching and the transfer into feeding stuff and food crops. In-situ treatments have the potential for improving the situation

  8. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  9. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riha, Brian D.

    2012-07-03

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  10. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhia, Brian D.

    2011-03-01

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  11. Cultural services remediated in Second Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the Danish Public Libraries conducted an experiment in establishing a library in the virtual world Second Life. The Info Island DK provided the framework for a number of online library services and cultural events. This study, based on interviews with most of the active participants...... in the project, discusses the experiences in remediating conventional library services into the new medium and in understanding and redefining the role of the librarian in an online virtual world....

  12. Thixotropic gel for vadose zone remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, Brian D.; Looney, Brian B.

    2015-10-27

    A thixotropic gel suitable for use in subsurface bioremediation is provided along with a process of using the gel. The thixotropic gel provides a non-migrating injectable substrate that can provide below ground barrier properties. In addition, the gel components provide for a favorable environment in which certain contaminants are preferentially sequestered in the gel and subsequently remediated by either indigenous or introduced microorganisms.

  13. Remedial approaches to students with discalculia

    OpenAIRE

    MATĚJKOVÁ, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Thesis: "Remedial approaches to students with discalculia" defines the term of specific learning disability, individual specific learning disabilities with an emphasis on discalculia (mathematics disorder). It gives a brief overview of the methods, forms, aids (tools), individual re-education practices and affects the possibilities to integrate these students into current elementary school. The practical part deals with the integration of dyscalculia students into the teaching process and to ...

  14. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms...... of pain relief, the novelty of transdermal pain management, and the ability of ancient physicians to attend to the sports-related needs of highly tuned athletes....

  15. An ancient Greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian P

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and sw...... of pain relief, the novelty of transdermal pain management, and the ability of ancient physicians to attend to the sports-related needs of highly tuned athletes....

  16. An unmanned ground vehicle for landmine remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Steven R.; Guilberto, Jose; Ogg, Wade; Wedeward, Kevin; Bruder, Stephen; El-Osery, Aly

    2004-09-01

    Anti-tank (AT) landmines slow down and endanger military advances and present sizeable humanitarian problems. The remediation of these mines by direct human intervention is both dangerous and costly. The Intelligent Systems & Robotics Group (ISRG) at New Mexico Tech has provided a partial solution to this problem by developing an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) to remediate these mines without endangering human lives. This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of this UGV. Current results and future work are also described herein. To initiate the remediation process the UGV is given the GPS coordinates of previously detected landmines. Once the UGV autonomously navigates to an acceptable proximity of the landmine, a remote operator acquires control over a wireless network link using a joystick on a base station. Utilizing two cameras mounted on the UGV, the operator is able to accurately position the UGV directly over the landmine. The UGV houses a self-contained drill system equipped with its own processing resources, sensors, and actuators. The drill system deploys a neutralizing device over the landmine to neutralize it. One such device, developed by Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), employs incendiary materials to melt through the container of the landmine and slowly burn the explosive material, thereby safely and remotely disabling the landmine.

  17. Methodology to remediate a mixed waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In response to the need for a comprehensive and consistent approach to the complex issue of mixed waste management, a generalized methodology for remediation of a mixed waste site has been developed. The methodology is based on requirements set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and incorporates ``lessons learned`` from process design, remediation methodologies, and remediation projects. The methodology is applied to the treatment of 32,000 drums of mixed waste sludge at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Process technology options are developed and evaluated, first with regard to meeting system requirements and then with regard to CERCLA performance criteria. The following process technology options are investigated: (1) no action, (2) separation of hazardous and radioactive species, (3) dewatering, (4) drying, and (5) solidification/stabilization. The first two options were eliminated from detailed consideration because they did not meet the system requirements. A quantitative evaluation clearly showed that, based on system constraints and project objectives, either dewatering or drying the mixed waste sludge was superior to the solidification/stabilization process option. The ultimate choice between the drying and the dewatering options will be made on the basis of a technical evaluation of the relative merits of proposals submitted by potential subcontractors.

  18. Optimizing the Environmental Performance of In Situ Thermal Remediation Technologies Using Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Nielsen, Steffen G.; Weber, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    to 75%. Moreover, a number of technology-specific improvements were identified, for instance by the substitution of stainless steel types in wells, heaters, and liners used in thermal conduction heating, thus reducing the nickel consumption by 45%. The combined effect of introducing all the suggested......In situ thermal remediation technologies provide efficient and reliable cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater, but at a high cost of environmental impacts and resource depletion due to the large amounts of energy and materials consumed. This study provides a detailed investigation of four...... in situ thermal remediation technologies (steam enhanced extraction, thermal conduction heating, electrical resistance heating, and radio frequency heating) in order to (1) compare the life-cycle environmental impacts and resource consumption associated with each thermal technology, and (2) identify...

  19. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: co-composting versus incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R; Nason, Mark A; Williamson, Julie C; Jones, Davey L

    2009-02-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost.

  20. Phyto-remediation of contaminated soils; La phytoremediation des sols contamines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, J.L. [Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomie et des Industries Alimentaires, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2002-09-01

    Plants provide new ways for soil remediation. The activity of living roots (absorption, exudation of organic compounds, action on physical soil properties) contribute to decrease the negative effects of pollutants, as they are stabilised or eliminated (extraction or degradation). In the presence of plants, hydrocarbons, a rather ubiquitous group of soil pollutants, are degraded faster than in bare soil. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria are stimulated by root exudates, which also create favourable conditions for co-metabolism. Also, the fragmentation of aggregates as well as the release of surfactants increase the exposure of organic pollutants to microorganism degradation. The phyto-remediation technology is efficient to reduce the dissemination of pollutants. On historically contaminated soils, effects are generally discrete within a short period of time and may be more effective in the long run. (author)

  1. Applications of Biosurfactants in the Petroleum Industry and the Remediation of Oil Spills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia F. S. Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  2. Applications of biosurfactants in the petroleum industry and the remediation of oil spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cássia F S Silva, Rita; Almeida, Darne G; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora

    2014-07-15

    Petroleum hydrocarbons are important energy resources. However, petroleum is also a major pollutant of the environment. Contamination by oil and oil products has caused serious harm, and increasing attention has been paid to the development and implementation of innovative technologies for the removal of these contaminants. Biosurfactants have been extensively used in the remediation of water and soil, as well as in the main stages of the oil production chain, such as extraction, transportation, and storage. This diversity of applications is mainly due to advantages such as biodegradability, low toxicity and better functionality under extreme conditions in comparison to synthetic counterparts. Moreover, biosurfactants can be obtained with the use of agro-industrial waste as substrate, which helps reduce overall production costs. The present review describes the potential applications of biosurfactants in the oil industry and the remediation of environmental pollution caused by oil spills.

  3. Installation of a bio-venting remediation system using directionally drilled horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L. [Morrow Environmental Consultants Inc., Burnaby, BC (Canada); Stolz, A.P. [Petro-Canada, Inc. (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The installation of a remediation system for off-site contamination was discussed. The site was contaminated with gasoline and diesel from an abandoned bulk fuel storage and distribution terminal located near a highway. The dissolved phase hydrocarbon plume extended beneath several houses down gradient of the site. Bioventing was considered to be the only remediation option to recover the liquid phase hydrocarbons beneath the highway in a way that would satisfy all the clean-up objectives and the design constraints. Bioventing is closely related to soil vapour extraction (SVE). The main difference is that in bioventing, the mechanism for removal of contaminants is bio-degradation by indigenous bacteria, whereas in SVE, contaminants are simply removed by volatilization. Bioventing systems enhance the activity of the indigenous bacteria by inducing air flow in the subsurface through the use of vapour injection or extraction wells. Two horizontal vapour extraction wells were installed with a directional drill. A soil pile was utilized as a bio-filter for the extracted hydrocarbon vapours and a backfilled trench was used to inject vapours recovered from the soil pile to the subsurface. The total mass of hydrocarbons degraded by this system in 230 days was estimated to be 1,000 kg. It was concluded that under appropriate conditions the in-situ treatment of contaminated soil using directionally drilled wells can be justified on both economic and technical grounds. 3 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  4. Environmental impacts of remediation of a trichloroethene-contaminated site: life cycle assessment of remediation alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemming, Gitte; Hauschild, Michael Z; Chambon, Julie; Binning, Philip J; Bulle, Cécile; Margni, Manuele; Bjerg, Poul L

    2010-12-01

    The environmental impacts of remediation of a chloroethene-contaminated site were evaluated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The compared remediation options are (i) in situ bioremediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (ii) in situ thermal desorption (ISTD), and (iii) excavation of the contaminated soil followed by off-site treatment and disposal. The results showed that choosing the ERD option will reduce the life-cycle impacts of remediation remarkably compared to choosing either ISTD or excavation, which are more energy-demanding. In addition to the secondary impacts of remediation, this study includes assessment of local toxic impacts (the primary impact) related to the on-site contaminant leaching to groundwater and subsequent human exposure via drinking water. The primary human toxic impacts were high for ERD due to the formation and leaching of chlorinated degradation products, especially vinyl chloride during remediation. However, the secondary human toxic impacts of ISTD and excavation are likely to be even higher, particularly due to upstream impacts from steel production. The newly launched model, USEtox, was applied for characterization of primary and secondary toxic impacts and combined with a site-dependent fate model of the leaching of chlorinated ethenes from the fractured clay till site.

  5. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-17

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  6. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Main Body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  7. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  8. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Exhibit 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    USDOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  9. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report, Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE/NV

    1999-09-01

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  10. Observational Approach to Chromium Site Remediation - 13266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Myers, R. [Washington Closure Hanford, 2620 Fermi, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Production reactors at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, required massive quantities of water for reactor cooling and material processing. To reduce corrosion and the build-up of scale in pipelines and cooling systems, sodium dichromate was added to the water feedstock. Spills and other releases at the makeup facilities, as well as leaks from miles of pipelines, have led to numerous areas with chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater, threatening fish populations in the nearby Columbia River. Pump-and-treat systems have been installed to remove chromium from the groundwater, but significant contamination remain in the soil column and poses a continuing threat to groundwater and the Columbia River. Washington Closure Hanford, DOE, and regulators are working on a team approach that implements the observational approach, a strategy for effectively dealing with the uncertainties inherent in subsurface conditions. Remediation of large, complex waste sites at a federal facility is a daunting effort. It is particularly difficult to perform the work in an environment of rapid response to changing field and contamination conditions. The observational approach, developed by geotechnical engineers to accommodate the inherent uncertainties in subsurface conditions, is a powerful and appropriate method for site remediation. It offers a structured means of quickly moving into full remediation and responding to the variations and changing conditions inherent in waste site cleanups. A number of significant factors, however, complicate the application of the observational approach for chromium site remediation. Conceptual models of contamination and site conditions are difficult to establish and get consensus on. Mid-stream revisions to the design of large excavations are time-consuming and costly. And regulatory constraints and contract performance incentives can be impediments to the flexible responses required under the

  11. Activity of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on strains of the Candida genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Kátia Andrea de Menezes; Lima, Sônia Maria Rolim Rosa; Ueda, Suely Mitoi Ykko

    2016-12-01

    Objectives To evaluate the antifungal susceptibility profile of the aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against the strains of the genus Candida. Methods By using the disk diffusion method, 50 samples of the genus Candida (Candida albicans; Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis), isolated from patients receiving treatment at Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, and 1 American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) sample of each species were tested against: the isolated aqueous extract of the bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, isolated nystatin, and the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Results There were no significant differences regarding the different strains of Candida tested. In the presence of the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, no inhibition halo was visible. Isolated nystatin formed an inhibition halo measuring respectively 18.50 mm and 19.50 mm for the Candida albicans species and the others referred to as non-Candida albicans (Candida krusei; Candida glabrata; and Candida tropicalis). The association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi resulted in inhibition halos measuring 14.25 mm and 16.50 mm respectively. The comparisons of these results are statistically significant (p < 0,001). Conclusion The aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi showed no antifungal activity in vitro against the strains tested, whereas the association of nystatin and the aqueous extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi caused a decrease in the inhibition halo when compared with isolated nystatin.

  12. Deconstructing Remediation in Community Colleges: Exploring Associations between Course-Taking Patterns, Course Outcomes, and Attrition from the Remedial Math and Remedial Writing Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahr, Peter Riley

    2012-01-01

    Each year, a sizeable percentage of community college students enroll in remedial coursework to address skill deficiencies in math, writing, and/or reading. Unfortunately, the majority of these students do not attain college-level competency in the subjects in which they require remedial assistance. Moreover, students whose point of entry into the…

  13. 从布迪厄社会学理论视角看苏曼殊《惨世界》的翻译动机和策略%On Su Manshu's Motivation and Strategies in Translating Les Miserables:A Perspective of Bourdieu's Sociological Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍丽云; 张汩

    2013-01-01

    以法国社会学家皮埃尔·布迪厄的社会学理论为指导,主要从其核心概念“场域”、“惯习”入手,分析清末民初翻译家苏曼殊汉译《悲惨世界》的动机和策略,指出当时的社会历史条件和其个人的个性及价值观促使了译作《惨世界》的诞生,并影响了该译作的风格特点。%This paper is an analysis of Su Manshu's motives and strategies in translating Les Miserables in perspective of Pierre Bourdieu;s sociological theory, particularly his core concepts of field and habitus. Its is argued that the social and historical situations then as well as the translator's individuality and values brought about the translated text as well as the translating style.

  14. Dnapl Site Remediation: Status and Research Needs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroo, H. F.; Kueper, B. H.

    2013-12-01

    Remediation of sites impacted by dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) such as chlorinated solvents remains technically challenging despite significant advances over the past 30 years. Contaminants are difficult to locate in the subsurface, and it is difficult to deliver remedial agents to the contamination effectively. If lower permeability media are present, these can act as diffusive sinks for aqueous and sorbed phase constituents, further complicating characterization and cleanup. DNAPL source zones are particularly difficult to remediate, and even after treatment these sources can persist for many decades, if not centuries, and it is difficult to transition sites to a passive management strategy. A recent expert panel on source zone remediation identified three overriding objectives for future remediation - to be more surgical, more sustainable, and more certain. Surgical remediation refers to precise delineation of contaminants and hydrogeology, with more targeted remediation efforts. Sustainable remediation refers to the growing need to consider all environmental impacts when developing remediation strategies, including energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, lifecycle impacts, and the increasing demand for clean water. Although considerable uncertainty is inherent in subsurface remediation, there is potential to reduce this uncertainty through improved monitoring and modeling. Specific characterization and remediation needs will be summarized separately. Improved technologies for source characterization are critical because inadequate characterization is common given the costs and limitations of current techniques. As a result, the performance of field-scale remediation technologies is frequently disappointing. Specific research needs to improve source zone characterization include: (i) better delineation and mass estimation, (ii) source zone architecture characterization methods, and (iii) increased resolution and fine-scale mapping of geologic

  15. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  16. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1993 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1993, surface remedial action was complete at 10 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites. In 1993 the UMTRA Project office revised the UMTRA Project Environmental Protection Implementation Plan, as required by the US DOE. Because the UMTRA Project sites are in different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  17. Electrodialytic remediation of soil polluted with heavy metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Lene;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of some parameters for the efficiency of electrodialytic soil remediation are evaluated. The parameters investigated are pH, the limiting current density and the addition of desorbing agents to the soil. These three parameters are found to be of the greatest importance....... results show that electrodialytic soil remediation can be optimized by understanding and adjusting these parameters. For scaling up the remediation method, these parameters are of crucial importance....

  18. Deicing/Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology Environment, Energy Security, & Sustainability (E2S2) Symposium & Exhibition Ernest N...DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deicing /Propylene Glycol (PG) Microbial Remediation Technology 5a. CONTRACT...Issues C. PG Remediation Project D. Summary E. Questions 2 3 Background • Aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) work planes fly in the winter o Military

  19. Microbial Repopulation Following In Situ STAR Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhard, J.; Overbeeke, G.; Edwards, E.; Lomheim, L.; Grant, G.

    2016-12-01

    STAR (Self-sustaining Treatment for Active Remediation) is an emerging remediation technology that employs a self-sustaining smouldering reaction to destroy nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface. The reaction front travels outwards from an ignition well at approximately 0.5 per day and subjects the soil to temperatures of 400°C-1000°C. The objectives of this work were to monitor re-saturation of the soil over time and quantify the microbial repopulation of the treated zone. STAR is currently being applied as a full scale, in situ remedy for coal tar beneath a former creosol manufacturing facility in New Jersey, USA. This study analyzed soil cores taken at regular intervals following STAR treatment, allowing time for groundwater to re-infiltrate and for microbial populations to potentially reestablish. Soil and groundwater were analyzed for total number of microorganisms via quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR), as well as microbial diversity via amplicon sequencing. Results demonstrate that microbes rapidly repopulated over a 2 month period to 106 gene copies/g of soil. However, concentrations in the treated zone did not rise above this concentration over 6 months post-STAR, indicating a low carrying capacity of the treated soil. To examine the system in more detail and consider the effects of bio-stimulation, a bench top column study using site soil and artificial groundwater explored the rate at which STAR-treated soil is repopulated with naturally occurring microorganisms in the presence and absence of lactate and a terminal electron acceptor. Results demonstrated that biostimulation did not increase the carrying capacity of the STAR treated sol, but rather shifted the microbial community to reflect the TEA provided, in this case, promoting sulfate reducers. Overall, the work illustrates that microbial populations in STAR treated soil do recover via groundwater infiltration but robust communities will take time to naturally establish.

  20. Historical hydronuclear testing: Characterization and remediation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaulis, L.; Wilson, G.; Jacobson, R.

    1997-09-01

    This report examines the most current literature and information available on characterization and remediation technologies that could be used on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) historical hydronuclear test areas. Historical hydronuclear tests use high explosives and a small amount of plutonium. The explosion scatters plutonium within a contained subsurface environment. There is currently a need to characterize these test areas to determine the spatial extent of plutonium in the subsurface and whether geohydrologic processes are transporting the plutonium away from the event site. Three technologies were identified to assist in the characterization of the sites. These technologies are the Pipe Explorer{trademark}, cone penetrometer, and drilling. If the characterization results indicate that remediation is needed, three remediation technologies were identified that should be appropriate, namely: capping or sealing the surface, in situ grouting, and in situ vitrification. Capping the surface would prevent vertical infiltration of water into the soil column, but would not restrict lateral movement of vadose zone water. Both the in situ grouting and vitrification techniques would attempt to immobilize the radioactive contaminants to restrict or prevent leaching of the radioactive contaminants into the groundwater. In situ grouting uses penetrometers or boreholes to inject the soil below the contaminant zone with low permeability grout. In situ vitrification melts the soil containing contaminants into a solid block. This technique would provide a significantly longer contaminant immobilization, but some research and development would be required to re-engineer existing systems for use at deep soil depths. Currently, equipment can only handle shallow depth vitrification. After existing documentation on the historical hydronuclear tests have been reviewed and the sites have been visited, more specific recommendations will be made.

  1. Characterization, Modeling, Monitoring and Remediation of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, T. J.; Cady, R.

    2009-12-01

    NRC sponsors research to identify and assess characterization, modeling, monitoring and remediation methods used to quantify and evaluate radionuclide release and migration in the subsurface. The need for and selection of remediation methods is based on a dose assessment to determine compliance with regulatory criteria. If remediation is warranted, the choice of remediation methods is based upon site- and source-characterization data. This data is integrated in a Conceptual Site Model (CSM). The assumptions and parameterization of the CSM are tested using a program of field tests and confirmatory monitoring. In particular, the features, events and processes in the unsaturated zone where many leaks and spills originate need characterization and confirmatory monitoring. The choice of the remediation method, if warranted, is based upon the confirmed CSM and the monitoring baseline. Remediation strategies being considered are: in situ bioremediation; pump, treat, monitor and release; monitored natural attenuation. Successful remediation strategies include monitoring programs to determine their efficacy. This monitoring is coupled to performance assessment models using performance indicators (PIs). These PIs provide a measurable indication of remediation performance, and are derived from analysis of the CSM and the hydrologic, chemical and microbial functions of the chosen remediation method. Case studies illustrate these observations and provide detailed examples of CSMs and PIs.

  2. Tooth extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007630.htm Tooth extraction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A tooth extraction is a procedure to remove a tooth from ...

  3. Innovative mathematical modeling in environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Gour T. [Taiwan Typhoon and Flood Research Institute (Taiwan); National Central Univ. (Taiwan); Univ. of Central Florida (United States); Gwo, Jin Ping [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rockville, MD (United States); Siegel, Malcolm D. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Li, Ming-Hsu [National Central Univ. (Taiwan); ; Fang, Yilin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhang, Fan [Inst. of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Luo, Wensui [Inst. of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    There are two different ways to model reactive transport: ad hoc and innovative reaction-based approaches. The former, such as the Kd simplification of adsorption, has been widely employed by practitioners, while the latter has been mainly used in scientific communities for elucidating mechanisms of biogeochemical transport processes. It is believed that innovative mechanistic-based models could serve as protocols for environmental remediation as well. This paper reviews the development of a mechanistically coupled fluid flow, thermal transport, hydrologic transport, and reactive biogeochemical model and example-applications to environmental remediation problems. Theoretical bases are sufficiently described. Four example problems previously carried out are used to demonstrate how numerical experimentation can be used to evaluate the feasibility of different remediation approaches. The first one involved the application of a 56-species uranium tailing problem to the Melton Branch Subwatershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using the parallel version of the model. Simulations were made to demonstrate the potential mobilization of uranium and other chelating agents in the proposed waste disposal site. The second problem simulated laboratory-scale system to investigate the role of natural attenuation in potential off-site migration of uranium from uranium mill tailings after restoration. It showed inadequacy of using a single Kd even for a homogeneous medium. The third example simulated laboratory experiments involving extremely high concentrations of uranium, technetium, aluminum, nitrate, and toxic metals (e.g.,Ni, Cr, Co).The fourth example modeled microbially-mediated immobilization of uranium in an unconfined aquifer using acetate amendment in a field-scale experiment. The purposes of these modeling studies were to simulate various mechanisms of mobilization and immobilization of radioactive wastes and to illustrate how to apply reactive transport models

  4. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...... that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond...

  5. Remedies proposed for China's groundwater problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiciga, Hugo A.

    Groundwater experts and hydrologists from China and 10 other nations recently gathered in Beijing to exchange state-of-the-art scientific and technological knowledge on groundwater hydrology, modeling, remediation, and management. The participants also reviewed groundwater environmental conditions in China, identified key problems, and made recommendations to help guide the nation's groundwater policy.The Regional Workshop on Ground Water Contamination, held from July 31 to August 4, 1995, was the fifth of a series of regional workshops sponsored by the Scientific Committee on Problems of the Environment of the United Nations Environmental Program. Earlier workshops were held in Thailand (1991), Costa Rica (1993), the Czech Republic (1994), and Australia (1994).

  6. Sediment Remediation for Ecosystem in Eutrophic Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Amano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The remediation method — namely, a hybrid system combined with DAF and CRM — is studied in this paper for the size reduction of aqua-ecological circulation and for the elution control in lakes. Results show that two effects on water quality purification, the sediment washout effect and the elution control effect, can be induced by this system, and the biota inhabiting the lake is therefore shifted into an oligotrophic aspect, from blue algae to green algae and/or diatoms.

  7. 40 CFR 300.430 - Remedial investigation/feasibility study and selection of remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... liquids, areas contaminated with high concentrations of toxic compounds, and highly mobile materials. (B... is liquid, highly toxic or highly mobile, will be combined with engineering controls (such as... the selection of remedy. (E) EPA expects to consider using innovative technology when such...

  8. ET-DSP{sup TM} for in-situ remediation under an occupied residential apartment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGee, B.C.W. [McMillan-McGee Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nevokshonoff, B.; Keenan, K. [Sequoia Environmental Remediation Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Warren, R.J. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada). Calgary Research Centre

    2002-07-01

    An newly developed in-situ remediation technique was applied in a residential apartment building to remove vapour pressure sensitive BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene). The system called ET-DSP{sup TM} is an in-situ electrical soil heating technique combined with a high vacuum dual phase extraction method. An entire basement suite was drilled in order to place electrodes and extraction wells under the building into the contaminated soil. Noise levels were kept at below acceptable levels and induced surface voltages were essentially eliminated. This remedial action using the ET-DSP was the third of its kind conducted by Shell Canada. The pattern of electrodes in the contaminated zones is such that conventional 3-phase power can be used to heat the soil. A multi-phase, multi-component, 3-dimensional thermal model is used to simulate the process in order to find the ideal pattern of electrode and extraction wells. Excellent agreement was found to exist between field temperature, electrical operating, and energy consumption data and the numerical simulation predictions. Sampling consistently showed a profound reduction in hydrocarbon concentration with non-detect levels being achieved in most samples.

  9. Study of polluted soil remediation based on freezing and thawing cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DaHu Rui; BaiYang Song; Yuzuru Ito; Li Wang

    2014-01-01

    It-is-generally-known-that-soil-pollution-poses-a-terrible-hazard-to-the-environment,-but-the-present-techniques-of-con-taminated-soil-remediation-cannot-control-this-growing-threat.-This-paper-compares-the-pollutant-extraction-efficiency-of-traditional-pumping-and-treating,-which-is-a-typical-washing-technology-for-the-remediation-of-contaminated-soils,-with-methods-that-utilize-freeze-thaw-cycles.-In-the-soil-freezing-process,-water-shifts-from-unfrozen-soils-to-the-freezing-front,-and-the-permeability-of-soil-will-be-enhanced-under-certain-temperature-gradients-and-water-conditions.-Therefore,-this-paper-discusses-the-purification-of-contaminated-soil-through-freeze-thaw-action.-We-conducted-a-cleansing-experiment-on-clay-and-silica-sand-infused-with-NaCl-(simulation-of-heavy-metals)-and-found-that-the-efficiency-of-purification-was-en-hanced-remarkably-in-the-latter-by-the-freeze-thaw-action.-To-assess-the-effective-extraction-of-DNAPLs-in-soil,-we-con-ducted-an-experiment-on-suction-by-freezing,-predicated-on-the-different-freezing-points-of-moisture-and-pollutants.-We-found-that-the-permeability-coefficient-was-significantly-increased-by-the-freezing-thawing-action,-enabling-the-DNAPL-contaminants-to-be-extracted-selectively-and-effectively.

  10. Using geophysical techniques to control in situ thermal remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, S.; Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; Wilt, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Goldman, R.; Kayes, D.; Kenneally, K.; Udell, K. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States); Hunter, R. [Infraseismic, Inc., Bakersfield, CA (United States)

    1994-01-22

    Monitoring the thermal and hydrologic processes that occur during thermal environmental remediation programs in near real-time provides essential information for controlling the process. Geophysical techniques played a crucial role in process control as well as for characterization during the recent Dynamic Underground Stripping Project demonstration in which several thousand gallons of gasoline were removed from heterogeneous soils both above and below the water table. Dynamic Underground Stripping combines steam injection and electrical heating for thermal enhancement with ground water pumping and vacuum extraction for contaminant removal. These processes produce rapid changes in the subsurface properties including changes in temperature fluid saturation, pressure and chemistry. Subsurface imaging methods are used to map the heated zones and control the thermal process. Temperature measurements made in wells throughout the field reveal details of the complex heating phenomena. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) provides near real-time detailed images of the heated zones between boreholes both during electrical heating and steam injection. Borehole induction logs show close correlation with lithostratigraphy and, by identifying the more permeable gravel zones, can be used to predict steam movement. They are also useful in understanding the physical changes in the field and in interpreting the ERT images. Tiltmeters provide additional information regarding the shape of the steamed zones in plan view. They were used to track the growth of the steam front from individual injectors.

  11. Biological Remediation of Soil: An Overview of Global Market and Available Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Kuhad, Ramesh C.; Ward, Owen P.

    Due to a wide range of industrial and agricultural activities, a high number of chemical contaminants is released into the environment, causing a significant concern regarding potential toxicity, carcinogenicity, and potential for bioaccumulation in living systems of various chemicals in soil. Although microbial activity in soil accounts for most of the degradation of organic contaminants, chemical and physical mechanisms can also provide significant transformation pathways for these compounds. The specific remediation processes that have been applied to clean up contaminated sites include natural attenuation, landfarming, biopiling or composting, contained slurry bioreactor, bioventing, soil vapor extraction, thermal desorption, incineration, soil washing and land filling (USEPA 2004).

  12. An overview of amenorrhea and respective remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolmajid Elahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea is described as complete absence or cessation of menstruation. Besides conventional treatment approaches, traditional and complementary medical systems have suggested numerous natural medications for management of amenorrhea. Current study aimed to compile the pharmacological reports on amenorrhea from the standpoints of early Persian scholars. Medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persian medicine from 9th to 18th centuries A.D. have been reviewed to extract the critical points and natural remedies. Based on Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM, impairment in uterus, brain and circulation are main causes of amenorrhea. Any obstruction, either anatomical or functional, in uterus and allied organs or tissues may lead the body to this disorder. Concerning herbal therapy of amenorrhea in TPM, 71 medicinal plants related to 35 families were found. The most prevalent families were Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Fabaceae, respectively. Usual routes of administration were oral, vaginal and topical. However, there was one report on a medicament, spoken to be effective nasally. Traditionally, emmenagogue medicines should possess diuretic activity to be effective for amenorrhea. All reported remedies were known as diuretic agents. However, this description is not corresponded with what is now accepted as diuretic. On the other hand, only Foeniculum vulgare showed therapeutic effects on amenorrhea in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Despite lack of novel information on emmenagogue activity of these remedies, design and conducting evidence-based animal or human studies may be beneficial for new drug discovery from traditional knowledge.

  13. The Research of Nanoparticle and Microparticle Hydroxyapatite Amendment in Multiple Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangwei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It was believed that when hydroxyapatite (HAP was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils, its effectiveness seemed likely to be affected by its particle size. In this study, a pot trial was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of two particle sizes of HAP: nanometer particle size of HAP (nHAP and micrometer particle size of HAP (mHAP induced metal immobilization in soils. Both mHAP and nHAP were assessed for their ability to reduce lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, and chromium (Cr bioavailability in an artificially metal-contaminated soil. The pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L. uptake and soil sequential extraction method were used to determine the immobilization and bioavailability of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr. The results indicated that both mHAP and nHAP had significant effect on reducing the uptake of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr by pakchoi. Furthermore, both mHAP and nHAP were efficient in covering Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr from nonresidual into residual forms. However, mHAP was superior to nHAP in immobilization of Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr in metal-contaminated soil and reducing the Pb, Zn, Cu, and Cr utilized by pakchoi. The results suggested that mHAP had the better effect on remediation multiple metal-contaminated soils than nHAP and was more suitable for applying in in situ remediation technology.

  14. (Bio-)remediation of VCHC contaminants in a Technosol under unsaturated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, W; Fleige, H; Peth, S; Horn, R

    2013-07-01

    The remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids has always been a concern of both public and scientific interest groups. In this research work a modified physical concept of (bio)remediation of a volatile chlorinated hydrocarbon (VCHC) contamination was elaborated under laboratory conditions and modeled with HYDRUS-2D. In field dechlorination is influenced by both physicochemical and hydraulic properties of the substrate, e.g. texture, pore size distribution, pore liquid characteristics, e.g. viscosity, pH, surface tension, and dependent on the degree of saturation of the vadose zone. Undisturbed soil cores (100 cm³) were sampled from a Spolic Technosol. Considering hydraulic properties and functions, unsaturated percolation was performed with vertically and horizontally structured samples. VCHC concentrations were calculated prior, during, and after each percolation cycle. According to laboratory findings, microemulsion showed the most efficient results with regard to flow behavior in the unsaturated porous media and its accessibility for bacteria as nutrient. The efficiency of VCHC remediation could be increased by the application of a modified pump-and-treat system: the injection of bacteria Dehalococcoides ethanogenes with microemulsion, and extraction at a constant matric potential level of -6 kPa. Achieved data was used for HYDRUS-2D simulations, modeling in situ conditions, demonstrating the practical relevance (field scale) of performed unsaturated percolation (core scale), and in order to exclude capillary barrier effects.

  15. Biomineralization based remediation of As(III) contaminated soil by Sporosarcina ginsengisoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achal, Varenyam; Pan, Xiangliang; Fu, Qinglong; Zhang, Daoyong

    2012-01-30

    Arsenic is a highly toxic metalloid and has posed high risk to the environment. As(III) is highly mobile in soil and leached easily into groundwater. The current remediation techniques are not sufficient to immobilize this toxic element. In the present study, an As(III) tolerant bacterium Sporosarcina ginsengisoli CR5 was isolated from As contaminated soil of Urumqi, China. We investigated the role of microbial calcite precipitated by this bacterium to remediate soil contaminated with As(III). The bacterium was able to grow at high As(III) concentration of 50mM. In order to obtain arsenic distribution pattern, five stage soil sequential extraction was carried out. Arsenic mobility was found to significantly decrease in the exchangeable fraction of soil and subsequently the arsenic concentration was markedly increased in carbonated fraction after bioremediation. Microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP) process in bioremediation was further confirmed by ATR-FTIR and XRD analyses. XRD spectra showed presence of various biomineralization products such as calcite, gwihabaite, aragonite and vaterite in bioremediated soil samples. The results from this study have implications that MICP based bioremediation by S. ginsengisoli is a viable, environmental friendly technology for remediation of the arsenic contaminated sites.

  16. Experimental investigation of enhanced remediation of contaminated soil using ultrasound effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adegbola Adeyinka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In the development of an effective ground remediation method, there has been significant research focusing on the technique of enhancing soil-flushing method The soil flushing method enhanced by ultrasonic waves is a new technique that is potentially an effective method for in situ remediation of the ground contaminated by NAPL hydrocarbons. The research work investigated the effectiveness of sonication in the soil flushing method for a range of conditions involving treatment time, hydraulic gradient and the discharge velocity. The experimental investigation of the study was conducted using the inbuilt ultrasonic generator (NEE 555 timer stable multi-vibrator and soil flushing apparatus to remove the contaminant from the soils. The test result indicated that the rate of the contaminant extraction increased considerably with increasing sonication time up to 120seconds with 34% contaminant removed without sonication and 64.05% contaminant removed with sonication and started decreasing at the level where cavitation occurred. Increasing the sonication time also increase the contaminant removal up to the level where cavitation occurs. The effectiveness of sonication decreases with hydraulic gradient but eventually becomes constant under higher flow rates and also is highly related with the discharge velocity. Results obtained showed that sonication can enhance pollutant removal. Keywords: Soil-Flushing Method, NAPL Hydrocarbons, Sonication, Soil Remediation, Cavitation.

  17. Soil hydrologic characterization for modeling large scale soil remediation protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Nunzio; Palladino, Mario; Di Fiore, Paola; Sica, Benedetto; Speranza, Giuseppe

    2014-05-01

    In Campania Region (Italy), the Ministry of Environment identified a National Interest Priority Sites (NIPS) with a surface of about 200,000 ha, characterized by different levels and sources of pollution. This area, called Litorale Domitio-Agro Aversano includes some polluted agricultural land, belonging to more than 61 municipalities in the Naples and Caserta provinces. In this area, a high level spotted soil contamination is moreover due to the legal and outlaw industrial and municipal wastes dumping, with hazardous consequences also on the quality of the water table. The EU-Life+ project ECOREMED (Implementation of eco-compatible protocols for agricultural soil remediation in Litorale Domizio-Agro Aversano NIPS) has the major aim of defining an operating protocol for agriculture-based bioremediation of contaminated agricultural soils, also including the use of crops extracting pollutants to be used as biomasses for renewable energy production. In the framework of this project, soil hydrologic characterization plays a key role and modeling water flow and solute transport has two main challenging points on which we focus on. A first question is related to the fate of contaminants infiltrated from stormwater runoff and the potential for groundwater contamination. Another question is the quantification of fluxes and spatial extent of root water uptake by the plant species employed to extract pollutants in the uppermost soil horizons. Given the high variability of spatial distribution of pollutants, we use soil characterization at different scales, from field scale when facing root water uptake process, to regional scale when simulating interaction between soil hydrology and groundwater fluxes.

  18. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  19. Remedial training: Will CRM work for everyone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. N.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of those pilots who seem unresponsive to Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) training is addressed. Attention is directed to the need and opportunity for remedial action. Emphasis is given to the requirement for new perspectives and additional training resources. It is also argued that, contrary to conventional training wisdom, such individuals do not represent a hard core which is beyond assistance. Some evidence is offered that such a new perspective will lend itself to a wider appreciation of certain specific training needs. The role of appropriately trained specialists is briefly outlined, and a selected bibliography is attached. The combined experiences of several Pilot Advisory Groups (PAG's) within IFALPA member association form the basis for this discussion. It does not purport to desribe the activities of any one PAG. While much of the activities of PAG's have no relevance to CRM, there are clearly some very important points of intersection. The relevance of these points to diagnostic skills, and remedial training in the general domain of CRM is made obvious.

  20. Groundwater remediation optimization using artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, L. L., LLNL

    1998-05-01

    One continuing point of research in optimizing groundwater quality management is reduction of computational burden which is particularly limiting in field-scale applications. Often evaluation of a single pumping strategy, i.e. one call to the groundwater flow and transport model (GFTM) may take several hours on a reasonably fast workstation. For computational flexibility and efficiency, optimal groundwater remediation design at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has relied on artificial neural networks (ANNS) trained to approximate the outcome of 2-D field-scale, finite difference/finite element GFTMs. The search itself has been directed primarily by the genetic algorithm (GA) or the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm. This approach has advantages of (1) up to a million fold increase in speed of remediation pattern assessment during the searches and sensitivity analyses for the 2-D LLNL work, (2) freedom from sequential runs of the GFTM (enables workstation farming), and (3) recycling of the knowledge base (i.e. runs of the GFTM necessary to train the ANNS). Reviewed here are the background and motivation for such work, recent applications, and continuing issues of research.

  1. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nag S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post concussion syndrome underwent the retraining program for one month. The patients had deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention parallel processing, serial processing, visual scanning, verbal learning and memory and working memory. After the retraining programme the deficits of attention improved in the four patients. Serial processing improved in two patients. Parallel processing and neuropsychological deficits did not improve in any patient. The symptom intensity reduced markedly and behavioural functioning improved in three of the four patients. The results supported an association between improving attention and reduction of symptom intensity. Attention remediation shows promise as a cost effective, time efficient and simple technique to improve the psychological and psychosocial functioning of the head injured patient.

  2. Nanocomposite Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Environmental Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Homaeigohar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid worldwide industrialization and population growth is going to lead to an extensive environmental pollution. Therefore, so many people are currently suffering from the water shortage induced by the respective pollution, as well as poor air quality and a huge fund is wasted in the world each year due to the relevant problems. Environmental remediation necessitates implementation of novel materials and technologies, which are cost and energy efficient. Nanomaterials, with their unique chemical and physical properties, are an optimum solution. Accordingly, there is a strong motivation in seeking nano-based approaches for alleviation of environmental problems in an energy efficient, thereby, inexpensive manner. Thanks to a high porosity and surface area presenting an extraordinary permeability (thereby an energy efficiency and selectivity, respectively, nanofibrous membranes are a desirable candidate. Their functionality and applicability is even promoted when adopting a nanocomposite strategy. In this case, specific nanofillers, such as metal oxides, carbon nanotubes, precious metals, and smart biological agents, are incorporated either during electrospinning or in the post-processing. Moreover, to meet operational requirements, e.g., to enhance mechanical stability, decrease of pressure drop, etc., nanofibrous membranes are backed by a microfibrous non-woven forming a hybrid membrane. The novel generation of nanocomposite/hybrid nanofibrous membranes can perform extraordinarily well in environmental remediation and control. This reality justifies authoring of this review paper.

  3. Overview of innovative remediation of emerging contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, A. A.; Adeleye, A. S.; Huang, Y.; Garner, K.

    2015-12-01

    The application of nanotechnology in drinking water treatment and pollution cleanup is promising, as demonstrated by a number of field-based (pilot and full scale) and bench scale studies. A number of reviews exist for these nanotechnology-based applications; but to better illustrate its importance and guide its development, a direct comparison between traditional treatment technologies and emerging approaches using nanotechnology is needed. In this review, the performances of traditional technologies and nanotechnology for water treatment and environmental remediation were compared with the goal of providing an up-to-date reference on the state of treatment techniques for researchers, industry, and policy makers. Pollutants were categorized into broad classes, and the most cost-effective techniques (traditional and nanotechnology-based) in each category reported in the literature were compared. Where information was available, cost and environmental implications of both technologies were also compared. Traditional treatment technologies were found to currently offer the most cost-effective choices for removal of several common pollutants from drinking water and polluted sites. Nano-based techniques may however become important in complicated remediation conditions and meeting increasingly stringent water quality standards, especially in removal of emerging pollutants and low levels of contaminants. We also discuss challenges facing environmental application of nanotechnology were also discussed and potential solutions.

  4. Steam and ET-DSP combined for DNAPL remediation: full-scale site restoration at Young-Rainey Star Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heron, Gorm [TerraTherm, Inc. (United States); Carroll, Steven [SteamTech Environmental Services (United States); Sowers, Hank [SteamTech Environmental Services (United States); McGee, Bruce [McMillan-McGee Corporation (United States); Juhlin, Randall [S.M. Stoller Corporation (United States); Daniel, Joe [S.M. Stoller Corporation (United States); Ingle, David S. [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2004-05-01

    In March of 2003, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) completed a full-scale nonaqueous-phase liquid (NAPL) remediation of Area A of the Northeast Site at the Young-Rainey STAR Center, Largo, Florida. The site was contaminated with approximately 2,300 kg (5,000 lbs) of NAPL constituents such as TCE, cis-1,2-DCE, methylene chloride, toluene, and petroleum hydrocarbons. The site was remediated by SteamTech using a combination of steam-enhanced extraction and electrical resistance heating during operations lasting 4.5 months. After the target volume had been heated to or near boiling temperatures, pressure cycles were used to increase the mass removal rates. Each de-pressurization cycle led to large increases in the vapor phase recovery, until a final phase of diminishing returns was reached. Post-operational sampling at randomly selected locations showed the concentrations of all contaminants of concern (COC) to be well below the remedial goals. The majority of the groundwater samples were below maximum contaminant level (MCL) for all the contaminants of concern. The overall mass balance showed that about 0.5 kg (1 pound) of VOCs remained in the remedial volume, and showed remedial efficiencies of between 99.85 and 99.99 percent for the four chemicals of concern. This is the first full-scale demonstration of complete source removal at a DNAPL site. Since the post-operational sampling shows all concentrations to be below or close to groundwater MCLs, the thermal remedy may be satisfactory for site closure without a polishing phase.

  5. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Vandel

    2003-09-01

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medical zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). This plan details management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility. As identified in the remedial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action. This work plan was originally prepared as an early implementation of the final Phase C remediation. At that time, The Phase C implementation strategy was to use this document as the overall Phase C Work Plan and was to be revised to include the remedial actions for the other remedial zones (hotspot and distal zones). After the completion of Record of Decision Amendment: Technical Support Facility Injection Well (TSF-05) and Surrounding Groundwater Contamination (TSF-23) and Miscellaneous No Action Sites, Final Remedial Action, it was determined that each remedial zone would have it own stand-alone remedial action work plan. Revision 1 of this document converts this document to a stand-alone remedial action plan specific to the implementation of the New Pump and Treat Facility used for plume remediation within the medical zone of the OU 1-07B contaminated plume.

  6. Resistivity imaging during electrokinetic remediation of sediments: practical challenges in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Matteo; Ceccarini, Alessio; Iannelli, Renato

    2016-04-01

    The use of geophysical techniques such as electrical resistivity and impedance tomography have proven to be effective for the investigation and monitoring of a variety of environmental processes. This study investigates the possibility of using resistivity imaging to monitor the progress of electrokinetic remediation, a decontamination process based on electrochemical methods. The resistivity is a parameter of great theoretical and practical interest. On one side, resistivity is strictly related to the pore fluid composition and provides information about the chemical state of the material subjected to remediation. On the other side, knowing the evolution and distribution of resistivity is of practical importance both at the design stage and during operation because it directly affects the electrical energy expenditures. Monitoring of electrokinetic processes both in laboratory and in field is usually carried out by point measurements and sample collection from discrete locations. Resistivity imaging is effective in providing low-cost, non-destructive, high space and time resolution mapping. During electrokinetic remediation an electric field is applied to the contaminated matrix to extract the pollutants. In the field, array of electrodes are generally employed to apply the electric field, arranged in a two-dimensional grid. The electrodes are installed inside wells to allow the circulation of electrolytes employed to enhance the extraction of the pollutants. In this study we describe the practical challenges both in the measurements and in the data processing encountered during the tomographic imaging of marine sediments subjected to electrokinetic remediation in a 150 m3 ex-situ treatment plant. In such system there are a number of constraints to overcome in order to obtain an effective tomographic image of the sediments: (1) the electric field applied for remediation cannot be powered off, thus this field represents the source for current injection for the

  7. 76 FR 61089 - Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program for Fiscal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of Indirect Cost Rates for the Damage Assessment, Remediation... Administration's (NOAA's) Damage Assessment, Remediation, and Restoration Program (DARRP) is announcing...

  8. Applying multivariate analysis as decision tool for evaluating sediment-specific remediation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate methodology was employed for finding optimum remediation conditions for electrodialytic remediation of harbour sediment from an Arctic location in Norway. The parts of the experimental domain in which both sediment- and technology-specific remediation objectives were met were...

  9. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan For Test Area North Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, L. O.

    2007-06-12

    This remedial action work plan identifies the approach and requirements for implementing the medial zone remedial action for Test Area North, Operable Unit 1-07B, at the Idaho National Laboratory. This plan details the management approach for the construction and operation of the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF). As identified in the remediatial design/remedial action scope of work, a separate remedial design/remedial action work plan will be prepared for each remedial component of the Operable Unit 1-07B remedial action.

  10. 12 CFR 1291.8 - Remedial actions for noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... LOAN BANKS' AFFORDABLE HOUSING PROGRAM § 1291.8 Remedial actions for noncompliance. (a) Recovery of AHP... benefit of the first Bank's members, under such terms and conditions as the FHFA may prescribe. (i) FHFA... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedial actions for noncompliance....

  11. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  12. The effect of Soil Temperature on Electrodialytic Remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Iben Vernegren

    1999-01-01

    The electrodialytic remediation of copper, zinc and lead contaminated kaolin was studied at three different temperatures (0-39 degrees centrigrate). It is shown that an increase in temperature increases the rate of remediation for all three metals. Copper and zinc shows similar rate constants...

  13. The Effects of Remedial Mathematics on the Learning of Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlöf, Johan N. M.; Seltzer, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of remedial mathematics on performance in university-level economics courses using a natural experiment. They studied exam results prior and subsequent to the implementation of a remedial mathematics course that was compulsory for a subset of students and unavaila...

  14. In-situ remediation of contaminated sediments : conceivable and feasible?!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joziasse, J.; Gun, J. van der

    2000-01-01

    In-situ remediation has assumed large proportions in dealing with terrestrial soil pollution. Although implementation of in-situ remediation for contaminated sediments is restricted by the fact that dredging is necessary for nautical or water management reasons, it should not be discarded

  15. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project 1994 environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This annual report documents the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project environmental monitoring and protection program. The UMTRA Project routinely monitors radiation, radioactive residual materials, and hazardous constituents at associated former uranium tailings processing sites and disposal sites. At the end of 1994, surface remedial action was complete at 14 of the 24 designated UMTRA Project processing sites: Canonsburg, Pennsylvania; Durango, Colorado; Grand Junction, Colorado; Green River Utah, Lakeview, Oregon; Lowman, Idaho; Mexican Hat, Utah; Riverton, Wyoming; Salt Lake City, Utah; Falls City, Texas; Shiprock, New Mexico; Spook, Wyoming, Tuba City, Arizona; and Monument Valley, Arizona. Surface remedial action was ongoing at 5 sites: Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico; Naturita, Colorado; Gunnison, Colorado; and Rifle, Colorado (2 sites). Remedial action has not begun at the 5 remaining UMTRA Project sites that are in the planning stage. Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota; Maybell, Colorado; and Slick Rock, Colorado (2 sites). The ground water compliance phase of the UMTRA Project started in 1991. Because the UMTRA Project sites are.` different stages of remedial action, the breadth of the UMTRA environmental protection program differs from site to site. In general, sites actively undergoing surface remedial action have the most comprehensive environmental programs for sampling media. At sites where surface remedial action is complete and at sites where remedial action has not yet begun, the environmental program consists primarily of surface water and ground water monitoring to support site characterization, baseline risk assessments, or disposal site performance assessments.

  16. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... AGENCY PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... remediation waste. The proposed reinterpretation is ] in response to questions EPA received about the... Resource Conservation and Recovery, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, U.S. Environmental...

  17. Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2008-01-01

    The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on…

  18. 28 CFR 42.724 - Remedial and affirmative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedial and affirmative action. 42.724... affirmative action. (a) If the Department finds that, in violation of this subpart, a recipient has discriminated on the basis of age, the recipient shall take remedial action that the Department...

  19. Remedial Sheets for Progress Checks, Segments 1-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    The first part of the Self-Paced Physics Course remediation materials is presented for U. S. Naval Academy students who miss core problems on the progress check. The total of 78 problems is incorporated in this volume to match study segments 1 through 14. Each remedial sheet is composed of a statement of the missed problem and references to…

  20. An experimental comparison of reliance levels under alternative breach remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; Sloof, R.; Sonnemans, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Breach remedies serve an important role in protecting relationship-specific investments. Theory predicts that some common remedies protect too well and induce overinvestment because of complete insurance against potential separation, and the possibility to prevent breach by increasing the damage

  1. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality agreement and remedies. 47.85... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement and remedies. (a) The confidentiality agreement authorized by § 47.84— (1) May restrict the use of the...

  2. 22 CFR 16.5 - Relationship to other remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relationship to other remedies. 16.5 Section 16.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE SYSTEM § 16.5 Relationship to other remedies. (a) A grievant may not file a grievance under these procedures if the grievant...

  3. 29 CFR 34.44 - Corrective and remedial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Corrective and remedial action. 34.44 Section 34.44 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY... Corrective and remedial action. (a) A Letter of Findings, Notice to Show Cause, or Initial Determination...

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Juul; Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    study the utility of the method Electrodialytic Remediation was demonstrated for handling of CCA treated waste wood in pilot scale. The electrodialytic remediation method, which uses a low level DC current as the cleaning agent, combines elektrokinetic movement of ions in the wood matrix with the princi-ples...

  5. A Multivariate Analysis of Remediation Efforts with Developmental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lois; Smith, Greg

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the effect of two variables on remedial students' performance in freshman composition: attending a remedial grammar course, and receiving tutoring at a skills development center. Found that tutoring had a significant positive impact on students, but that the grammar course had a negative effect. (ARH)

  6. Precollege (Remedial) Education. Washington's Community and Technical Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Washington's community and technical colleges are fundamentally transforming precollege (remedial) education to move students faster into credit-bearing classes. The state's colleges are working with high schools to prevent the need for remediation. They are also shortening the path for college students of all ages who need the extra help. Courses…

  7. Remedial-Math Workshop: Opening Doors to Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabkowska, Ewa; Sosnovski, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    About half of students attending community colleges leave school before finishing their intended goals. To increase students' retention and to prevent the multiple-repeater problem, Queensborough Community College (QCC) offered a short-term workshop for remedial-mathematics students. This was another chance to exit remediation instead of repeating…

  8. Reaction Paper on Remediation in the Community College Mathematics Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Shawn

    Remedial mathematics has taken several forms over the years--across the nation, within departments, and among mathematics instructors. There is a growing debate over the effectiveness of remedial courses in relationship to eventual student matriculation, which increases institution funding. The use of technology, real-life problems and projects,…

  9. Remediation of Math Anxiety in Preservice Elementary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkle, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the level of math anxiety in preservice elementary teachers, and then to determine if remediation methods would lower the measured level of anxiety in these same preservice teachers. The 10-day study provided an intense remediation using a time-series design to measure change on the Revised Math Anxiety…

  10. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Lucie; Ekschmitt, Klemens; Kierdorf, Uwe; Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander; Encarnação, Jorge A

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats.

  11. DEMONSTRATION OF ELECTROCHEMICAL REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES-INDUCED COMPLEXATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry L. Burks

    2002-12-01

    The Project Team is submitting this Topical Report on the results of its bench-scale demonstration of ElectroChemical Remediation Technologies (ECRTs) and in particular the Induced Complexation (ECRTs-IC) process for remediation of mercury contaminated soils at DOE Complex sites. ECRTs is an innovative, in-situ, geophysically based soil remediation technology with over 50 successful commercial site applications involving remediation of over two million metric tons of contaminated soils. ECRTs-IC has been successfully used to remediate 220 cu m of mercury-contaminated sediments in the Union Canal, Scotland. In that operation, ECRTs-IC reduced sediment total mercury levels from an average of 243 mg/kg to 6 mg/kg in 26 days of operation. The clean up objective was to achieve an average total mercury level in the sediment of 20 mg/kg.

  12. [Feasibility of applying ornamental plants in contaminated soil remediation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Nü; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Sun, Ting; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2007-07-01

    Phytoremediation is one of the effective ways in resolving problems of contaminated soils, but limited hyperaccumulation plant species were reported and documented. This shortage could be offset if remediation plants can be screened out from various ornamental plants. In addition, such doing can beautify the environment while bring some economic effects. Starting from the importance of phytoremediation, this paper generalized the characters and standards of remediation plants. Through describing the resources of ornamental plants and their functions on environmental protection, particularizing their superiorities to other plants, and analyzing their endurance, accumulation traits and remediation types, the feasibility of applying ornamental plants in the practices of contaminated soil remediation was discussed. To screening out hyperaccumulators from ornamental plants would be an entirely new research area in the remediation of contaminated soils.

  13. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2009-05-30

    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  14. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment......, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. Here we present and compare the available tools and methods for assessing the sustainability of remedial solutions and discuss some of the key issues and future challenges. The aim of a sustainability assessment...

  15. Comparison of approaches for assessing sustainable remediation of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Gitte Lemming; Binning, Philip John; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2017-01-01

    to be inherently green or sustainable since it removes a contaminant problem. However, it is now broadly recognized that while remediation is intended to address a local environmental threat, it may cause other local, regional and global impacts on the environment, society and economy. Over the last decade......, the broader assessment of these criteria is occurring in a movement toward ‘sustainable remediation’. This paper aims to review the available methods for assessing the sustainability of remediation alternatives. Sustainable remediation seeks to reduce direct contaminant point source impacts on the environment......, while minimizing the indirect cost of remediation to the environment, society and economy. Here we present and compare the available tools and methods for assessing the sustainability of remedial solutions and discuss some of the key issues and future challenges. The aim of a sustainability assessment...

  16. Nodal failure index approach to groundwater remediation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Reeves, H.W.; Dowding, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Computer simulations often are used to design and to optimize groundwater remediation systems. We present a new computationally efficient approach that calculates the reliability of remedial design at every location in a model domain with a single simulation. The estimated reliability and other model information are used to select a best remedial option for given site conditions, conceptual model, and available data. To evaluate design performance, we introduce the nodal failure index (NFI) to determine the number of nodal locations at which the probability of success is below the design requirement. The strength of the NFI approach is that selected areas of interest can be specified for analysis and the best remedial design determined for this target region. An example application of the NFI approach using a hypothetical model shows how the spatial distribution of reliability can be used for a decision support system in groundwater remediation design. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  17. Prevalência da retinopatia diabética no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy at the Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the Santa Casa de São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel de Souza Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a prevalência de retinopatia diabética encontrada na população de diabéticos tipo 1, acompanhada no Ambulatório de Endocrinologia Pediátrica da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo, entre 29 de agosto de 2000 e 17de agosto de 2001, e sua relação com o sexo, a idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico do diabete e a duração do diabete. MÉTODO: Foi realizado mapeamento de retina, biomicroscopia de fundo e retinografia em 81 pacientes, 41 do sexo feminino e 40 do masculino, a fim de detectar e classificar a retinopatia diabética nessa população. RESULTADOS: A idade dos pacientes variou entre 4 e 23 anos (média = 12,0 ± 12,0, a idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico, entre 6 meses e 15 anos (média = 3,4 ± 5,8 e a duração do diabete, entre 7 meses e 20 anos (média = 5,8 ± 4,4. A retinopatia diabética foi observada em 14 pacientes (17,3%, 7 (8,6% com a forma não proliferativa muito leve, 5 (6,2% com forma não proliferativa leve, 1 (1,2% com forma proliferativa de alto risco e 1 (1,2% com forma proliferativa avançada. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência da retinopatia diabética na nossa amostra é 17,3%. Não há diferença entre os portadores e não portadores de retinopatia diabética quanto a sexo e idade do paciente na ocasião do diagnóstico. Quanto maior a duração da diabete, maior a prevalência da retinopatia diabética.PURPOSE: To verify the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy found in a type I diabetic population, accompanied at the Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic of the "Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo", between August 29, 2000 and August 17, 2001, and it's relationship with sex, the patient's age on occasion of the diagnosis of diabetes and the duration of diabetes. METHODS: Retinal mappings, biomicroscopic fundus and retinography were accomplished in 81 patients, 41 female and 40 male, in order to detect and to classify the diabetic retinopathies in that

  18. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, A.; Ottpsen, Lisbeth M.

    2005-01-01

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers.This work shows the laboratory results of nine...... electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4......, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2V/cm.The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20V using approximately 1.8kg mine tailing on dry basis...

  19. Environmental remediation and waste management information systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, M.W.; Harlan, C.P.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to document a few of the many environmental information systems that currently exist worldwide. The paper is not meant to be a comprehensive list; merely a discussion of a few of the more technical environmental database systems that are available. Regulatory databases such as US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) RODS (Records of Decision System) database [EPA, 1993] and cost databases such as EPA`s CORA (Cost of Remedial Action) database [EPA, 1993] are not included in this paper. Section 2 describes several US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) information systems and databases. Section 3 discusses several US EPA information systems on waste sites and technologies. Section 4 summarizes a few of the European Community environmental information systems, networks, and clearinghouses. And finally, Section 5 provides a brief overview of Geographical Information Systems. Section 6 contains the references, and the Appendices contain supporting information.

  20. Autism: Pathophysiology and Promising Herbal Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Sarrafchi, Amir; Shirzad, Hedayatollah; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a comprehensive growth abnormality in which social skills, language, communication, and behavioral skills are developed with delay and as diversionary. The reasons for autism are unclear, but various theories of genetics, immunity, biological, and psychosocial factors have been proffered. In fact, autism is a complex disorder with distinct causes that usually co-occur. Although no medicine has been recognized to treat this disorder, pharmacological treatments can be effective in reducing its signs, such as self-mutilation, aggression, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors, inattention, hyperactivity, and sleeping disorders. Recently, complementary and alternative approaches have been considered to treat autism. Ginkgo biloba is one of the most effective plants with an old history of applications in neuropsychological disorders which recently is used for autism. The present review discusses the recent findings, pathophysiology, and etiology of autism and thereafter addresses the promising results of herbal remedies.

  1. Geomaterials: their application to environmental remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirohisa Yamada, Kenji Tamura, Yujiro Watanabe, Nobuo Iyi and Kazuya Morimoto

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomaterials are materials inspired by geological systems originating from the billion years long history of the Earth. This article reviews three important classes of geomaterials. The first one is smectites—layered silicates with a cation-exchange capacity. Smectites are useful for removing pollutants and as intercalation compounds, catalysts and polymer nanocomposites. The second class is layered double hydroxides (LDHs. They have an anion-exchange capacity and are used as catalysts, catalyst precursors, sorbents and scavengers for halogens. The third class of geomaterials is zeolites—microporous materials with a cation-exchange capacity which are used for removing harmful cations. Zeolite composites with LDHs can absorb ammonium and phosphate ions in rivers and lakes, whereas zeolite/apatite composites can immobilize the radioactive iodine. These geomaterials are essential for environmental remediation.

  2. Tank waste remediation system engineering plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rifaey, S.H.

    1998-01-09

    This Engineering Plan describes the engineering process and controls that will be in place to support the Technical Baseline definition and manage its evolution and implementation to the field operations. This plan provides the vision for the engineering required to support the retrieval and disposal mission through Phase 1 and 2, which includes integrated data management of the Technical Baseline. Further, this plan describes the approach for moving from the ``as is`` condition of engineering practice, systems, and facilities to the desired ``to be`` configuration. To make this transition, Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Engineering will become a center of excellence for TWRS which,will perform engineering in the most effective manner to meet the mission. TWRS engineering will process deviations from sitewide systems if necessary to meet the mission most effectively.

  3. DWPF SMECT PVV SAMPLE CHARACTERIZATION AND REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.; Crawford, C.

    2013-06-18

    On April 2, 2013, a solid sample of material collected from the Defense Waste Processing Facility’s Process Vessel Vent (PVV) jumper for the Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) was received at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). DWPF has experienced pressure spikes within the SMECT and other process vessels which have resulted in processing delays while a vacuum was re-established. Work on this sample was requested in a Technical Assistance Request (TAR). This document reports the results of chemical and physical property measurements made on the sample, as well as insights into the possible impact to the material using DWPF’s proposed remediation methods. DWPF was interested in what the facility could expect when the material was exposed to either 8M nitric acid or 90% formic acid, the two materials they have the ability to flush through the PVV line in addition to process water once the line is capped off during a facility outage.

  4. Speech Remediation of Long-Term Stuttering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betty L. McMicken

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research article describes the remediation of moderate stuttering in an adult client who experienced speech dysfluency for more than 40 years. Treatment took place at an urban residential rehabilitation mission where the client was court sentenced for a history of felonies and current narcotic sales and use. In conjunction with the operant conditioning instruction of the rehabilitation mission, the Ryan Fluency Program was implemented along with the initial use of pause time in response to the complex needs of the client. The article provides an overview of the assessment (Fluency Interviews, Criterion Tests and treatment program. At present, 2.5 years post-initiation of treatment, the client has reported and been observed to have achieved smooth, forward-flowing, natural sounding speech throughout his work environment, family interaction, and daily life.

  5. Pulse current enhanced electrodialytic soil remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tian R.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Jensen, Pernille E.

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is an important factor influencing the cost of electrodialytic soil remediation (EDR). It has been indicated that the pulse current (in low frequency range) could decrease the energy consumption during EDR. This work is focused on the comparison of energy saving effect...... at different pulse frequencies. Based on the restoration of equilibrium, the relaxation process of the soil-water system was investigated by chronopotentiometric analysis to find the optimal relaxation time for energy saving. Results showed that the pulse current decreased the energy consumption with different...... extent depending on the pulse frequency. The experiment with the frequency of 16 cycles per day showed the best restoration of equilibrium and lowest energy consumption. The energy consumption per removed heavy metals was lower in pulse current experiments than constant current and increased...

  6. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  7. Feasibility Study of Contamination Remediation at Naval Weapons Station, Concord, California. Volume 1. Remedial Action Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    few years, particularly along the Port Chicago Highway across from the main gate of NWS Concord. Phillips Petroleum Company and Monsanto--V 2.23 %" r...acci- dental disturbance of the monofill. ,p Grading and Revegetation. See Alternative 3-3A. Operation and Maintenance of Remediation Area. See...washing process; b. Site preparation and support facilities; c. Excavation of contaminated materials; d. Classification of contaminated materialL ; e

  8. Traditional herbs: a remedy for cardiovascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Subha; Pandey, Madan Mohan; Rawat, A K S

    2016-10-15

    Medicinal plants have been used in patients with congestive heart failure, systolic hypertension, angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, cerebral insufficiency, venous insufficiency and arrhythmia since centuries. A recent increase in the popularity of alternative medicine and natural products has revived interest in traditional remedies that have been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this review is to provide updated, comprehensive and categorized information on the history and traditional uses of some herbal medicines that affect the cardiovascular system in order to explore their therapeutic potential and evaluate future research opportunities. Systematic literature searches were carried out and the available information on various medicinal plants traditionally used for cardiovascular disorders was collected via electronic search (using Pubmed, SciFinder, Scirus, GoogleScholar, JCCC@INSTIRC and Web of Science) and a library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. No restrictions regarding the language of publication were imposed. This article highlights the cardiovascular effects of four potent traditional botanicals viz. Garlic (Allium sativum), Guggul (Commiphora wightii), Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) and Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna). Although these plants have been used in the treatment of heart disease for hundreds of years, current research methods show us they can be utilized effectively in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases including ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and hypertension. Although the mechanisms of action are not very clear, there is enough evidence of their efficacy in various cardiovascular disorders. However, for bringing more objectivity and also to confirm traditional claims, more systematic, well-designed animal and randomized clinical studies with sufficient sample sizes are necessary. Multidisciplinary research is still required to exploit the vast

  9. Y-12 Plant remedial action Technology Logic Diagram: Volume 3, Technology evaluation data sheets: Part A, Remedial action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    The Y-12 Plant Remedial Action Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) problems at the Y-12 Plant to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed for sufficient development of these technologies to allow for technology transfer and application to remedial action (RA) activities. The TLD consists of three volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the rankings of remedial technologies. Volume 2 contains the logic linkages among environmental management goals, environmental problems and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 contains the TLD data sheets. This report is Part A of Volume 3 and contains the Remedial Action section.

  10. Sediment remediation treatment techniques for the Venice industrial canals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pippa, R.; Scanferla, P.; Cammarata, F.; Zampieri, L.; Carlon, C. [Consorzio Venezia Ricerche (Italy); Pavoni, B. [Ca' Foscari University of Venice (Italy). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Pannocchia, G. [Venezia Technologie SpA, Venice (Italy); Hreglich, S. [Stazione Sperimentale del Vetro, Venice (Italy); Avezzu, F. [Depuracque Impianti srl, Venice (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The main objective of SeRTech project (Sediment Remediation Technologies) is to develop an integrated cost-effective treatment system to address heterogeneous contamination and matrixes, such as those of Venice lagoon dredged materials. Seven treatment techniques, selected over a large array, have been tested: Thermal Desorption. A preliminary set of isothermal treatments at different temperatures was performed to evaluated the losses of organic and the most volatile metals (such as Pb and As). An almost full volatilisation of organic compounds was observed at temperatures ranging between 200 and 300 C. Chemical stabilization-solidification. Depuracque Impianti srl process uses innovative patented additives (polimers and superplasticizers) to immobilize heavy metals into cement pellets. Solvent extraction. Organic contaminants such as PAHs and PCBs were extracted from sediments by using ethyl acetate. The results showed that solvent extraction obtained high efficiency in removal of PAHs and other organic contaminants. Immobilization of heavy metals employing sulfate-reducing bacteria. High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS). Sulfate reducing bacteria (SBR) produce an iron sulfide containing biomass with a high capability to adsorbe hevy metals and some organic compounds. This biomass can be separated through a high gradient magnetic field removing a substantial fraction of contaminants. Vitrification. Sediment was mixed with other inorganic wastes (glass cullet, feldsphatic tailings) and low amounts of row material to obtain an inert glass, which in turn can be recycled into other useful products, for example glass fibres, foam glass and glass ceramics. Phytoremediation. Phragmites australis (Cav.), Trin; Juncus Iacustrus, Arthrocnmemum fruticosum, Spartina maritima, Helianthus annuus L., Zea mais L., Brassica napus L., Brassica juncea L. have been selected to verify limit and efficiency of phytoextraction for heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Hg, Cd, As, Ni). Not only

  11. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  12. In situ remediation and phytotoxicity assessment of lead-contaminated soil by biochar-supported nHAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhangmei; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Fang, Jianzhang; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-11-01

    In this study, a kind of biochar-supported nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAP@BC) material was used in in-situ remediation of lead-contaminated soil. Column experiments were performed to compare the mobility of nHAP@BC and Bare-nHAP. The immobilization, accumulation and toxic effects of Pb in the after-amended soil were assessed by the in vitro toxicity tests and pot experiments. The column experiments showed a significant improvement in the mobility of nHAP@BC. The immobilization rate of Pb in the soil was 74.8% after nHAP@BC remediation. Sequential extraction procedures revealed that the residual fraction of Pb increased by 66.6% after nHAP@BC remediation, which greatly reduced the bioavailability of Pb in the soil. In addition, pot experiments indicated that nHAP@BC could effectively reduce the upward translocation capacity of Pb in a soil-plant system. The concentration of Pb in the aerial part of the cabbage mustard was 0.1 mg/kg, which is lower than the tolerance limit (0.3 mg/kg). nHAP@BC can remediate Pb-contaminated soil effectively, which can restore soil quality for planting.

  13. Remediation in Situ of Hydrocarbons by Combined Treatment in a Contaminated Alluvial Soil due to an Accidental Spill of LNAPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Trulli

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination represents an environmental issue which has become extremely important in the last decades due to the diffusion of industrial activities. Accidents during transport of dangerous materials and fuels may cause severe pollution. The present paper describes the criteria of the actions which were operated to remediate the potential risk and observed negative effects on groundwater and soil originating from an accidental spill of diesel fuel from a tank truck. With the aim to evaluate the quality of the involved environmental matrices in the “emergency” phase, in the following “safety” operation and during the remediation action, a specific survey on hydrocarbons, light and heavy, was carried out in the sand deposits soil. Elaboration of collected data allows us to observe the movement of pollutants in the unsaturated soil. The remediation action was finalized to improve the groundwater and soil quality. The former was treated by a so called “pump and treat” system coupled with air sparging. A train of three different technologies was applied to the unsaturated soil in a sequential process: soil vapour extraction, bioventing and enhanced bioremediation. Results showed that the application of sequential remediation treatments allowed us to obtain a state of quality in unsaturated soil and groundwater as required by Italian law.

  14. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of some plants used as folk remedy in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbüz, Ilhan; Ustün, Osman; Yesilada, Erdem; Sezik, Ekrem; Kutsal, Osman

    2003-09-01

    Five herbal remedies used as gastroprotective crude drugs in Turkey were assessed for anti-ulcerogenic activity using the EtOH-induced ulcerogenesis model in rat. The crude drugs investigated comprises fruits of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Elaeagnaceae), fresh fruits of Hibiscus esculentus L. (Malvaceae), fresh roots of Papaver rhoeas L. (Papaveraceae), leaves of Phlomis grandiflora H.S. Thomson (Lamiaceae) and fresh fruits of Rosa canina L. (Rosaceae). Extracts were prepared according to the traditional indications of use. Under our experimental conditions, all extracts exhibited statistically significant gastroprotective effect with better results for Phlomis grandiflora and Rosa canina (100%). At the concentration under study, both crude drugs were more effective than the reference compound misoprostol at 0.4 mg/kg. Even the weakest anti-ulcerogenic effect observed for Papaver rhoeas roots was found statistically potent (95.6%). Histopathological studies confirmed the results of the in vivo test.

  15. Validation of use of a traditional antimalarial remedy from French Guiana, Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jullian, V; Bourdy, G; Georges, S; Maurel, S; Sauvain, M

    2006-07-19

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark (Rutaceae) is a medicinal plant, traditionally used in French Guiana to treat and prevent malaria. Bioassay-guided extractions of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium bark have shown that antiplasmodial activity is concentrated in the alkaloid fraction. Further fractionation of this extract has yielded seven benzophenanthridine alkaloids, dihydroavicine 1, dihydronitidine 2, oxyavicine 3, oxynitidine 4, fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7. Antimalarial activity of the last five compounds has been evaluated, and nitidine was the most potent, displaying an IC(50)<0.27microM against Plasmodium falciparum. Investigation of the traditional remedy, a trunk bark decoction in water, has shown that fagaridine 5, avicine 6 and nitidine 7 are also present in the decoction, therefore justifying the traditional use of Zanthoxylumrhoifolium bark as antimalarial.

  16. Terminalia arjuna, a herbal remedy against environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad Sultan Ahmad

    2013-11-23

    Nov 23, 2013 ... to 5th concentration of Terminalia extracts at 32 h of exposure. Conclusion: The .... arjuna at 16, 24, and 31 h of treatment durations against Aflatoxin ..... saponin, ameliorates arsenic-induced cyto-toxicity in hepatocytes.

  17. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  18. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  19. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validationof the developed OSATS scale for vacuum...... extraction in a prospective observational study. Setting. Rigshospitalet, University Hospital of Copenhagen. Population. For development an obstetric expert from each labor ward in Denmark (28 departments) were invited to participate. For validation nine first-year residents and ten chief physicians...... with daily work in the obstetric field were tested. Methods. The Delphi method was used for development of the scale. In a simulated vacuum extraction scenario first-year residents and obstetric chief physicians were rated using the developed OSATS scale for vacuum extraction to test construct validity...

  20. Phytoremediation as an on-site ex situ remediation option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millard, G. [Shell Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Maurice, R. [Wardrop Engineering Inc., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Greenberg, B. [Waterloo Environmental Biotechnology Inc., Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    In-situ soil remediation techniques often have limited application or long timelines in fine-grained soils. For rapid remediation at fine-grained sites, excavation is still a common technique. However, excavation does not necessarily require landfill disposal of impacted soils. Onsite treatment of hydrocarbon-impacted soils is often a feasible approach. This presentation discussed phytoremediation as an on-site ex-situ remediation option. Phytoremediation involves the attenuation of impacts via the cultivation of suitable plants. The presentation discussed the theory of phytoremediation at hydrocarbon-impacted sites and described a case study at a former Shell-owned facility in southern Manitoba. A feasibility assessment was conducted and the results of excavation activities were outlined. Planting and maintenance activities were described. The presentation provided an update on the remediation progress, the mechanism of remediation, and the benefits of this process. The site was remediated in less than one year, with cost savings as compared to traditional soil disposal. Phytoremediation resulted in reduced greenhouse gas emissions; reduced loading of landfill; reduced impact to local roads; reduced risk to health and safety; and provided the community with an aesthetic site during remediation. tabs., figs.

  1. Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Barlati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study is aimed to review the current scientific literature on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. In particular, the main structured protocols of cognitive remediation developed for schizophrenia are presented and the main results reported in recent meta-analyses are summarized. Possible benefits of cognitive remediation in the early course of schizophrenia and in subjects at risk for psychosis are also discussed. Methods. Electronic search of the relevant studies which appeared in the PubMed database until April 2013 has been performed and all the meta-analyses and review articles on cognitive remediation in schizophrenia have been also taken into account. Results. Numerous intervention programs have been designed, applied, and evaluated, with the objective of improving cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia. Several quantitative reviews have established that cognitive remediation is effective in reducing cognitive deficits and in improving functional outcome of the disorder. Furthermore, the studies available support the usefulness of cognitive remediation when applied in the early course of schizophrenia and even in subjects at risk of the disease. Conclusions. Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to improve real-world functioning in schizophrenia and should be considered a key strategy for early intervention in the psychoses.

  2. Effects of remediation amendments on vadose zone microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Hannah M.; Tilton, Fred A.

    2012-08-10

    Surfactant-based foam delivery technology has been studied to remediate Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment. However, the surfactants and remediation amendments have an unknown effect on indigenous subsurface microorganisms. Microbial populations are important factors to consider in remediation efforts due to their potential to alter soil geochemistry. This project focuses on measuring microbial metabolic responses to remediation amendments in batch and column studies using Deep Vadose Zone Sediments. Initial studies of the microbes from Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone sediment showed surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and remediation amendment calcium polysulfide (CPS) had no affect on microbial growth using BiologTM Ecoplates. To move towards a more realistic field analog, soil columns were packed with Hanford 200 Area sediment. Once microbial growth in the column was verified by observing growth of the effluent solution on tryptic soy agar plates, remedial surfactants were injected into the columns, and the resulting metabolic diversity was measured. Results suggest surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) stimulates microbial growth. The soil columns were also visualized using X-ray microtomography to inspect soil packing and possibly probe for evidence of biofilms. Overall, BiologTM Ecoplates provide a rapid assay to predict effects of remediation amendments on Hanford 200 area deep vadose zone microorganisms.

  3. Remediation of Soil Co-contaminated with Heavy Metals by Washing with Citric Acid:Batch Experiment and Extraction Mechanism%柠檬酸对重金属复合污染土壤的淋洗修复效果与机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉双; 胡晓钧; 宋雪英; 侯永侠; 陈红亮; 杨继松

    2012-01-01

    土壤淋洗修复是永久性的污染土壤修复方法之一.以Cd、Cu、Pb复合污染土壤为研究对象,采用振荡淋洗法结合形态分析技术研究了柠檬酸对重金属复合污染土壤的淋洗修复效果及其去除机理.结果表明,柠檬酸对复合污染土壤中的Cd和Cu具有较好的洗脱效果,而Pb的淋洗去除率相对较低.80mmol.L-1的柠檬酸对Cd、Cu、Pb的去除率分别能够达到90.4%、82.5%和38.6%.柠檬酸淋洗去除的重金属在土壤中主要以可交换态、碳酸盐结合态和铁锰氧化物结合态的形式存在.%Soil washing is one of the few permanent treatment alternatives to remove contaminants from soils. Batch experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of potential capability of citric acid to washing co-contaminated soil with Cd,Cu and Pb. The fraction and distribution of heavy metals in soil were evaluated using the sequential extraction technique to discuss the mechanism of citric acid extraction. Results show that citric acid could effectively remove Cd and Cu from co- contaminated soil, but relatively low removal rate of Pb. The removal of Cd, Cu, and Pb is respectively 90.4%, 82.5%, and 38.6% washing with 80 mmol ·L-1 citric acid solution. The removed heavy metals by citric acid are mainly from the exchangeable, carbonate bound and Fe-Mn oxide fractions.

  4. EREM 2001 - 3. symposium and status report on electrokinetic remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czurda, C.; Haus, R. (eds.); Hoetzl, H.

    2001-07-01

    Papers have been submitted by authors from around the world, reflecting the worldwide interest in electrokinetic remediation techniques. Therefore the symposium series plays a significant role in the presentation of recent advancements in electrochemical decontamination of polluted sediments on both scientific and technical level. In the field of potential cost-saving, innovative in-situ remediation technologies electrokinetics are already identified throughout the world. The main topics of the symposium are: electrokinetic models, electrokinetic transport processes, technical installation, combination of electroremediation with different remediation methods and the application in various electrokinetic field test demonstrations.

  5. Sulfate Reduction in Groundwater: Characterization and Applications for Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Z.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Carreon-Diazconti, C.; Johnson, B.

    2012-06-01

    Sulfate is ubiquitous in groundwater, with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sulfate reduction reactions play a significant role in mediating redox conditions and biogeochemical processes for subsurface systems. They also serve as the basis for innovative in-situ methods for groundwater remediation. An overview of sulfate reduction in subsurface environments is provided, with a specific focus on implications for groundwater remediation. A case study presenting the results of a pilot-scale ethanol injection test illustrates the advantages and difficulties associated with the use of electron-donor amendments for sulfate remediation.

  6. Independent Technical Review of the X-740 Groundwater Remedy, Portsmouth, Ohio: Technical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Rhia, B.; Jackson, D.; Eddy-Dilek, C.

    2010-04-30

    reviewing the site history and data and organizing the information into a conceptual model and findings to assist in evaluating the potential of alternative remediation technologies. Examples of the key conceptual findings of the EM-32 review team were: (1) The Gallia represents the most practical target for deployment of in situ remediation treatment reagents - injection/extraction focused in this zone would provide maximum lateral impacts with minimal potential risk of failure or adverse collateral impacts. (2) The slow release of TCE from clay and sandstone into the Gallia represent a long term source of TCE that can re-contaminate the Gallia in the future - technologies that effectively treat the permeable portions of the Gallia, but do not leave residual treatment capacity in the system are unlikely to achieve long term remedial action objectives. CDM, the site contractor, provided important and useful information documenting the status and preliminary results of the on-site technology alternative evaluation. In the CDM evaluation, potential technologies were either retained (or screened out) in two preliminary evaluation phases and a detailed evaluation was performed on the five alternatives that were retained into the final 'detailed analysis' phase. The five alternatives that were included in the detailed analysis were: (1) hydraulic fracturing with EHC (a solid bioremediation amendment), (2) enhanced anaerobic bioremediation, (3) in situ chemical oxidation, (4) electrical resistance heating, and (5) reactive barriers. In several cases, two or three variants were separately evaluated. The review team found the CDM effort to be generally credible and reasonable. Thus, the review team focused on providing additional considerations and inputs to Portsmouth and on amending and refining the alternatives in ways that might improve performance and/or reduce costs. The Department of Energy Portsmouth Paducah Project Office requested assistance from Department of

  7. Herbal Remedies for Functional Dyspepsia and Traditional Iranian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeian, Mahmoud; Naseri, Mohsen; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Farzaneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Feizi, Awat; Hosseini Yekta, Nafiseh; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastro-intestinal disorder with high prevalence. Among various treatment options, treatment by complementary and alternative medicines especially herbal remedies also practiced. Traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), a valuable resource of valid applied studies of ancient Iranian scholars, recommends numerous medicinal plants to treat dyspepsia symptoms. In this study, through investigation of TIM references, we aimed to identify medicinal plants for treatment of digestion insufficiency. Evidence Acquisition: In this qualitative study, dyspepsia symptoms including fullness, early satiety, bloating, nausea, and belching were checked under reliable sources of traditional medicine. Then medicinal plants recommended for the treatment of the symptoms were extracted from the books. Likewise, for investigating the pharmacological properties of medicinal plants used for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms, electronic databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and some Iranian databases like SID and IranMedex were employed. Results: The study yielded 105 plants from 37 families which could treat various dyspepsia symptoms; fifty-seven plants, mainly from Apiaceae, Lamiaceae, Amaryllidaceae and Zingiberaceae had digestive effects. In this research, based on the information in TIM reference texts, we obtained 58 plants effective for bloating, 40 for nausea, 37 for appetite loss and 7 for belching. In human clinical trials conducted on medicinal plants effective for FD symptoms, 7 single plants were used. Conclusions: Finding the medicinal plants effective on digestion insufficiency based on TIM could suggest a better strategy for the relieving of dyspepsia symptoms. Traditional Iranian medicine prescribes medicinal plants based on each patient’s personal characteristics and practices multiple target therapies. PMID:26734483

  8. Feasibility study concerning remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands on the Absheron Peninsula, Republic of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivin, Majorie; Helsen, Stefan; Cuyvers, Lars

    2014-05-01

    ECOREM is carrying out a feasibility study focused on the remediation and rehabilitation of industrial polluted lands, located on the Absheron Peninsula (Republic of Azerbaijan), on behalf of the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic (SOCAR). The objective of this study is to support SOCAR with specific technologies and capacity building for environmental remediation works on various sectors of the Peninsula. As an independent consultancy company, ECOREM provides sustainable and quality advice, seeking the balance to the interests of the client and the environment in the broadest sense of the word. Within this study, it is important to underline that extraction activities in the country have been going on for more than a century. Given that the age of the environmental problems is equal to the history of the oil production, it is nearly impossible to point out the responsibilities of the various companies or to define the exact activities that occurred on a particular location. From the data gathered so far, more than 3600 ha of oil contaminated area are known in Baku and the Absheron Peninsula. Within this feasibility study, ECOREM will advice SOCAR on suitable and best available remediation technologies to apply on prior contaminated areas. According to the Environmental Policy of the Company, SOCAR would like to act in priority on the numerous contaminated lands of the Absheron Peninsula. Through the exploitation of the extensive GIS database provided by SOCAR, the oil contaminated sites will be examined in details in order to determine the most sensitive areas, on which remediation works or monitoring should be implemented in priority. To locate these sites, ECOREM will provide SOCAR with technical support in order to conduct risk analysis, remediation and monitoring of soil and/or groundwater oil pollutions. According to these results, practical solutions will be proposed concerning the possible reuse and management of contaminated soils and hazardous

  9. 49 CFR 27.11 - Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance....11 Remedial action, voluntary action and compliance planning. (a) Remedial action. (1) If the... activity in violation of this part, the recipient shall take such remedial action as the...

  10. Protein Extractability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human nutrition, particularly in developing ... studied the effect of NaCl on the extractability of ... significant influence on the functional properties ..... Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  11. The Removal and Remediation of Phenanthrene and Pyrene in Soil by Mixed Cropping of Alfalfa and Rape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Sheng-wang; WEI Shi-qiang; YUAN Xin; CAO Sheng-xian

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms and efficiencies of the removal and remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils by different planting patterns with rape (Brassica campeslris) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were studied by pot experiments in a greenhouse. Results showed that the remediation efficiencies under mixed cropping of alfalfa and rape significantly exceeded those under single cropping when the initial concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene were at 20.05-322.06 mg kg-1 and 20.24-321.42 mg kg-1, respectively. After 70 days plantation of crops, the contents of extractable PAHs in soils under mixed cropping were much lower than those under single cropping. About 65.17-83.52% of phenanthrene and 60.09%-75.34% of pyrene was removed from the soils under mixed cropping, respectively, which were averagely 43.26 and 40.38% for phenanthrene, and 11.03 and 16.29% for pyren higher than those under single cropping. Alfalfa or rape did absorb and accumulate PAHs from the soils apparently; the PAHs concentrations in plants monotonically increased with the increase of initial PAHs concentrations in soil; the accumulations of PAHs in plants showed following sequence as roots> above parts, phenanthrene> pyrene and single cropping> mixed cropping at same contamination level. Despite the presence of vegetation significantly enhanced the remediation of PAHs in soils, contributions of abiotic loss, plant uptake, accumulation and microbial degradation was much lower than those of plant-microbial interactions in the process of phytoremediation. Thus plant-microbial interactions are the main mechanisms for the remediation enhancement of soil PAHs pollution under mixed cropping models. Results suggested a feasibility of the establishment of multi-species phytoremediation for the improvement of remediation efficiencies of PAHs, which may decrease accumulations of PAHs in crops and thus reduce their risks.

  12. Titania: a material-based approach to oil spill remediation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Narayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The anatase phase of titania is being considered for use in oil spill remediation due to its high photocatalytic efficiency and its activity under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  13. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  14. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings: Comparing different operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojo, Adrian; Hansen, Henrik K.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2006-01-01

    This work compares and evaluates sixteen electrodialytic laboratory remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. Different parameters were analyzed, such as remediation time, voltage drop, addition of desorbing agents, and the use of pulsed electrical fields. The results show that electric...... current could remove copper from watery tailings slowly. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was improved due to a pH decrease from 6.7 to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Moreover, with citric acid addition the process was further improved due to a formation...... of copper citrate complexes. Using pulsed electric fields the remediation process with sulphuric acid addition was also improved by a decrease in the polarization cell. Main results: considering remediation with watery tailing as the base line, for three weeks experiments no copper removal was observed...

  15. Principle of progressive (gradual use of contractual remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazil OGLINDĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we intend to answer to the question whether, in the modern contract law, in general, and in Romanian contract law, in particular, the creditor may resort almost discretionary to remedies (contractual sanctions such as termination, rescission without being opposed that he should have resorted to other more appropriate remedies. In order to answer to this question, we find it extremely useful to define the term of contractual remedy and to analyse the correlation of this principle with other principles of modern contract law. Also, last but not least, we intend to define the principle of progressive (gradual use of the contractual remedies and to detail the vocation (legal nature of this principle in the modern contract law, having as starting point the provisions of the new Romanian Civil Code.

  16. A Lexical Approach to the Remediation of Final Sound Omissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marilyn; Ferrier, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    The hypothesis that a language training (vocabulary building) or lexical approach to the remediation of final sound omissions may be an effective method of therapy was tested with a 6-year-old trainable mentally retarded boy. (Author/GW)

  17. Investigating biochar as a tool for environmental remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar is being proposed as a cost-effective, carbon negative soil amendment for environmental remediation. Research has demonstrated the efficacy of biochar to sorb heavy metals and agricultural chemicals from contaminated soils, thus effectively reducing the potential for met...

  18. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Kshitij C; Liu, Zhuonan; Vijwani, Hema; Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M; Tsige, Mesfin

    2016-07-21

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  19. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshitij C. Jha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs on carbon nanotubes (CNTs has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE, the most ubiquitous of the COCs, is presented along with examination of forces contributing to adsorption of analogous contaminants at the molecular level. Second, we present results on TCE adsorption and remediation on pure and hybrid CNT systems with a stress on the specific nature of substrate and molecular architecture that would contribute to competitive adsorption. The delineation of intermolecular interactions that contribute to efficient remediation is needed for custom, scalable field design of purification systems for a wide range of contaminants.

  20. Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, G.D.; Halverson, T.G.

    1994-09-30

    The purpose of this Tank Waste Remediation System Projects Document Control Plan is to provide requirements and responsibilities for document control for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project and the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) Project.

  1. Biota Remedial Investigation and Comprehensive Monitoring Program Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the results of the Army's wildlife tissue sampling collected as part of the Remedial Investigation (RI) and the Comprehensive Monitoring...

  2. Inorganic ion exchangers for nuclear waste remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clearfield, A.; Bortun, A.; Bortun, L.; Behrens, E. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this work is to provide a broad spectrum of inorganic ion exchangers that can be used for a range of applications and separations involving remediation of groundwater and tank wastes. The authors intend to scale-up the most promising exchangers, through partnership with AlliedSignal Inc., to provide samples for testing at various DOE sites. While much of the focus is on exchangers for removal of Cs{sup +} and Sr{sup 2+} from highly alkaline tank wastes, especially at Hanford, the authors have also synthesized exchangers for acid wastes, alkaline wastes, groundwater, and mercury, cobalt, and chromium removal. These exchangers are now available for use at DOE sites. Many of the ion exchangers described here are new, and others are improved versions of previously known exchangers. They are generally one of three types: (1) layered compounds, (2) framework or tunnel compounds, and (3) amorphous exchangers in which a gel exchanger is used to bind a fine powder into a bead for column use. Most of these exchangers can be regenerated and used again.

  3. 'Gold standard' for remediation of WTC contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The events of September 11, 2001 and thereafter resulted in arguably the worst environmental disaster in the history of New York City. Particulate matter and combustion by-products containing asbestos, lead, mercury, dioxin, PAHs, and other toxic substances, not only affected rescue and recovery workers but also infiltrated thousands of residences and workplaces. Government agencies did not acknowledge responsibility for residential indoor environmental quality until eight months later, and still have not accepted responsibility for indoor environmental quality in commercial or government buildings. In May 2002, 200 representatives from 38 community, labor, environmental, and public health organizations met to discuss unmet post-9/11 public health needs. They established a technical working group to press the Environmental Protection Agency to expand and improve its proposals for the cleanup of Lower Manhattan. This 2002 document, "The 'Gold Standard' for Remediation of WTC Contamination," articulates the environmental health concerns and suggestions of grassroots organizations active in 9/11 response efforts at that time.

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Henrik K; Rojo, Adrián; Ottosen, Lisbeth M

    2005-01-31

    Mining activities in Chile have generated large amounts of solid waste, which have been deposited in mine tailing impoundments. These impoundments cause concern to the communities due to dam failures or natural leaching to groundwater and rivers. This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. The results show that electric current could remove copper from watery tailing if the potential gradient was higher than 2 V/cm during 21 days. With addition of sulphuric acid, the process was enhanced because the pH decreased to around 4, and the copper by this reason was released in the solution. Furthermore, with acidic tailing the potential gradient was less than 2 V/cm. The maximum copper removal reached in the anode side was 53% with addition of sulphuric acid in 21 days experiment at 20 V using approximately 1.8 kg mine tailing on dry basis. In addition, experiments with acidic tailing show that the copper removal is proportional with time.

  5. Remediation of AMD using industrial waste adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Nuur Hani Bte; Yaacob, Wan Zuhairi Wan

    2016-11-01

    The study investigates the characteristic of industrial waste as adsorbents and its potential as heavy metals absorbents in AMD samples. The AMD sample was collected from active mine pond and the pH was measured in situ. The metal contents were analyzed by ICP-MS. The AMD water was very acidic (pH< 3.5), and the average heavy metals content in AMD were high especially in Fe (822.029 mg/l). Fly ash was found to be the most effective absorbent material containing high percentage of CaO (57.24%) and SiO2 (13.88%), followed by ladle furnace slag containing of high amount of CaO (51.52%) and Al2O3 (21.23%), while biomass ash consists of SiO2 (43.07%) and CaO (12.97%). Tank analysis display a huge changes due to pH value change from acidity to nearly neutral phases. After 50 days, fly ash remediation successfully increase the AMD pH values from pH 2.57-7.09, while slag change from acidity to nearly alkaline phase from pH 2.60-7.3 and biomass has change to pH 2.54-6.8. Fly ash has successfully remove Fe, Mn, Cu, and Ni. Meanwhile, slag sample displays as an effective adsorbent to adsorb more Pb and Cd in acid mine drainage.

  6. Customizable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostal, Jan; Prabhukumar, Giridhar; Lao, U. Loi; Chen Alin; Matsumoto, Mark; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred [University of California, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering (United States)], E-mail: wilfred@engr.ucr.edu

    2005-10-15

    Nanoscale materials have been gaining increasing interest in the area of environmental remediation because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. One emerging area of research has been the development of novel materials with increased affinity, capacity, and selectivity for heavy metals because conventional technologies are often inadequate to reduce concentrations in wastewater to acceptable regulatory standards. Genetic and protein engineering have emerged as the latest tools for the construction of nanoscale materials that can be controlled precisely at the molecular level. With the advent of recombinant DNA techniques, it is now possible to create 'artificial' protein polymers with fundamentally new molecular organization. The most significant feature of these nanoscale biopolymers is that they are specifically pre-programmed within a synthetic gene template and can be controlled precisely in terms of sizes, compositions and functions at the molecular level. In this review, the use of specifically designed protein-based nano-biomaterials with both metal-binding and tunable properties for heavy metal removal is summarized. Several different strategies for the selective removal of heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury are highlighted.

  7. Tank waste remediation system: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alumkal, W.T.; Babad, H.; Dunford, G.L.; Honeyman, J.O.; Wodrich, D.D.

    1995-02-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, located in southeastern Washington State, contains the largest amount and the most diverse collection of highly radioactive waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at the Hanford Site in large, underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 217,000 M{sup 3} (57 Mgal) of caustic liquids, slurries, saltcakes, and sludges have accumulated in 177 tanks. In addition, significant amounts of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were removed from the tank waste, converted to salts, doubly encapsulated in metal containers, and stored in water basins. The Tank Waste Remediation System Program was established by the US Department of Energy in 1991 to safely manage and immobilize these wastes in anticipation of permanent disposal of the high-level waste fraction in a geologic repository. Since 1991, significant progress has been made in resolving waste tank safety issues, upgrading Tank Farm facilities and operations, and developing a new strategy for retrieving, treating, and immobilizing the waste for disposal.

  8. Toxic industrial deposit remediation by ant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilkova, Veronika; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Toxic industrial deposits are often contaminated by heavy metals and the substrates have low pH values. In such systems, soil development is thus slowed down by high toxicity and acidic conditions which are unfavourable to soil fauna. Ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) are considered tolerant to heavy metal pollution and are known to increase organic matter content and microbial activity in their nests. Here, we focused on soil remediation caused by three ant species (Formica sanguinea, Lasius niger, and Tetramorium sp.) in an ore-washery sedimentation basin near Chvaletice (Czech Republic). Soil samples were taken from the centre of ant nests and from the nest surroundings (>3 m from nests). Samples were then analyzed for microbial activity and biomass and contents of organic matter and nutrients. As a result, ant species that most influenced soil properties was F. sanguinea as there were higher microbial activity and total nitrogen and ammonia contents in ant nests than in the surrounding soil. We expected such a result because F. sanguinea builds conspicuous large nests and is a carnivorous species that brings substantial amounts of nitrogen in insect prey to their nests. Effects of the other two ant species might be lower because of smaller nests and different feeding habits as they rely mainly on honeydew from aphids or on plant seeds that do not contain much nutrients.

  9. Volatile organic compound remedial action project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) reviews a proposed project that is planned to reduce the levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) contaminants present in the Mound domestic water supply. The potable and industrial process water supply for Mound is presently obtained from a shallow aquifer via on-site production wells. The present levels of VOCs in the water supply drawn from the on-site wells are below the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) permissible for drinking water under Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA; 40 CFR 141); however, Mound has determined that remedial measures should be taken to further reduce the VOC levels. The proposed project action is the reduction of the VOC levels in the water supply using packed tower aeration (PTA). This document is intended to satisfy the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and associated Council on Environmental Quality regulations (40 CFR parts 1500 through 1508) as implemented through U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5440.1D and supporting DOE NEPA Guidelines (52 FR 47662), as amended (54 FR 12474; 55 FR 37174), and as modified by the Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) 15-90 and associated guidance. As required, this EA provides sufficient information on the probable environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternatives to support a DOE decision either to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) or issue a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Remedies by competitors for false advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

    1990-05-01

    Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising.

  11. Mechanochemical remediation of PCB contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haizhu; Hwang, Jisu; Huang, Jun; Xu, Ying; Yu, Gang; Li, Wenchao; Zhang, Kunlun; Liu, Kai; Cao, Zhiguo; Ma, Xiaohui; Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Quhui

    2017-02-01

    Soil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a ubiquitous problem in the world, which can cause significant risks to human health and the environment. Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) has been recognized as a promising technology for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and other organic molecules in both solid waste and contaminated soil. However, few studies have been published about the application of MCD technology for the remediation of PCB contaminated soil. In the present study, the feasibility of destroying PCBs in contaminated soil by co-grinding with and without additives in a planetary ball mill was investigated. After 4 h milling time, more than 96% of PCBs in contaminated soil samples were destroyed. The residual concentrations of PCBs decreased from 1000 mg/kg to below the provisional Basel Convention limit of less than 50 mg/kg. PCDD/F present in the original soil at levels of 4200 ng TEQ/kg was also destroyed with even a slightly higher destruction efficiency. Only minor dechlorinations of the PCBs were observed and the destruction of the hydrocarbon skeleton is proposed as the main degradation pathway of PCBs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Soil bacteria for remediation of polluted soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springael, D.; Bastiaens, L.; Carpels, M.; Mergaey, M.; Diels, L.

    1996-09-18

    Soil bacteria, specifically adapted to contaminated soils, may be used for the remediation of polluted soils. The Flemish research institute VITO has established a collection of bacteria, which were isolated from contaminated areas. This collection includes microbacteria degrading mineral oils (Pseudomonas sp., Acinetobacter sp. and others), microbacteria degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (genera Sphingomonas and Mycobacterium), microbacteria degrading polychlorobiphenyls (genus Ralstonia and strains related to beta-Proteobacteria), and metal resistant bacteria with plasmid borne resistances to Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, and Cr. Bench-scale reactors were developed to investigate the industrial feasibility of bioremediation. Batch Stirred Tank Reactors were used to evaluate the efficiency of oil degraders. Soils, contaminated with non-ferrous metals, were treated using a Bacterial Metal Slurry Reactor. It was found that the reduction of the Cd concentration may vary strongly from sample to sample: reduction factors vary from 95 to 50%. Is was shown that Cd contained in metallic sinter and biologically unavailable Cd could not be removed.

  13. Skin Aging Remedies in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirbeigi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.

  14. Bevalac extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

  15. Decommissioning of the remediation systems at Waverly, Nebraska, in 2011-2012.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M. (Environmental Science Division)

    2012-06-29

    The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) operated a grain storage facility in Waverly, Nebraska, from 1952 to 1974. During this time, the grain fumigant '80/20' (carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide) was used to preserve stored grain. In 1982, sampling by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) found carbon tetrachloride contamination in the town's groundwater. After an investigation of the contaminant distribution, the site was placed on the National Priority List (NPL) in 1986, and the CCC/USDA accepted responsibility for the contamination. An Interagency Compliance Agreement between the EPA and the CCC/USDA was finalized in May 1988 (EPA 1990). The EPA (Woodward-Clyde Consultants, contractor) started immediate cleanup efforts in 1987 with the installation of an air stripper, a soil vapor extraction system, a groundwater extraction well, and groundwater and soil gas monitoring wells (Woodward-Clyde 1986, 1988a,b). After the EPA issued its Record of Decision (ROD; EPA 1990), the CCC/USDA (Argonne National Laboratory, contractor) took over operation of the treatment systems. The CCC/USDA conducted a site investigation (Argonne 1991, 1992a,b), during which a carbon tetrachloride plume in groundwater was discovered northeast of the former facility. This plume was not being captured by the existing groundwater extraction system. The remediation system was modified in 1994 (Argonne 1993) with the installation of a second groundwater extraction well to contain the contamination further. Subsequently, a detailed evaluation of the system resulted in a recommendation to pump only the second well to conserve water in the aquifer (Argonne 1995). Sampling and analysis after implementation of this recommendation showed continued decreases in the extent and concentrations of the contamination with only one well pumping (Argonne 1999). The CCC/USDA issued quarterly monitoring reports from 1988 to 2009. Complete

  16. Liquid-liquid extraction for surfactant-contaminant separation and surfactant reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, M.A. [Surbec Environmental, Norman, OK (United States); Sabatini, D.A.; Harwell, J.H. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction was investigated for use with surfactant enhanced subsurface remediation. A surfactant liquid-liquid extraction model (SLLEM) was developed for batch equilibrium conditions based on contaminant partitioning between micellar, water, and solvent phases. The accuracy of this fundamental model was corroborated with experimental results (using naphthalene and phenanthrene as contaminants and squalane as the extracting solvent). The SLLEM model was then expanded to nonequilibrium conditions. The effectiveness of this nonequilibrium model was corroborated with experimental results from continuous flow hollow fiber membrane systems. The validated models were used to conduct a sensitivity analysis evaluating the effects of surfactants on the removal of the contaminants in liquid-liquid extraction systems. In addition, liquid-liquid extraction is compared to air stripping for surfactant-contaminant separation. Finally, conclusions are drawn as to the impact of surfactants on liquid-liquid extraction processes, and the significance of these impacts on the optimization of surfactant-enhanced subsurface remediation.

  17. K basins interim remedial action health and safety plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAY, P.T.

    1999-09-14

    The K Basins Interim Remedial Action Health and Safety Plan addresses the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as they apply to the CERCLA work that will take place at the K East and K West Basins. The provisions of this plan become effective on the date the US Environmental Protection Agency issues the Record of Decision for the K Basins Interim Remedial Action, currently planned in late August 1999.

  18. Remediating Computational Deficits at Third Grade: A Randomized Field Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Powell, Sarah R.; Hamlett, Carol L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Cirino, Paul T.; FLETCHER, JACK M.

    2008-01-01

    The major purposes of this study were to assess the efficacy of tutoring to remediate 3rd-grade computational deficits and to explore whether remediation is differentially efficacious depending on whether students experience mathematics difficulty alone or concomitantly with reading difficulty. At 2 sites, 127 students were stratified on mathematics difficulty status and randomly assigned to 4 conditions: word recognition (control) tutoring or 1 of 3 computation tutoring conditions: fact retr...

  19. The value of dynamic remediation processes: a real option approach

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, T.; Van Passel, S.; Lebbe, L.; Huisman, K.; Kort, P.; Thewys, T.

    2012-01-01

    Restricted by limited resources, the management of problems related to soil and groundwater contamination involves the search for a balance between costs and bene fits, integrating the knowledge from multiple disciplines. A wide range of economic decision tools are available to support the remediation selection process, including Cost Bene fit Analysis (CBA), risk-based CBA, and multi-criteria analysis. However, these tools do not take into account the reversibility of a remediation strategy....

  20. Biosurfactant-facilitated remediation of metal-contaminated soils.

    OpenAIRE

    R. M. Miller

    1995-01-01

    Bioremediation of metal-contaminated wastestreams has been successfully demonstrated. Normally, whole cells or microbial exopolymers are used to concentrate and/or precipitate metals in the wastestream to aid in metal removal. Analogous remediation of metal-contaminated soils is more complex because microbial cells or large exopolymers do not move freely through the soil. The use of microbially produced surfactants (biosurfactants) is an alternative with potential for remediation of metal-con...

  1. Carbon Nanotube Based Groundwater Remediation: The Case of Trichloroethylene

    OpenAIRE

    Kshitij C. Jha; Zhuonan Liu; Hema Vijwani; Mallikarjuna Nadagouda; Mukhopadhyay, Sharmila M.; Mesfin Tsige

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption of chlorinated organic contaminants (COCs) on carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been gaining ground as a remedial platform for groundwater treatment. Applications depend on our mechanistic understanding of COC adsorption on CNTs. This paper lays out the nature of competing interactions at play in hybrid, membrane, and pure CNT based systems and presents results with the perspective of existing gaps in design strategies. First, current remediation approaches to trichloroethylene (TCE), th...

  2. Electrodialytic Remediation of Soil Polluted with Copper from Wood Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Hansen, Henrik; Laursen, Søren

    1997-01-01

    The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil......The principle of electrodialytic soil remediation was tested in six experiments on a copper polluted loamy sand. It was possible to decontaminate from 1360 to below 40 mg of Cu/kg of dry soil...

  3. Snake remedies and eosinophilic granuloma complex in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutboul, Ronit

    2006-01-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) is a syndrome occurring in cats, characterized by lesions affecting the skin and the oral cavity. Conventional treatment is mainly symptomatic and may have undesirable side effects. This paper summarizes homeopathic treatment with snake remedies of cats suffering from EGC. Snake remedies were chosen by individual repertorizations and administered in different dilutions. Reactions were mostly quick, leading to significant improvements, including complete recoveries.

  4. Strategic considerations for the sustainable remediation of nuclear installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobbs, S; Orr, P; Weber, I

    2017-08-05

    Nuclear sites around the world are being decommissioned and remedial actions are being undertaken to enable the sites or parts of the sites to be reused. Although this is relatively straightforward for most sites, experience has suggested that preventative action is needed to minimise the impact of remediation activities on the environment and the potential burden to future generations. Removing all contamination in order to make a site suitable for any use generates waste and has associated environmental, social and economic detriments and benefits that should be taken into account. Recent experience of OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) member countries in the remediation of contaminated land, predominantly contaminated soil and groundwater, on nuclear sites during decommissioning has been assessed by an NEA task group. The experience was used to identify strategic considerations for nuclear site remediation, to consider the application of sustainability principles to nuclear site remediation, to describe good practice, and to make recommendations for further research and development. The key aspects that were identified were that 1) site remediation should be sustainable by resulting in an overall net benefit; and 2) an adaptive approach is essential in order to take into account the inherent uncertainty associated with the decommissioning and site remediation timescales. A report describing the findings was published by OECD/NEA in 2016. The conclusions provide insights to decision makers, regulators, implementers and stakeholders involved in nuclear site decommissioning so that they can achieve sustainable remediation of nuclear sites, now and in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Radio frequency heating for in-situ remediation of DNAPL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasevich, R.S. [KAI Technologies, Woburn, MA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    In-situ radio frequency (RF) heating technology for treating soils contaminated with dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is described. RF imparts heat to non-conducting materials through the application of carefully controlled RF transmissions, improving contaminant flow characteristics and facilitating separation and removal from subsurface soils. The paper outlines advantages and limitations of RF remediation, process operations, general technology considerations, low permeability media considerations, commercial availability, and costs. Two case histories of RF remediation are briefly summarized. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Sour gas plant remediation technology research and demonstration project, Task 7.53. Topical report, January--December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepan, D.J.; Kuehnel, V.; Schmit, C.R.

    1994-02-01

    Recognizing the potential impacts of sour gas plant operations on the subsurface environment, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) and Environment Canada initiated a multiphase study focusing on research related to the development and demonstration of remedial technologies for soil and groundwater contamination at these facilities. Research performed under this project was designed to supplement and be coordinated with research activities being conducted at an operational sour gas plant located in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, Canada. These research tasks included hydrogeological site characterization, subsurface contaminant characterization, ex situ treatment of groundwater, and subsurface remediation of residual contamination in the unsaturated zone. Ex situ treatment of groundwater included evaluations of air stripping, steam stripping, advanced oxidation, and biological treatment, as well as the development of an artificial freeze crystallization process. Soil vapor extraction was evaluated as a technique to address residual contamination in the unsaturated zone.

  7. Potential of the hybrid marigolds for arsenic phytoremediation and income generation of remediators in Ron Phibun District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintakovid, Watchara; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Khokiattiwong, Somkiat; Lauengsuchonkul, Siriporn

    2008-02-01

    Nugget marigold, a triploid hybrid between American (Tagetes erecta L.) and French (Tagetes patula) marigolds, is a marketed flowering plant with a good ability in arsenic phytoremediation. During field trial in an arsenic-polluted area in Thailand, arsenic was found mostly in leaves (46.2%) while flowers contained the lowest arsenic content (5.8%). Arsenic species in aqueous extracts of nugget marigolds were determined by HPLC-UV-HG-QF-AAS. Inorganic arsenics, arsenite and arsenate, were the main arsenic chemical species found in roots, stems, and leaves of marigolds with accumulated arsenic. Nugget marigolds from experimental plots not only accumulated high levels of arsenic but also grew well in arsenic-contaminated areas. Phosphate fertilizer enhanced arsenic uptake when the plants were in the flowering stage. Arsenic remediation using nugget marigolds could also provide economic benefits to the remediators through marketing flowers. Therefore, marigolds should be considered as a potential economic crop for phytoremediation.

  8. Reduction of metal exposure of Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) following remediation of pond sediment as evidenced by metal concentrations in hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flache, Lucie, E-mail: Lucie.Flache@bio.uni-giessen.de [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ekschmitt, Klemens [Animal Ecology, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kierdorf, Uwe [Department of Biology, University of Hildesheim, Universitätsplatz 1, D-31141 Hildesheim (Germany); Czarnecki, Sezin; Düring, Rolf-Alexander [Institute of Soil Science and Soil Conservation, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Encarnação, Jorge A. [Mammalian Ecology Group, Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Transfer of contaminants from freshwater sediments via aquatic insects to terrestrial predators is well documented in spiders and birds. Here, we analyzed the metal exposure of Myotis daubentonii using an urban pond as their preferred foraging area before and after a remediation measure (sediment dredging) at this pond. Six metal elements (Zn, Cu, Cr, Cd, Pb and Ni) were measured in the sediment of the pond, in EDTA extracts of the sediment and in hair samples of M. daubentonii foraging at the pond. Samples were taken before remediation in 2011 and after remediation in 2013. Metal concentrations were quantified by ICP-OES after miniaturized microwave assisted extraction. In 2011, the pond sediment exhibited a high contamination with nickel, a moderate contamination with copper and chromium and low contents of zinc, cadmium and lead. While sediment metal contents declined only weakly after remediation, a much more pronounced reduction in the concentrations of zinc, copper, chromium and lead concentrations was observed in bat hair. Our results suggest a marked decline in metal exposure of the bats foraging at the pond as a consequence of the remediation measure. It is concluded that Daubenton's bats are suitable bioindicators of metal contamination in aquatic environments, integrating metal exposure via prey insects over their entire foraging area. We further suggest that bat hair is a useful monitoring unit, allowing a non-destructive and non-invasive assessment of metal exposure in bats. - Highlights: • Changes in metal exposure of bats due to remediation measure are documented. • Bats are suitable bioindicators of metal pollution. • Bat hair is a useful monitoring unit in such studies.

  9. Simulation for volume reduction of site remediation at UCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Bum; Seo, Bum Kyoung; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A characterization survey, sufficient time, and a proper budget are required after decommissioning work to carry out a final survey in preparing for an unexpected contamination. In this study, the optimized amount of soil waste during site remediation of the Uranium Conversion Plant was evaluated by considering the hop spot concept which was suggested in MARSSIM and geo statistics methods. The objective of any remedial action is to reduce the risks to human health to acceptable levels by removing the source of contamination. The project period was extended twice for the initial planning because of the unexpected soil contamination under the UCP building. The importance of the characterization survey and optimization of site remediation cannot be overestimated in the decommissioning project. In order to provide a reliable cost and schedule for site remediation, it requires optimization methods as well as appropriate data processing techniques. The optimized amount of soil waste during site remediation of the Uranium Conversion Plant was evaluated by considering the spatial analysis with the hot spot concept in MARSSIM. The combined methods of the hot spot concept in MARSSIM and geo statistics method pave a way to optimization of the site remediation.

  10. Environmental remediation and waste management in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muntzing, L. Manning; Person, John C.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental remediation of radioactively and chemically contaminated sites represents one of the most complex challenges of our age. From a practical view point, if contaminated sites can not be successfully remediated, the future of the nuclear industry and of other industries could be challenged. From a moral standpoint, this generation has an obligation to remedy the harmful by-products of the otherwise necessary and beneficial activities in which is has engaged. The task is challenging for several reasons. First, standards governing remedial action are complex and constantly evolving. Second, unless contaminated material is to be stabilized in place, it must be removed and sent to another facility for storage and ultimate disposal. Yet, there is a shortage of such facilities and it is becoming increasingly difficult to develop additional ones. Third, the task is technically demanding. Fourth, the challenge is a risky one, Those who seek to remediate past contamination may find themselves exposed to expanding and unfair allegations of liability for that very contamination. Finally, there is often a basis crisis of public confidence regarding remediation efforts which overshadows and permeates the foregoing considerations. (author).

  11. Applications of Ecological Engineering Remedies for Uranium Processing Sites, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, William [Navarro Research and Engineering

    2016-05-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) is responsible for remediation of environmental contamination and long-term stewardship of sites associated with the legacy of nuclear weapons production during the Cold War in the United States. Protection of human health and the environment will be required for hundreds or even thousands of years at many legacy sites. USDOE continually evaluates and applies advances in science and technology to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of surface and groundwater remedies (USDOE 2011). This paper is a synopsis of ecological engineering applications that USDOE is evaluating to assess the effectiveness of remedies at former uranium processing sites in the southwestern United States. Ecological engineering remedies are predicated on the concept that natural ecological processes at legacy sites, once understood, can be beneficially enhanced or manipulated. Advances in tools for characterizing key processes and for monitoring remedy performance are demonstrating potential. We present test cases for four ecological engineering remedies that may be candidates for international applications.

  12. Development of a green remediation tool in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Zhang, Hong; Murayama, Koki; Hama, Yoshihito; Tsukada, Yasuhisa; Furukawa, Yasuhide

    2016-09-01

    The green remediation assessment tool for Japan (GRATJ) presented in this study is a spreadsheet-based software package developed to facilitate comparisons of the environmental impacts associated with various countermeasures against contaminated soil in Japan. This tool uses a life-cycle assessment-based model to calculate inventory inputs/outputs throughout the activity life cycle during remediation. Processes of 14 remediation methods for heavy metal contamination and 12 for volatile organic compound contamination are built into the tool. This tool can evaluate 130 inventory inputs/outputs and easily integrate those inputs/outputs into 9 impact categories, 4 integrated endpoints, and 1 index. Comparative studies can be performed by entering basic data associated with a target site. The integrated results can be presented in a simpler and clearer manner than the results of an inventory analysis. As a case study, an arsenic-contaminated soil remediation site was examined using this tool. Results showed that the integrated environmental impacts were greater with onsite remediation methods than with offsite ones. Furthermore, the contributions of CO2 to global warming, SO2 to urban air pollution, and crude oil to resource consumption were greater than other inventory inputs/outputs. The GRATJ has the potential to improve green remediation and can serve as a valuable tool for decision makers and practitioners in selecting countermeasures in Japan.

  13. The problem resident behavior guide: strategies for remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kelly; Quattromani, Erin; Aldeen, Amer

    2016-04-01

    In 2012, the ACGME supplemented the core competencies with outcomes-based milestones for resident performance within the six competency domains. These milestones address the knowledge, skills, abilities, attitudes, and experiences that a resident is expected to progress through during the course of training. Even prior to the initiation of the milestones, there was a paucity of EM literature addressing the remediation of problem resident behaviors and there remain few readily accessible tools to aid in the implementation of a remediation plan. The goal of the "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is to provide specific strategies for resident remediation based on deficiencies identified within the framework of the EM milestones. The "Problem Resident Behavior Guide" is a written instructional manual that provides concrete examples of remediation strategies to address specific milestone deficiencies. The more than 200 strategies stem from the experiences of the authors who have professional experience at three different academic hospitals and emergency medicine residency programs, supplemented by recommendations from educational leaders as well as utilization of valuable education adjuncts, such as focused simulation exercises, lecture preparation, and themed ED shifts. Most recommendations require active participation by the resident with guidance by faculty to achieve the remediation expectations. The ACGME outcomes-based milestones aid in the identification of deficiencies with regards to resident performance without providing recommendations on remediation. The Problem Resident Behavior Guide can therefore have a significant impact by filling in this gap.

  14. Cost benefit analysis for remediation of a nuclear industry landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Tom; Hardisty, Paul [WorleyParsons Komex, Bristol (United Kingdom); Dennis, Frank; Liddiard, Mark; McClelland, Paul [UKAEA, Dounreay (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    An old landfill site, licensed to receive inert construction waste, is situated on the top of hard rock cliffs adjacent to the sea at the Dounreay nuclear facility in Scotland. During restoration and investigation work at the landfill, radioactively contaminated material and asbestos was identified. UKAEA subsequently investigated the feasibility of remediating the landfill with the aim of removing any remaining radioactive or otherwise-contaminated material. The cost of landfill remediation would be considerable, making Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) an ideal tool for assessing remediation options. The overall conclusion of the CBA, from a remedial decision making point of view, is that the remediation objective for the landfill should be to reduce any impacts to the current receptors through a comprehensive pathway control scheme. This would be considerably less expensive than even a limited source removal approach. Aggressive source removal objectives are not likely to be economic, even under the most conservative assumptions. A natural monitored attenuation approach will not be economic. All remediation options are considered assuming compliance with the existing regulatory requirements to monitor and cap the landfill before and after closure.

  15. Bioelectrochemical system platform for sustainable environmental remediation and energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Luo, Haiping; Fallgren, Paul H; Jin, Song; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the energy-environment nexus is compelling the development of technologies that reduce environmental impacts during energy production as well as energy consumption during environmental remediation. Countries spend billions in pollution cleanup projects, and new technologies with low energy and chemical consumption are needed for sustainable remediation practice. This perspective review provides a comprehensive summary on the mechanisms of the new bioelectrochemical system (BES) platform technology for efficient and low cost remediation, including petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated solvents, perchlorate, azo dyes, and metals, and it also discusses the potential new uses of BES approach for some emerging contaminants remediation, such as CO2 in air and nutrients and micropollutants in water. The unique feature of BES for environmental remediation is the use of electrodes as non-exhaustible electron acceptors, or even donors, for contaminant degradation, which requires minimum energy or chemicals but instead produces sustainable energy for monitoring and other onsite uses. BES provides both oxidation (anode) and reduction (cathode) reactions that integrate microbial-electro-chemical removal mechanisms, so complex contaminants with different characteristics can be removed. We believe the BES platform carries great potential for sustainable remediation and hope this perspective provides background and insights for future research and development.

  16. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: a two-dimensional flow cell study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  17. Correlation between DNAPL distribution area and dissolved concentration in surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation effluent: A two-dimensional flow cell study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Li, Huiying; Du, Xiaoming; Zhong, Lirong; Yang, Bin; Du, Ping; Gu, Qingbao; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    During the process of surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR), free phase dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) may be mobilized and spread. The understanding of the impact of DNAPL spreading on the SEAR remediation is not sufficient with its positive effect infrequently mentioned. To evaluate the correlation between DNAPL spreading and remediation efficiency, a two-dimensional sandbox apparatus was used to simulate the migration and dissolution process of 1,2-DCA (1,2-dichloroethane) DNAPL in SEAR. Distribution area of DNAPL in the sandbox was determined by digital image analysis and correlated with effluent DNAPL concentration. The results showed that the effluent DNAPL concentration has significant positive linear correlation with the DNAPL distribution area, indicating the mobilization of DNAPL could improve remediation efficiency by enlarging total NAPL-water interfacial area for mass transfer. Meanwhile, the vertical migration of 1,2-DCA was limited within the boundary of aquifer in all experiments, implying that by manipulating injection parameters in SEAR, optimal remediation efficiency can be reached while the risk of DNAPL vertical migration is minimized. This study provides a convenient visible and quantitative method for the optimization of parameters for SEAR project, and an approach of rapid predicting the extent of DNAPL contaminant distribution based on the dissolved DNAPL concentration in the extraction well.

  18. Environmental impact of differently remediated hard coal overburden and tailings dumps a few decades after remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willscher, S. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Waste Management and Contaminated Site Treatment; Hertwig, T. [BEAK Consultants GmbH, Freiburg (Germany); Felix, M.; Sohr, A. [Saxonian State Dept. of Environment, Agriculture and Geology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Coal mining in the Saxony region of Germany has caused heavy metal and arsenic pollution in adjacent groundwater and surface waters. Coal waste dumping sites are leaching heavy metals and metalloids in the form of fine precipitates into local rivers. This paper studied the different remediation strategies used at 3 different dump sites in the area. The aim of the study was to determine the environmental impact of the dumps and evaluate the long-term effects of remediation measures. The dumps consisted of coarse to fine-grained materials from former processing activities, and contained pyrite in varying concentrations. Samples from different depth as well as groundwater samples were taken from the sites and investigated for their mechanical, geological, geochemical, biogeochemical, and physico-chemical characteristics. Seepage formation rates and contaminant loads at the dump sites were compared. The study showed that the revegetation of dump surfaces can help to prevent against erosion, but cannot prevent acid mine drainage (AMD) generation. The additional seals and covers placed at 2 of the dumps resulted in a high reduction of seepage waters, and almost no acidification of dump materials. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Programmatic Environmental Report for remedial actions at UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project vicinity properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-03-01

    This Environmental Report (ER) examines the environmental consequences of implementing a remedial action that would remove radioactive uranium mill tailings and associated contaminated materials from 394 vicinity properties near 14 inactive uranium processing sites included in the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pursuant to Public Law 95--604, the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978. Vicinity properties are those properties in the vicinity of the UMTRA Project inactive mill sites, either public or private, that are believed to be contaminated by residual radioactive material originating from one of the 14 inactive uranium processing sites, and which have been designated under Section 102(a)(1) of UMTRCA. The principal hazard associated with the contaminated properties results from the production of radon, a radioactive decay product of the radium contained in the tailings. Radon, a radioactive gas, can diffuse through the contaminated material and be released into the atmosphere where it and its radioactive decay products may be inhaled by humans. A second radiation exposure pathway results from the emission of gamma radiation from uranium decay products contained in the tailings. Gamma radiation emitted from contaminated material delivers an external exposure to the whole body. If the concentration of radon and its decay products is high enough and the exposure time long enough, or if the exposure to direct gamma radiation is long enough, cancers (i.e., excess health effects) may develop in persons living and working at the vicinity properties. 3 refs., 7 tabs.

  20. Information gap decision support for contaminant remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; O'Malley, D.

    2013-12-01

    stakeholders make decisions related to site characterization, monitoring design, and remedial activities based on data- and model-driven decision-support analyses exploiting high-performance computing.

  1. Remediation of hexavalent chromium spiked soil by using synthesized iron sulfide particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yujie; Wang, Wanyu; Zhou, Liqiang; Liu, Yuanyuan; Mirza, Zakaria A; Lin, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) stabilized microscale iron sulfide (FeS) particles were synthesized and applied to remediate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) spiked soil. The effects of parameters including dosage of FeS particles, soil moisture, and natural organic matter (NOM) in soil were investigated with comparison to iron sulfate (FeSO4). The results show that the stabilized FeS particles can reduce Cr(VI) and immobilize Cr in soil quickly and efficiently. The soil moisture ranging from 40% to 70% and NOM in soil had no significant effects on Cr(VI) remediation by FeS particles. When molar ratio of FeS to Cr(VI) was 1.5:1, about 98% of Cr(VI) in soil was reduced by FeS particles in 3 d and Cr(VI) concentration decreased from 1407 mg kg(-1) to 16 mg kg(-1). The total Cr and Cr(VI) in Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) leachate were reduced by 98.4% and 99.4%, respectively. In FeS particles-treated soil, the exchangeable Cr fraction was mainly converted to Fe-Mn oxides bound fraction because of the precipitation of Cr(III)-Fe(III) hydroxides. The physiologically based extraction test (PBET) bioaccessibility of Cr was decreased from 58.67% to 6.98%. Compared to FeSO4, the high Cr(VI) removal and Cr immobilization efficiency makes prepared FeS particles a great potential in field application of Cr(VI) contaminated soil remediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The proceduralisation of data protection remedies under EU data protection law : Towards a more effective and data subject-oriented remedial system?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetta, Antonella; de Hert, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The proceduralisation of data protection remedies under EU data protection law: towards a more effective and data subject-oriented remedial system?
The right to remedy breaches of data protection is laid down in both Directive 95/46/EC (Art. 22) and the Council of Europe Data Protection Convention n

  3. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R. [Northampton General Hospital, Medical Physics Dept. (United Kingdom); Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C. [Northampton Univ., School of Health (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M. [Northampton Univ., School of Applied Sciences (United Kingdom); Tornberg, R. [Radon Centres Ltd., Grove Farm, Moulton, Northampton (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump tology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  4. Membrane System for Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases.: Phase 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmans, J.G.; Goakey, S.; Wang, X.; Baker, R.W.; Kaschemekat, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used methods of remediating soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration, the most common methods of treating these gas streams, suffer from significant drawbacks. This report covers the first phase of a two-phase project. The first phase involved the laboratory demonstration of the water separation section of the unit, the production and demonstration of new membrane modules to improve the separation, the design studies required for the demonstration system, and initial contacts with potential field sites. In the second phase, the demonstration system will be built and, after a short laboratory evaluation, will be tested at two field sites.

  5. Sustainable Remediation of Legacy Mine Drainage: A Case Study of the Flight 93 National Memorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, Lisa A.; Pizarchik, Joseph; Mahan, Carolyn G.

    2016-03-01

    Pollution from mining activities is a global environmental concern, not limited to areas of current resource extraction, but including a broader geographic area of historic (legacy) and abandoned mines. The pollution of surface waters from acid mine drainage is a persistent problem and requires a holistic and sustainable approach to addressing the spatial and temporal complexity of mining-specific problems. In this paper, we focus on the environmental, socio-economic, and legal challenges associated with the concurrent activities to remediate a coal mine site and to develop a national memorial following a catastrophic event. We provide a conceptual construct of a socio-ecological system defined at several spatial, temporal, and organizational scales and a critical synthesis of the technical and social learning processes necessary to achieving sustainable environmental remediation. Our case study is an example of a multi-disciplinary management approach, whereby collaborative interaction of stakeholders, the emergence of functional linkages for information exchange, and mediation led to scientifically informed decision making, creative management solutions, and ultimately environmental policy change.

  6. Remediation of nitrobenzene contaminated soil by combining surfactant enhanced soil washing and effluent oxidation with persulfate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Yan

    Full Text Available The combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and degradation of nitrobenzene (NB in effluent with persulfate was investigated to remediate NB contaminated soil. Aqueous solution of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS, 24.0 mmol L-1 was used at a given mass ratio of solution to soil (20:1 to extract NB contaminated soil (47.3 mg kg-1, resulting in NB desorption removal efficient of 76.8%. The washing effluent was treated in Fe2+/persulfate and Fe2+/H2O2 systems successively. The degradation removal of NB was 97.9%, being much higher than that of SDBS (51.6% with addition of 40.0 mmol L-1 Fe2+ and 40.0 mmol L-1 persulfate after 15 min reaction. The preferential degradation was related to the lone pair electron of generated SO4•-, which preferably removes electrons from aromatic parts of NB over long alkyl chains of SDBS through hydrogen abstraction reactions. No preferential degradation was observed in •OH based oxidation because of its hydrogen abstraction or addition mechanism. The sustained SDBS could be reused for washing the contaminated soil. The combination of the effective surfactant-enhanced washing and the preferential degradation of NB with Fe2+/persulfate provide a useful option to remediate NB contaminated soil.

  7. Combined Effects of Biochar and Fertilizer on Cadmium Contaminated Soil Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Qi-kai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was employed to study on the combined effects of biochar and chicken manure and N, P and K compound chemical fertilizer on cadmium contaminated soil remediation, and the immobilization mechanism was elucidated through fractionation of cadmium in the tested soil. Results showed that the addition of these ammendments could significantly reduce the edible Cd accumulation in Lactuca sativa L., decreased from 32.6% to 54.8% compared with the control. The application of these additives could also significantly decrease extractable Cd concentration by 7.04%~21.85%. Biochar could significantly improve soil pH value, promote the inactivation of Cd contaminated soil, while the application of chicken manure significantly decreased soil pH value, which showed the effect of activating Cd in soil. Soil pH value had significant positive correlation with root Cd concentration of tested cultivars, but did not reach the significant effect level with the shoot Cd concentration. The research can provide a theoretical basis for the application of biochar combined with chicken manure and N, P and K compound chemical fertilizer on remediation of sewage irrigated Cd contaminated soil.

  8. Remediation of a Mercury-Contaminated Industrial Soil Using Bioavailable Contaminant Stripping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.PEDRON; G.PETRUZZELLI; M.BARBAFIERI; E.TASSI

    2013-01-01

    The method to remove bioavailable amounts of heavy metals from a contaminated soil by using plants is defined as bioavailable contaminant stripping (BCS) and could safely be applied if the soil's long-term ability to replenish the bioavailable pool is known.The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of three common plant species selected,Brassica juncea,Poa annua,and Helianthus annus,to remove bioavailable amounts of mercury (Hg) from a contaminated industrial soil containing 15.1 mg kg-1 Hg.Trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions using pots (mesocosms).According to the precautionary principle,we modified the BCS remediation approach by adding a new step,in which mercury bioavailability was increased by the addition of a strong mobilizing agent,ammonium thiosulphate,(NH4)2S2O3,to obtain an estimate of the likely long-term bioavailable Hg pool.The modified BCS remediation approach was called enhanced bioavailable contaminant stripping (EBCS).After one growth cycle,nearly all the bioavailable mercury (95.7%) was removed and the metal remaining in the soil was considered inert since it was neither extractable by (NH4)2S2O3 nor taken up by plants during a second growth cycle.The results demonstrated that EBCS appeared promising since it removed the most dangerous metal forms while substantially shortening the cleanup time.

  9. Sustainable Remediation of Legacy Mine Drainage: A Case Study of the Flight 93 National Memorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emili, Lisa A; Pizarchik, Joseph; Mahan, Carolyn G

    2016-03-01

    Pollution from mining activities is a global environmental concern, not limited to areas of current resource extraction, but including a broader geographic area of historic (legacy) and abandoned mines. The pollution of surface waters from acid mine drainage is a persistent problem and requires a holistic and sustainable approach to addressing the spatial and temporal complexity of mining-specific problems. In this paper, we focus on the environmental, socio-economic, and legal challenges associated with the concurrent activities to remediate a coal mine site and to develop a national memorial following a catastrophic event. We provide a conceptual construct of a socio-ecological system defined at several spatial, temporal, and organizational scales and a critical synthesis of the technical and social learning processes necessary to achieving sustainable environmental remediation. Our case study is an example of a multi-disciplinary management approach, whereby collaborative interaction of stakeholders, the emergence of functional linkages for information exchange, and mediation led to scientifically informed decision making, creative management solutions, and ultimately environmental policy change.

  10. Research Plan: Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Lirong; Hart, Andrea T.; Szecsody, James E.; Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Ankeny, Mark; Hull, Laurence; Oostrom, Martinus; Freshley, Mark D.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2009-01-16

    Research proposals were submitted to the Scientific and Technical Basis for In Situ Treatment of Metals and Radionuclides Technical Working Group under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Office (specifically, EM-22). After a peer review and selection process, the proposal, “Foam Delivery of Remedial Amendments to Deep Vadose Zone for Metals and Radionuclides Remediation,” submitted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was selected for support by the program. A research plan was requested for this EM funded project. The overall objective of this project is to develop foam delivery technology for the distribution of remedial amendments to deep vadose zone sediments for in situ immobilization of metal and radionuclide contaminants. The focus of this research in FY 2009 is on the physical aspects of the foam delivery approach. Specific objectives are to 1) study the foam quality (i.e. the gas volume fraction in foam) influence on injection pressure, 2) study the sediment air permeability influence on injection pressure, 3) investigate liquid uptake in sediment and determine whether a water front will be formed during foam delivery, 4) test amendment distance (and mass) delivery by foam from the injection point, 5) study the enhanced sweeping over heterogeneous systems (i.e., low K zones) by foam delivery relative to water-based delivery under vadose zone conditions, and 6) numerically simulate foam delivery processes in the vadose zone. Laboratory scale experiments will be conducted at PNNL to study a range of basic physical aspects of the foam propagation in sediments, including foam quality and sediment permeability influence on injection pressure, liquid uptake, and foam sweeping across heterogeneous systems. This study will be augmented with separate studies to be conducted at MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) to evaluate foam transport and amendment delivery at the intermediate-scale. The results of intermediate

  11. Characterization of Uranium Contamination, Transport, and Remediation at Rocky Flats - Across Remediation into Post-Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecky, D. R.; Boylan, J.; Murrell, M. T.

    2009-12-01

    The Rocky Flats Site is a former nuclear weapons production facility approximately 16 miles northwest of Denver, Colorado. Built in 1952 and operated by the Atomic Energy Commission and then Department of Energy, the Site was remediated and closed in 2005, and is currently undergoing long-term surveillance and monitoring by the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Areas of contamination resulted from roughly fifty years of operation. Of greatest interest, surface soils were contaminated with plutonium, americium, and uranium; groundwater was contaminated with chlorinated solvents, uranium, and nitrates; and surface waters, as recipients of runoff and shallow groundwater discharge, have been contaminated by transport from both regimes. A region of economic mineralization that has been referred to as the Colorado Mineral Belt is nearby, and the Schwartzwalder uranium mine is approximately five miles upgradient of the Site. Background uranium concentrations are therefore elevated in many areas. Weapons-related activities included work with enriched and depleted uranium, contributing anthropogenic content to the environment. Using high-resolution isotopic analyses, Site-related contamination can be distinguished from natural uranium in water samples. This has been instrumental in defining remedy components, and long-term monitoring and surveillance strategies. Rocky Flats hydrology interlinks surface waters and shallow groundwater (which is very limited in volume and vertical and horizontal extent). Surface water transport pathways include several streams, constructed ponds, and facility surfaces. Shallow groundwater has no demonstrated connection to deep aquifers, and includes natural preferential pathways resulting primarily from porosity in the Rocky Flats alluvium, weathered bedrock, and discontinuous sandstones. In addition, building footings, drains, trenches, and remedial systems provide pathways for transport at the site. Removal of impermeable surfaces (buildings

  12. Information extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lei; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a new approach to extract relevant information by knowledge graphs from natural language text. We give a multiple level model based on knowledge graphs for describing template information, and investigate the concept of partial structural parsing. Moreover, we point out that

  13. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the phenomeno

  14. Misers Bluff Phase I Single Burst Experiments. Ground Shock Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-17

    not exhibit the behavoir shown in the other experiments. The "eyeball" fit to the data is a single line and the constant attenuation rate has a value...Library Defense ;erhnical Information Center 12 cy ATTN: DD DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY Field Command %aval Construction Battalion Center Defense Nuclear Agency...Corp. ATTN: Technical Library ATTN: Technical Information Services ATTN: H. Mirels R & D Associates ATTN: J. Carpenter Agbabian Associates ATTN: R. Port

  15. CONFESIÓN, PALABRA Y PODER: EL MISERABLE NOMBRE FEMENINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Castro Godoy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Entre la abadesa medieval alemana Hildegard von Bingen (siglo XII y la monja clarisa chilena de fines del siglo XVII sor Úrsula Suárez existe una gran distancia histórica y cultural. Sin embargo, algo las aproxima enérgicamente, tal y como si hubieran sido hermanas del mismo claustro. Y esta aproximación no consiste en la vestimenta de hábitos o la proclamación de votos de pobreza, obediencia y castidad, si no que es, por sobre todo, la peripecia que ambas tuvieron que realizar para poder relatar sus experiencias espirituales: pedir el permiso de una figura masculina en el caso de Hildegard, y someterse a la obediencia de esta misma figura en el caso de Úrsula. En este trabajo me propongo exponer cómo los discursos de las monjas que han escrito se subordinan a la aprobación de un modelo de poder y autoridad.

  16. The Universe: Beginnings, Ending and Our Miserable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Lawrence

    2014-03-01

    Beginnings and endings are not only tied together in literature, but in the real world as well. Our Universe is a good example. While storing energy in empty space was probably responsible, early on, due to inflation, for the existence of the large spatial volume in which we live, the current inflationary phase in which we live will make the universe ultimately unlivable, as arguments about energy, information, and quantum mechanics show. I shall also describe how, before the demise of life, future astronomers will come to completely incorrect conclusions about the universe in which they live. Research supported by the DOE.

  17. Extraction and analysis of pollutant organics from contaminated solids using off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and on-line SFE-infrared spectroscopy. Task 2. Semiannual report, November 1995--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.

    1996-04-01

    This document describes activities in the following tasks associated with a project on environmental management technology decontamination and commercialization: A commercialized version of a field-portable instrument for performing supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection;pyrolysis of plastic wastes associated with mixtures of radioactive wastes;management and reporting activities; centrifugal membrane filtration with application to tank waste remediation; technology development integration activities associated with remedial action and waste management.

  18. Extraction and analysis of pollutant organics from contaminated solids using off-line supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and on-line SFE-infrared spectroscopy. Task 2. Semiannual report, November 1995--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawthorne, S.B.

    1996-04-01

    This document describes activities in the following tasks associated with a project on environmental management technology decontamination and commercialization: A commercialized version of a field-portable instrument for performing supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with on-line Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) detection;pyrolysis of plastic wastes associated with mixtures of radioactive wastes;management and reporting activities; centrifugal membrane filtration with application to tank waste remediation; technology development integration activities associated with remedial action and waste management.

  19. Electrochemical arsenic remediation for rural Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addy, Susan Amrose [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water is a major public health problem threatening the lives of over 140 million people worldwide. In Bangladesh alone, up to 57 million people drink arsenic-laden water from shallow wells. ElectroChemical Arsenic Remediation(ECAR) overcomes many of the obstacles that plague current technologies and can be used affordably and on a small-scale, allowing for rapid dissemination into Bangladesh to address this arsenic crisis. In this work, ECAR was shown to effectively reduce 550 - 580 μg=L arsenic (including both As[III]and As[V]in a 1:1 ratio) to below the WHO recommended maximum limit of 10 μg=L in synthetic Bangladesh groundwater containing relevant concentrations of competitive ions such as phosphate, silicate, and bicarbonate. Arsenic removal capacity was found to be approximately constant within certain ranges of current density, but was found to change substantially between ranges. In order of decreasing arsenic removal capacity, the pattern was: 0.02 mA=cm2> 0.07 mA=cm2> 0.30 - 1.1 mA=cm2> 5.0 - 100 mA=cm2. Current processing time was found to effect arsenic removal capacity independent of either charge density or current density. Electrode polarization studies showed no passivation of the electrode in the tested range (up to current density 10 mA=cm2) and ruled out oxygen evolution as the cause of decreasing removal capacity with current density. Simple settling and decantation required approximately 3 days to achieve arsenic removal comparable to filtration with a 0.1 mu m membrane. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) showed that (1) there is no significant difference in the arsenic removal mechanism of ECAR during operation at different current densities and (2) the arsenic removal mechanism in ECAR is consistent with arsenate adsorption onto a homogenous Fe(III)oxyhydroxide similar in structure to 2-line ferrihydrite. ECAR effectively reduced high arsenic concentrations (100

  20. Summary of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Geoffrey Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leonard, Philip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hartline, Ernest Leon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tian, Hongzhao [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    High Explosives Science and Technology (M-7) completed all required formulation and testing of Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) surrogates on April 27, 2016 as specified in PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B, "Remediated Nitrate Salt (RNS) Surrogate Formulation and Testing Standard Procedure", released February 16, 2016. This report summarizes the results of the work and also includes additional documentation required in that test plan. All formulation and testing was carried out according to PLAN-TA9-2443 Rev B. The work was carried out in three rounds, with the full matrix of samples formulated and tested in each round. Results from the first round of formulation and testing were documented in memorandum M7-J6-6042, " Results from First Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Results from the second round of formulation and testing were documented in M7-16-6053 , "Results from the Second Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Surrogate Formulation and Testing." Initial results from the third round were documented in M7-16-6057, "Initial Results from the Third Round of Remediated Nitrate Salt Formulation and Testing."

  1. Natural attenuation software (NAS): Assessing remedial strategies and estimating timeframes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, E.; Widdowson, M.; Chapelle, F.; Casey, C.

    2005-01-01

    Natural Attenuation Software (NAS) is a screening tool to estimate remediation timeframes for monitored natural attenuation (MNA) and to assist in decision-making on the level of source zone treatment in conjunction with MNA using site-specific remediation objectives. Natural attenuation processes that NAS models include are advection, dispersion, sorption, non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) dissolution, and biodegradation of either petroleum hydrocarbons or chlorinated ethylenes. Newly-implemented enhancements to NAS designed to maximize the utility of NAS for site managers were observed. NAS has expanded source contaminant specification options to include chlorinated ethanes and chlorinated methanes, and to allow for the analysis of any other user-defined contaminants that may be subject to microbially-mediated transformations (heavy metals, radioisotopes, etc.). Included is the capability to model co-mingled plumes, with constituents from multiple contaminant categories. To enable comparison of remediation timeframe estimates between MNA and specific engineered remedial actions , NAS was modified to incorporate an estimation technique for timeframes associated with pump-and-treat remediation technology for comparison to MNA. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 8th International In Situ and On-Site Bioremediation Symposium (Baltimore, MD 6/6-9/2005).

  2. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  3. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  4. Radioactive Tank Waste Remediation Focus Area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    In February 1991, DOE`s Office of Technology Development created the Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID), to develop technologies for tank remediation. Tank remediation across the DOE Complex has been driven by Federal Facility Compliance Agreements with individual sites. In 1994, the DOE Office of Environmental Management created the High Level Waste Tank Remediation Focus Area (TFA; of which UST-ID is now a part) to better integrate and coordinate tank waste remediation technology development efforts. The mission of both organizations is the same: to focus the development, testing, and evaluation of remediation technologies within a system architecture to characterize, retrieve, treat, concentrate, and dispose of radioactive waste stored in USTs at DOE facilities. The ultimate goal is to provide safe and cost-effective solutions that are acceptable to both the public and regulators. The TFA has focused on four DOE locations: the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina.

  5. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  6. New Pump and Treat Facility Remedial Action Work Plan for Test Area North (TAN) Final Groundwater Remediation, Operable Unit 1-07B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. O. Nelson

    2003-09-01

    This operations and maintenance plan supports the New Pump and Treat Facility (NPTF) remedial action work plan and identifies the approach and requirements for the operations and maintenance activities specific to the final medical zone treatment remedy. The NPTF provides the treatment system necessary to remediate the medical zone portion of the OU 1-07B contaminated groundwater plume. Design and construction of the New Pump and Treat Facility is addressed in the NPTF remedial action work plan. The scope of this operation and maintenance plan includes facility operations and maintenance, remedy five-year reviews, and the final operations and maintenance report for the NPTF.

  7. In situ radio-frequency heating for soil remediation at a former service station: case study and general aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huon, G.; Simpson, T.; Maini, G. [Ecologia Environmental Solutions Ltd., Sittingbourne, Kent (United Kingdom); Holzer, F.; Kopinke, F.D.; Roland, U. [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Department of Environmental Engineering, Leipzig (Germany); Will, F. [Total UK, Watford (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    In situ radio-frequency heating (ISRFH) was successfully applied during remediation of a former petrol station. Using a three-electrode array in combination with extraction wells for soil vapor extraction (SVE), pollution consisting mainly of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and mineral oil hydrocarbons (in total about 1100 kg) was eliminated from a chalk soil in the unsaturated zone. Specially designed rod electrodes allowed selective heating of a volume of approximately 480 m{sup 3}, at a defined depth, to a mean temperature of about 50 C. The heating drastically increased the extraction rates. After switching off ISRFH, SVE remained highly efficient for some weeks due to the heat-retaining properties of the soil. Comparison of an optimized regime of ISRFH/SVE with conventional ''cold'' SVE showed a reduction of remediation time by about 80 % while keeping the total energy consumption almost constant. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. In vitro anti-plasmodial activity of three herbal remedies for malaria in Ghana: Adenia cissampeloides (Planch.) Harms., Termina liaivorensis A. Chev, and Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annan, Kofi; Sarpong, K; Asare, C; Dickson, R; Amponsah, Ki; Gyan, B; Ofori, M; Gbedema, Sy

    2012-10-01

    Herbal remedies of Adenia cissampeloides, Terminalia ivorensis, and Elaeis guineensis among others have been used in Ghana for the treatment of various ailments including malaria. However, most of these remedies have not been scientifically investigated. This study, therefore, seeks to investigate the anti-plasmodial activity of these plants. The ethanolic extracts of A. cissampeloides stem, T. ivorensis stem bark, and E. guineensis leaves were tested for in vitro anti-plasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Thin blood films were used to assess the level of parasitemia and growth inhibition of the extracts. The IC (50) of A. cissampeloides, T. ivorensis, and E. guineensis were 8.521, 6.949, and 1.195 μg/ml, respectively, compared to artesunate with IC(50) of 0.031 μg/ml. The result of this study appears to confirm the folkloric anti-malarial use these plants.

  9. Sustainability assessment of electrokinetic bioremediation compared with alternative remediation options for a petroleum release site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R T; Thornton, S F; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N

    2016-12-15

    Sustainable management practices can be applied to the remediation of contaminated land to maximise the economic, environmental and social benefits of the process. The Sustainable Remediation Forum UK (SuRF-UK) have developed a framework to support the implementation of sustainable practices within contaminated land management and decision making. This study applies the framework, including qualitative (Tier 1) and semi-quantitative (Tier 2) sustainability assessments, to a complex site where the principal contaminant source is unleaded gasoline, giving rise to a dissolved phase BTEX and MTBE plume. The pathway is groundwater migration through a chalk aquifer and the receptor is a water supply borehole. A hydraulic containment system (HCS) has been installed to manage the MTBE plume migration. The options considered to remediate the MTBE source include monitored natural attenuation (MNA), air sparging/soil vapour extraction (AS/SVE), pump and treat (PT) and electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation (EK-BIO). A sustainability indictor set from the SuRF-UK framework, including priority indicator categories selected during a stakeholder engagement workshop, was used to frame the assessments. At Tier 1 the options are ranked based on qualitative supporting information, whereas in Tier 2 a multi-criteria analysis is applied. Furthermore, the multi-criteria analysis was refined for scenarios where photovoltaics (PVs) are included and amendments are excluded from the EK-BIO option. Overall, the analysis identified AS/SVE and EK-BIO as more sustainable remediation options at this site than either PT or MNA. The wider implications of this study include: (1) an appraisal of the management decision from each Tier of the assessment with the aim to highlight areas for time and cost savings for similar assessments in the future; (2) the observation that EK-BIO performed well against key indicator categories compared to the other intensive treatments; and (3) introducing methods to

  10. A Fuzzy Simulation-Based Optimization Approach for Groundwater Remediation Design at Contaminated Aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy simulation-based optimization approach (FSOA is developed for identifying optimal design of a benzene-contaminated groundwater remediation system under uncertainty. FSOA integrates remediation processes (i.e., biodegradation and pump-and-treat, fuzzy simulation, and fuzzy-mean-value-based optimization technique into a general management framework. This approach offers the advantages of (1 considering an integrated remediation alternative, (2 handling simulation and optimization problems under uncertainty, and (3 providing a direct linkage between remediation strategies and remediation performance through proxy models. The results demonstrate that optimal remediation alternatives can be obtained to mitigate benzene concentration to satisfy environmental standards with a minimum system cost.

  11. The confounding factors leading to plagiarism in academic writing and some suggested remedies: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf; Guraya, Shaista Salman

    2017-05-01

    There is a staggering upsurge in the incidence of plagiarism of scientific literature. Literature shows divergent views about the factors that make plagiarism reprehensible. This review explores the causes and remedies for the perennial academic problem of plagiarism. Data sources were searched for full text English language articles published from 2000 to 2015. Data selection was done using medical subject headline (MeSH) terms plagiarism, unethical writing, academic theft, retraction, medical field, and plagiarism detection software. Data extraction was undertaken by selecting titles from retrieved references and data synthesis identified key factors leading to plagiarism such as unawareness of research ethics, poor writing skills and pressure or publish mantra. Plagiarism can be managed by a balance among its prevention, detection by plagiarism detection software, and institutional sanctions against proven plagiarists. Educating researchers about ethical principles of academic writing and institutional support in training writers about academic integrity and ethical publications can curtail plagiarism.

  12. Enhanced Remediation of Toluene in the Vadose Zone via a Nitrate-Rich Nutrient Solution: Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Friedel, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of nitrate-rich nutrient solutions and hydrogen peroxide (H202) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene. Three sand filled plots (2 m2 surface area and 1.5 meters deep) were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During each phase, toluene (21.6 mol as an emulsion in 50L of water) was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during the first (control) phase. A nutrient solution (modified Hoagland), concentrated in 40L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H202 in 50L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H202), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only five days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing and soil vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components.

  13. Technical and economic feasibility of soil flushing with non-ionic surfactant to remediate gas well condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felske, D.; Morton, P.R. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The results of a feasibility study to assess the technical and economic viability of remediating condensate-impacted soils surrounding a main gas pipeline in northern Alberta by in situ flushing with non-ionic surfactant were presented. A commercially available non-ionic surfactant was evaluated for its solubility increasing properties as an economic means of solubilizing soil-bonded condensate. An injection-recovery well configuration was situated within the condensate spill pathway and was selected for a series of inter-well tests using surfactant injection and its recovery from a nearby pumped recovery well. Sodium bromide was used as a conservative tracer to assist in the selection of surfactant and solubilized hydrocarbon samples from the recovery well for laboratory analysis. Surfactant, hydrocarbon and tracer breakthrough curves were plotted for the recovered groundwater. Results enabled the quantification of surfactant effects on recovered groundwater. Findings demonstrated that the non-ionic surfactant achieved a significant solubilization and soil remediation of condensate at a more economic rate than bioventing, biosparging or soil vapour extraction when considered over the projected time, and attained all regulatory soil and groundwater quality remediation objectives.

  14. Part 2: A field study of enhanced remediation of Toluene in the vadose zone using a nutrient solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J.A.; Weeks, E.P.; Friedel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a nitrate-rich nutrient solution and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to enhance in-situ microbial remediation of toluene in the unsaturated zone. Three sand-filled plots were tested in three phases (each phase lasting approximately 2 weeks). During the control phase, toluene was applied uniformly via sprinkler irrigation. Passive remediation was allowed to occur during this phase. A modified Hoagland nutrient solution, concentrated in 150 L of water, was tested during the second phase. The final phase involved addition of 230 moles of H2O2 in 150 L of water to increase the available oxygen needed for aerobic biodegradation. During the first phase, measured toluene concentrations in soil gas were reduced from 120 ppm to 25 ppm in 14 days. After the addition of nutrients during the second phase, concentrations were reduced from 90 ppm to about 8 ppm within 14 days, and for the third phase (H 2O2), toluene concentrations were about 1 ppm after only 5 days. Initial results suggest that this method could be an effective means of remediating a contaminated site, directly after a BTEX spill, without the intrusiveness and high cost of other abatement technologies such as bioventing or soil-vapor extraction. However, further tests need to be completed to determine the effect of each of the BTEX components. ?? Springer 2005.

  15. Toxic effects of oil sand naphthenic acids on the biomass accumulation of 21 potential phytoplankton remediation candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, Adam P J; Frank, Richard A; McConkey, Brendan J; Müller, Kirsten M

    2012-12-01

    The oil sands of northern Alberta, Canada contain an estimated 170 billion barrels of crude oil. Extraction processes produce large amounts of liquid tailings known as oil sand process affected water (OSPW) that are toxic to aquatic organisms. Naphthenic acids (NAs), and their sodium salts, represent a significant contributor to the toxicity of these waters. Due to the recalcitrant nature of these compounds, an effective mode of remediation has yet to be established. This study investigates the suitability of the use of phytoplankton for remediation efforts based on two criteria: the ability of phytoplankton strains to withstand the toxic effects of NAs, and their rate of biomass accumulation. A total of 21 phytoplankton strains were isolated from waters containing NAs, cultured, and maintained under unialgal conditions. These strains were then exposed to NAs in concentrations ranging from 0mg L(-1) to 1000mg L(-1) over a 14 day period. Inhibition of growth was observed at 30mg L(-1) NA (one strain), 100mg L(-1) NA (one strain), 300mg L(-1) NA (six strains), and 1000mg L(-1) NA (six strains). Five strains failed to show any growth inhibition at any test concentration and two strains could not be analysed due to poor growth during the test period. Strains were then ranked based on their suitability for use in remediation efforts.

  16. Electrolytic arsenic removal for recycling of washing solutions in a remediation process of CCA-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanseu-Njiki, Charles-Péguy; Alonzo, Véronique; Bartak, Duane; Ngameni, Emmanuel; Darchen, André

    2007-10-01

    The remediation of chromated copper arsenate or CCA-treated wood is a challenging problem in many countries. In a wet remediation, the recycling of the washing solutions is the key step for a successful process. Within this goal, owing to its solubility and its toxicity, the removal of arsenic from washing solution is the most difficult process. The efficiency of arsenic removal from As(III) solutions by electrolysis was investigated in view of the recycling of acidic washing solutions usable in the remediation of CCA-treated wood. Electrochemical reduction of As(III) is irreversible and thus difficult to perform at carbon electrodes. However the electrolytic extraction of arsenic can be performed by the concomitant reduction of the cupric cation and arsenite anion. The cathodic deposits obtained by controlled potential electrolysis were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. XRD diffraction data indicated that these deposits were mixtures of copper and copper arsenides Cu(3)As and Cu(5)As(2). Electrolysis was carried out in an undivided cell with graphite cathode and copper anode, under a controlled nitrogen atmosphere. The evolution of arsine gas AsH(3) was not observed under these conditions.

  17. Defining remediation targets and treatment options for hydrocarbon contamination in Quttinirpaaq National Park (Ellesmere Island) : a holistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanscartier, D.; Laing, T.; Zeeb, B.; Li, J.; Mohn, W.; Mouland, G.; Glenfield, R.; Reimer, K.; Prevost, J.C. [Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A combined field investigation and research program to determine remediation targets for the Quttinirpaaq National Park was described. The park is a polar desert located on the northeastern tip of Ellesmere Island. The aim of the program was to define an appropriate remediation strategy for the area, which contains petroleum hydrocarbon contamination at various locations. Generic evaluation criteria that are successfully used in other regions of Canada are not appropriate for investigating Arctic ecosystems. A risk assessment approach was used to evaluate hydrocarbon concentrations that may pose a risk to plants and invertebrates living within the soil. Soil invertebrates were collected from hydrocarbon-contaminated and non-contaminated soils to assess if there was a difference between invertebrate communities at the sites. Data from the study were then used to evaluate risk as well as to derive F3 eco-soil contact remediation criteria. Microcosms containing small amounts of soil were used to investigate mineralization rates under different amendment regimes over a period of 6 weeks. Bench-scale bioreactors were then used to mimic conditions in the field. Bioremediation treatment plots were then established at 2 sites in the park. Hydrocarbon absorbent polymer technology (HAPT) was also used to extract hydrocarbons from soils. Both the laboratory and the field research programs showed that bioremediation is a good treatment option for the heavier hydrocarbons found at the park. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  18. The efficacy and durability of radon remedial measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cliff, K.D.; Naismith, S.P. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Scivyer, C.; Stephen, R. [Building Research Establishment, Watford (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    In the UK, over 16,000 homes, from an estimated 100,000, with annual average radon concentrations exceeding the UK Action Level of 200 Bq.m{sup -3} have been discovered. Some 600 householders who have taken action have sought confirmatory measurements from NRPB. Results for 345 such homes are discussed. A number of remedied homes are being remeasured annually to determine the durability of the remedies: results for the first year follow-up measurements are given. In a separate exercise, homes having the highest radon levels known in the UK have been enrolled in a research programme of the Building Research Establishment. The results for 53 homes in which BRE surveyed, designed and supervised remedial work are presented. (author).

  19. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  20. Remediation of radionuclide pollutants through biosorption - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Nilanjana [Environmental Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2012-01-15

    The development of nuclear science and technology has led to the increase of nuclear wastes containing radionuclides to be released and disposed in the environment. Pollution caused by radionuclides is a serious problem throughout the world. To solve the problem, substantial research efforts have been directed worldwide to adopt sustainable technologies for the treatment of radionuclide containing wastes. Biosorption represents a technological innovation as well as a cost effective excellent remediation technology for cleaning up radionuclides from aqueous environment. A variety of biomaterials viz. algae, fungi, bacteria, plant biomass, etc. have been reported for radionuclide remediation with encouraging results. This paper reviews the achievements and current status of radionuclide remediation through biosorption which will provide insights into this research frontier. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)